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Sample records for cardiac multislice computed

  1. Cardiac motion extraction and characterization in multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac kinetics analysis is of a great diagnostic interest in the fight against cardiovascular pathologies. Two methods are proposed in order to estimate cardiac motion from dynamic sequences of three-dimensional volumes acquired in multislice computed tomography. These methods both lie on a feature matching process, carried out within a Markovian framework and according to a multi-resolution scheme. The first method, estimating the correspondences between pre-segmented surfaces, is dependent on the temporal coherence of this segmentation. The second method estimates the correspondences between, on the one hand, a segmented surface and, on the other hand, the original data volume corresponding to the next moment. The motion estimation and the segmentation are then carried out, on the whole sequence, during a single process. Both methods are validated on simulated and real data. (author)

  2. Cardiac motion extraction and characterization in multislice computed tomography; Extraction et caracterisation du mouvement cardiaque en imagerie scanner multibarrette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, A

    2005-12-15

    Cardiac kinetics analysis is of a great diagnostic interest in the fight against cardiovascular pathologies. Two methods are proposed in order to estimate cardiac motion from dynamic sequences of three-dimensional volumes acquired in multislice computed tomography. These methods both lie on a feature matching process, carried out within a Markovian framework and according to a multi-resolution scheme. The first method, estimating the correspondences between pre-segmented surfaces, is dependent on the temporal coherence of this segmentation. The second method estimates the correspondences between, on the one hand, a segmented surface and, on the other hand, the original data volume corresponding to the next moment. The motion estimation and the segmentation are then carried out, on the whole sequence, during a single process. Both methods are validated on simulated and real data. (author)

  3. Evaluation of aortic valve stenosis by cardiac multislice computed tomography compared with echocardiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Sivertsen, Jacob Christian; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: It has not yet been established whether multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) is reliable for the quantification of aortic valve area (AVA) in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and simultaneously for assessment of the coronary anatomy. The study aim, via ...

  4. Unsupervised motion-compensation of multi-slice cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, M.B.; Ólafsdóttir, H; Larsson, H.B.W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for registration of single and multi-slice cardiac perfusion MRI. Utilising off-line computer intensive analyses of variance and clustering in an annotated training set, the presented method is capable of providing registration without any manual interaction in...... holds great promise for the automation of cardiac perfusion investigations, due to its accuracy, robustness and generalisation ability...

  5. Unsupervised motion-compensation of multi-slice cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsson, Henrik B. W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for registration of single and multi-slice cardiac perfusion MRI. Utilising computer intensive analyses of variance and clustering in an annotated training set off-line, the presented method is capable of providing registration without any manual interaction in...... holds great promise for the automation of cardiac perfusion investigations, due to its accuracy, robustness and generalisation ability....

  6. Impact of sirolimus-eluting stent fractures without early cardiac events on long-term clinical outcomes: A multislice computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi [Toyohashi Heart Center, Oyama-cho, Toyohashi (Japan); Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya (Japan); Kimura, Masashi; Ehara, Mariko; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Nasu, Kenya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Habara, Maoto; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Suzuki, Takahiko [Toyohashi Heart Center, Oyama-cho, Toyohashi (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study sought to evaluate the impact of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) fractures on long-term clinical outcomes using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). In this study, 528 patients undergoing 6- to 18-month follow-up 64-slice MSCT after SES implantation without early clinical events were followed clinically (the median follow-up interval was 4.6 years). A CT-detected stent fracture was defined as a complete gap with Hounsfield units (HU) <300 at the site of separation. The major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), including cardiac death, stent thrombosis, and target lesion revascularisation, were compared according to the presence of stent fracture. Stent fractures were observed in 39 patients (7.4 %). MACEs were more common in patients with CT-detected stent fractures than in those without (46 % vs. 7 %, p < 0.01). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated a significant relationship between MACE and stent fracture [hazard ratio (HR) 7.65; p < 0.01], age (HR 1.03; p = 0.04), stent length (HR 1.03; p < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (HR 1.77; p = 0.04), and chronic total occlusion (HR 2.54; p = 0.01). In the multivariate model, stent fracture (HR 5.36; p < 0.01) and age (HR 1.03; p = 0.04) remained significant predictors of MACE. An SES fracture detected by MSCT without early clinical events was associated with long-term clinical adverse events. (orig.)

  7. Value of multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in preparation for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: The impact of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings on patient care

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    Wissner, Erik; Wellnitz, Clinton V.; Srivathsan, Komandoor; Scott, Luis R. [Mayo Clinic Arizona - Mayo Clinic Hospital, Cardiovascular Diseases, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054 (United States); Altemose, Gregory T. [Mayo Clinic Arizona - Mayo Clinic Hospital, Cardiovascular Diseases, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, Phoenix, AZ 85054 (United States)], E-mail: altemose.gregory@mayo.edu

    2009-11-15

    Objective: In patients referred for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax is routinely performed to assess pulmonary vein anatomy. We sought to investigate the incidence of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings in this select patient population and to establish how these findings influence subsequent patient care. Methods: Ninety-five patients (mean age 62 {+-} 10 years, 35% female) referred to our institution for ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation between July 2003 and October 2007 underwent multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax. Radiologists interpreted all images. Need for additional testing, consultation and eventual diagnosis were assessed by electronic record review. Results: A total of 83 (5 cardiac, 78 extracardiac) unexpected findings were observed in 50/95 (53%) of patients. The findings prompted 23 additional tests (5 cardiac, 18 noncardiac) in 15/95 (16%) of patients and 8 subsequent referrals in 7/95 (7%) patients. In 6 patients the findings significantly altered future patient care and resulted in postponement of ablation therapy in 4 patients. In 2 patients, extracardiac findings (pulmonary emboli and adenocarcinoma of the lung) were of potentially life-saving consequence. Conclusions: In patients undergoing multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in anticipation of planned catheter ablation therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, unexpected findings are common and of potentially significant value. In comparison, there is a higher prevalence of unexpected extracardiac, rather than cardiac findings. Further investigation of these findings may lead to postponement of ablation therapy, but may also be of potentially lifesaving consequence.

  8. Value of multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in preparation for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation: The impact of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings on patient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In patients referred for catheter ablation for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax is routinely performed to assess pulmonary vein anatomy. We sought to investigate the incidence of unexpected cardiac and extracardiac findings in this select patient population and to establish how these findings influence subsequent patient care. Methods: Ninety-five patients (mean age 62 ± 10 years, 35% female) referred to our institution for ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation between July 2003 and October 2007 underwent multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax. Radiologists interpreted all images. Need for additional testing, consultation and eventual diagnosis were assessed by electronic record review. Results: A total of 83 (5 cardiac, 78 extracardiac) unexpected findings were observed in 50/95 (53%) of patients. The findings prompted 23 additional tests (5 cardiac, 18 noncardiac) in 15/95 (16%) of patients and 8 subsequent referrals in 7/95 (7%) patients. In 6 patients the findings significantly altered future patient care and resulted in postponement of ablation therapy in 4 patients. In 2 patients, extracardiac findings (pulmonary emboli and adenocarcinoma of the lung) were of potentially life-saving consequence. Conclusions: In patients undergoing multislice computed tomography angiography of the thorax in anticipation of planned catheter ablation therapy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation, unexpected findings are common and of potentially significant value. In comparison, there is a higher prevalence of unexpected extracardiac, rather than cardiac findings. Further investigation of these findings may lead to postponement of ablation therapy, but may also be of potentially lifesaving consequence.

  9. Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Cademartiri, Filippo

    2005-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is also known as "CAT scanning" (Computed Axial Tomography). Tomography is from the Greek word "tomos" meaning "slice" or "section" and "graphia" meaning "describing". CT was invented in 1972 by British engineer Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England, and independently by South Mrican born physicist Allan Cormack of Tufts University, Massachusetts.1 • 2 Hounsfield was later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize and honoured with K...

  10. Comparison of myocardial perfusion SPECT with 64-slice multi-slice computed tomography angiography in cardiac screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Il Han; Lee, Won Woo; Chang, Hyuck Jae; Choi, Sang II; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Asymptomatic diabetic patients may suffer silent ischemia. However, the question that what is the optimal screening tool for detection of cardiac disease in asymptomatic diabetic patients has not been addressed. We prospectively recruited diabetic patients who had not complained chest pain, and obtained myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and cardiac CT angiography (CTA). We compared perfusion status on MPS with findings on CTA. A total of 110 diabetic patients (Age range 41-84, mean age 61.6{+-}7.74; gender, M: F 66:44) without cardiac symptom underwent both MPS and CTA. The MPS protocol was one-day single isotope study, adenosine stress Tc-99m MIBI/rest Tc-99m MIBI. CTA was conducted using 64-slice multi-slice CT (Brillance64, Philips Medical Systems). Perfusion status on MPS was assessed by summed-stress score (SSS) using 20-segment model, and SSS of {>=}4 was considered abnormal. Coronary stenosis of more than 50% luminal narrowing in CTA was considered significant, and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) was graded as: < or =10, 11-100, 101-400, or >400. MPS found abnormal perfusion in 11.8% (13/110) and CTA significant coronary stenosis in 20.9% (23/110). Five patients showed both abnormal perfusion and significant coronary stenosis. CACS (n=103 patients) were measured as; < or =10 in 45.6%, 11-100 in 28.1%, 101-400 in 19.4%, and >400 in 6.8%. The patient proportion of abnormal MPS in each CACS group were; 10.6% with < or = 10, 17.2% with 11-100, 5% with 101-400, and 0% with >400. The patient proportion of significant coronary stenosis on CTA in each CACS group were; 2.13% with < or =10, 27.6% with 11-100, 35% with 101-400, and 57.1% with >400. In asymptomatic diabetic patients, coronary stenosis by CTA showed correlation with coronary artery calcium scoring, but myocardial perfusion status by MPS did not. Long-term evaluation is essential for determination of prognostic significance of MPS and cardiac CTA.

  11. Multi-slice and dual-source CT in cardiac imaging. Principles - protocols - indications - outlook. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnesorge, B.M. [Siemens Medical Solutions Group China, Beijing (China); Flohr, T.G. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim (Germany). Div. CT Physics and Applications Development; Becker, C.R.; Reiser, M.F. [Muenchen Univ. Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Knez, A [Muenchen Univ. Klinikum Grosshadern (Germany). Section Head Imaging

    2007-07-01

    Cardiac diseases, and in particular coronary artery disease, are the leading cause of death and morbidity in industrialized countries. The development of non-invasive imaging techniques for the heart and the coronary arteries has been considered a key element in improving patient care. A breakthrough in cardiac imaging using CT occurred in 1998, with the introduction of multi-slice computed tomography (CT). Since then, amazing advances in performance have taken place with scanners that acquire up to 64 slices per rotation. This book discusses the state-of-the-art developments in multi-slice CT for cardiac imaging as well as those that can be anticipated in the future. It serves as a comprehensive work that covers all aspects of this technology, from the technical fundamentals and image evaluation all the way to clinical indications and protocol recommendations. This fully reworked second edition draws on the most recent clinical experience obtained with 16- and 64-slice CT scanners by world-leading experts from Europe and the United States. It also includes 'hands-on' experience in the form of 10 representative clinical case studies, which are included on the accompanying CD. As a further highlight, the latest results of the very recently introduced dual-source CT, which may soon represent the CT technology of choice for cardiac applications, are presented. This book will not only convince the reader that multi-slice cardiac CT has arrived in clinical practice, it will also make a significant contribution to the education of radiologists, cardiologists, technologists, and physicists-whether newcomers, experienced users, or researchers. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic value of 64 multislice computed tomography in the assessment of the coronary graft patency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symptoms recurrence after surgical coronary artery revascularization requires the assessment of graft patency. At the moment, promissory results have been reported using the multislice computed tomography

  13. Virtual colonoscopy with multi-slice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subject: Using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) large body areas can scanned with high spatial resolution. In this study, MSCT was employed for virtual colonoscopy in various pathologies of the colon. Results: Nine polyps and four of five colon carcinomas were detected using MSCT virtual colonoscopy. In three patients with ulcerative colitis virtual coloscopy revealed morphological alterations compatible with this disease. In two of four patients with multiple diverticula of the colon the true extent of the disorder could be assessed in virtual colonoscopy. (orig.)

  14. Our experience in the diagnosis of aortic dissection by multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aortic dissection (AD) is the most frequent and life-threatening acute aortic syndrome. Currently the more used method for the aortic study is the multislice computed tomography. The purpose of this paper is to expose the more relevant features in 22 patients with AD consecutively studied by multislice computed tomography

  15. Efficacy of multislice computed tomography for gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroshi Ohtani; Mitsuo Tsubakimoto; Hidemi Kawajiri; Yuichi Arimoto; Koichi Ohno; Yasuhisa Fujimoto; Hiroko Oba; Kenji Adachi; Masaya Hirano; Shoichi Terakawa

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of multislice CT for gastroenteric and hepatic surgery.METHODS: Dual-phase helical computed tomography was performed in 50 of 51 patients who underwent gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries. Twenty-eight, eighteen and four patients suffering from colorectal cancer, gastric cancer,and liver cancer respectively underwent colorectal surgery (laparoscopic surgery: 6 cases), gastrectomy, and hepatectomy. Three-dimensional computed tomography imaging of the inferior mesenteric artery, celiac artery and hepatic artery was performed. And in the follow-up examination of postoperative patients, multiplanar reconstruction image was made in case of need.RESULTS: Scans in 50 patients were technically satisfactory and included in the analysis. Depiction of major visceral arteries, which were important for surgery and other treatments, could be done in all patients.Preoperative visualization of the left colic artery and sigmoidal arteries, the celiac artery and its branches, and hepatic artery was very useful to lymph node dissection,the planning of a reservoir and hepatectomy. And multiplanar reconstruction image was helpful to diagnosis for the postoperative follow-up of patients.CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional volume rendering or multiplanar reconstruction imaging performed by multislice computed tomography was very useful for gastroenteric and hepatic surgeries.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomographic angiography in the detection of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomographic angiography is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms. The purpose of this study was to compare Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography In the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study we evaluated 111 consecutive patients [42(37.8%) male and 69(62.2%) female], who were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs. suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm by using a four detector Multislice computed tomographic angiography. Then we compared results of Multislice computed tomographic angiography with digital subtraction angiography results as a gold standard method. Digital subtraction angiography was performed by bilateral selective common carotid artery injections and either unilateral or bilateral vertebral artery injections, as necessary. Multislice computed tomographic angiography images were interpreted by one radiologist and digital subtraction angiography was performed by another radiologist who was blinded to the interpretation of the Multislice computed tomographic angiograms. Results: The mean ±S D age of the patients was 49.1±13.6 years (range: 12-84 years). We performed Multislice computed tomographic in 111 and digital subtraction angiography in 85 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive and negative likelihood ratio of Multislice computed tomographic angiography, when compared with digital subtraction angiography as the gold standard, were 100%, 90%, 87.5%, 100%, 10 and 0, respectively. Conclusion: Multislice computed tomographic angiography seems to be an accurate and noninvasive imaging modality in the diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms

  17. Evaluation of gastrointestinal stromal tumors by multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents three cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with clinical manifestations and pathological features, along with differential diagnoses, with special emphasis on multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings. (author)

  18. Automated quantification of cardiac short-axis multi-slice CT images for assessment of left ventricular global function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilouchkine, Mikhail G.; Admiraal-Behloul, Faiza; van der Geest, Rob J.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Reiber, Johan H. C.

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes a method for automatic contour detection in reformatted short-axis (SA) cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a virtual exploring robot. The robot is a tricycle with a steering front wheel. Its motion obeys a set of kinematic equations and is subject to the non-holonomic constraints. The robot is designed to navigate in the binary representation of a cardiac image, consisting of the allowed navigational and obstacle spaces. It is initially positioned inside the allowed navigational space. Avoiding obstacles, the robot autonomously cruises through the navigational space and collects information about the location of the left ventricular (LV) boundaries. Consequently, the obtained information is used to reconstruct the endocardial and epicardial contours. Validation of the method was performed on in-vivo multislice multiphase short-axis cardiac CT images of ten subjects. Results showed good correlation between the quantitative parameters, computed from manual and automatic segmentation: for end-diastolic volume (EDV) r=0.99, for end-systolic volume (ESV) r=0.98, ejection fraction (EF) r=0.83, and LV mass (LVM) r=0.95.

  19. Clinical utility of multislice computed tomographic angiography for detection of cerebral vasospasm in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, S P; Kim, T S; Kim, Y S; Moon, K S; Lee, J K; Kim, J H; Kim, S H

    2006-10-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been used as the standard method for detecting cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Multislice computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a relatively recent method used for evaluating the vasculature of the intracranial arteries. The purpose of this study was to compare multislice CTA and DSA for the detection and quantification of cerebral vasospasm after SAH, and to analyze the usefulness of multislice CTA. Eight patients with SAH underwent initial CTA with DSA within 72 hours after the onset of symptoms and follow-up multislice CTA and DSA 8 to 48 days after SAH. Five arterial locations were established in the A1 and A2 segments of the anterior cerebral artery, the M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery and the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) on both multislice CTA and DSA images. Vasospasm was classified as none, mild (up to 30% reduction in luminal diameter), moderate (31-60% reduction), and marked (at least 60% reduction) using the scale of Schneck and Kricheff. The multislice CT system used the following parameters: 1.25 mm collimation and 3.75 pitch with a 4-channel system. The degree of vasospasm revealed by the multislice CTA was significantly correlated with the degree of vasospasm revealed by DSA. In general, most discrepancies between CTA and DSA were in the detection of mild and moderate vasospasm. We found that the consistency between multislice CTA and DSA was greater for mild (100%, n=3) or moderate (100%, n=3) vasospasm than none (n=1) or marked vasospasm (n=1). However, it was unclear whether multislice CTA was more specific for a proximal location (A1, M1, PCA) or distal location (A2, M2) for evaluation of cerebral arteries. Multislice CTA can detect angiographic vasospasm after SAH with an accuracy similar to that of DSA. Multislice CTA is highly sensitive, specific and accurate in detecting mild and moderate cerebral vasospasm. It is less accurate for detecting no vasospasm

  20. Value of cardiac multislice spiral CT for the assessment of degenerative aortic stenosis: comparison with echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To non-invasively assess the severity of aortic valve stenosis (AS) by the determination of aortic valve calcification (AVC) using multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Materials and Methods: Forty-one consecutive patients (17 male, 24 female, mean age 71.0±7.9 years) with a history of AS and an aortic valve area ≤2 cm2 underwent retrospectively ECG-gated 4-slice MSCT and echocardiography. The AVCs were quantitatively assessed using the score described by Agatston as well as by calculating the calcium mass. The echocardiographically determined aortic valve area (AVA) and the severity of AS according to the ACC/AHA guidelines were compared to the degree of a aortic valve calcifications. Pearson's correlation coefficient, cut-off values, kappa test and F-test with post hoc Boneferroni t-tests were calculated. Results: Calcium scores were significantly higher in patients with severe AS, when compared to mild or moderate AS (p<0.001). In patients suffering from severe AS, the mean Agatston score was 4125.5±1168.9 (calcium mass 904.1±263.3) while in patients with moderate and mild AS the corresponding values were 1596.3±987.0 (319.1±208.3) and 785.9±390.1 (149.1±90.2), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficients were r-=0.75 for the Agatston score and r=-0.72 for the calcium mass. There was a moderate agreement between severity of AS according to the ACC/AHA guidelines and the degree of AS determined from AVC scores with κ=0.6091 and κ=0.6985, respectively. Conclusion: Severe AS may be differentiated from moderate or mild AS using cardiac MSCT. Extensive calcifications of the aortic valve presenting with an Agatston-Score ≥2824 (calcium mass ≥611) indicate a severe AS and should be taken as an indication for further diagnostic workup. (orig.)

  1. Preoperative imaging of chronic sinusitis by multislice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ingo; Koitschev, Assen; Dammann, Florian

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether multislice CT enables quality improvement and dose reduction in the imaging of the paranasal sinuses, especially when using secondary reconstructions. We compared the imaging quality of direct CT scans and secondary reconstructions of single-slice CT (SSCT) as a criterion standard with multislice CT (MSCT) of the paranasal sinuses in 80 patients suspected of having chronic sinusitis. Coronary secondary reconstructions were calculated from all transversal CT data sets. Coronary reconstructions of transversal MSCT showed a significantly better image quality compared with coronary reconstructions of SSCT. Because of the absence of dental metal artifacts, coronary reconstructions of MSCT were superior even to direct coronary images of SSCT. MSCT offered a superior examination quality compared to SSCT. A halving of radiation dosage can be reached by eliminating one examination plane. PMID:15546176

  2. Multi-slice computed tomography assessment of bronchial compression with absent pulmonary valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yu-Min; Sun, Ai-Min; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Ming; Qiu, Hai-Sheng [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Jaffe, Richard B. [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Liu, Jin-Fen [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Shanghai (China); Gao, Wei [Shanghai Children' s Medical Center and Shanghai Jiao Tong University Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai (China); Berdon, Walter E. [Children' s Hospital of New York, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare cardiovascular anomaly that can result in profound tracheobronchial compression. To demonstrate the advantage of multi-slice CT in diagnosing tracheobronchial compression, its severity as related to the adjacent dilated pulmonary arteries, and associated lung and cardiac lesions. We included children with absent pulmonary valve who were reviewed by multi-slice CT during a 17-year period. The number and locations of stenoses and lung lesions were noted and the severity of stenosis was categorized. The diameter of the pulmonary artery was measured and associated cardiac defects were demonstrated. Thirty-one children (14 girls and 17 boys) were included. Of these, 29 had ventricular septal defect and 2 had an intact ventricular septum. Twenty-nine children (94%) had tracheobronchial compression, judged to be mild in nine children (31%), moderate in 10 (34%) and severe in 10 (34%). The different locations of the stenosis (carina, main bronchi, lobar and segmental bronchi) were observed. And the number and location of lung lesions demonstrated that the right middle and left upper and lower lobes were often affected. The diameter of the pulmonary artery in these children was well above normal published values, and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a correlation between the size of the pulmonary artery and the severity of the tracheobronchial stenosis. Nineteen children (61%) underwent surgery and 4 of these children had a multi-slice CT post-operative follow-up study. Absent pulmonary valve can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Multi-slice CT can accurately depict areas of tracheobronchial compression, associated lung lesions and cardiac defects, helping to direct the surgeon. (orig.)

  3. Multi-slice computed tomography assessment of bronchial compression with absent pulmonary valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absent pulmonary valve is a rare cardiovascular anomaly that can result in profound tracheobronchial compression. To demonstrate the advantage of multi-slice CT in diagnosing tracheobronchial compression, its severity as related to the adjacent dilated pulmonary arteries, and associated lung and cardiac lesions. We included children with absent pulmonary valve who were reviewed by multi-slice CT during a 17-year period. The number and locations of stenoses and lung lesions were noted and the severity of stenosis was categorized. The diameter of the pulmonary artery was measured and associated cardiac defects were demonstrated. Thirty-one children (14 girls and 17 boys) were included. Of these, 29 had ventricular septal defect and 2 had an intact ventricular septum. Twenty-nine children (94%) had tracheobronchial compression, judged to be mild in nine children (31%), moderate in 10 (34%) and severe in 10 (34%). The different locations of the stenosis (carina, main bronchi, lobar and segmental bronchi) were observed. And the number and location of lung lesions demonstrated that the right middle and left upper and lower lobes were often affected. The diameter of the pulmonary artery in these children was well above normal published values, and Spearman rank correlation analysis showed a correlation between the size of the pulmonary artery and the severity of the tracheobronchial stenosis. Nineteen children (61%) underwent surgery and 4 of these children had a multi-slice CT post-operative follow-up study. Absent pulmonary valve can cause significant morbidity and mortality in children. Multi-slice CT can accurately depict areas of tracheobronchial compression, associated lung lesions and cardiac defects, helping to direct the surgeon. (orig.)

  4. Anomalous Origin of the Left Coronary Artery from the Pulmonary Artery: The Role of Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Umairi, Rashid Saif; Al Kindi, Faiza; Al Busaidi, Fadhila

    2016-09-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital coronary abnormality also known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome. The incidence of ALCAPA is about 1 in every 300,000 live births, and constitutes 0.24% and 0.46% of all congenital cardiac disease. It has a high infant mortality rate reaching up to 90% if left untreated. For many years, the diagnosis of ALCAPA was by angiography or autopsy. However, multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a non-invasive imaging tool that allows accurate, non-invasive diagnosis of ALCAPA. Here we report a case of ALCAPA in a six-month-old girl who presented with a two-week history of cough, fever, tachypnea, and sweating during feeding. During admission, an echocardiogram was performed that revealed ALCAPA, which was confirmed using CT. We discuss the role of MSCT in its diagnosis. PMID:27602196

  5. Multi-slice computed tomography as a screening tool for colon cancer, lung cancer and coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent promising trials that use low-dose CT for the early detection of lung cancer have reinvigorated the interest in screening approaches. At the same time the development of fast image acquisition techniques, such as multislice CT, have sparked renewed interest in cardiac imaging within the radiological community. In addition to special cardiac capabilities, multislice CT has several other features such as high acquisition speed and low-dose requirements that may make this modality a universal radiological screening tool. Non-invasive disease detection is the radiologist's domain. In this paper we identify criteria for effective screening and apply these criteria to screening approaches with multislice CT when used for detection of three disease entities: colon cancer; lung cancer; and cardiovascular disease. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of intestinal tuberculosis by multi-slice computed tomography enterography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jing; Cui, Min-Yi; Chan, Tao; Mao, Ren; Luo, Yanji; Barua, Indira; Chen, Minhu; Li, Zi-Ping; Feng, Shi-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background Multi-slice computed tomography enterography (MSCTE) is now widely used to diagnose and monitor intestinal disease. Preliminary studies suggest that MSCTE may be useful in detecting intestinal tuberculosis (ITB). We sought to assess the use of MSCTE for the diagnosis of ITB in our medical center. Methods In this retrospective study, 15 patients (11 males and 4 females, 6 to 65 years old) were enrolled and diagnosed with ITB by MSCTE. Diagnosis were confirmed by pathology or clinica...

