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Sample records for cardiac specification independently

  1. Patient-Specific Models of Cardiac Biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy CP

    2012-01-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-di...

  2. Ouabain induces cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing JIANG; Yan-ping REN; Zhuo-ren L(U)

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ouabain's effects on cardiac remodeling in rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was recorded weekly. After 4 and 6 weeks, echocardiography were performed,hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization,changes in cardiac ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, the collagen fraction of the left ventricle was assessed with Picrosirius red stain, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA level of myosin heavy chain-α and-β in the left ventricle. Results: Having been treated with ouabain for 4 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP of the two groups.However, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ultrastructure deterioration,and extracellular matrix remodeling were induced by ouabain treatment; meanwhile,cardiac systolic and diastolic performance were both worsened. Moreover, the cardiac MHC-β mRNA was upregulated by ouabain treatment, whereas MHC-αmRNA was downregulated. After 4 weeks, the mean SBP in the ouabain group began to increase and was significantly higher than that in control group after 6 weeks (P<0.01); the rats' cardiac structure and function were worsened.Conclusion: These results suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac structure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure. The results indicated that ouabain induced cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure.

  3. Patient-specific models of cardiac biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Villongco, Christopher T.; Chuang, Joyce; Frank, Lawrence R.; Nigam, Vishal; Belezzuoli, Ernest; Stark, Paul; Krummen, David E.; Narayan, Sanjiv; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

    2013-07-01

    Patient-specific models of cardiac function have the potential to improve diagnosis and management of heart disease by integrating medical images with heterogeneous clinical measurements subject to constraints imposed by physical first principles and prior experimental knowledge. We describe new methods for creating three-dimensional patient-specific models of ventricular biomechanics in the failing heart. Three-dimensional bi-ventricular geometry is segmented from cardiac CT images at end-diastole from patients with heart failure. Human myofiber and sheet architecture is modeled using eigenvectors computed from diffusion tensor MR images from an isolated, fixed human organ-donor heart and transformed to the patient-specific geometric model using large deformation diffeomorphic mapping. Semi-automated methods were developed for optimizing the passive material properties while simultaneously computing the unloaded reference geometry of the ventricles for stress analysis. Material properties of active cardiac muscle contraction were optimized to match ventricular pressures measured by cardiac catheterization, and parameters of a lumped-parameter closed-loop model of the circulation were estimated with a circulatory adaptation algorithm making use of information derived from echocardiography. These components were then integrated to create a multi-scale model of the patient-specific heart. These methods were tested in five heart failure patients from the San Diego Veteran's Affairs Medical Center who gave informed consent. The simulation results showed good agreement with measured echocardiographic and global functional parameters such as ejection fraction and peak cavity pressures.

  4. Specification of the Cardiac Conduction System by Transcription Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, Cathy J.; Basson, Craig T.

    2009-01-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system that cause sudden cardiac deaths are often caused by lethal arrhythmias that originate from defects in the cardiac conduction system. Development of the cardiac conduction system is a complex biological process that can be wrought with problems. Although several genes involved in mature conduction system function have been identified, their association with development of specific subcomponents of the cardiac conduction system remains challenging. Several...

  5. Cardiac myosin light chain is phosphorylated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent and -independent kinase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Audrey N; Mahajan, Pravin; Knapp, Stefan; Barton, Hannah; Sweeney, H Lee; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2016-07-01

    The well-known, muscle-specific smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) (smMLCK) and skeletal muscle MLCK (skMLCK) are dedicated protein kinases regulated by an autoregulatory segment C terminus of the catalytic core that blocks myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) binding and phosphorylation in the absence of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM). Although it is known that a more recently discovered cardiac MLCK (cMLCK) is necessary for normal RLC phosphorylation in vivo and physiological cardiac performance, information on cMLCK biochemical properties are limited. We find that a fourth uncharacterized MLCK, MLCK4, is also expressed in cardiac muscle with high catalytic domain sequence similarity with other MLCKs but lacking an autoinhibitory segment. Its crystal structure shows the catalytic domain in its active conformation with a short C-terminal "pseudoregulatory helix" that cannot inhibit catalysis as a result of missing linker regions. MLCK4 has only Ca(2+)/CaM-independent activity with comparable Vmax and Km values for different RLCs. In contrast, the Vmax value of cMLCK is orders of magnitude lower than those of the other three MLCK family members, whereas its Km (RLC and ATP) and KCaM values are similar. In contrast to smMLCK and skMLCK, which lack activity in the absence of Ca(2+)/CaM, cMLCK has constitutive activity that is stimulated by Ca(2+)/CaM. Potential contributions of autoregulatory segment to cMLCK activity were analyzed with chimeras of skMLCK and cMLCK. The constitutive, low activity of cMLCK appears to be intrinsic to its catalytic core structure rather than an autoinhibitory segment. Thus, RLC phosphorylation in cardiac muscle may be regulated by two different protein kinases with distinct biochemical regulatory properties. PMID:27325775

  6. Cardiac-specific succinate dehydrogenase deficiency in Barth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Jan; Cheng, I-Fen; Chowdhury, Arpita; Wozny, Katharina; Balleininger, Martina; Reinhold, Robert; Grunau, Silke; Callegari, Sylvie; Toischer, Karl; Wanders, Ronald Ja; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Brügger, Britta; Guan, Kaomei; Rehling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a cardiomyopathy caused by the loss of tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase involved in the maturation of the glycerophospholipid cardiolipin. It has remained enigmatic as to why a systemic loss of cardiolipin leads to cardiomyopathy. Using a genetic ablation of tafazzin function in the BTHS mouse model, we identified severe structural changes in respiratory chain supercomplexes at a pre-onset stage of the disease. This reorganization of supercomplexes was specific to cardiac tissue and could be recapitulated in cardiomyocytes derived from BTHS patients. Moreover, our analyses demonstrate a cardiac-specific loss of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), an enzyme linking the respiratory chain with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. As a similar defect of SDH is apparent in patient cell-derived cardiomyocytes, we conclude that these defects represent a molecular basis for the cardiac pathology in Barth syndrome. PMID:26697888

  7. Is a sedentary lifestyle an independent predictor for hospital and early mortality after elective cardiac surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Noyez, L.; Biemans, I.; Verkroost, M.; van Swieten, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluates whether a sedentary lifestyle is an independent predictor for increased mortality after elective cardiac surgery. Methods Three thousand one hundred fifty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery between January 2007 and June 2012 completed preoperatively the Corpus Christi Heart Project questionnaire concerning physical activity (PA). Based on this questionnaire, 1815 patients were classified as active and 1335 patients were classified as sedentary. The end...

  8. Sex-specific cardiac cardiolipin remodelling after doxorubicin treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Moulin, Maryline; Solgadi, Audrey; Veksler, Vladimir; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Chaminade, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Imbalance in lipid metabolism and membrane lipid homeostasis has been observed in numerous diseases including heart failure and cardiotoxicity. Growing evidence links phospholipid alterations especially cardiolipins (CLs) to defects in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism in heart failure. We have shown recently that doxorubicin cardiotoxicity is more severe in male than female Wistar rats. We aimed to study whether this sex specificity is linked to differences in cardiac p...

  9. Identification of patient specific parameters for a minimal cardiac model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, C E; Chase, J G; Shaw, G M; Smith, B W

    2004-01-01

    A minimal cardiac model has been developed which accurately captures the essential dynamics of the cardiovascular system (CVS). This paper develops an integral based parameter identification method for fast and accurate identification of patient specific parameters for this minimal model. The integral method is implemented using a single chamber model to prove the concept, and turns a previously nonlinear and nonconvex optimization problem into a linear and convex problem. The method can be readily extended to the full minimal cardiac model and enables rapid identification of model parameters to match a particular patient condition in clinical real time (3-5 minutes). This information can then be used to assist medical staff in understanding, diagnosis and treatment selection. PMID:17271801

  10. Cardiac-Specific Knockout of ETA Receptor Mitigates Paraquat-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxing; Lu, Songhe; Zheng, Qijun; Hu, Nan; Yu, Wenjun; Li, Na; Liu, Min; Gao, Beilei; Zhang, Guoyong; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2016-07-01

    Paraquat (1,1'-dim ethyl-4-4'-bipyridinium dichloride), a highly toxic quaternary ammonium herbicide widely used in agriculture, exerts potent toxic prooxidant effects resulting in multi-organ failure including the lung and heart although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Recent evidence suggests possible involvement of endothelin system in paraquat-induced acute lung injury. This study was designed to examine the role of endothelin receptor A (ETA) in paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and mitochondrial injury. Wild-type (WT) and cardiac-specific ETA receptor knockout mice were challenged to paraquat (45 mg/kg, i.p.) for 48 h prior to the assessment of echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, as well as apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Levels of the mitochondrial proteins for biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation including UCP2, HSP90 and PGC1α were evaluated. Our results revealed that paraquat elicited cardiac enlargement, mechanical anomalies including compromised echocardiographic parameters (elevated left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters as well as reduced factional shortening), suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling, overt apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. ETA receptor knockout itself failed to affect myocardial function, apoptosis, mitochondrial integrity and mitochondrial protein expression. However, ETA receptor knockout ablated or significantly attenuated paraquat-induced cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) defect, apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. Taken together, these findings revealed that endothelin system in particular the ETA receptor may be involved in paraquat-induced toxic myocardial contractile anomalies possibly related to apoptosis and mitochondrial damage. PMID:26089164

  11. Subject-specific models for image-guided cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three-dimensional visualization for planning and guidance is still not routinely available for minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). This can be addressed by providing the surgeon with subject-specific geometric models derived from 3D preoperative images for planning of port locations or to rehearse the procedure. For guidance purposes, these models can also be registered to the subject using intraoperative images. In this paper, we present a method for extracting subject-specific heart geometry from preoperative MR images. The main obstacle we face is the low quality of clinical data in terms of resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and presence of artefacts. Instead of using these images directly, we approach the problem in three steps: (1) generate a high quality template model, (2) register the template with the preoperative data, and (3) animate the result over the cardiac cycle. Validation of this approach showed that dynamic subject-specific models can be generated with a mean error of 3.6 ± 1.1 mm from low resolution target images (6 mm slices). Thus, the models are sufficiently accurate for MICS training and procedure planning. In terms of guidance, we also demonstrate how the resulting models may be adapted to the operating room using intraoperative ultrasound imaging

  12. Cardiac-specific miRNA in cardiogenesis, heart function, and cardiac pathology (with focus on myocardial infarction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Orekhov, Alexander N; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac miRNAs (miR-1, miR133a, miR-208a/b, and miR-499) are abundantly expressed in the myocardium. They play a central role in cardiogenesis, heart function and pathology. While miR-1 and miR-133a predominantly control early stages of cardiogenesis supporting commitment of cardiac-specific muscle lineage from embryonic stem cells and mesodermal precursors, miR-208 and miR-499 are involved in the late cardiogenic stages mediating differentiation of cardioblasts to cardiomyocytes and fast/slow muscle fiber specification. In the heart, miR-1/133a control cardiac conductance and automaticity by regulating all phases of the cardiac action potential. miR-208/499 located in introns of the heavy chain myosin genes regulate expression of sarcomeric contractile proteins. In cardiac pathology including myocardial infarction (MI), expression of cardiac miRNAs is markedly altered that leads to deleterious effects associated with heart wounding, arrhythmia, increased apoptosis, fibrosis, hypertrophy, and tissue remodeling. In acute MI, circulating levels of cardiac miRNAs are significantly elevated making them to be a promising diagnostic marker for early diagnosis of acute MI. Great cardiospecific capacity of these miRNAs is very helpful for enhancing regenerative properties and survival of stem cell and cardiac progenitor transplants and for reprogramming of mature non-cardiac cells to cardiomyocytes. PMID:27056419

  13. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pereira, Alexandre Costa [Hospital das Clínicas - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Castro, Cláudio Campi de; Benseñor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A. [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer, E-mail: msbittencourt@mail.harvard.edu [Hospital Universitário - Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure.

  14. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the cardiac CTA, and low noise was defined as noise < 30HU. The chest anteroposterior diameter and lateral width, the image noise in the aorta and the skin-sternum (SS) thickness were measured as predictors of cardiac CTA noise. The association of the predictors and image noise was performed by using Pearson correlation. The mean radiation dose was 3.5 ± 1.5 mSv. The mean image noise in CT was 36.3 ± 8.5 HU, and the mean image noise in non-contrast scan was 17.7 ± 4.4 HU. All predictors were independently associated with cardiac CTA noise. The best predictors were SS thickness, with a correlation of 0.70 (p < 0.001), and noise in the non-contrast images, with a correlation of 0.73 (p < 0.001). When evaluating the ability to predict low image noise, the areas under the ROC curve for the non-contrast noise and for the SS thickness were 0.837 and 0.864, respectively. Both SS thickness and CAC noise are simple accurate predictors of cardiac CTA image noise. Those parameters can be incorporated in standard CT protocols to adequately adjust radiation exposure

  15. Sox17 is essential for the specification of cardiac mesoderm in embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Asakura, Masanori; Inoue, Hironori; Nakamura, Teruya; Sano, Motoaki; Niu, Zhiyv; Chen, Michelle; Schwartz, Robert J.; Schneider, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    Early steps for cardiac specification are problematic for the study of mammalian embryos, which has favored using pluripotent cells that recapitulate cardiac myogenesis. Furthermore, circuits governing cardiac specification have relevance to the application of ES cells and other cells for heart repair. In mouse teratocarcinoma cells, canonical Wnts that inhibit heart formation in avian or amphibian embryos and explants activate cardiogenesis, paradoxically. Here, we show that the Wnt/β-cateni...

  16. (Prorenin receptor triggers distinct angiotensin II-independent extracellular matrix remodeling and deterioration of cardiac function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Mari Moilanen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS plays a key pathophysiological role in heart failure in patients with hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, the function of (prorenin receptor ((PRR is not yet solved. We determined here the direct functional and structural effects of (PRR in the heart. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: (PRR was overexpressed by using adenovirus-mediated gene delivery in normal adult rat hearts up to 2 weeks. (PRR gene delivery into the anterior wall of the left ventricle decreased ejection fraction (P<0.01, fractional shortening (P<0.01, and intraventricular septum diastolic and systolic thickness, associated with approximately 2-fold increase in left ventricular (PRR protein levels at 2 weeks. To test whether the worsening of cardiac function and structure by (PRR gene overexpression was mediated by angiotensin II (Ang II, we infused an AT(1 receptor blocker losartan via osmotic minipumps. Remarkably, cardiac function deteriorated in losartan-treated (PRR overexpressing animals as well. Intramyocardial (PRR gene delivery also resulted in Ang II-independent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase1/2 phosphorylation and myocardial fibrosis, and the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and connective tissue growth factor genes. In contrast, activation of heat shock protein 27 phosphorylation and apoptotic cell death by (PRR gene delivery was Ang II-dependent. Finally, (PRR overexpression significantly increased direct protein-protein interaction between (PRR and promyelocytic zinc-finger protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate for the first time that (PRR triggers distinct Ang II-independent myocardial fibrosis and deterioration of cardiac function in normal adult heart and identify (PRR as a novel therapeutic target to optimize RAS blockade in failing hearts.

  17. GFRA2 Identifies Cardiac Progenitors and Mediates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation in a RET-Independent Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hidekazu; Saba, Rie; Kokkinopoulos, Ioannis; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Nowotschin, Sonja; Shiraishi, Manabu; Ruchaya, Prashant; Miller, Duncan; Harmer, Stephen; Poliandri, Ariel; Kogaki, Shigetoyo; Sakata, Yasushi; Dunkel, Leo; Tinker, Andrew; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Sawa, Yoshiki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Ozono, Keiichi; Suzuki, Ken; Yashiro, Kenta

    2016-07-26

    A surface marker that distinctly identifies cardiac progenitors (CPs) is essential for the robust isolation of these cells, circumventing the necessity of genetic modification. Here, we demonstrate that a Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor containing neurotrophic factor receptor, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 2 (Gfra2), specifically marks CPs. GFRA2 expression facilitates the isolation of CPs by fluorescence activated cell sorting from differentiating mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. Gfra2 mutants reveal an important role for GFRA2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation and development both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the cardiac GFRA2 signaling pathway is distinct from the canonical pathway dependent on the RET tyrosine kinase and its established ligands. Collectively, our findings establish a platform for investigating the biology of CPs as a foundation for future development of CP transplantation for treating heart failure. PMID:27396331

  18. GFRA2 Identifies Cardiac Progenitors and Mediates Cardiomyocyte Differentiation in a RET-Independent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Ishida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A surface marker that distinctly identifies cardiac progenitors (CPs is essential for the robust isolation of these cells, circumventing the necessity of genetic modification. Here, we demonstrate that a Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor containing neurotrophic factor receptor, Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha 2 (Gfra2, specifically marks CPs. GFRA2 expression facilitates the isolation of CPs by fluorescence activated cell sorting from differentiating mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. Gfra2 mutants reveal an important role for GFRA2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation and development both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the cardiac GFRA2 signaling pathway is distinct from the canonical pathway dependent on the RET tyrosine kinase and its established ligands. Collectively, our findings establish a platform for investigating the biology of CPs as a foundation for future development of CP transplantation for treating heart failure.

  19. Plasma tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1): an independent predictor of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana, Jose María; Mont, Lluís; Sitges, Marta; Berruezo, Antonio; Delgado, Victoria; Vidal, Bàrbara; Tamborero, David; Morales, Manel; Batlle, Montserrat; Roig, Eulalia; Castel, M. Angeles; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Godoy, Miguel; Brugada, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Aims Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play a role in left ventricular structural remodelling. The aim of our study was to analyse MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels as predictors of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results A cohort of 42 CRT patients from our centre was prospectively evaluated at baseline and after 12-month follow-up. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 assays were performed prior to CRT implant. Cardiac resynchronization therapy responders were defined as patients who survived, were not transplanted, and increased their basal 6 min walking distance test (6MWDT) by ≥10% or improved their NYHA functional class. Overall, 25 patients (60%) were classed as responders. At 12-month follow-up, six patients (14.2%) had died and one (2.4%) patient had been transplanted. Compared with responders, non-responders had higher levels of TIMP-1 (277 ± 59 vs. 216 ± 46 ng/mL, P = 0.001), MMP-2 (325 ± 115 vs. 258 ± 56 ng/mL, P = 0.02), and creatinine (1.76 ± 0.8 vs. 1.25 ± 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.01). In a multivariate analysis, TIMP-1 was the only independent predictor of non-response to CRT [OR 0.97, 95% (CI 0.96–0.99) P = 0.005]. TIMP-1≥248 ng/mL predicted non-response with 71% sensitivity and 72% specificity. Conclusion TIMP-1 is an independent predictor of non-response in patients treated with CRT. PMID:20360066

  20. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle...... fibers. Biopsies of left ventricular cardiac muscle and soleus muscle, a type I-rich oxidative skeletal muscle, were obtained from 15 healthy domestic cats. Enzymatic activity of citrate synthase (CS), a biomarker of mitochondrial content, was measured. Mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity with various kinds of...... non-fatty-acid substrates and fatty-acid substrate in permeabilized muscle fiber was measured by using high-resolution respirometry. CS activity in the heart was 3 times higher than in the soleus muscle. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration, ADP-stimulated respiration, with complex I-linked and complex I...

  1. The specific case: cardiac amyloidosis as differential diagnosis in case of restricted cardiac pump function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NMR imaging data in combination with clinical characterization and echocardiography are consistent with the diagnosis of a cardiac amyloidosis. The article describes disease pattern and diagnosis based on contrast agent accumulation and diastolic functional disturbances. CT was performed to exclude pulmonary embolism.

  2. Towards functional specification independent of control system suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the next nuclear power plant generation, REP 2000, the Engineering and construction Division (ED) and the Research and development Division (R and D) of Electricite de France are working together in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) to improve its engineering method and tools. This method and these tools are defined on the basis of the experience feedback from the N4 nuclear power plant generation and the current information technology, to improve engineering competitiveness and quality of control applications. We intend to decouple the I and C processing from the I and C Human Machine Interface (HMI), because methods and tools are different. In this paper, we only focus on method and tools for I and C processing. We define the I and C processing life cycle into three phases. The first phase is the specification of the control application processing, the product of which is called Functional Requirement Diagrams (FRDs). The second phase is the design of the I and C system. This phase is subdivided into two steps. The step 1 is the distribution of the FRDs into an I and C architecture. The step 2 is the allocation of resources of the I and C system, to support the distributed FRDs. The third phase is the implementation of the distributed FRDs into I and C equipment. The aim of the Engineering Division is to achieve formal FRDs, independent of I and C suppliers. This allows a large improvement for the quality of the specification and the dimensioning of the I and C system before calls for tenders. For the specification phase, studies are almost completed. For the design and the implementation phases, studies and experiments are in progress with European I and C system suppliers. As a conclusion, we present the interest of EDF for standards and especially IEC 1131 improvements. (author). 5 figs

  3. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Angela S. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); National Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Murthy, Venkatesh L.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Gayed, Peter; Bruyere, John; Di Carli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wu, Justina [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, and the Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Program, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Dorbala, Sharmila [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Division of Cardiology, Noninvasive Cardiovascular Imaging Section, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  4. Left atrial enlargement increases the risk of major adverse cardiac events independent of coronary vasodilator capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longstanding uncontrolled atherogenic risk factors may contribute to left atrial (LA) hypertension, LA enlargement (LAE) and coronary vascular dysfunction. Together they may better identify risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that chronic LA hypertension as assessed by LAE modifies the relationship between coronary vascular function and MACE. In 508 unselected subjects with a normal clinical 82Rb PET/CT, ejection fraction ≥40 %, no prior coronary artery disease, valve disease or atrial fibrillation, LAE was determined based on LA volumes estimated from the hybrid perfusion and CT transmission scan images and indexed to body surface area. Absolute myocardial blood flow and global coronary flow reserve (CFR) were calculated. Subjects were systematically followed-up for the primary end-point - MACE - a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure, stroke, coronary artery disease progression or revascularization. During a median follow-up of 862 days, 65 of the subjects experienced a composite event. Compared with subjects with normal LA size, subjects with LAE showed significantly lower CFR (2.25 ± 0.83 vs. 1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.01). LAE independently and incrementally predicted MACE even after accounting for clinical risk factors, medication use, stress left ventricular ejection fraction, stress left ventricular end-diastolic volume index and CFR (chi-squared statistic increased from 30.9 to 48.3; p = 0.001). Among subjects with normal CFR, those with LAE had significantly worse event-free survival (risk adjusted HR 5.4, 95 % CI 2.3 - 12.8, p < 0.0001). LAE and reduced CFR are related but distinct cardiovascular adaptations to atherogenic risk factors. LAE is a risk marker for MACE independent of clinical factors and left ventricular volumes; individuals with LAE may be at risk of MACE despite normal coronary vascular function. (orig.)

  5. Sensitivity and Specificity of Cardiac Tissue Discrimination Using Fiber-Optics Confocal Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Huang; Sachse, Frank B.; Hitchcock, Robert W.; Kaza, Aditya K.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbances of the cardiac conduction system constitute a major risk after surgical repair of complex cases of congenital heart disease. Intraoperative identification of the conduction system may reduce the incidence of these disturbances. We previously developed an approach to identify cardiac tissue types using fiber-optics confocal microscopy and extracellular fluorophores. Here, we applied this approach to investigate sensitivity and specificity of human and automated classification in d...

  6. Interactions of cryptosin with mammalian cardiac dihydropyridine-specific calcium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cryptosin, a new cardenolide, was found to be a potent inhibitor of cardiac Na+ and K+ dependent Adenosinetri-phosphatase. In experiments with dog heart ex vivo, development of inotropic and toxic effect correlated with changes in the cardiac dihydropyridine-specific calcium channels as measured by the binding of 3[H]PN 200-110. A significant change in the PN 200-110 binding was observed when guinea pig and dog heart sarcolemmal membranes were pre-incubated with cryptosin in vitro. Binding analysis of 3[H]PN 200-110 (Isradipine), a 1,4-dihydropyridine analog with very specific calcium channel binding properties, in both in vitro and ex vivo studies were consistent and indicated a non-specific type of interaction of cryptosin with mammalian cardiac 1,4-dihydropyridine-specific calcium channels

  7. Cardiac dysfunction assessed by echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is an independent predictor of mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogelvang, Rasmus; Sogaard, Peter; Pedersen, Sune A;

    2009-01-01

    ; P=0.001), were significant predictors of death in Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for clinical variables (age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease) and conventional echocardiography. The adjusted hazard ratio for death in the third...... parameters, left ventricular dysfunction by TDI is a powerful and independent predictor of death, especially when systolic performance and diastolic performance are considered together, recognizing their interdependency and their complex relation to deteriorating cardiac function....

  8. A Role for RE-1-Silencing Transcription Factor in Embryonic Stem Cells Cardiac Lineage Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Irene; Marcy, Guillaume; Chen, Jiaxuan; Divakar, Ushashree; Kumar, Vibhor; John-Sanchez, Daniel; Rahmani, Mehran; Buckley, Noel J; Stanton, Lawrence W

    2016-04-01

    During development, lineage specification is controlled by several signaling pathways involving various transcription factors (TFs). Here, we studied the RE-1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and identified an important role of this TF in cardiac differentiation. Using mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to model development, we found that REST knockout cells lost the ability to differentiate into the cardiac lineage. Detailed analysis of specific lineage markers expression showed selective downregulation of endoderm markers in REST-null cells, thus contributing to a loss of cardiogenic signals. REST regulates cardiac differentiation of ESCs by negatively regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and positively regulating the cardiogenic TF Gata4. We propose here a new role for REST in cell fate specification besides its well-known repressive role of neuronal differentiation. PMID:26864965

  9. Early inflammatory markers are independent predictors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy in heart-transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Labarrere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Identification of risk is essential to prevent cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV and graft failure due to CAV (GFDCAV in heart transplant patients, which account for 30% of all deaths. Early CAV detection involves invasive, risky, and expensive monitoring approaches. We determined whether prediction of CAV and GFDCAV improves by adding inflammatory markers to a previously validated atherothrombotic (AT model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: AT and inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured in heart biopsies and sera of 172 patients followed prospectively for 8.9±5.0 years. Models were estimated for 5- and 10-year risk using (1 the first post-transplant biopsy only, or (2 all biopsies obtained within 3 months. Multivariate models were adjusted for other covariates and cross-validated by bootstrapping. After adding IL-6 and CRP to the AT models, we evaluated the significance of odds ratios (ORs associated with the additional inflammatory variables and the degree of improvement in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC. When inflammatory markers were tested alone in prediction models, CRP (not IL-6 was a significant predictor of CAV and GFDCAV at 5 (CAV: p<0.0001; GFDCAV: p = 0.005 and 10 years (CAV: p<0.0001; GFDCAV: p = 0.003. Adding CRP (not IL-6 to the best AT models improved discriminatory power to identify patients destined to develop CAV (using 1st biopsy: p<0.001 and p = 0.001; using all 3-month biopsies: p<0.04 and p = 0.008 at 5- and 10-years, respectively and GFDCAV (using 1st biopsy: 0.92 vs. 0.95 and 0.86 vs. 0.89; using all 3-month biopsies: 0.94 vs. 0.96 and 0.88 vs. 0.89 at 5- and 10-years, respectively, as indicated by an increase in AUROC. CONCLUSIONS: Early inflammatory status, measured by a patient's CRP level (a non-invasive, safe and inexpensive test, independently predicts CAV and GFDCAV. Adding CRP to a previously established AT model

  10. Heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation enhances cardiac function and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Zachary A; Hsieh, Jo-Lin; Li, Andrew; Wang, William; Bhatt, Dhelni T; Lee, Angela; Kim, Sae Yeon; Fan, David; Shah, Veevek; Siddiqui, Emaad; Ragam, Radhika; Park, Kristen; Ardeshna, Dev; Park, Kunwoo; Wu, Rachel; Parikh, Hardik; Parikh, Ayush; Lin, Yuh-Ru; Park, Yongkyu

    2015-09-01

    Downregulation of Rpd3, a homologue of mammalian Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Once revealed that long-lived fruit flies exhibit limited cardiac decline, we investigated whether Rpd3 downregulation would improve stress resistance and/or lifespan when targeted in the heart. Contested against three different stressors (oxidation, starvation and heat), heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation significantly enhanced stress resistance in flies. However, these higher levels of resistance were not observed when Rpd3 downregulation was targeted in other tissues or when other long-lived flies were tested in the heart-specific manner. Interestingly, the expressions of anti-aging genes such as sod2, foxo and Thor, were systemically increased as a consequence of heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation. Showing higher resistance to oxidative stress, the heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation concurrently exhibited improved cardiac functions, demonstrating an increased heart rate, decreased heart failure and accelerated heart recovery. Conversely, Rpd3 upregulation in cardiac tissue reduced systemic resistance against heat stress with decreased heart function, also specifying phosphorylated Rpd3 levels as a significant modulator. Continual downregulation of Rpd3 throughout aging increased lifespan, implicating that Rpd3 deacetylase in the heart plays a significant role in cardiac function and longevity to systemically modulate the fly's response to the environment. PMID:26399365

  11. Nitroglycerin reduces augmentation index and central blood pressure independent of effects on cardiac preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike; Saddon; Karen; McNeil; Philip; Chowienczyk

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reduction in central pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by nitroglycerine (NTG) results from effects on pre-load or is due to arterial dilation. Methods We compared effects of NTG with those of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Hemodynamic measurements were made at rest,during LBNP (10,20 and 30 mmHg,each for 15 min) and after NTG (10,30 and 100 μg/min,each dose for 15 min) in ten healthy volunteers. Cardiac pre-load,stroke volume and cardiac output w...

  12. Subcutaneous Tissue Thickness is an Independent Predictor of Image Noise in Cardiac CT

    OpenAIRE

    Staniak, Henrique Lane; Sharovsky, Rodolfo; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; de Castro, Cláudio Campi; Isabela M. Benseñor; Paulo A Lotufo; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer

    2014-01-01

    Background Few data on the definition of simple robust parameters to predict image noise in cardiac computed tomography (CT) exist. Objectives To evaluate the value of a simple measure of subcutaneous tissue as a predictor of image noise in cardiac CT. Methods 86 patients underwent prospective ECG-gated coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) with 120 kV and 150 mA. The image quality was objectively measured by the image noise in the aorta in the car...

  13. Estimated aortic stiffness is independently associated with cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in humans: role of ageing and habitual endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, G L; Harris, S A; Seals, D R; Casey, D P; Barlow, P B; Stauss, H M

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesised that differences in cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) would be independently associated with aortic stiffness and augmentation index (AI), clinical biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk, among young sedentary and middle-aged/older sedentary and endurance-trained adults. A total of 36 healthy middle-aged/older (age 55-76 years, n=22 sedentary and n=14 endurance-trained) and 5 young sedentary (age 18-31 years) adults were included in a cross-sectional study. A subset of the middle-aged/older sedentary adults (n=12) completed an 8-week-aerobic exercise intervention. Invasive brachial artery blood pressure waveforms were used to compute spontaneous cardiac BRS (via sequence technique), estimated aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and AI (AI, via brachial-aortic transfer function and wave separation analysis). In the cross-sectional study, cardiac BRS was 71% lower in older compared with young sedentary adults (P<0.05), but only 40% lower in older adults who performed habitual endurance exercise (P=0.03). In a regression model that included age, sex, resting heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), body mass index and maximal exercise oxygen uptake, estimated aortic PWV (β±s.e.=-5.76±2.01, P=0.01) was the strongest predictor of BRS (model R(2)=0.59, P<0.001). The 8-week-exercise intervention improved BRS by 38% (P=0.04) and this change in BRS was associated with improved aortic PWV (r=-0.65, P=0.044, adjusted for changes in MAP). Age- and endurance-exercise-related differences in cardiac BRS are independently associated with corresponding alterations in aortic PWV among healthy adults, consistent with a mechanistic link between variations in the sensitivity of the baroreflex and aortic stiffness with age and exercise. PMID:26911535

  14. Cardiac-specific catalase overexpression rescues anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction: role of oxidative stress and autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandadi Machender R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethal and edema toxins secreted by Bacillus anthracis during anthrax infection were found to incite serious cardiovascular complications. However, the underlying mechanisms in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiac anomalies remain unknown. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antioxidant enzyme catalase in anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction. Methods Wild type (WT and cardiac-specific catalase overexpression mice were challenged with lethal toxin (2 μg/g, intraperotineally (i.p.. Cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties were assessed 18 h later using an IonOptix edge-detection system. Proteasome function was assessed using chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like activities. GFP-LC3 puncta and Western blot analysis were used to evaluate autophagy and protein ubiquitination. Results Lethal toxin exposure suppressed cardiomyocyte contractile function (suppressed peak shortening, maximal velocity of shortening/re-lengthening, prolonged duration of shortening/re-lengthening, and impaired intracellular Ca2+ handling, the effects of which were alleviated by catalase. In addition, lethal toxin triggered autophagy, mitochondrial and ubiquitin-proteasome defects, the effects of which were mitigated by catalase. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes from catalase mice with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly attenuated or ablated catalase-offered protection against lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction. On the other hand, the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA ablated or significantly attenuated lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile anomalies. Conclusions Our results suggest that catalase is protective against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ anomalies, possibly through regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial function.

  15. Molecule specific effects of PKA-mediated phosphorylation on rat isolated heart and cardiac myofibrillar function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanft, Laurin M; Cornell, Timothy D; McDonald, Colin A; Rovetto, Michael J; Emter, Craig A; McDonald, Kerry S

    2016-07-01

    Increased cardiac myocyte contractility by the β-adrenergic system is an important mechanism to elevate cardiac output to meet hemodynamic demands and this process is depressed in failing hearts. While increased contractility involves augmented myoplasmic calcium transients, the myofilaments also adapt to boost the transduction of the calcium signal. Accordingly, ventricular contractility was found to be tightly correlated with PKA-mediated phosphorylation of two myofibrillar proteins, cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI), implicating these two proteins as important transducers of hemodynamics to the cardiac sarcomere. Consistent with this, we have previously found that phosphorylation of myofilament proteins by PKA (a downstream signaling molecule of the beta-adrenergic system) increased force, slowed force development rates, sped loaded shortening, and increased power output in rat skinned cardiac myocyte preparations. Here, we sought to define molecule-specific mechanisms by which PKA-mediated phosphorylation regulates these contractile properties. Regarding cTnI, the incorporation of thin filaments with unphosphorylated cTnI decreased isometric force production and these changes were reversed by PKA-mediated phosphorylation in skinned cardiac myocytes. Further, incorporation of unphosphorylated cTnI sped rates of force development, which suggests less cooperative thin filament activation and reduced recruitment of non-cycling cross-bridges into the pool of cycling cross-bridges, a process that would tend to depress both myocyte force and power. Regarding MyBP-C, PKA treatment of slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibers caused phosphorylation of MyBP-C (but not slow skeletal TnI (ssTnI)) and yielded faster loaded shortening velocity and ∼30% increase in power output. These results add novel insight into the molecular specificity by which the β-adrenergic system regulates myofibrillar contractility and how attenuation of PKA

  16. Activation of GATA4 gene expression at the early stage of cardiac specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Ayse; Hamilton, Alison; Wang, Yingjian; Mach, Hymn; Lacroix, Natascha; Davis, Darryl; Chen, Jihong; LI, Qiao

    2014-03-01

    Currently, there are no effective treatments to directly repair damaged heart tissue after cardiac injury since existing therapies focus on rescuing or preserving reversibly damaged tissue. Cell-based therapies using cardiomyocytes generated from stem cells present a promising therapeutic approach to directly replace damaged myocardium with new healthy tissue. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the commitment of stem cells into cardiomyocytes are not fully understood and will be critical to guide this new technology into the clinic. Since GATA4 is a critical regulator of cardiac differentiation, we examined the molecular basis underlying the early activation of GATA4 gene expression during cardiac differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. Our studies demonstrate the direct involvement of histone acetylation and transcriptional coactivator p300 in the regulation of GATA4 gene expression. More importantly, we show that histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity is important for GATA4 gene expression with the use of curcumin, a HAT inhibitor. In addition, the widely used histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid enhances both histone acetylation and cardiac specification.

  17. Heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation enhances cardiac function and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Kopp, Zachary A.; Hsieh, Jo-Lin; Li, Andrew; Wang, William; Bhatt, Dhelni T.; Lee, Angela; Kim, Sae Yeon; FAN, DAVID; Shah, Veevek; Siddiqui, Emaad; Ragam, Radhika; Park, Kristen; Ardeshna, Dev; Park, Kunwoo; Wu, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of Rpd3, a homologue of mammalian Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), extends lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster. Once revealed that long-lived fruit flies exhibit limited cardiac decline, we investigated whether Rpd3 downregulation would improve stress resistance and/or lifespan when targeted in the heart. Contested against three different stressors (oxidation, starvation and heat), heart-specific Rpd3 downregulation significantly enhanced stress resistance in flies. However, thes...

  18. Acute kidney injury is independently associated with higher mortality after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandler, Kristian; Jensen, Mathias E; Nilsson, Jens C;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery and its association with mortality in a patient population receiving ibuprofen and gentamicin perioperatively. DESIGN: Retrospective study with Cox regression analysis to control for possible preoperative......, previous nephrectomy, preoperative sCr >2.26 mg/dL and selective cerebral perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass were used as exclusion criteria. Acute kidney injury was defined, using the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria. Six hundred eight patients were included in the study. Mean age was 68.......2 ± 9.7 years, and 81% were males. Acute kidney injury was seen in 28.1% of the patients. Overall mortality at one year was 7% and 3% in the no-AKI group. At one year, mortality was 15% in patients with AKIN stage 1 and AKIN stage 2 compared to 70% in AKIN stage 3. A hazard ratio of 2.34 (95% CI: 1...

  19. Patient-specific modelling of whole heart anatomy, dynamics and haemodynamics from four-dimensional cardiac CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalef, Viorel; Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Sharma, Puneet; Georgescu, Bogdan; Voigt, Ingmar; Suehling, Michael; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing need for patient-specific and holistic modelling of the heart to support comprehensive disease assessment and intervention planning as well as prediction of therapeutic outcomes. We propose a patient-specific model of the whole human heart, which integrates morphology, dynamics and haemodynamic parameters at the organ level. The modelled cardiac structures are robustly estimated from four-dimensional cardiac computed tomography (CT), including all four chambers and valves a...

  20. On the values of independence and domination polynomials at specific points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Alikhani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a simple graph of order n. We consider the independence polynomial and the domination polynomial of a graph G. The value of a graph polynomial at a specific point can give sometimes a very surprising information about the structure of the graph. In this paper we investigate independence and domination polynomial at -1 and 1.

  1. Age- and gender-specific differences in left and right ventricular cardiac function and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 ± 7), women aged under 45 (27 ± 6), men aged over 45 (59 ± 8), and women aged over 45 (57 ± 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 ± 18 and 110 ± 16 g; LV EDV, 118 ± 27 and 96 ± 21 ml; LV ESV, 40 ± 13 and 29 ± 9 ml; RV mass, 52 ± 10 and 39 ± 5 g; RV EDV, 131 ± 28 and 100 ± 23 ml; RV ESV, 53 ± 17 and 33 ± 15 ml). Normalization to body surface area eliminated differences in LV volumes but not those in LV mass, RV mass, or RV function. Functional parameters such as cardiac output and LV ejection fraction showed nonsignificant or only slight differences and were thus largely independent of age and gender. Intra- and interobserver variability ranged between 1.4 % and 5.9 % for all parameters. Cine magnetic resonance imaging thus shows age- and gender-specific differences in cardiac function, and therefore the evaluation of cardiac function in patients should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  2. Serial measurement of neuron specific enolase improves prognostication in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Christian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron specific enolase (NSE has repeatedly been evaluated for neurological prognostication in patients after cardiac arrest. However, it is unclear whether current guidelines for NSE cutoff levels also apply to cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Thus, we investigated the prognostic significance of absolute NSE levels and NSE kinetics in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Methods In a prospective study of 35 patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest, NSE was measured daily for four days following admission. Outcome was assessed at ICU discharge using the CPC score. All patients received hypothermia treatment for 24 hours at 33°C with a surface cooling device according to current guidelines. Results The cutoff for absolute NSE levels in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 72 hours after cardiac arrest was 57 μg/l with an area under the curve (AUC of 0.82 (sensitivity 47%, specificity 100%. The cutoff level for NSE kinetics in patients with unfavourable outcome (CPC 3-5 was an absolute increase of 7.9 μg/l (AUC 0.78, sensitivity 63%, specificity 100% and a relative increase of 33.1% (AUC 0.803, sensitivity 67%, specificity 100% at 48 hours compared to admission. Conclusion In cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia, prognostication of unfavourable outcome by NSE kinetics between admission and 48 hours after resuscitation may be superior to prognostication by absolute NSE levels.

  3. Consequences of cardiac myocyte-specific ablation of KATP channels in transgenic mice expressing dominant negative Kir6 subunits

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, XiaoYong; Porter, Lisa M.; Liu, GongXin; Dhar-Chowdhury, Piyali; Srivastava, Shekhar; Pountney, David J.; Yoshida, Hidetada; Artman, Michael; Fishman, Glenn I.; Yu, Cindy; Iyer, Ramesh; Morley, Gregory E.; Gutstein, David E.; Coetzee, William A.

    2006-01-01

    Consequences of cardiac myocyte-specific ablation of KATP channels in transgenic mice expressing dominant negative Kir6 subunits. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291: H543–H551, 2006. First published February 24, 2006; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00051.2006.—Cardiac ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels are formed by Kir6.2 and SUR2A subunits. We produced transgenic mice that express dominant negative Kir6.x pore-forming subunits (Kir6.1-AAA or Kir6.2-AAA) in cardiac myocytes by driving their expression ...

  4. Endothelin A receptor antagonist, atrasentan, attenuates renal and cardiac dysfunction in Dahl salt-hypertensive rats in a blood pressure independent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Samad

    Full Text Available Proteinuria is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD and cardiovascular disease (CVD, and a good predictor of clinical outcome. Selective endothelin A (ETA receptor antagonist used with renin-angiotensin system (RAS inhibitors prevents development of proteinuria in CKD. However, whether the improvement in proteinuria would have beneficial effects on CVD, independent of RAS inhibition, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether atrasentan, an ETA receptor antagonist, has renal and cardiovascular effects independent of RAS inhibition. Male Dahl salt sensitive (DSS rats, at six weeks of age, received water with or without different doses of atrasentan and/or enalapril under high salt (HS diet or normal diet (ND for 6 weeks. At the end of 12th week, atrasentan at a moderate dose significantly attenuated proteinuria and serum creatinine without reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP, thereby preventing cardiac hypertrophy and improving cardiac function. ACE inhibitor enalapril at a dose that did not significantly lowered BP, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy while moderately improving cardiac function without reducing proteinuria and serum creatinine level. Nonetheless, combined therapy of atrasentan and enalapril that does not altering BP exerted additional cardioprotective effect. Based on these findings, we conclude that BP independent monotherapy of ETA receptor antagonist attenuates the progression of CKD and significantly mitigates CVD independent of RAS inhibition.

  5. Endothelin A receptor antagonist, atrasentan, attenuates renal and cardiac dysfunction in Dahl salt-hypertensive rats in a blood pressure independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Mohammed A; Kim, Ui Kyoung; Kang, Joshua J; Ke, Qingen; Kang, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    Proteinuria is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and a good predictor of clinical outcome. Selective endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist used with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors prevents development of proteinuria in CKD. However, whether the improvement in proteinuria would have beneficial effects on CVD, independent of RAS inhibition, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether atrasentan, an ETA receptor antagonist, has renal and cardiovascular effects independent of RAS inhibition. Male Dahl salt sensitive (DSS) rats, at six weeks of age, received water with or without different doses of atrasentan and/or enalapril under high salt (HS) diet or normal diet (ND) for 6 weeks. At the end of 12th week, atrasentan at a moderate dose significantly attenuated proteinuria and serum creatinine without reducing mean arterial pressure (MAP), thereby preventing cardiac hypertrophy and improving cardiac function. ACE inhibitor enalapril at a dose that did not significantly lowered BP, attenuated cardiac hypertrophy while moderately improving cardiac function without reducing proteinuria and serum creatinine level. Nonetheless, combined therapy of atrasentan and enalapril that does not altering BP exerted additional cardioprotective effect. Based on these findings, we conclude that BP independent monotherapy of ETA receptor antagonist attenuates the progression of CKD and significantly mitigates CVD independent of RAS inhibition. PMID:25775254

  6. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac anatomy and pathology from in vivo MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an automated method to segment left ventricle (LV) tissues from functional and delayed-enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a sequential multi-step approach. First, a region of interest (ROI) is computed to create a subvolume around the LV using morphological operations and image arithmetic. From the subvolume, the myocardial contours are automatically delineated using difference of Gaussians (DoG) filters and GSV snakes. These contours are used as a mask to identify pathological tissues, such as fibrosis or scar, within the DE-MRI. The presented automated technique is able to accurately delineate the myocardium and identify the pathological tissue in patient sets. The results were validated by two expert cardiologists, and in one set the automated results are quantitatively and qualitatively compared with expert manual delineation. Furthermore, the method is patient-specific, performed on an entire patient MRI series. Thus, in addition to providing a quick analysis of individual MRI scans, the fully automated segmentation method is used for effectively tagging regions in order to reconstruct computerized patient-specific 3D cardiac models. These models can then be used in electrophysiological studies and surgical strategy planning. (paper)

  7. Automated segmentation and reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac anatomy and pathology from in vivo MRI*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringenberg, Jordan; Deo, Makarand; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ibañez, Borja; Berenfeld, Omer; Boyers, Pamela; Gold, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an automated method to segment left ventricle (LV) tissues from functional and delayed-enhancement (DE) cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans using a sequential multi-step approach. First, a region of interest (ROI) is computed to create a subvolume around the LV using morphological operations and image arithmetic. From the subvolume, the myocardial contours are automatically delineated using difference of Gaussians (DoG) filters and GSV snakes. These contours are used as a mask to identify pathological tissues, such as fibrosis or scar, within the DE-MRI. The presented automated technique is able to accurately delineate the myocardium and identify the pathological tissue in patient sets. The results were validated by two expert cardiologists, and in one set the automated results are quantitatively and qualitatively compared with expert manual delineation. Furthermore, the method is patient-specific, performed on an entire patient MRI series. Thus, in addition to providing a quick analysis of individual MRI scans, the fully automated segmentation method is used for effectively tagging regions in order to reconstruct computerized patient-specific 3D cardiac models. These models can then be used in electrophysiological studies and surgical strategy planning.

  8. Comparative Characterization of Cardiac Development Specific microRNAs: Fetal Regulators for Future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashika Rustagi

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, conserved RNAs known to regulate several biological processes by influencing gene expression in eukaryotes. The implication of miRNAs as another player of regulatory layers during heart development and diseases has recently been explored. However, there is no study which elucidates the profiling of miRNAs during development of heart till date. Very limited miRNAs have been reported to date in cardiac context. In addition, integration of large scale experimental data with computational and comparative approaches remains an unsolved challenge.The present study was designed to identify the microRNAs implicated in heart development using next generation sequencing, bioinformatics and experimental approaches. We sequenced six small RNA libraries prepared from different developmental stages of the heart using chicken as a model system to produce millions of short sequence reads. We detected 353 known and 703 novel miRNAs involved in heart development. Out of total 1056 microRNAs identified, 32.7% of total dataset of known microRNAs displayed differential expression whereas seven well studied microRNAs namely let-7, miR-140, miR-181, miR-30, miR-205, miR-103 and miR-22 were found to be conserved throughout the heart development. The 3'UTR sequences of genes were screened from Gallus gallus genome for potential microRNA targets. The target mRNAs were appeared to be enriched with genes related to cell cycle, apoptosis, signaling pathways, extracellular remodeling, metabolism, chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulators. Our study presents the first comprehensive overview of microRNA profiling during heart development and prediction of possible cardiac specific targets and has a big potential in future to develop microRNA based therapeutics against cardiac pathologies where fetal gene re-expression is witnessed in adult heart.

  9. Specificity of the diffuse pattern of cardiac uptake in myocardial infarction imaging with technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the specificity of the diffuse pattern of cardiac uptake with technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (TcPYP), we evaluated the bone scans of 1,383 noncardiac patients and the myocardial scintigrams of 120 cardiac patients. Seventy (14.4 percent) of 483 bone scans performed on a scintillation camera revealed diffuse TcPYP cardiac uptake. Among the total 603 camera bone scans and myocardial scintigrams, the incidence of diffuse cardiac uptake was 16 percent among patients with clinical coronary disease but 13 percent among those patients without clinical symptoms. Discrete myocardial uptake was seen in 25 of 26 patients with transmural infarction. Femoral vasculature was more frequently visualized (84 percent vs 3 percent, P < 0.001) and left mastectomy occurred more often (30 percent vs 1 percent, P < 0.001) among patients with diffuse cardiac uptake than among patients with negative images, indicating possible blood pool imaging. The diffuse pattern of cardiac uptake appeared nonspecific and may be due to unintentional cardiac blood pool imaging

  10. Independence of Measles-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses to Vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Poland, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    With a larger, independent cohort and more sophisticated measures, we sought to confirm our work that indicated independence of humoral and cellular immunity following measles vaccination. We recruited an age-stratified random cohort of 764 healthy subjects from all socio-economic strata, all with medical-record documentation of two age-appropriate doses of measles-containing vaccine. We quantified measles-specific neutralizing antibody levels and assayed the IFN-γ ELISPOT response to measles...

  11. Performance comparison of independent component analysis algorithms for fetal cardiac signal reconstruction: a study on synthetic fMCG data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantini, D [ITAB-Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, University Foundation ' G. D' Annunzio' , University of Chieti (Italy); II, K E Hild [Department of Radiology, University of California at San Francisco, CA (United States); Alleva, G [ITAB-Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, University Foundation ' G. D' Annunzio' , University of Chieti (Italy); Comani, S [ITAB-Institute of Advanced Biomedical Technologies, University Foundation ' G. D' Annunzio' , University of Chieti (Italy); Department of Clinical Sciences and Bio-imaging, University of Chieti (Italy)

    2006-02-21

    Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms have been successfully used for signal extraction tasks in the field of biomedical signal processing. We studied the performances of six algorithms (FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, TDSEP and MRMI-SIG) for fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Synthetic datasets were used to check the quality of the separated components against the original traces. Real fMCG recordings were simulated with linear combinations of typical fMCG source signals: maternal and fetal cardiac activity, ambient noise, maternal respiration, sensor spikes and thermal noise. Clusters of different dimensions (19, 36 and 55 sensors) were prepared to represent different MCG systems. Two types of signal-to-interference ratios (SIR) were measured. The first involves averaging over all estimated components and the second is based solely on the fetal trace. The computation time to reach a minimum of 20 dB SIR was measured for all six algorithms. No significant dependency on gestational age or cluster dimension was observed. Infomax performed poorly when a sub-Gaussian source was included; TDSEP and MRMI-SIG were sensitive to additive noise, whereas FastICA, CubICA and JADE showed the best performances. Of all six methods considered, FastICA had the best overall performance in terms of both separation quality and computation times.