  7. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  8. Finger fractures imaging: accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography and multislice computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faccioli, Niccolo; Foti, Giovanni; Barillari, Marco; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi [University of Verona, Department of Radiology, G.B. Rossi Hospital, Verona (Italy); Atzei, Andrea [University of Verona, Department of Hand Surgery, G.B. Rossi Hospital, Verona (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and radiation exposure of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in the evaluation of finger fractures. In a 3-year period, 57 consecutive patients with post-traumatic fractures of the metacarpal-phalangeal (MCP), proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints with involvement of the articular surface were studied by means of CBCT and MSCT. Student's t test was used to compare CBCT and MSCT accuracy in evaluating the percentage of joint surface involvement and in detecting bone fragments. The average tissue-absorbed doses of CBCT and MSCT were also compared. A value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Inter-observer agreement was calculated. In all cases, CBCT allowed the percentage of articular involvement to be correctly depicted compared with MSCT, showing 100% sensitivity and specificity (p < 0.001). A total of 103 bone fragments were depicted on MSCT (mean 3.8 per patient, range 1-23). CBCT indicated 92 out of 103 fragments (89.3%) compared with MSCT (mean diameter of missed fragments 0.9 mm, range 0.6-1.3 mm), with no statistically significant difference between CBCT and MSCT (p < 0.025). Multislice CT radiation exposure was significantly higher than that of CBCT (0.18 mSv vs 0.06 mSv, p < 0.0025). Inter-observer agreement was good (overall {kappa} = 0.89-0.96). Cone beam CT may be considered a valuable imaging tool in the preoperative assessment of finger fractures, when MSCT is not available. (orig.)

  9. Collateral abdominal circulation in patient with Leriche's syndrome diagnosed with 64-row multislice computed tomography (MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leriche's syndrome results from slowly developing occlusion of the abdominal aorta. It affects mainly middle-aged males. The blood flow distal to the occlusion site is secured by collateral circulation. Signs of Leriche's syndrome include claudication, gluteal pain and impotence. The paper presents a patient with Leriche's syndrome, in whom a detailed visualization of collateral circulation was obtained with multislice computed tomography angiography. Patient underwent surgical recanalization of the aorta with an excellent result. To our knowledge, the presented case is the first description of collateral circulation in Leriche's syndrome obtained with 64-row computed tomography. (author)

  10. Multislice computed tomography angiography in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease: 3D visualizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhonghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease due to its reduced invasiveness and high spatial and temporal resolution.As a reliable alternative to conventional angiography,multislice CT angiography has been recognized as the method of choice for detecting and diagnosing head and neck vascular disease,abdominal aortic aneurysm,aortic dissection,and pulmonary embolism.In patients with suspected coronary artery disease,although invasive coronary angiography still remains as the gold standard technique,multislice CT angiography demonstrates high diagnostic accuracy; in selected patients,it is considered as the first-line technique.The imaging diagnosis of cardiovascular disease is based on a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visualization tools to enhance the diagnostic value.This is facilitated by reconstructed visualizations which provide additional information about the extent of the disease,an accurate assessment of the spatial relationship between normal structures and pathological changes,and pre-operative planning and post-procedure follow-up.The aim of the present article is to present an overview of the diagnostic performance of various 2D and 3D CT visualizations in cardiovascular disease,including multiplanar reformation,maximum intensity projection,volume rendering,and virtual intravascular endoscopy.The recognition of the potential value of these visualizations will assist clinicians in efficiently using the muitislice CT imaging modality for the diagnostic management of patients with cardiovascular disease.

  11. MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF INTRACRANIAL SPACE OCCUPYING LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The term intracranial space occupying lesions includes lesions which expand in volume to displace normal neural structures. They give rise to the various symptoms like focal seizures, paralysis, features of raised intracranial tension and false localizing signs. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of computed tomography in evaluation of space occupying lesions of brain, assessment of the site, nature and extent, age and sex prevalence of space occupying lesions. MATERIAL & METHODS: The present study was conducted on one hundred patients with space occupying lesions of the brain presenting with various neurologic symptoms or incidental findings. Patients of all age groups suspected to have intracranial space occupying lesions were included in the study. Results were expressed as mean ± SD and proportions as percentages. Results: Most of the cases of hyperdense lesions were intracerebral hemorrhages, meningioma, lymphoma and medulloblastoma. High grade astrocytomas were heterogenous hypodense lesions with irregular ring enhancement associated perilesional edema and mass effect. Low grade astrocytomas had minimal rim/ mural nodule enhancement. Intracranial tuberculoma and neurocysticercosis showed ring with nodular enhancing. Calcification was seen in tuberous sclerosis, neurocysticercosis, meningiomas, oligodendrogliomas, arteriovenous malformations and dermoid cyst. Congenital lesions had variable presentation ranging from cystic to mixed pattern lesions. CONCLUSIONS: In developing countries, CT imaging remains as a major diagnostic modality, with easy accessibility and technical ease as compared to MRI.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Mori, Kiyoshi; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Kakinuma, Ryutarou; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Masuda, Hideo; Machida, Suguru

    2007-03-01

    Multislice CT scanner advanced remarkably at the speed at which the chest CT images were acquired for mass screening. Mass screening based on multislice CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. To overcome this problem, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images and a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification. Moreover, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by using a lung cancer screening algorithm built into mobile helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening done in the region without the hospital. We also have developed electronic medical recording system and prototype internet system for the community health in two or more regions by using the Virtual Private Network router and Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system for safety of medical information. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have now developed a new computer-aided workstation and database that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. This paper describes basic studies that have been conducted to evaluate this new system.

  13. Conventional radiography and computed tomography of cardiac assist devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients intended for circulatory support by cardiac assist devices (CAD) usually suffer from end-stage acute or chronic heart failure. Since the introduction of CAD in 1963 by DeBakey and coworkers, the systems have gone through a substantial evolution and have been increasingly used in the intervening decades. The spectrum of CAD includes a variety of systems serving to assist the systolic function of the left ventricle, the right ventricle, or both. Conventional radiography and multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) are the most commonly used radiological techniques for imaging patients with a CAD. CT is very useful for evaluating CAD systems by using both two- and three-dimensional reconstructions of the volumetric data sets. The two techniques together allow for the comprehensive assessment of patients with devices by imaging the in- and outflow cannulae, the anastomoses, the position of the pump, as well as associated complications. A close collaboration with cardiac surgeons with expertise in the field of circulatory support is deemed necessary for adequate image interpretation. This article describes the technical diversity of the currently available CAD systems. The imaging characteristics on conventional radiography and multislice spiral CT as well as the typical complications of their use are demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Predictive Modelling of Cardiac 2D Multi-Slice MRI with Simultaneous Resolution of Cardiac and Respiratory Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darkner, Sune;

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to modelling of volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with simultaneous resolution of cardiac and respiratory motion. The major challenge is that the inherent slow nature of MRI prevents obtaining real-time volumetric images of the heart with...... respiratory bellow and a vectorcardiogram, and utilizes a combination of deformation modelling and pixel intensity modelling. We demonstrate that this approach reliably models volumetric cardiac MRI for any combination of cardiac and respiratory phase....

  15. ROLE OF MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF POSTOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS OF AUGMENTATION MAMMOPLASTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Abduraimov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the findings has shown that the complex use of radiation studies allows the valid diagnosis of the complications due to aug- mentation mammoplasty to be established.Due to its high informative value, multislice computed tomographic (MSCT mammography should be used as an adjuvant in high- risk patients and when there are contraindications to magnetic resonance imaging.Bolus intravenous contrast-enhanced MSCT mammography has proved to be highly effective in differentiating scar tissue from cancer recurrences.The inclusion of this technique into the examination program for patients with the nodules of irregular shape being around the implant, detected at ultrasonography and magnetic resonance mammography, may increase the specificity of noninvasive diagnosis of cancer, thus reducing the number of excision biopsies.

  16. The value of multi-slice computed tomography for early diagnosis of focal cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this survey is the characterization of the present value of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) for the assessment of hyperacute cerebral ischemia based on our experience and a review of the literature. MSCT is compared with single-slice CT (SSCT) as to the diagnostic value of standard cranial CT, CT angiography (CTA) and perfusion CT. CTA obtained with MSCT surpasses CTA obtained with SSCT. For perfusion CT, the value added by MSCT is small. With regard to standard cranial CT, MSCT and SSCT are considered equivalent. CTA and perfusion CT should be used in patients with acute stroke if the indication for thrombolysis is entertained but diffusion and perfusion weighted MRI cannot be carried out. This applies to both SSCT and MSCT. If advanced MRI and advanced CT are available, MRI continues to be the preferred imaging modality. (orig.)

  17. A method of predicting the image noise in paediatric multi-slice computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop an equation with which to determine the tube current to be used in order to obtain a certain image noise level for differently sized children undergoing multi-slice computed tomography examination. The relationship between image noise and detector dose for different examination protocols was established for a LightSpeed Ultra, an eight slice CT from GEMS, using homogeneous water phantoms of different sizes. Three different anatomical areas (head, thorax and abdomen) were studied in 111 patients between 0 and 17 y of age. The mean ratio between the calculated and the measured noise in patient images was established for the different areas. Head examinations showed the best correlation (measured-to-calculated noise ratio = 1.01). In the thorax, the calculated noise was generally higher than the measured noise (ratio = 0.74), and in the abdomen, the opposite result was found (ratio = 1.20). (authors)

  18. Computational Modeling of Cardiac Electromechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death worldwide. Notably, the electrophysiologiy and microstructural requirements for a fatal ventricular arrhythmia remain incompletely understood, thereby the treatment remains largely empirical. Standard antiarrhythmic drug therapy has failed to reduce, and in some instances has increased, the incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Hence, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that foment a fatal arrhythmia is needed and computational m...

  19. Multislice Cardiac CT-Angiography; A Review on Accepted Indications and Potentials for Other Applications Regarding the Newest Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motevalli

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There were not any clear-cut criteria available for clinical use of cardiac CT-angiography (CCTA up to October 2006 in which the American College of Car-diology (ACC, American College of Radiology (ACR and six other medical institutions released a joint consensus on clinical indications of cardiac CT and MRI. A statement was released by the American Heart Association together with two other radiology and cardiology institutions in the same month on the same matter. An illustrated review will be presented on the newly accepted indications of cardiac CT, especially CCTA. Some prominent indications are as follow: 1. Evaluation of chest pain syndrome in patient with intermediate pretest probability of coronary artery disease (CAD when exercise test is not feasible. 2. Evaluation of acute chest pain in patient with in-termediate pretest probability of CAD and negative ECG and enzymes. 3. Uninterpretable or equivocal stress test (exercise, perfusion scan, or stress echo. 4. Evaluation of coronary arteries in patients with new onset heart failure. 5. Assessment of congenital coronary and cardiac anomalies. 6. Noninvasive coronary vein mapping prior to placement of biventricular pacemaker. 7. Noninvasive coronary arterial mapping, including internal mammary artery prior to repeat cardiac sur-gical revascularization. Some recent research indicated that CCTA is useful in some other specific situations too, like evaluating in-stent re-stenosis for stainless steel or cobalt stents more than 3mm in diameter and has also some roles in the evaluation of coronary bypass grafts, etc. Fi-nally, the newer progressions in the field of multislice CT are promising of even better performance which may widen the scope of its indications. Dual-source CT scanners have shown better performance com-pared with 64-slice CT scanners in the preliminary studies, namely slice-thickness of 0.25mm vs. 0.4mm, temporal resolution of 83ms vs.165ms, assessable segments of 98.6% vs. 97

  20. Quantification of cardiac function with multislice spiral CT using retrospective EKG-gating: comparison with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular function derived from retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT (MSCT) data sets in comparison to MRI. Materials and Methods: In 16 patients (14 males, 2 females, mean age 56.8 ± 11.5 years), retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT angiography of the coronary arteries and breath-hold steady state free precession cine MRI were performed. From MSCT data-sets, 20 axial image series were reconstructed every 5% of the RR interval. Multiplanar images were reformatted in the short axis orientation from axial images. End-systolic and end-diastolic images were selected. From these images end-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume (SV) as well as the ejection fraction (EF) and myocardial mass (MM) were determined using the Simpson's method and compared with MRI. Furthermore, image quality was assessed for both imaging modalities using a four point grading scale. Results: All parameters were found to have an excellent correlation between MSCT and MRI data (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.95 - 0.99), without clinically relevant differences between both modalities. On average, the difference between both methods was 0.5 ml for ESV, 0.8 ml for EDV, 1.3 ml for SV, 0.9% for EF and 2.3 g for MM. Image quality was slightly better for MRI (1.5 ± 0.65) than for MSCT (1.64 ± 0.74). Conclusion: Retrospectively ECG-gated MSCT angiography can not only visualize the coronary arteries but also enables precise quantification of the left ventricular function from the same MSCT data set. (orig.)

  1. Predictive Modelling of Cardiac 2D Multi-Slice MRI with Simultaneous Resolution of Cardiac and Respiratory Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darkner, Sune; Lyksborg, Mark; Larsen, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to modelling of volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with simultaneous resolution of cardiac and respiratory motion. The major challenge is that the inherent slow nature of MRI prevents obtaining real-time volumetric images of the heart with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution. To overcome this problem our method predicts pixel intensities in multiple 2D slices, acquired with high spatial and temporal resolution, and subsequently as...

  2. Multislice CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of multislice CT into clinical radiology constitutes a quantum leap that significantly widens the scope of vascular CT imaging. The advances over conventional spiral CT have been quantitative, mainly in terms of increased image acquisition speed which provides unprecedented volume coverage and spatial resolution. Moreover, significant technical innovations, such as cardiac scanning capabilities, have brought about a qualitative shift towards applications that were thought to be beyond the scope of CT imaging. This way multislice CT offers a wealth of new opportunities for quickly and accurately diagnosing suspected vascular disease in all organ systems; however, as we move towards faster and faster image acquisition techniques, we are also facing new challenges that require development of novel strategies in order to take full advantage of the increased capabilities of multislice CT in its current form and future generations of CT scanners. (orig.)

  3. Efficacy of multislice computed tomography for the detection of acute coronary syndrome in the emergency department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina in the emergency department (ED) still remains a challenge. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) allows assessment of not only coronary artery stenoses and occlusions, but also assessment of coronary artery plaques and myocardial perfusion status. MSCT was performed in 31 patients who were admitted to the ED because of chest pain persisting at least 30 min and non-diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and normal serum enzyme concentrations. Using MSCT, ACS was defined by coronary artery stenosis ≥75% accompanied by computed tomography (CT)-low-density plaques, and/or by the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. ACS was confirmed by coronary stenosis ≥75% by coronary angiography and/or subsequent elevation of troponin I concentration. In total, 22 patients were diagnosed as having ACS. MSCT detected stenoses with CT-low-density plaques in 21 and non-transmural myocardial perfusion defect in 3 patients. There was 1 false-positive and 1 false-negative result. The sensitivity and specificity of MSCT to identify ACS was 95.5% and 88.9%, respectively. MSCT provides diagnostic operating characteristics suitable for triage of patients with ACS in the ED. (author)

  4. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  5. Coronary artery bypass graft imaging using ECG-gated multislice computed tomography: Comparison with catheter angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To compare the value of multislice computerized tomography (MSCT) in imaging coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) by direct quantitative comparison with standard invasive angiography. METHODS: Using MSCT, 50 consecutive patients who had previously undergone CABG surgery and had recently undergone invasive angiography for recurrent angina pectoris, were studied further using MSCT after intravenous injection of non-ionic contrast agent; cardiac imaging was performed during a single breath-hold. Graft anatomy was quantified, using both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and MSCT, by different investigators blinded to each other. Reproducibility was quantified using the standard error of the measurement expressed as a percentage in log-transformed values (CV%) and intraclass correlation (ICC). RESULTS: All 150 grafts were imaged using MSCT; only 4 patent grafts were not imaged using selective angiography. Good agreement was achieved between MSCT and QCA on assessment of proximal anastomoses (CV% 25.2, ICC 0.84), mid-vessel luminal diameter (CV% 15.5, ICC 0.91) and aneurysmal dilations (CV% 14.3). Reasonable agreement was reached on assessment of distal anastomoses (CV% 26.7, ICC 0.66) and categorization of distal run-off (ICC 0.73). Good agreement was observed for stenoses of over 50% luminal loss (CV% 8.7, ICC 0.97) but agreement on assessment of less severe lesions was poor (CV% 208.7, ICC 0.51). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that CABGs can be quantitatively evaluated using MSCT, and that significant lesions present in all CABG segments can be reliably identified. Agreement between MSCT and QCA for lesions of less than 50% luminal loss was poor

  6. Recurrent Fully Convolutional Neural Networks for Multi-slice MRI Cardiac Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Rudra P K; Lamata, Pablo; Montana, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, fully-automatic segmentation of the heart enables precise structural and functional measurements to be taken, e.g. from short-axis MR images of the left-ventricle. In this work we propose a recurrent fully-convolutional network (RFCN) that learns image representations from the full stack of 2D slices and has the ability to leverage inter-slice spatial dependences through internal memory units. RFCN combines anatomical detection and segmentation into a si...

  7. Virtual colonoscopy with multi-slice computed tomography; Virtuelle Koloskopie mit der Mehrschichtcomputertomographie. Vorlaeufige Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, G.-F.; Eisele, O.; Reiser, M. [Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen Univ. (Germany); Hoffmann, J.N.; Kopp, R.; Fuerst, H. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    Subject: Using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) large body areas can scanned with high spatial resolution. In this study, MSCT was employed for virtual colonoscopy in various pathologies of the colon. Results: Nine polyps and four of five colon carcinomas were detected using MSCT virtual colonoscopy. In three patients with ulcerative colitis virtual coloscopy revealed morphological alterations compatible with this disease. In two of four patients with multiple diverticula of the colon the true extent of the disorder could be assessed in virtual colonoscopy. (orig.) [German] Fragestellung: Die Mehrschichtcomputertomographie (MSCT) vermag, grosse Organbereiche mit hoher raeumlicher Aufloesung zu untersuchen. Daher koennen auch fuer die virtuelle Koloskopie eine bisher nicht erreichbare Ortsaufloesung und Detailtreue erwartet werden. Die ersten Ergebnisse mit der MSCT-Koloskopie bei unterschiedlichen pathologischen Veraenderungen des Kolons werden vorgestellt. Ergebnisse: 4 von 5 Kolonkarzinomen konnten mit der virtuellen Koloskopie dargestellt werden. Bei 3 Patienten wurden mit der virtuellen Koloskopie typische Veraenderungen der Colitis ulcerosa dargestellt, wovon ein Patient die konventionelle Koloskopie nicht tolerierte. Bei 9 Patienten mit Kolonpolypen stimmten die virtuelle und konventionelle Koloksopie vollstaendig ueberein. Bei 4 Patienten mit Divertikulose war mit der virtuellen Koloskopie nur in 2 Faellen der Befund vollstaendig zu sichern. (orig.)

  8. Feasibility of intravenous administration of landiolol hydrochloride for multislice computed tomography coronary angiography. Initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using landiolol hydrochloride in multislice computed tomography (MSCT) coronary angiography (CAG) was investigated in the present study. Landiolol hydrochloride was continuously administered intravenously to 145 patients before starting MSCT CAG. Hemodynamic changes [blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR)], adverse effects, image quality using a 5-point scale, and accuracy of detecting significant stenoses (≥50% reduction in lumen diameter) were evaluated. HR was significantly reduced during injection, and quickly recovered after cessation of administration, of landiolol hydrochloride. Neither significant changes in BP nor adverse effects occurred. Among visible segments, 1,869 (94%) displayed an excellent (83%) or good (11%) image quality. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in 39 of 145 patients who underwent invasive CAG within 3 weeks after MSCT. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of MSCT CAG for detection of significant stenoses in assessable segments were excellent (per artery: 94%, 98%, 92%, and 100%; per segment: 92%, 98%, 94%, and 96%, respectively). Intravenous administration of landiolol hydrochloride reduces HR without a significant reduction in BP, which enables favorable image quality and diagnostic accuracy without adverse effects, making this agent feasible as a premedication for MSCT CAG. (author)

  9. Association between epicardial fat volume and coronary plaques diagnosed by multislice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Morán Quijada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary atherosclerotic disease is a major cause of death in Cuba and elsewhere. The volume of epicardial fat is considered a new cardiovascular risk factor because of its association with coronary atherogenesis.Objective: To determine, by multislice computed tomography, the association between epicardial fat volume and the presence of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.Method: A descriptive study was conducted with a universe of 130 patients with chest pain suggestive of ischemic heart disease, of which 117 were selected by opinion sampling. These patients underwent a calcium score study, a coronary angiography and a measurement of the epicardial fat volume.Results: Male patients predominated (54.7% and those aged 60-69 years (32.5%. A high volume of epicardial fat was found in 51.3% of patients, affecting 52.8% of women; 78.9% of patients with a calcium score between 100 and 399 UH had a high volume of epicardial fat, just as 71.2% of those with plaques and 100% of those with 4 or 5 plaques; 41% of patients had various types of plaque, which were mainly located in the anterior descending artery (88.1%.Conclusions: The measurement of the volume of epicardial fat is a useful tool to estimate the presence of coronary disease. When it was high, it was associated with older age, female gender and the presence of a higher calcium score, more plaques, more injuries and a greater involvement of the anterior descending artery.

  10. Intrahepatic gas at postmortem multislice computed tomography in cases of nontraumatic death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cause and significance of intrahepatic gas (IHG). There were 208 nontraumatically deceased individuals retrospectively investigated concerning the occurrence and location of IHG by postmortem multislice computed tomography (MSCT) imaging. The location of IHG was graded on a scale from 0 to 3: 0, no gas; 1, gas only in the left lobe; 2, gas in the left lobe and anterior segment of the right lobe; 3, gas in the left lobe and the anterior and posterior segments of the right lobe). We also assessed and noted the occurrence of intestinal distention, airway management, the interval between cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and subsequent examination, and the postmortem interval. IHG was found in 66 cases (31.7%): grade 1, 15 (7.2%); grade 2, 21(10.1%); grade 3, 30 (14.4%). The presence of IHG was strongly related to intestinal distention and the period between the time of CPA and the examination. IHG is a frequent finding on postmortem CT in cases of nontraumatic death. The presence of IHG is related to intestinal distention and the interval between the time of CPA and examination. (author)

  11. Impact of glucose intolerance on coronary calcified lesions evaluated using multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic syndrome has the unique concept that the common occurrence of individual disease components increases the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, some studies suggest that the burden of different CAD risk factors is not equal, and focusing on the whole set of risk factors might neglect the impact of individual factors that could be useful targets for prophylactic therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of glucose intolerance on CAD using multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Ninety-eight consecutive patients with at least one traditional CAD risk factor who visited a municipal hospital were enrolled in this study. The risk factors were impaired glucose tolerance (fasting glucose≥110 mg/dl or patients with diabetes), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 25 kg/m2 for men and >23 kg/m2 for women). CAD was determined by the presence of either stenoses, non-calcified plaques or calcified lesions. The following risk factors were significantly related in univariate logistic models: glucose intolerance and coronary calcified lesions (p=0.001), and hypertriglycemia and non-calcified plaque lesions (p=0.048). Multivariate models showed that glucose intolerance was significantly associated with calcified lesions, even after adjustment for gender, age, low HDL-C, hypertriglycemia, hypertension, and obesity (p=0.018). Our results suggest that glucose intolerance might be closely related to the presence of coronary calcified lesions among traditional CAD risk factors. (author)

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of multislice computed tomography versus invasive coronary angiography in de novo coronary lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty patients with clinical suspicion of ischemic heart disease underwent a double-blind longitudinal study conducted in the Medical Surgical Research Center between January and November, 2008 with the objective of identifying the validity and accuracy of the double-source multislice computed tomography (MCT) in the diagnosis of significant coronary stenosis. In each patient we made a calcium score and minimal invasive angiography by MCT and during the first month an invasive coronary angiography. Authors determined the sensitivity, the specificity, the positive and negative predictive value and the Kappa's index. The non-invasive coronary angiography had a sensitivity of 90,0%, a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value or 87,0% with a good agreement between both means (Kappa = 0,87). The highest sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%) were found in the coronary trunk and circumflex artery analysis. In the anterior descendent and right coronary arteries, the specificity and the positive predictive value were of 100%. The calcium score showed a good agreement between the calcification degree and the presence of significant lesions. The MCT in our institution was a valid examination for the diagnosis of significant coronary stenosis.The correlation of minimal-invasive coronary angiography and the coronary calcium score with invasive angiography was good

  13. Trial of quantitative analysis of cardiac function by 3D reconstruction of multislice cine MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Hideki (Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Education); Sei, Tetsurou; Nakagawa, Tomio; Hiraki, Yoshio

    1994-09-01

    Non-invasive techniques for measuring the dynamic behavior of the left ventricle (LV) can be invaluable tool in the diagnosis of the heart disease. In this paper we present methods for quantitative analysis of cardiac function using a compact magnetic resonance image processing system. A 256 x 256 magnetic resonance transaxial image of the left ventricle in a normal case is obtained. After gray level thresholding and region segmentation, the boundary of the left ventricular chamber is extracted. Then, the boundaries of the left ventricular chamber are displayed three-dimensionally by using the Z-buffer algorithm. Thus, LV volume and ejection fraction are calculated. Here, the value of LV ejection fraction is 60%. These results agree reasonably well with the corresponding data obtained by the echocardiography. (author).

  14. Cine CT: a new technology for cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical requirements for adequate evaluation of cardiac anatomy and physiology, namely scan speeds in the 33-100 msec range, simultaneous multi-slice capability, 15-20 multi-level scans/second and a repeat multi-slice study at one per second, have been realized with the inception of the Cine-CT scanner. This scanner acquires scan data in 50 milliseconds by eliminating moving parts and using a scanning electron beam to produce a high speed X-ray source. The authors describe this scanner and the three scanning modes available: continuous or cine mode; flow or triggered mode; and full resolution mode. (Auth.)

  15. Detection of myocardial bridge and evaluation of its anatomical properties by coronary multislice spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Myocardial bridge (MB) is a common anatomical condition, under which a part of the coronary artery running in the epicardial adipose tissue, is covered with myocardial tissue. It regulates atherosclerosis development and sometimes evokes coronary heart disease through haemodynamic alterations. We attempted to efficiently detect MB and evaluate the anatomical properties of MB by coronary multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). Methods: Sixteen-row MSCT was conducted on 148 patients with coronary heart disease. MSCT images were reconstructed and reformed with transverse scans, curved planar reformat and three-dimensional volume-rendered images. The MB, over 1.0 mm in thickness, was identified by the presence of the 'step-down and step-up' appearance. After 'trial and error' essays, we could consistently examine the frequency of MB and evaluate the anatomical properties of MB, especially its thickness, together with coronary wall lesions. Results: Twenty-three patients (15.8%) had MB over 1.0 mm in thickness: 21 MBs (87.5%) were located in the left anterior descending artery with a mean thickness and length of 1.8 ± 0.7 and 20.0 ± 8.6 mm. Moreover, although the tunneled segment beneath MB was always free of coronary wall lesions, 79.2% (19/24) of the segments proximal to MB demonstrated coronary wall lesions. Of special significance were three symptomatic MB patients without any atherosclerotic lesion throughout all the coronary arteries. Conclusion: Coronary MSCT is a new imaging technique that provides a non-invasive diagnostic tool for MB and yields much better results of MB detection than previous imaging methods

  16. Color doppler ultrasonography and multislice computer tomography angiography in carotid plaque detection and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučaj-Ćirilović Viktorija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beckground/Aim. Cerebrovascular diseases are the third leading cause of mortality in the world, following malignant and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, their timely and precise diagnostics is of great importance. The aim of this study was to compare duplex scan Color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU with multislice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA in detection of morphological and functional disorders at extracranial level of carotid arteries. Methods. The study included 75 patients with 150 carotid arteries examined in the period from January 2008 to April 2009. The patients were firstly examined by CDU, then MSCTA, followed by the surgery of extracranial segment of carotid arteries. In 10 patients, the obtained material was referred for histopathological (HP examination. We used both CDU and MSCT in the analysis of: plaque surface, plaque structure, degree of stenosis, and the presence of intraplaque hemorrhage. Results. The results obtained by CDU and MSCTA were first compared between themselves, and then to intraoperative findings. Retrospective analysis showed that MSCTA is more sensitive than CDU in assessment of plaque surface (for smooth plaques CDU 89% : MSCTA 97%; for plaques with irregular surface CDU 75% : MSCTA 87%; for ulcerations CDU 54% : MSCTA 87%. Regarding determination of plaque structure (mixed plaque CDU 66% : MSCTA 70%; correlation with HP findings CDU 94% : MSCTA 96% and localization (CDU 63% : MSCTA 65%, and in terms of sensitivity and specificity, both methods showed almost the same results. Also, there is no statistical difference between these two methods for the degree of stenosis (CDU 96% : MSCTA 98%. Conclusion. Atherosclerotic disease of extracranial part of carotid arteries primarily affects population of middle-aged and elderly, showing more associated risk factors. Sensitivity and specificity of CDU and MSCTA regarding plaque composition, the degree of stenosis and plaque localization are almost the same

  17. A comparative evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and Multi-Slice CT (MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To compare image quality and visibility of anatomical structures in the mandible between five Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanners and one Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) system. Materials and methods: One dry mandible was scanned with five CBCT scanners (Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, NewTom 3G, Galileos, Scanora 3D) and one MSCT system (Somatom Sensation 16) using 13 different scan protocols. Visibility of 11 anatomical structures and overall image noise were compared between CBCT and MSCT. Five independent observers reviewed the CBCT and the MSCT images in the three orthographic planes (axial, sagittal and coronal) and assessed image quality on a five-point scale. Results: Significant differences were found in the visibility of the different anatomical structures and image noise level between MSCT and CBCT and among the five CBCT systems (p = 0.0001). Delicate structures such as trabecular bone and periodontal ligament were significantly less visible and more variable among the systems in comparison with other anatomical structures (p = 0.0001). Visibility of relatively large structures such as mandibular canal and mental foramen was satisfactory for all devices. The Accuitomo system was superior to MSCT and all other CBCT systems in depicting anatomical structures while MSCT was superior to all other CBCT systems in terms of reduced image noise. Conclusions: CBCT image quality is comparable or even superior to MSCT even though some variability exists among the different CBCT systems in depicting delicate structures. Considering the low radiation dose and high-resolution imaging, CBCT could be beneficial for dentomaxillofacial radiology.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of 64-Slice Multislice Computed Tomography in Assessment of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arjmand Shabestari

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nowadays 64-slice mul-tislice computed tomography (MSCT has gained a wide acceptance as a non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality in native coronary arteries. This study was performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MSCT in assessment of coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG patency. Materials and Methods: 73 patients underwent both coronary CT-angiography (CTA using 64-slice MSCT scanner and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA were studied. Arterial and venous CABG patency was graded as: a-normal, b-patent with non-significant (<50% diameter reduction stenosis, c-patent with significant (≥50% diameter reduction stenosis or d-totally occluded. The results of CTA and QCA were compared. Results: Totally, 236 CABG were assessed, including 49 arterial and 187 venous grafts. Sensitivity, specific-ity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative pre-dictive value (NPV in detecting normal patency of arterial grafts were 100%, 85%, 95% and 100%, re-spectively and those in finding normal patency of ve-nous grafts all were 100%. The above-mentioned fig-ures for non-significant stenosis were 67% (2 out of 3 patients, 100%, 100% and 98% in arterial and 95%, 100%, 100% and 99% in venous grafts, respectively. Regarding to the significant stenosis, the results were 67% (2 out of 3 patients, 100%, 100% and 98% in arterial and 100%, 99%, 94% and 100% in venous grafts, respectively. All of these numerals were meas-ured being 100% for total occlusion of both arterial and venous grafts. Conclusion: Diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice MSCT in detecting normal patency, non-significant stenosis, significant stenosis and total occlusion of arterial and particularly venous CABG is extremely high so that QCA may be eventually substituted by CTA in a near future.

  19. SPECTRUM OF FUNCTIONING ISLET CELL TUMOR ON MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY: EXPERIENCE ON 70 PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-dan Xue; Zheng-yu Jin; Wei Liu; Hao Sun; Reto Merges; Xuan Wang; Xiao-na Zhang; Yun Wang; Wen-min Zhao; Jiu-hong Chen

    2008-01-01

    Objective To review experience in preoperative detection of islet cell tumors using multislice computed tomo-graphy (MSCT) and summarize various imaging features of functioning islet cell tumors on enhanced MSCT.Methods Seventy patients with clinical or pathological diagnosis of functioning pancreatic islet cell tumor between October 2003 and February 2007 were included in this retrospective study. Seventy-four enhanced MSCT scans in these patients were identified. All MSCT scans were interpreted by two experienced radiologists by consensus interpretation.Surgery and pathology reports were used to confirm the diagnosis, localization, and size of tumors.Results Totally, 73 functioning islet cell tumors including 65 benign insulinomas, 2 benign giucagnnomas, 3 ma-lignant insulinomas, and 3 malignant glucagonomas were pathologically diagnosed. Tumors in only two cases were not found by MSCT. In 67 benign lesions, 32 showed typical enhancement style, 21 showed prolonged enhancement in por-tal venous phase, 4 showed delayed enhancement, 4 had iso-dense enhancement with normal pancreatic parenchyma, 2 had no enhancement at all in arterial phase and portal venous phase, and 4 had inhomogeneous enhancement with necro-sis or cyst-formation. Patchy or spotty calcifications were found in 3 of the 67 tumors. In 6 malignant islet cell tumors,vessel invasion (2/6) and bowel invasion (1/6) were seen. Different enhancement patterns were shown. All hepatic metastases showed hyper-enhancement during their arterial phase.Conelusions Pancreatic islet cell tumor may display a wide spectrum of presentations in MSCT. Umors with unu-sual appearances often present as diagunstie challenges. Non-contrast and post-contrast multiphase scans are recommen-ded for the localization of functioning islet cell tumors.

  20. Distribution of the radiation dose in multislice computer tomography of the chest – phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most commonly used form of reporting doses in multislice computed tomography involves a CT dose index per slice and dose-length product for the whole series. The purpose of this study was to analyze the actual dose distribution in routine chest CT examination protocols using an antropomorphic phantom. We included in the analysis readings from a phantom filled with thermoluminescent detectors (Art Phantom Canberra) during routine chest CT examinations (64 MDCT TK LIGHT SPEED GE Medical System) performed using three protocols: low-dose, helical and angio-CT. Mean dose values (mSv) reported from anterior parts of the phantom sections in low-dose/helical/angio-CT protocols were as follows: 3.74; 16.95; 30.17; from central parts: 3.18; 14.15; 26.71; from posterior parts: 3.01; 12.47; 24.98 respectively. Correlation coefficients for mean doses registered in anterior parts of the phantom between low-dose/helical, low-dose/angio-CT and helical/angio-CT protocols were 0.49; 0.63; 0.36; from central parts: 0.73; 0.66; 0.83, while in posterior parts values were as follows: 0.06; 0.21; 0.57. The greatest doses were recorded in anterior parts of all phantom sections in all protocols in reference to largest doses absorbed in the anterior part of the chest during CT examination. The doses were decreasing from anterior to posterior parts of all sections. In the long axis of the phantom, in all protocols, lower doses were measured in the upper part of the phantom and at the very lowest part

  1. A comparative evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and Multi-Slice CT (MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Xin, E-mail: Xin.Liang@med.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); College of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University (China); Jacobs, Reinhilde, E-mail: Reinhilde.Jacobs@uz.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Hassan, Bassam, E-mail: b.hassan@acta.n [Department of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Li Limin, E-mail: Limin.Li@uz.kuleuven.b [Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Special Dental Care, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Pauwels, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Pauwels@med.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Corpas, Livia, E-mail: LiviaCorpas@gmail.co [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Souza, Paulo Couto, E-mail: Paulo.CoutoSouza@med.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Wendy, E-mail: wendy.martens@uhasselt.b [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasselt, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Shahbazian, Maryam, E-mail: Maryam.Shahbazian@student.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Alonso, Arie, E-mail: ariel.alonso@uhasselt.b [Department of Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Universiteit Hasselt (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    Aims: To compare image quality and visibility of anatomical structures in the mandible between five Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanners and one Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) system. Materials and methods: One dry mandible was scanned with five CBCT scanners (Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, NewTom 3G, Galileos, Scanora 3D) and one MSCT system (Somatom Sensation 16) using 13 different scan protocols. Visibility of 11 anatomical structures and overall image noise were compared between CBCT and MSCT. Five independent observers reviewed the CBCT and the MSCT images in the three orthographic planes (axial, sagittal and coronal) and assessed image quality on a five-point scale. Results: Significant differences were found in the visibility of the different anatomical structures and image noise level between MSCT and CBCT and among the five CBCT systems (p = 0.0001). Delicate structures such as trabecular bone and periodontal ligament were significantly less visible and more variable among the systems in comparison with other anatomical structures (p = 0.0001). Visibility of relatively large structures such as mandibular canal and mental foramen was satisfactory for all devices. The Accuitomo system was superior to MSCT and all other CBCT systems in depicting anatomical structures while MSCT was superior to all other CBCT systems in terms of reduced image noise. Conclusions: CBCT image quality is comparable or even superior to MSCT even though some variability exists among the different CBCT systems in depicting delicate structures. Considering the low radiation dose and high-resolution imaging, CBCT could be beneficial for dentomaxillofacial radiology.

  2. Noninvasive coronary artery imaging by multislice spiral computed tomography. A novel approach for a retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the excellent spatial resolution of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) enables the coronary arteries to be visualized, its limited temporal resolution results in poor image reproducibility because of cardiac motion artifact (CMA) and hence limits its widespread clinical use. A novel retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated reconstruction method has been developed to minimize CMA. In 88 consecutive patients, the scan data were reconstructed using 2 retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction methods. Method 1: the end of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the peak of the P wave on ECG, which corresponded to the end of the slow filling phase during diastole immediately before atrial contraction. Method 2 (conventional method): relative retrospective gating with 50% referred to the R-R interval was performed so that the beginning of the reconstruction window (250 ms) was positioned at the halfway point between the R-R intervals of the heart cycle. The quality of the coronary artery images was evaluated according to the presence or absence of CMA. The assessment was applied to the left main coronary artery (LMCA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD, segments no.6, no.7, and no.8), the left circumflex artery (LCx, segments no.11 and no.13) and the right coronary artery (RCA, segments no.1, no.2 and no.3). The first diagonal artery (no.9-1), the obtuse marginal artery (no.12-1), the posterior descending artery (no.4-PD), the atrioventricular node branch (no.4-AV) and the first right ventricular branch (RV) were also evaluated. Of the 88 patients, 85 were eligible for image evaluation. Method 1 allowed visualization of the major coronary arteries without CMA in the majority of patients. The left coronary artery (LCA) system (segments no.5-7, no.11 and no.13) and the proximal portion of the RCA were visualized in more than 94% of patients. Artifact-free visualization of the distal portion of the LAD (segment no.8) and RCA (no.4

  3. Computed tomography of cardiac pseudotumors and neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavekar, Nandan S; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Miller, Dylan V; Breen, Jerome F; Araoz, Philip A

    2010-07-01

    Important features of cardiac masses can be clearly delineated on cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging. This modality is useful in identifying the presence of a mass, its relationship with cardiac and extracardiac structures, and the features that distinguish one type of mass from another. A multimodality approach to the evaluation of cardiac tumors is advocated, with the use of echocardiography, CT imaging and magnetic resonance imaging as appropriately indicated. In this article, various cardiac masses are described, including pseudotumors and true cardiac neoplasms, and the CT imaging findings that may be useful in distinguishing these rare entities are presented. PMID:20705174

  4. Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography: a potentially useful tool for safer free tissue transfer to complicated regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirtas, Yener; Cifci, Mehmet; Kelahmetoglu, Osman;

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional multislice spiral computed tomographic angiography (3D-MSCTA) is a minimally invasive method of vascular mapping. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of this imaging technique in delineating the recipient vessels for safer free tissue transfer to...... kept in mind, especially inthe patients with peripheral vascular disease. 3D-MSCTA has the potential to replace digital subtraction angiography for planning of microvascular reconstructions and newer devices with higher resolutions will probably increase the reliability of this technique. (c) 2009...

  5. Limited cone-beam computed tomography imaging of the middle ear: a comparison with multislice helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the applicability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in otological imaging, and to compare its accuracy with the routinely used multislice helical CT (MSCT) for imaging of the middle- and inner-ear areas. Material and Methods: Thirteen unoperated human cadaver temporal bones were imaged with CBCT and MSCT. Sixteen landmarks of the middle and adjacent inner ear were evaluated and compared for their conspicuity according to a modified Likert scale. Total scores and scores for subgroups including landmarks of specific clinical interest were also compared. Results: No significant differences were found between the imaging techniques or subgroups when scores of individual structures were compared. While the middle ear itself was visible in all cases with CBCT, parts of the inner ear were 'cut off' in four cases due to the limited field of view. For the same reason, the evaluation of the whole mastoid was not possible with CBCT. The cochlear and vestibular aqueducts were not visualized in either CT techniques. The contrast-to-noise ratio was more than 50% lower in CBCT than in MSCT, but still adequate for diagnostic task. Conclusion: CBCT proved to be at least as accurate as routinely used MSCT in revealing the clinically and surgically important middle-ear structures. The results show that high-quality imaging of the middle ear is possible with the current CBCT device

  6. Limited cone-beam computed tomography imaging of the middle ear: a comparison with multislice helical computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltonen, L.I.; Aarnisalo, A.A.; Kortesniemi, M.K.; Suomalainen, A.; Jero, J.; Robinson, S. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology and Dept. of Radiology, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To determine the applicability of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in otological imaging, and to compare its accuracy with the routinely used multislice helical CT (MSCT) for imaging of the middle- and inner-ear areas. Material and Methods: Thirteen unoperated human cadaver temporal bones were imaged with CBCT and MSCT. Sixteen landmarks of the middle and adjacent inner ear were evaluated and compared for their conspicuity according to a modified Likert scale. Total scores and scores for subgroups including landmarks of specific clinical interest were also compared. Results: No significant differences were found between the imaging techniques or subgroups when scores of individual structures were compared. While the middle ear itself was visible in all cases with CBCT, parts of the inner ear were 'cut off' in four cases due to the limited field of view. For the same reason, the evaluation of the whole mastoid was not possible with CBCT. The cochlear and vestibular aqueducts were not visualized in either CT techniques. The contrast-to-noise ratio was more than 50% lower in CBCT than in MSCT, but still adequate for diagnostic task. Conclusion: CBCT proved to be at least as accurate as routinely used MSCT in revealing the clinically and surgically important middle-ear structures. The results show that high-quality imaging of the middle ear is possible with the current CBCT device.

  7. Multi-slice computed tomography for diagnosis of combined thoracoabdominal injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Weidong Yue; Dingyuan Du

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the diagnostic value of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) for combined thoracoabdominal injury.Methods:A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the clinical data and MSCT images of 68 patients who sustained a combined thoracoabdominal injury associated with diaphragm rupture,and 18 patients without diaphragm rupture.All the patients were admitted and treated in the Chongqing Emergency Medical Center (a level Ⅰ trauma center) between July 2005 and February 2014.There were 71 males and 15 females with a mean age of 39.1 years (range 13-88 years).Among the 86 patients,40 patients suffered a penetrating injury,46 suffered a blunt injury as a result of road traffic accident in 21 cases,fall from a height in 16,and crushing injury in 9.The Mscr images were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists.The results of CT diagnosis were compared with surgical findings and/or follow-up results.Results:Among the 86 cases,diaphragm discontinuity was found in 29 cases,segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm in 14,diaphragmatic hernia in 21,collar sign in 14,dependent viscera sign in 18,elevated abdominal organs in 21,bowel wall thickening and/or hematoma in 6,and pneumoperitoneum in 8.CT diagnostic accuracy for diaphragm rupture was 88.4% in the right side and 90.7% in the left side.cT diagnostic accuracy for hemopneumothorax,pulmonary contusion,mediastinal hemorrhage,kidney and adrenal gland injuries was 100%,while for liver,spleen and pancreas injuries was 96.5%,96.5%,94.2% respectively.Conclusion:To reach an early diagnosis of combined thoracoabdominal injury,surgeons and radiologists should be familiar with all kinds of images which might show signs of diaphragm rupture,such as diaphragm discontinuity,segmental nonrecognition of the diaphragm,dangling diaphragm sign,diaphragm herniation,collar sign,dependent viscera sign,and elevated abdominal organs.

  8. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We...

  9. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique. Comparison with angiographic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses ≥50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. (author)

  10. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease by multislice spiral computed tomography using a new retrospectively ECG-gated image reconstruction technique. Comparison with angiographic results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoya; Kato, Masahiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Surugadai Hospital] [and others

    2003-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in detecting coronary artery disease, compared with coronary angiography (CAG), using a new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method that reduced cardiac motion artifact. The study group comprised 54 consecutive patients undergoing MSCT and CAG. MSCT was performed using a SOMATOM Volume Zoom (4-detector-row, Siemens, Germany) with slice thickness 1.0 mm, pitch 1.5 (table feed: 1.5 mm per rotation) and gantry rotation time 500 ms. Metoprolol (20-60 mg) was administered orally prior to MSCT imaging. ECG-gated image reconstruction was performed with the reconstruction window (250 ms) positioned immediately before atrial contraction in order to reduce the cardiac motion artifact caused by the abrupt diastolic ventricular movement occurring during the rapid filling and atrial contraction periods. Following inspection of the volume rendering images, multiplanar reconstruction images and axial images of the left main coronary artery (LMCA), left anterior descending artery (LAD), left circumflex artery (LCx) and right coronary artery (RCA) were obtained and evaluated for luminal narrowing. The results were compared with those obtained by CAG. Of 216 coronary arteries, 206 (95.4%) were assessable; 10 arteries were excluded from the analysis because of severe calcification (n=4), stents (n=3) or insufficient contrast enhancement (n=3). The sensitivity to detect coronary stenoses {>=}50% was 93.5% and the specificity to define luminal narrowing <50% was 97.2%. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 93.5% and 97.2%, respectively. The sensitivity was still satisfactory (80.6%) even when non-assessable arteries were included in the analysis. The new retrospectively ECG-gated reconstruction method for MSCT has excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting significant coronary artery stenoses. (author)

  11. Is there a gender difference in noninvasive coronary imaging? Multislice computed tomography for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamm Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multislice computed tomography (MSCT coronary angiography is the foremost alternative to invasive coronary angiography. Methods We sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of MSCT in female and male patients with suspected coronary disease. Altogether 50 women and 95 men underwent MSCT with 0.5 mm detector collimation. Coronary artery stenoses of at least 50% on conventional coronary angiography were considered significant. Results The coronary vessel diameters of all four main coronary artery branches were significantly larger in men than in women. The diagnostic accuracy of MSCT in identifying patients with coronary artery disease was significantly lower for women (72% compared with men (89%, p p p Conclusion Noninvasive coronary angiography with MSCT might be less accurate and sensitive for women than men. Also, women are exposed to a significantly higher effective radiation dose than men.

  12. Multi-slice Computed Tomography Angiography in the Detection of Residual or Recurrent Cerebral Aneurysms after Surgical Clipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) angiography compared to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in detecting residual or recurrent aneurysms in patients undergoing aneurysm clipping surgery. Material and Methods: Eight patients with nine aneurysms who had both MSCTA and DSA were included in the study. Two independent experienced neuroradiologists evaluated the examinations. Results: Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting residual or recurrent aneurysms on MSCTA were 0.80, 0.60, and 1.00, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 1.00 and 0.71, respectively. Conclusion: MSCTA is a promising technique for evaluating residual or recurrent aneurysms in patients undergoing surgical treatment of aneurysm with titanium clips

  13. Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Cardiac Computed Tomography (Multidetector CT, or MDCT) Updated:Sep 3,2015 What is Computerized Tomography (CT)? CT is a noninvasive test that uses ...