  12. Performance comparison of independent component analysis algorithms for fetal cardiac signal reconstruction: a study on synthetic fMCG data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantini, D.; Hild, K. E., II; Alleva, G.; Comani, S.

    2006-02-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms have been successfully used for signal extraction tasks in the field of biomedical signal processing. We studied the performances of six algorithms (FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, TDSEP and MRMI-SIG) for fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Synthetic datasets were used to check the quality of the separated components against the original traces. Real fMCG recordings were simulated with linear combinations of typical fMCG source signals: maternal and fetal cardiac activity, ambient noise, maternal respiration, sensor spikes and thermal noise. Clusters of different dimensions (19, 36 and 55 sensors) were prepared to represent different MCG systems. Two types of signal-to-interference ratios (SIR) were measured. The first involves averaging over all estimated components and the second is based solely on the fetal trace. The computation time to reach a minimum of 20 dB SIR was measured for all six algorithms. No significant dependency on gestational age or cluster dimension was observed. Infomax performed poorly when a sub-Gaussian source was included; TDSEP and MRMI-SIG were sensitive to additive noise, whereas FastICA, CubICA and JADE showed the best performances. Of all six methods considered, FastICA had the best overall performance in terms of both separation quality and computation times.

  13. Performance comparison of independent component analysis algorithms for fetal cardiac signal reconstruction: a study on synthetic fMCG data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms have been successfully used for signal extraction tasks in the field of biomedical signal processing. We studied the performances of six algorithms (FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, TDSEP and MRMI-SIG) for fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Synthetic datasets were used to check the quality of the separated components against the original traces. Real fMCG recordings were simulated with linear combinations of typical fMCG source signals: maternal and fetal cardiac activity, ambient noise, maternal respiration, sensor spikes and thermal noise. Clusters of different dimensions (19, 36 and 55 sensors) were prepared to represent different MCG systems. Two types of signal-to-interference ratios (SIR) were measured. The first involves averaging over all estimated components and the second is based solely on the fetal trace. The computation time to reach a minimum of 20 dB SIR was measured for all six algorithms. No significant dependency on gestational age or cluster dimension was observed. Infomax performed poorly when a sub-Gaussian source was included; TDSEP and MRMI-SIG were sensitive to additive noise, whereas FastICA, CubICA and JADE showed the best performances. Of all six methods considered, FastICA had the best overall performance in terms of both separation quality and computation times

  14. Acquisition of effector-specific and effector-independent components of sequencing skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Michael P; Hoffman, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In a serial reaction time task, participants practiced a repeating sequence with 1 hand. In interleaved blocks, they responded to random sequences with the other hand. Experiment 1 was composed of 5 sessions, each consisting of 30 blocks. Intermanual transfer, reflecting a hand-independent component of sequence knowledge, increased across session. A smaller but significant, nontransferable, and hand-specific component was evident in each session and did not increase with practice. Experiment 2 comprised only 1 session. Uninterrupted practice (no interleaved random blocks) improved hand-independent sequence learning in comparison with interrupted practice (as implemented in Experiment 1), whereas hand-specific sequence learning was unaffected by this between-subjects manipulation. These findings suggest separate mechanisms for effector-independent sequence learning and effector-specific acquisition of optimized response coarticulation. PMID:19073469

  15. Inducible Conditional Vascular-Specific Overexpression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta/Delta Leads to Rapid Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Vukolic, Ana; Baudouy, Delphine; Michiels, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. Among them, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) is highly expressed in the heart and thought to have cardioprotective functions due to its beneficial effects in metabolic syndrome. As we already showed that PPARβ/δ activation resulted in an enhanced cardiac angiogenesis and growth without impairment of heart function, we were interested to determine the effects of a specific activation of PPARβ/δ in the vasculature on cardiac performance under normal and in chronic ischemic heart disease conditions. We analyzed the effects of a specific PPARβ/δ overexpression in endothelial cells on the heart using an inducible conditional vascular-specific mouse model. We demonstrate that vessel-specific overexpression of PPARβ/δ induces rapid cardiac angiogenesis and growth with an increase in cardiomyocyte size. Upon myocardial infarction, vascular overexpression of PPARβ/δ, despite the enhanced cardiac vessel formation, does not protect against chronic ischemic injury. Our results suggest that the proper balance of PPARβ/δ activation in the different cardiac cell types is required to obtain beneficial effects on the outcome in chronic ischemic heart disease. PMID:27057154

  16. Increasing tetrahydrobiopterin in cardiomyocytes adversely affects cardiac redox state and mitochondrial function independently of changes in NO production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethumadhavan, Savitha; Whitsett, Jennifer; Bennett, Brian; Ionova, Irina A; Pieper, Galen M; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette

    2016-04-01

    Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) represents a potential strategy for the treatment of cardiac remodeling, fibrosis and/or diastolic dysfunction. The effects of oral treatment with BH4 (Sapropterin™ or Kuvan™) are however dose-limiting with high dose negating functional improvements. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of GTP cyclohydrolase I (mGCH) increases BH4 several-fold in the heart. Using this model, we aimed to establish the cardiomyocyte-specific responses to high levels of BH4. Quantification of BH4 and BH2 in mGCH transgenic hearts showed age-based variations in BH4:BH2 ratios. Hearts of mice (nitrosyl complexes were detected in any of the age groups. Increased BH4 production in cardiomyocytes resulted in a significant loss of mitochondrial function. Diminished oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was verified in mitochondria isolated from hearts of 12-month old compared to 3-month old mice, even though at 12 months an improved BH4:BH2 ratio is established. Accumulation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and decreased glutathione levels were found in the mGCH hearts and isolated mitochondria. Taken together, our results indicate that the ratio of BH4:BH2 does not predict changes in neither NO levels nor cellular redox state in the heart. The BH4 oxidation essentially limits the capacity of cardiomyocytes to reduce oxidant stress. Cardiomyocyte with chronically high levels of BH4 show a significant decline in redox state and mitochondrial function. PMID:26826575

  17. Muscle specific miRNAs are induced by testosterone and independently upregulated by age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Hvid, Thine; Kelly, Meghan;

    2014-01-01

    Age dependent decline in skeletal muscle function leads to impaired metabolic flexibility in elderly individuals. Physical activity and testosterone treatment have proven efficient strategies for delaying this condition. However, a common molecular pathway has not been identified. Muscle specific...... a down-regulation of miR133a/b. In conclusion, alterations in fitness level and circulating testosterone seem to represent two independent regulatory events where testosterone is a specific regulator of miR-133a/b expression....

  18. Cardiac comorbidity is an independent risk factor for radiation-induced lung toxicity in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that cardiac comorbidity before the start of radiotherapy (RT) is associated with an increased risk of radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) in lung cancer patients. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of a prospective cohort of 259 patients with locoregional lung cancer treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy between 2007 and 2011 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT00572325 and NCT00573040). We defined RILT as dyspnea CTCv.3.0 grade ⩾2 within 6 months after RT, and cardiac comorbidity as a recorded treatment of a cardiac pathology at a cardiology department. Univariate and multivariate analyses, as well as external validation, were performed. The model-performance measure was the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Prior to RT, 75/259 (28.9%) patients had cardiac comorbidity, 44% of whom (33/75) developed RILT. The odds ratio of developing RILT for patients with cardiac comorbidity was 2.58 (p < 0.01). The cross-validated AUC of a model with cardiac comorbidity, tumor location, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, sequential chemotherapy and pretreatment dyspnea score was 0.72 (p < 0.001) on the training set, and 0.67 (p < 0.001) on the validation set. Conclusion: Cardiac comorbidity is an important risk factor for developing RILT after definite radio(chemo)therapy of lung cancer patients

  19. Scale Specific and Scale Independent Measures of Heart Rate Variability as Risk Indicators

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Havlin, S; Saermark, K; Moelgaard, H; Thomsen, P E B; Möller, M; Hintze, U; Huikuri, H

    1999-01-01

    We study the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) using scale specific variance and scaling exponents as measures of healthy and cardiac impaired individuals. Our results show that the variance and the scaling exponent are highly uncorrelated. We find that the variance measure at certain scales are well suited to separate healthy subjects from heart patients. However, for cumulative survival probability the scaling exponents outperform the variance measure. Our risk study is based on a database containing recordings from 428 MI individuals (after myocardial infarct) and on database containing 105 healthy subjects and 11 heart patients. The results have been obtained by applying three recently developed methods (DFA - Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, WAV - Multiresolution Wavelet Analysis, and DTS - Detrended Time Series analysis) which are found to be highly correlated.

  20. Cardiac glycosides induce resistance to tubulin-dependent anticancer drugs in androgen-independent human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Ming; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chueh, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Hui-Po; Teng, Che-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Due to high prevalence and mortality and the lack of effective therapies, prostate cancer is one of the most crucial health problems in men. Drug resistance aggravates the situation, not only in human prostate cancer but also in other cancers. In this study, we report for the first time that cardiac glycosides (e.g. ouabain and digitoxin) induced resistance of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in vitro to tubulin-binding anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, colchicine, vincristine and vinblastine. Cardiac glycosides exhibited amazing ability to reverse the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle and cell apoptosis induced by tubulin-binding agents. However, neither ionomycin (a Ca(2+) ionophore) nor veratridine (a Na(+) ionophore) mimicked the preventive action of cardiac glycosides, indicating that elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and Na(+) accumulation were not involved in the cardiac glycoside action. Furthermore, cardiac glycosides showed little influence on the effects induced by actinomycin D, anisomycin and doxorubicin, suggesting selectivity for microtubule-targeted anticancer drugs. Using in situ immunofluorescent detection of mitotic spindles, our data showed that cardiac glycosides diminished paclitaxel-induced accumulation of microtubule spindles; however, in a non-cell assay system, cardiac glycosides had little influence on colchicine- and paclitaxel-induced microtubule dynamics. Using an isotope-labeled assay method, we found that ouabain modestly but significantly inhibited the transport of [(14)C]paclitaxel from the cytosol into the nucleus. It is suggested that cardiac glycosides inhibit the G2/M arrest induced by tubulin-binding anticancer drugs via an indirect blockade on microtubule function. The decline in transport of these drugs into the nucleus may partly explain the action of cardiac glycosides. PMID:12218360

  1. Myosin-binding protein C displaces tropomyosin to activate cardiac thin filaments and governs their speed by an independent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Mun, Ji Young; Previs, Michael J.; Yu, Hope Y.; Gulick, James; Tobacman, Larry S.; Beck Previs, Samantha; Robbins, Jeffrey; Warshaw, David M.; Craig, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) is a component of myosin filaments, one of the two sets of contractile elements whose relative sliding is the basis of muscle contraction. In the heart, MyBP-C modulates contractility in response to cardiac stimulation; mutations in MyBP-C lead to cardiac disease. The mechanism by which MyBP-C modulates cardiac contraction is not understood. Using electron microscopy and a light microscopic assay for filament sliding, we demonstrate that MyBP-C binds to the o...

  2. Urine cardiac specific microRNA-1 level in patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of urine level of cardiac specific microRNA-1(miR-1) in patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction(STEAMI) and investigate its potential applications. Methods Urine samples were collected from 20 STEAMI patients within

  3. Plasma tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1): an independent predictor of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tolosana, Jose María; Mont, Lluís; Sitges, Marta; Berruezo, Antonio; Delgado, Victoria; Vidal, Bàrbara; Tamborero, David; Morales, Manel; Batlle, Montserrat; Roig, Eulalia; Castel, M. Angeles; Pérez-Villa, Félix; Godoy, Miguel; Brugada, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Aims Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) play a role in left ventricular structural remodelling. The aim of our study was to analyse MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels as predictors of poor response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods and results A cohort of 42 CRT patients from our centre was prospectively evaluated at baseline and after 12-month follow-up. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 assays were performed prior to CRT implant. Cardiac resynchronization therapy res...

  4. ACCOUNTING MODELS SPECIFIC TO THE INDEPENDENT EXPORT OF GOODS WITH SIGHT COLLECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Paliu-Popa, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Based on the role of foreign trade in a country`s development and given the importance that economic information has in providing the data necessary for decision making and the accurate reflection of the entities` financial situation and the results of the economic and financial activity, in this paper we intend to address the accounting models specific to the independent export of goods with sight collection, so that the relevant conclusions drawn may provide entities with accounting informa...

  5. A modified algorithm of the combined ensemble empirical mode decomposition and independent component analysis for the removal of cardiac artifacts from neuromuscular electrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal and muscular electrical signals contain useful information about the neuromuscular system, with which researchers have been investigating the relationship of various neurological disorders and the neuromuscular system. However, neuromuscular signals can be critically contaminated by cardiac electrical activity (CEA) such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) which confounds data analysis. The purpose of our study is to provide a method for removing cardiac electrical artifacts from the neuromuscular signals recorded. We propose a new method for cardiac artifact removal which modifies the algorithm combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and independent component analysis (ICA). We compare our approach with a cubic smoothing spline method and the previous combined EEMD and ICA for various signal-to-noise ratio measures in simulated noisy physiological signals using a surface electromyogram (sEMG). Finally, we apply the proposed method to two real-life sets of data such as sEMG with ECG artifacts and ambulatory dog cardiac autonomic nervous signals measured from the ganglia near the heart, which are also contaminated with CEA. Our method can not only extract and remove artifacts, but can also preserve the spectral content of the neuromuscular signals. (paper)

  6. Patient specific fluid-structure ventricular modelling for integrated cardiac care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vecchi, A; Nordsletten, D A; Razavi, R; Greil, G; Smith, N P

    2013-11-01

    Cardiac diseases represent one of the primary causes of mortality and result in a substantial decrease in quality of life. Optimal surgical planning and long-term treatment are crucial for a successful and cost-effective patient care. Recently developed state-of-the-art imaging techniques supply a wealth of detailed data to support diagnosis. This provides the foundations for a novel approach to clinical planning based on personalisation, which can lead to more tailored treatment plans when compared to strategies based on standard population metrics. The goal of this study is to develop and apply a methodology for creating personalised ventricular models of blood and tissue mechanics to assess patient-specific metrics. Fluid-structure interaction simulations are performed to analyse the diastolic function in hypoplastic left heart patients, who underwent the first stage of a three-step surgical palliation and whose condition must be accurately evaluated to plan further intervention. The kinetic energy changes generated by the blood propagation in early diastole are found to reflect the intraventricular pressure gradient, giving indications on the filling efficiency. This suggests good agreement between the 3D model and the Euler equation, which provides a simplified relationship between pressure and kinetic energy and could, therefore, be applied in the clinical context. PMID:23340962

  7. Patient specific identification of the cardiac driver function in a cardiovascular system model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, C E; Revie, J; Stevenson, D; Heldmann, S; Desaive, T; Froissart, C B; Lambermont, B; Ghuysen, A; Kolh, P; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2011-02-01

    The cardiac muscle activation or driver function, is a major determinant of cardiovascular dynamics, and is often approximated by the ratio of the left ventricle pressure to the left ventricle volume. In an intensive care unit, the left ventricle pressure is usually never measured, and the left ventricle volume is only measured occasionally by echocardiography, so is not available real-time. This paper develops a method for identifying the driver function based on correlates with geometrical features in the aortic pressure waveform. The method is included in an overall cardiovascular modelling approach, and is clinically validated on a porcine model of pulmonary embolism. For validation a comparison is done between the optimized parameters for a baseline model, which uses the direct measurements of the left ventricle pressure and volume, and the optimized parameters from the approximated driver function. The parameters do not significantly change between the two approaches thus showing that the patient specific approach to identifying the driver function is valid, and has potential clinically. PMID:20621383

  8. Glutamine synthetase is a genetic determinant of cell type-specific glutamine independence in breast epithelia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Ni Kung

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although significant variations in the metabolic profiles exist among different cells, little is understood in terms of genetic regulations of such cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes and nutrient requirements. While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine dependence and likely response and resistance of such glutamine-targeting strategies among cancers are largely unknown. In this study, we have found a systematic variation in the glutamine dependence among breast tumor subtypes associated with mammary differentiation: basal- but not luminal-type breast cells are more glutamine-dependent and may be susceptible to glutamine-targeting therapeutics. Glutamine independence of luminal-type cells is associated mechanistically with lineage-specific expression of glutamine synthetase (GS. Luminal cells can also rescue basal cells in co-culture without glutamine, indicating a potential for glutamine symbiosis within breast ducts. The luminal-specific expression of GS is directly induced by GATA3 and represses glutaminase expression. Such distinct glutamine dependency and metabolic symbiosis is coupled with the acquisition of the GS and glutamine independence during the mammary differentiation program. Understanding the genetic circuitry governing distinct metabolic patterns is relevant to many symbiotic relationships among different cells and organisms. In addition, the ability of GS to predict patterns of glutamine metabolism and dependency among tumors is also crucial in the rational design and application of glutamine and other metabolic pathway targeted therapies.

  9. Thyroid hormone induces cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in a TRα1-specific manner that requires TAK1 and p38 MAPK.

    OpenAIRE

    Kinugawa, Koichiro; Jeong, Mark Y.; Bristow, Michael R.; Long, Carlin S.

    2005-01-01

    Alterations in thyroid hormone receptor (TR)1 isoform expression have been reported in models of both physiologic and pathologic cardiac hypertrophy as well as in patients with heart failure. In this report, we demonstrate that thyroid hormone (TH) induces hypertrophy as a direct result of binding to the TRα1 isoform and moreover, that over-expression of TRα1 alone is also associated with a hypertrophic phenotype, even in the absence of ligand. The mechanism of TH and TRα1-specific hypertroph...

  10. Dephosphorylation specificities of protein phosphatase for cardiac troponin I, troponin T, and sites within troponin T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1, acting in concert with protein kinase C (PKC and protein kinase A (PKA, is a pivotal regulatory mechanism of protein phosphorylation. Isolated rat cardiac myofibrils phosphorylated by PKC/PKA and dephosphorylated by PP1 were used in determining dephosphorylation specificities, Ca2+-stimulated Mg2+ATPase activities, and Ca2+ sensitivities. In reconstituted troponin (Tn complex, PP1 displayed distinct substrate specificity in dephosphorylation of TnT preferentially to TnI, in vitro. In situ phosphorylation of cardiomyocytes with calyculin A, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, resulted in an increase in the phosphorylation stiochiometry of TnT (0.3 to 0.5 (67%, TnI (2.6 to 3.6 (38%, and MLC2 (0.4 to 1.7 (325%. These results further confirmed that though MLC2 is the preferred target substrate for protein phosphatase in the thick filament, the Tn complex (TnI and TnT from thin filament and C-protein in the thick filament are also protein phosphatase substrates. Our in vitro dephosphorylation experiments revealed that while PP1 differentially dephosphorylated within TnT at multiple sites, TnI was uniformly dephosphorylated. Phosphopeptide maps from the in vitro experiments show that TnT phosphopeptides at spots 4A and 4B are much more resistant to PP1 dephosphorylation than other TnT phosphopeptides. Mg2+ATPase assays of myofibrils phosphorylated by PKC/PKA and dephosphorylated by PP1 delineated that while PKC and PKA phosphorylation decreased the Ca2+-stimulated Mg2+ATPase activities, dephosphorylation antagonistically restored it. PKC and PKA phosphorylation decreased Ca2+ sensitivity to 3.6 µM and 5.0 µM respectively. However, dephosphorylation restored the Mg2+ATPase activity of PKC (99% and PKA (95%, along with the Ca2+ sensitivities (3.3 µM and 3.0 µM, respectively.

  11. Reversibility of cardiac fibrosis in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, under specific chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed to verify the effect of specific chemotherapy (Benznidazole or MK-346 on the inflammatory and fibrotic cardiac alterations in mice chronically infected with the strains 21 SF (Type II and Colombian (Type III of Trypanosoma cruzi. To obtain chronically infected mice, two groups of 100 Swiss mice each, were infected with either the 21 SF or the Colombian strain (2x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 and 5x 10 [raised to the power of] 4 blood forms respectively. The rate of morality in the acute phase was of 80% for both groups. Twenty surviving mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 20 with the Colombian strain were then divided in treated and untreated groups. Excluding those that died during the course of treatment, 14 mice chronically infected with the 21 SF strain and 15 with the Colombian strain were evaluated in the present study. Chemotherapy was performed with Benznidazole (N-benzil-2-nitro-1-imidazolacetamide in the dose of 100mg/k.b.w/day, for 60 days, or with the MK-436(3(1-methyl-5 nitroimidazol-2-yl in two daily doses of 250 mg/k.b.w, for 20 days. Parasitological cure tests were performed (xenodiagnosis, haemoculture, subinovulation of the blood into newborn mice, and serological indirect immunofluorescence test. The treated and untreated mice as well as intact controls were killed at different periods after treatment and the heart were submitted to histopathological study with hematoxilineosin and picrosirius staining; ultrastructural study; collagen immunotyping, fibronectin and laminin identification by immunofluorescence tests. Results: the untreated controls either infected with 21 SF or Colombian strain, showed inflammatory and fibrotic alterations that were mild to moderate with the 21 SF strain and intense with the Colombian strain. Redpicrosirius staining showed bundles of collagen in the interstitial space and around cardiac fibers. Increased deposits of mitritial components and

  12. Kcne4 deletion sex- and age-specifically impairs cardiac repolarization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Shawn M; Hu, Zhaoyang; Kant, Ritu; Levy, Daniel I; Goldstein, Steve A N; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial repolarization capacity varies with sex, age, and pathology; the molecular basis for this variation is incompletely understood. Here, we show that the transcript for KCNE4, a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel β subunit associated with human atrial fibrillation, was 8-fold more highly expressed in the male left ventricle compared with females in young adult C57BL/6 mice (P 45% (P 3-fold (P = 0.01) to match noncastrated levels. KCNE4 is thereby shown to be a DHT-regulated determinant of cardiac excitability and a molecular substrate for sex- and age-dependent cardiac arrhythmogenesis. PMID:26399785

  13. Specificity of secreted proteomes from cardiac stem cells and neonatal myocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastná, Miroslava; Chimenti, I.; Marban, E.; Van Eyk, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, Suppl.1 (2009), s. 346. ISSN 1742-464X. [FEBS Congress /34./. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : cardiac stem cells * secreted paracrine/autocrine factors * proteomics Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  14. Weighted Youden index and its two-independent-sample comparison based on weighted sensitivity and specificity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dan-ling; SHEN Frank; YIN Yue; PENG Jun-xiang; CHEN Ping-yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Most indices for evaluating a diagnostic test can be expressed as functions of sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPE).Practically,all existing methods suffer from the inability to weight sensitivity and specificity relative to their importance.In this paper,we developed a novel index,the weighted Youden index,that allows Youden index to be a combination of sensitivity and specificity with user-defined weights.Methods The weighted Youden index Jw is defined as Jw=2(w×SEN+(1-w)SPE)-1 (0 ≤w ≤1).It has three properties:(1) the sum of the weights which are attached to sensitivity and specificity should be equal to 1; (2) the range of Jw should be within [-1,1],which is the range of the Youden index J; (3) Jv should be equal to J when sensitivity and specificity have equal weights.According to the central limit theorem,we obtain the standard error of Jw,and propose a statistical inference method to compare two weighted Youden indices.The monotonicity of the test statistic was discussed.Results An example of comparing two diagnostic tests for pheochromocytoma was used to demonstrate the weighted Youden index method.Weighted Youden index,the confidence interval for each test and the hypothesis test of comparing two independent diagnostic tests were presented.Assigning the weights is essential to the weighted Youden index approach.Conclusion The weighted Youden index can broaden its applications in diagnostic test development and motivate further research in weighting sensitivity and specificity explicitly.

  15. Epidemiology of congenital heart disease in Louisiana: an association between race and sex and the prevalence of specific cardiac malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, T G; Mannick, E E

    1992-09-01

    We hypothesized that susceptibility to the genetic and environmental factors that disrupt cardiac development is associated with race and sex. To evaluate this hypothesis, we asked whether the prevalence of specific cardiac malformations differs by race and sex. We attempted to include all infants born alive in the State of Louisiana from January 1, 1988, through December 31, 1989, and diagnosed by echocardiography, catheterization and/or autopsy within a year of birth as having one of ten specific cardiac malformations. The prevalence of atrioventricular canal defects (AVCD) per 1,000 live births was significantly higher for black females (.744) compared to black males (.198) and for white females (.414) compared to white males (.116). Complete transposition of the great arteries (TGA) was significantly higher for white males (.559) compared to white females (.122); in contrast, TGA was not significantly different for black males (.198) and black females (.169). Obstructive left heart syndrome (OLHS)--aortic stenosis and/or coarctation of the aorta--was significantly higher for white males (.652) compared to white females (.317); in contrast, OLHS was not significantly different for black males (.264) and black females (.169). Single ventricle (SV) was significantly higher for whites (.202) compared to blacks (.067). We did not find that race and sex were associated with differences in the prevalence of tetralogy of Fallot and hypoplastic left heart syndrome. The numbers of infants with anomalous pulmonary venous return, tricuspid atresia, double outlet right ventricle, or truncus arteriosus were too small to measure an association with race and sex. These results demonstrate that the prevalence of a subset of cardiac malformations differs by race and sex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1523585

  16. Comparative Characterization of Cardiac Development Specific microRNAs: Fetal Regulators for Future

    OpenAIRE

    Rustagi, Yashika; Jaiswal, Hitesh K.; Rawal, Kamal; Kundu, Gopal C.; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, conserved RNAs known to regulate several biological processes by influencing gene expression in eukaryotes. The implication of miRNAs as another player of regulatory layers during heart development and diseases has recently been explored. However, there is no study which elucidates the profiling of miRNAs during development of heart till date. Very limited miRNAs have been reported to date in cardiac context. In addition, integration of large scale experimental d...

  17. Pulmonary Artery Stiffness Is Independently Associated with Right Ventricular Mass and Function: A Cardiac MR Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Timothy J W; Gandhi, Ajay; de Marvao, Antonio; Buzaco, Rui; Tokarczuk, Paweł; Quinlan, Marina; Durighel, Giuliana; Diamond, Tamara; Monje Garcia, Laura; de Cesare, Alain; Cook, Stuart A; O'Regan, Declan P

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To determine the relationship between pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness and both right ventricular (RV) mass and function with cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all participants gave written informed consent. Cardiac MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T in 156 healthy volunteers (63% women; age range, 19-61 years; mean age, 36.1 years). High-temporal-resolution phase-contrast imaging was performed in the main and right PAs. Pulmonary pulse wave velocity (PWV) was determined by the interval between arterial systolic upslopes. RV function was assessed with feature tracking to derive peak systolic strain and strain rate, as well as peak early-diastolic strain rate. RV volumes, ejection fraction (RVEF), and mass were measured from the cine images. The association of pulmonary PWV with RV function and mass was quantified with univariate linear regression. Interstudy repeatability was assessed with intraclass correlation. Results The repeatability coefficient for pulmonary PWV was 0.96. Increases in pulmonary PWV and RVEF were associated with increases in age (r = 0.32, P Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26909648

  18. Automatic 4D reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence from segmented contours lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Wan Lim

    Full Text Available We propose an automatic algorithm for the reconstruction of patient-specific cardiac mesh models with 1-to-1 vertex correspondence. In this framework, a series of 3D meshes depicting the endocardial surface of the heart at each time step is constructed, based on a set of border delineated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data of the whole cardiac cycle. The key contribution in this work involves a novel reconstruction technique to generate a 4D (i.e., spatial-temporal model of the heart with 1-to-1 vertex mapping throughout the time frames. The reconstructed 3D model from the first time step is used as a base template model and then deformed to fit the segmented contours from the subsequent time steps. A method to determine a tree-based connectivity relationship is proposed to ensure robust mapping during mesh deformation. The novel feature is the ability to handle intra- and inter-frame 2D topology changes of the contours, which manifests as a series of merging and splitting of contours when the images are viewed either in a spatial or temporal sequence. Our algorithm has been tested on five acquisitions of cardiac MRI and can successfully reconstruct the full 4D heart model in around 30 minutes per subject. The generated 4D heart model conforms very well with the input segmented contours and the mesh element shape is of reasonably good quality. The work is important in the support of downstream computational simulation activities.

  19. Cell contact as an independent factor modulating cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and survival in long-term primary culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. A.; Decker, M. L.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Janes, D. M.; Decker, R. S.

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac myocytes maintained in cell culture develop hypertrophy both in response to mechanical loading as well as to receptor-mediated signaling mechanisms. However, it has been shown that the hypertrophic response to these stimuli may be modulated through effects of intercellular contact achieved by maintaining cells at different plating densities. In this study, we show that the myocyte plating density affects not only the hypertrophic response and features of the differentiated phenotype of isolated adult myocytes, but also plays a significant role influencing myocyte survival in vitro. The native rod-shaped phenotype of freshly isolated adult myocytes persists in an environment which minimizes myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum. However, these conditions are not optimal for long-term maintenance of cultured adult cardiac myocytes. Conditions which promote myocyte attachment and spreading on the substratum, on the other hand, also promote the re-establishment of new intercellular contacts between myocytes. These contacts appear to play a significant role in the development of spontaneous activity, which enhances the redevelopment of highly differentiated contractile, junctional, and sarcoplasmic reticulum structures in the cultured adult cardiomyocyte. Although it has previously been shown that adult cardiac myocytes are typically quiescent in culture, the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists stimulates beating and myocyte hypertrophy, and thereby serves to increase the level of intercellular contact as well. However, in densely-plated cultures with intrinsically high levels of intercellular contact, spontaneous contractile activity develops without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists. In this study, we compare the function, morphology, and natural history of adult feline cardiomyocytes which have been maintained in cultures with different levels of intercellular contact, with and without the addition of beta-adrenergic agonists

  20. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA regulates angiogenesis independently of VEGF during ocular neovascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Grant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aberrant growth of blood vessels in the eye forms the basis of many incapacitating diseases and currently the majority of patients respond to anti-angiogenic therapies based on blocking the principal angiogenic growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. While highly successful, new therapeutic targets are critical for the increasing number of individuals susceptible to retina-related pathologies in our increasingly aging population. Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA is a cell surface peptidase that is absent on normal tissue vasculature but is highly expressed on the neovasculature of most solid tumors, where we have previously shown to regulate angiogenic endothelial cell invasion. Because pathologic angiogenic responses are often triggered by distinct signals, we sought to determine if PSMA also contributes to the pathologic angiogenesis provoked by hypoxia of the retina, which underlies many debilitating retinopathies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy, we found that while developmental angiogenesis is normal in PSMA null mice, hypoxic challenge resulted in decreased retinal vascular pathology when compared to wild type mice as assessed by avascular area and numbers of vascular tufts/glomeruli. The vessels formed in the PSMA null mice were more organized and highly perfused, suggesting a more 'normal' phenotype. Importantly, the decrease in angiogenesis was not due to an impaired hypoxic response as levels of pro-angiogenic factors are comparable; indicating that PSMA regulation of angiogenesis is independent of VEGF. Furthermore, both systemic and intravitreal administration of a PSMA inhibitor in wild type mice undergoing OIR mimicked the PSMA null phenotype resulting in improved retinal vasculature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that PSMA plays a VEGF-independent role in retinal angiogenesis and that the lack of or inhibition of PSMA may

  1. Blockade of γc Signals in Combination with Donor-specific Transfusion Induces Cardiac Allograft Acceptance in Murine Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昌盛; 汪理; 林星光; 向芙莉; 陈必成; 陈忠华

    2010-01-01

    The γc cytokines play an important role in proliferation and survival of T cells. Blocking the γc signals can cause the activated donor-reactive T cells losing the ability to proliferate, and getting into apoptosis pathway, which contributes to induction of the peripheral tolerance. In this study, we induced the transplant tolerance through blocking the γc in combination with donor-specific transfusion (DST) in the cardiac transplantation. Following DST, on the day 2, 4 and 6, C57BL/6 recipients received an...

  2. PRKAG2 mutation: An easily missed cardiac specific non-lysosomal glycogenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in PRKAG2 gene that regulates the γ2 subunit of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP dependent protein kinase have been associated with the development of atrioventricular (AV accessory pathways, cardiac hypertrophy, and conduction system abnormalities. These patients can potentially be misdiagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM and/or Wolf-Parkinson White (WPW syndrome due to similar clinical phenotype. Early recognition of this disease entity is very important as ablation of suspected accessory pathways is not effective and the natural history of the disease is very different from HOCM and WPW syndrome.

  3. PRKAG2 mutation: An easily missed cardiac specific non-lysosomal glycogenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in PRKAG2 gene that regulates the γ2 subunit of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) dependent protein kinase have been associated with the development of atrioventricular (AV) accessory pathways, cardiac hypertrophy, and conduction system abnormalities. These patients can potentially be misdiagnosed as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and/or Wolf-Parkinson White (WPW) syndrome due to similar clinical phenotype. Early recognition of this disease entity is very important as ablation of suspected accessory pathways is not effective and the natural history of the disease is very different from HOCM and WPW syndrome

  4. Aberrant allele-specific replication, independent of parental origin, in blood cells of cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    random but is independent of the parental origin. The non-disease specific aberrant epigenetic profile displayed in peripheral blood cells of patients with a solid tumour (unlike genetic aberrations) can be reversed, by an epigenetic drug applied in vitro, to the normal. It appears that the cancerous status differentiates between two allelic counterparts in a non-random manner, but independent of the parental origin

  5. Muscle Specific miRNAs are induced by testosterone and independently upregulated by age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren eNielsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Age dependent decline in skeletal muscle function leads to impaired metabolic flexibility in elderly individuals. Physical activity and testosterone treatment have proven efficient strategies for delaying this condition. However, a common molecular pathway has not been identified. Muscle specific miRNAs (myomiRs regulates metabolic pathways in skeletal muscle and are regulated by physical activity and have response elements for testosterone in their promoter region. We therefore hypothesized that myomiRs would be regulated in skeletal muscle during aging. We further investigated any potential gender-dependent regulation of these miRNAs. We found that the myomiRs miR-1, miR-133a and miR-133b were increased in skeletal muscle of elderly compared to younger men. In addition, miR-133a/133b expression was markedly higher in women compared to men. Elimination of circulating testosterone in men was associated with lower levels of miR-133a and miR-133b. A positive regulatory effect of testosterone on miR-133a/133b expression was confirmed in castrated male mice and in a model of primary human myocytes. Yet, an improvement of fitness level in the testosterone depleted men resulted in a down-regulation of miR133a/b. In conclusion, alterations in fitness level and circulating testosterone seem to represent two independent regulatory events where testosterone is a specific regulator of miR-133a/b expression.

  6. Image-based view-angle independent cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus catheter tracking for x-ray-guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the cardiorespiratory phase of the heart has numerous applications during cardiac imaging. In this article we propose a novel view-angle independent near-real time cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus (CS) catheter tracking technique for x-ray fluoroscopy images that are used to guide cardiac electrophysiology procedures. The method is based on learning CS catheter motion using principal component analysis and then applying the derived motion model to unseen images taken at arbitrary projections, using the epipolar constraint. This method is also able to track the CS catheter throughout the x-ray images in any arbitrary subsequent view. We also demonstrate the clinical application of our model on rotational angiography sequences. We validated our technique in normal and very low dose phantom and clinical datasets. For the normal dose clinical images we established average systole, end-expiration and end-inspiration gating success rates of 100%, 85.7%, and 92.3%, respectively. For very low dose applications, the technique was able to track the CS catheter with median errors not exceeding 1 mm for all tracked electrodes. Average gating success rates of 80.3%, 71.4%, and 69.2% were established for the application of the technique on clinical datasets, even with a dose reduction of more than 10 times. In rotational sequences at normal dose, CS tracking median errors were within 1.2 mm for all electrodes, and the gating success rate was 100%, for view angles from RAO 90° to LAO 90°. This view-angle independent technique can extract clinically useful cardiorespiratory motion information using x-ray doses significantly lower than those currently used in clinical practice. (paper)

  7. Image-based view-angle independent cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus catheter tracking for x-ray-guided cardiac electrophysiology procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Maria; Rhode, Kawal S.; King, Andrew P.; Ma, Yingliang; Cooklin, Michael; O'Neill, Mark; Gill, Jaswinder; Rinaldi, C. A.; Housden, R. James

    2015-10-01

    Determination of the cardiorespiratory phase of the heart has numerous applications during cardiac imaging. In this article we propose a novel view-angle independent near-real time cardiorespiratory motion gating and coronary sinus (CS) catheter tracking technique for x-ray fluoroscopy images that are used to guide cardiac electrophysiology procedures. The method is based on learning CS catheter motion using principal component analysis and then applying the derived motion model to unseen images taken at arbitrary projections, using the epipolar constraint. This method is also able to track the CS catheter throughout the x-ray images in any arbitrary subsequent view. We also demonstrate the clinical application of our model on rotational angiography sequences. We validated our technique in normal and very low dose phantom and clinical datasets. For the normal dose clinical images we established average systole, end-expiration and end-inspiration gating success rates of 100%, 85.7%, and 92.3%, respectively. For very low dose applications, the technique was able to track the CS catheter with median errors not exceeding 1 mm for all tracked electrodes. Average gating success rates of 80.3%, 71.4%, and 69.2% were established for the application of the technique on clinical datasets, even with a dose reduction of more than 10 times. In rotational sequences at normal dose, CS tracking median errors were within 1.2 mm for all electrodes, and the gating success rate was 100%, for view angles from RAO 90° to LAO 90°. This view-angle independent technique can extract clinically useful cardiorespiratory motion information using x-ray doses significantly lower than those currently used in clinical practice.

  8. THE MASS-INDEPENDENCE OF SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES IN GALACTIC DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The slope of the star formation rate/stellar mass relation (the SFR Main Sequence; SFR-M *) is not quite unity: specific star formation rates (SFR/M *) are weakly but significantly anti-correlated with M *. Here we demonstrate that this trend may simply reflect the well-known increase in bulge mass-fractions—portions of a galaxy not forming stars—with M *. Using a large set of bulge/disk decompositions and SFR estimates derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we show that re-normalizing SFR by disk stellar mass (sSFRdisk ≡ SFR/M *, disk) reduces the M * dependence of SF efficiency by ∼0.25 dex per dex, erasing it entirely in some subsamples. Quantitatively, we find log sSFRdisk-log M * to have a slope βdisk in [ – 0.20, 0.00] ± 0.02 (depending on the SFR estimator and Main Sequence definition) for star-forming galaxies with M * ≥ 1010 M ☉ and bulge mass-fractions B/T ≲ 0.6, generally consistent with a pure-disk control sample (βcontrol = –0.05 ± 0.04). That (SFR/M *, disk) is (largely) independent of host mass for star-forming disks has strong implications for aspects of galaxy evolution inferred from any SFR-M * relation, including manifestations of ''mass quenching'' (bulge growth), factors shaping the star-forming stellar mass function (uniform dlog M */dt for low-mass, disk-dominated galaxies), and diversity in star formation histories (dispersion in SFR(M *, t)). Our results emphasize the need to treat galaxies as composite systems—not integrated masses—in observational and theoretical work

  9. A transgenic platform for testing drugs intended for reversal of cardiac remodeling identifies a novel 11βHSD1 inhibitor rescuing hypertrophy independently of re-vascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Gordon

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Rescuing adverse myocardial remodeling is an unmet clinical goal and, correspondingly, pharmacological means for its intended reversal are urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: To harness a newly-developed experimental model recapitulating progressive heart failure development for the discovery of new drugs capable of reversing adverse remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: A VEGF-based conditional transgenic system was employed in which an induced perfusion deficit and a resultant compromised cardiac function lead to progressive remodeling and eventually heart failure. Ability of candidate drugs administered at sequential remodeling stages to reverse hypertrophy, enlarged LV size and improve cardiac function was monitored. Arguing for clinical relevance of the experimental system, clinically-used drugs operating on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone-System (RAAS, namely, the ACE inhibitor Enalapril and the direct renin inhibitor Aliskerin fully reversed remodeling. Remodeling reversal by these drugs was not accompanied by neovascularization and reached a point-of-no-return. Similarly, the PPARγ agonist Pioglitazone was proven capable of reversing all aspects of cardiac remodeling without affecting the vasculature. Extending the arsenal of remodeling-reversing drugs to pathways other than RAAS, a specific inhibitor of 11β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β HSD1, a key enzyme required for generating active glucocorticoids, fully rescued myocardial hypertrophy. This was associated with mitigating the hypertrophy-associated gene signature, including reversing the myosin heavy chain isoform switch but in a pattern distinguishable from that associated with neovascularization-induced reversal. CONCLUSIONS: A system was developed suitable for identifying novel remodeling-reversing drugs operating in different pathways and for gaining insights into their mechanisms of action, exemplified here by uncoupling their vascular affects.

  10. Cardiac fibrosis in mice expressing an inducible myocardial-specific Cre driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Lexow

    2013-11-01

    Tamoxifen-inducible Cre-mediated manipulation of animal genomes has achieved wide acceptance over the last decade, with numerous important studies heavily relying on this technique. Recently, a number of groups have reported transient complications of using this protocol in the heart. In the present study we observed a previously unreported focal fibrosis and depressed left-ventricular function in tamoxifen-treated αMHC-MerCreMer-positive animals in a Tβ4shRNAflox × αMHC-MerCreMer cross at 6–7 weeks following standard tamoxifen treatment, regardless of the presence of the floxed transgene. The phenotype was reproduced by treating mice from the original αMHC-MerCreMer strain with tamoxifen. In the acute phase after tamoxifen treatment, cell infiltration into the myocardium was accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, Ccl2 and markers of hypertrophy (ANF, BNP, Col3a1. These observations highlight the requirement for including tamoxifen-treated MerCreMer littermate controls to avert misinterpretation of conditional mutant phenotypes. A survey of the field as well as the protocols presented here suggests that controlling the parameters of tamoxifen delivery is important in avoiding the chronic MerCreMer-mediated cardiac phenotype reported here.

  11. Tissue-specific expression from a compound TATA-dependent and TATA-independent promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Garrity, P A; Wold, B J

    1990-01-01

    We have found that the mouse metallothionein-I (MT-I) gene promoter functions in an unusual, compound manner. It directs both TATA-dependent and TATA-independent modes of transcription in vivo. The TATA-dependent message is initiated at the previously characterized +1 transcription start site and is the predominant species in most tissues. In many cell types it is metal inducible. The TATA-independent initiation sites are distributed over the 160 bp upstream of the previously characterized +1...

  12. The involvement of donor specific CTL in cardiac transplant rejection: relevance of avidity

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerik, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a micro-organism penetrates the body, defensive mechanisms of the non-specific innate immune system come into play, such as soluble chemical factors (bactericidal lysozyme, acute phase proteins, interferons), extracellular killing (NK cells, eosinophils), and phagocytosis (macrophages, polymorphonuclear neutrophils). This innate immune system is supported by the specific acquired immune system which comprises of B- and Tlymphocytes. These lymphocytes are educated to distingui...

  13. The Covariant Formulation of Maxwell's Equations Expressed in a Form Independent of Specific Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, Jose A.; Baez, G.

    2009-01-01

    The covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations can be expressed in a form independent of the usual systems of units by introducing the constants alpha, beta and gamma into these equations. Maxwell's equations involving these constants are then specialized to the most commonly used systems of units: Gaussian, SI and Heaviside-Lorentz by giving…

  14. American Academy of School Psychology Survey on the Independent Educational Evaluation for a Specific Learning Disability: Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Fredrick A.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Caterino, Linda C.; Desrochers, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey of the Fellows of the American Academy of School Psychology (Academy; AASP) regarding the independent educational evaluation (IEE) for a specific learning disability (SLD). Academy Fellows were asked about important components of the IEE, desirable evaluator qualifications, and recommended criteria for…

  15. The specific case: cardiac amyloidosis as differential diagnosis in case of restricted cardiac pump function; Der besondere Fall. Amyloidose des Herzens als Differenzialdiagnose bei eingeschraenkter kardialer Pumpfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, L. [Universitaetsspital Basel (Switzerland). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Zellweger, M.; Niemann, T.

    2014-03-15

    The NMR imaging data in combination with clinical characterization and echocardiography are consistent with the diagnosis of a cardiac amyloidosis. The article describes disease pattern and diagnosis based on contrast agent accumulation and diastolic functional disturbances. CT was performed to exclude pulmonary embolism.

  16. THAP5 is a human cardiac-specific inhibitor of cell cycle that is cleaved by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease during cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Meenakshi P; Cilenti, Lucia; Mashak, Zineb; Popat, Paiyal; Alnemri, Emad S; Zervos, Antonis S

    2009-08-01

    Omi/HtrA2 is a mitochondrial serine protease that has a dual function: while confined in the mitochondria, it promotes cell survival, but when released into the cytoplasm, it participates in caspase-dependent as well as caspase-independent cell death. To investigate the mechanism of Omi/HtrA2's function, we set out to isolate and characterize novel substrates for this protease. We have identified Thanatos-associated protein 5 (THAP5) as a specific interactor and substrate of Omi/HtrA2 in cells undergoing apoptosis. This protein is an uncharacterized member of the THAP family of proteins. THAP5 has a unique pattern of expression and is found predominantly in the human heart, although a very low expression is also seen in the human brain and muscle. THAP5 protein is localized in the nucleus and, when ectopically expressed, induces cell cycle arrest. During apoptosis, THAP5 protein is degraded, and this process can be blocked using a specific Omi/HtrA2 inhibitor, leading to reduced cell death. In patients with coronary artery disease, THAP5 protein levels substantially decrease in the myocardial infarction area, suggesting a potential role of this protein in human heart disease. This work identifies human THAP5 as a cardiac-specific nuclear protein that controls cell cycle progression. Furthermore, during apoptosis, THAP5 is cleaved and removed by the proapoptotic Omi/HtrA2 protease. Taken together, we provide evidence to support that THAP5 and its regulation by Omi/HtrA2 provide a new link between cell cycle control and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. PMID:19502560

  17. Age- and gender-specific reference values for cardiac chamber geometry and function using three-dimensional echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Badano, Luigi P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) enables a comprehensive, accurate and reproducible quantification of cardiac chamber size and function without any geometric assumption about their shape. Superior accuracy and reproducibility of 3DE over stabdard two-dimensional (2DE) approach for cardiac chamber volume measurements in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has been well documented in a number of studies. Both the European Association of Cardiovascular Imag...

  18. Far red/near infrared light-induced protection against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury remains intact under diabetic conditions and is independent of nitric oxide synthase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes eKeszler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Far red/near-infrared light (NIR promotes a wide range of biological effects including tissue protection but whether and how NIR is capable of acutely protecting myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo is not fully elucidated. Our previous work indicates that NIR exposure immediately before and during early reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction through mechanisms that are nitric oxide (NO-dependent. Here we tested the hypothesis that NIR elicits protection in a diabetic mouse model where other cardioprotective interventions such as pre- and postconditioning fail, and that the protection is independent of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. NIR reduced infarct size dose dependently. Importantly, NIR-induced protection was preserved in a diabetic mouse model (db/db and during acute hyperglycemia, as well as in endothelial NOS-/- mice and in wild type mice treated with NOS inhibitor L-NAME. In in vitro experiments NIR light liberates NO from nitrosyl hemoglobin (HbNO and nitrosyl myoglobin (MbNO in a wavelength (660-830 nm and dose-dependent manner. Irradiation at 660 nm yields the highest release of NO, while at longer wavelengths a dramatic decrease of NO release can be observed. Similar wavelength dependence was observed for the protection of mice against cardiac ischemia and reperfusion injury in vivo. NIR-induced NO release from deoxymyoglobin in the presence of nitrite mildly inhibits respiration of isolated mitochondria after hypoxia. In summary, NIR applied during reperfusion protects the myocardium against infarction in an NO dependent, but NOS-independent mechanisms, whereby mitochondria may be a target of NO released by NIR, leading to reduced reactive oxygen species generation during reperfusion. This unique mechanism preserves protection even during diabetes where other protective strategies fail.

  19. Novel control of cardiac myofilament response to calcium by S-glutahionylation at specific sites of myosin binding protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.JohnSolaro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies demonstrated a relation between glutathionylation of cardiac myosin binding protein C and diastolic dysfunction in a hypertensive mouse model stressed by treatment with salt, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and unilateral nephrectomy. Although these results strongly indicated an important role for S-glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C as a modifier of myofilament function, indirect effects of other post-translational modifications may have occurred. Moreover, we did not determine the sites of thiol modification by glutathionylation. To address these issues, we developed an in vitro method to mimic the in situ S-glutathionylation of myofilament proteins and determined direct functional effects and sites of oxidative modification employing Western blotting and mass spectrometry. We induced glutathionylation in vitro by treatment of isolated myofibrils and detergent extracted fiber bundles (skinned fibers with oxidized glutathione (GSSG. Immuno-blotting results revealed increased glutathionylation with GSSG treatment of a protein band around 140 kDa. Using tandem mass spectrometry, we identified the 140 kDa band as cardiac myosin binding protein C and determined the sites of glutathionylation to be at cysteines 655, 479, and 627. Determination of the relation between Ca2+-activation of myofibrillar acto-myosin ATPase rate demonstrated an increased Ca2+-sensitivity induced by the S-glutathionylation. Force generating skinned fiber bundles also showed an increase in Ca-sensitivity when treated with oxidized glutathione, which was reversed with the reducing agent, dithiothreitol. Our data demonstrate that a specific and direct effect of S-glutathionylation of myosin binding protein C is a significant increase in myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity. Our data also provide new insights into the functional significance of oxidative modification of myosin binding protein C and the potential role of domains not previously considered to

  20. The involvement of donor specific CTL in cardiac transplant rejection: relevance of avidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.E.M. van Emmerik (Nancy)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWhen a micro-organism penetrates the body, defensive mechanisms of the non-specific innate immune system come into play, such as soluble chemical factors (bactericidal lysozyme, acute phase proteins, interferons), extracellular killing (NK cells, eosinophils), and phagocytosis (macrophag

  1. Gender-Specific Effects on Immune Response and Cardiac Function after Trauma Hemorrhage and Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Albertsmeier, Markus; Pratschke, Sebastian; Chaudry, Irshad; Angele, Martin K

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Studies in human as well as animal models indicate a gender-specific responsiveness of the immune and organ systems with regard to shock, trauma, and sepsis. Methods A literature review was performed. Results Cell-mediated immune responses and cardiovascular functions are suppressed in males following trauma hemorrhage, whereas they are maintained or even enhanced in females in the proestrus state of the estrus cycle. Experimental studies have demonstrated that divergent im...