  14. Estimation of effective doses to adult and pediatric patients from multislice computed tomography: A method based on energy imparted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to provide a method and required data for the estimation of effective dose (E) values to adult and pediatric patients from computed tomography (CT) scans of the head, chest abdomen, and pelvis, performed on multi-slice scanners. Mean section radiation dose (dm) to cylindrical water phantoms of varying radius normalized over CT dose index free-in-air (CTDIF) were calculated for the head and body scanning modes of a multislice scanner with use of Monte Carlo techniques. Patients were modeled as equivalent water phantoms and the energy imparted (ε) to simulated pediatric and adult patients was calculated on the basis of measured CTDIF values. Body region specific energy imparted to effective dose conversion coefficients (E/ε) for adult male and female patients were generated from previous data. Effective doses to patients aged newborn to adult were derived for all available helical and axial beam collimations, taking into account age specific patient mass and scanning length. Depending on high voltage, body region, and patient sex, E/ε values ranged from 0.008 mSv/mJ for head scans to 0.024 mSv/mJ for chest scans. When scanned with the same technique factors as the adults, pediatric patients absorb as little as 5% of the energy imparted to adults, but corresponding effective dose values are up to a factor of 1.6 higher. On average, pediatric patients absorb 44% less energy per examination but have a 24% higher effective dose, compared with adults. In clinical practice, effective dose values to pediatric patients are 2.5 to 10 times lower than in adults due to the adaptation of tube current. A method is provided for the calculation of effective dose to adult and pediatric patients on the basis of individual patient characteristics such as sex, mass, dimensions, and density of imaged anatomy, and the technical features of modern multislice scanners. It allows the optimum selection of scanning parameters regarding patient doses at CT

  15. Five-year clinical and functional multislice computed tomography angiographic results after coronary implantation of the fully resorbable polymeric everolimus-eluting scaffold in patients with de novo coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onuma, Yoshinobu; Dudek, Dariusz; Thuesen, Leif; Webster, Mark; Nieman, Koen; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Ormiston, John A; Serruys, Patrick W

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to demonstrate the 5-year clinical and functional multislice computed tomography angiographic results after implantation of the fully resorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold (Absorb BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California).......This study sought to demonstrate the 5-year clinical and functional multislice computed tomography angiographic results after implantation of the fully resorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold (Absorb BVS, Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California)....

  16. Multislice spiral computed tomography to determine the effects of a recruitment maneuver in experimental lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although recruitment of atelectatic lung is a common aim in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effects of a recruitment maneuver have not been assessed quantitatively. By multislice spiral CT (MSCT), we analyzed the changes in lung volumes calculated from the changes in the CT values of hyperinflated (VHYP), normally (VNORM), poorly (VPOOR) and nonaerated (VNON) lung in eight mechanically ventilated pigs with saline lavage-induced acute lung injury before and after a recruitment maneuver. This was compared to single slice analysis near the diaphragm. The increase in aerated lung was mainly for VPOOR and the less in VNORM. Total lung volume and intrathoracic gas increased. No differences were found for tidal volumes measured by spirometry or determined by CT. The inspiratory-expiratory volume differences were not different after the recruitment maneuver in VNON (from 62±18 ml to 43±26 ml, P=0.114), and in VNORM (from 216±51 ml to 251±37 ml, P=0.102). Single slice analysis significantly underestimated the increase in normally and poorly aerated lung. Quantitative analysis of lung volumes by whole lung MSCT revealed the increase of poorly aerated lung as the main mechanism of a standard recruitment maneuver. MSCT can provide additional information as compared to single slice CT. (orig.)

  17. Multislice spiral computed tomography to determine the effects of a recruitment maneuver in experimental lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, Dietrich; Rossaint, Rolf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Anesthesiology Department, Aachen (Germany); Mahnken, Andreas H.; Wildberger, Joachim E.; Guenther, Rolf W. [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Clinic of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Kuhlen, Ralf [University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen, Operative Intensive Care Department, Aachen (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    Although recruitment of atelectatic lung is a common aim in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the effects of a recruitment maneuver have not been assessed quantitatively. By multislice spiral CT (MSCT), we analyzed the changes in lung volumes calculated from the changes in the CT values of hyperinflated (V{sub HYP}), normally (V{sub NORM}), poorly (V{sub POOR}) and nonaerated (V{sub NON}) lung in eight mechanically ventilated pigs with saline lavage-induced acute lung injury before and after a recruitment maneuver. This was compared to single slice analysis near the diaphragm. The increase in aerated lung was mainly for V{sub POOR} and the less in V{sub NORM}. Total lung volume and intrathoracic gas increased. No differences were found for tidal volumes measured by spirometry or determined by CT. The inspiratory-expiratory volume differences were not different after the recruitment maneuver in V{sub NON} (from 62{+-}18 ml to 43{+-}26 ml, P=0.114), and in V{sub NORM} (from 216{+-}51 ml to 251{+-}37 ml, P=0.102). Single slice analysis significantly underestimated the increase in normally and poorly aerated lung. Quantitative analysis of lung volumes by whole lung MSCT revealed the increase of poorly aerated lung as the main mechanism of a standard recruitment maneuver. MSCT can provide additional information as compared to single slice CT. (orig.)

  18. Impact of lesion morphology on angiographic and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic total occlusion after recanalization with drug-eluting stents: a multislice computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Tsuyoshi [Toyohashi Heart Center, Toyohashi (Japan); Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya (Japan); Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Nasu, Kenya; Kimura, Masashi; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Habara, Maoto; Suzuki, Takahiko [Toyohashi Heart Center, Toyohashi (Japan); Suzuki, Yoriyasu; Ehara, Mariko [Nagoya Heart Center, Nagoya (Japan); Ohte, Nobuyuki [Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Cardio-Renal Medicine and Hypertension, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the multislice computed tomography (MSCT) parameters associated with adverse outcomes after chronic total occlusion percutaneous coronary intervention (CTO-PCI) with drug-eluting stents. A total of 285 patients who underwent MSCT before CTO-PCI were analyzed. Lesion morphology was assessed with MSCT. Angiographic restenosis, reocclusion, and MACE (a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and target lesion revascularization) were analyzed. MACE was observed in 36 patients (13.6 %). Occlusion length was greater (39.5 ± 19.9 mm vs. 22.3 ± 13.7 mm, p < 0.01), minimal vessel area smaller (11.2 ± 5.7 mm{sup 2} vs. 14.5 ± 5.6 mm{sup 2}, p < 0.01), and severe calcification more common (36 % vs. 12 %, p < 0.01) in the MACE group compared to the non-MACE group. We defined occluded length >25.4 mm, minimal vessel area <11.9 mm{sup 2}, which were identified by receiver operating characteristic analysis, and severe calcification as CT-derived risk factors. Angiographic restenosis (60 % vs. 12 % vs. 7 %, p < 0.01), reocclusion (29 % vs. 2 % vs. 2 %, p < 0.01), and MACE (43 % vs. 6 % vs. 3 %, p < 0.01) were more common in patients with 2 or more risk factors than in those with 1 or 0. MSCT characteristics associated with adverse outcomes after CTO-PCI were occlusion length, minimal vessel area, and severe calcification. (orig.)

  19. Evaluation of vulnerable coronary plaques and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by 64-detector multislice computed tomography (MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) permits direct visualization of not only coronary artery stenosis but also the characteristics of plaques in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, because of its potential to be a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease, interest in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing. Participants comprised 298 consecutive patients who received MSCT to diagnose CAD. Patients with an alcohol intake exceeding 20 g/day or with a history of known liver disease were excluded from the study. Liver steatosis and 4 coronary artery findings, including remodeling lesions, lipid core plaques, calcified plaques and narrowing of lumen, were assessed. Liver steatosis was evaluated by computed tomography density of the liver and spleen. In the study, NAFLD was defined as having a liver and spleen (L:S) ratio of <1.1. The L:S ratios of patients with remodeling lesions or lipid core plaques were significantly lower than those without. NAFLD was related significantly to those findings, but there was no correlation between calcified plaques, narrowing of lumen and L:S ratios. Adjusted odds ratio of NAFLD for remodeling lesions was 2.41 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24-4.67; p=0.009), and those for lipid core lesions was 2.29 (95% CI, 1.15-4.56; p=0.018). NAFLD is a novel risk factor for vulnerable plaques. (author)

  20. Diagnostic efficacy and pitfalls of a 64-raw multislice computed tomography scan for mild head injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to analyze the usefulness of 64-raw multislice computed tomography (CT) scans and bone images of three-dimensional CT (3D-CT) scans for evaluation of mild head injuries in children. Thirteen children (9 boys and 4 girls, less than or equal to 15 years old) with mild head injury were included in the study. Head CT scans obtained within 24 hours after injury. All children had no episodes of loss of consciousness, amnesia, epilepsy, vomiting, and no neurological abnormality on arrival at hospital. We detected 9 positive findings on CT scans, which looked like fracture lines at the frontal bone in 7 cases. The bone images of CT axial views revealed a true fracture in one case in which a skull X-ray could not demonstrate a fracture line, but, other positive findings turned out to be a diploic vein surrounded by a thin bone cortex. All false positive findings were detected in the patients under the age of 6. By the 3D-reconstructive CT scan, it is easier to detect not only the intracranial lesions but also the cranial fracture. But, the diploic vein is apt to be misdiagnosed as the fracture line, especially in patients under the age of 6. (author)

  1. Evaluation of coronary artery remodeling in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina by multislice computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was used to evaluate coronary artery remodeling in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and stable angina (SA). MSCT was performed in 31 patients with ACS and 26 patients with SA and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed in 28 of these 57 patients. In both the MSCT and IVUS analyses, coronary artery remodeling was assessed by the remodeling index (RI): RI>1.10 was defined as positive coronary artery remodeling (PCAR) and RI<0.95 was defined as negative coronary artery remodeling (NCAR). The RI assessed by MSCT closely correlated with that of IVUS (r=0.86, n=28). The vessel area at the region of maximum luminal narrowing was also comparable between the MSCT and IVUS measurements (r=0.92). PCAR was present in 19 patients (61.3%) with ACS, but in none of the patients with SA (p<0.0001). However, NCAR was present in only 1 patient with ACS (3.2%), but was present in 18 patients (62.9%) with SA. The RI was significantly larger in patients with ACS (1.19±0.18) than in those with SA (0.89±0.10, p<0.0001). MSCT accurately assesses coronary artery remodeling. (author)

  2. Evaluation of plaque texture by means of multislice computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome and stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT), which allows non-invasive assessment of coronary artery plaque, was used to compare the CT density of plaque between patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and those with stable angina (SA). MSCT was performed in 20 patients with ACS (17 with acute myocardial infarction, 3 with unstable angina) and 22 patients with SA. The presence of the plaque was defined on the basis of multi-planar reformation and axial images. At least 4 regions of interest were then placed within the plaque and the minimum CT density was measured and expressed as Hounsfield units (HU). The number of plaques did not differ between the 2 groups, but the minimum CT density was significantly lower in patients with ACS (25±15 HU) than in those with SA (71±16 HU, range 46-101 HU, p<0.001). Similarly, the minimum plaque density was significantly lower in the culprit coronary segment (26±16 HU) than in the non-culprit segment (48±17 HU) in 15 ACS patients with multiple plaques. MSCT can potentially differentiate vulnerable from stable plaque in patients with coronary artery disease, although long-term, prospective analysis is needed to establish the conclusion. (author)

  3. Investigation of an image artefact induced by projection noise inhomogeneity in multi-slice helical computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jiang

    2003-02-01

    The introduction of multi-slice helical computed tomography has fundamentally changed the way radiologists view CT images. Increasing numbers of clinical cases are examined with advanced visualization tools, such as maximum intensity projection, multi-planar reformation and volume rendering. It has been discovered that new image artefacts, which do not appear in the traditional two-dimensional reconstructed images, become visible in images generated by these new tools. In this paper, we investigate the causes of one such artefact, the Venetian blind artefact, which appears as bright-and-dark bands superimposed on three-dimensional images. We demonstrate that such an artefact is caused by the periodical noise variation in the reconstructed images. The image noise variation is, in turn, caused by the interaction of the noise inhomogeneity in the projections with the helical weights. An analytical formula is developed that accurately predicts the presence of such artefacts. Based on our analysis, several approaches are proposed for the artefact reduction or elimination.

  4. Metabolic syndrome correlates intracoronary stenosis detected by multislice computed tomography in male subjects with sleep-disordered breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi-Minami Tomoko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB, especially obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, has frequent complications include hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance based on abdominal obesity or excess visceral fat (called Syndrome Z. OSA is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The clinical characteristics of Japanese OSA subjects with OSA remain unclear. The present study investigated prevalence and predictive factors of intracoronary stenosis detected by multislice computed tomography (MSCT in Japanese male subjects with SDB/OSA. Findings The study (O-VFStudy subjects were 39 Japanese men with SDB/OSA who underwent all-night cardiorespiratory monitoring with fully attended polysomnography, and moreover both fat computed tomography (CT scan and 64-row MSCT coronary angiography. The prevalence of coronary stenosis in this selected population with SDB/OSA was 15%. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant relationship between age-adjusted CAD and metabolic syndrome (p p = 0.033, and lower levels of serum adiponectin (4.5 ± 0.6 versus 6.4 ± 0.6 μg/mL, p = 0.014, compared with groups without the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions The present study describes that the prevalence of greater than 50% intracoronary stenotic lesions detected by MSCT was 15% and the metabolic syndrome was correlated with intracoronary stenosis detected by MSCT in Japanese SDB/OSA subjects. Trial Registration UMIN 000002997 https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&type=summary&recptno=R000003633&language=E.

  5. Accuracy and reliability of quantitative measurements in coronary arteries by multi-slice computed tomography: Experimental and initial clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of non-invasive measurements within coronary arteries by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). We present experimental as well as clinical data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Silicon tubes simulating coronary arteries (outer diameter 6 mm, lumen diameter within stenotic area 2 mm) were used for experimental studies. Clinical data were derived from 15 patients in whom vessel diameters were assessed by MSCT, intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). MSCT were performed in a Somatom Volume ZoomTMCT system (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) at 2 collimated slice widths (2.5 mm, 1.0 mm). RESULTS: Outer silicon tube diameters were overestimated by MSCT (6.56 mm ± 0.32 mm). All measurements revealed significantly better results on 1.0 collimation compared to 2.5 mm collimation (outer diameter: 6.36 mm ± 0.22 mm vs 6.76 mm ± 0.27 mm, P < 0.0001; lumen diameters: 1.83 mm ± 0.14 mm vs 1.51 mm ± 0.19 mm,P < 0.0001). The comparison of vessel diameters within human coronary arteries revealed comparable results between ICUS and MSCT (4.89 mm ± 0.67 mm vs 4.91 mm ± 0.71 mm, P = 0.79,r = 0.79, P < 0.0001). QCA-measurements showed significantly lower results (3.67 ± 0.71, P < 0.0001,r = 0.62, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Experimental as well as initial clinical results indicate acceptable reliability and accuracy of quantitative measurements by MSCT, when using thin collimated slice widths. Partial volume effects lead to a systematic overestimation of vessel size. MSCT has the potential to become an important non-invasive diagnostic tool in patients with coronary artery disease. Schroeder, S. et al. (2001)

  6. Assessment of cystic renal masses in children: Comparison of multislice computed tomography and ultrasound imaging using the Bosniak classification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Yun, E-mail: ppengyun@yahoo.co [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Jia Liqun [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Sun Ning [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (China); Li Jianying [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Fu Libing [Department of Pediatric Pathology, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (China); Zeng Jinjin [Imaging Center, Beijing Children' s Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, 56, Nanlishi Road, Xicheng District, Beijing 100045 (China); Chen Feng [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Ma Daqing [Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University (China)

    2010-09-15

    To retrospectively compare contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and ultrasound (US) imaging for the assessment of cystic renal masses in children using the Bosniak classification system. Twenty-two consecutive patients (age 1 month to 5.2 years, mean 2.4 years) with 24 cystic renal masses (7 benign, 17 malignant) pathologically confirmed after surgical resection underwent both MSCT and US imaging, and were retrospectively analyzed using the Bosniak classification. A senior and a junior radiologist retrospectively and independently reviewed imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of MSCT and US were assessed using diagnostic statistics. The statistical significance of differences was determined by the McNemar test. Both radiologists accurately predicted lesions of categories I and IV with the Bosniak classification using MSCT and US. All masses classified as Bosniak classes I and II were proven to be benign, and all malignant lesions were correctly characterized in all cases both on ultrasound images and on the contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) images. Two benign multilocular cystic nephromas and one multicystic dysplastic kidney were classified into category III or even IV based on the classification scheme because of their multilocular nature and thick septation. The diagnostic accuracy of CECT was slightly better than ultrasound (CECT vs. US: senior reader, 92% vs. 88%; junior reader, 88% vs. 83%). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two sets (p > 0.05). The two radiologists had perfect inter-observer agreement on the two modalities. Both MSCT and US provide highly accurate diagnosis for the malignant renal cystic masses in children using the Bosniak classification system, but assessment of benign masses still needs improvement. We would recommend US is the best screening modality in Bosniak I and II, In Bosniak III and IV, MSCT are first the choice.

  7. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raissi Kamal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT angiography in the first week after surgery. Results There were a total of 366 grafts, comprised of 250 venous grafts and 116 arterial grafts. Multi-slice CT detected acute graft occlusions in 32 (8.7% of all the grafts, including 26 (10% of the 250 venous grafts and 6 (5% of the 116 arterial grafts. The patency rates obtained were 97.3% for the left internal mammary (IMA grafts, 50% for the radial artery grafts, and 50% for the right IMA grafts. Additionally, 107 (96.4% grafts to the left anterior descending artery (LAD were classified as patent, whereas 1 (30% of the 3 grafts in the left circumflex (LCX region and 1 (50% of the 2 grafts in the right coronary artery (RCA territory were found to be occluded. In the venous category, 8 (13.7% of the 58 grafts to LAD were found to be occluded. In the LCX region, 9 (8.5% of the 106 grafts were classified as occluded, while the remaining 97 (91.5% grafts were patent. The venous grafts to RCA were occluded in 9 (10.4% of the 86 grafts. Amongst the multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors, pump time was significantly longer in the patients with occluded grafts than in those with patent grafts (P = 0.04. Conclusion The IMA grafts had the highest early patency rate amongst the coronary bypass grafts. However, the other arterial grafts were associated with a high rate of acute occlusions.

  8. Renal lymphangiectasia: incidental finding at multislice computed tomography and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Abdalla de; Pereira, Emanuelle Santiago [Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal (HBDF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Bauab Junior, Tufik [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto - Ultra-X and Hospital de Base de Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Valente, Rodolfo Silva [Hospital Universitario de Brasilia (HUB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2012-05-15

    Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare condition characterized by parapyelic and perirenal fluid collections, which may progress from asymptomatic condition to chronic renal failure. The present report describes a case of incidental computed tomography finding of bilateral lymphangiectasia in an asymptomatic patient, as well as the main imaging findings with a comprehensive literature review. (author)

  9. A comparative study for image quality and radiation dose of a cone beam computed tomography scanner and a multislice computed tomography scanner for paranasal sinus imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cock, Jens de; Canning, John [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Zanca, Federica; Hermans, Robert [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Imaging and Pathology Department, Leuven (Belgium); Pauwels, Ruben [KU Leuven, Imaging and Pathology Department, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate image quality and radiation dose of a state of the art cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) system and a multislice computed tomography (MSCT) system in patients with sinonasal poliposis. In this retrospective study two radiologists evaluated 57 patients with sinonasal poliposis who underwent a CBCT or MSCT sinus examination, along with a control group of 90 patients with normal radiological findings. Tissue doses were measured using a phantom model with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). Overall image quality in CBCT was scored significantly higher than in MSCT in patients with normal radiologic findings (p-value: 0.00001). In patients with sinonasal poliposis, MSCT scored significantly higher than CBCT (p-value: 0.00001). The average effective dose for MSCT was 42 % higher compared to CBCT (108 μSv vs 63 μSv). CBCT and MSCT are both suited for the evaluation of sinonasal poliposis. In patients with sinonasal poliposis, clinically important structures of the paranasal sinuses can be better delineated with MSCT, whereas in patients without sinonasal poliposis, CBCT turns out to define the important structures of the sinonasal region better. However, given the lower radiation dose, CBCT can be considered for the evaluation of the sinonasal structures in patients with sinonasal poliposis. (orig.)

  10. The Value of Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography in Demonstrating the Relationship between Bronchial and Peripheral Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinwei Qiang; Kangrong Zhou; Yaping Jiang; Xuanguang Ye; Qun Wang; Songtao Xu; Lijie Tan

    2005-01-01

    OBJECITVE To investigate the value of multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) in demonstrating the relationship between bronchial and peripheral lung cancer.METHODS MSCT was used to conduct volumetric targeted scans of 0.5 mm collimation for 53 cases of peripheral lung cancer and to demonstrate the relationship between bronchial and peripheral lung cancer by multiplanar reconstrUctions(MPR) images, curved multiplanar reformations(CMPR) and surface shaded display(SSD). The results were compared with macroscopic and microscopic specimens.RESULTS 1) All the bronchi at the 3rd to 7th order were displayed clearly and completely with this CT protocol. The tumors that were related to the bronchus included 29 (96.7%) adenocarcinomas and 13 (76.5%) squamous-cell carcinomas. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups (x2 =2.8, P >0.05). 2) The tumorbronchus relationship was divided into four subtypes, i.e. type Ⅰ: the bronchus was obstructed by a tumor, type Ⅱ: the bronchus was obstructed when penetrated by a tumor with tapered narrowing; type Ⅲ: the bronchial lumen shown within the tumor was unobstructed and intact, type Ⅳ: the bronchus ran at the periphery of a tumor, with an intact or narrowed lumen.3) Type Ⅰ occurred in 58.5% (31 cases), in which squamous-cell carcinoma was slightly more common than adenocarcinoma. Both type Ⅱ and type Ⅲ were seen in 15.1%(eight cases of each), of which all were adenocarcinomas. The incidence rate of type Ⅳ was 28.3% (15 cases), of which adenocarcinoma was slightly more frequent than squamous-cell carcinoma. 4)Squamous-cell carcinoma was more common than adenocarcinoma in the tumors in the fourth-order bronchus, whereas adenocarcinoma was more common than squamous-cell carcinoma in tumors with a relationship to the sixth-order bronchus.CONCLUSION MSCT with volumetric targeted scans of ultra-thin sections were conducted followed by MPR,CMPR and SSD reconstruction

  11. Bone density: comparative evaluation of Hounsfield units in multislice and cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Maria de Carvalho Crusoé Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the bone density value of potential implant sites in HU obtained by a specific cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT device. In this study, the HU values obtained using a MSCT scanner were used as the gold standard. Twenty mandibles (40 potential implant sites were scanned using an MSCT scanner (Somatom Sensation 40 and a CBCT scanner (i-CAT. The MSCT images were evaluated using the Syngo CT Workplace software and the CBCT images, using the XoranCat software. The images were evaluated twice by three oral radiologists, at 60 day intervals. The trabecular bone density of the same area was evaluated on both images. Intraclass coefficients (ICC were calculated to examine the agreement between the examiners and between the two periods of evaluation. The bone density and area of the ROI were compared by the Student t test and Bland-Altman analysis. ICCs were excellent. The mean HU value obtained using CBCT (418.06 was higher than that obtained using MSCT (313.13, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001. In addition, Bland-Altman analysis showed that the HU measures were not equivalent. In conclusion, the bone density in HU with CBCT images obtained using the device studied proved unreliable, since it was higher than that obtained using MSCT.

  12. Left anterior descending coronary artery myocardial bridging by multislice computed tomography: Correlation with clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the relationship between left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery myocardial bridging detected by 64-slice computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. Methods: 221 consecutive patients were examined with coronary 64-slice CT angiography. 21 patients with coronary stenosis >50% were excluded. The length, depth, and luminal narrowing of LAD myocardial bridges during systole and diastole were measured. CT findings were compared with the treadmill ECG-stress test, and clinical symptoms. Results: Myocardial bridges of the LAD were found in 23% of patients (51/221) (length, 14.9 ± 6.5 mm; depth, 2.6 ± 1.6 mm). A significant difference was noted between the LAD luminal diameter before the intramyocardial course and intramyocardially, for both diastole and systole (p 50% was found in 3/25 (8%). 30/51 (59%) of bridges were 'deep' (>2 mm myocardial depth), 21/51 (41%) were 'superficial'. The prevalence of a positive ECG-stress tests for the anterior myocardial region was significantly higher in patients with LAD myocardial bridges (34/50; 68%) compared to those without (28/144; 19.4%) (p < 0.001). There was no difference between 'superficial' and 'deep' LAD myocardial bridges in regard to a positive treadmill ECG-stress test. Typical angina was rare with 6%. Conclusion: LAD myocardial bridges are common findings and can possibly explain a positive exercise ECG-stress test for anterior myocardial ischemia. Intramyocardial LAD segments show mild-to-moderate luminal narrowing at rest, which is higher during end-systolic phase.