  2. A cardiac-specific health-related quality of life module for young adults with congenital heart disease: development and validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Vliegen, H.W.; Kamphuis, R.P.; Ottenkamp, J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Bruil, J.

    2004-01-01

    This study represents the development and validation of a cardiac-specific module of the generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, the TAAQOL (TNO/AZL Adult Quality Of Life), for young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Items were selected based on literature, an explorativ

  3. Changes in cardiac specific microRNA-208a level in peripheral blood in ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe serum cardiac specific microRNA-208a(miR-208a) levels in ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction(STEAMI) patients,and to explore the role of serum miR-208a levels in the diagnosis of STEAMI. Methods The serum miR-208a concentrations were assessed within 12 hours after STEAMI,while

  4. Distinct trajectories of disease-specific health status in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Meine, Mathias;

    2016-01-01

    of 139 patients with a CRT-defibrillator (70 % men; age 65.7 ± 10.1 years) completed the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) prior to implantation (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 12-14 months post-implantation. Latent class analyses were used to identify trajectories and associates of disease......-specific health status over time. RESULTS: All health status trajectories showed an initial small to large improvement from baseline to 2-month follow-up, whereafter most trajectories displayed a stable pattern between short- and long-term follow-up. Low educational level, NYHA class III/IV, smoking, no use...... of beta-blockers, use of psychotropic medication, anxiety, depression, and type D personality were found to be associated with poorer health status in unadjusted analyses. Interestingly, subgroups of patients (12-20 %) who experienced poor health status at baseline improved to stable good health status...

  5. Quick and clean cloning: a ligation-independent cloning strategy for selective cloning of specific PCR products from non-specific mixes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Thieme

    Full Text Available We have developed an efficient strategy for cloning of PCR products that contain an unknown region flanked by a known sequence. As with ligation-independent cloning, the strategy is based on homology between sequences present in both the vector and the insert. However, in contrast to ligation-independent cloning, the cloning vector has homology with only one of the two primers used for amplification of the insert. The other side of the linearized cloning vector has homology with a sequence present in the insert, but nested and non-overlapping with the gene-specific primer used for amplification. Since only specific products contain this sequence, but none of the non-specific products, only specific products can be cloned. Cloning is performed using a one-step reaction that only requires incubation for 10 minutes at room temperature in the presence of T4 DNA polymerase to generate single-stranded extensions at the ends of the vector and insert. The reaction mix is then directly transformed into E. coli where the annealed vector-insert complex is repaired and ligated. We have tested this method, which we call quick and clean cloning (QC cloning, for cloning of the variable regions of immunoglobulins expressed in non-Hodgkin lymphoma tumor samples. This method can also be applied to identify the flanking sequence of DNA elements such as T-DNA or transposon insertions, or be used for cloning of any PCR product with high specificity.

  6. Post-operative aspartate aminotransferase levels independently predict mortality after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kai Ming Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Increase in AST levels within 48 hours of CABG was a strong independent predictor of 30 day mortality. Although AST increase is not specific to myocardial necrosis, it remains useful for prognosis in cardiac surgery.

  7. Conservation of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) N domains following independent expansions of the gene families in rodents and primates

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmermann Wolfgang; McLellan Andrew S; Moore Tom

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Rodent and primate pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) gene families have expanded independently from a common ancestor and are expressed virtually exclusively in placental trophoblasts. However, within each species, it is unknown whether multiple paralogs have been selected for diversification of function, or for increased dosage of monofunctional PSG. We analysed the evolution of the mouse PSG sequences, and compared them to rat, human and baboon PSGs to attempt to und...

  8. Increased specificity in human cardiac-myosin radioimmunoassay utilizing two monoclonal antibodies in a double sandwich assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An immunoradiometric assay that simultaneously measured two different epitopes on the same molecule was devised to differential between cardiac- and skeletal-myosin light chains. Three monoclonal antibodies were examined that were 100% (lC5), 25% (2B9) and 17% (4F10) cross reactive, respectively, between the two antigens. One antibody of the pair to be studied was immobilized to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B while the other was iodinated with 125I using the lactoperoxidase method. The antigen was mixed with the immobilized antibody, the labeled antibody was added and the precipitate then washed and counted in a gamma counter. When both antibodies of the pair to be studied (immobilized and labeled) were the same (2B9), no radioactivity above background was bound to the precipitate, indicating that the second antibody could not bind to an already occupied epitope. When two different antibodies were employed, the specificity of the assay increased over that of a single antibody. The cross reactivity of a pair approximated the product of the cross reactivities of the individual antibodies. Thus, lC5 and 2B9 were 25% cross reactive together, lC5 and 4F10 17% cross reactive, and 2B9 and 4F10 4.3% cross reactive. (author)

  9. Lesion-specific coronary artery calcium quantification for predicting cardiac event with multiple instance support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingshan; Qian, Zhen; Marvasty, Idean; Rinehart, Sarah; Voros, Szilard; Metaxas, Dimitris N

    2010-01-01

    Conventional whole-heart CAC quantification has been demonstrated to be insufficient in predicting coronary events, especially in accurately predicting near-term coronary events in high-risk adults. In this paper, we propose a lesion-specific CAC quantification framework to improve CAC's near-term predictive value in intermediate to high-risk populations with a novel multiple instance support vector machines (MISVM) approach. Our method works on data sets acquired with clinical imaging protocols on conventional CT scanners without modifying the CT hardware or updating the imaging protocol. The calcific lesions are quantified by geometric information, density, and some clinical measurements. A MISVM model is built to predict cardiac events, and moreover, to give a better insight of the characterization of vulnerable or culprit lesions in CAC. Experimental results on 31 patients showed significant improvement of the predictive value with the ROC analysis, the net reclassification improvement evaluation, and the leave-one-out validation against the conventional methods. PMID:20879266

  10. Glutamine Synthetase Is a Genetic Determinant of Cell Type–Specific Glutamine Independence in Breast Epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiu-Ni Kung; Marks, Jeffrey R.; Jen-Tsan Chi

    2011-01-01

    Although significant variations in the metabolic profiles exist among different cells, little is understood in terms of genetic regulations of such cell type-specific metabolic phenotypes and nutrient requirements. While many cancer cells depend on exogenous glutamine for survival to justify the therapeutic targeting of glutamine metabolism, the mechanisms of glutamine dependence and likely response and resistance of such glutamine-targeting strategies among cancers are largely unknown. In th...

  11. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rettmann, Maryam E., E-mail: rettmann.maryam@mayo.edu; Holmes, David R.; Camp, Jon J.; Cameron, Bruce M.; Robb, Richard A. [Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Kwartowitz, David M. [Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Gunawan, Mia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Washington D.C. 20057 (United States); Johnson, Susan B.; Packer, Douglas L. [Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Dalegrave, Charles [Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology, Cardiology Division Hospital Sao Paulo, Federal University of Sao Paulo, 04024-002 Brazil (Brazil); Kolasa, Mark W. [David Grant Medical Center, Fairfield, California 94535 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  12. Quantitative modeling of the accuracy in registering preoperative patient-specific anatomic models into left atrial cardiac ablation procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In cardiac ablation therapy, accurate anatomic guidance is necessary to create effective tissue lesions for elimination of left atrial fibrillation. While fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and electroanatomic maps are important guidance tools, they lack information regarding detailed patient anatomy which can be obtained from high resolution imaging techniques. For this reason, there has been significant effort in incorporating detailed, patient-specific models generated from preoperative imaging datasets into the procedure. Both clinical and animal studies have investigated registration and targeting accuracy when using preoperative models; however, the effect of various error sources on registration accuracy has not been quantitatively evaluated. Methods: Data from phantom, canine, and patient studies are used to model and evaluate registration accuracy. In the phantom studies, data are collected using a magnetically tracked catheter on a static phantom model. Monte Carlo simulation studies were run to evaluate both baseline errors as well as the effect of different sources of error that would be present in a dynamicin vivo setting. Error is simulated by varying the variance parameters on the landmark fiducial, physical target, and surface point locations in the phantom simulation studies. In vivo validation studies were undertaken in six canines in which metal clips were placed in the left atrium to serve as ground truth points. A small clinical evaluation was completed in three patients. Landmark-based and combined landmark and surface-based registration algorithms were evaluated in all studies. In the phantom and canine studies, both target registration error and point-to-surface error are used to assess accuracy. In the patient studies, no ground truth is available and registration accuracy is quantified using point-to-surface error only. Results: The phantom simulation studies demonstrated that combined landmark and surface-based registration improved

  13. Tear me down: Role of calpain in the development of cardiac ventricular hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Cam; Portbury, Andrea; Schisler, Jonathan C; Willis, Monte S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy develops most commonly in response to hypertension and is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. The mechanisms by which cardiac hypertrophy may be reversed to reduce this risk have not been fully determined to the point where mechanism-specific therapies have been developed. Recently, proteases in the calpain family have been implicated in regulating the development of cardiac hypertrophy in preclinical animal models. In this review, we summarize...

  14. Involvement of specific calmodulin isoforms in salicylic acid-independent activation of plant disease resistance responses

    OpenAIRE

    Heo, Won Do; Lee, Sang Hyoung; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Jong Cheol; Chung, Woo Sik; Chun, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyoung Joo; Park, Chan Young; Park, Hyeong Cheol; Choi, Ji Young; Cho, Moo Je

    1999-01-01

    The Ca2+ signal is essential for the activation of plant defense responses, but downstream components of the signaling pathway are still poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that specific calmodulin (CaM) isoforms are activated by infection or pathogen-derived elicitors and participate in Ca2+-mediated induction of plant disease resistance responses. Soybean CaM (SCaM)-4 and SCaM-5 genes, which encode for divergent CaM isoforms, were induced within 30 min by a fungal elicitor or pathogen, wher...

  15. Antigen-specific T cell activation independently of the MHC: chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-redirected T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich eAbken

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T cell therapy has recently shown powerful in initiating a lasting anti-tumor response with spectacular therapeutic success in some cases. Specific T cell therapy, however, is limited since a number of cancer cells are not recognized by T cells due to various mechanisms including the limited availability of tumor-specific T cells and deficiencies in antigen processing or major histocompatibility complex (MHC expression of cancer cells. To make adoptive cell therapy applicable for the broad variety of cancer entities, patient's T cells are engineered ex vivo with pre-defined specificity by a recombinant chimeric antigen receptor (CAR which consists in the extracellular part of an antibody-derived domain for binding with a tumor-associated antigen and in the intracellular part of a TCR-derived signaling moiety for T cell activation. The specificity of CAR mediated T cell recognition is defined by the antibody domain, is independent of MHC presentation and can be extended to any target for which an antibody is available. We discuss the advantages and limitations of MHC-independent T cell targeting by an engineered CAR and review most significant progress recently made in early stage clinical trials to treat cancer.

  16. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  17. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D

    1977-12-01

    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  18. The accuracy of chest radiographs in the detection of congenital heart disease and in the diagnosis of specific congenital cardiac lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Traditional teaching holds that specific types of CHD can be diagnosed on the chest radiograph (CXR) through pattern recognition. To determine the accuracy of radiologists in detecting CHD on the CXR. This study was a blinded retrospective review of chest radiographs from 281 patients (<12 years) by five pediatric radiologists from three institutions. Thirteen groups were evaluated that included 12 categories of CHD and a control group of patients without heart disease. Radiographs were assessed for heart size, heart and mediastinal shape and vascularity. Clinical information, angiography, echocardiograms and surgery were used as the gold standard for definitive diagnosis. The average accuracy of the five readers in distinguishing normal from CHD patients was 78% (range of 72% to 82%). The overall measure of accuracy in distinguishing specific congenital cardiac lesions among 13 groups of patients was 71% (range of 63% to 79%). CXR alone is not diagnostic of specific cardiac lesions, with a low accuracy of only 71%. We believe that less emphasis should be placed on the use of radiographs alone in diagnosing specific congenital cardiac lesions. (orig.)

  19. Mis16 Independently Recognizes Histone H4 and the CENP-ACnp1-Specific Chaperone Scm3sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sojin; Kim, Hanseong; Cho, Uhn-Soo

    2015-10-01

    CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is required for kinetochore assembly and accurate chromosome segregation. For it to function properly, CENP-A must be specifically localized to centromeres. In fission yeast, Scm3sp and the Mis18 complex, composed of Mis16, Eic1, and Mis18, function as a CENP-A(Cnp1)-specific chaperone and a recruiting factor, respectively, and together ensure accurate delivery of CENP-A(Cnp1) to centromeres. Although how Scm3sp specifically recognizes CENP-A(Cnp1) has been revealed recently, the recruiting mechanism of CENP-A(Cnp1) via the Mis18 complex remains unknown. In this study, we have determined crystal structures of Schizosaccharomyces japonicus Mis16 alone and in complex with the helix 1 of histone H4 (H4α1). Crystal structures followed by mutant analysis and affinity pull-downs have revealed that Mis16 recognizes both H4α1 and Scm3sp independently within the CENP-A(Cnp1)/H4:Scm3sp complex. This observation suggests that Mis16 gains CENP-A(Cnp1) specificity by recognizing both Scm3sp and histone H4. Our studies provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying specific recruitment of CENP-A(Cnp1)/H4:Scm3sp into centromeres. PMID:26343758

  20. Age- and gender-specific differences in left ventricular cardiac function and volumes determined by gated SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine normative volumetric data and ejection fraction values derived from gated myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using the commercially available software algorithm QGS (quantitative gated SPET). From a prospective database of 876 consecutive patients who were referred for a 2-day stress-rest technetium-99m tetrofosmin (925 MBq) gated SPET study, 102 patients (43 men, 59 women) with a low (<10%) pre-test likelihood of coronary disease were included (mean age 57.6 years). For stress imaging, a bicycle protocol was used in 79 of the patients and a dipyridamole protocol in 23. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and end-diastolic and -systolic volumes (EDV and ESV) were calculated by QGS. EDV and ESV were corrected for body surface area, indicated by EDVi and ESVi. To allow comparison with previous reports using other imaging modalities, men and women were divided into three age groups (<45 years, ≥45 years but <65 years and ≥65 years). Men showed significantly higher EDVi and ESVi values throughout and lower LVEF values when compared with women in the subgroup ≥65 years (P<0.05, ANOVA). Significant negative and positive correlations were found between age and EDVi and ESVi values for both women and men and between LVEF and age in women (Pearson P≤0.01). LVEF values at bicycle stress were significantly higher than at rest (P=0.000, paired t test), which was the result of a significant decrease in ESV (P=0.003), a phenomenon which did not occur following dipyridamole stress (P=0.409). The data presented suggest that LVEF and EDVi and ESVi as assessed by QGS are strongly gender-specific. Although the physiological significance of these results is uncertain and needs further study, these findings demonstrate that the evaluation of cardiac function and volumes of patients by means of QGS should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  1. Specificity of systolic anterior motion of anterior mitral leaflet for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Prevalence in large population of patients with other cardiac diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, B. J.; Gottdiener, J S; Perry, L W

    1981-01-01

    The value of systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet as a diagnostic marker for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been questioned because of its reported occurrence in other heart diseases. To determine the true specificity of systolic anterior motion for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 721 echocardiograms from patients with a wide variety of cardiac diseases were reviewed for its presence or absence under basal conditions. Systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet wa...

  2. Site-specific issues related to structural/seismic design of an underground independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities owning and operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) in USA may choose to build an underground Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) to store the spent nuclear fuels. The regulatory requirements and other guidance are based on 10 CFR Part 72, Regulatory Guide RG 3.73, Standard Review Plans NUREG-1536 and NUREG-1567, and Interim staff Guidance (ISG) documents as applicable. Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) classified as important to safety are designed to withstand the effects of site-specific environmental conditions and natural phenomena such as earthquake, tornado, flood, etc. An underground ISFSI for storage of spent nuclear fuel, presents some unique analysis and design challenges. This paper will briefly address some of these challenges and discuss site-specific loads, including seismic for the ISFSI design. (authors)

  3. Lack of host specificity leads to independent assortment of dipterocarps and ectomycorrhizal fungi across a soil fertility gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peay, Kabir G; Russo, Sabrina E; McGuire, Krista L; Lim, Zhenyu; Chan, Ju Ping; Tan, Sylvester; Davies, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    Plants interact with a diversity of microorganisms, and there is often concordance in their community structures. Because most community-level studies are observational, it is unclear if such concordance arises because of host specificity, in which microorganisms or plants limit each other's occurrence. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment, we tested the hypothesis that host specificity between trees and ectomycorrhizal fungi determines patterns of tree and fungal soil specialisation. Seedlings of 13 dipterocarp species with contrasting soil specialisations were seeded into plots crossing soil type and canopy openness. Ectomycorrhizal colonists were identified by DNA sequencing. After 2.5 years, we found no evidence of host specificity. Rather, soil environment was the primary determinant of ectomycorrhizal diversity and composition on seedlings. Despite their close symbiosis, our results show that ectomycorrhizal fungi and tree communities in this Bornean rain forest assemble independently of host-specific interactions, raising questions about how mutualism shapes the realised niche. PMID:26032408

  4. Indirect imaging of cardiac-specific transgene expression using a bidirectional two-step transcriptional amplification strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, I Y; Gheysens, O; Ray, S;

    2010-01-01

    genes, firefly luciferase (fluc) and Renilla luciferase (hrluc), driven by the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter. The vector was characterized in vitro and in living mice using luminometry and bioluminescence imaging to assess its ability to mediate strong, correlated reporter gene expression...

  5. Cardiac myosin binding protein C phosphorylation affects cross-bridge cycle's elementary steps in a site-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    Full Text Available Based on our recent finding that cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C phosphorylation affects muscle contractility in a site-specific manner, we further studied the force per cross-bridge and the kinetic constants of the elementary steps in the six-state cross-bridge model in cMyBP-C mutated transgenic mice for better understanding of the influence of cMyBP-C phosphorylation on contractile functions. Papillary muscle fibres were dissected from cMyBP-C mutated mice of ADA (Ala273-Asp282-Ala302, DAD (Asp273-Ala282-Asp302, SAS (Ser273-Ala282-Ser302, and t/t (cMyBP-C null genotypes, and the results were compared to transgenic mice expressing wide-type (WT cMyBP-C. Sinusoidal analyses were performed with serial concentrations of ATP, phosphate (Pi, and ADP. Both t/t and DAD mutants significantly reduced active tension, force per cross-bridge, apparent rate constant (2πc, and the rate constant of cross-bridge detachment. In contrast to the weakened ATP binding and enhanced Pi and ADP release steps in t/t mice, DAD mice showed a decreased ADP release without affecting the ATP binding and the Pi release. ADA showed decreased ADP release, and slightly increased ATP binding and cross-bridge detachment steps, whereas SAS diminished the ATP binding step and accelerated the ADP release step. t/t has the broadest effects with changes in most elementary steps of the cross-bridge cycle, DAD mimics t/t to a large extent, and ADA and SAS predominantly affect the nucleotide binding steps. We conclude that the reduced tension production in DAD and t/t is the result of reduced force per cross-bridge, instead of the less number of strongly attached cross-bridges. We further conclude that cMyBP-C is an allosteric activator of myosin to increase cross-bridge force, and its phosphorylation status modulates the force, which is regulated by variety of protein kinases.

  6. Specific antibody-receptor interactions trigger InlAB-independent uptake of listeria monocytogenes into tumor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotz Christian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific cell targeting is an important, yet unsolved problem in bacteria-based therapeutic applications, like tumor or gene therapy. Here, we describe the construction of a novel, internalin A and B (InlAB-deficient Listeria monocytogenes strain (Lm-spa+, which expresses protein A of Staphylococcus aureus (SPA and anchors SPA in the correct orientation on the bacterial cell surface. Results This listerial strain efficiently binds antibodies allowing specific interaction of the bacterium with the target recognized by the antibody. Binding of Trastuzumab (Herceptin® or Cetuximab (Erbitux® to Lm-spa+, two clinically approved monoclonal antibodies directed against HER2/neu and EGFR/HER1, respectively, triggers InlAB-independent internalization into non-phagocytic cancer cell lines overexpressing the respective receptors. Internalization, subsequent escape into the host cell cytosol and intracellular replication of these bacteria are as efficient as of the corresponding InlAB-positive, SPA-negative parental strain. This specific antibody/receptor-mediated internalization of Lm-spa+ is shown in the murine 4T1 tumor cell line, the isogenic 4T1-HER2 cell line as well as the human cancer cell lines SK-BR-3 and SK-OV-3. Importantly, this targeting approach is applicable in a xenograft mouse tumor model after crosslinking the antibody to SPA on the listerial cell surface. Conclusions Binding of receptor-specific antibodies to SPA-expressing L. monocytogenes may represent a promising approach to target L. monocytogenes to host cells expressing specific receptors triggering internalization.

  7. Molecular Basis of Cardiac Myxomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Singhal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac tumors are rare, and of these, primary cardiac tumors are even rarer. Metastatic cardiac tumors are about 100 times more common than the primary tumors. About 90% of primary cardiac tumors are benign, and of these the most common are cardiac myxomas. Approximately 12% of primary cardiac tumors are completely asymptomatic while others present with one or more signs and symptoms of the classical triad of hemodynamic changes due to intracardiac obstruction, embolism and nonspecific constitutional symptoms. Echocardiography is highly sensitive and specific in detecting cardiac tumors. Other helpful investigations are chest X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography scan. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary cardiac tumors and is usually associated with a good prognosis. This review article will focus on the general features of benign cardiac tumors with an emphasis on cardiac myxomas and their molecular basis.

  8. Alignment independent 3D-QSAR, quantum calculations and molecular docking of Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors as anticancer drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Shiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mer receptor tyrosine kinase is a promising novel cancer therapeutic target in many human cancers, because abnormal activation of Mer has been implicated in survival signaling and chemoresistance. 3D-QSAR analyses based on alignment independent descriptors were performed on a series of 81 Mer specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The fractional factorial design (FFD and the enhanced replacement method (ERM were applied and tested as variable selection algorithms for the selection of optimal subsets of molecular descriptors from a much greater pool of such regression variables. The data set was split into 65 molecules as the training set and 16 compounds as the test set. All descriptors were generated by using the GRid INdependent descriptors (GRIND approach. After variable selection, GRIND were correlated with activity values (pIC50 by PLS regression. Of the two applied variable selection methods, ERM had a noticeable improvement on the statistical parameters of PLS model, and yielded a q2 value of 0.77, an rpred2 of 0.94, and a low RMSEP value of 0.25. The GRIND information contents influencing the affinity on Mer specific tyrosine kinase were also confirmed by docking studies. In a quantum calculation study, the energy difference between HOMO and LUMO (gap implied the high interaction of the most active molecule in the active site of the protein. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential energy at DFT level confirmed results obtained from the molecular docking. The identified key features obtained from the molecular modeling, enabled us to design novel kinase inhibitors.

  9. Cardiac-specific expression of the tetracycline transactivator confers increased heart function and survival following ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Elsherif

    Full Text Available Mice expressing the tetracycline transactivator (tTA transcription factor driven by the rat α-myosin heavy chain promoter (α-MHC-tTA are widely used to dissect the molecular mechanisms involved in cardiac development and disease. However, these α-MHC-tTA mice exhibit a gain-of-function phenotype consisting of robust protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in both in vitro and in vivo models in the absence of associated cardiac hypertrophy or remodeling. Cardiac function, as assessed by echocardiography, did not differ between α-MHC-tTA and control animals, and there were no noticeable differences observed between the two groups in HW/TL ratio or LV end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions. Protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury was assessed using isolated perfused hearts where α-MHC-tTA mice had robust protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury which was not blocked by pharmacological inhibition of PI3Ks with LY294002. Furthermore, α-MHC-tTA mice subjected to coronary artery ligation exhibited significantly reduced infarct size compared to control animals. Our findings reveal that α-MHC-tTA transgenic mice exhibit a gain-of-function phenotype consisting of robust protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury similar to cardiac pre- and post-conditioning effects. However, in contrast to classical pre- and post-conditioning, the α-MHC-tTA phenotype is not inhibited by the classic preconditioning inhibitor LY294002 suggesting involvement of a non-PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in this phenotype. Thus, further study of the α-MHC-tTA model may reveal novel molecular targets for therapeutic intervention during ischemic injury.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for the infarcted heart: a role in minimizing abnormalities in cardiac-specific energy metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Hughey, Curtis C.; Johnsen, Virginia L.; Ma, Lianli; James, Freyja D.; Young, Pampee P.; Wasserman, David H.; Rottman, Jeffrey N.; Hittel, Dustin S.; Shearer, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Intense interest has been focused on cell-based therapy for the infarcted heart given that stem cells have exhibited the ability to reduce infarct size and mitigate cardiac dysfunction. Despite this, it is unknown whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can prevent metabolic remodeling following a myocardial infarction (MI). This study examines the ability of MSCs to rescue the infarcted heart from perturbed substrate uptake in vivo. C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic ligation of the left ant...

  11. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Donal J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). RESULTS: Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. CONCLUSION: HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  12. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, Donal J

    2010-04-01

    Abstract Background Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). Results Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  13. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher William M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC on tissue microarrays (TMA consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS. Results Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46 of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93; p = 0.03 when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. Conclusion HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens.

  14. Tumour-specific HMG-CoAR is an independent predictor of recurrence free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our group previously reported that tumour-specific expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutharyl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) is associated with more favourable tumour parameters and a good prognosis in breast cancer. In the present study, the prognostic value of HMG-CoAR expression was examined in tumours from a cohort of patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer. HMG-CoAR expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarrays (TMA) consisting of 76 ovarian cancer cases, analysed using automated algorithms to develop a quantitative scoring model. Kaplan Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards modelling were used to estimate the risk of recurrence free survival (RFS). Seventy-two tumours were suitable for analysis. Cytoplasmic HMG-CoAR expression was present in 65% (n = 46) of tumours. No relationship was seen between HMG-CoAR and age, histological subtype, grade, disease stage, estrogen receptor or Ki-67 status. Patients with tumours expressing HMG-CoAR had a significantly prolonged RFS (p = 0.012). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that HMG-CoAR expression was an independent predictor of improved RFS (RR = 0.49, 95% CI (0.25-0.93); p = 0.03) when adjusted for established prognostic factors such as residual disease, tumour stage and grade. HMG-CoAR expression is an independent predictor of prolonged RFS in primary ovarian cancer. As HMG-CoAR inhibitors, also known as statins, have demonstrated anti-neoplastic effects in vitro, further studies are required to evaluate HMG-CoAR expression as a surrogate marker of response to statin treatment, especially in conjunction with current chemotherapeutic regimens

  15. Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessed by gated SPECT phase analysis is an independent predictor of death in patients with advanced coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular function not undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) was assessed by gated single-photon emission CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as an independent predictor of death from any cause in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and reduced LV function. Between 2001 and 2010, 135 patients (64 ± 11 years of age, 84 % men) with known CAD, reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF, 38 ± 15 %) and without an implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy device underwent gated MPI at rest. LV functional evaluation, which included phase analysis, was conducted to identify patients with LVMD. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for death of any cause during a mean follow-up of 2.0 ± 1.7 years. Uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were calculated to identify independent predictors of death from any cause. Of the 135 patients, 30 (22 %) died during follow-up (18 cardiac deaths and 12 deaths from other causes). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly shorter survival time in the patients with severely reduced LVEF (<30 %, n = 45) or with LVMD (n = 81, log-rank test P <0.005). Cox models identified LVMD, LVEF <30 % and a total perfusion deficit at rest of ≥20 % as independent predictors of death from any cause. While patients with LVEF <30 % in conjunction with LVMD had similar survival times irrespective of whether they had early revascularization or medical therapy, those patients with LVEF ≥30% and LVMD who underwent revascularization had significantly longer survival. In patients with known CAD and reduced LV function, dyssynchrony of the LV is an independent predictor of death from any cause. (orig.)

  16. Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessed by gated SPECT phase analysis is an independent predictor of death in patients with advanced coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular function not undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uebleis, Christopher; Hellweger, Stefan; Lehner, Sebastian; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Cumming, Paul; Hacker, Marcus [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Laubender, Ruediger Paul [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Becker, Alexander [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Medical Department I, Munich (Germany); Sohn, Hae-Young [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Medical Department Innenstadt, Munich (Germany); Van Kriekinge, Serge D.; Slomka, Piotr J. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) was assessed by gated single-photon emission CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as an independent predictor of death from any cause in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and reduced LV function. Between 2001 and 2010, 135 patients (64 {+-} 11 years of age, 84 % men) with known CAD, reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF, 38 {+-} 15 %) and without an implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy device underwent gated MPI at rest. LV functional evaluation, which included phase analysis, was conducted to identify patients with LVMD. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for death of any cause during a mean follow-up of 2.0 {+-} 1.7 years. Uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were calculated to identify independent predictors of death from any cause. Of the 135 patients, 30 (22 %) died during follow-up (18 cardiac deaths and 12 deaths from other causes). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly shorter survival time in the patients with severely reduced LVEF (<30 %, n = 45) or with LVMD (n = 81, log-rank test P <0.005). Cox models identified LVMD, LVEF <30 % and a total perfusion deficit at rest of {>=}20 % as independent predictors of death from any cause. While patients with LVEF <30 % in conjunction with LVMD had similar survival times irrespective of whether they had early revascularization or medical therapy, those patients with LVEF {>=}30% and LVMD who underwent revascularization had significantly longer survival. In patients with known CAD and reduced LV function, dyssynchrony of the LV is an independent predictor of death from any cause. (orig.)

  17. Stretch-induced increase in cardiac contractility is independent of myocyte Ca2+ while block of stretch channels by streptomycin improves contractility after ischemic stunning

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Samhita S.; Camara, Amadou K.S.; Aldakkak, Mohammed; Heisner, James S.; Stowe, David F

    2015-01-01

    Stretching the cardiac left ventricle (LV) enhances contractility but its effect on myoplasmic [Ca2+] is controversial. We measured LV pressure (LVP) and [Ca2+] as a function of intra-LV stretch in guinea pig intact hearts before and after 15 min global stunning ± perfusion with streptomycin (STM), a stretch-activated channel blocker. LV wall [Ca2+] was measured by indo-1 fluorescence and LVP by a saline-filled latex balloon inflated in 50 μL steps to stretch the LV. We implemented a mathemat...

  18. Age-specific performance of the revised cardiac risk index for predicting cardiovascular risk in elective noncardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Wissenberg, Mads; Jørgensen, Mads Emil;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The revised cardiac risk index (RCRI) holds a central role in preoperative cardiac risk stratification in noncardiac surgery. Its performance in unselected populations, including different age groups, has, however, not been systematically investigated. We assessed the relationship of...... November 30, 2011) for the 30-day risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular death). There were 742 of 357,396 (0.2%), 755 of 74.889 (1.0%), 521 of 11,921 (4%), and 257 of 3146 (8%) major adverse cardiovascular events occurring in RCRI classes I......, II, III, and IV. Multivariable odds ratio estimates were as follows: ischemic heart disease 3.30 (95% confidence interval, 2.96-3.69), high-risk surgery 2.70 (2.46-2.96), congestive heart failure 2.65 (2.29-3.06), cerebrovascular disease 10.02 (9.08-11.05), insulin therapy 1.62 (1.37-1.93), and...

  19. Specificity of testing in a cardiac rehabilitation setting resulting in a patient's return to high-intensity outdoor activity following aortic dissection repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartee, Sparky; Shrestha, Sanjay; Ramos, Beatriz; Bilbrey, Tim; Carbone, Pasquale; Schussler, Jeffrey M; Deutsch, Rick; Adams, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    A 66-year-old man who had undergone aortic dissection repair a year earlier sought to assess the feasibility of returning to the high-intensity outdoor activities he had long enjoyed. In response to his inquiry, the cardiac rehabilitation staff at Baylor Hamilton Heart and Vascular Hospital designed a comprehensive testing plan that simulated the specific movements and anticipated cardiac requirements associated with his goal activities. The activities included 1) lifting and manipulating a 50-pound suitcase, 2) hiking to the top of Half Dome in California's Yosemite National Park, and 3) scuba diving. To illustrate our approach, we describe some of the tests that were performed and report the results. After analyzing the detailed physiological data collected during testing, we provided the patient with an exercise prescription and specific guidelines that he could use to gauge his level of physical exertion during his outdoor adventures. Within approximately 6 months of testing, he successfully performed the goal activities without adverse symptoms. PMID:27034550

  20. Predictive mutagenesis of ligation-independent cloning (LIC) vectors for protein expression and site-specific chemical conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, Erik; Sauer, Jørgen; Andersen, Peter Andreas;

    2011-01-01

    Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) allows for cloning of DNA constructs independent of insert restriction sites and ligases. However, any required mutations are typically introduced by additional, time-consuming steps. We present a rapid, inexpensive method for mutagenesis in the 5' LIC site...

  1. Using high resolution cardiac CT data to model and visualize patient-specific interactions between trabeculae and blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, Scott; Gao, Mingchen; Zhang, Shaoting; Qian, Zhen; Voros, Szilard; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to simulate and visualize blood flow through the human heart, using the reconstructed 4D motion of the endocardial surface of the left ventricle as boundary conditions. The reconstruction captures the motion of the full 3D surfaces of the complex features, such as the papillary muscles and the ventricular trabeculae. We use visualizations of the flow field to view the interactions between the blood and the trabeculae in far more detail than has been achieved previously, which promises to give a better understanding of cardiac flow. Finally, we use our simulation results to compare the blood flow within one healthy heart and two diseased hearts. PMID:22003651

  2. ICAM-2 mediates neutrophil transmigration in vivo: evidence for stimulus specificity and a role in PECAM-1-independent transmigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Larbi, Karen Y; Scheiermann, Christoph; Woodfin, Abigail; Gerwin, Nicole; Haskard, Dorian O; Nourshargh, Sussan

    2006-06-15

    ICAM-2 has been implicated in leukocyte transmigration in vitro, but there is little in vivo evidence to support this. To address this, neutrophil migration was investigated in ICAM-2-deficient mice (KO) and in wild-type (WT) mice treated with an anti-ICAM-2 blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) (3C4). In a peritonitis model, IL-1beta-induced accumulation of neutrophils was significantly reduced in mice treated with 3C4 (51% inhibition) and in KO mice (41% inhibition). In contrast, TNF-alpha- or thioglycolate-induced responses were not suppressed in KO mice. Analysis of IL-1beta-induced leukocyte responses in cremasteric venules of KO animals by intravital microscopy indicated a defect in transmigration (44% inhibition) but not rolling or adhesion. As found before, TNF-alpha-induced leukocyte transmigration was unaltered in the KO mice. WT mice treated with the anti-ICAM-2 mAb also exhibited a selective reduction in leukocyte transmigration in response to IL-1beta while an anti-ICAM-1 mAb inhibited both leukocyte adhesion and transmigration. Interestingly, mAb 3C4 significantly suppressed IL-1beta-induced neutrophil transmigration in PE-CAM-1 KO animals in the peritonitis model but not in the cremaster muscle. The findings provide direct evidence for the involvement of ICAM-2 in neutrophil transmigration in vivo, though this role appears to be stimulus specific. Furthermore, ICAM-2 appears capable of mediating PECAM-1-independent leukocyte transmigration. PMID:16469869

  3. Cardiac Parasympathetic Reactivation in Elite Soccer Players During Different Types of Traditional High-Intensity Training Exercise Modes and Specific Tests: Interests and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is currently used in soccer with a daily or weekly monitoring. However, previous studies have not investigated how this cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is in elite soccer players along different types of traditional high-intensity training exercise and specific tests. In this context, the present study aim to analyse it and to determine the interests and limits of this type of physiological information. Objectives The present study aims to examine how different traditional training exercise modes affect the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function in elite soccer players. Materials and Methods Twenty-two international soccer players participating in UEFA Champion’s League took part in this study (age: 24.3 ± 4.2 years; height: 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 80.3 ± 5.7 kg. Players performed different training methods including: short-duration intermittent exercises (INT in-line and with changes of direction (COD (10 - 10 seconds, 15 - 15 seconds, 30 - 30 seconds, e.g. an alternance of 10 - 10 seconds is 10 seconds of running according to the maximal aerobic speed (MAS and 10-sec of recovery, INT including agility and technical skills (8 - 24-seconds, small-sided-games (SSGs with and without goalkeepers (2 vs. 2, 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and repeated sprint ability (RSA efforts (10 × 20 m, 10 × 30 m, 15 × 20 m. Heart rate (HR decline was recorded 3 minutes after each exercise. Results HR declines were greater after the RSA compared to SSGs (P < 0.001 and INT (P < 0.01, especially at 1 min post-exercise. In addition, when the analysis focused on each type of exercise, greater HR declines were observed in on-field players at 1 minute when there was: inclusion of goalkeepers in SSGs (for 2 vs. 2 and 3 vs. 3, P < 0.01; increase of sprint distances or number of sprint repetitions in RSA (P < 0.01; increase of intensity (% of maximal aerobic speed, and the use of COD or inclusion of technical

  4. Multisite Tissue Oxygenation Monitoring Indicates Organ-Specific Flow Distribution and Oxygen Delivery Related to Low Cardiac Output in Preterm Infants With Clinical Sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E; Roofthooft, Marc; Fries, Marian W A; Schat, Trijntje E; Bos, Arend F; Berger, Rolf M F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cardiac output may be compromised in preterm infants with sepsis. Whether low cardiac output is associated with low tissue oxygen supply in these patients is unclear. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between cardiac output, assessed by echocardiography, and tiss

  5. Endothelin A Receptor Antagonist, Atrasentan, Attenuates Renal and Cardiac Dysfunction in Dahl Salt-Hypertensive Rats in a Blood Pressure Independent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Samad, Mohammed A.; Kim, Ui Kyoung; Kang, Joshua J.; Ke, Qingen; Kang, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Proteinuria is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and a good predictor of clinical outcome. Selective endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist used with renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors prevents development of proteinuria in CKD. However, whether the improvement in proteinuria would have beneficial effects on CVD, independent of RAS inhibition, is not well understood. In this study, we investigated whether atrasentan, an ETA receptor antagonist...

  6. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Hutter, Adolph M; Weiner, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There are clear health benefits to exercise; even so, patients with cardiac conditions who engage in exercise and athletic competition may on rare occasion experience sudden cardiac death (SCD). This article reviews the epidemiology and common causes of SCD in specific athlete populations. There is ongoing debate about the optimal mechanism for SCD prevention, specifically regarding the inclusion of the ECG and/or cardiac imaging in routine preparticipation sports evaluation. This controversy and contemporary screening recommendations are also reviewed. PMID:27486488

  7. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy: the nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to an increased workload. After myocardial infarction (MI) the surviving muscle tissue has to work harder to maintain cardiac output. This sustained increase in workload leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Despite its apparent appropriateness, cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure and is therefore called pathological hypertrophy. That hypertrophy is not bad per se, is illustrated by the hyp...

  8. Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir and Time to Prostate-Specific Antigen Nadir Following Maximal Androgen Blockade Independently Predict Prognosis in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Seok Young; Cho, Dae Sung; Kim, Sun Il; Ahn, Hyun Soo; Kim, Se Joong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the influence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics following maximal androgen blockade (MAB) on disease progression and cancer-specific survival in patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Materials and Methods One hundred thirty-one patients with metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer treated with MAB at our institution were included in this study. Patients' characteristics, PSA at MAB initiation, PSA nadir, time to PSA nadir (TTN), and P...

  9. Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Predictor of Death or Poor Neurological Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C and 36°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stammet, Pascal; Collignon, Olivier; Hassager, Christian; Wise, Matthew P; Hovdenes, Jan; Åneman, Anders; Horn, Janneke; Devaux, Yvan; Erlinge, David; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Gasche, Yvan; Wanscher, Michael; Cronberg, Tobias; Friberg, Hans; Wetterslev, Jørn; Pellis, Tommaso; Kuiper, Michael; Gilson, Georges; Nielsen, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a widely-used biomarker for prognostication of neurological outcome after cardiac arrest, but the relevance of recommended cutoff values has been questioned due to the lack of a standardized methodology and uncertainties over the influence of temperatu...

  10. Sudden Cardiac Death and Post Cardiac Arrest Syndrome. An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zima Endre

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A satisfactory neurologic outcome is the key factor for survival in patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD, however this is highly dependent on the haemodynamic status. Short term cardiopulmonary resuscitation and regained consciousness on the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC is indicative of a better prognosis. The evaluation and treatment of SCD triggering factors and of underlying acute and chronic diseases will facilitate prevention and lower the risk of cardiac arrest. Long term CPR and a prolonged unconscious status after ROSC, in the Intensive Care Units or Coronary Care Units, indicates the need for specific treatment and supportive therapy including efforts to prevent hyperthermia. The prognosis of these patients is unpredictable within the first seventy two hours, due to unknown responses to therapeutic management and the lack of specific prognostic factors. Patients in these circumstances require the highest level of intensive care and aetiology driven treatment without any delay, independently of their coma state. Current guidelines sugest the use of multiple procedures in arriving at a diagnosis and prognosis of these critical cases.

  11. Chironomid-based water depth reconstructions: an independent evaluation of site-specific and local inference models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Engels; L.C. Cwynar; A.B.H. Rees; B.N. Shuman

    2012-01-01

    Water depth is an important environmental variable that explains a significant portion of the variation in the chironomid fauna of shallow lakes. We developed site-specific and local chironomid water-depth inference models using 26 and 104 surface-sediment samples, respectively, from seven kettlehol

  12. Design of Protein Multi-specificity Using an Independent Sequence Search Reduces the Barrier to Low Energy Sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Sevy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Computational protein design has found great success in engineering proteins for thermodynamic stability, binding specificity, or enzymatic activity in a 'single state' design (SSD paradigm. Multi-specificity design (MSD, on the other hand, involves considering the stability of multiple protein states simultaneously. We have developed a novel MSD algorithm, which we refer to as REstrained CONvergence in multi-specificity design (RECON. The algorithm allows each state to adopt its own sequence throughout the design process rather than enforcing a single sequence on all states. Convergence to a single sequence is encouraged through an incrementally increasing convergence restraint for corresponding positions. Compared to MSD algorithms that enforce (constrain an identical sequence on all states the energy landscape is simplified, which accelerates the search drastically. As a result, RECON can readily be used in simulations with a flexible protein backbone. We have benchmarked RECON on two design tasks. First, we designed antibodies derived from a common germline gene against their diverse targets to assess recovery of the germline, polyspecific sequence. Second, we design "promiscuous", polyspecific proteins against all binding partners and measure recovery of the native sequence. We show that RECON is able to efficiently recover native-like, biologically relevant sequences in this diverse set of protein complexes.

  13. Purification of phospholamban, a 22,000 dalton protein from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum that is specifically phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidlack, J.M.; Shamoo, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    Very low concentrations deoxycholate (DOC) were used to isolate two proteins from canine cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum. These two proteins are phospholamban, a 22,000 dalton protein, and the Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/-ATPase, the major protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, responsible for the active transport of calcium. The 22,000 dalton protein is first solubilized in a very low concentration of DOC and then subjected to column chromatography. After molecular weight sieving on a Sephadex G-75 column, the 22,000 dalton protein appears as a purified protein on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gels. The purified protein is specifically phosphorylated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Phospholipids are still bound to the isolated protein. The Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/-ATPase is purified by first solubilizing all the extrinsic proteins with a low concentration of DOC. An increasing amount of DOC is then added to yield the purified Ca/sup 2 +/ + Mg/sup 2 +/-ATPase. This protein is at least 95% pure. Adding additional DOC to the purified enzyme enhances the enzyme's ability to hydrolyze ATP. (ERB)

  14. Indium-111 myosin-specific antibodies and technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the detection of acute cardiac rejection of transplanted hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    111In-labelled myosin-specific antibodies were evaluated as an indicator of early changes in acute rejection in a rat heart heterotopic transplant model. Uptake of antibodies was measured in allograft and isograft hearts of animals undergoing different regimens of cyclosporine treatment and compared with the uptake of technetium 99m pyrophosphate. The data were correlated with histological estimation of the severity of myocyte necrosis and sign of early rejection (venous cuffing and endocardial inflammation, indicators of perivascular infiltrate and intermyocyte extension, respectively). Myocyte necrosis in transplanted hearts was reflected by increases in technetium 99m pyrophosphate accumulation (r=0.88) but was poorly correlated with labelled antibody uptake (r=0.58). There was no positive correlation between the degree of early cardiac rejection and uptake of either of the radiopharmaceuticals: accumulation of the labeled antibodies paradoxically declined with increased histological severity scores, whereas that of technetium 99m pyrophosphate remained unchanged. Cyclosporine treatment augmented the uptake of labelled antibodies in transplanted hearts. This may be due to alterations in plasma membrane permeability brought about by the drug, resulting in a rise in antibody binding to intracellular myosin. (orig.)

  15. Uterine epithelial cells specifically induce interferon-stimulated genes in response to polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid independently of estradiol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickey V Patel

    Full Text Available Interferon β (IFNβ is an antiviral cytokine secreted in response to pathogenic exposure that creates a restrictive intracellular environment through the action of downstream interferon-stimulated genes (ISG. The objective of this study was to examine the expression of IFNβ and ISG in both human uterine epithelial cells (UEC and the ECC-1 uterine epithelial cell line and determine if expression changes with TLR stimulation and hormone exposure. Stimulation of primary uterine epithelial cells and ECC-1 cells with the TLR3 agonist poly (I:C induced the mRNA expression of IFNβ, MxA, OAS2 and PKR. Other TLR agonists including imiquimod and CpG had no effect on either IFNβ or ISG expression. In contrast to ECC-1 cell responses which were slower, maximal IFNβ upregulation in UEC occurred 3 hours post-stimulation and preceded the ISG response which peaked approximately 12 hours after poly (I:C exposure. Unexpectedly, estradiol, either alone or prior to treatment with poly (I:C, had no effect on IFNβ or ISG expression. Blockade of the IFN receptor abrogated the upregulation of MxA, OAS2 and PKR. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies against IFNβ partially inhibited the upregulation of all three ISG. Estradiol, directly and in the presence of poly (I:C had no effect on IFNβ and ISG expression. These results indicate that uterine epithelial cells are important sentinels of the innate immune system and demonstrate that uterine epithelial cells are capable of mounting a rapid IFN-mediated antiviral response that is independent of estradiol and is therefore potentially sustained throughout the menstrual cycle to aid in the defense of the uterus against potential pathogens.

  16. Aetiologies of pulseless electrical activity in out-of-hospital cardiac arrests:A retrospective study and analysis of specific causes

    OpenAIRE

    Beun, L

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pulseless electrical activity (PEA) cardiac arrest is defined as a cardiac arrest (CA) presenting with a residual organized electrical activity on the electrocardiogram. In the last decades, the incidence of PEA has regularly increased, compared to other types of CA like ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. PEA is frequently induced by reversible conditions. The "4 (or 5) H" & "4 (or 5) T" are proposed as a mnemonic to asses for Hypoxia, Hypovolemia, ...

  17. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In this article we review the different steps of heart development, focusing on the processes of alignment and septation. We also show, as often as possible, the links between abnormalities of cardiac development and the main congenital heart defects. The development of animal models has permitted the unraveling of many mechanisms that potentially lead to cardiac malformations. A next step towards a better knowledge of cardiac development could be multiscale cardiac modelling. PMID:24138816

  18. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  19. Microglia contribute to circuit defects in Mecp2 null mice independent of microglia-specific loss of Mecp2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Dorothy P; Heller, Christopher T; Gunner, Georgia; Heller, Molly; Gordon, Christopher; Hammond, Timothy; Wolf, Yochai; Jung, Steffen; Stevens, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Microglia, the resident CNS macrophages, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Rett Syndrome (RTT), an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder. However, the mechanism by which microglia contribute to the disorder is unclear and recent data suggest that microglia do not play a causative role. Here, we use the retinogeniculate system to determine if and how microglia contribute to pathogenesis in a RTT mouse model, the Mecp2 null mouse (Mecp2(tm1.1Bird/y)). We demonstrate that microglia contribute to pathogenesis by excessively engulfing, thereby eliminating, presynaptic inputs at end stages of disease (≥P56 Mecp2 null mice) concomitant with synapse loss. Furthermore, loss or gain of Mecp2 expression specifically in microglia (Cx3cr1(CreER);Mecp2(fl/y)or Cx3cr1(Cr)(eER); Mecp2(LSL/y)) had little effect on excessive engulfment, synapse loss, or phenotypic abnormalities. Taken together, our data suggest that microglia contribute to end stages of disease by dismantling neural circuits rendered vulnerable by loss of Mecp2 in other CNS cell types. PMID:27458802

  20. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack or other heart problem. You might consider cardiac rehab if you have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery Heart transplant Procedures such as angioplasty and stenting In some ...

  1. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A ...

  2. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Costello BT; Nadel J.; Taylor AJ

    2016-01-01

    Benedict T Costello,1,2 James Nadel,3 Andrew J Taylor,1,21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, 3School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but life-threatening condition, requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion and low threshold for investigation to make the diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations include heart failure, conducting syst...

  3. Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Danish RERTR Program, three fuel elements with LEU U3O8-Al fuel and three fuel elements with LEU U3Si2-Al fuel were manufactured by NUKEM for irradiation testing in the DR-3 reactor at the Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark. The specifications for the elements with U3O8-Al fuel are presented here as an illustration only. Specifications for the elements with U3Si2-Al fuel were very similar. In this example, materials, material numbers, documents numbers, and drawing numbers specific to a single fabricator have been deleted. (author)

  4. Exercise-induced arterial hypertension - an independent factor for hypertrophy and a ticking clock for cardiac fatigue or atrial fibrillation in athletes? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3b4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Leischik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced arterial hypertension (EIAH leads to myocardial hypertrophy and is associated with a poor prognosis. EIAH might be related to the “cardiac fatigue” caused by endurance training. The goal of this study was to examine whether there is any relationship between EIAH and left ventricular hypertrophy in Ironman-triathletes. Methods: We used echocardiography and spiroergometry to determine the left ventricular mass (LVM, the aerobic/anaerobic thresholds and the steady-state blood pressure of 51 healthy male triathletes. The main inclusion criterion was the participation in at least one middle or long distance triathlon. Results: When comparing triathletes with LVM 220g there was a significant difference between blood pressure values (BP at the anaerobic threshold (185.2± 21.5 mmHg vs. 198.8 ±22.3 mmHg, p=0.037. The spiroergometric results were: maximum oxygen uptake (relative VO2max 57.3 ±7.5ml/min/kg vs. 59.8±9.5ml/min/kg (p=ns. Cut-point analysis for the relationship of BP >170 mmHg at the aerobic threshold and the probability of LVM >220g showed a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 33.3%, with a positive predictive value of 56.8 %, a good negative predictive value of 90%. The probability of LVM >220g increased with higher BP during exercise (OR: 1.027, 95% CI 1.002-1.052, p= 0.034 or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04 -1.47, p = 0.019. Echocardiography showed predominantly concentric remodelling, followed by concentric hypertrophy. Conclusion: Significant left ventricular hypertrophy with LVM >220g is associated with higher arterial blood pressure at the aerobic or anaerobic threshold. The endurance athletes with EIAH may require a therapeutic intervention to at least prevent extensive stiffening of the heart muscle and exercise-induced cardiac fatigue.