  13. Left anterior descending coronary artery myocardial bridging by multislice computed tomography: Correlation with clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodocy, Daniel; Aglan, Iman [Clinical Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Friedrich, Guy [Clinical Department of Cardiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Mallouhi, Ammar [Clinical Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Pachinger, Otmar [Clinical Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Clinical Department of Cardiology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner [Clinical Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Clinical Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: gudrun.feuchtner@i-med.ac.at

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To assess the relationship between left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery myocardial bridging detected by 64-slice computed tomography (CT) and clinical findings. Methods: 221 consecutive patients were examined with coronary 64-slice CT angiography. 21 patients with coronary stenosis >50% were excluded. The length, depth, and luminal narrowing of LAD myocardial bridges during systole and diastole were measured. CT findings were compared with the treadmill ECG-stress test, and clinical symptoms. Results: Myocardial bridges of the LAD were found in 23% of patients (51/221) (length, 14.9 {+-} 6.5 mm; depth, 2.6 {+-} 1.6 mm). A significant difference was noted between the LAD luminal diameter before the intramyocardial course and intramyocardially, for both diastole and systole (p < 0.001); with a higher diameter reduction of 27% for end-systole compared to end-diastole with 15% (p = 0.006). Systolic LAD intramyocardial luminal narrowing >50% was found in 3/25 (8%). 30/51 (59%) of bridges were 'deep' (>2 mm myocardial depth), 21/51 (41%) were 'superficial'. The prevalence of a positive ECG-stress tests for the anterior myocardial region was significantly higher in patients with LAD myocardial bridges (34/50; 68%) compared to those without (28/144; 19.4%) (p < 0.001). There was no difference between 'superficial' and 'deep' LAD myocardial bridges in regard to a positive treadmill ECG-stress test. Typical angina was rare with 6%. Conclusion: LAD myocardial bridges are common findings and can possibly explain a positive exercise ECG-stress test for anterior myocardial ischemia. Intramyocardial LAD segments show mild-to-moderate luminal narrowing at rest, which is higher during end-systolic phase.

  14. Mapping the extent of disease by multislice computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and sentinel node evaluation in stage I and II cervical carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaram S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: (1 To map the extent of disease in women with stage I and II carcinoma cervix by multislice spiral computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and sentinel nodes. (2 To assess accuracy of each modality individually and in conjunction with FIGO clinical staging. Design and Setting: Prospective, single-blind study. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radiodiagnosis, and Pathology, UCMS and GTBH and Division of Radiological Imaging and Bioinformatics, INMAS, Delhi. Material and Method: The study was conducted on 25 women with cervical cancer FIGO stage I and II. Each woman underwent clinical staging, multislice spiral CT and MRI which was compared to the gold-standard histopathology/cytology. The overall accuracy of each modality and improvement of clinical staging by CT/MRI were noted. Sentinel nodes were evaluated by intracervical Patent Blue V dye injection. Statistical Analysis: Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated by 2Χ2 contingency tables. Results: The accuracy of staging by FIGO, CT and MRI was 68%, 52% and 80%, respectively. MRI and CT improved the overall accuracy of FIGO staging to 96% and 80%, respectively. Sentinel nodes were identified in 89% of patients with 91% accuracy. Conclusion: MRI emerges as the most valuable stand-alone modality improving accuracy of FIGO staging to 96%. Sentinel lymph-node evaluation appears promising in evaluating spread beyond cervix.

  15. Four-dimensional measurement of the displacement of metal clips or postoperative surgical staples during 320-multislice computed tomography scanning of gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the respiratory motion of metal clips or surgical staples placed in the gastric wall for planning of radiation therapy in gastric cancer patients. This study examined 15 metal markers in the gastric walls of 12 patients with gastric cancer treated with external-beam photon RT. Motion assessment was analyzed in 41 respiratory phases covering 20 s acquired with computed tomography (CT) in the RT position using 320-multislice CT. The intra-fraction displacement was assessed in the cranio-caudal (CC), antero-posterior (AP), and right-left (RL) directions. Motion in the CC direction showed a very strong correlation (R2 > 0.7) with the respiratory curve in all 15 markers. The mean (+/− SD) intra-fractional gastric motion (maximum range of displacement) was 12.5 (+/− 3.4) mm in the CC, 8.3 (+/− 2.2) mm in the AP, and 5.5 (+/− 3.0) mm in the RL direction. No significant differences in magnitude of motion were detected in the following: a) among the upper (n = 6), middle (n = 4), and lower (n = 5) stomach regions; b) between metal clips (n = 5) and surgical staples (n = 10); and c) between full (n = 9) and empty (n = 6) stomachs. Motion in primary gastric tumor was evaluated with 320-multislice CT. According to this study, the 95th percentile values from the cumulative distributions of the RL, AP, and CC direction were 6.3 mm, 9.0 mm, and 13.6 mm, respectively

  16. Radiation Dose to the Thyroid and Gonads in Patients Undergoing Cardiac CT Angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Behroozi, Hamid; Davoodi, Mohammad; Aghasi, Shahriar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present data show a global increase in the rate of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT angiography has developed as a fast and non-invasive cardiac imaging modality following the introduction of multi-slice computed tomogaraphy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the radiation dose to the thyroid and pelvis regions in patients undergoing cardiac CT angiography using the Care Dose 4D method of 64-slice scanner. Patients and Methods: Eighty-one patients (41 males an...

  17. Care-bolus tracking systems in multislice-helical computed tomography - a new method in the screening of cardiovascular failure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Recently bolus tracking systems were developed to improve the timing of intravenous contrast media application in helical computed tomography. We investigated the benefit of this new method as a parameter of the cardiac function.Material and methods. Retrospective analysis of 64 patients which incidentally underwent bolus triggered contrast enhanced helical CT and invasive investigation of the heart within one week. All examinations were performed on the CT scanner Somatom Plus 4 Volume Zoom (Siemens Corp., Forchheim, Germany) using the C.A.R.E. trademark Bolus software. This performs repetitive low- dose test scans (e.g. for the abdomen: 140 kV, 20 mA, TI 0,5 s) and measures the Hounsfield attenuation (increase over the baseline) in a preselected region of interest. The displayed increase of vascular density over the time after peripheral contrast media injection (75 ml Iopromid (300 mg/ml), 2 ml/s) was categorised to three types: (a) rapid increase, (b) deceleration before a 100 HE threshold was reached and (c) one or more peaks. The findings of the invasive investigation of the heart were correlated to the findings of the bolus-tracking measurements.Results. The examinations were categorized as follows: 19 type A, 34 type B, 11 type C. We found a high significant correlation between the type of the Hounsfield attenuation and systolic pressure in the left ventricle. There was no correlation between the type of the Hounsfield attenuation and the diastolic pressure in the left ventricle, the pressures related to the right ventricle or the ejection fraction. The bolus- tacking system showed a sensitivity of 53, a specificity of 82, an accuracy of 70%, a positive predictive value of 70% and a negative predictive value of 70% in detection of left heart failure.Conclusion. The bolus tracking system C.A.R.E.-bolus copyright often shows atypical Hounsfield attenuation in cases of cardiac failure but is not suitable as a screening method of the cardiopulmonary

  18. Comparative of radiation dose and image quality of Conventional Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT, Cone-Beam CT (CBCT and periapical radiography in dental imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Jabbari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: With the increasing use of CT (Computed Tomoghraphy scans in dentistry especially in the implantology, there may be significant increases in the radiation exposure and its risk. During the last year’s ConeBeam Computed Tomoghraphy (CBCT has been introduced as an imaging modality for dentistry. The aim of this review article was to present comprehensive information have been published, regarding the  radiation dose and image quality of Conventional Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT, Cone-Beam CT (CBCT and periapical radiography in dentistry imaging. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was carried out in PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus database using key words (CBCT, MSCT, periapical radiography, radiation dose of dentistry and image quality. These searches were limited to the articles published between the years of 1993 to 2015. Conclusion: In comparison to MSCT, CBCT had a short scanning times and lower radiation dose, but in comparison to periapical radiography, CBCT had higher radiation dose. In contrast, CBCT with flat panel detector had higher spatial resolution to MSCT. The periapical radiography also had a good image contrast and relatively high resolution. Generally, CBCT was suitable for hard tissue imaging and MSCT was preferred for soft tissue imaging.

  19. Interrupted aortic arch diagnosed by ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography angiography: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yang-yang; HAN Ping; FENG Gan-sheng; LIANG Bo

    2005-01-01

    @@ Interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare congenital cardiovascular disease with major intracardiac defects and always with multisystem non-cardiac malformations. It occurs in 1: 10,000 births, and about 1% of the patients with congenital heart defects.

  20. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Kunwarpal; Sukhdeep; Thukral; Amandeep; Harmeet; Sonali

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US) and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT) in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each moda...

  1. Trabecular bone structure parameters from 3D image processing of clinical multi-slice and cone-beam computed tomography data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klintstroem, Eva; Smedby, Oerjan [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); UHL County Council of Oestergoetland, Department of Radiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH)/Radiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Moreno, Rodrigo [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH)/Radiology, Linkoeping (Sweden); Brismar, Torkel B. [KUS Huddinge, Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology at Karolinska Institutet and Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-02-15

    Bone strength depends on both mineral content and bone structure. The aim of this in vitro study was to develop a method of quantitatively assessing trabecular bone structure by applying three-dimensional image processing to data acquired with multi-slice and cone-beam computed tomography using micro-computed tomography as a reference. Fifteen bone samples from the radius were examined. After segmentation, quantitative measures of bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, trabecular number, trabecular nodes, and trabecular termini were obtained. The clinical machines overestimated bone volume and trabecular thickness and underestimated trabecular nodes and number, but cone-beam CT to a lesser extent. Parameters obtained from cone beam CT were strongly correlated with μCT, with correlation coefficients between 0.93 and 0.98 for all parameters except trabecular termini. The high correlation between cone-beam CT and micro-CT suggest the possibility of quantifying and monitoring changes of trabecular bone microarchitecture in vivo using cone beam CT. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation by multislice computed tomography of atherosclerotic coronary artery plaques in non-culprit, remote coronary arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) frequently have vulnerable plaques in the remote coronary arteries, suggesting that ACS is part of the pan-coronary process. In the present study the computed tomography (CT) plaque density in non-culprit atherosclerotic coronary artery lesions was evaluated by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in patients with ACS and non-ACS. MSCT was performed in 21 patients with ACS and 53 patients with non-ACS: 16 of the 21 ACS patients (76%) and 30 of the non-ACS 53 patients (57%) had non-calcified plaques in the non-culprit coronary arteries (p=0.18). CT-low-density plaques (CT density <68 Hounsfield units (HU)) were more frequent in the ACS group (13/16 patients, 81%) than in the non-ACS group (13/30 patients, 43%, p=0.03). In addition, the CT density of the non-culprit lesion was significantly lower in patients with ACS than in those with non-ACS (44.1±22.9 and 77.3±33.7 HU, respectively). Patients with ACS more frequently had CT-low-density plaques in the non-culprit, remote arteries than those with non-ACS, which suggests that ACS treatment should focus not only on stabilizing the culprit lesion but also on systemic stabilization of non-culprit lesions. (author)

  3. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being implemented into clinical algorithms, primarily due to substantial technical advances over the last decade. Its use in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndrome is of particular relevance, given the high degree of accumulating scientific evidence of improving patient outcomes. Performing cardiac CT requires specific knowledge on the available scan acquisitions and patient preparation. Also, expertise is required in order to interpret the coronary and extra-coronary findings adequately. The present article provides an overview of the different aspects on the use of cardiac CT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

  4. A comparative evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and Multi-Slice CT (MSCT). Part II: On 3D model accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Xin, E-mail: Xin.Liang@med.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); College of Stomatology, Dalian Medical University (China); Lambrichts, Ivo, E-mail: Ivo.Lambrichts@uhasselt.b [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Histology and Electron Microscopy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasselt, Diepenbeek (Belgium); Sun Yi, E-mail: Sunyihello@hotmail.co [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Denis, Kathleen, E-mail: kathleen.denis@groept.b [Department of Industrial Sciences and Techology-Engineering (IWT), XIOS Hogeschool Limburg, Hasselt (Belgium); Hassan, Bassam, E-mail: b.hassan@acta.n [Department of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Li Limin, E-mail: Limin.Li@uz.kuleuven.b [Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Special Dental Care, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Pauwels, Ruben, E-mail: Ruben.Pauwels@med.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium); Jacobs, Reinhilde, E-mail: Reinhilde.Jacobs@uz.kuleuven.b [Oral Imaging Centre, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Catholic University of Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-08-15

    Aim: The study aim was to compare the geometric accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) surface model reconstructions between five Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanners and one Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) system. Materials and methods: A dry human mandible was scanned with five CBCT systems (NewTom 3G, Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, Galileos, Scanora 3D) and one MSCT scanner (Somatom Sensation 16). A 3D surface bone model was created from the six systems. The reference (gold standard) 3D model was obtained with a high resolution laser surface scanner. The 3D models from the five systems were compared with the gold standard using a point-based rigid registration algorithm. Results: The mean deviation from the gold standard for MSCT was 0.137 mm and for CBCT were 0.282, 0.225, 0.165, 0.386 and 0.206 mm for the i-CAT, Accuitomo, NewTom, Scanora and Galileos, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the accuracy of CBCT 3D surface model reconstructions is somewhat lower but acceptable comparing to MSCT from the gold standard.

  5. A comparative evaluation of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and Multi-Slice CT (MSCT). Part II: On 3D model accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The study aim was to compare the geometric accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) surface model reconstructions between five Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scanners and one Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) system. Materials and methods: A dry human mandible was scanned with five CBCT systems (NewTom 3G, Accuitomo 3D, i-CAT, Galileos, Scanora 3D) and one MSCT scanner (Somatom Sensation 16). A 3D surface bone model was created from the six systems. The reference (gold standard) 3D model was obtained with a high resolution laser surface scanner. The 3D models from the five systems were compared with the gold standard using a point-based rigid registration algorithm. Results: The mean deviation from the gold standard for MSCT was 0.137 mm and for CBCT were 0.282, 0.225, 0.165, 0.386 and 0.206 mm for the i-CAT, Accuitomo, NewTom, Scanora and Galileos, respectively. Conclusion: The results show that the accuracy of CBCT 3D surface model reconstructions is somewhat lower but acceptable comparing to MSCT from the gold standard.

  6. Sixteen-row multislice computed tomography in the assessment of pulmonary veins prior to ablative treatment: validation vs conventional pulmonary venography and study of reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimovic, R.; Cademartiri, F.; Pattynama, P.M.T. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Scholten, M; Jordaens, L.J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Cardiology

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate multislice computed tomography (MSCT) venography measurements of pulmonary vein (PV) diameters vs conventional pulmonary venography (CPV), and to assess the reproducibility of MSCT data. The study included 21 consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation who were planned for cryothermal ablation of PVs. One day before ablation, all patients underwent CPV and contrast-enhanced non-gated MSCT venography. The MSCT was repeated 3 months after ablation. The CPV images of the treated PVs (n=40) were analyzed and compared with the results of MSCT measurements. Reproducibility of MSCT venography-based data was assessed by interobserver (n=84 PVs) and interexamination (n=44 PVs) variability. Pre-treatment PV diameters on MSCT and CPV showed good correlation (r=0.87, p<0.01; 18.9{+-}2.3 mm, 188.5{+-}2.4 mm, respectively). Interobserver agreement and interexamination reproducibility were good (r=0.91, r=0.82, respectively, p<0.01), with narrow limits of agreement (Bland and Altman method). The MSCT venography allows accurate and reproducible assessment of PVs. It can be used both in non-invasive planning of treatment for ablative therapy and in the follow-up of patients.

  7. Computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics: Current status and future outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rajat; Seo, Jung Hee; Vedula, Vijay; Choi, Young J.; Liu, Hang; Huang, H. Howie; Jain, Saurabh; Younes, Laurent; Abraham, Theodore; George, Richard T.

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of four-dimensional imaging technologies, increasing computational speeds, improved simulation algorithms, and the widespread availability of powerful computing platforms is enabling simulations of cardiac hemodynamics with unprecedented speed and fidelity. Since cardiovascular disease is intimately linked to cardiovascular hemodynamics, accurate assessment of the patient's hemodynamic state is critical for the diagnosis and treatment of heart disease. Unfortunately, while a variety of invasive and non-invasive approaches for measuring cardiac hemodynamics are in widespread use, they still only provide an incomplete picture of the hemodynamic state of a patient. In this context, computational modeling of cardiac hemodynamics presents as a powerful non-invasive modality that can fill this information gap, and significantly impact the diagnosis as well as the treatment of cardiac disease. This article reviews the current status of this field as well as the emerging trends and challenges in cardiovascular health, computing, modeling and simulation and that are expected to play a key role in its future development. Some recent advances in modeling and simulations of cardiac flow are described by using examples from our own work as well as the research of other groups.

  8. Evaluation of left ventricular remodelling in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease using multislice computer tomography and magnetic resonance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article presents the results of MSCT and MRI of the heart in 57 patients with chronic coronary heart disease. It determined the relationship between structural and functional changes in the left ventricle and the degree of left coronary artery stenosis. Also determined were the link between the ischemic left ventricular remodeling and depth of myocardial damage in patients with coronary heart disease and postinfarction cardiosclerosis. MSCT and MRI are highly reliable imaging technique used to evaluate the infarcted and viable myocardium and post infarct cardiac remodeling process

  9. Coronary Events and Anatomy After Arterial Switch Operation for Transposition of the Great Arteries: Detection by 16-Row Multislice Computed Tomography Angiography in Pediatric Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of multislice computed tomographic (MSCT) angiography as a noninvasive method for detecting ostial, proximal, and middle segment coronary stenosis or occlusion and anatomy in patients with transposition of the great arteries who had undergone arterial switch operation (ASO). Sixteen-detector-row MSCT angiography was performed in 16 patients treated with ASO for transposition of the great arteries. The median age was 10.3 years (range, 6.2-16.3 years). Sixteen-detector-row MSCT angiography was performed in 16 patients who had undergone ASO. CT imaging was performed in the craniocaudal direction from 2 cm above the carina up to the heart basis. Noninvasive assessment of coronary artery stenosis and anatomy were investigated by MSCT angiography. Two patients were excluded from the study because of artifacts. Of 14 evaluated patients, 1 patient had ostial stenosis (7.1%). A coronary artery anatomy variant was present in six patients: left main artery (LMA) and right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the right sinus as a single orifice (n = 2); left circumflex artery (LCX) originating from the RCA (n = 1); LMA and RCA, after branching to the LCX, originating separately from the right sinus (n = 1); and LMA (n = 1) and left anterior descending artery (LADA; n = 1) originating directly from the right sinus. Intramural bridging in the LAD (n = 2) was detected. Five patients were normal. In conclusion, MSCT angiography, as a noninvasive, feasible technique for assessing coronary stenosis or occlusion and anatomy, can be used in the follow-up of patients who have undergone ASO.

  10. 多层螺旋CT在先天性心脏病的应用现状%Application of multi-slice computed tomography in congenital heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈险峰; 马小静; 江帆; 李林

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart disease belongs to abnormal embryonic development of cardiovascular malformation. It has a lot of changes in pathology. So, it is very important to have a preoperative diagnosis before the operation. Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) can analyze illness comprehensive and provide significant proof for clinic. This article expounded the value and situation of it from the historical process of congenital heart disease, the way of check, the characteristic of diagnostic imaging and radiation dose. Clinical practice shows that the imaging advantage of MSCT apply to diagnose complex congenital heart disease. Meanwhile, we should use all kinds of technology to optimize scanning parameters, plan characteristic medical treatments and maximum lower the subjects' radiation dosage.%先天性心脏病属于胚胎发育异常的心血管畸形,其病理改变千差万别,术前诊断对手术治疗尤为重要;多层螺旋 CT 检查能全面分析疾病,为临床提供重要诊断依据。本文从多层螺旋CT检查复杂CHD的历史进程、检查方法、影像诊断特点、辐射剂量的控制四个方面阐述其应用现状。临床实践表明多层螺旋CT的成像优势适用于复杂CHD的诊断,同时应使用各种技术优化扫描参数,制订个性化检查方案,最大限度地降低受检者的辐射剂量。

  11. Multislice quantitative computed tomography allows early detection of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. To demonstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT) in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) alterations induced by an atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model. Materials and Methods. Male weanling Wistar rats (n =16) were divided by body weight (Wt) into 2 groups: control (C) and experimental (E), with no significant differences in the mean initial Wt (p>0.05). C was fed rodent stock diet ad libitum, and E an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks (3w). Zoometry (body weight and length) and diet intake (g/100g rat/day) were monitored. At 3 w in serum (mg/dL) lipidlipoprotein profile was studied: total cholesterol (t-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and MSQCT (Philips 64 CT, quantified with the eFilm Workstation 2.1) in seven mandibular areas (MA): n. 1 to 4: from chin to mandibular foramen, n. 5: coronoid process, n. 6: condylar process, n. 7: angular process. Statistics: Pearson's correlation between BMD in each MA and serum t-C. p0.05). Correlation coefficients (r) and their significance levels (p) were relevant in 5/7 MA. MA1:-0.580 (p=0.019), MA2:-0.709 (p=0.002), MA3:-0.635 (p=0.008), MA5:-0.674 (p=0.004), MA6:-0.564 (p=0.023). Conclusions. These results suggest that MS-QCT is an imaging diagnostic method that allows the early detection of mandible bone architecture alterations induced by an atherogenic diet. Inverse correlation between BMD and t-C would indicate an association between an atherogenic diet intake and potential temporomandibular disorders. (authors)

  12. Calcium Scoring of Aortic Valve Calcification in Aortic Valve Stenosis with a Multislice Computed Tomography Scanner: Non-enhanced versus Contrast-enhanced Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown a positive correlation between amount of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and degree of aortic valve stenosis (AVS). We have investigated whether calcium scoring of AVC from contrast-enhanced images is reliable. Material and Methods: Nineteen patients with suspected AVS underwent retrospectively ECG-gated multislice computed tomography (MSCT). Standardized scan protocols were applied prior to (120 KV, 133 mAseff) and after (120 KV, 500 mAseff) the administration of non-ionic contrast material. Image reconstruction was performed at 60% of the RR interval (slice thickness 3 mm, reconstruction increment 2 mm). AVC was quantified using Agatston score and calcium mass. The number of lesions was calculated. All non-enhanced images were scored using thresholds of 130 HU and 350 HU. Contrast-enhanced images were assessed with a threshold of 350 HU exclusively. Results: Fifteen patients with AVCs were included in the statistical analysis. The mean Agatston score (calcium mass) in non-enhanced images was 2888.4±2844.4 (694.2 mg±869.3 mg). Altering the threshold from 130 HU to 350 HU led to a 58.2% (30.5%) decrease in the AVC score ( P values <0.001). Contrast-enhanced images showed an increased Agatston score (calcium mass) of 56.2% (33.5%) compared to non-enhanced images ( P values <0.05) with the same threshold of 350 HU. Conclusion: Quantification of AVC from contrast-enhanced images is not reliable, as contrast material simulates calcification

  13. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Zhen, E-mail: leizhen2004@163.com [Department of Anatomy, Chinese Medical University, No. 92, Beiermalu Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China) and Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Ma Heji, E-mail: maheji9831@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xu Na, E-mail: xuna821230@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xi Huanjiu, E-mail: xihuanjiu2004@yahoo.cn [Anthropology Institute, Liaoning Medical College, No. 40, Sanduan, Songpo Rd, Jinzhou, 121001 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  14. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  15. Diagnostic Value of Multislice Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Retroperitoneal Spread of Testicular Cancer: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. (Dept. of Medical Physics, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus (Denmark)); Jurik, A.G. (Dept. of Radiology, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    2009-11-15

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignant disorder in men aged 15-35 years. Generally, diagnosing and follow-up include computer tomography (CT) examinations to detect possible retroperitoneal spread (abdomen and pelvis), resulting in at least eight CT examinations. This patient group is thereby exposed to a non-neglectable radiation dose, increasing the risk of future radiation-induced secondary cancer. This is especially problematic in potentially surgically cured patients with stage 1 testicular cancer. Thus, it can be beneficial to substitute CT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), provided there is valid evidence that the diagnostic value of MRI is at least comparable to current multislice CT (MSCT). The purpose of this study was to analyze whether there is evidence to recommend a substitution of MSCT with MRI in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer. A literature search on the diagnostic accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of MSCT and MRI in the diagnosis of retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer was performed in the following databases: PubMed, EmBase, and ISI Web of Science. The search was limited to include the period from 2000 to September 2008, and to human and English-language publications. Forty-four publications were obtained for formal review (27 from PubMed, 15 from EmBase, two from ISI Web of Science). None of the publications reviewed encompassed diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of MSCT, and they lacked systematic comparison of MSCT and MRI. Only one study included sensitivity and specificity of MRI compared to single-slice CT. Both methods had a sensitivity and a specificity of approximately 70%. The literature review did not reveal valid data regarding diagnostic accuracy of MRI compared with MSCT for diagnosing retroperitoneal spread of testicular cancer. A prospective blinded comparative study is needed to provide valid evidence

  16. Genetic association of glutathione peroxidase-1 with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes: a case control study with multi-slice computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Kei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although oxidative stress by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in diabetes has become evident, it remains unclear what genes, involved in redox balance, would determine susceptibility for development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of genetic polymorphism of enzymes producing or responsible for reducing ROS on coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods An index for coronary-arteriosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score (CACS was evaluated in 91 T2D patients using a multi-slice computed tomography. Patients were genotyped for ROS-scavenging enzymes, Glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1, Catalase, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, as well as SNPs of NADPH oxidase as ROS-promoting elements, genes related to onset of T2D (CAPN10, ADRB3, PPAR gamma, FATP4. Age, blood pressure, BMI, HbA1c, lipid and duration of diabetes were evaluated for a multivariate regression analysis. Results CACS with Pro/Leu genotype of the GPx-1 gene was significantly higher than in those with Pro/Pro (744 ± 1,291 vs. 245 ± 399, respectively, p = 0.006. In addition, genotype frequency of Pro/Leu in those with CACS ≥ 1000 was significantly higher than in those with CACS OR = 3.61, CI = 0.97–13.42; p = 0.045 when tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that CACS significantly correlated with GPx-1 genotypes and age. Conclusion The presence of Pro197Leu substitution of the GPx-1 gene may play a crucial role in determining genetic susceptibility to coronary-arteriosclerosis in T2D. The mechanism may be associated with a decreased ability to scavenge ROS with the variant GPx-1.