  5. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of SCN5A Gene Leads to Shorter P Wave Duration and PR Interval in Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Teng; Yong, Sandro L.; Tian, Xiao-Li; Wang, Qing K.

    2007-01-01

    SCN5A plays a critical role in cardiac electrophysiology and its mutations, either gain- or loss-of-functions, are associated with lethal arrhythmias. In this study we investigated the effect of overexpression of SCN5A on the cardiac phenotype in a transgenic mouse model (TG-WT L10). Compared to NTG mice, heart rate, QRS duration and QT intervals remained unchanged in TG-WT mice. Moreover, no spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias were detected in TG-WT hearts. Despite these results, a mild, irr...

  6. Methods in pharmacology: measurement of cardiac output

    OpenAIRE

    Geerts, Bart F; Aarts, Leon P; Jansen, Jos R.

    2011-01-01

    Many methods of cardiac output measurement have been developed, but the number of methods useful for human pharmacological studies is limited. The ‘holy grail’ for the measurement of cardiac output would be a method that is accurate, precise, operator independent, fast responding, non-invasive, continuous, easy to use, cheap and safe. This method does not exist today. In this review on cardiac output methods used in pharmacology, the Fick principle, indicator dilution techniques, arterial pul...

  7. Cardiac effects of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Dicken, Bryan; Bigam, David; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits. PMID:24621650

  8. Independent Peer Reviews

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-03-16

    Independent Assessments: DOE's Systems Integrator convenes independent technical reviews to gauge progress toward meeting specific technical targets and to provide technical information necessary for key decisions.

  9. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  10. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, J.P.; Zondervan, P.E.; van Hagen, P.; ten Cate, F.J.; Bresser, P.; Doubell, A.F.; Pattynama, P.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Symptomatic cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 5% of patients. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the Netherlands is unknown, but estimated to be approximately 20 per 100,000 population (3200 patients). We report on five patients who presented with different manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis, and give a brief review on the current management of this condition. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be of great help in diagnosing this condition as well as in the follow-up of the response to therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696121

  11. Cardiac Pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete survey of physiological biophysical,clinical and engineering aspects of cardiac facing,including the history and an assessment of possible future developments.Among the topics studied are: pacemakers, energy search, heart stimulating with pacemakers ,mathematical aspects of the electric cardio stimulation chronic, pacemaker implants,proceeding,treatment and control

  12. Temperature and species-specific effects on ß3-adrenergic receptor cardiac regulation in two freshwater teleosts: Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L H; Burleson, M L; Huggett, D B

    2015-07-01

    β₃-adrenergic receptors (AR) are important in teleost cardiovascular regulation. To date, it is unknown whether temperature acclimation changes ß₃-AR functionality and consequently the involvement of this AR subtype in teleost cardiac regulation. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were acclimated at 12 °C or 23 °C (minimum 3 weeks) after which cardiovascular variables (cardiac output (Q), stroke volume (Sv) and heart rate (fH)) were measured upon injection of the ß₃-AR agonist, BRL(37344), and antagonist, SR(59230A). In both 12 °C and 23 °C acclimated carp, BRL(37344) induced significant increases in fH and Q whereas Sv was significantly decreased. While temperature did not affect the change (increase vs. decrease) in cardiac variables, the magnitude and on-set of responses differed. For instance, fH, Sv and Q responded significantly faster to ß₃-AR stimulation in 23 °C carp. In contrast, maximum responses of fH and Q were significantly higher in 23 °C carp whereas the maximum response of Sv was significantly greater in 12 °C carp. These findings suggest that temperature acclimation induced changes in β₃-AR receptor functionality (e.g. density and/or affinity). Stimulation of β₃-ARs in 23 °C acclimated channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) caused significant increases in fH, Sv and Q. The increase in Sv was opposite to the decrease observed in 23 °C acclimated common carp. SR(59230A) induced significant decreases in Sv and Q but had no effect in carp (23 °C). Results suggest species diversity in the density and affinity or structure of ß₃-ARs which may explain the different cardiac responses to ß₃-AR ligands. PMID:25882086

  13. Type III Transforming Growth Factor-β Receptor Drives Cardiac Hypertrophy Through β-Arrestin2-Dependent Activation of Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Song, Shu-Ying; Li, Yan-Chao; Sun, Fei; Ding, Xiao-Qing; Yu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Mei-Tong; Dong, Chang-Jiang; Ji, Yong; Li, Hongliang; Chu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Zhi-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The role of type III transforming growth factor-β receptor (TβRIII) in the pathogenesis of heart diseases remains largely unclear. Here, we investigated the functional role and molecular mechanisms of TβRIII in the development of myocardial hypertrophy. Western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed that the expression of TβRIII was significantly elevated in human cardiac hypertrophic samples. Consistently, TβRIII expression was substantially increased in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)- and isoproterenol-induced mouse cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Overexpression of TβRIII resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas isoproterenol-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was greatly attenuated by knockdown of TβRIII in vitro. Cardiac-specific transgenic expression of TβRIII independently led to cardiac hypertrophy in mice, which was further aggravated by isoproterenol and TAC treatment. Cardiac contractile function of the mice was not altered in TβRIII transgenic mice; however, TAC led to significantly decreased cardiac contractile function in TβRIII transgenic mice compared with control mice. Conversely, isoproterenol- and TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and TAC-induced cardiac contractile function impairment were partially reversed by suppression of TβRIII in vivo. Our data suggest that TβRIII mediates stress-induced cardiac hypertrophy through activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, which requires a physical interaction of β-arrestin2 with both TβRIII and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our findings indicate that stress-induced increase in TβRIII expression results in cardiac hypertrophy through β-arrestin2-dependent activation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and that transforming growth factor-β and β-adrenergic receptor signaling are not involved in spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy in cardiac-specific

  14. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-01-01

    International audience Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In th...

  15. Antibody-Dependent NK Cell Activation Is Associated with Late Kidney Allograft Dysfunction and the Complement-Independent Alloreactive Potential of Donor-Specific Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legris, Tristan; Picard, Christophe; Todorova, Dilyana; Lyonnet, Luc; Laporte, Cathy; Dumoulin, Chloé; Nicolino-Brunet, Corinne; Daniel, Laurent; Loundou, Anderson; Morange, Sophie; Bataille, Stanislas; Vacher-Coponat, Henri; Moal, Valérie; Berland, Yvon; Dignat-George, Francoise; Burtey, Stéphane; Paul, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Although kidney transplantation remains the best treatment for end-stage renal failure, it is limited by chronic humoral aggression of the graft vasculature by donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). The complement-independent mechanisms that lead to the antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) of kidney allografts remain poorly understood. Increasing lines of evidence have revealed the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells as innate immune effectors of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), but few studies have investigated their alloreactive potential in the context of solid organ transplantation. Our study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of the antibody-dependent alloreactive function of NK cells to kidney graft dysfunction. We first conducted an observational study to investigate whether the cytotoxic function of NK cells is associated with chronic allograft dysfunction. The NK-Cellular Humoral Activation Test (NK-CHAT) was designed to evaluate the recipient and antibody-dependent reactivity of NK cells against allogeneic target cells. The release of CD107a/Lamp1(+) cytotoxic granules, resulting from the recognition of rituximab-coated B cells by NK cells, was analyzed in 148 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs, mean graft duration: 6.2 years). Enhanced ADCC responsiveness was associated with reduced graft function and identified as an independent risk factor predicting a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate over a 1-year period (hazard ratio: 2.83). In a second approach, we used the NK-CHAT to reveal the cytotoxic potential of circulating alloantibodies in vitro. The level of CD16 engagement resulting from the in vitro recognition of serum-coated allogeneic B cells or splenic cells was further identified as a specific marker of DSA-induced ADCC. The NK-CHAT scoring of sera obtained from 40 patients at the time of transplant biopsy was associated with ABMR diagnosis. Our findings indicate that despite the administration of

  16. A Positive GATA Element and a Negative Vitamin D Receptor-Like Element Control Atrial Chamber-Specific Expression of a Slow Myosin Heavy-Chain Gene during Cardiac Morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Gang Feng; Nikovits, William; Schleinitz, Mark; Stockdale, Frank E.

    1998-01-01

    We have used the slow myosin heavy chain (MyHC) 3 gene to study the molecular mechanisms that control atrial chamber-specific gene expression. Initially, slow MyHC 3 is uniformly expressed throughout the tubular heart of the quail embryo. As cardiac development proceeds, an anterior-posterior gradient of slow MyHC 3 expression develops, culminating in atrial chamber-restricted expression of this gene following chamberization. Two cis elements within the slow MyHC 3 gene promoter, a GATA-bindi...

  17. Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumský, Jaromír; Holá, Dana; Hlaváček, Karel; Michal, Michal; Švec, Alexander; Špatenka, Jaroslav; Dušek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm and is difficult to diagnose. The case of a 51-year-old man with a left atrial tumour, locally recurrent three months after its surgical removal, is presented. Computed tomography showed metastatic spread to the lung parenchyma. On revised histology, the mass extirpated was a sarcoma. Because of the metastatic spread, further therapy was symptomatic only; the patient died 15 months after the first manifestation of his problems. Immunohistochemical stain...

  18. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  19. Ca2+-Clock-Dependent Pacemaking in the Sinus Node Is Impaired in Mice with a Cardiac Specific Reduction in SERCA2 Abundance

    OpenAIRE

    Logantha, Sunil Jit R.J.; Stokke, Mathis K.; Atkinson, Andrew J.; Kharche, Sanjay R.; Parveen, Sajida; Saeed, Yawer; Sjaastad, Ivar; Sejersted, Ole M; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) pump is an important component of the Ca2+-clock pacemaker mechanism that provides robustness and flexibility to sinus node pacemaking. We have developed transgenic mice with reduced cardiac SERCA2 abundance (Serca2 KO) as a model for investigating SERCA2's role in sinus node pacemaking. Methods and Results: In Serca2 KO mice, ventricular SERCA2a protein content measured by Western blotting was 75% (P < 0.05) lower than that in contr...

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zinc Metalloprotease-1 Elicits Tuberculosis-specific Humoral Immune Response Independent of Mycobacterial Load in Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Harika eVemula

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventionally, facultative intracellular pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the tuberculosis (TB causing bacilli in human is cleared by cell-mediated immunity (CMI with CD4+ T cells playing instrumental role in protective immunity, while antibody-mediated immunity (AMI is considered non-protective. This longstanding convention has been challenged with recent evidences of increased susceptibility of hosts with compromised AMI and monoclonal antibodies conferring passive protection against TB and other intracellular pathogens. Therefore, novel approaches towards vaccine development include strategies aiming at induction of humoral response along with CMI. This necessitates the identification of mycobacterial proteins with properties of immunomodulation and strong immunogenicity. In this study, we determined the immunogenic potential of M.tb Zinc metalloprotease-1 (Zmp1, a secretory protein essential for intracellular survival and pathogenesis of M.tb. We observed that Zmp1 was secreted by in vitro grown M.tb under granuloma-like stress conditions (acidic, oxidative, iron deficiency and nutrient deprivation and generated Th2 cytokine microenvironment upon exogenous treatment of Peripheral Blood Mononulear Cells (PBMCs with recombinant Zmp1 (rZmp1. This was supported by recording specific and robust humoral response in TB patients in a cohort of 295. The anti-Zmp1 titers were significantly higher in TB patients (n=121 as against healthy control (n=62, household contacts (n=89 and non-specific infection controls (n=23. A significant observation of the study is the presence of equally high titers of anti-Zmp1 antibodies in a range of patients with high bacilli load (sputum bacilli load of 300+ per mL to paucibacillary smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases. This clearly indicated the potential of Zmp1 to evoke an effective humoral response independent of mycobacterial load. Such mycobacterial proteins can be explored as antigen

  1. Auxin-Independent NAC Pathway Acts in Response to Explant-Specific Wounding and Promotes Root Tip Emergence during de Novo Root Organogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Cheng, Jingfei; Chen, Lyuqin; Zhang, Guifang; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Yijing; Xu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Plants have powerful regenerative abilities that allow them to recover from damage and survive in nature. De novo organogenesis is one type of plant regeneration in which adventitious roots and shoots are produced from wounded and detached organs. By studying de novo root organogenesis using leaf explants of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we previously suggested that wounding is the first event that provides signals to trigger the whole regenerative process. However, our knowledge of the role of wounding in regeneration remains limited. In this study, we show that wounding not only triggers the auxin-mediated fate transition of regeneration-competent cells, but also induces the NAC pathway for root tip emergence. The NAC1 transcription factor gene was specifically expressed in response to wounding in the leaf explant, but not in the wounded leaf residue of the source plant. Inhibition of the NAC1 pathway severely affected the emergence of adventitious root tips. However, the NAC1 pathway functioned independently of auxin-mediated cell fate transition and regulates expression of CEP genes, which encode proteins that might have a role in degradation of extensin proteins in the cell wall. Overall, our results suggest that wounding has multiple roles in de novo root organogenesis and that NAC1 acts as one downstream branch in regulating the cellular environment for organ emergence. PMID:26850273

  2. CXCR4 Antagonism Attenuates the Development of Diabetic Cardiac Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yin Chu

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is an increasingly recognized complication of diabetes. Cardiac fibrosis is an important causative mechanism of HF associated with diabetes. Recent data indicate that inflammation may be particularly important in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis. We sought to determine the mechanism by which cardiac fibrosis develops and to specifically investigate the role of the CXCR4 axis in this process. Animals with type I diabetes (streptozotocin treated mice or type II diabetes (Israeli Sand-rats and controls were randomized to treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist, candesartan or vehicle control. Additional groups of mice also underwent bone marrow transplantation (GFP+ donor marrow to investigate the potential role of bone marrow derived cell mobilization in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. Both type I and II models of diabetes were accompanied by the development of significant cardiac fibrosis. CXCR4 antagonism markedly reduced cardiac fibrosis in both models of diabetes, similar in magnitude to that seen with candesartan. In contrast to candesartan, the anti-fibrotic actions of CXCR4 antagonism occurred in a blood pressure independent manner. Whilst the induction of diabetes did not increase the overall myocardial burden of GFP+ cells, it was accompanied by an increase in GFP+ cells expressing the fibroblast marker alpha-smooth muscle actin and this was attenuated by CXCR4 antagonism. CXCR4 antagonism was also accompanied by increased levels of circulating regulatory T cells. Taken together the current data indicate that pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 significantly reduces diabetes induced cardiac fibrosis, providing a potentially important therapeutic approach.

  3. Cardiac surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Linda S; Barnett, Scott D; Beachy, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Accrediting organizations and payers are demanding valid and reliable data that demonstrate the value of services. Federal agencies, healthcare industry groups, and healthcare watchdog groups are increasing the demand for public access to outcomes data. A new and growing outcomes dynamic is the information requested by prospective patients in an increasingly consumer-oriented business. Patients demand outcomes, and resources are developing to meet these demands. Physicians are increasingly confronted with requests for information about their mortality and morbidity rates, malpractice suits, and disciplinary actions received. For example, in Virginia, prospective patients have access to data provided by the nonprofit group Virginia Health Information. After numerous resolutions by the Virginia Senate since 1999, the prospective Virginia medical consumer now has access to several annual publications: Virginia Hospitals: A Consumer's Guide, 1999 Annual Report and Strategic Plan Update, and the 1999 Industry Report: Virginia Hospitals and Nursing Facilities. Consumers have access to cardiac outcomes data stratified by hospital, gender, and cardiac service line (cardiac surgery, noninvasive cardiology, and invasive cardiology). This is particularly relevant to IHI because Virginia Health Information specifically targets cardiac care. IHI has a sizable investment in cardiovascular outcomes and has found outcomes measurement and research are key to providing quality care. IHI's goal is to move from an outcomes management model to a disease management model. The hope is to incorporate all aspects of the patient's continuum of care, from preoperative and diagnostic services through cardiac interventions to postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, every step along the way will be supported with functional status and quality of life assessments. Although these goals are ambitious and expensive, the return on investment is high. PMID:14618772

  4. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  5. Quantitative image quality evaluation for cardiac CT reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Wu; Fan, Jiahua; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Balhorn, William; Okerlund, Darin R.

    2016-03-01

    Maintaining image quality in the presence of motion is always desirable and challenging in clinical Cardiac CT imaging. Different image-reconstruction algorithms are available on current commercial CT systems that attempt to achieve this goal. It is widely accepted that image-quality assessment should be task-based and involve specific tasks, observers, and associated figures of merits. In this work, we developed an observer model that performed the task of estimating the percentage of plaque in a vessel from CT images. We compared task performance of Cardiac CT image data reconstructed using a conventional FBP reconstruction algorithm and the SnapShot Freeze (SSF) algorithm, each at default and optimal reconstruction cardiac phases. The purpose of this work is to design an approach for quantitative image-quality evaluation of temporal resolution for Cardiac CT systems. To simulate heart motion, a moving coronary type phantom synchronized with an ECG signal was used. Three different percentage plaques embedded in a 3 mm vessel phantom were imaged multiple times under motion free, 60 bpm, and 80 bpm heart rates. Static (motion free) images of this phantom were taken as reference images for image template generation. Independent ROIs from the 60 bpm and 80 bpm images were generated by vessel tracking. The observer performed estimation tasks using these ROIs. Ensemble mean square error (EMSE) was used as the figure of merit. Results suggest that the quality of SSF images is superior to the quality of FBP images in higher heart-rate scans.

  6. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  7. The muscle-specific gene C10orf71 is associated with pathological cardiac hypertrophy%肌肉特异基因C10orf71参与病理性心肌肥厚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓建; 甄一松; 王长鑫; 王继征; 苏明; 俞莉萍; 刘继斌; 惠汝太

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The transcripion factor MEF2 play an improtant role in pathological cardiac hypertrophy via regulating the expression of downstream muscle-specific target genes. Up to date, however, these target genes of MEF2 remain largely unkown. Methods and Results To explore muscle-specific genes which was regulated by MEF2, we scaned the alignments from 3 vertebrate genomes (human, mouse and chicken) using self-developed program CardioSignalScan. To filter out non-muscle specific genes, we integrated the annotation of genes with the Unigene containing expressed sequence tags (EST) from heart or muscle. Among 111 genes, C3orf43 and C10orf7I were identified as novle muslce-specific genes which may be regulated by MEF. Furthermore, the expression of C10orf71 was upregulated by 1.6 fold (P=0.012) in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Conclusion C10orf71 was a novle muscle-specific gene which was involved in cardiac hypetrophy.%目的 转录因子MEF2通过调控肌肉特异表达基因在病理性心肌肥厚的发生发展中发挥重要的作用,但是直到目前,MEF2下游靶基因所知甚少.方法和结果 我们使用自主研发的cardiosignalscan对人、小鼠和原鸡的全基因组核心启动子序列进行筛选,发现了111条启动子区含有MEF2保守结合位点的基因.整合EST表达序列数据库后,我们发现C3orf43和C10orf71是两条受MEF2调控同时在肌肉特异表达的新基因.进一步的功能研究表明,C10orf71在病理性心脏肥厚中显著升高1.6倍(P=0.012),提示C10orf71可能参与了病理性心肌肥厚病程.结论 C10orf71是一个新的受MEF2调控的在肌肉特异表达的新基因,并可能参与了病理性心肌肥厚病程.

  8. Ki-67 Is an Independent Predictor of Metastasis and Cause-Specific Mortality for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoven, Bret [University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Yan, Yan [RTOG Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ritter, Mark, E-mail: ritter@humonc.wisc.edu [University of Wisconsin Carbone Cancer Center, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Khor, Li-Yan [Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hammond, Elizabeth [LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Jones, Christopher [Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, California (United States); Amin, Mahul [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Bahary, Jean-Paul [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Notre Dame, Montreal, Ontario (Canada); Zeitzer, Kenneth [Albert Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pollack, Alan [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: The association of Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) with overall survival (OS), disease-specific mortality (DSM), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF) was examined in men with favorable- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone or with short-term androgen deprivation (ADT) in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08. Methods and Materials: 468 patients (23.6%) on RTOG 94-08 had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. Ki67-SI was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified manually and by image analysis. Correlative analysis versus clinical outcome was performed using the third quartile (≥Q3) cutpoint. A proportional hazards multivariable analysis (MVA) dichotomized covariates in accordance with trial stratification and randomization criteria. Results: In MVAs adjusted for all treatment covariates, high Ki67-SI (≥Q3) was correlated with increased DSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.48, P=.03), DM (HR 3.5, P=.002), and BF (HR 3.55, P<.0001). MVA revealed similar Ki67-associated hazard ratios in each separate treatment arm for DSM, DM, and BF; these reached significance only for DM in the RT-alone arm and for BF in both arms. Ki67-SI was not a significant predictor of intraprostatic recurrence assessed by repeated biopsy 2 years after treatment. Patients with a high or low Ki67-SI seemed to experience a similar relative benefit from the addition of ADT to radiation. Conclusions: High Ki67-SI independently predicts for increased DSM, DM, and protocol BF in primarily intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with RT with or without ADT on RTOG 94-08 but does not predict for local recurrence or for increased relative benefit from ADT. This and prior studies lend support for the use of Ki67-SI as a stratification factor in future trials.

  9. Ki-67 Is an Independent Predictor of Metastasis and Cause-Specific Mortality for Prostate Cancer Patients Treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The association of Ki-67 staining index (Ki67-SI) with overall survival (OS), disease-specific mortality (DSM), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF) was examined in men with favorable- to intermediate-risk prostate cancer receiving radiation therapy (RT) alone or with short-term androgen deprivation (ADT) in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08. Methods and Materials: 468 patients (23.6%) on RTOG 94-08 had sufficient tissue for Ki67-SI analysis. The median follow-up time was 7.9 years. Ki67-SI was determined by immunohistochemistry and quantified manually and by image analysis. Correlative analysis versus clinical outcome was performed using the third quartile (≥Q3) cutpoint. A proportional hazards multivariable analysis (MVA) dichotomized covariates in accordance with trial stratification and randomization criteria. Results: In MVAs adjusted for all treatment covariates, high Ki67-SI (≥Q3) was correlated with increased DSM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.48, P=.03), DM (HR 3.5, P=.002), and BF (HR 3.55, P<.0001). MVA revealed similar Ki67-associated hazard ratios in each separate treatment arm for DSM, DM, and BF; these reached significance only for DM in the RT-alone arm and for BF in both arms. Ki67-SI was not a significant predictor of intraprostatic recurrence assessed by repeated biopsy 2 years after treatment. Patients with a high or low Ki67-SI seemed to experience a similar relative benefit from the addition of ADT to radiation. Conclusions: High Ki67-SI independently predicts for increased DSM, DM, and protocol BF in primarily intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with RT with or without ADT on RTOG 94-08 but does not predict for local recurrence or for increased relative benefit from ADT. This and prior studies lend support for the use of Ki67-SI as a stratification factor in future trials

  10. Specification of requirements to get a license for an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI) at the site of the NPP-LV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes some of the work done in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) to define specifically the requirements that the Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) shall meet to submit for consideration of CNSNS an operation request of an Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installation (ISFSI). The project of a facility of this type arose from the need to provide storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) and to continue the operation at the same facility in a safe manner. The licensing of these facilities in the United States of America has two modes: specific license or general license. The characteristics of these licenses are described in this article. However, in Mexico the existing national legislation is not designed for such license types, in fact there is a lack of standards or regulations in this regard. The regulatory law of Article 27 of the Constitution in the nuclear matter, only generally establishes that this type of facility requires an authorization from the Ministry of Energy. For this reason and because there is not a national legislation, was necessary to use the legislation that provides the Nuclear Regulatory Commission of USA, the US NRC. However, it cannot be applied as is established, so was necessary that the CNSNS analyze one by one the requirements of both types of license and determine what would be required to NPP-LV to submit its operating license of ISFSI. The American regulatory applicable to an ISFSI, the 10-Cfr-72 of the US NRC, establishes the requirements for both types of licenses. Chapter 10-Cfr was analyzed in all its clauses and coupled to the laws, regulations and standards as well as to the requirements established by CNSNS, all associated with a store spent fuel on site; the respective certification of containers for spent fuel dry storage was not included in this article, even though the CNSNS also performed that activity under the

  11. Voltage-independent inhibition of Cav2.2 channels is delimited to a specific region of the membrane potential in rat SCG neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oscar Vivas; Isabel Arenas; David E.García

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate Cav2.2 channels through a voltage-independent pathway which is not well understood.It has been suggested that this voltageindependent inhibition is constant at all membrane voltages.However,changes in the percent of voltageindependent inhibition of Cav2.2 have not been tested within a physiological voltage range.Here,we used a double-pulse protocol to isolate the voltage-independent inhibition of Cav2.2 channels induced by noradrenaline in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons.To assess changes in the percent of the voltage-independent inhibition,the activation voltage of the channels was tested between -40 and +40 mV.We found that the percent of voltage-independent inhibition induced by noradrenaline changed with the activation voltage used.In addition,voltage-independent inhibition induced by oxo-M,a muscarinic agonist,exhibited thesame dependence on activation voltage,which supports that this pattern is not exclusive for adrenergic activation.Our results suggested that voltage-independent inhibition of Cav2.2 channels depends on the activation voltage of the channel in a physiological voltage range.This may have relevant implications in the understanding of the mechanism involved in voltage-independent inhibition.

  12. Is Training Essential for Interpreting Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has gained increasing acceptance for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Several guidelines have been published on required education for proficiency in the interpretation of these examinations. Purpose: To describe the learning-curve effect of the interpretation of 100 consecutive cardiac CT examinations aimed at diagnosing CAD. The diagnostic accuracy of radiologists and radiographers was also compared. Material and Methods: Two radiologists and two radiographers, all with no prior experience in evaluation of cardiac CT, independently underwent a dedicated training program of 100 examinations randomized into 10 blocks (sessions), with 10 cases in each. They independently evaluated the coronary arteries regarding significant obstructive CAD. After every session, individual feedback on diagnostic accuracy and comparison with the corresponding invasive coronary angiography (currently regarded as the gold standard to detect coronary lesions) was given. The time required for interpretation was recorded. Results: The mean review time decreased (P<0.0001) successively during the 10 sessions for all the observers together. The first session had a mean review time of 32 min, and the last session 16 min. No significant improvement in sensitivity, specificity, or negative predictive value (NPV) was observed. For positive predictive value (PPV), there was an improvement for the radiologists (P<0.05), but not for the radiographers. The radiographers had a higher total specificity compared to the radiologists (P<0.01). Conclusion: The review time for novices in cardiac CT was approximately halved during the first 100 cases, with maintained accuracy. There was a learning-curve effect in PPV for the radiologists. The diagnostic accuracy of dedicated radiographers indicates that they might be considered to be included as part of the evaluation team

  13. Design and assessment of cardiac SPECT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chih-Jie

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a modality widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. Objectively assessing and comparing different SPECT systems is important so that the best detectability of cardiac defects can be achieved. Whitaker, Clarkson, and Barrett's study on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses overall hardware performance independent by any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, we will show that the run time of image-quality studies is significantly reduced. Several systems derived from the GE CZT-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, were assessed using the performance of the SLO for the task of detecting cardiac defects and estimating the properties of the defects. Clinically, hearts can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCX), and right coronary artery (RCA). One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can correctly predict in which territory the defect exists. A good estimation of the defect extent from the images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this dissertation, both locations and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and system performance was assessed using localization receiver operating characteristic (LROC) / estimation receiver operating characteristic (EROC) curves. Area under LROC curve (AULC) / area under EROC curve (AUEC) and true positive fraction (TPF) at specific false positive fraction (FPF) can be treated as the gures of merit (FOMs). As the results will show, a

  14. FGF21 and cardiac physiopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ePlanavila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart is not traditionally considered either a target or a site of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21 production. However, recent findings indicate that FGF21 can act as a cardiomyokine; that is, it is produced by cardiac cells at significant levels and acts in an autocrine manner on the heart itself. The heart is sensitive to the effects of FGF21, both systemic and locally generated, owing to the expression in cardiomyocytes of β-Klotho, the key co-receptor known to confer specific responsiveness to FGF21 action. FGF21 has been demonstrated to protect against cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac inflammation, and oxidative stress. FGF21 expression in the heart is induced in response to cardiac insults, such as experimental cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial infarction in rodents, as well as in failing human hearts. Intracellular mechanisms involving PPARα and Sirt1 mediate transcriptional regulation of the FGF21 gene in response to exogenous stimuli. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels are elevated in coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, and are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. These findings provide new insights into the role of FGF21 in the heart and may offer potential therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.

  15. Conditional shape models for cardiac motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, C.T.; Baka, N.; Kirisli, H.A.;

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conditional statistical shape model to predict patient specific cardiac motion from the 3D end-diastolic CTA scan. The model is built from 4D CTA sequences by combining atlas based segmentation and 4D registration. Cardiac motion estimation is, for example, relevant in the dynamic al...

  16. Twelve-Month Prostate-Specific Antigen Values and Perineural Invasion as Strong Independent Prognostic Variables of Long-Term Biochemical Outcome After Prostate Seed Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether post-treatment prostate-specific antigen (ptPSA) values at 12 months and other clinical parameters predict long-term PSA relapse-free survival (PRFS) following prostate seed brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Records of 204 hormone-naïve patients with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated at St. Mary’s Regional Medical Center in Reno, NV, and at Carson Tahoe Regional Medical Center in Carson City, NV, between 1998 and 2003, using I-125 or Pd-103 seed brachytherapy, were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment planning was done using a preplanned, modified peripheral loading technique. A total of 185 of 204 patients had PSA records at 12 months after implant. Variables included were age, initial pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, T stage, National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk group (RG), perineural invasion (PNI), external beam boost, dose, and ptPSA levels at 12 months with cutpoints at ≤1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml. Results: Median follow-up was 80 months, and median age was 69 years. The numbers of patients stratified by NCCN low, intermediate, and high RG were 110:65:10, respectively. Monotherapy and boost prescription doses were 145 Gy and 110 Gy for I-125, and 125 Gy and 100 Gy for Pd-103 seeds, respectively. The median dose (D90) was 95.4% of the prescribed dose. The 5-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of ≤1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml were 98.5%, 85.7%, 61.5%, and 22.2%, respectively. The 10-year PRFS at the 12-months ptPSA levels of ≤1 and 1.01 to 2.00 ng/ml were 90.5% and 85.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, both ptPSA and PNI were significant independent predictors of PRFS. Hazard ratios (HR) for ptPSA levels at ≤1, 1.01 to 2.00, 2.01 to 3.00, and >3.00 ng/ml at 12 months were 1, 4.96, 27.57, and 65.10, respectively. PNI had an HR of 6.1 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Presence of PNI and ptPSA values at 12 months are strong prognostic variables for

  17. Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betulinic acid (BA) inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors and the effects of BA have been attributed to its mitochondriotoxicity and inhibition of multiple pro-oncogenic factors. Previous studies show that BA induces proteasome-dependent degradation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in prostate cancer cells and this study focused on the mechanism of action of BA in colon cancer cells. The effects of BA on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo were determined using standardized assays. The effects of BA on Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analyzed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and ZBTB10 mRNA expression. BA inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in RKO and SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenograft. BA also decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors which are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and decreased levels of several Sp-regulated genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p65 sub-unit of NFκB, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene-1. The mechanism of action of BA was dependent on cell context, since BA induced proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in SW480 and RKO cells, respectively. In RKO cells, the mechanism of BA-induced repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-mediated repression of microRNA-27a, and induction of the Sp repressor gene ZBTB10. These results suggest that the anticancer activity of BA in colon cancer cells is due, in part, to downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors; however, the mechanism of this response is cell context-dependent

  18. Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathi Satya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betulinic acid (BA inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors and the effects of BA have been attributed to its mitochondriotoxicity and inhibition of multiple pro-oncogenic factors. Previous studies show that BA induces proteasome-dependent degradation of specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in prostate cancer cells and this study focused on the mechanism of action of BA in colon cancer cells. Methods The effects of BA on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo were determined using standardized assays. The effects of BA on Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analyzed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a and ZBTB10 mRNA expression. Results BA inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in RKO and SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenograft. BA also decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors which are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and decreased levels of several Sp-regulated genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p65 sub-unit of NFκB, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene-1. The mechanism of action of BA was dependent on cell context, since BA induced proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in SW480 and RKO cells, respectively. In RKO cells, the mechanism of BA-induced repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, ROS-mediated repression of microRNA-27a, and induction of the Sp repressor gene ZBTB10. Conclusions These results suggest that the anticancer activity of BA in colon cancer cells is due, in part, to downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors; however, the mechanism of this response is cell context-dependent.

  19. Ca2+-Clock-Dependent Pacemaking in the Sinus Node Is Impaired in Mice with a Cardiac Specific Reduction in SERCA2 Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logantha, Sunil Jit R. J.; Stokke, Mathis K.; Atkinson, Andrew J.; Kharche, Sanjay R.; Parveen, Sajida; Saeed, Yawer; Sjaastad, Ivar; Sejersted, Ole M.; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) pump is an important component of the Ca2+-clock pacemaker mechanism that provides robustness and flexibility to sinus node pacemaking. We have developed transgenic mice with reduced cardiac SERCA2 abundance (Serca2 KO) as a model for investigating SERCA2's role in sinus node pacemaking. Methods and Results: In Serca2 KO mice, ventricular SERCA2a protein content measured by Western blotting was 75% (P clock with 2 μM ryanodine induced bradycardia that was less pronounced in Serca2 KO preparations (9 ± 1% vs. 20 ± 3% in Serca2 FF; P clock. Mathematical modeling was used to dissect the effects of membrane- and Ca2+-clock components on Serca2 KO mouse heart rate and sinus node action potential. Computer modeling predicted a slowing of heart rate with SERCA2 downregulation and the heart rate slowing was pronounced at >70% reduction in SERCA2 activity. Conclusions: Serca2 KO mice show a disrupted Ca2+-clock-dependent pacemaker mechanism contributing to impaired sinus node and atrioventricular node function.

  20. Bishop Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Harris Liam H.; Perkins Stephanie; Roach Paul A.; Jones Siˆan K.

    2013-01-01

    Bishop Independence concerns determining the maximum number of Bishops that can be placed on a board such that no Bishop can attack any other Bishop. This paper presents the solution to the Bishop Independence problem, determining the Bishop Independence number, for all sizes of boards on the following topologies: the cylinder, the M¨obius strip, the torus, the Klein bottle and the surface of a cube.

  1. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  2. Cardiac cell proliferation assessed by EdU, a novel analysis of cardiac regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Bin; Tong, Suiyang; Ren, Xiaofeng; Xia, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that mammalian hearts maintain the capacity for cardiac regeneration. Rapid and sensitive identification of cardiac cellular proliferation is prerequisite for understanding the underlying mechanisms and strategies of cardiac regeneration. The following immunologically related markers of cardiac cells were analyzed: cardiac transcription factors Nkx2.5 and Gata 4; specific marker of cardiomyocytes TnT; endothelial cell marker CD31; vascular smooth muscle marker smooth muscle myosin IgG; cardiac resident stem cells markers IsL1, Tbx18, and Wt1. Markers were co-localized in cardiac tissues of embryonic, neonatal, adult, and pathological samples by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. EdU was also used to label isolated neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro. EdU robustly labeled proliferating cells in vitro and in vivo, co-immunostaining with different cardiac cells markers. EdU can rapidly and sensitively label proliferating cardiac cells in developmental and pathological states. Cardiac cell proliferation assessed by EdU is a novel analytical tool for investigating the mechanism and strategies of cardiac regeneration in response to injury. PMID:25480318

  3. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy

  4. Detection of cardiac transplant rejection with radiolabeled lymphocytes. [Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, S.R.; Lerch, R.A.; Carlson, E.M.; Saffitz, J.E.; Sobel, B.E.

    1982-03-01

    To determine whether rejections of cardiac transplants could be detected specifically and non-invasively by lymphocytes labeled with indium-111 (111In), we studied 36 allogeneic and 14 isogeneic heterotopic cardiac transplants in rats. Allogeneic grafts accumulated autologous 111In-lymphocytes, detectable scintigraphically 24 hours after i.v. injection of the labeled cells. At the time of peak histologic rejection, the allogeneic grafts accumulated 92. +/- 4.8 times more activity than the native hearts (determined by well counting). The tissue-to-blood ratio in the rejecting transplants was 3.7 +/- 2.2; total uptake by the graft was 2.9 +/- 2.1% of the injected dose. Autoradiography confirmed that graft radioactivity was associated with labeled lymphocytes. In contrast, isogeneic grafts showed no signs of rejection and did not accumulate radioactivity. Because conventionally isolated and labeled lymphocytes are often contaminated with platelets, we prepared both 111In-platelets and purified 111In-lymphocytes for use in additional experiments. Allogeneic grafts accumulated platelets and purified lymphocytes independently. Thus, deposition of immunologically active cells in the rejecting graft representing specific pathophysiologic events can be detected. The results suggest that rejection of cardiac transplants can be detected noninvasively, potentially facilitating objective early clinical detection of rejection and titration of antirejection therapy.

  5. SOCIAL ADAPTABILITY OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES FOR INDEPENDENT LIFE IN SOCIETY: ESSENCE, SPECIFICITY, LEVELS OF EXISTENCE, CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR THEIR EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Grebennikova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation No. 3307 In the article the authors explain the nature and content of social adaptability of graduates psycho-neurological boarding schools (young people with disabilities from 24 to 27 years old with mild mental retardation to independent life in society; note that this adaptability is characterized by the level of proficiency of graduate boarding norms of social behavior, professional orientation and socio-moral experience of self in different situations. Reveal the content of main components (motivational, cognitive, activity that determine the social adaptability of the graduate psycho-neurological boarding school; lead characteristics of the levels of formation of social adaptability of graduates of psycho-neurological boarding schools for independent living (minimal-basic level; socially stable level; social perspective level. Also, the authors consider the principles of implementation of socio-pedagogical support of adaptation of graduates of the boarding school to independent life in society (in particular, the principle of the humanistic nature of the relationship specialists of psycho-neurological boarding schools with young people with disabilities; the principle of individual approach; the principle of variability and complexity of forms, methods, means of support; the principle of the priority of the interests of professional and personal development of a young disabled person in the implementation of socio-pedagogical support of its adaptation to independent life in society, etc..

  6. MRI in cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcoidosis and amyloidosis are both multisystem disorders, which may involve the heart; however, isolated cardiac disease is rare. Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis is crucial because the patient prognosis is dependent on cardiac involvement and early treatment. Echocardiography is the first line imaging modality in the diagnostic work-up of both diseases, possibly giving hints towards the correct diagnosis. Besides myocardial biopsy and radionuclide studies cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is routinely performed in patients suspect of having infiltrative cardiomyopathy. The T1 mapping procedure is currently being evaluated as a new technique for detection and quantification of global myocardial enhancement, as seen in cardiac amyloidosis. Sensitivities and specificities for detection of cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis can be significantly improved by MRI, especially with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging. In cardiac sarcoidosis the use of LGE is outcome-related while in amyloidosis analysis of T1-mapping may be of prognostic value. If cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis or amyloidosis is suspected cardiac MRI including LGE should be performed for establishing the diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Nonbiopsy Diagnosis of Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillmore, Julian D.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Falk, Rodney H.; Merlini, Giampaolo; Damy, Thibaud; Dispenzieri, Angela; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D.; Berk, John L.; Quarta, Candida C.; Grogan, Martha; Lachmann, Helen J.; Bokhari, Sabahat; Castano, Adam; Dorbala, Sharmila; Johnson, Geoff B.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Rezk, Tamer; Fontana, Marianna; Palladini, Giovanni; Milani, Paolo; Guidalotti, Pierluigi L.; Flatman, Katarina; Lane, Thirusha; Vonberg, Frederick W.; Whelan, Carol J.; Moon, James C.; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Miller, Edward J.; Hutt, David F.; Hazenberg, Bouke P.; Rapezzi, Claudio; Hawkins, Philip N.

    2016-01-01

    Background-Cardiac transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is a progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy for which several promising therapies are in development. The diagnosis is frequently delayed or missed because of the limited specificity of echocardiography and the traditional requirement for histologica

  8. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... board independence. It would redefine independence to include those directors that are independent of the firm's controller, but, at the same time, it would require them to be more accountable to (minority) shareholders....... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous...

  9. Strategic use of reminders: Influence of both domain-general and task-specific metacognitive confidence, independent of objective memory ability

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    How do we decide whether to use external artifacts and reminders to remember delayed intentions, versus relying on unaided memory? Experiment 1 (N=400) showed that participants' choice to forgo reminders in an experimental task was independently predicted by subjective confidence and objective ability, even when the two measures were themselves uncorrelated. Use of reminders improved performance, explaining significant variance in intention fulfilment even after controlling for unaided abilit...

  10. Hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy—is genetic variance the missing link?

    OpenAIRE

    Nunez, Derek J. R.; PIERS CLIFFORD, C.; Al-Mahdawi, Sahar; DUTKA, DAVID

    1996-01-01

    1Hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy is a major independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular events. In man the cardiac response to increased afterload is very variable, even when ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is used. Analysis of breeding experiments using normotensive and hypertensive rat strains, human twin studies and other data indicate that genetic factors play a significant role in regulating cardiac mass; in other words, a large component of total variability is accounted for b...

  11. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. PMID:27317993

  12. Vitamin D and Cardiac Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene M; Norris, Keith C; Artaza, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-D3) is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D. Experimental studies of vitamin D receptors and 1,25-D3 establish calcitriol to be a critical regulator of the structure and function of the heart. Clinical studies link vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Emerging evidence demonstrates that calcitriol is highly involved in CVD-related signaling pathways, particularly the Wnt signaling pathway. Addition of 1,25-D3 to cardiomyocyte cells and examination of its effects on cardiomyocytes and mainly Wnt11 signaling allowed the specific characterization of the role of calcitriol in cardiac differentiation. 1,25-D3 is demonstrated to: (i) inhibit cell proliferation without promoting apoptosis; (ii) decrease expression of genes related to the regulation of the cell cycle; (iii) promote formation of cardiomyotubes; (iv) induce expression of casein kinase-1-α1, a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway; and (v) increase expression of noncanonical Wnt11, which has been recognized to induce cardiac differentiation during embryonic development and in adult cells. Thus, it appears that vitamin D promotes cardiac differentiation through negative modulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and upregulation of noncanonical Wnt11 expression. Future work to elucidate the role(s) of vitamin D in cardiovascular disorders will hopefully lead to improvement and potentially prevention of CVD, including abnormal cardiac differentiation in settings such as postinfarction cardiac remodeling. PMID:26827957

  13. Associação independente do tabagismo aos eventos cardíacos pós-operatórios e à mortalidade em 30 dias Asociación independiente del tabaquismo a los eventos cardiacos postoperatorios y a la mortalidad a 30 días Independent association of smoking with postoperative cardiac events and thirty-day mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Midory Sakuma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Há poucos estudos que demonstrem a associação do tabagismo, como fator de risco independente, aos eventos cardíacos pós-operatórios. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a associação do tabagismo, como variável independente, às complicações cardiovasculares pós-operatórias e à mortalidade em 30 dias em operações não cardíacas. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se coorte retrospectiva de um hospital geral, na qual foram incluídos 1.072 pacientes estratificados em tabagistas atuais (n = 265, ex-tabagistas (n = 335 e não tabagistas (n = 472. Esses três grupos foram analisados para os desfechos cardiovasculares combinados no pós-operatório (infarto, edema pulmonar, arritmia com instabilidade hemodinâmica, angina instável e morte cardíaca e mortalidade em 30 dias. Utilizaram-se o teste qui-quadrado e a regressão logística, considerando p FUNDAMENTO: Existen pocos estudios que demuestren la asociación del tabaquismo, como factor de riesgo independiente, a los eventos cardiacos postoperatorios. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación del tabaquismo, como variable independiente, a las complicaciones cardiovasculares postoperatorias y a la mortalidad a 30 días en operaciones no cardiacas. MÉTODOS: Se utilizó una cohorte retrospectiva de un hospital general, en la que fueron incluidos 1.072 pacientes estratificados en tabaquistas actuales (n = 265, ex-tabaquistas (n = 335 y no tabaquistas (n = 472. Se analizaron en estos tres grupos las complicaciones cardiovasculares combinadas en el postoperatorio (infarto, edema pulmonar, arritmia con inestabilidad hemodinámica, angina inestable y muerte cardiaca y la mortalidad a 30 días. Se utilizaron el test de chi-cuadrado y la regresión logística, considerando pBACKGROUND: Few studies have demonstrated the association of smoking, as an independent risk factor, with postoperative cardiac events. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of smoking, as an independent variable, with postoperative cardiovascular

  14. The angiotensin type 1 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 by G protein-dependent and -independent pathways in cardiac myocytes and langendorff-perfused hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schneider, Mikael;

    2007-01-01

    effects of ERK1/2 activity, differential activation of the AT(1)R in its native cellular context could have important biological and pharmacological implications. To examine if AT(1)R activates ERK1/2 by G protein-independent mechanisms in the heart, we used the [Sar(1), Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII ([SII] Ang...

  15. Position-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate cell-specific expression of the SpoC1 gene cluster of Aspergillus nidulans.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, B.L.; Miller, K. Y.; Roberti, K A; Timberlake, W E

    1987-01-01

    Many genes that are expressed specifically in the differentiating asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus nidulans are organized into clusters. We investigated the effects of altered chromosomal position on expression of a gene from the conidiation-specific SpoC1 gene cluster. The gene became deregulated when integrated at nonhomologous chromosomal sites, in that transcript levels were elevated in vegetative cells (hyphae) and variably altered in conidia. We also investigated the effects on e...

  16. The C. elegans protein CEH-30 protects male-specific neurons from apoptosis independently of the Bcl-2 homolog CED-9

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Hillel T.; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-01-01

    The developmental control of apoptosis is fundamental and important. We report that the Caenorhabditis elegans Bar homeodomain transcription factor CEH-30 is required for the sexually dimorphic survival of the male-specific CEM (cephalic male) sensory neurons; the homologous cells of hermaphrodites undergo programmed cell death. We propose that the cell-type-specific anti-apoptotic gene ceh-30 is transcriptionally repressed by the TRA-1 transcription factor, the terminal regulator of sexual i...

  17. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

  18. JTT-130, a Novel Intestine-Specific Inhibitor of Microsomal Triglyceride Transfer Protein, Improves Hyperglycemia and Dyslipidemia Independent of Suppression of Food Intake in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Sakata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of JTT-130 on glucose and lipid metabolism independent of the suppression of feeding by comparing with pair-fed animals. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats were divided into control, JTT-130 treatment, and pair-fed groups. The rats were fed with a regular powdered diet with or without JTT-130 as a food admixture for 6 weeks. We compared the effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in JTT-130 treatment group with those in pair-fed group. Results. Hyperglycemia in ZDF rats was prevented in both JTT-130 treatment and pair-fed groups, but the prevention in pair-fed group became poor with time. Moreover, reduction in plasma cholesterol levels was observed only in JTT-130 treatment group. JTT-130 treatment group showed improved glucose tolerance at 5 weeks after treatment and significant elevation of portal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 levels. The hepatic lipid content in JTT-130 treatment group was decreased as compared with pair-fed group. Furthermore, pancreatic protection effects, such as an increase in pancreatic weight and an elevation of insulin-positive area in islets, were observed after JTT-130 treatment. Conclusions. JTT-130 improves hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia via a mechanism independent of suppression of food intake, which is ascribed to an enhancement of GLP-1 secretion and a reduction of lipotoxicity.

  19. Cardiac morbidity risk and depression and anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tully, Phillip J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Winefield, Helen R;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression and anxiety disorders and their characteristic symptoms (anhedonia/low positive affect and anxious arousal, respectively), along with measures of state negative affect (NA) and Type D personality, in relation to cardiac surgery related morbidity...... personality traits were differentially associated with post-cardiac surgery morbidity outcomes independent of cardiac surgery morbidity risk factors. Concurrent investigation of depression and anxiety with respect to cardiac outcomes warrants further research........ Patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (n=158; 20.9% female; 11.4% concomitant valve surgery; age M=64.7, SD=10.6) underwent the structured MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine current affective disorders. Patients also completed the Mood and Anxiety Symptom...

  20. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  1. Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Grazia; Frascarelli, Sabina; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Tobias, Sandra C; DeBarber, Andrea; Brogioni, Simona; Ronca-Testoni, Simonetta; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Grandy, David K; Scanlan, Thomas S; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    3-Iodothyronamine T1AM is a novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative that activates the G protein-coupled receptor known as trace anime-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). In the isolated working rat heart and in rat cardiomyocytes, T1AM produced a reversible, dose-dependent negative inotropic effect (e.g., 27+/-5, 51+/-3, and 65+/-2% decrease in cardiac output at 19, 25, and 38 microM concentration, respectively). An independent negative chronotropic effect was also observed. The hemodynamic effects of T1AM were remarkably increased in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas they were attenuated in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. No effect was produced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calcium-calmodulin kinase II, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, or MAP kinases. Tissue cAMP levels were unchanged. In rat ventricular tissue, Western blot experiments with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed reduced phosphorylation of microsomal and cytosolic proteins after perfusion with synthetic T1AM; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed the presence of transcripts for at least 5 TAAR subtypes; specific and saturable binding of [125I]T1AM was observed, with a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range (5 microM); and endogenous T1AM was detectable by tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel aminergic system modulating cardiac function. PMID:17284482

  2. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  3. Early glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein phosphatase 2A independent tau dephosphorylation during global brain ischaemia and reperfusion following cardiac arrest and the role of the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Shohreh; Power, John H T; Koblar, Simon A; Grantham, Hugh J M

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal tau phosphorylation (p-tau) has been shown after hypoxic damage to the brain associated with traumatic brain injury and stroke. As the level of p-tau is controlled by Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3β, Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK), different activity levels of these enzymes could be involved in tau phosphorylation following ischaemia. This study assessed the effects of global brain ischaemia/reperfusion on the immediate status of p-tau in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reported an early dephosphorylation of tau at its AMPK sensitive residues, Ser(396) and Ser(262) after 2 min of ischaemia, which did not recover during the first two hours of reperfusion, while the tau phosphorylation at GSK-3β sensitive but AMPK insensitive residues, Ser(202) /Thr(205) (AT8), as well as the total amount of tau remained unchanged. Our data showed no alteration in the activities of GSK-3β and PP2A during similar episodes of ischaemia of up to 8 min and reperfusion of up to 2 h, and 4 weeks recovery. Dephosphorylation of AMPK followed the same pattern as tau dephosphorylation during ischaemia/reperfusion. Catalase, another AMPK downstream substrate also showed a similar pattern of decline to p-AMPK, in ischaemic/reperfusion groups. This suggests the involvement of AMPK in changing the p-tau levels, indicating that tau dephosphorylation following ischaemia is not dependent on GSK-3β or PP2A activity, but is associated with AMPK dephosphorylation. We propose that a reduction in AMPK activity is a possible early mechanism responsible for tau dephosphorylation. PMID:27177932

  4. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  5. Language Impairments in the Development of Sign: Do They Reside in a Specific Modality or Are They Modality-Independent Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Various theories of developmental language impairments have sought to explain these impairments in modality-specific ways--for example, that the language deficits in SLI or Down syndrome arise from impairments in auditory processing. Studies of signers with language impairments, especially those who are bilingual in a spoken language as well as a…

  6. High sensitivity cardiac troponin and the under-diagnosis of myocardial infarction in women:Prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anoop S V; Griffiths, Megan; Lee, Kuan Ken; McAllister, David A; Hunter, Amanda L; Ferry, Amy V; Cruikshank, Anne; Reid, Alan; Stoddart, Mary; Strachan, Fiona; Walker, Simon; Collinson, Paul O; Apple, Fred S.; Gray, Alasdair J; Fox, Keith A. A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnosis of myocardial infarction using a high sensitivity troponin I assay and sex specific diagnostic thresholds in men and women with suspected acute coronary syndrome. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Regional cardiac centre, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (n = 1126, 46% women). Two cardiologists independently adjudicated the diagnosis of myocardial infarction by using a high sensitivity tropo...

  7. Sexual Dysfunction before and after Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Schumann

    2010-01-01

    variables. Methods. Analysis of patients participating in a 12-week exercise-based outpatient cardiac rehabilitation program (OCR between April 1999 and December 2007. Exercise capacity (ExC and quality of life including sexual function were assessed before and after OCR. Results. Complete data were available in 896 male patients. No sexual activity at all was indicated by 23.1% at baseline and 21.8% after OCR, no problems with sexual activity by 40.8% at baseline and 38.6% after OCR. Patients showed an increase in specific problems (erectile dysfunction and lack of orgasm from 18% to 23% (<.0001 during OCR. We found the following independent positive and negative predictors of sexual problems after OCR: hyperlipidemia, age, CABG, baseline ExC and improvement of ExC, subjective physical and mental capacity, and sense of affiliation. Conclusions. Sexual dysfunction is present in over half of the patients undergoing OCR with no overall improvement during OCR. Age, CABG, low exercise capacity are independent predictors of sexual dysfunction after OCR.

  8. Aeroallergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation, lung damage, and airways hyperreactivity in mice can occur independently of IL-4 and allergen-specific immunoglobulins.

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, S P; A. Mould; Kikutani, H; Ramsay, A. J.; Foster, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    In this investigation we have used a mouse model containing certain phenotypic characteristics consistent with asthma and IL-4- and CD40-deficient mice to establish the role of this cytokine and allergen-specific immunoglobulins in the initiation of airways hyperreactivity and morphological changes to the airways in responses to aeroallergen challenge. Sensitization and aerosol challenge of mice with ovalbumin resulted in a severe airways inflammatory response which directly correlated with t...

  9. Examination of Potential Overlap in Autism and Language Loci on Chromosomes 2, 7, and 13 in Two Independent Samples Ascertained for Specific Language Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Christopher W.; Flax, Judy F.; Logue, Mark W.; Smith, Brett J.; Vieland, Veronica J; Tallal, Paula; Brzustowicz, Linda M

    2004-01-01

    Specific language impairment is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments essentially restricted to the domain of language and language learning skills. This contrasts with autism, which is a pervasive developmental disorder defined by multiple impairments in language, social reciprocity, narrow interests and/or repetitive behaviors. Genetic linkage studies and family data suggest that the two disorders may have genetic components in common. Two samples, from Canada and the U...

  10. Language impairments in the development of sign: Do they reside in a specific modality or are they modality-independent deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, B.; G. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Various theories of developmental language impairments have sought to explain these impairments in modality-specific ways – for example, that the language deficits in SLI or Down syndrome arise from impairments in auditory processing. Studies of signers with language impairments, especially those who are bilingual in a spoken language as well as a sign language, provide a unique opportunity to contrast abilities across language in two modalities (cross-modal bilingualism). The aim of the arti...

  11. PARP1 activation/expression modulates regional-specific neuronal and glial responses to seizure in a hemodynamic-independent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J-E; Kim, Y-J; Kim, J.Y.; Kang, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, necrosis and other cellular processes after injury. Status epilepticus (SE) induces neuronal and astroglial death that show regional-specific patterns in the rat hippocampus and piriform cortex (PC). Thus, we investigated whether PARP1 regulates the differential neuronal/glial responses to pilocarpine (PILO)-induced SE in the distinct brain regions. In the present study, both CA1 and CA3 neurons showed PARP1 hyperacti...

  12. Investigation of the sensibility and the specificity of a nuclear medicine method for determining regional motility disturbances of the left cardiac muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of information on the regional motility of the myocardium obtained through nuclear medicine methods (motility scintigram) can be assessed as very high according to the comparisons made. The specificity of a perfusion scan seems - according to our results-to be somewhat lower. The results of the comparisons made indicate a high sensibility of both motility scan and perfusion scan. Allowing for the fact that there is no fixed correlation between a regional perfusion disturbance and a regional motility disturbance of the myocardium with regard to appearance and local intensity it is possible to explain the larger number of different examination results that one obtains when comparing perfusion scans to motility scans or to ventriculograms. Both nuclear medicine methods become less reliable only when the intensity of pathological changes in the left ventricle is less apparent. In conclusion we state that nuclear medicine methods for investigation of regional perfusion and regional motility of myocardiums can justly claim to be a useful non-invasive way - a kind of screening test - for early and undangerous diagnosis of coronary heart diseases. (orig./MG)

  13. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  14. Voltage-dependent and -independent titration of specific residues accounts for complex gating of a ClC chloride channel by extracellular protons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L Pablo; Yusef, Yamil R; Briones, Rodolfo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2009-04-01

    The ClC transport protein family comprises both Cl(-) ion channel and H(+)/Cl(-) and H(+)/NO(3)(-) exchanger members. Structural studies on a bacterial ClC transporter reveal a pore obstructed at its external opening by a glutamate side-chain which acts as a gate for Cl(-) passage and in addition serves as a staging post for H(+) exchange. This same conserved glutamate acts as a gate to regulate Cl(-) flow in ClC channels. The activity of ClC-2, a genuine Cl(-) channel, has a biphasic response to extracellular pH with activation by moderate acidification followed by abrupt channel closure at pH values lower than approximately 7. We have now investigated the molecular basis of this complex gating behaviour. First, we identify a sensor that couples extracellular acidification to complete closure of the channel. This is extracellularly-facing histidine 532 at the N-terminus of transmembrane helix Q whose neutralisation leads to channel closure in a cooperative manner. We go on to show that acidification-dependent activation of ClC-2 is voltage dependent and probably mediated by protonation of pore gate glutamate 207. Intracellular Cl(-) acts as a voltage-independent modulator, as though regulating the pK(a) of the protonatable residue. Our results suggest that voltage dependence of ClC-2 is given by hyperpolarisation-dependent penetration of protons from the extracellular side to neutralise the glutamate gate deep within the channel, which allows Cl(-) efflux. This is reminiscent of a partial exchanger cycle, suggesting that the ClC-2 channel evolved from its transporter counterparts. PMID:19153159

  15. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...... drive the late repolarization of the ventricle with some redundancy, and in atria this repolarization reserve is supplemented by the fairly atrial-specific KV1.5, Kir3, KCa, and K2P channels. The role of the latter two subtypes in atria is currently being clarified, and several findings indicate that...... they could constitute targets for new pharmacological treatment of atrial fibrillation. The interplay between the different K(+) channel subtypes in both atria and ventricle is dynamic, and a significant up- and downregulation occurs in disease states such as atrial fibrillation or heart failure. The...

  16. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  17. Nanomaterials for Cardiac Myocyte Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Amezcua; Ajay Shirolkar; Carolyn Fraze; David A. Stout

    2016-01-01

    Since their synthesizing introduction to the research community, nanomaterials have infiltrated almost every corner of science and engineering. Over the last decade, one such field has begun to look at using nanomaterials for beneficial applications in tissue engineering, specifically, cardiac tissue engineering. During a myocardial infarction, part of the cardiac muscle, or myocardium, is deprived of blood. Therefore, the lack of oxygen destroys cardiomyocytes, leaving dead tissue and possib...

  18. The cardiac patient in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Majed; Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam. During this month, the majority of the 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide observe an absolute fast from dawn to sunset without any drink or food. Our review shows that the impact of fasting during Ramadan on patients with stable cardiac disease is minimal and does not lead to any increase in acute events. Most patients with the stable cardiac disease can fast safely. Most of the drug doses and their regimen are easily manageable during this month and may need not to be changed. Ramadan fasting is a healthy nonpharmacological means for improving cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the Muslims, who suffer from chronic diseases, insist on fasting Ramadan despite being exempted by religion. The Holy Quran specifically exempts the sick from fasting. This is particularly relevant if fasting worsens one's illness or delays recovery. Patients with unstable angina, recent myocardial infarction, uncontrolled hypertension, decompensated heart failure, recent cardiac intervention or cardiac surgery or any debilitating diseases should avoid fasting. PMID:27144139

  19. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  20. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela K Lella

    Full Text Available The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF, independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery.From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered 30 days outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months.Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25% and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50% (p<0.001. Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30% and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59% (p<0.001. Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05. Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03. Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization.Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures.

  1. 'Independence' Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Independence' Panorama (QTVR) This is the Spirit 'Independence' panorama, acquired on martian days, or sols, 536 to 543 (July 6 to 13, 2005), from a position in the 'Columbia Hills' near the summit of 'Husband Hill.' The summit of 'Husband Hill' is the peak near the right side of this panorama and is about 100 meters (328 feet) away from the rover and about 30 meters (98 feet) higher in elevation. The rocky outcrops downhill and on the left side of this mosaic include 'Larry's Lookout' and 'Cumberland Ridge,' which Spirit explored in April, May, and June of 2005. The panorama spans 360 degrees and consists of 108 individual images, each acquired with five filters of the rover's panoramic camera. The approximate true color of the mosaic was generated using the camera's 750-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters. During the 8 martian days, or sols, that it took to acquire this image, the lighting varied considerably, partly because of imaging at different times of sol, and partly because of small sol-to-sol variations in the dustiness of the atmosphere. These slight changes produced some image seams and rock shadows. These seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see. However, it is often not possible or practical to smooth out such seams for regions of rock, soil, rover tracks or solar panels. Such is the nature of acquiring and assembling large panoramas from the rovers.

  2. Transplantation of 5-azacytidine treated cardiac fibroblasts improves cardiac function of infarct hearts in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Cheng-chun; MA Gan-shan; CHEN Ji-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cellular cardiomyoplasty by transplantation of various cell types has been investigated as potential treatments for the improvement of cardiac function after myocardial injury. A major barrier for the clinical application of cell transplantation is obtaining sufficiently large quantities of suitable cells. AIIogeneic cellular cardiomyoplasty may provide an alternative source of abundant, transplantable, myogenic cells by in vitro manipulation of cardiac fibroblasts using chemicals including 5-azacytidine. This study evaluated cardiomyogenic differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts, their survival in myocardial scar tissue, and the effect of the implanted cells on heart function.Methods Primary cardiac fibroblasts from neonatal rats were treated with 5-azacytidine (10 μmol/L) or control.Treatment of 5-azacytidine caused myogenic differentiation of cultured cardiac fibroblasts, as defined by elongation and fusion into multinucleated myotubes with sarcomeric structures as identified by electron microscopy, and positive immunostaining for cardiac specific proteins, troponin I and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and the gap junction protein connexin 43. The myogenic cells (1.0x106) were transplanted into the infarcted myocardium 2 weeks after coronary artery occlusion.Results By 1 month after transplantation, the converted fibroblasts gave rise to a cluster of cardiac-like muscle cells that in the hearts occupied a large part of the scar with positive immunostaining for the myogenic proteins troponin I and β-MHC. Engrafted cells also expressed the gap junction protein connexin 43 in a disorganized manner. There was no positive staining in the control hearts treated with injections of culture medium. Heart function was evaluated at 6 weeks after myocardial injury with echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements. Improvement in cardiac function was seen in the hearts transplanted with the 5-azacytidine-treated cardiac fibroblasts which was absent in the

  3. Troponin not just a simple cardiac marker: prognostic significance of cardiac troponin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benny Mulyanto Setiadi; LEI Han; CHANG Jing

    2009-01-01

    Objective The object of this study was to review the role of cardiac troponin as a prognostic factor in acute coronary syndrome patients of varying circumstances.Data sources The data used in this review were obtained mainly from the studies of cardiac troponin reported in pubmed from 1981 to 2006.Study selection Relevant articles on studies of cardiac troponin were selected.Results Elevated cardiac troponin in patients with ST elevation and non ST elevation myocardial infarction was associated with adverse outcomes, including a higher incidence of congestive heart failure, shock, and death. Patients with elevated cardiac troponin value seemed to benefit more from invasive strategies including a percutaneous coronary intervention and bypass surgery, but elevated cardiac troponin was also correlated with adverse outcomes, including a higher degree of failure, shock, and mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention; a higher degree of perioperative myocardial infarction, low cardiac output syndrome, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and new-onset ventricular arrhythmia in patients undergoing bypass surgery were also observed. Elevated troponin after a percutaneous coronary intervention seemed to be associated with short-term adverse outcomes rather than long-term adverse outcomes, unless the elevation of the troponin post percutaneous coronary intervention was quite high (about 5 times above normal). On the contrary, elevated cardiac troponin after bypass surgery was more confusing to analyze since it happened in almost all patients. Furthermore, differences in cutoff values and time measurements in some studies add more confusion; thus, further research is warranted.Conclusions The prognostic value of cardiac troponin is demonstrated in almost all acute coronary syndrome patients. In addition to its high sensitivity and specificity, the prognostic value of cardiac troponin is another reason to make it the "golden cardiac marker' of this time.

  4. Faulty cardiac repolarization reserve in alternating hemiplegia of childhood broadens the phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffer, Fatima; Avbersek, Andreja; Vavassori, Rosaria; Fons, Carmen; Campistol, Jaume; Stagnaro, Michela; De Grandis, Elisa; Veneselli, Edvige; Rosewich, Hendrik; Gianotta, Melania; Zucca, Claudio; Ragona, Francesca; Granata, Tiziana; Nardocci, Nardo; Mikati, Mohamed; Helseth, Ashley R.; Boelman, Cyrus; Minassian, Berge A.; Johns, Sophia; Garry, Sarah I.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Carrilho, Ines; Aylett, Sarah E.; Parton, Matthew; Hanna, Michael G.; Houlden, Henry; Neville, Brian; Kurian, Manju A.; Novy, Jan; Sander, Josemir W.; Lambiase, Pier D.; Behr, Elijah R.; Schyns, Tsveta; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Cross, J. Helen; Kaski, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    , compared with those <16 (P = 0.0095), even with a specific mutation (p.D801N; P = 0.045). Dynamic, beat-to-beat or electrocardiogram-to-electrocardiogram, changes were noted, suggesting the prevalence of abnormalities was underestimated. Electrocardiogram changes occurred independently of seizures or plegic episodes. Electrocardiogram abnormalities are common in alternating hemiplegia, have characteristics reflecting those of inherited cardiac channelopathies and most likely amount to impaired repolarization reserve. The dynamic electrocardiogram and neurological features point to periodic systemic decompensation in ATP1A3-expressing organs. Cardiac dysfunction may account for some of the unexplained premature mortality of alternating hemiplegia. Systematic cardiac investigation is warranted in alternating hemiplegia of childhood, as cardiac arrhythmic morbidity and mortality are potentially preventable. PMID:26297560

  5. Cardiac arrest: resuscitation and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kaustubha D; Halperin, Henry R; Becker, Lance B

    2015-06-01

    The modern treatment of cardiac arrest is an increasingly complex medical procedure with a rapidly changing array of therapeutic approaches designed to restore life to victims of sudden death. The 2 primary goals of providing artificial circulation and defibrillation to halt ventricular fibrillation remain of paramount importance for saving lives. They have undergone significant improvements in technology and dissemination into the community subsequent to their establishment 60 years ago. The evolution of artificial circulation includes efforts to optimize manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation, external mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation devices designed to augment circulation, and may soon advance further into the rapid deployment of specially designed internal emergency cardiopulmonary bypass devices. The development of defibrillation technologies has progressed from bulky internal defibrillators paddles applied directly to the heart, to manually controlled external defibrillators, to automatic external defibrillators that can now be obtained over-the-counter for widespread use in the community or home. But the modern treatment of cardiac arrest now involves more than merely providing circulation and defibrillation. As suggested by a 3-phase model of treatment, newer approaches targeting patients who have had a more prolonged cardiac arrest include treatment of the metabolic phase of cardiac arrest with therapeutic hypothermia, agents to treat or prevent reperfusion injury, new strategies specifically focused on pulseless electric activity, which is the presenting rhythm in at least one third of cardiac arrests, and aggressive post resuscitation care. There are discoveries at the cellular and molecular level about ischemia and reperfusion pathobiology that may be translated into future new therapies. On the near horizon is the combination of advanced cardiopulmonary bypass plus a cocktail of multiple agents targeted at restoration of normal metabolism and

  6. Cardiac troponin: an emerging cardiac biomarker in animal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Undhad

    Full Text Available Analysis of cardiac troponin I (cTn I and T (cTnT are considered the “gold standard” for the non-invasive diagnosis of myocardial injury in human and animals. It has replaced traditionally used cardiac biomarkers such as myoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK and CK-MB due to its high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of myocardial injury. Cardiac troponins are proteins that control the calcium-mediated interaction between actin and myosin, allowing contraction at the sarcomere level. Concentration of the cTn can be correlated microscopic lesion and loss of immunolabeling in myocardium damage. Troponin concentration remains elevated in blood for 1-2wks so that wide window is available for diagnosis of myocardial damage. The cTn test has >95% specificity and sensitivity and test is less time consuming (10 to 15 minutes and less costly (INR 200 to INR 500. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 508-511

  7. Preoperative cardiac risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaković Radosav; Poldermans Don; Nešković Aleksandar N.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 100 million people undergo noncardiac surgery annually worldwide. It is estimated that around 3% of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery experience a major adverse cardiac event. Although cardiac events, like myocardial infarction, are major cause of perioperative morbidity or mortality, its true incidence is difficult to assess. The risk of perioperative cardiac complications depends mainly on two conditions: 1) identified risk factors, and 2) the type of the surgical p...

  8. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance In Adults With Congenital Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Partington, Sara L.; Valente, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults with congenital heart disease are referred for cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Knowledge of the congenital heart anatomy, prior surgical interventions, and the development of an imaging focus for each individual patient plays a crucial role when performing a successful cardiac magnetic resonance imaging examination. The following manuscript focuses on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging considerations of three specific conotruncal congenital heart lesions: tetr...

  9. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Cardiac Amyloidosis by MRI and Echochardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晶; 孔祥泉; 徐海波; 周国锋; 常丹丹; 刘定西; 张丽; 谢明星

    2010-01-01

    This study described the radiological features on echocardiography and MRI specific to cardiac amyloidosis confirmed on biopsy. Eleven cases of biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis were retrospectively reviewed in this study. All patients underwent biopsy, cardiac MRI and echocardiography. The main echocardiography and MRI findings were as follows: diffuse ventricular and septum wall thickening, atrial enlargement, pericardial effusion, restricted left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, characte...

  10. Algorithmic processing of pressure waveforms to facilitate estimation of cardiac elastance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson David

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac elastances are highly invasive to measure directly, but are clinically useful due to the amount of information embedded in them. Information about the cardiac elastance, which can be used to estimate it, can be found in the downstream pressure waveforms of the aortic pressure (Pao and the pulmonary artery (Ppa. However these pressure waveforms are typically noisy and biased, and require processing in order to locate the specific information required for cardiac elastance estimations. This paper presents the method to algorithmically process the pressure waveforms. Methods A shear transform is developed in order to help locate information in the pressure waveforms. This transform turns difficult to locate corners into easy to locate maximum or minimum points as well as providing error correction. Results The method located all points on 87 out of 88 waveforms for Ppa, to within the sampling frequency. For Pao, out of 616 total points, 605 were found within 1%, 5 within 5%, 4 within 10% and 2 within 20%. Conclusions The presented method provides a robust, accurate and dysfunction-independent way to locate points on the aortic and pulmonary artery pressure waveforms, allowing the non-invasive estimation of the left and right cardiac elastance.

  11. Independent sets in chain cacti

    CERN Document Server

    Sedlar, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    In this paper chain cacti are considered. First, for two specific classes of chain cacti (orto-chains and meta-chains of cycles with h vertices) the recurrence relation for independence polynomial is derived. That recurrence relation is then used in deriving explicit expressions for independence number and number of maximum independent sets for such chains. Also, the recurrence relation for total number of independent sets for such graphs is derived. Finaly, the proof is provided that orto-chains and meta-chains are the only extremal chain cacti with respect to total number of independent sets (orto-chains minimal and meta-chains maximal).

  12. Blunt cardiac rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T D; Flynn, T C; Rowlands, B J; Ward, R E; Fischer, R P

    1984-04-01

    Blunt injury to the heart ranges from contusion to disruption. This report comprises 14 patients seen during a 6-year period with cardiac rupture secondary to blunt trauma. Eight patients were injured in automobile accidents, two patients were injured in auto-pedestrian accidents, two were kicked in the chest by ungulates, and two sustained falls. Cardiac tamponade was suspected in ten patients. Five patients presented with prehospital cardiac arrest or arrested shortly after arrival. All underwent emergency department thoracotomy without survival. Two patients expired in the operating room during attempted cardiac repair; both had significant extracardiac injury. Seven patients survived, three had right atrial injuries, three had right ventricular injuries, and one had a left atrial injury. Cardiopulmonary bypass was not required for repair of the surviving patients. There were no significant complications from the cardiac repair. The history of significant force dispersed over a relatively small area of the precordium as in a kicking injury from an animal or steering wheel impact should alert the physician to possible cardiac rupture. Cardiac rupture should be considered in patients who present with signs of cardiac tamponade or persistent thoracic bleeding after blunt trauma. PMID:6708151

  13. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  14. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  15. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudis, Christos A; Konstantinidis, Athanasios K; Ntalas, Ioannis V; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-11-15

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is independently associated with an increased burden of cardiovascular disease. Besides coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF), specific electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias seem to have a significant impact on cardiovascular prognosis of COPD patients. Disturbances of heart rhythm include premature atrial contractions (PACs), premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), atrial fibrillation (AF), atrial flutter (AFL), multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT), and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Of note, the identification of ECG abnormalities and the evaluation of the arrhythmic risk may have significant implications in the management and outcome of patients with COPD. This article provides a concise overview of the available data regarding ECG abnormalities and arrhythmias in these patients, including an elaborated description of the underlying arrhythmogenic mechanisms. The clinical impact and prognostic significance of ECG abnormalities and arrhythmias in COPD as well as the appropriate antiarrhythmic therapy and interventions in this setting are also discussed. PMID:26218181

  16. The incidence and importance of anaemia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery in the UK - the first Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthetists national audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A A; Collier, T J; Brar, M S; Evans, C; Hallward, G; Fletcher, S N; Richards, T

    2016-06-01

    The importance and variability of pre-operative anaemia in cardiac surgical patients across the UK is not known, and there is debate about its association with patient outcomes. The Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthetists carried out its first national audit on anaemia and transfusion, and analysed data from 19,033 patients operated on in 12 cardiac surgical centres between 2010 and 2012; 5895 (31%) had pre-operative anaemia. Centre-specific prevalence of anaemia varied from 23% to 45%; anaemia was associated with older patients, diabetes and surgical risk (EuroSCORE). Nevertheless, controlling for these factors, regional variation remained an independent effect (p treatment before cardiac surgery is required; these data will assist in designing such trials. PMID:26993159

  17. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  18. Cardiac MRI in restrictive cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Singh Gulati, G., E-mail: gulatigurpreet@rediffmail.com [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Seth, S. [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India); Sharma, S. [Department of Cardiovascular Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, Delhi (India)

    2012-02-15

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is a specific group of heart muscle disorders characterized by inadequate ventricular relaxation during diastole. This leads to diastolic dysfunction with relative preservation of systolic function. Although short axis systolic function is usually preserved in RCM, the long axis systolic function may be severely impaired. Confirmation of diagnosis and information regarding aetiology, extent of myocardial damage, and response to treatment requires imaging. Importantly, differentiation from constrictive pericarditis (CCP) is needed, as only the latter is managed surgically. Echocardiography is the initial cardiac imaging technique but cannot reliably suggest a tissue diagnosis; although recent advances, especially tissue Doppler imaging and spectral tracking, have improved its ability to differentiate RCM from CCP. Cardiac catheterization is the reference standard, but is invasive, two-dimensional, and does not aid myocardial characterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is a versatile technique providing anatomical, morphological and functional information. In recent years, it has been shown to provide important information regarding disease mechanisms, and also been found useful to guide treatment, assess its outcome and predict patient prognosis. This review describes the CMR features of RCM, appearances in various diseases, its overall role in patient management, and how it compares with other imaging techniques.

  19. Review Article of Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jittiporn PURATTANAMAL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac amyloidosis is a term that means the deposit of abnormal proteins in the myocardium leading to global thickening of the heart walls. The clinical character is that of infiltrative cardiomyopathy. AL amyloidosis is the most common type that involves cardiac failure. Cardiac amyloid precedes clinical congestive heart failure, especially right-sided heart failure. Laboratory investigations have identified the amyloid fibril proteins deposited in the organ tissues. Immunofixation tests are the most sensitive that recognize the paraprotein mean light chain protein or immunoglobulin subtype deposit. Prognosis is poor if AL amyloidosis is untreated. Treatment of systemic involvement in AL amyloidosis is via chemotherapy such as melphalan and prednisolone. UK experts have reported the results of treatment in AL amyloidosis. Regardless of the use of adjunctive chemotherapy, the five-year survival after heart transplantation was generally poorer for AL (20 % at five years, but similar for non-AL amyloidosis (64 % at five years, than heart transplants in other cases. Progression of the systemic disease contributed to increased mortality. A specific treatment that increases the chances of survival is unknown.

  20. Gastrointestinal complications and cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Sara J

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. The reported incidence varies between .3% and 5.5% with an associated mortality of .3-87%. A wide range of GI complications are reported with bleeding, mesenteric ischemia, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and ileus the most common. Ischemia is thought to be the main cause of GI complications with hypoperfusion during cardiac surgery as well as systemic inflammation, hypothermia, drug therapy, and mechanical factors contributing. Several nonischemic mechanisms may contribute to GI complications, including bacterial translocation, adverse drug reactions, and iatrogenic organ injury. Risk factors for GI complications are advanced age (>70 years), reoperation or emergency surgery, comorbidities (renal disease, respiratory disease, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiac failure), perioperative use of an intra-aortic balloon pump or inotrope therapy, prolonged surgery or cardiopulmonary bypass, and postoperative complications. Multiple strategies to reduce the incidence of GI complications exist, including risk stratification scores, targeted inotrope and fluid therapy, drug therapies, and modification of cardiopulmonary bypass. Currently, no single therapy has consistently proven efficacy in reducing GI complications. Timely diagnosis and treatment, while tailored to the specific complication and patient, is essential for optimal management and outcomes in this challenging patient population. PMID:25208431

  1. [Cardiac evaluation before non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzenbach, Jan; Boehm, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    Before non-cardiac surgery, evaluation of cardiac function is no frequent part of surgical treatment. European societies of anesthesiology and cardiology published consensus-guidelines in 2014 to present a reasonable approach for preoperative evaluation. This paper intends to differentiate the composite of perioperative risk and to display the guidelines methodical approach to handle it. Features to identify patients at risk from an ageing population with comorbidities, are the classification of surgical risk, functional capacity and risk indices. Application of diagnostic means, should be used adjusted to this risk estimation. Cardiac biomarkers are useful to discover risk of complications or mortality, that cannot be assessed by clinical signs. After preoperative optimization and perioperative cardiac protection, the observation of the postoperative period remains, to prohibit complications or even death. In consideration of limited resources of intensive care department, postoperative ward rounds beyond intensive care units are considered to be an appropriate instrument to avoid or recognize complications early to reduce postoperative mortality. PMID:27479258

  2. Alteration of cardiac progenitor cell potency in GRMD dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, M; Berardi, E; Crippa, S; Toelen, J; Barthelemy, I; Micheletti, R; Chuah, M; Vandendriessche, T; Debyser, Z; Blot, S; Sampaolesi, M

    2012-01-01

    Among the animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the Golden Retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog is considered the best model in terms of size and pathological onset of the disease. As in human patients presenting with DMD or Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD), the GRMD is related to a spontaneous X-linked mutation of dystrophin and is characterized by myocardial lesions. In this respect, GRMD is a useful model to explore cardiac pathogenesis and for the development of therapeutic protocols. To investigate whether cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) isolated from healthy and GRMD dogs may differentiate into myocardial cell types and to test the feasibility of cell therapy for cardiomyopathies in a preclinical model of DMD, CPCs were isolated from cardiac biopsies of healthy and GRMD dogs. Gene profile analysis revealed an active cardiac transcription network in both healthy and GRMD CPCs. However, GRMD CPCs showed impaired self-renewal and cardiac differentiation. Population doubling and telomerase analyses highlighted earlier senescence and proliferation impairment in progenitors isolated from GRMD cardiac biopsies. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that only wt CPCs showed efficient although not terminal cardiac differentiation, consistent with the upregulation of cardiac-specific proteins and microRNAs. Thus, the pathological condition adversely influences the cardiomyogenic differentiation potential of cardiac progenitors. Using PiggyBac transposon technology we marked CPCs for nuclear dsRed expression, providing a stable nonviral gene marking method for in vivo tracing of CPCs. Xenotransplantation experiments in neonatal immunodeficient mice revealed a valuable contribution of CPCs to cardiomyogenesis with homing differences between wt and dystrophic progenitors. These results suggest that cardiac degeneration in dystrophinopathies may account for the progressive exhaustion of local cardiac progenitors and shed light on cardiac stemness in

  3. The prognostic value of cardiac ultrasonography in patients with cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bolvardi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Echocardiography or cardiac imaging is proposed as a gold standard method for identifying high risk patients for cardiac arrest. In this systematic review, we studied the prognostic value of cardiac sonography in patients with cardiac arrest. Methods: PubMed was searched for the relevant articles. Case reports were not included. Inclusion criteria were all the studies applied transthorasic echocardiography in patients with cardiac arrest arrived at emergency department that studied the efficacy of this modality on patients survived to emergency discharge and returned to spontaneous circulation.Result: Overall, 870 articles were obtained through initial search and only nine articles were included after the evaluation of the title, abstract, and the full text. Echocardiography has high sensitivity and specificity in predicting the return of spontaneous circulation.Conclusion: Cardiac sonography is a fairly effective (not definitive modality in predicting death in patients with lack of cardiac activity during resuscitation. Echocardiography should not be the sole basis for the decision to cease resuscitative efforts.

  4. Arterial Lactate Level Changes in First Day after Cardiac Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi Ghaffari; Majid Malaki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lactate level is an important index for predicting cardiac events. There are some debates about time and type of sampling for defining of its prognostic values.Methods: To assess the prognostic importance of arterial lactate level in patients after cardiac surgery with regarding to operation factors serial arterial lactate levels during and after surgery was measured up to 24 hours, these data were processed by T-independent test and chi-square, P less than 0.01 was significant....

  5. Leptin as a mediator between obesity and cardiac dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Karbowska

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available  Obesity is now recognised as one of the most important risk factors for heart disease. Obese individuals have high circulating levels of leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and in­volved in energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests that leptin may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. In a large prospective study leptin has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. An independent positive association has also been found between plasma leptin levels and heart rate in hypertensive patients and heart transplant recipients. In animal studies chronic leptin infusion increased heart rate and blood pressure. It has also been demonstrated that circulating leptin levels are elevated in patients with heart failure. The level of plasma leptin was associated with increased myocardial wall thickness and correlated with left ventricular mass, suggesting a role for this hormone in mediating left ventricular hypertrophy in humans. Moreover, leptin directly induced hypertrophy and hyperplasia in human and rodent cardiomyocytes, accompanied by cardiac extracellular matrix remodelling. Leptin may also influence energy substrate utilisation in cardiac tissue.These findings suggest that leptin acting directly or through the sympathetic nervous system may have adverse effects on cardiac structure and function, and that chronic hyperleptinaemia may greatly increase the risk of cardiac disorders. Additional studies are needed to define the role of leptin in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology, nevertheless the reduction in plasma leptin levels with caloric restriction and weight loss may prevent cardiac dysfunction in obese patients.

  6. Cardiac metabolism and arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Andreas S.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death remains a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, accounting for up to 20% of all deaths in the U.S.1, 2 The major causes of sudden cardiac death in adults age 35 and older are coronary artery disease (70–80%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (10–15%).3 At the molecular level, a wide variety of mechanisms contribute to arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death, ranging from genetic predisposition (rare mutations and common polymorphisms in ion channels and structural...

  7. [Cardiac Rehabilitation 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Andreas

    2015-11-25

    The goals of cardiac rehabilitation are (re-)conditioning and secondary prevention in patients with heart disease or an elevated cardiovascular risk profile. Rehabilitation is based on motivation through education, on adapted physical activity, instruction of relaxation techniques, psychological support and optimized medication. It is performed preferably in groups either in outpatient or inpatient settings. The Swiss working group on cardiac rehabilitation provides a network of institutions with regular quality auditing. Positive effects of rehabilitation programs on mortality and morbidity have been established by numerous studies. Although a majority of patients after cardiac surgery are being referred to rehabilitation, these services are notoriously underused after catheter procedures. PMID:26602848

  8. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed for...... uncertain and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  9. Evidence for angiotensin II type 2 receptor–mediated cardiac myocyte enlargement during in vivo pressure overload

    OpenAIRE

    Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Ichihara, Sahoko; Price, Edward; Gaffney, F.Andrew; Inagami, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    The pathophysiological roles of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2) in cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. By the targeted deletion of mouse AT2 we were able to prevent the left ventricular hypertrophy resulting from pressure overload, while cardiac contractile functions remained normal. This implies that AT2 is a mediator of cardiac hypertrophy in response to increased blood pressure. The effects of AT2 deletion were independent of activation of embryonic genes for cardiac hypertrophy. ...

  10. Method for Automatic Tube Current Selection for Obtaining a Consistent Image Quality and Dose Optimization in a Cardiac Multidetector CT

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Weiwei; Li, Jianying; Du, Xiangke

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a quantitative method for individually adjusting the tube current to obtain images with consistent noise in electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CT cardiac scans. Materials and Methods The image noise from timing bolus and cardiac CT scans of 80 patients (Group A) who underwent a 64-row multidetector (MD) CT cardiac examination with patient-independent scan parameters were analyzed. A formula was established using the noise correlation between the timing bolus and cardiac scans...

  11. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Huang, Shu-Chun; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Chao-Hung; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2014-01-01

    Reduced exercise capacity negatively affects the ability of patients with heart failure (HF) to perform activities required for daily life, further decreasing their independence and quality of life (QoL). Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can effectively improve aerobic fitness and overall health status in patients with HF. Low referral rate is an important limitation that may impede successful CR, whereas the automatic referral and liaison strategies performed by some healthcare providers manifest...

  12. Biomarkers for cardiac cachexia: reality or utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Telma; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Ferreira, Rita

    2014-09-25

    Cardiac cachexia is a serious complication of chronic heart failure, characterized by significant weight loss and body wasting. Chronic heart failure-related muscle wasting results from a chronic imbalance in the activation of anabolic or catabolic pathways, caused by a series of immunological, metabolic, and neurohormonal processes. In spite of the high morbidity and mortality associated to this condition, there is no universally accepted definition or specific biomarkers for cardiac cachexia, which makes its diagnosis and treatment difficult. Several hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress molecules have been proposed as serological markers of prognosis in cardiac cachexia but with doubtful success. As individual biomarkers may have limited sensitivity and specificity, multimarker strategies involving mediators of the biological processes modulated by cardiac cachexia will strongly contribute for the diagnosis and management of the disease, as well as for the establishment of new therapeutic targets. An integrated analysis of the biomarkers proposed so far for cardiac cachexia is made in the present review, highlighting the biological processes to which they are related. PMID:24978823

  13. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshi, Armin; Nakashima, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Haruko; Eaimkhong, Sarayoot; Evseenko, Denis; Reed, Jason; Stieg, Adam Z.; Gimzewski, James K.; Nakano, Atsushi

    2013-04-01

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell-cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes.

  14. Rigid microenvironments promote cardiac differentiation of mouse and human embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While adult heart muscle is the least regenerative of tissues, embryonic cardiomyocytes are proliferative, with embryonic stem (ES) cells providing an endless reservoir. In addition to secreted factors and cell–cell interactions, the extracellular microenvironment has been shown to play an important role in stem cell lineage specification, and understanding how scaffold elasticity influences cardiac differentiation is crucial to cardiac tissue engineering. Though previous studies have analyzed the role of matrix elasticity on the function of differentiated cardiomyocytes, whether it affects the induction of cardiomyocytes from pluripotent stem cells is poorly understood. Here, we examine the role of matrix rigidity on cardiac differentiation using mouse and human ES cells. Culture on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates of varied monomer-to-crosslinker ratios revealed that rigid extracellular matrices promote a higher yield of de novo cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated ES cells. Using a genetically modified ES system that allows us to purify differentiated cardiomyocytes by drug selection, we demonstrate that rigid environments induce higher cardiac troponin T expression, beating rate of foci, and expression ratio of adult α- to fetal β- myosin heavy chain in a purified cardiac population. M-mode and mechanical interferometry image analyses demonstrate that these ES-derived cardiomyocytes display functional maturity and synchronization of beating when co-cultured with neonatal cardiomyocytes harvested from a developing embryo. Together, these data identify matrix stiffness as an independent factor that instructs not only the maturation of already differentiated cardiomyocytes but also the induction and proliferation of cardiomyocytes from undifferentiated progenitors. Manipulation of the stiffness will help direct the production of functional cardiomyocytes en masse from stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes. (paper)

  15. Cardiac Rehabilitation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopfer, David W; Forman, Daniel E

    2016-09-01

    The biology of aging and the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease (CVD) overlap, with the effect that CVD is endemic in the growing population of older adults. Moreover, CVD in older adults is usually complicated by age-related complexities, including multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, and other intricacies that add to the risks of ambiguous symptoms, deconditioning, iatrogenesis, falls, disability, and other challenges. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a comprehensive lifestyle program that can have particular benefit for older patients with cardiovascular conditions. Although CR was originally designed primarily as an exercise training program for younger adults after a myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery, it has evolved as a comprehensive lifestyle program (promoting physical activity as well as education, diet, risk reduction, and adherence) for a broader range of CVD (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and valvular heart disease). It provides a valuable opportunity to address and moderate many of the challenges pertinent for the large and growing population of older adults with CVD. Cardiac rehabilitation promotes physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness as well as strength and balance) that helps overcome disease and deconditioning as well as related vulnerabilities such as disability, frailty, and falls. Similarly, CR facilitates education, monitoring, and guidance to reduce iatrogenesis and promote adherence. Furthermore, CR fosters cognition, socialization, and independence in older patients. Yet despite all its conceptual benefits, CR is significantly underused in older populations. This review discusses benefits and the paradoxical underuse of CR, as well as evolving models of care that may achieve greater application and efficacy. PMID:27297002

  16. Differentiation of troponin in cardiac and skeletal muscles in chicken embryos as studied by immunofluorescence microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The differentiation of troponin (TN) in cardiac and skeletal muscles of chicken embryos was studied by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Serial sections of embryos were stained with antibodies specific to TN components (TN-T, -I, and -C) from adult chicken cardiac and skeletal muscles. Cardiac muscle began to be stained with antibodies raised against cardiac TN components in embryos after stage 10 (Hamburger and Hamilton numbering, 1951, J. Morphol. 88:49-92). It reacted also with antis...

  17. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator February 19, 2009 Halifax Health Medical Center, Daytona Beach, FL Welcome to Halifax Health Daytona Beach, Florida. Over the next hour you' ...

  18. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan, or MUGA, which shows how well your heart is pumping blood. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which gives doctors detailed pictures of your heart. How is SCA treated? Sudden cardiac arrest should ...

  19. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA What Causes SCA? SCA Awareness Atrial Flutter Heart Block Heart Failure Sick Sinus Syndrome Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  20. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranđelović Aleksandra Č.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in an athlete is rare and tragic event. An athlete's death draws high public attention given that athletes are considered the healthiest category of society. The vast majority of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is due to congenital cardiac malformations such as hypertrophie cardiomyopathy and various coronary artery anomalies. In athletes over age 35, the usual cause of sudden cardiac death is coronary artery disease. With each tragic death of a young athlete, there is a question why this tragedy has not been prevented. The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association recommend that a pre-participation exam should include a complete cardiovascular history and physical examination.

  1. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  2. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  3. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  4. Safety in cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, S.

    2013-01-01

    The monitoring of safety in cardiac surgery is a complex process, which involves many clinical, practical, methodological and statistical issues. The objective of this thesis was to measure and to compare safety in cardiac surgery in The Netherlands using the Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (NVT) database. The safety of care is usually measured using patient outcomes. If outcomes are not available, the process and structure of care may be used. Outcomes should be adjusted ...

  5. Ranolazine in Cardiac Arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Marwan; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Elgendy, Islam Y; Richard Conti, C

    2016-03-01

    Ranolazine utilization in the management of refractory angina has been established by multiple randomized clinical studies. However, there is growing evidence showing an evolving role in the field of cardiac arrhythmias. Multiple experimental and clinical studies have evaluated the role of ranolazine in prevention and management of atrial fibrillation, with ongoing studies on its role in ventricular arrhythmias. In this review, we will discuss the pharmacological, experimental, and clinical evidence behind ranolazine use in the management of various cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:26459200

  6. Cardiac tumours in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadava, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tumours in infancy are rare and are mostly benign with rhabdomyomas, fibromas and teratomas accounting for the majority. The presentation depends on size and location of the mass as they tend to cause cavity obstruction or arrhythmias. Most rhabdomyomas tend to regress spontaneously but fibromas and teratomas generally require surgical intervention for severe haemodynamic or arrhythmic complications. Other relatively rare cardiac tumours too are discussed along with an Indian perspect...

  7. Independence Logic and Abstract Independence Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Paolini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    We continue the work on the relations between independence logic and the model-theoretic analysis of independence, generalizing the results of [15] and [16] to the framework of abstract independence relations for an arbitrary AEC. We give a model-theoretic interpretation of the independence atom and characterize under which conditions we can prove a completeness result with respect to the deductive system that axiomatizes independence in team semantics and statistics.

  8. Cardiac Troponins in Dogs and Cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, R; Willesen, J L

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac troponins are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. The troponin concentration can be thought of as a quantitative measure of the degree of injury sustained by the heart, however, it provides no information on the cause of injury or the mechanism of troponin release. Conven...

  9. Cardiac troponins in dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhorn, Rebecca; Willesen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac troponins are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial injury. The troponin concentration can be thought of as a quantitative measure of the degree of injury sustained by the heart, however, it provides no information on the cause of injury or the mechanism of troponin release. Conven...

  10. Cardiac Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long procedure time and somewhat suboptimal results hinder the widespread use of catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF. Due to lack of contrast differentiation between the area of interest and surrounding structures in a moving organ like heart, there is a lack of proper intraprocedural guidance using current imaging techniques for ablation. Cardiac image registration is currently under investigation and is in clinical use for AF ablation. Cardiac image registration, which involves integration of two images in the context of left atrium (LA, is intermodal, with the acquired image and the real-time reference image residing in different image spaces, and involves optimization, where one image space is transformed into the other. Unlike rigid body registration, cardiac image registration is unique and challenging due to cardiac motion during the cardiac cycle and due to respiration. This review addresses the basic principles of the emerging technique of registration and the inherent limitations as they relate to cardiac imaging and registration.

  11. Cardiac Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Sra

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Long procedure time and somewhat suboptimal results hinder the widespread use of catheter ablation of complex arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF. Due to lack of contrast differentiation between the area of interest and surrounding structures in a moving organ like heart, there is a lack of proper intraprocedural guidance using current imaging techniques for ablation. Cardiac image registration is currently under investigation and is in clinical use for AF ablation. Cardiac image registration, which involves integration of two images in the context of the left atrium (LA, is intermodal, with the acquired image and the real-time reference image residing in different image spaces, and involves optimization, where one image space is transformed into the other. Unlike rigid body registration, cardiac image registration is unique and challenging due to cardiac motion during the cardiac cycle and due to respiration. This review addresses the basic principles of the emerging technique of registration and the inherent limitations as they relate to cardiac imaging and registration.

  12. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belka Claus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death (PCD is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD. Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. Methods We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA, the ER (Bcl-2 cb5, both (Bcl-2 WT or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Results Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Conclusion Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide.

  13. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD). Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA), the ER (Bcl-2 cb5), both (Bcl-2 WT) or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM) and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide

  14. Cardiac Extracellular Vesicles in Normal and Infarcted Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitry A. Chistiakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart is a complex assembly of many cell types constituting myocardium, endocardium and epicardium that intensively communicate to each other in order to maintain the proper cardiac function. There are many types of intercellular intracardiac signals, with a prominent role of extracellular vesicles (EVs, such as exosomes and microvesicles, for long-distant delivering of complex messages. Cardiomyocytes release EVs, whose content could significantly vary depending on the stimulus. In stress, such as hypoxia, inflammation or injury, cardiomyocytes increase secretion of EVs. In hypoxic conditions, cardiac EVs are enriched with angiogenic and prosurvival factors. In acute myocardial infarction (AMI, damaged cardiac muscle cells produce EVs with increased content of angiogenic, anti-apoptotic, mitogenic and growth factors in order to induce repair and healing of the infarcted myocardium. Exosomal microRNAs play a central role in cardiac regeneration. In AMI, circulating cardiac EVs abundantly contain cardiac-specific miRNAs that serve as indicators of cardiac damage and have a big diagnostic potential as AMI biomarkers. Cardioprotective and regenerative properties of exosomes derived from cardiac and non-cardiac stem/progenitor cells are very helpful to be used in cell-free cardiotherapy and regeneration of post-infarct myocardium.

  15. Postoperative cardiac arrest due to cardiac surgery complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the role of anesthetists in the management of cardiac arrest occurring in association with cardiac anesthesia. In this retrospective study we studied the potential performances for each of the relevant incidents among 712 patients undergoing cardiac operations at Golestan and Naft Hospitals Ahwaz between November 2006 and July 2008. Out of total 712 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, cardiac arrest occurred in 28 cases (3.9%) due to different postoperative complications. This included massive bleeding (50% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.9% of patients); pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 1.1% of patients); Heart Failure (7% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.2% of patients); Aorta Arc Rapture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients); Tamponade due to pericardial effusion (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of total patients); Right Atrium Rupture (3.5% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients) were detected after cardiac surgery. Out of 28 cases 7 deaths occurred (25% of cardiac arrest cases, 0.1% of patients). The most prevalent reason for cardiac arrest during post operative phase was massive bleeding (50%) followed by pulseless supra ventricular tachycardia (28.5%). Six patients had some morbidity and the remaining 15 patients recovered. There are often multiple contributing factors to a cardiac arrest under cardiac anesthesia, as much a complete systematic assessment of the patient, equipment, and drugs should be completed. We also found that the diagnosis and management of cardiac arrest in association with cardiac anesthesia differs considerably from that encountered elsewhere. (author)

  16. Postmortem cardiac imaging in fetuses and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Andrew M. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Cardiorespiratory Division, Level 7, Old Nurses Home, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Arthurs, Owen J. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J. [UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Fetal and pediatric cardiac autopsies have a crucial role in the counseling of parents with regard to both the cause of death of their child and the implications of such findings for future pregnancies, as well as for quality assurance of antenatal screening programs and antemortem diagnostic procedures. Postmortem imaging allows an opportunity to investigate the heart in situ prior to dissection, and both postmortem CT and postmortem MRI have shown excellent accuracy in detecting the majority of clinically significant cardiac lesions in the perinatal and pediatric population. As less-invasive autopsy becomes increasingly popular, clinical guidelines for maximal diagnostic yield in specific circumstances can be developed. (orig.)

  17. Postmortem cardiac imaging in fetuses and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal and pediatric cardiac autopsies have a crucial role in the counseling of parents with regard to both the cause of death of their child and the implications of such findings for future pregnancies, as well as for quality assurance of antenatal screening programs and antemortem diagnostic procedures. Postmortem imaging allows an opportunity to investigate the heart in situ prior to dissection, and both postmortem CT and postmortem MRI have shown excellent accuracy in detecting the majority of clinically significant cardiac lesions in the perinatal and pediatric population. As less-invasive autopsy becomes increasingly popular, clinical guidelines for maximal diagnostic yield in specific circumstances can be developed. (orig.)