  17. Semiquantitative assessment of cardiovascular disease markers in multislice computed tomography of the chest: interobserver and intraobserver agreements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.C.; Prokop, M.; Oen, A.L.; Graaf, Y. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Mali, W.P.Th.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interobserver and intraobserver agreements for the semiquantitative assessment of markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease as identified by routine care, diagnostic computed tomography (CT) of the chest, to improve the quality of reporting of these incidental findi

  18. COMPARATIVE ROLE AND EVALUATION OF ULTRASOUND AND MULTISLICE COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN THE GRADING OF HEMOPERITONEUM IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE GRADING OF ORGAN INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunwarpal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: 1. To assess the role of Ultrasound (US and Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT in detecting hemoperitoneum in patients with acute blunt abdominal trauma. 2. To study the use of US and MSCT in grading of hemoperitoneum in blunt abdominal trauma patients. 3. To compare the US and MSCT grading of hemoperitoneum with the grading of organ injury. 4. To compare and statistically analyze the spectrum of findings observed in each modality. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted at advanced diagnostics and institute of imaging , Amritsar. The study comprised of 50 patients who were stable enough to undergo both US and CT scans.US was preceded by MSCT in most of the patients and the time gap between the imaging modalities was less than 1 hour to make the study comparable. TECHNIQUES ADOPTED : 1. US was performed on Versa plus (Siemens and Xario (Toshiba with Cardiac , 3.5 - 5 Mhz - Convex and 5 - 7.5 Mhz - Line ar probes. Particular attention was paid to the amount of free fluid in the abdomen and pelvis. 2. MSCT was performed with MSCT Volume Zoom (Siemens Forchheim Germany AG. 500 - 1000cc of water orally or through nasogastric tube was given 15 - 20 minutes before the study , followed by 120cc I/V contrast at the rate of 2 - 3ml/second using power injector. Parameters used: Single breath hold ; A. 165 mAs . B. 120 kvp . C. Scan delay - 40 seconds . D. Collimation - 4x2.5mm . E. Pitch - 5mm . Following findings were observed : a. Presence of peritoneal fluid. B. Any tear or hematoma in the solid abdominal organs like spleen and liver. C. Status of hollow viscera like small bowel , large bowel and urinary bladder. Hemoperitoneum was scored on both US and MSCT. Visceral injuries were graded according to O.I.S grading system. Score was correlated with the underlying organ injury and the management of the patient. US scoring (Table A and MSCT quantification of hemoperitoneum was done. (Table B Location of hemoperitoneum . A

  19. Incidental cardiac findings on computed tomography imaging of the thorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Gendi Hossam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of pulmonary pathology with computed tomography also allows visualisation of the heart and major vessels. We sought to explore whether clinically relevant cardiac pathology could be identified on computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPA requested for the exclusion of pulmonary embolism (PE. 100 consecutive CT contrast-enhanced pulmonary angiograms carried out for exclusion of PE at a single centre were assessed retrospectively by two cardiologists. Findings Evidence of PE was reported in 5% of scans. Incidental cardiac findings included: aortic wall calcification (54%, coronary calcification (46%, cardiomegaly (41%, atrial dilatation (18%, mitral annulus calcification (15%, right ventricular dilatation (11%, aortic dilatation (8% and right ventricular thrombus (1%. Apart from 3 (3% reports describing cardiomegaly, no other cardiac findings were described in radiologists' reports. Other reported pulmonary abnormalities included: lung nodules (14%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, pleural effusion (2%, lobar collapse/consolidation (8%, emphysema (6% and pleural calcification (4%. Conclusions CTPAs requested for the exclusion of PE have a high yield of cardiac abnormalities. Although these abnormalities may not have implications for acute clinical management, they may, nevertheless, be important in long-term care.

  20. Evaluation of early coronary graft patency after coronary artery bypass graft surgery using multislice computed tomography angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Raissi Kamal; Givtaj Nader; Abdi Seifollah; Motevali Marzieh; Noohi Fereidoun; Salari Farzad; Bassri Hosseinali; Haghjoo Majid

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the standard of care in the treatment of advanced coronary artery disease, and its long-term results are affected by the failure of bypass grafts. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the early patency rate in coronary bypass grafts. Methods A total of 107 consecutive patients who underwent CABG were included in this study. Early graft patency was evaluated via computed tomography (CT) angiography in the first week aft...

  1. Current role of cardiac and extra-cardiac pathologies in clinically indicated cardiac computed tomography with emphasis on status before pulmonary vein isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cardiac and significant extra-cardiac findings in clinical computed tomography of the heart in patients with atrial fibrillation before pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Materials and Methods: 224 patients (64 ± 10 years; male 63%) with atrial fibrillation were examined by cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT before PVI. Extra-cardiac findings were classified as 'significant' if they were recommended to additional diagnostics or therapy, and otherwise as 'non-significant'. Additionally, cardiac findings were documented in detail. Results: A total of 724 cardiac findings were identified in 203 patients (91% of patients). Additionally, a total of 619 extra-cardiac findings were identified in 179 patients (80% of patients). Among these extra-cardiac findings 196 (32%) were 'significant', and 423 (68%) were 'non-significant'. In 2 patients (1%) a previously unknown malignancy was detected (esophageal cancer and lung cancer, local stage, no metastasis). 203 additional imaging diagnostics followed to clarify the 'significant' findings (124 additional CT, costs 38,314.69 US dollars). Overall, there were 3.2 cardiac and 2.8 extra-cardiac findings per patient. Extra-cardiac findings appear significantly more frequently in patients over 60 years old, in smokers and in patients with a history of cardiac findings (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cardiac CT scans before PVI should be screened for extracardiac incidental findings that could have important clinical implications for each patient. (orig.)

  2. Computer-aided diagnosis workstation and telemedicine network system for chest diagnosis based on multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hitoshi; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kakinuma, Ryutaru; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    Mass screening based on multi-helical CT images requires a considerable number of images to be read. It is this time-consuming step that makes the use of helical CT for mass screening impractical at present. Moreover, the doctor who diagnoses a medical image is insufficient in Japan. To overcome these problems, we have provided diagnostic assistance methods to medical screening specialists by developing a lung cancer screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected lung cancers in helical CT images, a coronary artery calcification screening algorithm that automatically detects suspected coronary artery calcification and a vertebra body analysis algorithm for quantitative evaluation of osteoporosis likelihood by using helical CT scanner for the lung cancer mass screening. The functions to observe suspicious shadow in detail are provided in computer-aided diagnosis workstation with these screening algorithms. We also have developed the telemedicine network by using Web medical image conference system with the security improvement of images transmission, Biometric fingerprint authentication system and Biometric face authentication system. Biometric face authentication used on site of telemedicine makes "Encryption of file" and "Success in login" effective. As a result, patients' private information is protected. We can share the screen of Web medical image conference system from two or more web conference terminals at the same time. An opinion can be exchanged mutually by using a camera and a microphone that are connected with workstation. Based on these diagnostic assistance methods, we have developed a new computer-aided workstation and a new telemedicine network that can display suspected lesions three-dimensionally in a short time. The results of this study indicate that our radiological information system without film by using computer-aided diagnosis workstation and our telemedicine network system can increase diagnostic speed, diagnostic accuracy and

  3. Multi-slice CT (MSCT) in cardiac function imaging: threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstructions to determine the left ventricular ejection fraction in comparison to MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess MSCT of the heart to determining left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) based on threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstructions compared to MRI. Methods: Cardiac MSCT was performed in 7 patients. Images were reconstructed during end-systolic and end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle and transformed to 3D volumes to determine end-systolic (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV) by using different lower threshold values: besides fixed lower threshold values, identical for each image sequence, individual lower threshold values dependent on contrast enhancement of the left ventricle were applied. The latter represent the mean value calculated by combining the average CT-density of the myocardium and the contrast-enhanced blood in the left ventricle. The EF derived from ESV and EDV. Results: The best correlation with MR imaging was obtained for ESV and EDV by using the individual lower threshold values for the respective sequence. The correlation coefficient for ESV was 0.95 and for EDV it was 0.93. On average, the ESV was overestimated by 3.72 ml, while the ESD was underestimated by 2.85 ml. The respective standard deviation for the ESV was 14,87 ml, for the EDV it was 26.83 ml. On average, the EF was underestimated by 3.57% with a standard deviation of 9.43% and a correlation coefficient of 0.83 in comparison to MRI. Conclusion: The threshold-value-supported 3D volume reconstruction of the left ventricle represents a good method to determine the left ventricular function parameters. Due to the differences in the contrast enhancement, the use of an individual lower threshold value for every image sequence is of particular importance. (orig.)

  4. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  5. Preoperative cardiac computed tomography for demonstration of congenital cardiac septal defect in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Hye-Joung; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Lim, Tae-Hwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Hee; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Song, Jae-Kwan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiology and Heart Institute, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiac Imaging Center, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the role of preoperative cardiac computed tomography (CT) for adults with congenital cardiac septal defect (CSD). Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent preoperative CT and surgery for CSD were included. The diagnostic accuracy of CT and the concordance rate of the subtype classification of CSD were evaluated using surgical findings as the reference standard. Sixty-five patients without CSD who underwent cardiac valve surgery were used as a control group. An incremental value of CT over echocardiography was described retrospectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CT for diagnosis of CSD were 95 % and 100 %, respectively. The concordance rate of subtype classification was 91 % in CT and 92 % in echocardiography. The maximum size of the defect measured by CT correlated well with surgical measurement (r = 0.82), and the limit of agreement was -0.9 ± 7.42 mm. In comparison with echocardiography, CT was able to detect combined abnormalities in three cases, and exclusively provided correct subtype classification or clarified suspected abnormal findings found on echocardiography in seven cases. Cardiac CT can accurately demonstrates CSD in preoperative adult patients. CT may have an incremental role in preoperative planning, particularly in those with more complex anatomy. (orig.)

  6. Relationship between renal volume calculated by using multislice computed tomography and glomerular filtration rate calculated by using the Cockcroft-Gault and modification of diet in renal disease equations in living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Atoosa; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Shayganfar, Azin; Kamal, Sima; Azad, Roya; Aalinezhad, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to ascertain the state of health and renal function of potential kidney donors before organ removal. In this regard, one of the primary steps is to estimate the donor's glomerular filtration rate (GFR). For this purpose, the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) formulas has been used. However, these two formulas produce different results and finding new techniques with greater accuracy is required. Measuring the renal volume from computed tomography (CT) scan may be a valuable index to assess the renal function. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between renal volume and the GFR values in potential living kidney donors referred to the multislice imaging center at Alzahra Hospital during 2014. The study comprised 66 subjects whose GFR was calculated using the two aforementioned formulas. Their kidney volumes were measured by using 64-slice CT angiography and the correlation between renal volume and GFR values were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science software. There was no correlation between the volume of the left and right kidneys and the MDRD-based estimates of GFR (P = 0.772, r = 0.036, P = 0.251, r = 0.143, respectively). A direct linear correlation was found between the volume of the left and right kidneys and the CG-based GFR values (P = 0.001, r = 0.397, P kidney volume derived from multislice CT scan can help predict the GFR value in kidney donors with normal renal function. The limitations of our study include the small sample size and the medium resolution of 64-slice multislice scanners. Further studies with larger sample size and using higher resolution scanners are warranted to determine the accuracy of this method in potential kidney donors. PMID:27424682

  7. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of non-obstructive left main coronary artery plaques using 64-multislice computed tomography compared with intravascular ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yi; QIAN Ju-ying; WANG Ming-hui; LIU Yuan; LIU Xue-bo; GE Lei; MA Jian-ying; GE Jun-bo

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few reports of quantitative and qualitative measuring of left main coronary artery (LMCA) plaques by multislice computed tomography coronary angiography (MSCTA), especially when compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as reference standard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of 64-MSCTA in the diagnosis of LMCA disease, and the accuracy of MSCTA in the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the LMCA lesion as compared with IVUS.Methods A total of 91 patients (53 men, 38 women, mean age (64.78±9.19) years) were examined by 64-MSCTA and IVUS. Compared with the IVUS, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of the MSCTA on the diagnosis of LMCA diseases were calculated. Also, kappa index (K) for the agreement between MSCTA and IVUS was calculated. Minimal lumen area (MLA), external elastic membrane cross-sectional area (EEM-CSA) and plaque burden were measured by two blinded and independent operators on MSCTA cross-sectional reconstruction and compared with the parameters measured from IVUS by manually tracing. The CT value of soft, fibrous and calcific plaques was measured using IVUS classification of the plaques.Results The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of MSCTA for detecting LMCA plaques were 93.1%, 84.2%, 95.7%, 76.2%, respectively. Kappa index (K=0.744, P<0.001) indicated excellent agreement between MSCTA and IVUS. The Pearson index between MLA on IVUS and MLA on MSCTA was 0.815 (P <0.01). The Pearson index of plaque burden and EEM-CSA between IVUS and MSCTA was 0.736 and 0.740 respectively (both P <0.01). The CT value of soft plaque, fibrous plaque and calcific plaque compared with IVUS were (52.52±15.71) HU, (108.32±43.44) HU and (604.16±377.67) HU (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of CT value of non-calcific plaques for predicting soft plaques showed the cutpoint was 54.35 HU, with a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 94

  8. Multislice computed tomographic patterns of muscle bridging of left anterior descending artery and their relation to atheromatous coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To determine the frequency of atheromatous coronary artery disease in patients with myocardial bridge. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: AFIC/NIHD Rawalpindi from September 2010 to November 2010. Patients and Methods: Patients undergoing MSCT angiography for diagnosis of CAD having an abnormal finding were included. Patients with history of prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), coronary stenting and with chronic total occlusions were excluded. Computed Tomographic (CT) examinations were performed with a dual-source CT scanner. Scanning parameters: detector collimation, 2 x 32 x 0.6 mm; slice collimation, 2 x 64 x 0.6 mm; gantry rotation time, 330 milliseconds; tube current-time product, 350 m As per rotation and tube potential 120 kV. Reconstructions done and data transmitted to workstations and analyzed. Myocardial bridge (MB) was diagnosed and evaluated when an intramuscular segment of LAD artery was visualized on axial, volume rendered and multiplanar reformation (MPR) images. Results: Out of 232 patients 32% had MB. Males were three times more likely to have Myocardial bridge (MB). Mid and distal LAD showed 54% and 45% MBs respectively. Fourteen percent had evidence of atherosclerosis proximal to MB segment. Mean length and depth of MB segment was 18mm and 1.8mm respectively. Superficial type was most common (44%), followed by deep type (33%) while RV type was least common (23%). Conclusion: Frequency of patients with myocardial bridge having concomitant atheromatous coronary artery disease was 14%. (author)

  9. Prevalence of Coronary Artery Intramyocardial Course in a Large Population of Clinical Patients Detected by Multislice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Intramyocardial course, an inborn coronary anomaly, is defined as a segment of a major epicardial coronary artery that runs intramurally through the myocardium; in particular, we distinguish myocardial bridging, in which the vessel returns to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge, and intramyocardial course, which is described as a vessel running and ending in the myocardium. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries as defined by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 242 consecutive patients (211 men, 31 women; mean age 59±6 years) with atypical chest pain admitted to our hospital between December 2004 and September 2006. All MDCT examinations were performed using a 16-detector-row scanner (Aquilion 16 CFX; Toshiba Medical System, Tokyo, Japan). Patients with heart rate above 65 bpm received 50 mg atenolol orally for 3 days prior to the MDCT scan, or they increased their usual therapy with beta-blockers, in order to obtain a prescan heart rate <60 bpm. Curved multiplanar and 3D volume reconstructions were performed to explore coronary anatomy. Results: In 235 patients, the CT scan was successful and images were appropriate for evaluation. The prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries was 18.7% (47 cases) in our patient population. In 30 segments (63.8%), the vessels ran and ended in the myocardium. In the remaining 17 segments (36.2%), the vessels returned to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge. We found no difference in the prevalence of this inborn coronary anomaly when comparing different clinical characteristics of the study population (sex, age, body-mass index [BMI], etc.). The mean length of the subepicardial artery was 7 mm (range 5-12 mm), and the mean depth in the diastolic phase was 1.9 mm (range 1.2-2.3 mm). There was no significant difference of

  10. Prevalence of Coronary Artery Intramyocardial Course in a Large Population of Clinical Patients Detected by Multislice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, R.; Sacco, M.; Tedeschi, C.; Pepe, R.; Capogrosso, P.; Montemarano, E.; Rotondo, A.; Runza, G.; Midiri, M.; Cademartiri, F. (UO di Radiologia, Ospedale San Gennaro, Napoli (Italy))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Intramyocardial course, an inborn coronary anomaly, is defined as a segment of a major epicardial coronary artery that runs intramurally through the myocardium; in particular, we distinguish myocardial bridging, in which the vessel returns to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge, and intramyocardial course, which is described as a vessel running and ending in the myocardium. Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries as defined by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 242 consecutive patients (211 men, 31 women; mean age 59+-6 years) with atypical chest pain admitted to our hospital between December 2004 and September 2006. All MDCT examinations were performed using a 16-detector-row scanner (Aquilion 16 CFX; Toshiba Medical System, Tokyo, Japan). Patients with heart rate above 65 bpm received 50 mg atenolol orally for 3 days prior to the MDCT scan, or they increased their usual therapy with beta-blockers, in order to obtain a prescan heart rate <60 bpm. Curved multiplanar and 3D volume reconstructions were performed to explore coronary anatomy. Results: In 235 patients, the CT scan was successful and images were appropriate for evaluation. The prevalence of myocardial bridging and intramyocardial course of coronary arteries was 18.7% (47 cases) in our patient population. In 30 segments (63.8%), the vessels ran and ended in the myocardium. In the remaining 17 segments (36.2%), the vessels returned to an epicardial position after the muscle bridge. We found no difference in the prevalence of this inborn coronary anomaly when comparing different clinical characteristics of the study population (sex, age, body-mass index [BMI], etc.). The mean length of the subepicardial artery was 7 mm (range 5-12 mm), and the mean depth in the diastolic phase was 1.9 mm (range 1.2-2.3 mm). There was no significant difference of

  11. Assessment of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by ECG gated cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of ECG gated cardiac computed tomography (CT) in 12 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was examined. Six of the 12 patients had hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, including one patient with mid-ventricular obstruction. Three of the 12 patients had hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathy, and three had apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was confirmed by the angiocardiogram in all patients. Cardiac CT was performed after intravenous administration of contrast media usually given as a bolus injection. The gantry was set with positive 200 tilt angle. In all patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy except for mid-ventricular obstruction, the hypertrophied interventricular septum in the basal and mid portions was observed, and the left ventricular cavity was narrowed in systole. In a patient with mid-ventricular obstruction, the marked hypertrophied interventricular septum and antero-lateral papillary muscle were observed. In diastole, the left ventricular cavity was narrow and divided into two parts. The apical cavity was completely disappeared in systole. In all patients with hypertrophic non-obstructive cardiomyopathy, the diffuse hypertrophied interventricular septum was observed in diastole. In systole, the apical portion of the left ventricular cavity was markedly narrow and antero-lateral papillary muscle was hypertrophic. In all patients with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the marked apical hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall was observed in diastole. It is concluded that ECG gated cardiac CT could estimate myocardial wall motion and thickness and differentiate the types of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy each other. (author)

  12. Is Training Essential for Interpreting Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has gained increasing acceptance for diagnosing obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Several guidelines have been published on required education for proficiency in the interpretation of these examinations. Purpose: To describe the learning-curve effect of the interpretation of 100 consecutive cardiac CT examinations aimed at diagnosing CAD. The diagnostic accuracy of radiologists and radiographers was also compared. Material and Methods: Two radiologists and two radiographers, all with no prior experience in evaluation of cardiac CT, independently underwent a dedicated training program of 100 examinations randomized into 10 blocks (sessions), with 10 cases in each. They independently evaluated the coronary arteries regarding significant obstructive CAD. After every session, individual feedback on diagnostic accuracy and comparison with the corresponding invasive coronary angiography (currently regarded as the gold standard to detect coronary lesions) was given. The time required for interpretation was recorded. Results: The mean review time decreased (P<0.0001) successively during the 10 sessions for all the observers together. The first session had a mean review time of 32 min, and the last session 16 min. No significant improvement in sensitivity, specificity, or negative predictive value (NPV) was observed. For positive predictive value (PPV), there was an improvement for the radiologists (P<0.05), but not for the radiographers. The radiographers had a higher total specificity compared to the radiologists (P<0.01). Conclusion: The review time for novices in cardiac CT was approximately halved during the first 100 cases, with maintained accuracy. There was a learning-curve effect in PPV for the radiologists. The diagnostic accuracy of dedicated radiographers indicates that they might be considered to be included as part of the evaluation team

  13. Current role of cardiac and extra-cardiac pathologies in clinically indicated cardiac computed tomography with emphasis on status before pulmonary vein isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohns, J.M.; Lotz, J. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Goettingen (Germany); Menke, J.; Staab, W.; Fasshauer, M.; Kowallick, J.T.; Zwaka, P.A.; Schwarz, A. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Spiro, J. [Koeln University Hospital (Germany). Radiology; Bergau, L.; Unterberg-Buchwald, C. [Goettingen University Medical Center (Germany). Cardiology and Pneumology

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of cardiac and significant extra-cardiac findings in clinical computed tomography of the heart in patients with atrial fibrillation before pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). Materials and Methods: 224 patients (64 ± 10 years; male 63%) with atrial fibrillation were examined by cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT before PVI. Extra-cardiac findings were classified as 'significant' if they were recommended to additional diagnostics or therapy, and otherwise as 'non-significant'. Additionally, cardiac findings were documented in detail. Results: A total of 724 cardiac findings were identified in 203 patients (91% of patients). Additionally, a total of 619 extra-cardiac findings were identified in 179 patients (80% of patients). Among these extra-cardiac findings 196 (32%) were 'significant', and 423 (68%) were 'non-significant'. In 2 patients (1%) a previously unknown malignancy was detected (esophageal cancer and lung cancer, local stage, no metastasis). 203 additional imaging diagnostics followed to clarify the 'significant' findings (124 additional CT, costs 38,314.69 US dollars). Overall, there were 3.2 cardiac and 2.8 extra-cardiac findings per patient. Extra-cardiac findings appear significantly more frequently in patients over 60 years old, in smokers and in patients with a history of cardiac findings (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Cardiac CT scans before PVI should be screened for extracardiac incidental findings that could have important clinical implications for each patient. (orig.)

  14. Acquiring 4D thoracic CT scans using a multislice helical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory motion degrades anatomic position reproducibility during imaging, necessitates larger margins during radiotherapy planning and causes errors during radiation delivery. Computed tomography (CT) scans acquired synchronously with the respiratory signal can be used to reconstruct 4D CT scans, which can be employed for 4D treatment planning to explicitly account for respiratory motion. The aim of this research was to develop, test and clinically implement a method to acquire 4D thoracic CT scans using a multislice helical method. A commercial position-monitoring system used for respiratory-gated radiotherapy was interfaced with a third generation multislice scanner. 4D cardiac reconstruction methods were modified to allow 4D thoracic CT acquisition. The technique was tested on a phantom under different conditions: stationary, periodic motion and non-periodic motion. 4D CT was also implemented for a lung cancer patient with audio-visual breathing coaching. For all cases, 4D CT images were successfully acquired from eight discrete breathing phases, however, some limitations of the system in terms of respiration reproducibility and breathing period relative to scanner settings were evident. Lung mass for the 4D CT patient scan was reproducible to within 2.1% over the eight phases, though the lung volume changed by 20% between end inspiration and end expiration (870 cm3). 4D CT can be used for 4D radiotherapy, respiration-gated radiotherapy, 'slow' CT acquisition and tumour motion studies

  15. Dynamic cardiac volume imaging using area detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Herbert; Hoelzel, Arne; Stierstorfer, Karl; Rauscher, Annabella; Flohr, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    We present a reconstruction scheme for dynamic cardiac volume imaging using Area Detector Computed Tomography (CT) named Multi-Sector Cardiac Volume Reconstruction (MCVR) which is based on a 3D-backprojection of the Feldkamp-type. It is intended for circular scanning using area detectors covering the whole heart volume, but the method can easily be extended to cardiac spiral imaging using multi-slice CT. In cardiac imaging with multi-slice CT continuous data acquisition combined with the parallel recording of the patient's ECG enables retrospective gating of data segments for image reconstruction. Using consecutive heart cycles MCVR identifies complementary and time consistent projection data segments ECG. After a row by row parallel rebinning and temporal rebinning the projection data have to be filtered using conventional convolution kernels and finally reconstructed to image space using a 3D-backprojection. A dynamic anthropomorphic computer model of the human heart was developed in order to validate the MCVR approach. A 256-slice detector system with 0.5mm slice collimation was simulated operating in a circular scanning mode at a gantry rotation time of 330ms and compared to state-of-the-art 16-slice technology. At enddiastole the coronary anatomy can be visualized with excellent image quality. Although an area detector with large cone angling covering the entire heart volume was used no cone-artifacts could be observed. Using a 2-sector approach a nearly motion free 3D visualization of the heart chambers was obtained even at endsystole.