  18. Acquired valvar disease and cardiac tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigation must determine the severity of the valve fault or faults, the effect on cardiac function and the significance of any associated cardiac disease in order that surgical referral can be made when appropriate with knowledge of operative risk and prognosis; radiology plays an important part in this. Radiological features will depend on the valve or valves affected, the type and severity of the haemodynamic disturbance and its time scale of development and duration. They may be modified by embolism or infection and there may be specific radiological manifestations of the underlying disease

  19. Non-Biopsy Diagnosis of Cardiac Transthyretin Amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillmore, Julian D; Maurer, Mathew S; Falk, Rodney H; Merlini, Giampaolo; Damy, Thibaud; Dispenzieri, Angela; Wechalekar, Ashutosh D; Berk, John L; Quarta, Candida C; Grogan, Martha; Lachmann, Helen J; Bokhari, Sabahat; Castano, Adam; Dorbala, Sharmila; Johnson, Geoff B; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Rezk, Tamer; Fontana, Marianna; Palladini, Giovanni; Milani, Paolo; Guidalotti, Pierluigi L; Flatman, Katarina; Lane, Thirusha; Vonberg, Frederick W; Whelan, Carol J; Moon, James C; Ruberg, Frederick L; Miller, Edward J; Hutt, David F; Hazenberg, Bouke P; Rapezzi, Claudio; Hawkins, Philip N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Cardiac transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis is a progressive and fatal cardiomyopathy for which several promising therapies are in development. The diagnosis is frequently delayed or missed due to limited specificity of echocardiography and the traditional requirement for histologic confir

  20. Augmenter of liver regeneration causes different kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation than EGF and induces hepatocyte proliferation in an EGF receptor independent and liver specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilowski, Maren; Putz, Christine [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Weiss, Thomas S. [Department of Surgery, University of Regensburg Hospital, Regensburg (Germany); Brand, Stephan [Department of Internal Medicine II, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, TU Dortmund University, Dortmund (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang Erwin, E-mail: wolfgang.thasler@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich Hospital Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

    2010-04-16

    Background/Aim: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is a potent growth factor which supports liver regeneration in experimental animals. The aim of this study was to compare proliferation as well as the kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation by recombinant human ALR (rhALR) and EGF in human hepatocytes and extrahepatic cells. Methods: Kinetics of ERK1/2 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation were determined in primary human hepatocytes (phh) after stimulation with rhALR and EGF. Induction of proliferation was analyzed in phh and several cell lines of hepatic and extrahepatic origin by the MTT and [{sup 3}H]-thymidine assay. Results: The kinetics of ERK phosphorylation showed clear differences, whereby rhALR caused a transient and EGF a permanent increase during the observation period of 60 min. For both, Akt and ERK phosphorylation, EGF caused a faster effect with maximal levels observed already after 2 min, whereas rhALR caused maximal phosphorylation between 10 and 15 min. Using the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 we provide evidence of an EGF receptor independent induction of proliferation by rhALR. Furthermore, rhALR induced proliferation only in phh and the human liver derived cell lines HepG2 and Chang. In contrast, EGF enhanced proliferation in all analyzed cell types including cell lines of colon, bronchial, pancreatic and gastric origin (SW480, BC1, L36PL and GC1). Conclusion: rhALR and EGF induce different kinetics of ERK and Akt phosphorylation in human hepatocytes. The mitogenic effect of rhALR is liver specific and seems to be at least partially independent from EGF receptor mediated signaling.

  1. Reconstruction of dynamic gated cardiac SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we propose an image reconstruction procedure which aims to unify gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and dynamic SPECT into a single method. We divide the cardiac cycle into a number of gate intervals as in gated SPECT, but treat the tracer distribution for each gate as a time-varying signal. By using both dynamic and motion-compensated temporal regularization, our reconstruction procedure will produce an image sequence that shows both cardiac motion and time-varying tracer distribution simultaneously. To demonstrate the proposed reconstruction method, we simulated gated cardiac perfusion imaging using the gated mathematical cardiac-torso (gMCAT) phantom with Tc99m-Teboroxime as the imaging agent. Our results show that the proposed method can produce more accurate reconstruction of gated dynamic images than independent reconstruction of individual gate frames with spatial smoothness alone. In particular, our results show that the former could improve the contrast to noise ratio of a simulated perfusion defect by as much as 100% when compared to the latter

  2. MRI and CT appearances of cardiac tumours in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary cardiac tumours are rare, and metastases to the heart are much more frequent. Myxoma is the commonest benign primary tumour and sarcomas account for the majority of malignant lesions. Clinical manifestations are diverse, non-specific, and governed by the location, size, and aggressiveness. Imaging plays a central role in their evaluation, and familiarity with characteristic features is essential to generate a meaningful differential diagnosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the reference technique for evaluation of a suspected cardiac mass. Computed tomography (CT) provides complementary information and, with the advent of electrocardiographic gating, has become a powerful tool in its own right for cardiac morphological assessment. This paper reviews the MRI and CT features of primary and secondary cardiac malignancy. Important differential considerations and potential diagnostic pitfalls are also highlighted.

  3. Drug-Induced Rhabdomyolysis with Elevated Cardiac Troponin T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm, Gro; Pareek, Manan

    2015-01-01

    myocardial injury. This case report describes a 48-year-old woman, who, two years after cardiac transplantation, presented with rhabdomyolysis. During the course of the disease, her troponin T level was elevated on repeated occasions, but other definitive evidence of myocardial injury was not found......The essential role of cardiac troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction has led to the development of high-sensitivity assays, which are able to detect very small amounts of myocardial necrosis. The high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T assay, however, is not entirely specific for....... Asymptomatic cardiac troponin T elevations during rhabdomyolysis may be due to either cardiac involvement or false positive results stemming from skeletal muscle injury....

  4. Incretin attenuates diabetes-induced damage in rat cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElmonem Elbassuoni, Eman

    2014-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as a member of the incretin family, has a role in glucose homeostasis, its receptors distributed throughout the body, including the heart. The aim was to investigate cardiac lesions following diabetes induction, and the potential effect of GLP-1 on this type of lesions and the molecular mechanism driving this activity. Adult male rats were classified into: normal, diabetic, 4-week high-dose exenatide-treated diabetic rats, 4-week low-dose exenatide-treated diabetic rats, and 1-week exenatide-treated diabetic rats. The following parameters were measured: in blood: glucose, insulin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), and CK-MB relative index; in cardiac tissue: lipid peroxide (LPO) and some antioxidant enzymes. The untreated diabetic group displayed significant increases in blood level of glucose, LDH, and CK-MB, and cardiac tissue LPO, and a significant decrease in cardiac tissue antioxidant enzymes. GLP-1 supplementation in diabetic rats definitely decreased the hyperglycemia and abolished the detrimental effects of diabetes on the cardiac tissue. The effect of GLP-1 on blood glucose and on the heart also appeared after a short supplementation period (1 week). It can be concluded that GLP-1 has beneficial effects on diabetes-induced oxidative cardiac tissue damage, most probably via its antioxidant effect directly acting on cardiac tissue and independent of its hypoglycemic effect. PMID:25011640

  5. Canine fetal echocardiography: correlations for the analysis of cardiac dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannico, Amália Turner; Gil, Elaine Mayumi Ueno; Garcia, Daniela Aparecida Ayres; Sousa, Marlos Gonçalves; Froes, Tilde Rodrigues

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop regression models for correlation of canine fetal heart development with body size to characterize normal development or suggest cardiac anomalies. Twenty clinically healthy pregnant bitches, either brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic, were examined ultrasonographically. Transabdominal fetal echocardiography was conducted every 4 days from the beginning of cardiac chambers differentiation until parturition. Ten cardiac parameters were measured: length, width and diameter of the heart; heart area; left and right ventricular dimensions; left and right atrial dimensions; and aortic and pulmonary artery diameter. Femoral length, biparietal diameter and abdominal cross-sectional area were also recorded. Regression equations were developed for each parameter of fetal body size, and linear and logarithmic models were compared. The model with the highest correlation coefficient was chosen to produce equations to calculate relative dimensions based on the correlations. Only the left-ventricular chamber differed between the two racial groups. Biparietal diameter was the independent parameter that produced the highest correlation coefficient for the most fetal cardiac dimensions, although good correlations were also observed using femoral length and abdominal cross-sectional area. Heart width and heart diameter were used as surrogates of cardiac development, as these measurements showed the best statistical correlation. Quantitative evaluation of fetal cardiac structures can be used to monitor normal and abnormal cardiac development. PMID:26689920

  6. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  7. Mechanistic investigation of imatinib-induced cardiac toxicity and the involvement of c-Abl kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenyue; Lu, Shuyan; McAlpine, Indrawan; Jamieson, Joseph D; Lee, Dong U; Marroquin, Lisa D; Heyen, Jonathan R; Jessen, Bart A

    2012-09-01

    The Bcr-abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is the frontline therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia. Imatinib has been reported to cause congestive heart failure and left ventricular contractile dysfunction in patients and cardiomyopathy in rodents, findings proposed to be associated with its pharmacological activity. To investigate the specific role of Abelson oncogene 1 (c-Abl) in imatinib-induced cardiac toxicity, we performed targeted gene inhibition of c-Abl by RNA interference in neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs). Suppression of c-Abl did not lead to cytotoxicity or induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To further dis associate c-Abl from imatinib-induced cardiac toxicity, we designed imatinib structural analogs that do not have appreciable c-Abl inhibition in NCMs. The c-Abl inactive analogs induced cytotoxicity and ER stress, at similar or greater potencies and magnitudes as imatinib. Furthermore, combining c-Abl gene silencing with imatinib and analogs treatment did not significantly shift the cytotoxicity dose response curves. Imatinib and analogs were shown to accumulate in lysosomes, likely due to their physicochemical properties, and disrupt autophagy. The toxicity induced by imatinib and analogs can be rescued by bafilomycin A pretreatment, demonstrating the involvement of lysosomal accumulation in cardiac toxicity. The results from our studies strongly suggest that imatinib induces cardiomyocyte dysfunction through disruption of autophagy and induction of ER stress, independent of c-Abl inhibition. PMID:22641616

  8. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  9. Generation of cardiac pacemaker cells by programming and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husse, Britta; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael

    2016-07-01

    A number of diseases are caused by faulty function of the cardiac pacemaker and described as "sick sinus syndrome". The medical treatment of sick sinus syndrome with electrical pacemaker implants in the diseased heart includes risks. These problems may be overcome via "biological pacemaker" derived from different adult cardiac cells or pluripotent stem cells. The generation of cardiac pacemaker cells requires the understanding of the pacing automaticity. Two characteristic phenomena the "membrane-clock" and the "Ca(2+)-clock" are responsible for the modulation of the pacemaker activity. Processes in the "membrane-clock" generating the spontaneous pacemaker firing are based on the voltage-sensitive membrane ion channel activity starting with slow diastolic depolarization and discharging in the action potential. The influence of the intracellular Ca(2+) modulating the pacemaker activity is characterized by the "Ca(2+)-clock". The generation of pacemaker cells started with the reprogramming of adult cardiac cells by targeted induction of one pacemaker function like HCN1-4 overexpression and enclosed in an activation of single pacemaker specific transcription factors. Reprogramming of adult cardiac cells with the transcription factor Tbx18 created cardiac cells with characteristic features of cardiac pacemaker cells. Another key transcription factor is Tbx3 specifically expressed in the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node and sufficient for the induction of the cardiac pacemaker gene program. For a successful cell therapeutic practice, the generated cells should have all regulating mechanisms of cardiac pacemaker cells. Otherwise, the generated pacemaker cells serve only as investigating model for the fundamental research or as drug testing model for new antiarrhythmics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel

  10. Radiography in cardiology [cardiac disorders, cardiac insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic procedure in cardiology nearly always requires an X-ray examination of the thorax. This examination is very informative when it is correctly performed and interpreted. The radiographs need to be read precisely and comprehensively: this includes the evaluation of the silhouette of the heart (size, form and position) as well as the examination of extra-cardiac thoracic structures allowing among other things to search for signs of cardiac insufficiency. The conclusion of the X-ray examination can be drawn after having brought together information concerning the case history, the clinical examination and the study of the radiographs. The radiologist finds himself in one of three situations: (1) the information provided by the X-ray pictures is characteristic of a disease and permits a diagnosis, (2) the X-ray pictures indicate a group of hypotheses; further complementary tests could be useful and (3) the X-ray pictures provide ambiguous even contradictory information; it is necessary to complete the radiological examination by other techniques such as an ultrasonographic study of the heart

  11. Overexpression of Catalase Diminishes Oxidative Cysteine Modifications of Cardiac Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Yao

    Full Text Available Reactive protein cysteine thiolates are instrumental in redox regulation. Oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, react with thiolates to form oxidative post-translational modifications, enabling physiological redox signaling. Cardiac disease and aging are associated with oxidative stress which can impair redox signaling by altering essential cysteine thiolates. We previously found that cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase (Cat, an enzyme that detoxifies excess H2O2, protected from oxidative stress and delayed cardiac aging in mice. Using redox proteomics and systems biology, we sought to identify the cysteines that could play a key role in cardiac disease and aging. With a 'Tandem Mass Tag' (TMT labeling strategy and mass spectrometry, we investigated differential reversible cysteine oxidation in the cardiac proteome of wild type and Cat transgenic (Tg mice. Reversible cysteine oxidation was measured as thiol occupancy, the ratio of total available versus reversibly oxidized cysteine thiols. Catalase overexpression globally decreased thiol occupancy by ≥1.3 fold in 82 proteins, including numerous mitochondrial and contractile proteins. Systems biology analysis assigned the majority of proteins with differentially modified thiols in Cat Tg mice to pathways of aging and cardiac disease, including cellular stress response, proteostasis, and apoptosis. In addition, Cat Tg mice exhibited diminished protein glutathione adducts and decreased H2O2 production from mitochondrial complex I and II, suggesting improved function of cardiac mitochondria. In conclusion, our data suggest that catalase may alleviate cardiac disease and aging by moderating global protein cysteine thiol oxidation.

  12. Biological determinants of aldosterone-induced cardiac fibrosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, V; Silvestre, J S; Charlemagne, D; Sabri, A; Trouvé, P; Wassef, M; Swynghedauw, B; Delcayre, C

    1995-12-01

    To determine the events leading to cardiac fibrosis in aldosterone-salt hypertensive rats, we studied protein and mRNA accumulation of procollagens I and III for 60 days. After 3 and 7 days of treatment systolic pressure was normal, and no histological or biochemical changes were seen in rat hearts. At day 15 arterial pressure was raised (+40%) and left ventricular hypertrophy was +15%. Cardiac examination after hemalun-eosin staining and immunolabeling with anticollagen I and III antibodies showed no structural alterations, but an 83% increase in right ventricular type III procollagen mRNA levels was found. At 30 and 60 days we found progressive cardiac fibrosis, with inflammatory cells, myocyte necrosis, and elevation of both types I and III procollagen mRNA levels in both ventricles. To determine whether aldosterone had effects on Na,K-ATPase that might lead to ionic disturbances and induce myocyte necrosis, we studied the major cardiac Na,K-ATPase isoform genes. Although Na,K-ATPase alpha 1- and beta 1-subunit mRNA levels were elevated in kidney at day 1, neither of these cardiac transcripts nor the specific alpha 2 isoform was altered between 1 and 15 days. These results show that accumulation of procollagen mRNAs occurs before collagen deposition. Cardiac alterations are late and not preceded by changes in Na,K-ATPase cardiac gene expression, precluding a direct modulation of cardiac collagen synthesis and Na,K-ATPase by aldosterone. PMID:7490157

  13. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr; Fernandez, P. [Univ. Bordeaux, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); Service de Médecine Nucléaire, Hôpital Pellegrin, CHU de Bordeaux, 33076 Bordeaux (France); Le Maitre, A.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29609 Brest (France); Dawood, M.; Schäfers, K. P. [European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Münster, Mendelstr. 11, 48149 Münster (Germany); Rimoldi, O. E. [Vita-Salute University and Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy and CNR Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare, Milan (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    observed in the performance of the two motion models considered. Superior image SNR and contrast were seen using the affine respiratory motion model in combination with the diastole cardiac bin in comparison to the use of the whole cardiac cycle. In contrast, when simultaneously correcting for cardiac beating and respiration, the elastic respiratory motion model outperformed the affine model. In this context, four cardiac bins associated with eight respiratory amplitude bins seemed to be adequate. Conclusions: Considering the compensation of respiratory motion effects only, both affine and elastic based approaches led to an accurate resizing and positioning of the myocardium. The use of the diastolic phase combined with an affine model based respiratory motion correction may therefore be a simple approach leading to significant quality improvements in cardiac PET imaging. However, the best performance was obtained with the combined correction for both cardiac and respiratory movements considering all the dual-gated bins independently through the use of an elastic model based motion compensation.

  14. Evaluation of respiratory and cardiac motion correction schemes in dual gated PET/CT cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    observed in the performance of the two motion models considered. Superior image SNR and contrast were seen using the affine respiratory motion model in combination with the diastole cardiac bin in comparison to the use of the whole cardiac cycle. In contrast, when simultaneously correcting for cardiac beating and respiration, the elastic respiratory motion model outperformed the affine model. In this context, four cardiac bins associated with eight respiratory amplitude bins seemed to be adequate. Conclusions: Considering the compensation of respiratory motion effects only, both affine and elastic based approaches led to an accurate resizing and positioning of the myocardium. The use of the diastolic phase combined with an affine model based respiratory motion correction may therefore be a simple approach leading to significant quality improvements in cardiac PET imaging. However, the best performance was obtained with the combined correction for both cardiac and respiratory movements considering all the dual-gated bins independently through the use of an elastic model based motion compensation

  15. Serum myoglobin after cardiac catheterisation.

    OpenAIRE

    McComb, J. M.; McMaster, E A

    1982-01-01

    Study of 80 consecutive patients undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterisation showed that after the procedure 25 (31%) developed myoglobinaemia. This was attributed to complications of the catheterisation in two. The remaining 23 had received premedication by intramuscular injection. In patients without intramuscular injections myoglobinaemia did not occur after uncomplicated cardiac catheterisation. The study did not support the proposition that cardiac catheterisation results in m...

  16. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; McEvoy, P B; Williamson, K L; Flannery, M A

    1972-08-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay has been used to determine the gross concentration of cardiac glycoside in individual monarch butterflies. Adults sampled during the fall migration in four areas of eastern North America exhibited a wide variation in cardiac glycoside concentration. The correlation between spectrophotometrically measured concentrations and emetic dose determinations supports the existence of a broad palatability spectrum in wild monarch butterflies. The cardiac gylcoside concentration is greater in females than in males and is independent of the dry weight of the butterflies; contrary to prediction, both the concentration mean and variance decrease southward. The defensive advantage of incorporating cardiac glycosides may be balanced by detrimental effects on individual viability. PMID:5043141

  17. 乳腺癌术后放疗降低心脏照射剂量的新方法--心脏前壁区域作为独立的危及器官%A new method to decrease the cardiac radiation dose in postoperative radiotherapy for breast cancer-Anterior myocardial territory as an independent organ at risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓红; 谭文勇; 柳栋; 胡德胜; 陈正望

    2013-01-01

      目的探索心脏前壁区域(anterior myocardial territory,AMT)作为独立的危及器官在左乳腺癌保乳术后放疗中心脏保护的可行性。方法随机选取23例左乳癌接受保乳术后及术后辅助放疗的患者的计划CT图像。由同一个放疗医师勾画靶区和危及器官(OAR),OAR包括心脏(H)、AMT、左心室(left ventricle, LV)、左右肺和右侧乳腺。每个患者由物理师设计两个调强治疗计划(IMRT),一个是以AMT作为目标函数,另一个是以H+LV作为目标函数。所有治疗计划的处方剂量均为50Gy,25次。比较计划靶区(PTV)、AMT、LV、心脏、左右肺和右侧乳腺的剂量体积参数。结果 IMRT(AMT)和IMRT(H+LV)2个计划的PTV剂量的均匀指数、适形指数、覆盖指数均无明显差别。与IMRT(AMT)计划相比,IMRT(H+LV)中AMT的最大剂量明显增加,平均剂量增加有统计学意义,AMT的V12Gy、V13Gy、V15Gy、V17Gy和V20Gy分别增加15.37%、18.87%、26.48%、27.11%(P <0.05),LV的V5Gy、V7Gy、V8Gy和V10Gy分别增加4.21%、16.72%、20.91%和19.14%(P <0.05)。心脏和左肺的各个剂量体积参数无统计学差别,多数右肺和右乳腺的剂量体积参数无明显统计学差别。结论在左乳腺癌术后放疗中,AMT可作为替代心脏的一个独立危及器官可明显降低心脏照射剂量。%  Objective To investigate the feasibility of anterior myocardial territory(AMT) as an independent organ at risk(OAR) in postoperative intensity modulated radiotherapy(IMRT) for left-sided breast cancer patients who received breast conserved surgery(BCS) to avoid unnecessary cardiac radiation. Methods The archived computed tomographic(CT) scans of 23 patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy were selected randomly for this dosimetric study. The same radiation oncologist delineated the clinical target volume(CTV) and OARs including both lungs, the right breast, the heart, left ventricle(LV), AMT and the same

  18. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Reem; Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases

  19. Primary cardiac tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac tumors happen to be among the less known pathologies without clear treatment standards. Even one decade ago most of the cardiac tumor diagnosis were made post mortem, and only reports of isolated cases could be found in the literature, showing the lack of interest in the investigation of these pathologies by cardiology and cardiovascular surgery specialists. With the development of echocardiography and of cardiovascular surgery, more cases of primary and metastatic cardiac tumors have been diagnosed. Many cases have been treated by palliative or curative surgical interventions, thus increasing the reports in the world literature and the experience in this field, and pointing out the real incidence of these pathologies, not being as bizarre as it had been considered. a revision of the literature will be made, in which the frequency and the suggested interventions will be reported, as well as the cases of cardiac pathology in two cardiovascular centers of the country known by the author. The echocardiographic, pathologic and histological characteristics of the representative cases will be presented, without a greater evidence level, due to the problem's incidence and the few cases reported by these centers

  20. Cardiac MRI tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac MRI tagging is an original technique based upon the perturbation of the magnetization of determined regions of the myocardium (tags). The motion of the tags accurately reflects the deformation of the underlying tissue. Data analysis requires special techniques to reconstruct the 3D motion of the heart, and to evaluate the myocardial strain, locally and throughout the whole heart. (authors)

  1. Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Over the next hour you'll see the implantation of an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator. The surgery ... evening we're going to be discussing the implantation of a defibrillator. It’s a battery-powered implantable ...

  2. Cardiac pacemaker power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of chemical and radioisotope batteries used in cardiac pacemakers is presented. The battery systems are examined in terms of longevity, reliability, cost, size and shape, energy density, weight, internal resistance versus time, end-of-life voltage, chemical compatibility, and potential failure mechanisms

  3. Study on donor-specific splenocyte combined with anti-splenocyte serum inducing cardiac xenograft survival in rat%延长大鼠异种心脏移植后存活时间的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜成友; 姚榛祥; 郑军; 董蒲江; 周洪伟

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of donor-specific splenocyte combined with antisplenocyte serum to be given i.v.to rats 12 days before transplantation on both IgG production and cardiac xenograft survival.Methods All rats were divided into groups A,B,C and D,recieving the following combined therapies respectively:splenocytes and anit-serum(group A);splenocyte,anti-serum and CCV(group B);splenocyte,anti-serum,CCV,CsA and Cy(group C);splenocytes,anti-serum,CCV,CsA,Cy,anti-MΦmAb and anti-NK mAb(group D).The rats were given i.v.splenocytes(1 time in groups A,B,C and D were(0.32±0.12)h,(25.6±9.6)h,(48.6±10.4)h(P<0.05,vs group B)and(72.4±21.7)h(P<0.05,vs groups B and C)respectively.The serum IgG values in groups A,B,C and D on the day 0 were decreased significantly (P<0.05,groups B,C and D vs A;P<0.05 vs those of groups A,B,C and D on the day-6);The pathologic and immunohistochemical examination of rejected hearts in group A revealed the lesion of hyperacute rejection with C3 deposition,and in groups B,C and D monocyte infiltration,hemorrhage and a little IgG deposition.Conclusion The donor-spectific splenocytes combined with anti-splenocyte serum to be given i.v.to recipients 12 days pretransplantation,especially with CCV,CsA,Cy combination therapies can effectively suppress the IgG production and prolong the graft survival.%目的 研究如何延长大鼠异种心脏移植后的存活时间.方法 实验分为A、B、C、D四组.A组:移植术前12、8、4、0 d及10、6、2、0 d分别将脾细胞1 x 108个,抗血清0.2 ml静脉注入受体大鼠;B组:在A组的基础上,加用中华眼镜蛇毒(CCV)0.2 mg·kg-1·d-1,术前3 d至术日腹腔注射.C组:在B组的基础上,加用环孢素A(CsA)10 mg·kg-1·d-1、环磷酰胺(Cy)20 mg·kg-1·d-1,术前12d开始至术日腹腔注射.D组:在C组的基础上,加用抗巨噬细胞和抗自然杀伤细胞单克隆抗体250μg穔g-1穌-1,术前12 d开始至术日腹腔注射.结果 A、B、C、D

  4. Cardiac Defects and Results of Cardiac Surgery in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotti, Adriano; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Piacentini, Gerardo; Saffirio, Claudia; Di Donato, Roberto M.; Marino, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Specific types and subtypes of cardiac defects have been described in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome as well as in other genetic syndromes. The conotruncal heart defects occurring in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome include tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, truncus arteriosus, interrupted aortic…

  5. Overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 1 promotes androgen-independent transition of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells through activation of the AR signaling pathway and suppression of the p53 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechao; Li, Tao; Chen, Dehong; Zhang, Peng; Song, Yarong; Zhu, Hongxue; Xiao, Yajun; Xing, Yifei

    2016-01-01

    Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first defined histone demethylase, and was found to be closely correlated with the development and progression of various types of cancers, including prostate cancer (PCa). Previous research suggests that LSD1 is closely related with cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and invasion in PCa. However, it remains to be elucidated whether LSD1 is correlated with androgen-independent (AI) transition of PCa under androgen-ablated conditions. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation of LSD1 expression with AI transition of human androgen-dependent PCa LNCaP cells. Our data showed that LSD1 was overexpressed in human PCa specimens and in AI PCa LNCaP-AI cells, which were established through a three-month continuous culture of LNCaP cells in androgen-deprived medium. Under androgen-deprived conditions, LNCaP-AI cells grew perfectly with less apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Overexpression of LSD1 protected the LNCaP cells from androgen deprivation-induced apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest, while knockdown of LSD1 drove LNCaP-AI cells into a higher rate of apoptosis and G0/G1 arrest. Furthermore, LSD1 was found to regulate the androgen receptor (AR) and p53 signaling pathways via demethylation, subsequently influencing apoptosis and cell cycle progression. These findings revealed that overexpression of LSD1 promoted AI transition of PCa LNCaP cells under androgen-ablated conditions via activation of the AR signaling pathway and suppression of the p53 signaling pathway. PMID:26534764

  6. Leptin as a mediator between obesity and cardiac dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Karbowska; Zdzisław Kochan

    2012-01-01

     Obesity is now recognised as one of the most important risk factors for heart disease. Obese individuals have high circulating levels of leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue and in­volved in energy homeostasis. Growing evidence suggests that leptin may contribute to the development of cardiac dysfunction. In a large prospective study leptin has been shown to be an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. An independent positive association has also been found between plasm...

  7. Computerized assessment of motion-contaminated calcified plaques in cardiac multidetector CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated method for evaluating the image quality of calcified plaques with respect to motion artifacts in noncontrast-enhanced cardiac computed tomography (CT) images is introduced. This method involves using linear regression (LR) and artificial neural network (ANN) regression models for predicting two patient-specific, region-of-interest-specific, reconstruction-specific and temporal phase-specific image quality indices. The first is a plaque motion index, which is derived from the actual trajectory of the calcified plaque and is represented on a continuous scale. The second is an assessability index, which reflects the degree to which a calcified plaque is affected by motion artifacts, and is represented on an ordinal five-point scale. Two sets of assessability indices were provided independently by two radiologists experienced in evaluating cardiac CT images. Inputs for the regression models were selected from 12 features characterizing the dynamic, morphological, and intensity-based properties of the calcified plaques. Whereas LR-velocity (LR-V) used only a single feature (three-dimensional velocity), the LR-multiple (LR-M) and ANN regression models used the same subset of these 12 features selected through stepwise regression. The regression models were parameterized and evaluated using a database of simulated calcified plaque images from the dynamic NCAT phantom involving nine heart rate/multi-sector gating combinations and 40 cardiac phases covering two cardiac cycles. Six calcified plaques were used for the plaque motion indices and three calcified plaques were used for both sets of assessability indices. In one configuration, images from the second cardiac cycle were used for feature selection and regression model parameterization, whereas images from the first cardiac cycle were used for testing. With this configuration, repeated measures concordance correlation coefficients (CCCs) and associated 95% confidence intervals for the LR-V, LR-M, and ANN

  8. Toward microendoscopy-inspired cardiac optogenetics in vivo: technical overview and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, Aleksandra; Entcheva, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The ability to perform precise, spatially localized actuation and measurements of electrical activity in the heart is crucial in understanding cardiac electrophysiology and devising new therapeutic solutions for control of cardiac arrhythmias. Current cardiac imaging techniques (i.e. optical mapping) employ voltage- or calcium-sensitive fluorescent dyes to visualize the electrical signal propagation through cardiac syncytium in vitro or in situ with very high-spatiotemporal resolution. The extension of optogenetics into the cardiac field, where cardiac tissue is genetically altered to express light-sensitive ion channels allowing electrical activity to be elicited or suppressed in a precise cell-specific way, has opened the possibility for all-optical interrogation of cardiac electrophysiology. In vivo application of cardiac optogenetics faces multiple challenges and necessitates suitable optical systems employing fiber optics to actuate and sense electrical signals. In this technical perspective, we present a compendium of clinically relevant access routes to different parts of the cardiac electrical conduction system based on currently employed catheter imaging systems and determine the quantitative size constraints for endoscopic cardiac optogenetics. We discuss the relevant technical advancements in microendoscopy, cardiac imaging, and optogenetics and outline the strategies for combining them to create a portable, miniaturized fiber-based system for all-optical interrogation of cardiac electrophysiology in vivo.

  9. Intraoperative Cardiac Ultrasound Examination Using Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Nilsson, Jens Christian; Lund, Jens Teglgaard; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Bachmann, Michael Bachmann

    2013-01-01

    proposed. The vector flow method implemented on a Commercial scanner provided real-time, angle-independent estimates of cardiac blood flow. Epicardiac and epiaortic, intraoperative US examinations were performed on three patients with stenosed coronary arteries scheduled for bypass surgery. Repeating...

  10. [Cardiac amyloidosis. General review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraki, R

    1994-04-01

    Cardiac amyloidosis, most often of AL type, is a non-exceptional disease as it represents 5 to 10% of non-ischemic cardiomyopathies. It realizes typically a restrictive cardiomyopathy. Nevertheless the wide diversity of possible presentation makes it a "big shammer" which must be evoked in front of every unexplained cardiopathy after the age of forty. If some associated manifestations can rapidly suggest the diagnosis, as a peripheric neuropathy especially a carpal tunnel syndrome or palpebral ecchymosis, cardiac involvement can also evolve in an apparently isolated way. The most suggestive paraclinic elements for the diagnosis are, in one hand, the increased myocardial echogenicity with a "granular sparkling" appearance seen throughout all walls of the left ventricle and, in the other hand, the association of a thickened left ventricle and a low voltage (electrocardiogram could also show pseudo-infarct Q waves). In front of such aspects, the proof of amyloidosis is brought by an extra-cardiac biopsy or by scintigraphy with labelled serum amyloid P component, so that the indications of endomyocardial biopsy are very limited today. The identification of the amyloid nature of a cardiopathy has an direct therapeutic implication: it contra-indicates the use of digitalis, calcium channel blockers and beta-blockers. The treatment of AL amyloidosis (chemotherapy with alkylant agents) remains very unsatisfactory especially in the cardiac involvement which is the most frequent cause of death (in AL amyloidosis). Last, cardiac amyloidosis is a bad indication for transplantation which results are burden by rapid progression of deposits especially in the gastro-intestinal tract and the nervous system. PMID:8059146

  11. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being implemented into clinical algorithms, primarily due to substantial technical advances over the last decade. Its use in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndrome is of particular relevance, given the high degree of accumulating scientific evidence of improving patient outcomes. Performing cardiac CT requires specific knowledge on the available scan acquisitions and patient preparation. Also, expertise is required in order to interpret the coronary and extra-coronary findings adequately. The present article provides an overview of the different aspects on the use of cardiac CT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

  12. Risk factors and the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on cardiac and non-cardiac mortality in MADIT-CRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkiomaki, Juha S; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina;

    2015-01-01

    causes, 108 (63.9%) deemed cardiac, and 61 (36.1%) non-cardiac. In multivariate analysis, increased baseline creatinine was significantly associated with both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths [hazard ratio (HR) 2.97, P ...AIMS: To understand modes of death and factors associated with the risk for cardiac and non-cardiac deaths in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) vs. implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy, which may help clarify...

  13. Establishing a clinical cardiac MRI service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After several years of research development cardiovascular MRI has evolved into a widely accepted clinical tool. It offers important diagnostic and prognostic information for a variety of clinical indications, which include ischaemic heart disease, cardiomyopathies, valvular dysfunction and congenital heart disorders. It is a safe non-invasive technique that employs a variety of imaging sequences optimized for temporal or spatial resolution, tissue-specific contrast, flow quantification or angiography. Cardiac MRI offers specific advantages over conventional imaging techniques for a significant number of patients. The demand for cardiac MRI studies from cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists and other referrers is likely to continue to rise with pressure for more widespread local service provision. Setting up a cardiac MRI service requires careful consideration regarding funding issues and how it will be integrated with existing service provision. The purchase of cardiac phased array coils, monitoring equipment and software upgrades must also be considered, as well as the training needs of those involved. The choice of appropriate imaging protocols will be guided by operator experience, clinical indication and equipment capability, and is likely to evolve as the service develops. Post-processing and offline analysis form a significant part of the time taken to report studies and an efficient method of providing quantitative reports is an important requirement. Collaboration between radiologists and cardiologists is needed to develop a successful service and multi-disciplinary meetings are key component of this. This review will explore these issues from our perspective of a new clinical cardiac MRI service operating over its first year in a teaching hospital imaging department

  14. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  15. The psychosocial outcome of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The psychosocial outcome of anoxic brain injury following cardiac arrest is a relatively under researched, but clinically important area. The aim of the current study was to add to the limited existing literature exploring the psychosocial outcome for cardiac arrest survivors, but specifically explore if there is a greater impact on psychosocial outcome in individuals experiencing anoxic brain injury as a result. Methods A range of self report measures were used to c...

  16. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  17. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.L.; Cannon, P.J. (Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references.

  18. Antimyosin imaging in cardiac transplant rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fab fragments of antibodies specific for cardiac myosin have been labeled with indium-111 and injected intravenously into animals and into patients with heart transplants. The antibodies, developed by Khaw, Haber, and co-workers, localize in cardiac myocytes that have been damaged irreversibly by ischemia, myocarditis, or the rejection process. After clearance of the labeled antibody from the cardiac blood pool, planar imaging or single photon emission computed tomography is performed. Scintigrams reveal the uptake of the labeled antimyosin in areas of myocardium undergoing transplant rejection. In animal studies, the degree of antimyosin uptake appears to correlate significantly with the degree of rejection assessed at necropsy. In patients, the correlation between scans and pathologic findings from endomyocardial biopsy is not as good, possibly because of sampling error in the endomyocardial biopsy technique. The scan results at 1 year correlate with either late complications (positive) or benign course (negative). Current limitations of the method include slow blood clearance, long half-life of indium-111, and hepatic uptake. Overcoming these limitations represents a direction for current research. It is possible that from these efforts a noninvasive approach to the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiac transplantation may evolve that will decrease the number of endomyocardial biopsies required to evaluate rejection. This would be particularly useful in infants and children. 31 references

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Kengo F; Satomi, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. The frequency of cardiac involvement (cardiac sarcoidosis (CS)) varies in the different geographical regions, but it has been reported that it is an absolutely important prognostic factor in this disease. Complete atrioventricular block is the most common, and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation the second most common arrhythmia in this disease, both of which are associated with cardiac sudden death. Diagnosing CS is sometimes difficult because of the non-specific ECG and echocardiographic findings, and CS is sometimes misdiagnosed as dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy or an idiopathic ventricular aneurysm, and therefore, endomyocardial biopsy is important, but has a low sensitivity. Another problem is the recognition of isolated types of CS. Recently, MRI and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography have been demonstrated to be useful tools for the non-invasive diagnosis of CS as well as therapeutic evaluation tools, but are still unsatisfactory. Treatment of CS is usually done by corticosteroid therapy to control inflammation, prevent fibrosis and protect from any deterioration of the cardiac function, but the long-term outcome is still in debate. Despite the advancement of non-pharmacological approaches for CS (pacing, defibrillators and catheter ablation) to improve the prognosis, there are still many issues remaining to resolve diagnosing and managing CS. Here, we attempt a review of the clinical evidence, with special focus on the current understanding of this disease and showing the current strategies and remaining problems of diagnosing and managing CS. PMID:26643814

  20. Abulia following an episode of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Vismay Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    The word 'abulia' means a lack of will, initiative or drive. The symptoms of abulia include lack of spontaneous action and speech, reduced emotional responsiveness and social interaction, poor attention and easy distractibility. These symptoms are independent of reduced levels of consciousness or cognitive impairment. We describe a case of a socially active 72-year-old female patient who presented with symptoms of abulia which may have occurred due to damage of the frontosubcortical circuits following an episode of cardiac arrest. The patient's symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with bromocriptine. PMID:26135487

  1. Expression of ATP7B in human gastric cardiac carcinomas in comparison with distal gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Hui-Xing Yi; Feng-Ying Sui; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Xiao-Ming Jiang; Ying-Ying Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze expression of ATP7B in gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas, its clinicopathologic significance, in comparison with distal gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: Immunohistochemical avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was applied to detect the expression of ATP7B in 49 cases of cardiac carcinomas,the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium and 55 cases of distal gastric carcinomas.RESULTS: The proportion of ATP7B positive samples in gastric cardiac carcinomas (51.0%, 25 of 49) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium (22.4%, 11 of 49)(P = 0.003). ATP7B expression in poorly differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas was significantly higher than that in well/moderately differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.030). ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas was independent of age, tumor size, nodal stage and metastasis status. ATP7B protein was detected in 30.9% (17/55 cases) of distal gastric carcinomas, markedly lower than that in gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.037).CONCLUSION: ATP7B protein is frequently overexpressed in gastric cardiac carcinomas, and correlated with the differentiation of cardiac carcinoma. ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas is significantly higher than that in distal gastric carcinomas, which might partially explain the difference of chemotherapy response and prognosis between these two gastric carcinomas.

  2. The effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yuk-yan, Pauline; 梁玉恩

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease on cardiac-related mortality, recurrent cardiovascular event and quality of life. Methods: All studies published between 1990 and 2013 in PubMed, and from 1980 to 2013 in EMBASE, which evaluated the effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program for coronary heart disease. Using the specific keywords “Cardiac rehabilitation”, “Coronary heart...

  3. Powerful Independent Directors

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy Fogel; Liping Ma; Randall Morck

    2014-01-01

    Shareholder valuations are economically and statistically positively correlated with independent directors’ power, gauged by social network power centrality. Powerful independent directors’ sudden deaths reduce shareholder value significantly; other independent directors’ deaths do not. More powerful independent directors Granger cause higher valuations; the converse is not true. Further tests associate more powerful independent directors with less value-destroying M&A, less free cash flow re...

  4. Central Bank independence

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile DEDU; Tiberiu STOICA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR) has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disin...

  5. Research progress of adult cardiac stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Nan; Ning-kun ZHANG; Lian-ru GAO

    2013-01-01

    The traditional view is that the heart is a terminal organ. This dogma, however, has been widely questioned with the discovery of adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs). Since CSCs have a highly self-renewal capacity and specific myocardial differentiation potential, nowadays they have been regarded as the most promising type of stem cells used in ischemic heart disease and other replacement therapy of end-stage heart disease. The present paper will focus on current results of scientific research on...

  6. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  7. Neuromuscular blockade in cardiac surgery: An update for clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmerling Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been great advancements in cardiac surgery over the last two decades; the widespread use of off-pump aortocoronary bypass surgery, minimally invasive cardiac surgery, and robotic surgery have also changed the face of cardiac anaesthesia. The concept of "Fast-track anaesthesia" demands the use of nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs with short duration of action, combining the ability to provide (if necessary sufficiently profound neuromuscular blockade during surgery and immediate re-establishment of normal neuromuscular transmission at the end of surgery. Postoperative residual muscle paralysis is one of the major hurdles for immediate or early extubation after cardiac surgery. Nondepolarising neuromuscular blocking drugs for cardiac surgery should therefore be easy to titrate, of rapid onset and short duration of action with a pathway of elimination independent from hepatic or renal dysfunction, and should equally not affect haemodynamic stability. The difference between repetitive bolus application and continuous infusion is outlined in this review, with the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of vecuronium, pancuronium, rocuronium, and cisatracurium. Kinemyography and acceleromyography are the most important currently used neuromuscular monitoring methods. Whereas monitoring at the adductor pollicis muscle is appropriate at the end of surgery, monitoring of the corrugator supercilii muscle better reflects neuromuscular blockade at more central, profound muscles, such as the diaphragm, larynx, or thoraco-abdominal muscles. In conclusion, cisatracurium or rocuronium is recommended for neuromuscular blockade in modern cardiac surgery.

  8. Cardiac arrest in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tress Erika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners.

  9. Cardiac arrest in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tress, Erika E; Kochanek, Patrick M; Saladino, Richard A; Manole, Mioara D

    2010-07-01

    Major advances in the field of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) were made during the last decade, starting with the publication of pediatric Utstein guidelines, the 2005 recommendations by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, and culminating in multicenter collaborations. The epidemiology and pathophysiology of in-hospital and out-of-hospital CA are now well described. Four phases of CA are described and the term "post-cardiac arrest syndrome" has been proposed, along with treatment goals for each of its four phases: immediate post-arrest, early post-arrest, intermediate and recovery phase. Hypothermia is recommended to be considered as a therapy for post-CA syndrome in comatose patients after CA, and large multicenter prospective studies are underway. We reviewed landmark articles related to pediatric CA published during the last decade. We present the current knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of CA relevant to pre-hospital and acute care health practitioners. PMID:20930971

  10. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt;

    2012-01-01

    recruitment and participation among low educated and socially vulnerable patients must be addressed to lower inequality in post-MI health. Our aim was to improve referral, attendance, and adherence rates among socially vulnerable patients by systematic screening and by offering a socially differentiated...... standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements......%. Patients were equally distributed to the SRP and the ERP. No inequality was found in attendance and adherence among referred patients. Conclusions: It seems possible to overcome unequal referral, attendance, and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation by organisation of systematic screening and social...

  11. Valor da enolase específica do neurônio como indicador de prognóstico pós-parada cardiorrespiratória Serum neuron-specific enolase as a prognostic marker after a cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana H. Rech

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A parada cardíaca é um estado de grave hipoperfusão cerebral. Os pacientes que sobrevivem a uma reanimação cardiorrespiratória estão sob grande risco de vir a morrer ou desenvolver lesão cerebral incapacitante, inclusive estado vegetativo persistente. Uma definição precoce do prognóstico desses pacientes tem implicações éticas e econômicas. O objetivo desse estudo foi revisar o valor prognóstico da Enolase Específica do Neurônio (NSE em predizer precocemente os desfechos de pacientes após uma parada cardíaca. CONTEÚDO: A lesão cerebral permanente é a complicação mais temida de uma reanimação cardíaca prolongada. Muitos estudos têm tentado isolar fatores prognósticos que possam estar associados com desfechos clínicos em pacientes sobreviventes de parada cardíaca. Indicadores bioquímicos de morte neuronal parecem promissores nesse cenário. Nesse contexto, a NSE vem sendo estudada em pacientes reanimados de paradas cardíacas e níveis elevados dessa enzima sugerem lesão encefálica mais extensa e estão associados a desfechos clínicos desfavoráveis. CONCLUSÕES: Os desfechos depois de uma parada cardíaca são determinados principalmente pelo grau de lesão cerebral isquêmica e medidas precoces de NSE sérica podem ser um método adjunto de grande valor na avaliação prognóstica desses pacientes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cardiac arrest is a state of severe cerebral perfusion deficit. Patients recovering from a cardiopulmonary resuscitation are at great risk of subsequent death or incapacitating neurologic injury, including persistent vegetative state. The early definition of prognosis for these patients has ethical and economic implications. The main purpose of this manuscript was to review the prognostic value of serum Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE in predicting outcomes in patients early after a cardiac arrest. CONTENTS: Severe neurologic disability is the most feared

  12. Lipotoxicity in obesity and diabetes-related cardiac dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlobine, Igor; Gopal, Keshav; Ussher, John R

    2016-10-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are at increased risk for cardiovascular diseases including diabetic cardiomyopathy, which is ventricular dysfunction independent of underlying coronary artery disease and/or hypertension. With numerous advancements in our ability to detect ventricular dysfunction, as well as the molecular mechanisms contributing to ventricular dysfunction in diabetic patients, it is now appreciated that diabetic cardiomyopathy is becoming more prevalent in our population. In spite of these advancements, we do not have any specific therapies currently approved for treating this condition. As obesity increases the risk for both T2D and cardiovascular disease, it has been postulated that obesity-mediated alterations in myocardial lipid metabolism are critical to the pathophysiology of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Indeed, animal studies have provided strong evidence that alterations in either myocardial fatty acid uptake or fatty acid β-oxidation lead to the accumulation of various lipid intermediates including triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, ceramide, long-chain acyl CoA, acylcarnitine, and many others that are tightly linked to the progression of ventricular dysfunction. We review herein why lipid intermediates accumulate in the heart during obesity and/or T2D, with a focus on which of these various lipid intermediates may be responsible for cardiac lipotoxicity, and whether findings in animal models are relevant to humans. An improved understanding of how these lipid intermediates accumulate in the heart and how they produce cardiac toxicity may lead to the discovery of novel targets to pursue for the treatment of human diabetic cardiomyopathy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Heart Lipid Metabolism edited by G.D. Lopaschuk. PMID:26899197

  13. Cardiac metastases of osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteosarcoma is a malignancy whose various sites of metastasis greatly modify its ultimate prognosis. We report a case of simultaneous pulmonary and cardiac metastases in a 41-year-old male patient with osteosarcoma of the tibia, presenting after more then one year of completion of adjuvant therapy with progressive dyspnea and cyanosis. Diagnosis was made on computerized tomogram and echocardiogram. The metastatic mass entirely occupying the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery proved fatal. (author)

  14. Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    MILICA RADISIC; GORDANA VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick),compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3) can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of p...

  15. Cardiac developmental toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Jonathan T Butcher

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause ...

  16. Penetrating Cardiac Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZYAZICIOĞLU, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To present our experience of penetrating cardiac injuries treated at Atatürk University hospital; in 17 years 38 patients were analyzed. Methods: Patients were classified into three groups: group A (stable), 12; group B (shock), 21; and group C (agonal), five. Five patients were treated by pericardial window and three by pericardiocentesis. Two patients in group C, 19 patients in group B and five patients in group A underwent median sternotomy or thoracotomy in the operating room...

  17. Benign cardiac tumours: cardiac CT and MRI imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary benign cardiac tumours are rarely found in clinical practice and are generally evaluated with echocardiography. However, with the increasing usage of helical multislice CT, the initial detection and evaluation of these masses may be made by the radiologist during routine daily practice for other indications. The echocardiographic, CT and cardiac MRI appearances of various benign cardiac tumours and masses are described and illustrated in this review

  18. Cardiac tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MILICA RADISIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick,compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3 can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of perfluorocarbons, or with electrical stimulation (continuous application of biphasic pulses, 2 ms, 5 V, 1 Hz. Tissue constructs cultured without perfusion or electrical stimulation served as controls. Medium perfusion and addition of perfluorocarbons resulted in compact, thick constructs containing physiologic density of viable, electromechanically coupled cells, in contrast to control constructs which had only a ~100 mm thick peripheral region with functionally connected cells. Electrical stimulation of cultured constructs resulted in markedly improved contractile properties, increased amounts of cardiac proteins, and remarkably well developed ultrastructure (similar to that of native heart as compared to non-stimulated controls. We discuss here the state of the art of cardiac tissue engineering, in light of the biomimetic approach that reproduces in vitro some of the conditions present during normal tissue development.

  19. Calcium Sensing Receptor Promotes Cardiac Fibroblast Proliferation and Extracellular Matrix Secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinying Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Calcium-sensing receptor (CaR acts as a G protein coupled receptor that mediates the increase of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The expression of CaR has been confirmed in various cell types, including cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, neurons and vascular endothelial cells. However, whether CaR is expressed and functions in cardiac fibroblasts has remained unknown. The present study investigated whether CaR played a role in cardiac fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM secretion, both in cultured rat neonatal cardiac fibroblasts and in a model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol (ISO. Methods and Results: Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed the presence of CaR in cardiac fibroblasts. Calcium and calindol, a specific activator of CaR, elevated the intracellular calcium concentration in cardiac fibroblasts. Pretreatment of cardiac fibroblasts with calhex231, a specific inhibitor of CaR, U73122 and 2-APB attenuated the calindol- and extracellular calcium-induced increase in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i. Cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration were assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, cell count and the cell scratch assay. ECM production was detected by expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 and -9 (MMP-3 and -9. Activation of CaR promoted cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration and ECM secretion. More importantly, calhex231, suppressed cardiac fibroblast proliferation and migration and MMP-3 and -9 expression. To further investigate the effect of CaR on cardiac fibrosis, a model of ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy was established. Pretreatment with calhex231 prevented cardiac fibrosis and decreased the expression of MMP-3 and -9 expression. Conclusions: Our results are the first report that CaR plays an important role in Ca2+ signaling involved in cardiac fibrosis through the phospholipase C- inositol 3

  20. DNA methylation in cardiac fibrosis: New advances and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the cardiac interstitium, and contributes to both systolic and diastolic dysfunction in many cardiac pathophysiologic conditions. More specifically, cardiac fibroblasts are activated by a variety of pathological stimuli, thereby undergoing proliferation, differentiation to myofibroblasts, and production of various cytokines and ECM proteins. Thus, understanding the biological processes of cardiac fibroblasts will provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis. DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism, which often occurs in response to environmental stimuli and is crucial in regulating gene expression. The aberrant methylation of CpG island promoters of selected genes is the prominent epigenetic mechanism by which gene transcription can be effectively silenced. Aberrant hypermethylation of a few selected genes such as RASSF1A plays an important role in facilitating fibrotic fibroblast activation and in driving fibrosis. In this review we will discuss the mechanisms of DNA methylation and their implications for cardiac fibroblasts activation and fibrosis. Control of DNA methylation may serve as a new strategy for anti-fibrotic therapy

  1. Cardiac MRI for myocardial ischemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Proper assessment of the physiologic impact of coronary artery stenosis on the LV myocardium can affect patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) assesses myocardial perfusion by imaging the myocardium during a first-pass transit of an intravenous gadolinium bolus, with spatial and temporal resolution substantially higher than nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging. Coupled with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) imaging for infarction during the same imaging session, CMR with vasodilating stress perfusion imaging can qualitatively and quantitatively assess the myocardial extent of hypoperfusion from coronary stenosis independent of infarcted myocardium. This approach has been validated experimentally, and multiple clinical trials have established its diagnostic robustness when compared to stress single-photon emission computed tomography. In specialized centers, dobutamine stress CMR has been shown to have incremental diagnostic value above stress echocardiography due to its high imaging quality and ability to image the heart with no restriction of imaging window. This paper reviews the technical aspects, diagnostic utility, prognostic values, challenges to clinical adaptation, and future developments of stress CMR imaging.