  16. Dynamic cardiac phantoms for use in computer software quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was initiated to obtain and implement a similar set of clinical dynamic cardiac studies (software phantoms) on different computer systems for the purpose of quality control of analysis software. Normal and abnormal gated blood pool studies were collected and transferred between six computer systems using serial transmission. Major impediments in attempting to analyse the transferred data files were incomplete or missing data records required for the calculations. Only the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) parameter could be analysed on all six computers. The LVEF results obtained for 10 software phantoms using the commercial software were similar in some phantoms but widely divergent in others. Development of software phantoms still requires improvement in data transfer between computers in order to ensure a complete file content in the transferred study, and a solution for the differences in acquisition protocols. In the meantime users can start to obtain their own set of standard studies illustrative of various clinical disorders, and share these with other users with the same computer type and analysis software. (author). 4 refs, 1 tab

  17. Communities unfolding in multislice networks

    CERN Document Server

    Carchiolo, Vincenza; Malgeri, Michele; Mangioni, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Discovering communities in complex networks helps to understand the behaviour of the network. Some works in this promising research area exist, but communities uncovering in time-dependent and/or multiplex networks has not deeply investigated yet. In this paper, we propose a communities detection approach for multislice networks based on modularity optimization. We first present a method to reduce the network size that still preserves modularity. Then we introduce an algorithm that approximates modularity optimization (as usually adopted) for multislice networks, thus finding communities. The network size reduction allows us to maintain acceptable performances without affecting the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  18. Multislice CT: technical principles and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice scanning has substantially improved the performance of CT scanners, and thus the relation between scan duration, available scan length, and spatial resolution along the patient axis (z-axis). Near-isotropic imaging of whole organ systems is already possible with 4-slice scanners, but only with 8- to 16-slice scanners can the scan duration be shortened as well. Reconstructing overlapping thin-section data (''secondary raw data set'') provides the basis for image reconstruction in any desired plane. By using thick multiplanar reformation (MPR) techniques, image quality can be improved while keeping patient dose low. Using unfavorable scanning parameters, exposure dose can be substantially increased compared with single-slice scanning, but thick MPR and individual-dose modulation techniques can provide the basis for dose reduction. Low-kVp scanning, in particular, is useful in children and slim adults and is an excellent technique to improve image contrast in CT angiographic studies. Short spiral scans should be avoided with multislice CT since overranging (extra rotations at the beginning and end of the scan, used for data interpolation) can substantially increase patient dose. Future trends include the introduction of thinner detector rows, wider detector arrays, faster tube rotation, and area detectors than can also be used for fluoroscopy. Noise-reduction techniques and individual dose modulation will gain importance with higher isotropic resolution. Functional and perfusion imaging, as well as advanced image processing and computer-aided diagnosis programs, will add to the possibilities of the next generation of multislice CT scanners. (orig.)

  19. A statistical dynamic cardiac atlas for the virtual physiological human: construction and application

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogendoorn, Corn??

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is centered on the construction of a cardiac atlas to serve as a common reference frame in the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH). The construction covers the entire construction pipeline, starting from a set of 3D+t multislice computed tomography images, then performing a spatial normalization of these images, segmentation of the synthesized mean image, multi-structure meshing, and finally mapping of the mesh back to the population of images. In addition, two applications are pres...

  20. Quantitative analysis of left ventricular strain using cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buss, Sebastian J., E-mail: sebastian.buss@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schulz, Felix; Mereles, Derliz [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hosch, Waldemar [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Galuschky, Christian; Schummers, Georg; Stapf, Daniel [TomTec Imaging Systems GmbH, Munich (Germany); Hofmann, Nina; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Hardt, Stefan E. [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Katus, Hugo A.; Korosoglou, Grigorios [Department of Cardiology, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether cardiac computed tomography (CCT) can determine left ventricular (LV) radial, circumferential and longitudinal myocardial deformation in comparison to two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with congestive heart failure. Background: Echocardiography allows for accurate assessment of strain with high temporal resolution. A reduced strain is associated with a poor prognosis in cardiomyopathies. However, strain imaging is limited in patients with poor echogenic windows, so that, in selected cases, tomographic imaging techniques may be preferable for the evaluation of myocardial deformation. Methods: Consecutive patients (n = 27) with congestive heart failure who underwent a clinically indicated ECG-gated contrast-enhanced 64-slice dual-source CCT for the evaluation of the cardiac veins prior to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) were included. All patients underwent additional echocardiography. LV radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rates were analyzed in identical midventricular short axis, 4-, 2- and 3-chamber views for both modalities using the same prototype software algorithm (feature tracking). Time for analysis was assessed for both modalities. Results: Close correlations were observed for both techniques regarding global strain (r = 0.93, r = 0.87 and r = 0.84 for radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). Similar trends were observed for regional radial, longitudinal and circumferential strain (r = 0.88, r = 0.84 and r = 0.94, respectively, p < 0.001 for all). The number of non-diagnostic myocardial segments was significantly higher with echocardiography than with CCT (9.6% versus 1.9%, p < 0.001). In addition, the required time for complete quantitative strain analysis was significantly shorter for CCT compared to echocardiography (877 ± 119 s per patient versus 1105 ± 258 s per patient, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of LV strain

  1. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear: experimental and clinical results of a standardised approach using multi-slice helical computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual endoscopy (VE) enables non-invasive 3D endoluminal imaging of the middle ear by post-processing of CT data. To optimise the clinical application a standardised approach was evaluated in normal and pathologic cases. Data acquisition was performed using multi-slice helical CT in 20 normal patients and 15 patients with malformation or trauma. Virtual endoscopy of the tympanic cavity and 3D images of the ossicles were generated using surface and volume rendering. Qualitative assessment of the representation of anatomical structures was performed in normal patients. In 15 pathological cases the diagnostic benefit was evaluated by comparing the 3D images to the 2D images and intra-operative findings. In all 35 cases 3D imaging was possible using the standardised approach. The ossicular chain as well as the bony and soft tissue structures of the tympanic cavity were visualised in 20 normal patients. In 7 of 8 patients with malformation and 1 of 7 patients with trauma the original diagnosis was changed by 3D imaging. Standardisation and evaluation of the method in normal patients is essential as it enhances the diagnostic reliability. Virtual endoscopy facilitates understanding of the complex anatomy of the middle ear. In cases of suspected malformation and confirmed trauma it is helpful for diagnosis and surgical planning. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic cardiac SPECT computer simulations for teboroxime kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of computer simulations was performed to examine the effect that each of seven factors have on the accuracy of the kinetic parameters (k21 and k12) of teboroxime (a 99mTc-labeled heart perfusion agent). The parameters k21 and k12 can be estimated using dynamic SPECT imaging and tracer kinetic modeling. The factors investigated were: (1) projection/reconstruction process of a time-varying tracer, (2) cardiac motion, (3) temporal resolution of the images, (4) attenuation effects, (5) emission statistics, (6) correlation of estimated parameters, and (7) decreased extraction fraction of teboroxime over time. The results showed that factors (3) and (6) affected only the %RMS error of the estimated parameters k21 and k12 and that the smallest error can be obtained by: using 5 second temporal resolution and selecting tissue ROIs which contain the least amount of intraventricular blood. Factors (2), (4), (5), and (7) significantly affected the accuracy of either k21 or k12 and efforts should be made in the future to either model or correct for these factors

  3. Computer-assisted diagnostic procedure for multislice computed tomography for assessment of the pulmonary arterial circulation. Clinical relevance; Computerassistiertes Diagnoseverfahren fuer die Mehrschichtcomputertomographie zur Beurteilung der pulmonalarteriellen Strombahn. Klinische Bedeutung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malich, A. [Suedharz-Krankenhaus Nordhausen, Institut fuer Radiologie, Nordhausen (Germany); Hentrich, D. [Radiologisches Zentrum Seesen, Seesen (Germany); Hansch, A.; Teichgraeber, U. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Zentrum fuer Radiologie, Jena (Germany); Boettcher, J. [Waldklinikum Gera, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Gera (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    A recently developed CAD software which highlights intravascular thrombotic structures from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) data was tested regarding feasibility, interobserver reliability and effect on radiology reports. The CAD system ImageChecker {sup registered} CT-Lung was tested in a randomized double-blinded study on 160 MSCT datasets (standardized technical conditions) performed for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The CAD data and images were analyzed by three radiologists in an independent and blinded fashion. The data from all 160 cases could be analyzed and 604 CAD prompts were set. Using the CAD analysis significantly more PEs were found in the peripheral pulmonary arterial circulation than described in the initial report. In 38 cases the 3 radiologists in consensus scored the images with the CAD adjunct as PE positive in peripheral vessels, which were initially reported as negative. Despite differences in the evaluation between two radiologists the amended assessment of the imaging data using the CAD softwear was reliable. There was a significant correlation between D-dimer values and the number of embolic structures detected by the CAD analysis. The recently developed CAD system is a useful adjunct as second reader to detect subtle emboli in peripheral vessels of MSCT datasets. (orig.) [German] Zur Detektion intravasaler Kontrastmittel(KM)-Aussparungen der Pulmonalarterien in der Mehrschichtcomputertomographie (MSCT) wurde ein CAD-System entwickelt, das bzgl. der Anwendbarkeit, des Vergleichs zur radiologischen Beurteilung und der Ermittlung eines moeglichen Effekts auf den befundenen Radiologen getestet wurde. Das CAD-System ImageChecker {sup registered} CT-Lung wurde in einer randomisierten, doppelblinden Studie zur Nachverarbeitung von 160 technisch einheitlichen CT-Angiographien (MSCT unter dem klinischen Verdacht einer Lungenembolie) genutzt und die CAD-Daten durch 3 Radiologen zueinander, und bzgl. des initialen Befundes geblindet

  4. Measurements of pericardial adipose tissue using contrast enhanced cardiac multidetector computed tomography—comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Lønborg, Jacob; Rasmussen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) located in close vicinity to the epicardial coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. PAT has primarily been measured with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) or with non......-contrast cardiac multidetector computered tomography (MDCT) images. The aim of this study was to validate contrast MDCT derived measures of total PAT volume by a comparison to CMRI. In 52 patients, aged 60 years (34-81 years), Body Mass Index 28 kg/m(2) (18-39), and with stable ischemic heart disease, paired MDCT...

  5. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J.; Norris, David G.; Poser, Benedikt A.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in‐plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal‐to‐noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some ...

  6. Value of Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography in demonstrating Ossicular Chain and diagnosis of Ossicular Destruction in Chronic Otomastoiditis%多层螺旋CT对中耳乳突炎骨质破坏的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宏; 赖清泉; 黄启明

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨多层螺旋CT对中耳乳突炎患者听骨链形态及骨质破坏情况的诊断价值。方法选取于2013年10月~2015年10月笔者所在医院就诊的中耳乳突炎患者40例中患耳48耳,采用多层螺旋CT以多平面重组技术及容积重建技术,对入选患者耳听骨链形态及骨质破坏情况进行扫描检查,评价多层螺旋CT诊断的准确性。结果正常组多平面重组技术及容积重建技术结果对锤骨柄、砧骨短脚、锤骨头、砧骨体及砧骨长脚检查结果无统计学差异(P>0.05),但对镫砧关节以及镫骨的状态观察多平面重组技术优于容积重建技术,结果具有统计学差异(P0.05), but the MPR technology was superior to volume rendering technique in showing the stapes and incudostapedial joint (P<0.05). The accuracy of multislice spiral computed tomography was 100%on the Fallopian canal, incus body and short crus, 94.4%on tympanic cavity walls, long crus of incus and stapes, and 88.8%on malleus in otomastoiditis with granulation;100%on tympanic cavity walls, Fallopian canal and all ossicles in simple otomastoiditis;and 100%on the incus and its long crus, malleus and Fallopian canal, 92.3%on short crus of incus and tympanic cavity walls, and 84.6%on the stapes in otomastoid-itis with cholesteatoma. Conclusion multislice spiral CT provides clear viewing of morphology of middle and inner ear bony structures and erosion in patients with otomastoiditis, and is valuable in distinguishing different types of otomastoid-itis. MPR technology and bulk reconstruction technique can show fine structure of the ear and is valuable in guiding ear sur-geries.

  7. Imaging pitfalls, normal anatomy, and anatomical variants that can simulate disease on cardiac imaging as demonstrated on multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in computed tomography have led to continuous improvement in cardiac imaging. Dedicated postprocessing capabilities, faster scan times, and cardiac gating methods reveal details of normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants that can mimic pathologic conditions. This article will review normal cardiac anatomy and variants that can mimic disease. Radiologists should be familiar with normal cardiac anatomy and anatomic variants to avoid misinterpretation of normal findings for pathologic processes

  8. Computer Modelling for Better Diagnosis and Therapy of Patients by Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Pluijmert, Marieke; Lumens, Joost; Potse, Mark; Delhaas, Tammo; Auricchio, Angelo; Prinzen, Frits W

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical or computer models have become increasingly popular in biomedical science. Although they are a simplification of reality, computer models are able to link a multitude of processes to each other. In the fields of cardiac physiology and cardiology, models can be used to describe the combined activity of all ion channels (electrical models) or contraction-related processes (mechanical models) in potentially millions of cardiac cells. Electromechanical models go one step further by c...

  9. 小儿腹部Burkitt淋巴瘤结外侵犯的MSCT表现%Multislice spiral computed tomography manifestations of extranodal involvement in pediatric abdominal Burkitt lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍爱华; 彭芸; 路娣; 程华; 于彤; 宋蕾; 刘玥; 温洋; 孙国强

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the multislice spiral CT (MSCT) manifestations of extra-nodal involvement in pediatric abdominal Burkitt lymphoma. Methods: The MSCT materials of pathology proved abdominal Burkitt lymphoma in 22 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Results : Multiple extranodal organs of abdomen and pelvis were frequently invloved in Burkitt lymphoma, including solid organs (n=8) and hollow organs of the gastrointestinal tract (n= 21). The imaging manifestations were mostly presented as homogeneous and mildly enhanced solid mass, but hemorrhage and necrosis were seldom assessed, calcification was rare. Diffuse omental thickening and ascites were frequently revealed with infiltration of distal ileum and multiple nodular lesions of pancreas as the most common. Conclusion : Multiple intra-abdominal and pelvic extranodal organs are commonly involved in pediatric abdominal Burkitt lymphoma with certain imaging characteristics.%目的:探讨儿童腹部Burkitt淋巴瘤结外侵犯的MSCT表现及其诊断价值.方法:回顾性分析本院22例经病理证实的Burkitt琳巴瘸的腹部MSCT资料,对其结外病变进行分类和影像学表现分析.结果:Burkitt淋巴瘤可侵犯腹盆腔的多个结外脏器,包括腹部实质脏嚣(8/22)和胃肠道(21/22).痛变多表现为轻度强化的密度均匀的实性肿物,出血、坏死少见,钙化罕见;常伴肠系膜及腹膜后多个肿大淋巴蛄、大网膜广泛增厚或腹腔积液,以回肠远端浸润型和胰腺多发结节型曩多见.结论:Burkitt淋巴瘤常同时侵犯腹盆腔多个结外脏嚣,儿童Burkitt淋巴瘤腹部结外侵犯的MSCT表现有一定特征性.

  10. SU-E-T-70: Commissioning a Multislice CT Scanner for X-Ray CT Polymer Gel Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To commission a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner for fast and reliable readout of radiation therapy (RT) dose distributions using CT polymer gel dosimetry (PGD). Methods: Commissioning was performed for a 16-slice CT scanner using images acquired through a 1L cylinder filled with water. Additional images were collected using a single slice machine for comparison purposes. The variability in CT number associated with the anode heel effect was evaluated and used to define a new slice-by-slice background image subtraction technique. Image quality was assessed for the multislice system by comparing image noise and uniformity to that of the single slice machine. The consistency in CT number across slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array was also evaluated. Finally, the variability in CT number due to increasing x-ray tube load was measured for the multislice scanner and compared to the tube load effects observed on the single slice machine. Results: Slice-by-slice background subtraction effectively removes the variability in CT number across images acquired simultaneously using the multislice scanner and is the recommended background subtraction method when using a multislice CT system. Image quality for the multislice machine was found to be comparable to that of the single slice scanner. Further study showed CT number was consistent across image slices acquired simultaneously using the multislice detector array for each detector configuration of the slice thickness examined. In addition, the multislice system was found to eliminate variations in CT number due to increasing x-ray tube load and reduce scanning time by a factor of 4 when compared to imaging a large volume using a single slice scanner. Conclusion: A multislice CT scanner has been commissioning for CT PGD, allowing images of an entire dose distribution to be acquired in a matter of minutes. Funding support provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering

  11. Evolution of Cardiac Biomodels from Computational to Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathinam, Alwin Kumar; Mokhtar, Raja Amin Raja

    2016-01-01

    Biomodeling the human anatomy in exact structure and size is an exciting field of medical science. Utilizing medical data from various medical imaging topography, the data of an anatomical structure can be extracted and converted into a three-dimensional virtual biomodel; thereafter a physical biomodel can be generated utilizing rapid prototyping machines. Here, we have reviewed the utilization of this technology and have provided some guidelines to develop biomodels of cardiac structures. Cardiac biomodels provide insights for cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists, and patients alike. Additionally, the technology may have future usability for tissue engineering, robotic surgery, or routine hospital usage as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Given the broad areas of application of cardiac biomodels, attention should be given to further research and development of their potential. PMID:27585205

  12. Benign cardiac tumours: cardiac CT and MRI imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Primary benign cardiac tumours are rarely found in clinical practice and are generally evaluated with echocardiography. However, with the increasing usage of helical multislice CT, the initial detection and evaluation of these masses may be made by the radiologist during routine daily practice for other indications. The echocardiographic, CT and cardiac MRI appearances of various benign cardiac tumours and masses are described and illustrated in this review

  13. Cardiac computed tomography in patients with acute coronary syndrome; Kardiale CT beim akuten Koronarsyndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlett, C.L. [Universitaetsklinikum, Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Alkadhi, H. [Universitaetsspital, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bamberg, F. [Universitaetsklinikum, Tuebingen (Germany). Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2014-09-15

    Currently, cardiac computed tomography (CT) is increasingly being implemented into clinical algorithms, primarily due to substantial technical advances over the last decade. Its use in the setting of suspected acute coronary syndrome is of particular relevance, given the high degree of accumulating scientific evidence of improving patient outcomes. Performing cardiac CT requires specific knowledge on the available scan acquisitions and patient preparation. Also, expertise is required in order to interpret the coronary and extra-coronary findings adequately. The present article provides an overview of the different aspects on the use of cardiac CT in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.

  14. Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Markus; Breuer, Felix; Koopmans, Peter J; Norris, David G; Poser, Benedikt A

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous multislice imaging (SMS) using parallel image reconstruction has rapidly advanced to become a major imaging technique. The primary benefit is an acceleration in data acquisition that is equal to the number of simultaneously excited slices. Unlike in-plane parallel imaging this can have only a marginal intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio penalty, and the full acceleration is attainable at fixed echo time, as is required for many echo planar imaging applications. Furthermore, for some implementations SMS techniques can reduce radiofrequency (RF) power deposition. In this review the current state of the art of SMS imaging is presented. In the Introduction, a historical overview is given of the history of SMS excitation in MRI. The following section on RF pulses gives both the theoretical background and practical application. The section on encoding and reconstruction shows how the collapsed multislice images can be disentangled by means of the transmitter pulse phase, gradient pulses, and most importantly using multichannel receiver coils. The relationship between classic parallel imaging techniques and SMS reconstruction methods is explored. The subsequent section describes the practical implementation, including the acquisition of reference data, and slice cross-talk. Published applications of SMS imaging are then reviewed, and the article concludes with an outlook and perspective of SMS imaging. PMID:26308571

  15. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, Carson A.; McClellan, James H. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Arepalli, Chesnal D. [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, 3350-950 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4E3 (Canada); Auffermann, William F.; Henry, Travis S. [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, 1364 Clifton Road Northeast, Suite 309, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Khosa, Faisal [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Division of Emergency Radiology, 550 Peachtree Street Northeast, Atlanta, Georgia 30308 (United States); Coy, Adam M. [School of Medicine, Emory University, 100 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Tridandapani, Srini, E-mail: stridan@emory.edu [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute, 1701 Uppergate Drive Northeast, Suite 5018, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 777 Atlantic Drive Northwest, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (P{sub AGG}) and IVS (P{sub IV} {sub S}) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (P{sub CT}). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for P{sub AGG} for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to P

  16. Characterization of cardiac quiescence from retrospective cardiac computed tomography using a correlation-based phase-to-phase deviation measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Accurate knowledge of cardiac quiescence is crucial to the performance of many cardiac imaging modalities, including computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA). To accurately quantify quiescence, a method for detecting the quiescent periods of the heart from retrospective cardiac computed tomography (CT) using a correlation-based, phase-to-phase deviation measure was developed. Methods: Retrospective cardiac CT data were obtained from 20 patients (11 male, 9 female, 33–74 yr) and the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, right coronary artery (RCA), and interventricular septum (IVS) were segmented for each phase using a semiautomated technique. Cardiac motion of individual coronary vessels as well as the IVS was calculated using phase-to-phase deviation. As an easily identifiable feature, the IVS was analyzed to assess how well it predicts vessel quiescence. Finally, the diagnostic quality of the reconstructed volumes from the quiescent phases determined using the deviation measure from the vessels in aggregate and the IVS was compared to that from quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner. Three board-certified radiologists, fellowship-trained in cardiothoracic imaging, graded the diagnostic quality of the reconstructions using a Likert response format: 1 = excellent, 2 = good, 3 = adequate, 4 = nondiagnostic. Results: Systolic and diastolic quiescent periods were identified for each subject from the vessel motion calculated using the phase-to-phase deviation measure. The motion of the IVS was found to be similar to the aggregate vessel (AGG) motion. The diagnostic quality of the coronary vessels for the quiescent phases calculated from the aggregate vessel (PAGG) and IVS (PIV S) deviation signal using the proposed methods was comparable to the quiescent phases calculated by the CT scanner (PCT). The one exception was the RCA, which improved for PAGG for 18 of the 20 subjects when compared to PCT (PCT = 2.48; PAGG = 2.07, p = 0

  17. Value of cardiac 320-multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with known chronic ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas Ali; Kühl, Jørgen T; Mathiasen, Anders B;

    2013-01-01

    The challenge for therapies targeting perfusion abnormalities is to identify and evaluate the region of interest. The aim of this study was to compare rest and stress myocardial perfusion measured by cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in...

  18. Rol de la TC multicorte en las hernias diafragmáticas: Ensayo iconográfico Role of Multislice Computed Tomography in the evaluation of diaphragmatic hernias: Pictorial essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Santamarina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las hernias diafragmáticas consisten en la migración de estructuras abdominales hacia el tórax a través de un defecto del diafragma. Ellas pueden tener origen congénito (de Morgagni y de Bochdalek o adquirido, incluyendo las traumáticas o no traumáticas (del hiato, defectos diafragmáticos posteriores. Debido a que en algunas hernias diafragmáticas está indicada la reparación quirúrgica, los métodos de diagnóstico por imágenes cumplen un rol fundamental. La TC multicorte, con su capacidad multiplanar y posibilidad de efectuar cortes finos, nos permite valorar y caracterizar adecuadamente el defecto diafragmático y sus complicaciones. En este ensayo iconográfico realizamos un breve repaso de la embriología y anatomía del diafragma, revisamos los distintos tipos de hernias diafragmáticas y la utilidad de la TC multicorte.Diaphragmatic hernias are characterized by the migration of abdominal structures into the chest through a diaphragmatic defect. These may have either a congenital etiology (e.g., Morgagni and Bochdalek, or an acquired etiology, including traumatic and nontraumatic hernias (hiatal, posterior diaphragmatic defects. Since a surgical repair is indicated in certain types of hernias, imaging diagnostic methods play a key role. Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT allows multiplanar views and thin section evaluation, thus providing a useful tool for the assessment and characterization of the diaphragmatic defect and its complications. In this pictorial essay we briefly review the diaphragm anatomy and embryology, the different types of diaphragmatic hernias and the role of MSCT.