  2. Indeterminacy of Spatiotemporal Cardiac Alternans

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (at the cellular level) or in ECG morphology (at the whole heart level), is a marker of ventricular fibrillation, a fatal heart rhythm that kills hundreds of thousands of people in the US each year. Investigating cardiac alternans may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and eventually better algorithms for the prediction and prevention of such dreadful diseases. In paced cardiac tissue, alternans develops under increasingly shorter pacing period. Existing experimental and theoretical studies adopt the assumption that alternans in homogeneous cardiac tissue is exclusively determined by the pacing period. In contrast, we find that, when calcium-driven alternans develops in cardiac fibers, it may take different spatiotemporal patterns depending on the pacing history. Because there coexist multiple alternans solutions for a given pacing period, the alternans pattern on a fiber becomes unpredictable. Usin...

  3. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac p...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....... characterized. An ongoing characterization of the molecular heterogeneity will help appreciate the biosynthetic capacity of the endocrine heart and could introduce new diagnostic possibilities. Notably, different biosynthetic products may not be equal markers of the same pathophysiological processes. An...... inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...

  4. Biosynthesis of cardiac natriuretic peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac-derived peptide hormones were identified more than 25 years ago. An astonishing amount of clinical studies have established cardiac natriuretic peptides and their molecular precursors as useful markers of heart disease. In contrast to the clinical applications, the biogenesis of cardiac...... inefficient post-translational prohormone maturation will also affect the biology of the cardiac natriuretic peptide system. This review aims at summarizing the myocardial synthesis of natriuretic peptides focusing on B-type natriuretic peptide, where new data has disclosed cardiac myocytes as highly...... competent endocrine cells. The structurally related atrial natriuretic peptide will be mentioned where appropriate, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide will not be considered as a cardiac peptide of relevance in mammalian physiology....

  5. Cardiac Rehabilitation: Guidelines and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Monpere

    1998-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to improve exercise tolerance and symptomatology in patients experiencing angina or heart failure and reduce long term mortality after myocardial infarction, with a good cost-effectiveness ratio. In addition to these `hard' endpoints, cardiac rehabilitation improves the patient's quality of life and risk factor profile through a multifactorial intervention. Indeed, cardiac rehabilitation is no longer restricted to physical reconditioning, but should now b...

  6. Evolutionary origin of cardiac malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, H B

    1988-10-01

    The author has proposed in previous publications that isolated cardiac malformations have an evolutionary origin. This is partly supported by the fact that isolated cardiac malformations found in humans occur also in other placental mammals as well as in birds. External gross examination of the heart in just over 5,000 birds was carried out during a 3 year period. Anomalies included one instance of duplicate hearts, two specimens in which no heart could be identified and in a fourth, a yellow-rumped warbler, the heart lay in the neck outside of the thoracic cavity. Published reports of similar occurrences of an ectopically placed heart concern birds, cattle and humans. The fact that various species of both placental mammals and birds show evidence of heritability for heart defects, and that these species cannot interbreed, combined with the fact that birds and mammals have many similar malformations, points to either a common external causative factor or a common origin. Genes that code the malformed heart must be transmitted with that part of the genetic makeup common to all birds and mammals. Malformations caused by teratogens produce widespread organ injury to a potentially normal embryo whereas the evolutionary malformation is an organ-specific anomaly in an otherwise normal mammal or bird and occurs in widely separated species. The implications of this theory are important for parents of children with an isolated congenital heart defect who may have ingested one or another drug or chemical or have been exposed to toxins or infectious agents before or after conception of the affected offspring. PMID:3047192

  7. Diagnostic imaging of cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As imaging techniques for cardiac hypertrophy, the ultrasonic dimension gauze technique, echocardiography, ventriculography and the RI technique including emission RI tomography were outlined. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Mitigation of Variability among 3D Echocardiography-Derived Regional Strain Values Acquired by Multiple Ultrasound Systems by Vendor Independent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Streiff

    Full Text Available This study compared the variability of 3D echo derived circumferential and longitudinal strain values computed from vendor-specific and vendor-independent analyses of images acquired using ultrasound systems from different vendors.Ten freshly harvested porcine hearts were studied. Each heart was mounted on a custom designed phantom and driven to simulate normal cardiac motion. Cardiac rotation was digitally controlled and held constant at 5°, while pumped stroke volume (SV ranged from 30-70ml. Full-volume image data was acquired using three different ultrasound systems from different vendors. The image data was analyzed for longitudinal and circumferential strains (LS, CS using both vendor-specific and vendor-independent analysis packages.Good linear relationships were observed for each vendor-specific analysis package for both CS and LS at the mid-anterior segment, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.82-0.91 (CS and 0.86-0.89 (LS. Comparable linear regressions were observed for results determined by a vendor independent program (CS: R = 0.82-0.89; LS: R = 0.86-0.89. Variability between analysis packages was examined via a series of ANOVA tests. A statistical difference was found between vendor-specific analysis packages (p0.05.Circumferential and longitudinal regional strain values differ when quantified by vendor-specific analysis packages; however, this variability is mitigated by use of a vendor-independent quantification method. These results suggest that echocardiograms acquired using different ultrasound systems could be meaningfully compared using vendor-independent software.

  9. Genetic and physiologic dissection of the vertebrate cardiac conduction system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil C Chi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hearts depend on highly specialized cardiomyocytes that form the cardiac conduction system (CCS to coordinate chamber contraction and drive blood efficiently and unidirectionally throughout the organism. Defects in this specialized wiring system can lead to syncope and sudden cardiac death. Thus, a greater understanding of cardiac conduction development may help to prevent these devastating clinical outcomes. Utilizing a cardiac-specific fluorescent calcium indicator zebrafish transgenic line, Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP(s878, that allows for in vivo optical mapping analysis in intact animals, we identified and analyzed four distinct stages of cardiac conduction development that correspond to cellular and anatomical changes of the developing heart. Additionally, we observed that epigenetic factors, such as hemodynamic flow and contraction, regulate the fast conduction network of this specialized electrical system. To identify novel regulators of the CCS, we designed and performed a new, physiology-based, forward genetic screen and identified for the first time, to our knowledge, 17 conduction-specific mutations. Positional cloning of hobgoblin(s634 revealed that tcf2, a homeobox transcription factor gene involved in mature onset diabetes of the young and familial glomerulocystic kidney disease, also regulates conduction between the atrium and the ventricle. The combination of the Tg(cmlc2:gCaMP(s878 line/in vivo optical mapping technique and characterization of cardiac conduction mutants provides a novel multidisciplinary approach to further understand the molecular determinants of the vertebrate CCS.

  10. Peptide growth factors can provoke "fetal" contractile protein gene expression in rat cardiac myocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, T G; Packer, S E; Schneider, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Cardiac-specific gene expression is intricately regulated in response to developmental, hormonal, and hemodynamic stimuli. To test whether cardiac muscle might be a target for regulation by peptide growth factors, the effect of three growth factors on the actin and myosin gene families was investigated by Northern blot analysis in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1, 1 ng/ml) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 25 ng/ml) elicited changes ...

  11. Recovery of the cardiac frequency to the minute post effort as early indicator of myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the work was to evaluate the recovery cardiac frequency like ischemia indicator, due to the immediate reactivity of the parasympathetic nervous system in the post-effort. It is obtained as conclusion that a slow descent of the cardiac frequency to the first minute of the post-effort is a predictor ischemia index when correlating it with the risk evaluated by cardiac SPECT with a high specificity; being this a marker of simple calculating in the daily practice. (Author)

  12. Differential and Conditional Activation of PKC-Isoforms Dictates Cardiac Adaptation during Physiological to Pathological Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Shaon Naskar; Kaberi Datta; Arkadeep Mitra; Kanchan Pathak; Ritwik Datta; Trisha Bansal; Sagartirtha Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    A cardiac hypertrophy is defined as an increase in heart mass which may either be beneficial (physiological hypertrophy) or detrimental (pathological hypertrophy). This study was undertaken to establish the role of different protein kinase-C (PKC) isoforms in the regulation of cardiac adaptation during two types of cardiac hypertrophy. Phosphorylation of specific PKC-isoforms and expression of their downstream proteins were studied during physiological and pathological hypertrophy in 24 week ...

  13. The vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene is reactivated during cardiac hypertrophy provoked by load.

    OpenAIRE

    Black, F M; Packer, S E; Parker, T G; Michael, L H; Roberts, R; R J Schwartz; Schneider, M D

    1991-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy triggered by mechanical load possesses features in common with growth factor signal transduction. A hemodynamic load provokes rapid expression of the growth factor-inducible nuclear oncogene, c-fos, and certain peptide growth factors specifically stimulate the "fetal" cardiac genes associated with hypertrophy, even in the absence of load. These include the gene encoding vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin, the earliest alpha-actin expressed during cardiac myogenesis; howeve...

  14. Dependence and Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Grädel, E.; Väänänen, J.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an atomic formula intuitively saying that given variables are independent from given other variables if a third set of variables is kept constant. We contrast this with dependence logic. We show that our independence atom gives rise to a natural logic capable of formalizing basic intuitions about independence and dependence.

  15. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  16. Cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Helle; Vissing, John; Witting, Nanna; Bundgaard, Henning; Køber, Lars

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the degree of cardiac involvement regarding left ventricular ejection fraction, conduction abnormalities, arrhythmia, risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and the associations between cardiac involvement and cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG)-repeat, neuromuscular involvement, age and gender...

  17. Blood transfusion practices in cardiac anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumantha Rao Mangu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary reasons for blood transfusion in cardiac surgery are to correct anaemia and to improve tissue oxygen delivery. However, there is a considerable debate regarding the actual transfusion trigger at which the benefits of transfusion overweight the risk. The association between extreme haemodilution, transfusion and adverse outcome after cardio pulmonary bypass (CPB is not clear and the current available literature is not sufficient to provide a strong recommendation regarding the safe haematocrit range during CPB. There is no quality evidence to support use of fresh red blood cell except during massive transfusion or exchange transfusion in neonate. Overall concern regarding the safety of allogeneic blood transfusion resulted in the search for autologous blood transfusion and perioperative blood salvage. The aim of this review is to provide cardiac surgery specific clinically useful guidelines pertaining to transfusion triggers, optimal haemodilution during CPB, autologous blood transfusion and role of perioperative blood salvage based on available evidence.

  18. Research progress of adult cardiac stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan ZHENG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view is that the heart is a terminal organ. This dogma, however, has been widely questioned with the discovery of adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs. Since CSCs have a highly self-renewal capacity and specific myocardial differentiation potential, nowadays they have been regarded as the most promising type of stem cells used in ischemic heart disease and other replacement therapy of end-stage heart disease. The present paper will focus on current results of scientific research on human adult CSCs and epicardium-derived cell (EPDC, as well as the treatment strategies in the field of cardiac regeneration, and the problems and prospect disclosed in the research.

  19. Factors influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following factors possibly influencing the cardiac MIBG accumulation were examined mainly in mice. 1. The specific activity of the MIBG (meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine) on the neuronal and non-neuronal fractions. 2. Motor restriction stress on MIBG accumulation and washout. 3. Loading and restriction of sodium chloride on the accumulation and effect of suppression of renin-angiotensin system. 4. Examinations in Dahl rats. 125I- or 131I-MIBG was intravenously administered to mice at 74 kBq. At 30 min or 4 hr after administration, mice were sacrificed and their left ventricles were dissected out for measurement of radioactivity in a liquid scintillation counter. Salt-sensitive and -resistant Dahl rats were given with 37 MBq of 123I-MIBG and cardiac radioactivity was measured externally for calculation of washout. Factors examined were found highly correlated with the accumulation of MIBG and measurement of its washout was considered useful for evaluating sympathetic activity. (K.H.)

  20. The thick left ventricular wall of the giraffe heart normalises wall tension, but limits stroke volume and cardiac output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Damkjær, Mads; Brøndum, Emil; Baandrup, Ulrik T.; Kristiansen, Steen Buus; Nygaard, Hans; Aalkjær, Christian; Sauer, Cathrine; Buchanan, Rasmus; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Østergaard, Kristine Hovkjær; Grøndahl, Carsten; Candy, Geoffrey; Hasenkam, J Michael; Secher, Niels H; Bie, Peter; Wang, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    pressures to calculate left ventricular wall stress. Cardiac output was also determined by inert gas rebreathing to provide an additional and independent estimate of stroke volume. Echocardiography and inert gas-rebreathing yielded similar cardiac outputs of 16.1±2.5 and 16.4±1.4 l min(-1), respectively...

  1. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Dhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA. While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances.

  2. Patient-reported health status prior to cardiac resynchronisation therapy identifies patients at risk for poor survival and prolonged hospital stays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, H.; Denollet, J.; Meine, M.; Pedersen, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: Results of multivariable Cox regression analyses showed that poor patient-reported health status (KCCQ score < 50) prior to implantation was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk of cardiac hospitalisation or all-cause death, independent of sociodemographic, clinical and psychological risk...... failure-specific health status. Data on patients' demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics at baseline, and on cardiac-related hospitalisations and all-cause deaths during a median follow-up of 3.9 years were obtained from purpose-designed questionnaires and patients' medical records...... research and patient management. Heart failure patients reporting poor health status should be identified and offered appropriate additional treatment programs....

  3. Single ventricle cardiac defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single ventricle heart is defined as a rare cardiac abnormality with a single ventricle chamber involving diverse functional and physiological defects. Our case is of a ten month-old baby boy who died shortly after admission to the hospital due to vomiting and diarrhoea. Autopsy findings revealed cyanosis of finger nails and ears. Internal examination revealed; large heart, weighing 60 grams, single ventricle, without a septum and upper membranous part. Single ventricle is a rare pathology, hence, this paper aims to discuss this case from a medico-legal point of view. (author)

  4. Determinants of Left Ventricular Mass and Hypertrophy in Hemodialysis Patients Assessed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rajan K.; Oliver, Scott; Patrick B. Mark; Powell, Joanna R.; McQuarrie, Emily P.; Traynor, James P.; Dargie, Henry J; Jardine, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for premature cardiovascular death in hemodialysis (HD) patients and one of the three forms of uremic cardiomyopathy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a volume-independent technique to assess cardiac structure. We used CMR to assess the determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) and LVH in HD patients.

  5. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  6. Atrial tumors in cardiac MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the diagnosis of cardiac masses. Various cardiac tumors are predisposed to occurring in atrial structures. The aim of this review article is the description of atrial tumors and their morphological features in MRI. In general, cardiac tumors are rare: approximately 0.001-0.03% in autopsy studies. About 75% of them are benign. The most common cardiac tumor is the myxoma. They are predisposed to occur in the atria and show a characteristically strong hyperintense signal on T2-wieghted images in MRI. In other sequences a heterogeneous pattern reflects its variable histological appearance. Lipomas exhibit a signal behavior identical to fatty tissue with a typical passive movement in cine imaging. Fibroelastomas are the most common tumors of the cardiac valves. Consisting of avascular fibrous tissue, they often present with hypointense signal intensities. Thrombi attached to their surface can cause severe emboli even in small tumors. Amongst primary cardiac malignancies, sarcomas are most common and favor the atria. Secondary malignancies of the heart are far more common than primary ones (20-40 times). In case of known malignancies, approximately 10% of patients develop cardiac metastasis at the end of their disease. Lymphogenic metastases favor the pericardium, while hematogenic spread prefers the myocardium. Since they are not real atrial tumors, thrombi and anatomical structures of the atria have to be differentiated from other pathologies. (orig.)

  7. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  8. Pneumothorax in cardiac pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify risk factors for pneumothorax treated with a chest tube after cardiac pacing device implantation in a population-based cohort.METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide cohort study was performed based on data on 28 860 patients from the Danish Pacemaker Register, which included all Danish...... patients who received their first pacemaker (PM) or cardiac resynchronization device from 1997 to 2008. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and pneumothorax treated with a chest tube. The median...... age was 77 years (25th and 75th percentile: 69-84) and 55% were male (n = 15 785). A total of 190 patients (0.66%) were treated for pneumothorax, which was more often in women [aOR 1.9 (1.4-2.6)], and in patients with age >80 years [aOR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], a prior history of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  9. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance. PMID:20884217

  10. Cardiac chamber scintiscanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two methods of cardiac chamber scintiscanning, i.e. 'first pass' and 'ECG-triggered' examinations, are explained and compared. Two tables indicate the most significant radiation doses of the applied radio tracers, i.e. 99m-Tc-pertechnetate and 99m-Tc-HSA, to which a patient is exposed. These averaged values are calculated from various data given in specialised literature. On the basis of data given in literature, an effective half-life of approximately 5 hours in the intravascular space was calculated for the erythrocytes labelled with technetium 99m. On this basis, the radiation doses for the patients due to 99m-Tc-labelled erythrocytes are estimated. The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods applied for cardiac chamber scintiscanning are put into contrast and compared with the advantages and disadvantages of the quantitative X-ray cardiography of the left heart. The still existing problems connected with the assessment of ECG-triggered images are discussed in detail. The author performed investigations of his own, which concerned the above-mentioned problems. (orig./MG)

  11. Cardiac Fatalities in Firefighters: An Analysis of the U.S. Fire Administration Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Soman; Palmieri, Tina; Greenhalgh, David

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac fatalities are the leading cause of death among all firefighters. Increasing age has been linked to increased cardiac fatalities in firefighters; however, circumstances surrounding in-line-of-duty cardiac firefighter deaths can also increase the risk of a cardiac death. The authors hypothesize that cardiac fatalities among firefighters will be related to the type of duty and level of physical exertion. The authors analyzed the Firefighter Fatalities and Statistics data collected by the U.S. Fire Administration (http://apps.usfa.fema.gov/firefighter-fatalities/fatalityData/statistics) from January 2002 to December 2012. Data were analyzed for associations between age, firefighter classification, duty-type, and cause of fatal cardiac event. A total of 1153 firefighter fatalities occurred during the 10-year period reviewed. Of these, 47% were cardiac fatalities. Mean age was significantly higher in firefighters who suffered a cardiac fatality (52.0 ± 11.4 ± 40.8 ± 14.7 years; P firefighters suffered significantly higher proportion of cardiac fatalities (62%; P firefighters (32%). Additionally, cardiac fatalities were the leading cause of death for volunteer firefighters (54%; P firefighter classification, age (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.08) and stress or overexertion (odds ratio, 11.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-83.4) were independent predictors of a firefighter cardiac fatality. Both career and volunteer firefighters are at significantly higher risk of a fatal cardiac event as they age. These fatalities occur in a significant proportion on-the-scene. National efforts should be aimed at these high-risk populations to improve cardiovascular health. PMID:25501775

  12. Affect intensity and cardiac arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blascovich, J; Brennan, K; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M; Hughes, P; Coad, M L; Adlin, R

    1992-07-01

    Relationships between affect intensity and basal, evoked, and perceived cardiac arousal were investigated in 3 experiments. Affect intensity was assessed using Larsen and Diener's (1987) Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Cardiac arousal was evoked with exercise in the 1st study and with mental arithmetic in the 2nd and 3rd. Perceived cardiac arousal was measured under optimal conditions using a standard heartbeat discrimination procedure. Women as a group scored higher on the AIM. Affect intensity was unrelated to basal or evoked cardiac arousal and was negatively related to perceived cardiac arousal in all 3 studies. Data suggest that affect intensity, although unrelated to actual physiological arousal, is negatively related to the accuracy with which individuals perceive their own arousal. Results are discussed within the context of an expanded arousal-regulation model (Blascovich, 1990). PMID:1494983

  13. Cardiac surgery in a fixed-reimbursement environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, H E

    1996-02-01

    Hospital and physician services in Canada are funded by public (government) sources. This article will describe the practice of cardiac surgery in this setting. Federal legislation has prescribed the principles of accessibility, universality, comprehensiveness, portability, and public administration for essential healthcare services in Canada. Provincial and territorial governments are responsible for the provision of services, receiving federal tax and cash transfers that supplement provincial/territorial funds for hospital, physician, and community health services. Hospitals negotiate annually for global budgets. Physicians work as independent contractors in hospitals (and communities) and are usually paid as specified by fee-for-service contracts negotiated at intervals with governments. Cardiac surgical services have been planned conjointly with government. Forty-two centers in Canada serve a population of 28 million. All but three of these centers are located in tertiary teaching hospitals; all but one do more than 200 pumps annually. The rate of cardiac operations is 80 per 100,000 population. In Ontario, the Provincial Adult Cardiac Care Network makes recommendations to governments about the distribution of the 7,600 pumps annually (population, 11 million), rationalizing waiting lists based on an urgency rating scale. Patients requiring emergent/urgent operations are well served. The average waiting time for an elective cardiac operation is 10.5 weeks. The waiting list mortality is less than 0.5%. The Provincial Adult Cardiac Care Network also determines the placement of new programs and participates in creating hospital funding formulas developed from a combination of resource and acuity intensity weighting. Most surgeons hold full-time academic appointments but are funded largely by practice income. Surgical fees average $2,000 (Canada) per case. Overhead, including malpractice insurance, is approximately 45%. All Canadian patients enjoy reasonably timely

  14. Auditor Independence: Malaysian Accountant's Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Barizah Abu Bakar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  Independence is the primary justification of the existence, and thus the hallmark of the auditing profession. It is recognized as the primary attribute to be maintained by auditors in all circumstances. This study attempts to explore the determinants of auditor independence as perceived by Malaysian accountants using a self-administered mail survey. It was evidenced from the survey that size of audit fees is the most important factor, followed by competition, size of audit firm, tenure, provision of management advisory service and finally audit committee. More specifically, the study indicates that (1 larger size of audit fees, (2 audit firms operating in a higher level of competitive environments, (3 smaller audit firms, (4 audit firms serving a given client over a longer duration, (5 audit firms providing MAS, and, (6 the non-existence of an audit committee, are perceived as having a higher risk of losing independence. This study provides a basis for the profession to establish policies relating to auditor independence. Also, it may assist policy makers and other relevant international accounting agencies in their attempt towards the international harmonization of auditing standards. The major contribution of this paper is that it supplies recent evidence on factors influencing auditor independence from the viewpoint of Malaysian accountants.

  15. Electrocardiographic abnormalities and cardiac arrhythmias in structural brain lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Kyritsis, Athanassios P; Kosmidou, Maria; Giannopoulos, Sotirios

    2013-07-31

    Cardiac arrhythmias and electrocardiographic abnormalities are frequently observed after acute cerebrovascular events. The precise mechanism that leads to the development of these arrhythmias is still uncertain, though increasing evidence suggests that it is mainly due to autonomic nervous system dysregulation. In massive brain lesions sympathetic predominance and parasympathetic withdrawal during the first 72 h are associated with the occurrence of severe secondary complications in the first week. Right insular cortex lesions are also related with sympathetic overactivation and with a higher incidence of electrocardiographic abnormalities, mostly QT prolongation, in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, female sex and hypokalemia are independent risk factors for severe prolongation of the QT interval which subsequently results in malignant arrhythmias and poor outcome. The prognostic value of repolarization changes commonly seen after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, such as ST segment, T wave, and U wave abnormalities, still remains controversial. In patients with traumatic brain injury both intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypoperfusion correlate with low heart rate variability and increased mortality. Given that there are no firm guidelines for the prevention or treatment of the arrhythmias that appear after cerebral incidents this review aims to highlight important issues on this topic. Selected patients with the aforementioned risk factors could benefit from electrocardiographic monitoring, reassessment of the medications that prolong QTc interval, and administration of antiadrenergic agents. Further research is required in order to validate these assumptions and to establish specific therapeutic strategies. PMID:22809542

  16. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  17. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hye-Joung; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  18. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid /sup 14/C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides.

  19. Identification of genes regulated during mechanical load-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnatty, S. E.; Dyck, J. R.; Michael, L. H.; Olson, E. N.; Abdellatif, M.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with both adaptive and adverse changes in gene expression. To identify genes regulated by pressure overload, we performed suppressive subtractive hybridization between cDNA from the hearts of aortic-banded (7-day) and sham-operated mice. In parallel, we performed a subtraction between an adult and a neonatal heart, for the purpose of comparing different forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Sequencing more than 100 clones led to the identification of an array of functionally known (70%) and unknown genes (30%) that are upregulated during cardiac growth. At least nine of those genes were preferentially expressed in both the neonatal and pressure over-load hearts alike. Using Northern blot analysis to investigate whether some of the identified genes were upregulated in the load-independent calcineurin-induced cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, revealed its incomplete similarity with the former models of cardiac growth. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. The economics of cardiac biomarker testing in suspected myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodacre, Steve; Thokala, Praveen

    2015-03-01

    Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) is a common reason for emergency hospital attendance and admission. Cardiac biomarker measurement is an essential element of diagnostic assessment of suspected MI. Although the cost of a routinely available biomarker may be small, the large patient population and consequences in terms of hospital admission and investigation mean that the economic impact of cardiac biomarker testing is substantial. Economic evaluation involves comparing the estimated costs and effectiveness (outcomes) of two or more interventions or care alternatives. This process creates some difficulties with respect to cardiac biomarkers. Estimating the effectiveness of cardiac biomarkers involves identifying how they help to improve health and how we can measure this improvement. Comparison to an appropriate alternative is also problematic. New biomarkers may be promoted on the basis of reducing hospital admission or length of stay, but hospital admission for low risk patients may incur significant costs while providing very little benefit, making it an inappropriate comparator. Finally, economic evaluation may conclude that a more sensitive biomarker strategy is more effective but, by detecting and treating more cases, is also more expensive. In these circumstances it is unclear whether we should use the more effective or the cheaper option. This article provides an introduction to health economics and addresses the specific issues relevant to cardiac biomarkers. It describes the key concepts relevant to economic evaluation of cardiac biomarkers in suspected MI and highlights key areas of uncertainty and controversy. PMID:25173750

  1. A Common Polymorphism of the Human Cardiac Sodium Channel Alpha Subunit (SCN5A) Gene Is Associated with Sudden Cardiac Death in Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcsa, Boglárka; Dénes, Réka; Vörös, Krisztina; Rácz, Gergely; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt; Törő, Klára; Keszler, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac death remains one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Recent research has shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms underlying cardiac death, and several genetic variants in novel candidate genes have been identified as risk factors. However, the vast majority of studies performed so far investigated genetic associations with specific forms of cardiac death only (sudden, arrhythmogenic, ischemic etc.). The aim of the present investigation was to find a genetic marker that can be used as a general, powerful predictor of cardiac death risk. To this end, a case-control association study was performed on a heterogeneous cohort of cardiac death victims (n=360) and age-matched controls (n=300). Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from five candidate genes (beta2 adrenergic receptor, nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein, ryanodine receptor 2, sodium channel type V alpha subunit and transforming growth factor-beta receptor 2) that had previously been shown to associate with certain forms of cardiac death were genotyped using sequence-specific real-time PCR probes. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of the rs11720524 polymorphism in the SCN5A gene encoding a subunit of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel occurred more frequently in the highly heterogeneous cardiac death cohort compared to the control population (p=0.019, odds ratio: 1.351). A detailed subgroup analysis uncovered that this effect was due to an association of this variant with cardiac death in chronic ischemic heart disease (p=0.012, odds ratio = 1.455). None of the other investigated polymorphisms showed association with cardiac death in this context. In conclusion, our results shed light on the role of this non-coding polymorphism in cardiac death in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Functional studies are needed to explore the pathophysiological background of this association. PMID:26146998

  2. What is Stochastic Independence?

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Uwe

    2002-01-01

    The notion of a tensor product with projections or with inclusions is defined. It is shown that the definition of stochastic independence relies on such a structure and that independence can be defined in an arbitrary category with a tensor product with inclusions or projections. In this context, the classifications of quantum stochastic independence by Muraki, Ben Ghorbal, and Sch\\"urmann become classifications of the tensor products with inclusions for the categories of algebraic probabilit...

  3. Board independence and innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Mariana Campos Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Legislation introduced in the U.S. in 2002/2003 significantly changed board composition of public firms by imposing a 50% independent directors’ ratio. Research on the effect of independent directors is not consensual, implying that this exogenous shock is a unique opportunity to study their importance. This study answers the question of whether or not independent directors can effectively mitigate agency conflicts between shareholders and the management, having a positive impact on the choic...

  4. Targeting pleiotropic signaling pathways to control adult cardiac stem cell fate and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GiancarloForte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different pools of cardiac progenitor cells resident in the adult mammalian heart opened a new era in heart regeneration as a means to restore the loss of functional cardiac tissue and overcome the limited availability of donor organs. Indeed, resident stem cells are believed to participate to tissue homeostasis and renewal in healthy and damaged myocardium although their actual contribution to these processes remain unclear. The poor outcome in terms of cardiac regeneration following tissue damage point out at the need for a deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling CPC behavior and fate determination before new therapeutic strategies can be developed. The regulation of cardiac resident stem cell fate and function is likely to result from the interplay between pleiotropic signaling pathways as well as tissue- and cell-specific regulators. Such a modular interaction – which has already been described in the nucleus of a number of different cells where transcriptional complexes form to activate specific gene programs - would account for the unique responses of cardiac progenitors to general and tissue-specific stimuli.The study of the molecular determinants involved in cardiac stem/progenitor cell regulatory mechanisms may shed light on the processes of cardiac homeostasis in health and disease and thus provide clues on the actual feasibility of cardiac cell therapy through tissue-specific progenitors.

  5. Hyaluronan: A critical regulator of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition during cardiac valve formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, A.K.; Szabó, A.; Merks, R.M.H.; Bakkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    During embryonic development, cardiac valves arise at specific regions in the cardiac endothelium that swell up due to enhanced extracellular matrix production (so-called endocardial cushions). An important extracellular matrix component that is produced by the endocardial cells is the glycosaminogl

  6. Hyaluronan: a critical regulator of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition during cardiac valve formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, A.K.; Szabo, A.; Merks, R.M.; Bakkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    During embryonic development, cardiac valves arise at specific regions in the cardiac endothelium that swell up due to enhanced extracellular matrix production (so-called endocardial cushions). An important extracellular matrix component that is produced by the endocardial cells is the glycosaminogl

  7. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh; Bendtzen, Klaus; Boysen, Gudrun Margrethe

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  8. Gravity Independent Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  9. CT and MRI findings of cardiac echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females, 15-56 years old) with primary or secondary hydatid disease involving the heart were examined by radiography, CT and/or MRI. MRI was done with a 1.5 T machine (Picker) in 11 cases and a 0.5 T machine (Philips) in 4 cases using ECG-gated T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo pulse sequences. Transaxial sections were combined with at least one more plane (coronal and/or sagittal) and intermediate views if the need for further information was anticipated. In 4 patients primary cardiac echinococcal cysts were found, localised to the left ventricle/pericardium/interventricular septum in 2 cases and to the left atrium/pericardium and right atrium/pericardium in 1 case each. In 11 of 15 cases there was secondary involvement of the heart by echinococcal cysts primarily arising in the lung parenchyma (n = 6), mediastinum (n = 3) and by transdiaphragmatic extension from the liver and abdomen (n = 2). CT was superior to MRI in visualising calcifications. However, ECG-gated MRI of cardiac hydatid disease appears to be the method of choice for specific diagnosis and exact assessment of hydatid cysts and their correlation with cardiac structures. (orig.)

  10. Cardiac evaluation of liver transplant candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mercedes Susan Mandell; JoAnn Lindenfeld; Mei-Yung Tsou; Michael Zimmerman

    2008-01-01

    Physicians previously thought that heart disease was rare in patients with end stage liver disease. However, recent evidence shows that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy is increased in transplant candidates compared to most other surgical candidates. Investigators estimate that up to 26% of all liver transplant candidates have at least one critical coronary artery stenosis and that at least half of these patients will die perioperatively of cardiac complications. Cardiomyopathy also occurs in greater frequency. While all patients with advanced cardiac disease have defects in cardiac performance, a larger than expected number of patients have classical findings of dilated, restrictive and hypertropic cardiomyopathy. This may explain why up to 56% of patients suffer from hypoxemia due to pulmonary edema following transplant surgery. There is considerable controversy on how to screen transplant candidates for the presence of heart disease. Questions focus upon, which patients should be screened and what tests should be used. This review examines screening strategies for transplant candidates and details the prognostic value of common tests used to identify ischemic heart disease. We also review the physiological consequences of cardiomyopathy in transplant candidates and explore the specific syndrome of "cirrhotic cardiomyopathy".

  11. Optimization of cardiac metabolism in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Tomohisa; Yoshimura, Michihiro; Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Lopaschuk, Gary D; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2011-12-01

    The derangement of the cardiac energy substrate metabolism plays a key role in the pathogenesis of heart failure. The utilization of non-carbohydrate substrates, such as fatty acids, is the predominant metabolic pathway in the normal heart, because this provides the highest energy yield per molecule of substrate metabolized. In contrast, glucose becomes an important preferential substrate for metabolism and ATP generation under specific pathological conditions, because it can provide greater efficiency in producing high energy products per oxygen consumed compared to fatty acids. Manipulations that shift energy substrate utilization away from fatty acids toward glucose can improve the cardiac function and slow the progression of heart failure. However, insulin resistance, which is highly prevalent in the heart failure population, impedes this adaptive metabolic shift. Therefore, the acceleration of the glucose metabolism, along with the restoration of insulin sensitivity, would be the ideal metabolic therapy for heart failure. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of modifying substrate utilization to optimize cardiac metabolism in heart failure. PMID:21933140

  12. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Izaki, M.; Giorgi, M.C.P.; Soares Junior, J; Meneghetti, J.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Medicina Nuclear e Imagem Molecular

    2008-07-01

    . Cardiac amyloidosis is often under diagnosed due to unspecific and varied signs and symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive procedure with inherent risks to this technique. Pyrophosphate-{sup 99m}Tc scintigraphy is a simple, non-invasive, low cost, with good sensitivity method for detection of cardiac amyloidosis. The scintigraphy pattern observed in cardiac amyloidosis cases is abnormal diffuse tracer uptake in both heart ventricles. Planar and/or tomographic imaging may be performed. It is considered a highly sensitive test, with low rates of false-negative results despite the existing little literature. Therefore the scintigraphy can be useful to select patients for biopsy. Conclusion: Scintigraphy can be of great assistance in cardiac amyloidosis, despite its low specificity. Due to its high sensibility, it can be a useful test to early discriminate patients who should undergo biopsy, allowing treatment optimization. (author)

  13. Cardiac amyloidosis detection with pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    amyloidosis is often under diagnosed due to unspecific and varied signs and symptoms. The diagnosis is confirmed by endomyocardial biopsy, an invasive procedure with inherent risks to this technique. Pyrophosphate-99mTc scintigraphy is a simple, non-invasive, low cost, with good sensitivity method for detection of cardiac amyloidosis. The scintigraphy pattern observed in cardiac amyloidosis cases is abnormal diffuse tracer uptake in both heart ventricles. Planar and/or tomographic imaging may be performed. It is considered a highly sensitive test, with low rates of false-negative results despite the existing little literature. Therefore the scintigraphy can be useful to select patients for biopsy. Conclusion: Scintigraphy can be of great assistance in cardiac amyloidosis, despite its low specificity. Due to its high sensibility, it can be a useful test to early discriminate patients who should undergo biopsy, allowing treatment optimization.

  14. Trends in Cardiac Pacemaker Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Sarma Mallela

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Batteries used in Implantable cardiac pacemakers-present unique challenges to their developers and manufacturers in terms of high levels of safety and reliability. In addition, the batteries must have longevity to avoid frequent replacements. Technological advances in leads/electrodes have reduced energy requirements by two orders of magnitude. Micro-electronics advances sharply reduce internal current drain concurrently decreasing size and increasing functionality, reliability, and longevity. It is reported that about 600,000 pacemakers are implanted each year worldwide and the total number of people with various types of implanted pacemaker has already crossed 3 million. A cardiac pacemaker uses half of its battery power for cardiac stimulation and the other half for housekeeping tasks such as monitoring and data logging. The first implanted cardiac pacemaker used nickel-cadmium rechargeable battery, later on zinc-mercury battery was developed and used which lasted for over 2 years. Lithium iodine battery invented and used by Wilson Greatbatch and his team in 1972 made the real impact to implantable cardiac pacemakers. This battery lasts for about 10 years and even today is the power source for many manufacturers of cardiac pacemakers. This paper briefly reviews various developments of battery technologies since the inception of cardiac pacemaker and presents the alternative to lithium iodine battery for the near future.

  15. Platelets and cardiac arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JonasSDe Jong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death remains one of the most prevalent modes of death in industrialized countries, and myocardial ischemia due to thrombotic coronary occlusion is its primary cause. The role of platelets in the occurrence of SCD extends beyond coronary flow impairment by clot formation. Here we review the substances released by platelets during clot formation and their arrhythmic properties. Platelet products are released from three types of platelet granules: dense core granules, alpha-granules, and platelet lysosomes. The physiologic properties of dense granule products are of special interest as a potential source of arrhythmic substances. They are released readily upon activation and contain high concentrations of serotonin, histamine, purines, pyrimidines, and ions such as calcium and magnesium. Potential arrhythmic mechanisms of these substances, e.g. serotonin and high energy phosphates, include induction of coronary constriction, calcium overloading, and induction of delayed after-depolarizations. Alpha-granules produce thromboxanes and other arachidonic acid products with many potential arrhythmic effects mediated by interference with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. Alpha-granules also contain hundreds of proteins that could potentially serve as ligands to receptors on cardiomyocytes. Lysosomal products probably do not have an important arrhythmic effect. Platelet products and ischemia can induce coronary permeability, thereby enhancing interaction with surrounding cardiomyocytes. Antiplatelet therapy is known to improve survival after myocardial infarction. Although an important part of this effect results from prevention of coronary clot formation, there is evidence to suggest that antiplatelet therapy also induces anti-arrhythmic effects during ischemia by preventing the release of platelet activation products.

  16. Fostering Musical Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Eric; Allsup, Randall Everett

    2016-01-01

    Musical independence has always been an essential aim of musical instruction. But this objective can refer to everything from high levels of musical expertise to more student choice in the classroom. While most conceptualizations of musical independence emphasize the demonstration of knowledge and skills within particular music traditions, this…

  17. Auditors and Independence

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    Independence is a concept of fundamental importance in business relations and corporate governance. It is above all crucial in auditing, which provides a guarantee of the integrity of the numbers on which an efficient allocation of capital within the capital market system depends. The job of auditors is to express an independent opinion on whether financial statements are reliable and cred...

  18. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  19. High count rate gamma camera with independent modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2015-11-01

    Advances in nuclear medical imaging are based on the improvements of the detector's performance. Generally the research is focussed on the spatial resolution improvement. However, another important parameter is the acquisition time that can significantly affect performance in some clinical investigation (e.g. first-pass cardiac studies). At present, there are several clinical imaging systems which are able to solve these diagnostic requirements, such as the D-SPECT Cardiac Imaging System (Spectrum Dynamics) or the Nucline Cardiodesk Medical Imaging System (Mediso). Actually, these solutions are organ-specific dedicated systems, while it would be preferable having general purpose planar detectors with high counting rate. Our group has recently introduced the use of scintillation matrices whose size is equal to the overall area of a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) in order to design a modular gamma camera. This study allowed optimising the overall pixel identification by improving and controlling the light collection efficiency of each PSPMT. Although we achieved a solution for the problems about the dead area at the junction of the PSPMTs when they are set side by side. In this paper, we propose a modular gamma camera design as the basis to build large area detectors. The modular detector design allows us to achieve better counting performance. In this approach, each module that is made of one or more PSPMTs, can actually acquire data independently and simultaneously, increasing the overall detection efficiency. To verify the improvement in count rate capability we have built two detectors with a field of view of ~ 5 × 5cm2, by using four R8900-C12 PSPMTs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.). Each PSPMT was coupled to a dedicated discrete scintillation structure designed to obtain a good homogeneity, high imaging performance and high efficiency. One of the detectors was designed as a standard gamma camera, while the other was composed by four independent

  20. Regulation of cardiac microRNAs by serum response factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jeanne Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum response factor (SRF regulates certain microRNAs that play a role in cardiac and skeletal muscle development. However, the role of SRF in the regulation of microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis in cardiac hypertrophy has not been well established. In this report, we employed two distinct transgenic mouse models to study the impact of SRF on cardiac microRNA expression and microRNA biogenesis. Cardiac-specific overexpression of SRF (SRF-Tg led to altered expression of a number of microRNAs. Interestingly, downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a and upregulation of miR-21 occurred by 7 days of age in these mice, long before the onset of cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that SRF overexpression impacted the expression of microRNAs which contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. Reducing cardiac SRF level using the antisense-SRF transgenic approach (Anti-SRF-Tg resulted in the expression of miR-1, miR-133a and miR-21 in the opposite direction. Furthermore, we observed that SRF regulates microRNA biogenesis, specifically the transcription of pri-microRNA, thereby affecting the mature microRNA level. The mir-21 promoter sequence is conserved among mouse, rat and human; one SRF binding site was found to be in the mir-21 proximal promoter region of all three species. The mir-21 gene is regulated by SRF and its cofactors, including myocardin and p49/Strap. Our study demonstrates that the downregulation of miR-1, miR-133a, and upregulation of miR-21 can be reversed by one single upstream regulator, SRF. These results may help to develop novel therapeutic interventions targeting microRNA biogenesis.

  1. Cardiac perioperative complications in noncardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Dragana; Kolak Radmila; Stokić Aleksandar; Radovanović Zoran; Jovanović Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are confronted with an increasing population of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who are at risk for cardiac complications in the perioperative period. Perioperative cardiac complications are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of perioperative (operative and postoperative) cardiac complications and correlations between the incidence of perioperative cardiac complications and type of surgical ...

  2. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  3. Epigenetic regulation in cardiac fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ming; Yu; Yong; Xu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis represents an adoptive response in the heart exposed to various stress cues. While resolution of the fibrogenic response heralds normalization of heart function, persistent fibrogenesis is usually associated with progressive loss of heart function and eventually heart failure. Cardiac fibrosis is regulated by a myriad of factors that converge on the transcription of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, a process the epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances regarding the epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis focusing on the role of histone and DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs.

  4. APJ ACTS AS A DUAL RECEPTOR IN CARDIAC HYPERTROPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Scimia, Maria Cecilia; Hurtado, Cecilia; Ray, Saugata; Metzler, Scott; Wei, Ke; Wang, Jianming; Woods, Chris E.; Purcell, Nicole H.; Catalucci, Daniele; Akasaka, Takashi; Bueno, Orlando F.; Vlasuk, George P.; Kaliman, Perla; Bodmer, Rolf; Smith, Layton H.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is initiated as an adaptive response to sustained overload but progresses pathologically as heart failure ensues 1 . Here we report that genetic loss of APJ confers resistance to chronic pressure overload by dramatically reducing myocardial hypertrophy and heart failure. In contrast, mice lacking apelin (the endogenous APJ ligand) remain sensitive, suggesting an apelin independent function of APJ. Freshly isolated APJ-null cardiomyocytes exhibit an attenuated response to s...

  5. Limiting excessive postoperative blood transfusion after cardiac procedures. A review.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraris, V A; Ferraris, S P

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of blood product use after cardiac operations reveals that a few patients ( 80%). The risk factors that predispose a minority of patients to excessive blood use include patient-related factors, transfusion practices, drug-related causes, and procedure-related factors. Multivariate studies suggest that patient age and red blood cell volume are independent patient-related variables that predict excessive blood product transfusion aft...

  6. Fibroblast Growth Factor–23 and Cardiac Structure and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Isha; Ide, Noriko; Ix, Joachim H.; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Lanske, Beate; Schiller, Nelson B.; Mary A Whooley; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fibroblast growth factor–23 (FGF‐23) is a phosphaturic factor previously associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and systolic dysfunction among individuals with chronic kidney disease. Whether FGF‐23 acts directly to induce left ventricular hypertrophy, potentially independent of its klotho coreceptor, remains uncertain. We investigated associations of FGF‐23 with cardiac structural abnormalities among individuals with a broad range of kidney function and explored potential b...

  7. Depression, not anxiety, is independently associated with 5-year hospitalizations and mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Hansen, Tina B;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether depression and anxiety are independently associated with 5-year cardiac-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD).......The objective of the current study was to examine whether depression and anxiety are independently associated with 5-year cardiac-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  8. Mechanical Blood Pumps for Cardiac Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akdis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac assist devices are classified into the traditional engineering categories of displacement and rotary pumps. Clinical use and indications of the various pump categories are outlined and a detailed description of currently available systems is given. The first part deals with extracorporeal as well as implantable ventricular assist devices (VAD of the displacement type and is followed by a section on current developments in the field of total artificial hearts (TAH. The second part covers the rotary pump category from cardiopulmonary bypass applications to implantable systems, including specific design aspects of radial, diagonal, and axial pumps.

  9. Ascorbic acid enhances the cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells through promoting the proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Cao; Bin Wei; Liu Wang; Ying Jin; Huang-Tian Yang; Zumei Liu; Zhongyan Chen; Jia Wang; Taotao Chen; Xiaoyang Zhao; Yu Ma; Lianju Qin; Jiuhong Kang

    2012-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for the investigation of heart diseases,drug screening and potential autologous cardiac regeneration.However,their application is hampered by inefficient cardiac differentiation,high interline variability,and poor maturation of iPSC-derived cardiomyoeytes (iPS-CMs).To identify efficient inducers for cardiac differentiation and maturation of iPSCs and elucidate the mechanisms,we systematically screened sixteen cardiomyocyte inducers on various murine (m) iPSCs and found that only ascorbic acid (AA) consistently and robustly enhanced the cardiac differentiation of eleven lines including eight without spontaneous cardiogenic potential.We then optimized the treatment conditions and demonstrated that differentiation day 2-6,a period for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs),was a critical time for AA to take effect.This was further confirmed by the fact that AA increased the expression of cardiovascular but not mesodermal markers.Noteworthily,AA treatment led to approximately 7.3-fold (miPSCs) and 30.2-fold (human iPSCs) augment in the yield of iPS-CMs.Such effect was attributed to a specific increase in the proliferation of CPCs via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway by promoting collagen synthesis.In addition,AA-induced cardiomyocytes showed better sareomerie organization and enhanced responses of action potentials and calcium transients to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations.These findings demonstrate that AA is a suitable cardiomyocyte inducer for iPSCs to improve cardiac differentiation and maturation simply,universally,and efficiently.These findings also highlight the importance of stimulating CPC proliferation by manipulating extracellular microenvironment in guiding cardiac differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells.

  10. Cardiac catheterization and angiography. Third edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses the papers on cardiac catheterization and angiography. The topics covered are: historical perspective and present practice of cardiac catheterization; angiography principles and utilization of radiologic and cineangiographic equipment; complications, incidence and prevention of side effects of cardiac catheterization; techniques; blood flow measurement of heart; pressure measurement; diagnostic techniques of angiography; special catheter techniques; coronary angiography, temporary and permanent pacemakers, potential role of lasers in the cardiac catheterization and evaluation of cardiac function

  11. Antifibrotic therapies to control cardiac fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhaobo; Guan, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis occurs naturally after myocardial infarction. While the initially formed fibrotic tissue prevents the infarcted heart tissue from rupture, the progression of cardiac fibrosis continuously expands the size of fibrotic tissue and causes cardiac function decrease. Cardiac fibrosis eventually evolves the infarcted hearts into heart failure. Inhibiting cardiac fibrosis from progressing is critical to prevent heart failure. However, there is no efficient therapeutic approach curren...

  12. Localised manifold learning for cardiac image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Kanwal K.; Price, Anthony N.; Hajnal, Jo V.; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Manifold learning is increasingly being used to discover the underlying structure of medical image data. Traditional approaches operate on whole images with a single measure of similarity used to compare entire images. In this way, information on the locality of differences is lost and smaller trends may be masked by dominant global differences. In this paper, we propose the use of multiple local manifolds to analyse regions of images without any prior knowledge of which regions are important. Localised manifolds are created by partitioning images into regular subsections with a manifold constructed for each patch. We propose a framework for incorporating information from the neighbours of each patch to calculate a coherent embedding. This generates a simultaneous dimensionality reduction of all patches and results in the creation of embeddings which are spatially-varying. Additionally, a hierarchical method is presented to enable a multi-scale embedding solution. We use this to extract spatially-varying respiratory and cardiac motions from cardiac MRI. Although there is a complex interplay between these motions, we show how they can be separated on a regional basis. We demonstrate the utility of the localised joint embedding over a global embedding of whole images and over embedding individual patches independently.

  13. Predicting the risk of sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Glass, Leon

    2016-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the result of a change of cardiac activity from normal (typically sinus) rhythm to a rhythm that does not pump adequate blood to the brain. The most common rhythms leading to SCD are ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). These result from an accelerated ventricular pacemaker or ventricular reentrant waves. Despite significant efforts to develop accurate predictors for the risk of SCD, current methods for risk stratification still need to be improved. In this article we briefly review current approaches to risk stratification. Then we discuss the mathematical basis for dynamical transitions (called bifurcations) that may lead to VT and VF. One mechanism for transition to VT or VF involves a perturbation by a premature ventricular complex (PVC) during sinus rhythm. We describe the main mechanisms of PVCs (reentry, independent pacemakers and abnormal depolarizations). An emerging approach to risk stratification for SCD involves the development of individualized dynamical models of a patient based on measured anatomy and physiology. Careful analysis and modelling of dynamics of ventricular arrhythmia on an individual basis will be essential in order to improve risk stratification for SCD and to lay a foundation for personalized (precision) medicine in cardiology. PMID:26660287

  14. Churg-Strauss Syndrome with Cardiac Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong Joo; Cho, Young Jun; Kim, Keum; Hwang, Cheol Mok; Kim, Dae Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eu Gene [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    This is a case report of Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) associated with cardiac involvement which is demonstrated in chest CT and cardiac MRI (CMR) without specific cardiac symptoms. A 32-year-old woman had a 3-year history of bronchial asthma, chronic sinusitis, and otitis media. The patient had various typical findings of CSS. The patient had no specific cardiac symptoms or signs such as chest pain, palpitations, syncope, or murmur, but she had diffuse low attenuation lesions in the inner wall of the left ventricle (LV) in contrast-enhanced CT. This corresponded to the area of subendocardial hyperenhancement in delayed contrast-enhanced CMR images. She was treated with steroids for 2 months. Follow-up delayed contrast-enhanced CMR of the LV showed a decrease in the size of the subendocardial enhancement area, and she had no symptoms. Therefore, the radiologist and clinician both should pay careful attention to observe possible cardiac involvement in case of CSS.

  15. Churg-Strauss Syndrome with Cardiac Involvement: A Case Report with CT and MRI Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a case report of Churg-Strauss Syndrome (CSS) associated with cardiac involvement which is demonstrated in chest CT and cardiac MRI (CMR) without specific cardiac symptoms. A 32-year-old woman had a 3-year history of bronchial asthma, chronic sinusitis, and otitis media. The patient had various typical findings of CSS. The patient had no specific cardiac symptoms or signs such as chest pain, palpitations, syncope, or murmur, but she had diffuse low attenuation lesions in the inner wall of the left ventricle (LV) in contrast-enhanced CT. This corresponded to the area of subendocardial hyperenhancement in delayed contrast-enhanced CMR images. She was treated with steroids for 2 months. Follow-up delayed contrast-enhanced CMR of the LV showed a decrease in the size of the subendocardial enhancement area, and she had no symptoms. Therefore, the radiologist and clinician both should pay careful attention to observe possible cardiac involvement in case of CSS.

  16. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  17. Syndeticity and independent substitutions

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    We associate in a canonical way a substitution to any abstract numeration system built on a regular language. In relationship with the growth order of the letters, we define the notion of two independent substitutions. Our main result is the following. If a sequence $x$ is generated by two independent substitutions, at least one being of exponential growth, then the factors of $x$ appearing infinitely often in $x$ appear with bounded gaps. As an application, we derive an analogue of Cobham's theorem for two independent substitutions (or abstract numeration systems) one with polynomial growth, the other being exponential.

  18. Cardiac manifestations in systemic sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevdalina; Lambova

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, which develops as a direct consequence of systemic sclerosis(SSc), may manifest as myocardial damage, fibrosis of the conduction system, pericardial and, less frequently, as valvular disease. In addition, cardiac complications in SSc may develop as a secondary phenomenon due to pulmonary arterial hypertension and kidney pathology. The prevalence of primary cardiac involvement in SSc is variable and difficult to determine because of the diversity of cardiac manifestations, the presence of subclinical periods, the type of diagnostic tools applied, and the diversity of patient populations. When clinically manifested, cardiac involvement is thought to be an important prognostic factor. Profound microvascular disease is a pathognomonic feature of SSc, as both vasospasm and structural alterations are present. Such alterations are thought to predict macrovascular atherosclerosis over time. There are contradictory reports regarding the prevalence of atherosclerosis in SSc. According to some authors, the prevalence of atherosclerosis of the large epicardial coronary arteries is similar to that of the general population, in contrast with other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the level of inflammation in SSc is inferior. Thus, the atherosclerotic process may not be as aggressive and not easily detectable in smaller studies. Echocardiography(especially tissue Doppler imaging), single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography are sensitive techniques for earlier detection of both structural and functional scleroderma-related cardiac pathologies. Screening for subclinical cardiac involvement via modern, sensitive tools provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, which is of crucial importance for a positive outcome.

  19. Computational Modeling of Cardiac Electromechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death worldwide. Notably, the electrophysiologiy and microstructural requirements for a fatal ventricular arrhythmia remain incompletely understood, thereby the treatment remains largely empirical. Standard antiarrhythmic drug therapy has failed to reduce, and in some instances has increased, the incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Hence, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that foment a fatal arrhythmia is needed and computational m...

  20. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  1. Current trends in cardiac rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dafoe, W; Huston, P

    1997-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality and morbidity for patients with many types of cardiac disease cost-effectively, yet is generally underutilized. Rehabilitation is helpful not only for patients who have had a myocardial infarction but also for those with stable angina or congestive heart failure or those who have undergone myocardial revascularization procedures, a heart transplant or heart valve surgery. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation include a reduction in the rate of de...

  2. Gastrointestinal Complications and Cardiac Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Sara J.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are an uncommon but potentially devastating complication of cardiac surgery. The reported incidence varies between .3% and 5.5% with an associated mortality of .3–87%. A wide range of GI complications are reported with bleeding, mesenteric ischemia, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, and ileus the most common. Ischemia is thought to be the main cause of GI complications with hypoperfusion during cardiac surgery as well as systemic inflammation, hypothermia, drug ...

  3. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syndrome) that has been described after acute stress. It is a reversible cardiac dysfunction with distinct imaging features(the echocardiographic or left ventricular angiographic image resembles a Tak...

  4. Diagnosing cardiac contusion : old wisdom and new insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybrandy, KC; Cramer, MJM; Burgersdijk, C

    2003-01-01

    Cardiac contusion is usually caused by blunt chest trauma and therefore is frequently suspected in patients involved in car or motorcycle accidents. The diagnosis of a myocardial contusion is difficult because of non-specific symptoms and the lack of an ideal test to detect myocardial damage. Cardia

  5. An Annotated Dataset of 14 Cardiac MR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2002-01-01

    This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated cardiac MR images. Points of correspondence are placed on each image at the left ventricle (LV). As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given....

  6. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  7. Cardiac MRI in suspected myocarditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of ECG-gated breath-hold MRI in diagnosing acute myocardidits. Material and methods: Cardiac MRI was performed on 21 consecutive patients with suspected myocarditis. ECG-gated breath-hold T2-weighted images with fat suppression were acquired in 3 standard views. T1-weighted imaging (FLASH) was performed 10 min after IV administration of Gd-DTPA. Laboratory data included creatine kinase, troponin T and serological tests, ECG findings and echocardiography. Imaging findings were retrospectively compared to the discharge diagnoses. Signal alterations were semiquantitatively classified. Results: Acute myocarditis was diagnosed in 9 patients and cardiac sarcoidosis in 2 patients. Late enhancement was observed in 4 patients with acute myocarditis and in both patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. Semiquantitative evaluation revealed 9 true positive, 9 true negative, 1 false positive and 2 false negative results. Conclusion: Cardiac MRI has the potential to detect acute myocarditis and to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis. Late enhancement of Gd-DTPA can be found in both viral myocarditis and cardiac sarcoidosis. (orig.)

  8. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm;

    2014-01-01

    genetic testing for DM1. Information on incident cardiac diseases was obtained from the NPR. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cardiac disease compared with the background population, overall and according to selected diagnostic subgroups (cardiomyopathy, heart failure, conduction...... disorders, arrhythmias, and device implantation). In the DM cohort, SIR for any cardiac disease was 3.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.01-3.86]; for a cardiac disease belonging to the selected subgroups 6.91 (95% CI: 5.93-8.01) and for other cardiac disease 2.59 (95% CI: 2.03-3.25). For a cardiac disease...... belonging to the selected subgroups, the risk was particularly high in the first year after DM diagnosis [SIR 15.4 (95% CI: 10.9-21.3)] but remained significantly elevated in subsequent years [SIR 6.07 (95% CI: 5.11-7.16]). The risk was higher in young cohort members [e.g. 20-39 years: SIR 18.1 (95% CI: 12...

  10. Independent prognostic value of preoperative serum markers CA 242, specific tissue polypeptide antigen and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta, but not of carcinoembryonic antigen or tissue polypeptide antigen in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpelan-Holmström, M; Haglund, C.; Lundin, J; Alfthan, H.; Stenman, U H; Roberts, P. J.

    1996-01-01

    The prognostic value of preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA 242, tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), specific tissue polypeptide antigen (TPS) and human chorionic gonadotrophin beta (hCG beta) in 251 patients with colorectal cancer (39 Dukes' A, 98 Dukes' B, 56 Dukes' C and 58 Dukes' D) was investigated. When using the cut-off levels recommended for diagnostic purposes, there was a significantly longer overall survival in patients with low tumour marker level...

  11. On Background Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum cons...

  12. Den danske independent film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    måtte ligge i, at filmskaberne vælger at kalde sig independent. De må altså derfor være independent fra noget, og heri ligger der en for nogle implicit og for andre meget eksplicit kritik af det danske filmstøttesystem. Spørgsmålet er her, om det lykkes for dansk indie at etablere et reelt alternativ...

  13. The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 regulates development by inducing growth phase-specific, spatially restricted alterations in jasmonic acid levels independent of defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matschi, Susanne; Hake, Katharina; Herde, Marco; Hause, Bettina; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Phytohormones play an important role in development and stress adaptations in plants, and several interacting hormonal pathways have been suggested to accomplish fine-tuning of stress responses at the expense of growth. This work describes the role played by the CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE CPK28 in balancing phytohormone-mediated development in Arabidopsis thaliana, specifically during generative growth. cpk28 mutants exhibit growth reduction solely as adult plants, coinciding with altered balance of the phytohormones jasmonic acid (JA) and gibberellic acid (GA). JA-dependent gene expression and the levels of several JA metabolites were elevated in a growth phase-dependent manner in cpk28, and accumulation of JA metabolites was confined locally to the central rosette tissue. No elevated resistance toward herbivores or necrotrophic pathogens was detected for cpk28 plants, either on the whole-plant level or specifically within the tissue displaying elevated JA levels. Abolishment of JA biosynthesis or JA signaling led to a full reversion of the cpk28 growth phenotype, while modification of GA signaling did not. Our data identify CPK28 as a growth phase-dependent key negative regulator of distinct processes: While in seedlings, CPK28 regulates reactive oxygen species-mediated defense signaling; in adult plants, CPK28 confers developmental processes by the tissue-specific balance of JA and GA without affecting JA-mediated defense responses. PMID:25736059

  14. Cardiac Rehabilitation Enhancing Programs in Patients with Myocardial Infarction: A literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahyana Ahyana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR is a process that involves a multidisciplinary team of health professionals in order to optimize the status of patients’ physical, psychological, social, and vocational well being. The CR program has been proven to influence health outcomes in patients with cardiac diseases, particularly myocardial infarction (MI and stable angina. However, patients’ compliance with cardiac rehabilitation programs remains a challenge.Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and identify interventions that enhance cardiac rehabilitation behaviors in MI patients.Method: A literature review was conducted by analyzing related research reports published since 2000 to 2012. Only English language articles were included.Result: There were 10 experimental studies and 2 meta-analysis studies. Interventions widely used to enhance cardiac rehabilitation behaviors in MI patients were self-efficacy and self management derived programs. These programs involved interventions that enhance cardiac rehabilitation behaviors, including training exercise, behavioral change, education and psychological support, and lifestyle changing strategies. None have reported the use of culturally tailored intervention. Four phases of cardiac rehabilitation were accepted as each phase represents a different aspect of care: inpatient care, early post discharge period, exercise training, and long term follow up. Critical factors for patients in maintaining an optimum health condition after a cardiac event are, in order, status of patient’s physical, psychological, social, and vocational well being.Conclusion: Cardiac Rehabilitation program has been shown to improve quality of life and decrease mortality in MI patients. The development of culturally specific interventions to increase cardiac rehabilitation behaviors will provide a significant improvement for cardiac patient’s care that ultimately results in better health outcomes. Health care

  15. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier

    2015-06-01

    permanent damage to the heart, we note that the individuals showing the highest hs-TNT levels are not the same as those showing the highest NT-proBNP levels. This suggests that independent mechanisms explain these unusually high levels. In one individual showing a high hs-TNT level, renal impairment may be at least partially to blame. We could make the assumption that our results highlight the existence of high and low responders for the cardiac biomarkers as for the CK.

  16. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from the...... right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported a...... progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0.001] and...

  17. Simvastatin induces apoptosis by a Rho-dependent mechanism in cultured cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several clinical trials have shown the beneficial effects of statins in the prevention of coronary heart disease. Additionally, statins promote apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells, in renal tubular epithelial cells and also in a variety of cell lines; yet, the effects of statins on cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast, primarily responsible for cardiac tissue healing are almost unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of simvastatin on cardiac fibroblast and myofibroblast viability and studied the molecular cell death mechanism triggered by simvastatin in both cell types. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts were treated with simvastatin (0.1-10 μM) up to 72 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by trypan blue exclusion method and by flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 activation and Rho protein levels and activity were also determined by Western blot and pull-down assay, respectively. Results: Simvastatin induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with greater effects on fibroblasts than myofibroblasts. These effects were prevented by mevalonate, farnesylpyrophosphate and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate, but not squalene. These last results suggest that apoptosis was dependent on small GTPases of the Rho family rather than Ras. Conclusion: Simvastatin triggered apoptosis of cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by a mechanism independent of cholesterol synthesis, but dependent of isoprenilation of Rho protein. Additionally, cardiac fibroblasts were more susceptible to simvastatin-induced apoptosis than cardiac myofibroblasts. Thus simvastatin could avoid adverse cardiac remodeling leading to a less fibrotic repair of the damaged tissues. - Research Highlights: → Simvastatin decreases CF and CMF viability independent of cholesterol synthesis. → Simvastatin induces CF and CMF apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner being CMF more resistant

  18. Antenatal corrective cardiac surgery: An emerging area for technological innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coceani, Flavio; Menciassi, Arianna; Murzi, Bruno

    2010-06-01

    The possibility of intervening in utero on certain cardiac malformations with the intent to prevent secondary major alterations in structure and function is becoming a reality. Central to progress in this area is the development of instrumentation specifically designed for minimally invasive cardiac surgery in the fetus. The present review introduces a novel set of devices for interventional cardiology, based on current knowledge and prior experience, and highlights their prospective application. In meeting this objective, particular importance is assigned to the synergic contribution of diverse disciplines, both medical and nonmedical. PMID:20367502

  19. Cardiac autoimmunity in HIV related heart muscle disease

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, P; Goldman, J; Caforio, A; Jacob, A.; Baig, M.; Brettle, R; Haven, A; Boon, N.; McKenna, W

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the frequency of circulating cardiac specific autoantibodies in HIV positive patients with and without echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction.
Subjects—74 HIV positive patients including 28 with echocardiographic evidence of heart muscle disease, 52 HIV negative people at low risk of HIV infection, and 14 HIV negative drug users who had all undergone non-invasive cardiac assessment were studied along with a group of 200 healthy blood donors.
Results—Car...

  20. Role of the intercalated disc in cardiac propagation and arrhythmogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kleber, Andre G.; Saffitz, Jeffrey E.

    2014-01-01

    This review article discusses mechanisms underlying impulse propagation in cardiac muscle with specific emphasis on the role of the cardiac cell-to-cell junction, called the “intercalated disc.”The first part of this review deals with the role of gap junction channels, formed by connexin proteins, as a determinant of impulse propagation. It is shown that, depending on the underlying structure of the cellular network, decreasing the conductance of gap junction channels (so-called “electrical u...

  1. Fluorescent Reporters in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells: Contributions to Cardiac Differentiation and Their Applications in Cardiac Disease and Toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogh, den Sabine C.; Passier, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, since the first report of induced pluripotent stem cells, the stem cell field has made remarkable progress in the differentiation to specialized cell-types of various tissues and organs, including the heart. Cardiac lineage- and tissue-specific human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)

  2. Anger: A Neglected Group Treatment Issue with Cardiac Transplantation Recipients and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstam, Varda

    1995-01-01

    Describes the group process, specifically as it evolved with respect to anger in cardiac transplantation recipients and their families. Discusses the implications of these findings for professionals working in group settings with recipients and their families. (JBJ)

  3. Adult cardiac fibroblast proliferation is modulated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in normal and hypertrophied hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tamara P; Lawan, Ahmed; Robinson, Emma; Grieve, David J; Plevin, Robin; Paul, Andrew; Currie, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Increased adult cardiac fibroblast proliferation results in an increased collagen deposition responsible for the fibrosis accompanying pathological remodelling of the heart. The mechanisms regulating cardiac fibroblast proliferation remain poorly understood. Using a minimally invasive transverse aortic banding (MTAB) mouse model of cardiac hypertrophy, we have assessed fibrosis and cardiac fibroblast proliferation. We have investigated whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) regulates proliferation in fibroblasts isolated from normal and hypertrophied hearts. It is known that CaMKIIδ plays a central role in cardiac myocyte contractility, but nothing is known of its role in adult cardiac fibroblast function. The MTAB model used here produces extensive hypertrophy and fibrosis. CaMKIIδ protein expression and activity is upregulated in MTAB hearts and, specifically, in cardiac fibroblasts isolated from hypertrophied hearts. In response to angiotensin II, cardiac fibroblasts isolated from MTAB hearts show increased proliferation rates. Inhibition of CaMKII with autocamtide inhibitory peptide inhibits proliferation in cells isolated from both sham and MTAB hearts, with a significantly greater effect evident in MTAB cells. These results are the first to show selective upregulation of CaMKIIδ in adult cardiac fibroblasts following cardiac hypertrophy and to assign a previously unrecognised role to CaMKII in regulating adult cardiac fibroblast function in normal and diseased hearts. PMID:23881186

  4. High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of a GLUT1 Blocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, He Yun; Park, Ji Hye; Jang, Woong Bi; Ji, Seung Taek; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction, and whether blocking glucose uptake could rescue this dysfunction. High glucose in cardiac progenitor cells results in reduced cell viability and decreased expression of cell cycle-related molecules, including CDK2 and cyclin E. A tube formation assay revealed that hyperglycemia led to a significant decrease in the tube-forming ability of cardiac progenitor cells. Fluorescent labeling of cardiac progenitor cell mitochondria revealed that hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial dynamics and increases expression of fission-related proteins, including Fis1 and Drp1. Moreover, we showed that specific blockage of GLUT1 improved cell viability, tube formation, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac progenitor cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that high glucose leads to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction through an increase in mitochondrial fission, and that a GLUT1 blocker can rescue cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and downregulation of mitochondrial fission. Combined therapy with cardiac progenitor cells and a GLUT1 blocker may provide a novel strategy for cardiac progenitor cell therapy in cardiovascular disease patients with diabetes. PMID:27350339

  5. High Glucose Causes Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Dysfunction by Promoting Mitochondrial Fission: Role of a GLUT1 Blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, He Yun; Park, Ji Hye; Jang, Woong Bi; Ji, Seung Taek; Jung, Seok Yun; Kim, Da Yeon; Kang, Songhwa; Kim, Yeon Ju; Yun, Jisoo; Kim, Jae Ho; Baek, Sang Hong; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2016-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is the primary characteristic of diabetes and is associated with many complications. The role of hyperglycemia in the dysfunction of human cardiac progenitor cells that can regenerate damaged cardiac tissue has been investigated, but the exact mechanism underlying this association is not clear. Thus, we examined whether hyperglycemia could regulate mitochondrial dynamics and lead to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction, and whether blocking glucose uptake could rescue this dysfunction. High glucose in cardiac progenitor cells results in reduced cell viability and decreased expression of cell cycle-related molecules, including CDK2 and cyclin E. A tube formation assay revealed that hyperglycemia led to a significant decrease in the tube-forming ability of cardiac progenitor cells. Fluorescent labeling of cardiac progenitor cell mitochondria revealed that hyperglycemia alters mitochondrial dynamics and increases expression of fission-related proteins, including Fis1 and Drp1. Moreover, we showed that specific blockage of GLUT1 improved cell viability, tube formation, and regulation of mitochondrial dynamics in cardiac progenitor cells. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that high glucose leads to cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction through an increase in mitochondrial fission, and that a GLUT1 blocker can rescue cardiac progenitor cell dysfunction and downregulation of mitochondrial fission. Combined therapy with cardiac progenitor cells and a GLUT1 blocker may provide a novel strategy for cardiac progenitor cell therapy in cardiovascular disease patients with diabetes. PMID:27350339

  6. The second messenger system(s) mediating the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from the isolated rat heart during rapid cardiac pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubell, A F

    1989-01-01

    This study demonstrates that rapid cardiac pacing elevates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) levels, independently from atrial stretch. The second messenger system mediating this response was examined. The phosphoinositide system, generally regarded to be important in mediating ANP release, was shown to play only a modulating role during rapid cardiac pacing. The main mediator would appear to be calcium, and a non-calmodulin dependent, calcium mediated system controlling ANP release during rapid cardiac pacing is suggested. PMID:2532285

  7. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) B27 Allotype-Specific Binding and Candidate Arthritogenic Peptides Revealed through Heuristic Clustering of Data-independent Acquisition Mass Spectrometry (DIA-MS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schittenhelm, Ralf B; Sivaneswaran, Saranjah; Lim Kam Sian, Terry C C; Croft, Nathan P; Purcell, Anthony W

    2016-06-01

    Expression of HLA-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other spondyloarthropathies. While this is true for the majority of HLA-B27 allotypes, HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09 are not associated with AS. These two subtypes contain polymorphisms that are ideally positioned to influence the bound peptide repertoire. The existence of disease-inducing peptides (so-called arthritogenic peptides) has therefore been proposed that are exclusively presented by disease-associated HLA-B27 allotypes. However, we have recently demonstrated that this segregation of allotype-bound peptides is not the case and that many peptides that display sequence features predicted to favor binding to disease-associated subtypes are also capable of being presented naturally by protective alleles. To further probe more subtle quantitative changes in peptide presentation, we have used a combination of data-independent acquisition (DIA) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry to quantify the abundance of 1646 HLA-B27 restricted peptides across the eight most frequent HLA-B27 allotypes (HLA-B*27:02-HLA-B*27:09). We utilized K means cluster analysis to group peptides with similar allelic binding preferences across the eight HLA-B27 allotypes, which enabled us to identify the most-stringent binding characteristics for each HLA-B27 allotype and further refined their existing consensus-binding motifs. Moreover, a thorough analysis of this quantitative dataset led to the identification of 26 peptides, which are presented in lower abundance by HLA-B*27:06 and HLA-B*27:09 compared with disease-associated HLA-B27 subtypes. Although these differences were observed to be very subtle, these 26 peptides might encompass the sought-after arthritogenic peptide(s). PMID:26929215

  8. Loss of LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) suppresses growth and alters gene expression of human colon cancer cells in a p53- and DNMT1(DNA methyltransferase 1)-independent manner

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Lihua; Hanigan, Christin L.; Wu, Yu; Wang, Wei; Park, Ben Ho; Woster, Patrick M.; Casero, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of gene expression is important in cancer. Aberrant DNA CpG island hypermethylation and histone modifications are involved in the aberrant silencing of tumour-suppressor genes. LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1) is a H3K4 (histone H3 Lys4) demethylase associated with gene repression and is overexpressed in multiple cancer types. LSD1 has also been implicated in targeting p53 and DNMT1 (DNA methyltransferase 1), with data suggesting that the demethylating activity of LSD...

  9. U7 snRNP-specific Lsm11 protein: dual binding contacts with the 100 kDa zinc finger processing factor (ZFP100) and a ZFP100-independent function in histone RNA 3′ end processing

    OpenAIRE

    Azzouz, Teldja N.; Gruber, Andreas; Schümperli, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The 3' cleavage generating non-polyadenylated animal histone mRNAs depends on the base pairing between U7 snRNA and a conserved histone pre-mRNA downstream element. This interaction is enhanced by a 100 kDa zinc finger protein (ZFP100) that forms a bridge between an RNA hairpin element upstream of the processing site and the U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). The N-terminus of Lsm11, a U7-specific Sm-like protein, was shown to be crucial for histone RNA processing and to bind ZFP100....

  10. U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-specific proteins interact with the first and second stem-loops of U1 RNA, with the A protein binding directly to the RNA independently of the 70K and Sm proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U1 snRNP), a cofactor in pre-mRNA splicing, contains three proteins, termed 70K, A, and C, that are not present in the other spliceosome-associated snRNPs. We studied the binding of the A and C proteins to U1 RNA, using a U1 snRNP reconstitution system and an antibody-induced nuclease protection technique. Antibodies that reacted with the A and C proteins induced nuclease protection of the first two stem-loops of U1 RNA in reconstituted U1 snRNP. Detailed analysis of the antibody-induced nuclease protection patterns indicated the existence of relatively long-range protein-protein interactions in the U1 snRNP, with the 5' end of U1 RNA and its associated specific proteins interacting with proteins bound to the Sm domain near the 3' end. UV cross-linking experiments in conjunction with an A-protein-specific antibody demonstrated that the A protein bound directly to the U1 RNA rather than assembling in the U1 snRNP exclusively via protein-protein interactions. This conclusion was supported by additional experiments revealing that the A protein could bind to U1 RNA in the absence of bound 70K and Sm core proteins

  11. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of cFOS via protein kinase A is mediated by cAMP regulatory element binding protein (CREB)-dependent and tissue-specific CREB-independent mechanisms in corticotrope cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutillier, A L; Barthel, F; Roberts, J L; Loeffler, J P

    1992-11-25

    Catecholamines stimulate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in corticotrope cells, but the molecular mechanisms of these effects are not known. While beta-adrenergic receptors stimulate the protein kinase A (PKA) system, the POMC promoter does not have classical cAMP-response elements (CREs). Therefore, we investigated the induction of the c-fos protooncogen, previously shown to increase POMC transcription in AtT20 cells. In this corticotrope-derived cell line, we show that activation of beta-receptors with isoprenaline (Iso) induces a transient rise in c-fos mRNA levels. Gel mobility shift assays with a labeled AP1 consensus sequence (TGACTCA) showed induction of specific binding activity after Iso treatment. Cotransfection experiments with dominant inhibitory PKA mutants and reporter genes containing c-fos promoter sequences showed that c-fos induction by Iso is entirely dependent on a functional PKA activity. Furthermore, we show that beta-receptor induction of c-fos in corticotrophs is mediated by at least two distinct cAMP-responsive sequences. cAMP regulatory element binding (CREB)-dependent induction is observed on the CRE located at -60 bp on the c-fos promoter. A region located in the vicinity of the dyad symetry element (-290) is also found to mediate tissue-specific cAMP induction. Transcriptional activation by this site, although sensitive to PKA antagonism, is not blocked by CREB mutants. PMID:1331087

  12. Role of cardiac MRI in acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Mulia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI has decreased significantly and appears to be the result of current reperfusion therapeutic strategies. Reperfusion itself may develop into reperfusion injury. Therefore, management of these patients poses several challenges, such as diagnosing and managing heart failure, identifying persistent or inducible ischaemia, estimating the need for anticoagulation, and assessing overall cardiovascular risk. This case presentation will demonstrate the impact of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the assessment of the pathophysiology of AMI in the current reperfusion era. Cardiac MRI can provide a wide range of clinically useful information which will help clinicians to manage and choose specific therapeutic strategies for AMI patients. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:46-53Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, reperfusion injury

  13. Cardiac and systemic haemodynamic complications of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2009-01-01

    physical and pharmacological strain. Cardiac failure is an important cause of mortality after liver transplantation and stressful procedures as insertions of transjugular intrahepatic portal systemic shunt (TIPS), peritoneal venous shunting, and other types of surgery. Improvement of liver function has......Cardiovascular complications of liver cirrhosis include cardiac dysfunction and abnormalities in the central-, splanchnic,- and peripheral circulation. Vasodilatation prevails, but vascular beds with various degrees of reduced and increased haemodynamic resistance are the results of massive...... been shown to reverse the cardiovascular complications. The clinical significance is an important topic for future research. At present, no specific treatment can be recommended, and the cardiac failure in cirrhosis should be treated as in non-cirrhotic patients with sodium restriction, diuretics, and...

  14. Evaluation of cardiac tumors with magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Antonio [Clinica Las Nieves, MR Unit, Jaen (Spain); Ribes, Ramon [Reina Sofia Hospital, MR Unit, Radiology Department, Cordoba (Spain); Caro, Pilar [MR Unit, Dadisa, Cadiz (Spain); Vida, Jose [San Juan De Dios Hospital, MR Unit, Resalta, Cordoba (Spain); Erasmus, Jeremy J. [University of Texas, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Primary cardiac neoplasms are rare, and are more commonly benign than malignant. However, metastases are by far the most common cardiac neoplasms. MRI allows evaluation of myocardial infiltration, pericardial involvement and/or extracardiac extension. MRI overcomes the usual limitations of echocardiography and assesses more accurately changes in cardiac function. Specific tumoral characterization is only possible in cases of myxoma, lipoma, fibroma and hemangioma. Suggestive features of malignancy are right side location, extracardiac extension, inhomogeneity in signal intensity of the tumor and pericardial effusion. The use of intravenous contrast material improves tumor characterization and depiction of tumor borders. MRI also allows differentiation of tumor from other nontumoral masses such as intracavitary tumors or fibromuscular elements of the posterior wall of the right atrium. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic clamp: a powerful tool in cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilders, Ronald

    2006-10-15

    Dynamic clamp is a collection of closely related techniques that have been employed in cardiac electrophysiology to provide direct answers to numerous research questions regarding basic cellular mechanisms of action potential formation, action potential transfer and action potential synchronization in health and disease. Building on traditional current clamp, dynamic clamp was initially used to create virtual gap junctions between isolated myocytes. More recent applications include the embedding of a real pacemaking myocyte in a simulated network of atrial or ventricular cells and the insertion of virtual ion channels, either simulated in real time or simultaneously recorded from an expression system, into the membrane of an isolated myocyte. These applications have proven that dynamic clamp, which is characterized by the real-time evaluation and injection of simulated membrane current, is a powerful tool in cardiac electrophysiology. Here, each of the three different experimental configurations used in cardiac electrophysiology is reviewed. Also, directions are given for the implementation of dynamic clamp in the cardiac electrophysiology laboratory. With the growing interest in the application of dynamic clamp in cardiac electrophysiology, it is anticipated that dynamic clamp will also prove to be a powerful tool in basic research on biological pacemakers and in identification of specific ion channels as targets for drug development. PMID:16873403

  16. Current Pharmacological Advances in the Treatment of Cardiac Arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Papastylianou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest is defined as the sudden cessation of spontaneous ventilation and circulation. Within 15 seconds of cardiac arrest, the patient loses consciousness, electroencephalogram becomes flat after 30 seconds, pupils dilate fully after 60 seconds, and cerebral damage takes place within 90–300 seconds. It is essential to act immediately as irreversible damage can occur in a short time. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR is an attempt to restore spontaneous circulation through a broad range of interventions which are early defibrillation, high-quality and uninterrupted chest compressions, advanced airway interventions, and pharmacological interventions. Drugs should be considered only after initial shocks have been delivered (when indicated and chest compressions and ventilation have been started. During cardiopulmonary resuscitation, no specific drug therapy has been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge after cardiac arrest, and only few drugs have a proven benefit for short-term survival. This paper reviews current pharmacological treatment of cardiac arrest. There are three groups of drugs relevant to the management of cardiac arrest: vasopressors, antiarrhythmics, and other drugs such as sodium bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium, atropine, fibrinolytic drugs, and corticosteroids.

  17. Trichloroethylene: a cardiac teratogen in developing chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, C P; Hendrix, M J; Diez De Pinos, S; Goldberg, S J

    1988-12-01

    Prior studies have evaluated the teratogenicity of TCE, a contaminant of drinking water. However, none specifically examined effects of TCE on cardiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if TCE is a cardiac teratogen in early embryogenesis in an avian model. Fertile White Leghorn chicken eggs were incubated under standard conditions. At stage 6, 12, 18, or 23, TCE, in concentrations of 5 to 25 microM (2 to 28 micrograms/g body weight) was injected into the air space of the egg (vol = 0.03 ml). Mineral oil and saline served as control solutions. For this double-blinded study, solutions were coded and remained so until all observations were made and recorded. Embryonic hearts (n = 1055) were examined at stage 29, 34, or 44. Gross examination was performed, followed by microdissection. Cardiac malformations were found in 7.3% of TCE-treated hearts, compared to 2.3% of saline controls (p less than 0.01), and 1.5% of mineral oil controls (p less than 0.001). No significant difference in incidence of malformations was found when comparing saline and mineral oil controls. Cardiac defects include septal defects, cor biloculare, conotruncal abnormalities, atrioventricular canal defects, and abnormal cardiac muscle. These data demonstrate that TCE is a cardiac teratogen in an avian model. PMID:3205631

  18. Late gadolinium enhancement and subclinical cardiac dysfunction on cardiac MRI in asymptomatic HIV-positive men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Loy

    2012-11-01

    . These findings were independent of traditional cardiac risk factors, duration of HIV infection and ART therapy. Sub clinical cardiac dysfunction may be underreported in other cardiac evaluation studies. The true impact of other potential risk factors may also be underestimated, highlighting the need for the development of more complex prediction models.

  19. Analysis of cardiac interventricular septum motion in different respiratory states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, Lennart; Feng, Li; Otazo, Ricardo; Hennemuth, Anja; Axel, Leon

    2016-03-01

    The interaction between the left and right heart ventricles (LV and RV) depends on load and pressure conditions that are affected by cardiac contraction and respiration cycles. A novel MRI sequence, XD-GRASP, allows the acquisition of multi-dimensional, respiration-sorted and cardiac-synchronized free-breathing image data. In these data, effects of the cardiac and respiratory cycles on the LV/RV interaction can be observed independently. To enable the analysis of such data, we developed a semi-automatic exploration workflow. After tracking a cross-sectional line positioned over the heart, over all motion states, the septum and heart wall border locations are detected by analyzing the grey-value profile under the lines. These data are used to quantify septum motion, both in absolute units and as a fraction of the heart size, to compare values for different subjects. In addition to conventional visualization techniques, we used color maps for intuitive exploration of the variable values for this multi-dimensional data set. We acquired short-axis image data of nine healthy volunteers, to analyze the position and the motion of the interventricular septum in different breathing states and different cardiac cycle phases. The results indicate a consistent range of normal septum motion values, and also suggest that respiratory phase-dependent septum motion is greatest near end-diastolic phases. These new methods are a promising tool to assess LV/RV ventricle interaction and the effects of respiration on this interaction.

  20. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntz, Y.; Chambron, J.; Dumitresco, B.; Eclancher, B. E-mail: eclan@alsace.u-strasbg.fr; Prat, V

    1999-06-01

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients.

  1. A portable cadmium telluride multidetector probe for cardiac function monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear stethoscope based on a matrix of small CdTe semiconductor detectors has been developed for studying the cardiac performance by gamma ventriculography at the equilibrium, in rest and stress conditions, in the early and recovery phases of the coronary disease and to follow the long-term therapy. The light-weight probe consists of an array of 64 detectors 5x5x2 mm grouped in 16 independent units in a lead shielded aluminum box including 16 preamplifiers. The probe is connected to an electronic box containing DC power supply, 16 channel amplifiers, discriminators and counters, two analog-triggering ECG channels, and interface to a PC. The left ventricle activity is, preferentially, detected by using a low-resolution matching convergent collimator. A physical evaluation of the probe has been performed, both with static tests and dynamically with a hydraulic home-built model of beating heart ventricle paced by a rhythm simulator. The sum of the 16 detectors activity provided a radiocardiogram (RCG) which well depicted the filling and ejection of the cardiac beats, allowing to compare the clinically relevant parameters of the cardiac performance, proportional variables of the stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and ventricular flow-rate with the known absolute values programmed on the model. The portable system is now in operation for clinical assessment of cardiac patients

  2. Influence of chronic kidney disease on cardiac structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kunihiro; Ballew, Shoshana H; Coresh, Josef

    2015-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), the presence of kidney dysfunction and/or damage, is a worldwide public health issue. Although CKD is independently associated with various subtypes of cardiovascular diseases, a recent international collaborative meta-analysis demonstrates that CKD is particularly strongly associated with heart failure, suggesting its critical impact on cardiac structure and function. Although numerous studies have investigated the association of CKD and cardiac structure and function, these studies substantially vary regarding source populations and methodology (e.g., measures of CKD and/or parameters of cardiac structure and function), making it difficult to reach universal conclusions. Nevertheless, in this review, we comprehensively examine relevant studies, discuss potential mechanisms linking CKD to alteration of cardiac structure and function, and demonstrate clinical implications as well as potential future research directions. We exclusively focus on studies investigating both CKD measures, kidney function (i.e., glomerular filtration rate [GFR], creatinine clearance, or levels of filtration markers), and kidney damage represented by albuminuria, since current international clinical guidelines of CKD recommend staging CKD and assessing its clinical risk based on both GFR and albuminuria. PMID:26194332

  3. Computed tomography of cardiac pseudotumors and neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavekar, Nandan S; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Miller, Dylan V; Breen, Jerome F; Araoz, Philip A

    2010-07-01

    Important features of cardiac masses can be clearly delineated on cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging. This modality is useful in identifying the presence of a mass, its relationship with cardiac and extracardiac structures, and the features that distinguish one type of mass from another. A multimodality approach to the evaluation of cardiac tumors is advocated, with the use of echocardiography, CT imaging and magnetic resonance imaging as appropriately indicated. In this article, various cardiac masses are described, including pseudotumors and true cardiac neoplasms, and the CT imaging findings that may be useful in distinguishing these rare entities are presented. PMID:20705174

  4. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  5. Akt and MAPK signaling mediate pregnancy-induced cardiac adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Yeung, Fan; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2012-05-01

    Although the signaling pathways underlying exercise-induced cardiac adaptation have been extensively studied, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that result in the response of the heart to pregnancy. The objective of this study was to define the morphological, functional, and gene expression patterns that define the hearts of pregnant mice, and to identify the signaling pathways that mediate this response. Mice were divided into three groups: nonpregnant diestrus control, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy. Both time points of pregnancy were associated with significant cardiac hypertrophy. The prosurvival signaling cascades of Akt and ERK1/2 were activated in the hearts of pregnant mice, while the stress kinase, p38, was decreased. Given the activation of Akt in pregnancy and its known role in cardiac hypertrophy, the hypertrophic response to pregnancy was tested in mice expressing a cardiac-specific activated (myristoylated) form of Akt (myrAkt) or a cardiac-specific constitutively active (antipathologic hypertrophic) form of its downstream target, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (caGSK3β). The pregnancy-induced hypertrophic responses of hearts from these mice were significantly attenuated. Finally, we tested whether pregnancy-associated sex hormones could induce hypertrophy and alter signaling pathways in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs). In fact, progesterone, but not estradiol treatment increased NRVM cell size via phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Inhibition of MEK1 effectively blocked progesterone-induced cellular hypertrophy. Taken together, our study demonstrates that pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by activation of Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. PMID:22345431

  6. Dietary ω-3 Fatty Acids Alter Cardiac Mitochondrial Phospholipid Composition and Delay Ca2+-Induced Permeability Transition

    OpenAIRE

    O’Shea, Karen M.; Khairallah, Ramzi J.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Xu, Wenhong; Hecker, Peter A; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Kristian, Tibor; Robert C. Murphy; Fiskum, Gary; Stanley, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Consumption of ω-3 fatty acids from fish oil, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), decreases risk for heart failure and attenuates pathologic cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload. Dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA may also impact cardiac mitochondrial function and energetics through alteration of membrane phospholipids. We assessed the role of EPA+DHA supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac mitochondrial membrane phospho...

  7. System for the diagnosis and monitoring of coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndromes, cardiomyopathy and other cardiac conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); Arenare, Brian (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed and stored in a useful form using a computer. The computer monitor displays various useful information, and in particular graphically displays various permutations of reduced amplitude zones and kurtosis that increase the rapidity and accuracy of cardiac diagnoses. New criteria for reduced amplitude zones are defined that enhance the sensitivity and specificity for detecting cardiac abnormalities.

  8. Third National Survey of Cardiac Rehabilitation Service Provision in Ireland: progress on the 1999 National Cardiovascular Health Strategy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Delaney, Mary; Flynn, Rachel; Kiernan, Marian; Doyle, Frank; Lonergan, Moira; Ingram, Shirley; McGee, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    Background: The National Cardiovascular Health Strategy, including specific plans for cardiac rehabilitation, was launched in Ireland in 1999. A survey of cardiac rehabilitation services was conducted in 2006 to evaluate progress on service provision. Aim: To establish levels of service provision and service formats of cardiac rehabilitation services in 2005, compare them with the status pre-Strategy (1998) and to ascertain areas in which additional resources may be needed to achieve the 10 n...

  9. Independent technical review, handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project.

  10. Independent technical review, handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose Provide an independent engineering review of the major projects being funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. The independent engineering review will address questions of whether the engineering practice is sufficiently developed to a point where a major project can be executed without significant technical problems. The independent review will focus on questions related to: (1) Adequacy of development of the technical base of understanding; (2) Status of development and availability of technology among the various alternatives; (3) Status and availability of the industrial infrastructure to support project design, equipment fabrication, facility construction, and process and program/project operation; (4) Adequacy of the design effort to provide a sound foundation to support execution of project; (5) Ability of the organization to fully integrate the system, and direct, manage, and control the execution of a complex major project

  11. The Critical Independence Number and an Independence Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Craig Eric

    2009-01-01

    An independent set $I_c$ is a \\textit{critical independent set} if $|I_c| - |N(I_c)| \\geq |J| - |N(J)|$, for any independent set $J$. The \\textit{critical independence number} of a graph is the cardinality of a maximum critical independent set. This number is a lower bound for the independence number and can be computed in polynomial-time. Any graph can be decomposed into two subgraphs where the independence number of one subgraph equals its critical independence number, where the critical independence number of the other subgraph is zero, and where the sum of the independence numbers of the subgraphs is the independence number of the graph. A proof of a conjecture of Graffiti.pc yields a new characterization of K\\"{o}nig-Egervary graphs: these are exactly the graphs whose independence and critical independence numbers are equal.

  12. Evaluation of long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure. Is cardiac imaging with iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of cardiac sympathetic activity on long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure was evaluated by cardiac imaging with 123I-MIBG in 46 patients admitted for the first episode of heart failure. Cardiac imaging was performed with 123I-MIBG and 201Tl at rest on separate days before discharge. Using whole body imaging, the ratio of cardiac uptake of the isotope to total injected dose was calculated (percentage uptake). The cardiac uptake ratio of 123I-MIBG (percentage uptake of 123I-MIBG divided by percentage uptake of 201Tl) and percentage washout of 123I-MIBG from the heart over 3 hours were calculated as scintigraphic parameters. Cardiac events were defined as cardiac death or deterioration of heart failure requiring readmission. Scintigraphic parameters, clinical parameters, left ventricular function obtained by echocardiography and neurohumoral parameters were compared between the event group and event-free group. During the follow-up period, cardiac events developed in 14 patients (30%). Univariate analysis showed uptake ratio and washout rate of 123I-MIBG, percentage uptake of 201Tl, New York Heart Association class at discharge, fractional shortening of the left ventricle, serum norepinephrine and atrial natriuretic peptide levels differed significantly between the two groups. Cox proportional-hazard analysis showed that the uptake ratio was an independent predictor of cardiac events. When a cut-off point in the uptake ratio equal to or less than 0.50 and age equal to or more than 65 years old were included in the Cox proportional-hazard analysis instead of actual numbers, relative risks of cardiac events by each index were 31.2 and 4.2, respectively. These data suggest that cardiac uptake of 123I-MIBG is a strong and independent predictor of long-term prognosis in patients with heart failure. (K.H.)

  13. Cardiac factors in orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löllgen, H.; Dirschedl, P.; Koppenhagen, K.; Klein, K. E.

    Cardiac function is determined by preload, afterload, heart rate and contractility. During orthostatic stress, the footward blood shift is compensated for by an increase of afterload. LBNP is widely used to analyze effects of volume displacement during orthostatic stress. Comparisons of invasive ( right heart catheterization) and non-invasive approach (echocardiography) yielded similar changes. Preload and afterload change with graded LBNP, heart rate increases, and stroke volume and cardiac output decrease. Thus, the working point on the left ventricular function curve is shifted to the left and downward, similar to hypovolemia. However, position on the Frank-Starling curve, the unchanged ejection fraction, and the constant Vcf indicate a normal contractile state during LBNP. A decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure during LBNP shwos impaired ventilation/perfusion ratio. Finally, LBNP induced cardiac and hemodynamic changes can be effectively countermeasured by dihydroergotamine, a potent venoconstrictor. Comparison of floating catheter data with that of echocardiography resulted in close correlation for cardiac output and stroke volume. In addition, cardiac dimensions changed in a similar way during LBNP. From our findings, echocardiography as a non-invasive procedure can reliably used in LBNP and orthostatic stress tests. Some informations can be obtained on borderline values indicating collaps or orthostatic syncope. Early fainters can be differentiated from late fainters by stroke volume changes.

  14. Cardiac Penetrating Injuries and Pseudoaneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shifeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the early diagnosis and treatment of cardiac penetrating injuries and pseudoaneurysm. Methods 18 cases of cardiac penetrating injuries, in which 2 cases were complicated with pseudoaneurysm, were diagnosed by emergency operation and color Doppler echocardiography between May 1973 and Dec. 2001 in our hospital. The basis for emergency operation is the injured path locating in cardiac dangerous zone, severe shock or pericardial tamponade. ResultsAmong 18 cases of this study, 17 cases underwent emergency operation. During the operation, 11 cases were found injured in right ventricle, 2 cases were found injured in right atrium, 1 case was found injured in pulmonary artery,4 cases were found injured in left ventricle, 2 cases were found complicated with pseudoaneurysm. 17cases underwent cardiac repair including 1 case of rupture of aneurysm. 1 case underwent elective aneurysm resection. In whole group, 15 cases survived(83.33% ), 3 cases died( 16.67%). The cause of death is mainly hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion Highly suspicious cardiac penetrating injuries or hemopericaridium should undergo direct operative exploration. Pseudoaneurysm should be resected early,which can prevent severe complications.

  15. Distro’: Independent Creativity for Independent Industr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sri Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To shortened this introduction, ‘Distro’ is one of cultural phenomenon in theyoung generation nowadays. The word of ‘Distro’ is the shortened of DistributionOutlet. The phenomenon of ‘Distro’ has been some kind of new trends inproducing and distributing creative design products of goods amongst theyoungsters independently, in an independence industry that open for challengingand competitiveness for everyone. This field research has been done in the city ofYogyakarta, reknown as the second city in creative design products after the cityof Bandung. Yogyakarta is welknown as the students’ city as well as the capital cityof culture of Indonesia. As a students’ city it is normal that Yogyakarta is growingin numbers of young people who pursued to study here and enriched the cultureof the city to become more multicultural and the varieties of pluralism as well.This sociocultural phenomenon not only brought some dynamic changing tosociety, economy and cultural life of the city, but also social problems that needsto be overcome. My first research question then is about how the existence of‘Distro’ in Yogyakarta can be a positive answer for social problems that may arisesfrom the hegemony of globalization markets domestically? My second questionis how the creative product designs are being made and distributed creatively inindependent industry? Lastly, my third question is dealling with the genres ofthe design products and how it can be a new trend in art expression? ‘Distro’ is aproduct of culture and it is also creating cultural change in some aspects of the lifeof the youngsters who are ‘Distro’ enthusiasts. ‘Distro’ phenomenon basically is anoffensive to the hegemony of internationally branded product design which turnsto become more over-dominated to the domestic markets and industry and thus,‘Distro’ has the spirit of survival whilts at the same time producing opportunity ofenterpreneurship

  16. Independent validation of ultrasonic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of its inspection strategy for the Sizewell-B PWR station, the Central Electricity Generating Board (in part now Nuclear Electric) decided that the ultrasonic inspection procedures for the incredibility of failure components would be subjected to independent confirmation of their adequacy. The incorporation of validation into a large-scale inspection strategy was unique at the time (1982), indeed remains so today. The CEGB's general philosophy is one of diversity, redundancy and validation. In order to carry out independent validation of the specific procedures and ultrasonic operators to be used during the manufacture and in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel and steam plant components, the Inspection Validation Centre (IVC) has operated as a contractor to Nuclear Electric with special arrangements in place to guarantee independence. The setting-up and early methods of operation of IVC are briefly reviewed, the most recent operational experience summarized and the technical significance of the validations to date discussed. (author). 1 fig

  17. Predictors of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T in chronic kidney disease patients: a cross-sectional study in the chronic renal insufficiency cohort (CRIC)

    OpenAIRE

    Dubin, Ruth F.; Li, Yongmei; He, Jiang; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Lash, James P.; Makos, Gail; Rosas, Sylvia E.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Townsend, Ray R; Yang, Wei; Go, Alan S.; Keane, Martin; deFilippi, Christopher; Mishra, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiac troponin T is independently associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum levels of high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT) reflect subclinical myocardial injury in ambulatory patients. We sought to determine the distribution and predictors of hs-TnT in CKD patients without overt cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods We...

  18. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Bioenergetics: Potential Role of Cardiac Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Shinmura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of aging has not been fully clarified, but the free radical theory of aging is one of the strongest aging theories proposed to date. The free radical theory has been expanded to the oxidative stress theory, in which mitochondria play a central role in the development of the aging process because of their critical roles in bioenergetics, oxidant production, and regulation of cell death. A decline in cardiac mitochondrial function associated with the accumulation of oxidative damage might be responsible, at least in part, for the decline in cardiac performance with age. In contrast, lifelong caloric restriction can attenuate functional decline with age, delay the onset of morbidity, and extend lifespan in various species. The effect of caloric restriction appears to be related to a reduction in cellular damage induced by reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence that sirtuins play an essential role in the reduction of mitochondrial oxidative stress during caloric restriction. We speculate that cardiac sirtuins attenuate the accumulation of oxidative damage associated with age by modifying specific mitochondrial proteins posttranscriptionally. Therefore, the distinct role of each sirtuin in the heart subjected to caloric restriction should be clarified to translate sirtuin biology into clinical practice.

  19. Elafin, a serine elastase inhibitor, attenuates post-cardiac transplant coronary arteriopathy and reduces myocardial necrosis in rabbits afer heterotopic cardiac transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, B.; Baron, O; Crack, J; Coulber, C; Wilson, G.J.; Rabinovitch, M

    1996-01-01

    We have related experimentally induced post-cardiac transplant coronary arteriopathy to increased elastolytic activity, IL-1beta, fibronectin-mediated inflammatory and smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration, and SMC proliferation. Since our in vitro studies show that a serine elastase releases SMC mitogens and facilitates IL-lbeta induction of fibronectin, we hypothesized that administration in vivo of the specific serine elastase inhibitor, elafin, would decrease the post-cardiac transplant coro...

  20. Finite Element Model to Study One Dimensional Calcium Dyanmics in Cardiac Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Kunal B.; Adlakha, Neeru

    2015-12-01

    The multi physical process involving calcium ions regulate expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes. This mechanism of expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes is responsible for contraction and expansion of heart for pumping of blood into arteries and receiving blood into heart from vein. Thus calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes is responsible for the activities of the myocytes cells and functioning of the heart. The specific spatiotemporal calcium ion dynamics is required to trigger, sustain and terminate activity of the cell. In this paper an attempt has been done to propose a model to study calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes for a one-dimensional unsteady state case. The model incorporates the process like diffusion, reaction involving source and excess buffers. Appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions have been framed. The finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers and source influx on calcium dynamics in cardiac myocytes.