  19. Functional Relevance of Coronary Artery Disease by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance and Cardiac Computed Tomography: Myocardial Perfusion and Fractional Flow Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Pontone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it is responsible for an increasing resource burden. The identification of patients at high risk for adverse events is crucial to select those who will receive the greatest benefit from revascularization. To this aim, several non-invasive functional imaging modalities are usually used as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography, but the diagnostic yield of elective invasive coronary angiography remains unfortunately low. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging by cardiac magnetic resonance (stress-CMR has emerged as an accurate technique for diagnosis and prognostic stratification of the patients with known or suspected CAD thanks to high spatial and temporal resolution, absence of ionizing radiation, and the multiparametric value including the assessment of cardiac anatomy, function, and viability. On the other side, cardiac computed tomography (CCT has emerged as unique technique providing coronary arteries anatomy and more recently, due to the introduction of stress-CCT and noninvasive fractional flow reserve (FFR-CT, functional relevance of CAD in a single shot scan. The current review evaluates the technical aspects and clinical experience of stress-CMR and CCT in the evaluation of functional relevance of CAD discussing the strength and weakness of each approach.

  20. Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging Guidelines for Cardiac Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korean Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (KOCSI) has issued a guideline for the use of cardiac CT imaging in order to assist clinicians and patients in providing adequate level of medical service. In order to establish a guideline founded on evidence based medicine, it was designed based on comprehensive data such as questionnaires conducted in international and domestic hospitals, intensive journal reviews, and with experts in cardiac radiology. The recommendations of this guideline should not be used as an absolute standard and medical professionals can always refer to methods non-adherent to this guideline when it is considered more reasonable and beneficial to an individual patient's medical situation. The guideline has its limitation and should be revised appropriately with the advancement medical equipment technology and public health care system. The guideline should not be served as a measure for standard of care. KOCSI strongly disapproves the use of the guideline to be used as the standard of expected practice in medical litigation processes.

  1. 64-multislice detector computed tomography coronary angiography as potential alternative to conventional coronary angiography: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdulla, Jawdat; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Gøtzsche, Ole;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multi-detector computed tomography coronary angiography (64-SCTA) compared with the standard reference conventional coronary angiography (CCA). METHODS AND RESULTS: Based on a systematic search, 27 studies including 1740 patients were eligible...

  2. Study of CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe detectors for medical multi-slices X-ray Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors to medical X-ray Computed Tomography have been investigated. Different electrodes (Au, Pt, In) have been deposited on CdZnTe HPBM and on CdTe:ClTHM. Their injection properties have been determined with Current-Voltage characteristics. Under X-ray in CT conditions, injection currents measurements reveal trapped carriers space-charges formation. The same way, the comparisons of the responses to X-beam cut-off with various injection possibilities enable to follow the space-charges evolutions and then to determine the predominant traps types. Nevertheless, both hole and electron traps are responsible for the memory effect e.g. the currents levels dependence with irradiation history. This effect is noticed in particular on responses to fast flux variations that simulate scanner's conditions. Trap levels probably corresponding to native defects are responsible for these limitations. In order to make such detectors suitable for X-ray Computed Tomography, significant progresses in CdTe for CdZnTe crystal growth with an important defects densities reduction (factor 10), or possibly counting mode operation, seem necessary. (author)

  3. Coronary artery pseudoaneurysm: closure with pericardium-covered stents, guided by cardiac computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Kjell; van der Zant, Friso M; de Swart, Johannes B R M; Knol, Remco J; Heestermans, Antonius A C M; Cornel, Jan H

    2013-08-01

    Coronary aneurysms are found in approximately 5% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. We describe a case of a coronary artery pseudoaneurysm. The use of cardiac computed tomography angiography is demonstrated in the planning and follow-up of a percutaneous closure of the pseudoaneurysm with pericardium-covered stents. PMID:23395278

  4. Imaging of the atria and cardiac conduction system – from experiment to computer modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Guoliang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Experimental mapping and computer modelling provide important platforms to study the fundamental mechanisms underlying normal and abnormal activation of the heart. However, accurate computer modelling requires detailed anatomical models and needs support and validation from experimental data. Aims: 1) Construction of detailed anatomical heart models with the cardiac conduction system (CCS). 2) Mapping of the electrical activation sequence in rabbit atria to support and validate co...

  5. Detection of malignant right coronary artery anomaly by multi-slice CT coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary artery anomalies occur in 0.3-0.8% of the population and infer a high risk for sudden cardiac death in young adults. Diagnosis is usually established during coronary angiography, which is hampered by poor spatial visualization. Magnetic resonance imaging is an alternative, but it is not feasible in the presence of metal objects or claustrophobia. In this report, a 15-year-old boy experienced ventricular fibrillation and was successfully resuscitated. Cardiac catheterization was inconclusive, and pacemaker implantation prohibited the use of MR imaging. Multi-slice CT coronary angiography revealed a malignant anomalous right coronary artery. (orig.)

  6. A study on optimal scan conditions of big bore multi-slice computed tomography based on radiation dose and image noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The newly introduced Big Bore computed tomography (CT) has a possibility to increase the tube current product scan time (mA s) for compensation of image degradation due to larger gentry opening without sound guideline. The objective of this paper is to derive optimal scan conditions for Big Bore CT scanner, mainly relating to the dose of diagnostic CT. The weighted CT dose index (CTDIw) was estimated at five typical protocols, such as head and neck, brain, paediatric, chest and abdomen. Noises were analysed in a circle of 1 or 2 cm of diameter in CT image slice. The results showed that measured CTDIw values generally follow the theoretical rule at all scanning conditions of every protocol. Although image noises decrease with increment of mA s, analysed image noises do follow the theoretical rule, but only in specific protocols. This phenomenon is presumed to result from the photon energy spectra arriving at the detection system of the Big Bore scanner. (authors)

  7. Tetralogy of Fallot Cardiac Function Evaluation and Intelligent Diagnosis Based on Dual-Source Computed Tomography Cardiac Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ken; Rongqian, Yang; Li, Lihua; Xie, Zi; Ou, Shanxing; Chen, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong

    2016-05-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common complex congenital heart disease (CHD) of the cyanotic type. Studies on ventricular functions have received an increasing amount of attention as the development of diagnosis and treatment technology for CHD continues to advance. Reasonable options for imaging examination and accurate assessment of preoperative and postoperative left ventricular functions of TOF patients are important in improving the cure rate of TOF radical operation, therapeutic evaluation, and judgment prognosis. Therefore, with the aid of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT), cardiac images with high temporal resolution and high definition, we measured the left ventricular time-volume curve using image data and calculating the left ventricular function parameters to conduct the preliminary evaluation on TOF patients. To comprehensively evaluate the cardiac function, the segmental ventricular wall function parameters were measured, and the measurement results were mapped to a bull's eye diagram to realize the standardization of segmental ventricular wall function evaluation. Finally, we introduced a new clustering method based on auto-regression model parameters and combined this method with Euclidean distance measurements to establish an intelligent diagnosis of TOF. The results of this experiment show that the TOF evaluation and the intelligent diagnostic methods proposed in this article are feasible. PMID:26496001

  8. Acute mediastinitis: multidetector computed tomography findings following cardiac surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Clarissa Aguiar de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Instituto do Coracao (InCor)]. E-mail: clarissaaguiarm@yahoo.com.br; Baena, Marcos Eduardo da Silva [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Ultrasonography; Uezumi, Kiyomi Kato [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Computed Tomography; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Unit of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz [Instituto do Coracao (InCor), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Diagnosis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). School of Medicine. Dept. of Radiology

    2008-07-15

    Postoperative mediastinitis is defined as an infection of the organs and tissues in the mediastinal space, with an incidence ranging between 0.4% and 5% of cases. This disease severity varies from infection of superficial tissues in the chest wall to fulminant mediastinitis with sternal involvement. Diagnostic criterion for postoperative detection of acute mediastinitis at computed tomography is the presence of fluid collections and gas in the mediastinal space, which might or might not be associated with peristernal abnormalities such as edema of soft tissues, separation of sternal segments with marginal bone resorption, sclerosis and osteomyelitis. Other associated findings include lymphadenomegaly, pulmonary consolidation and pleural/ pericardial effusion. Some of these findings, such as mediastinal gas and small fluid collections can be typically found in the absence of infection, early in the period following thoracic surgery where the effectiveness of computed tomography is limited. After approximately two weeks, computed tomography achieves almost 100% sensitivity and specificity. Patients with clinical suspicion of mediastinitis should be submitted to computed tomography for investigating the presence of fluid collections to identify the extent and nature of the disease. Multidetector computed tomography allows 3D images reconstruction, contributing particularly to the evaluation of the sternum. (author)

  9. Measurement of cardiac output by dynamic computed transmission tomography. Comparison with thermodilution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Yoshino, Futoshi; Ootani, Yukihiro; Kishimoto, Kinya; Takahashi, Ryuji

    1989-05-01

    The capacity of the new computed tomography (CT) instrument with excellent time resolution to measure cardiac output was explored. Dynamic scans of serial one-second images were performed at the middle section of left ventricle for 28 sec. We injected a bolus of 0.3 ml/kg angiografin for 2 sec or 0.4 ml/kg angiografin for 4 sec into the inferior vena cava. The regions of interest were set in the left ventricular cavity and thoracic aorta. Cardiac output was calculated by applying indicator dilution principles. The results were compared with those obtained by thermodilution. The CT results by using 2 sec 0.3 ml/kg angiografin correlated well (r=0.91, p<0.001) with those of thermodilution. This study indicates the utililty of dynamic CT for estimation of cardiac output. (author).

  10. Effect of calcified plaques on estimation of arterial stenosis of lower extremity in diabetic foot patients using multislice computed tomography angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the impacts of calcified plaques on estimation of arterial stenosis of lower extremity in diabetic foot patients using 16 -slice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA). Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients (representing 38 cases)underwent both MSCTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examinations. The arteries of lower extremity were divided into 15 anatomic segments, and the degree of artery stenosis in each segment was classified as normal, mildly, moderately. severely or occluded. The extent of calcification in each segment was also assessed on cross -sectional image of MDCTA and was classified as absent, mildly, moderately, or severely. Using DSA as the standard reference, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were calculated. Agreement between MSCTA and DSA was assessed by Cohen's kappa statistics. Results: In the noncalcified, mildly and moderately calcified segments of the artery above the knee, for the detection of segments that had more than mild stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were 97.1%, 98.7%, 98.2%, 95.8%, 97.0% and 98.7%, respectively. In the severely calcified segments of the artery above the knee, for the detection of segments that had more than mild stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were 96.3%, 93.8%, 94.7%, 90.1%, 89.7% and 97.8%, respectively. In the noncalcified, mildly and moderately calcified segments of the artery below the knee, for the detection of segments that had more than mild stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, Youden index, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MSCTA were 95.1%, 93.2%, 94.1%, 88.3%, 93.4% and 94.9%, respectively. In the severely calcified segments of the artery below the

  11. Analysis of cardiac images of radionuclide ventriculography in AT-Type personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this research was to produce software for the processing of Cardiac Phase images in personal computers. The results of standard radionuclide Ventriculography and Fourier analysis, got on gamma camera Ohio Nuclear 410 Sygma and Digital PDP 11/34 computer were coded into ASCII file and then transfered via Smarterm 220/Kermit to an Accel 900 AT PC. After decoding the images they were processed with a program develope in C Lenguaje obtaining the values of Phase Angles in the whole phase images and in regions of interest drawn around the cardiac chambers. The images and values were the same as those obtained by conventional processing in the PDP 11/34 computer. This is considered a first stage for the use of PC to Nuclear Medicine imaging studies. (author)

  12. Computational Chemical Imaging for Cardiovascular Pathology: Chemical Microscopic Imaging Accurately Determines Cardiac Transplant Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Saumya; Reddy, Vijaya B.; Bhargava, Rohit; Raman, Jaishankar

    2015-01-01

    Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a stain-less approach using an emerging technology, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging to identify different components of cardiac tissue by their chemical and molecular basis aided by computer recognition, rather than by visual examination using optical microscopy. We studied this technique in assessment of cardiac transplant rejection to evaluate efficacy in an example of complex cardiovascular pathology. We recorded data from human cardiac transplant patients’ biopsies, used a Bayesian classification protocol and developed a visualization scheme to observe chemical differences without the need of stains or human supervision. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we observed probabilities of detection greater than 95% for four out of five histological classes at 10% probability of false alarm at the cellular level while correctly identifying samples with the hallmarks of the immune response in all cases. The efficacy of manual examination can be significantly increased by observing the inherent biochemical changes in tissues, which enables us to achieve greater diagnostic confidence in an automated, label-free manner. We developed a computational pathology system that gives high contrast images and seems superior to traditional staining procedures. This study is a prelude to the development of real time in situ imaging systems, which can assist interventionists and surgeons actively during procedures. PMID:25932912

  13. Computational chemical imaging for cardiovascular pathology: chemical microscopic imaging accurately determines cardiac transplant rejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saumya Tiwari

    Full Text Available Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a stain-less approach using an emerging technology, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic imaging to identify different components of cardiac tissue by their chemical and molecular basis aided by computer recognition, rather than by visual examination using optical microscopy. We studied this technique in assessment of cardiac transplant rejection to evaluate efficacy in an example of complex cardiovascular pathology. We recorded data from human cardiac transplant patients' biopsies, used a Bayesian classification protocol and developed a visualization scheme to observe chemical differences without the need of stains or human supervision. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, we observed probabilities of detection greater than 95% for four out of five histological classes at 10% probability of false alarm at the cellular level while correctly identifying samples with the hallmarks of the immune response in all cases. The efficacy of manual examination can be significantly increased by observing the inherent biochemical changes in tissues, which enables us to achieve greater diagnostic confidence in an automated, label-free manner. We developed a computational pathology system that gives high contrast images and seems superior to traditional staining procedures. This study is a prelude to the development of real time in situ imaging systems, which can assist interventionists and surgeons actively during procedures.

  14. Analysis of Pulmonary Vein Antrums Motion with Cardiac Contraction Using Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guise, Jacques; Vu, Toni; Chartrand-Lefebvre, Carl; Blais, Danis; Lebeau, Martin; Nguyen, Nhu-Tram; Roberge, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine the extent of displacement of the pulmonary vein antrums resulting from the intrinsic motion of the heart using 4D cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT). Methods: Ten consecutive female patients were enrolled in this prospective planning study. In breath-hold, a contrast-injected cardiac 4-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) synchronized to the electrocardiogram was obtained using a prospective sequential acquisition method including the extreme phases of systole and diastole. Right and left atrial fibrillation target volumes (CTVR and CTVL) were defined, with each target volume containing the antral regions of the superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Four points of interest were used as surrogates for the right superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (RSPVA and RIPVA) and the left superior and inferior pulmonary vein antrum (LSPVA and LIPVA). On our 4D post-processing workstation (MIM Maestro™, MIM Software Inc.), maximum displacement of each point of interest from diastole to systole was measured in the mediolateral (ML), anteroposterior (AP), and superoinferior (SI) directions. Results: Median age of the enrolled patients was 60 years (range, 56-71 years). Within the CTVR, the mean displacements of the superior and inferior surrogates were 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.002), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 0 mm (p=0.00001), in the ML, AP, and SI directions, respectively. On the left, mean absolute displacements of the LSPVA vs. LIPVA were similar at 4 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.0008), 2 mm vs. 0 mm (p= 0.001), and 3 mm vs. 1 mm (p=0.00001) in the ML, AP, and SI directions. Conclusion: When isolated from breathing, cardiac contraction is associated with minimal inferior pulmonary veins motion and modest (1-6 mm) motion of the superior veins. Target deformation was thus of a magnitude similar or greater than target motion, limiting the potential gains of cardiac tracking. Optimal strategies for cardiac

  15. Evaluation of effective dose received by patients undergoing Cardiac Angiography Computed Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac Angiography is a field of studies that utilizes the energy of radiation to study the coronary arteries of the heart. Patients undergoing this procedure has a probability of receiving an over dose of radiation that may further cause stochastic effect. The main objective of this research is to compare and clarify an approach for minimal effective dose receive by patients between procedures of Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography (CT) and Conventional Angiography. Based on this study, the patients recorded are based in Hospital University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. The Dose-Length-Product (DLP) was extracted from the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI); meanwhile the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) was extracted from the modalities console screen. These relevant data are the means to clarify the effective dose receive by patients. The result shows that patients who undergo Conventional Angiography had a mean effective dose of 8.50 ± 6.41 mSv. Meanwhile, as for Cardiac Angiography Computerized Tomography, the patients had a mean effective dose of 7.08 ± 2.42 mSv. A significant difference in effective dose was seen between the two procedures. Cardiac Angiography CT provides high accurate diagnostic information with less radiation dose to patients compared to Conventional Angiography. (author)

  16. Evaluating Adamkiewicz artery and its origin with multislice computed tomography angiography%多层螺旋CT血管成像对大根髓动脉及其起源的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵新骞; 邢志珩; 吴迪; 孙昕; 万业达

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨多层螺旋CT 血管成像(MSCTA)显示大根髓动脉(AKA)及其起源的扫描方案和临床价值.资料与方法 回顾性分析我院2011年1月—2012年10月间行胸部MSCTA检查的50例病人资料,采用适当的扫描方案及多平面重组、曲面重组、容积再现等多种图像后处理技术多角度显示AKA及其起源,并确定其于主动脉开口的位置. 结果 50例病例中39例可见AKA显影,显示率为78%(39/50例),其中32例可见1支显影,7例可见2支同时显影,其显示率为14%(7/50例).显影的46支AKA中有35支能够连续、清晰地显示其走行和起源,其显示率为76%(35/46支). 其起源血管于主动脉壁开口位于脊柱左侧的有21支(21/35支,60%),位于脊柱右侧的有14支(14/35支,40%),开口对应脊柱水平的范围为T7~L1水平,最常见的为左侧T11水平的肋间动脉.结论 采用较高浓度对比剂、较快的注射速率、适当的CT阈值及延迟时间进行扫描,并应用多种重组方式,有利于提高AKA的显示率并对其起源精确定位,这对指导临床手术具有重要价值.%Objective To investigate the optimized scan and reconstruction methods of multislice computed tomography angiography (MSCTA) in identifying the Adamkiewicz arteries (AKA) and its origin, and to evaluate the clinical value of this technique. Materials and Methods We retrospectively studied clinical data from 50 patients, who underwent chest MSCTA in Tianjin Haihe Hospital between January, 2011 and October, 2012. Optimized scan protocol and multiple reconstruction methods like multiple planar reformation (MPR), curved planar reformation (CPR), volume rendering (VR) were used to detect the AKA. The visualization of the AKA, level and side of origin of AKA was investigated. Results The Adamkiewicz arteries were visualized in 39 of the 50 patients (78%). One AKA was found in 32 patients and two Adamkiewicz arteries were found in 7 patients (14%). 35 of 46 (76%)delineated

  17. 多层螺旋CT和超声心动图对中国人先天性心脏病诊断价值比较的Meta分析%Multislice Computed Tomography and Echocardiography in the Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease in Chinese Population: A Meta-Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昊陆; 叶清; 徐根兴; 薛松

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过Meta分析对目前诊断中国人先天性心脏病的主要影像学诊断方法(多层螺旋CT和超声心动图)进行对比研究.方法 采用文献查询、筛选及参考文献复习,对纳入文献进行质量评估,提取纳入研究的特征信息.分别对多层螺旋CT和超声心动图的研究数据分别加权定量合并.计算灵敏度、特异度及其95%可信区间.绘制两种检查的汇总受试者工作特征曲线.计算并比较曲线下面积.结果 共9篇文献符合纳入标准.研究对象共计1 303处先天性心脏病畸形.与超声心动图相比,多层螺旋CT的总灵敏度、总特异度和诊断心外畸形的灵敏度、特异度较高(P<0.01),受试者工作特征曲线下面积较大.诊断心内畸形时,超声心动图的灵敏度较高(P<0.01),受试者工作特征曲线下面积较大.结论 对中国人先天性心脏病,尤其是合并有心外畸形时,多层螺旋CT的诊断价值高于超声心动图.超声心动陶对心内畸形有较高的诊断价值.%Objective To perform a meta-analysis to evaluate multislice computed tomography (MSCT) and echocardiography (ECG) in the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in Chinese population.Methods Literature search and review were done.The characteristics of the included articles were appraised and extracted.The pooled weighted sensitivity and specificity for MSCT and ECG were calculated respectively.SROC curves of the two imaging methods were performed and two areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated and compared.Result 9 of 181 retrieved articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1 303 cardiac deformities.Totally and in detecting extracardiac anomalies, the pooled weighted sensitivities and specificities for MSCT were higher than that for ECG (P<0.01).The AUC of SROC for MSCT was larger.In intracardiac deformities, the pooled weighted sensitivities for ECG were higher than that for MSCT (P<0.01).The AUC of SROC for ECG was

  18. Optimal iodine staining of cardiac tissue for X-ray computed tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Butters

    Full Text Available X-ray computed tomography (XCT has been shown to be an effective imaging technique for a variety of materials. Due to the relatively low differential attenuation of X-rays in biological tissue, a high density contrast agent is often required to obtain optimal contrast. The contrast agent, iodine potassium iodide ([Formula: see text], has been used in several biological studies to augment the use of XCT scanning. Recently I2KI was used in XCT scans of animal hearts to study cardiac structure and to generate 3D anatomical computer models. However, to date there has been no thorough study into the optimal use of I2KI as a contrast agent in cardiac muscle with respect to the staining times required, which has been shown to impact significantly upon the quality of results. In this study we address this issue by systematically scanning samples at various stages of the staining process. To achieve this, mouse hearts were stained for up to 58 hours and scanned at regular intervals of 6-7 hours throughout this process. Optimal staining was found to depend upon the thickness of the tissue; a simple empirical exponential relationship was derived to allow calculation of the required staining time for cardiac samples of an arbitrary size.

  19. Petascale computation performance of lightweight multiscale cardiac models using hybrid programming models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models must use the power of high performance computing (HPC) systems to enable research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment. Previously we showed that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message passing processes (e.g. the message passing interface (MPI)) with multithreading (e.g. OpenMP, POSIX pthreads). The objective of this work is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a lightweight multiscale cardiac model. Our results show that the hybrid models do not perform favourably when compared to an implementation using only MPI which is in contrast to our results using complex physiological models. Thus, with regards to lightweight multiscale cardiac models, the user may not need to increase programming complexity by using a hybrid programming approach. However, considering that model complexity will increase as well as the HPC system size in both node count and number of cores per node, it is still foreseeable that we will achieve faster than real time multiscale cardiac simulations on these systems using hybrid programming models. PMID:22254341

  20. Assessment of bone segmentation quality of cone-beam CT versus multislice spiral CT: a pilot study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubele, M.; Maes, F.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Marchal, G.; Jacobs, R.; Suetens, P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the quality of jawbone models generated from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) by comparison with similar models obtained from multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three case studies were performed

  1. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in ischemic cardiomyopathy: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Boldrini Assunção

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ischemic cardiomyopathy is one of the major health problems worldwide, representing a significant part of mortality in the general population nowadays. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI and cardiac computed tomography (CCT are noninvasive imaging methods that serve as useful tools in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may also help in screening individuals with risk factors for developing this illness. Technological developments of CMRI and CCT have contributed to the rise of several clinical indications of these imaging methods complementarily to other investigation methods, particularly in cases where they are inconclusive. In terms of accuracy, CMRI and CCT are similar to the other imaging methods, with few absolute contraindications and minimal risks of adverse side-effects. This fact strengthens these methods as powerful and safe tools in the management of patients. The present study is aimed at describing the role played by CMRI and CCT in the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathies.

  2. Cardiac findings on non-gated chest computed tomography: A clinical and pictorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanza, Rene Epunza; Allard, Christian; Berube, Michel

    2016-02-01

    The use of chest computed tomography (CT) as an imaging test for the evaluation of thoracic pathology has significantly increased during the last four decades. Although cardiopulmonary diseases often overlap in their clinical manifestation, radiologists tend to overlook the heart while interpreting routine chest CT. Recent advances in CT technology have led to significant reduction of heart motion artefacts and now allow for the identification of several cardiac findings on chest CT even without electrocardiogram (ECG) gating. These observations range from simple curiosity to both benign and malignant discoveries, to life-threatening discoveries. We here present a clinical and radiologic review of common and less common cardiac findings discovered on non-gated chest CT in order to draw the attention of radiologists and referring physicians to these possibilities. PMID:26781150

  3. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in ischemic cardiomyopathy: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy is one of the major health problems worldwide, representing a significant part of mortality in the general population nowadays. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) are noninvasive imaging methods that serve as useful tools in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may also help in screening individuals with risk factors for developing this illness. Technological developments of CMRI and CCT have contributed to the rise of several clinical indications of these imaging methods complimentarily to other investigation methods, particularly in cases where they are inconclusive. In terms of accuracy, CMRI and CCT are similar to the other imaging methods, with few absolute contraindications and minimal risks of adverse side-effects. This fact strengthens these methods as powerful and safe tools in the management of patients. The present study is aimed at describing the role played by CMRI and CCT in the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathies. (author)

  4. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in ischemic cardiomyopathy: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Fernanda Boldrini; Oliveira, Diogo Costa Leandro de; Nacif, Marcelo Souto, E-mail: msnacif@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Souza, Vitor Frauches [Complexo Hospitalar de Niteroi (CHN), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    Ischemic cardiomyopathy is one of the major health problems worldwide, representing a significant part of mortality in the general population nowadays. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) are noninvasive imaging methods that serve as useful tools in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may also help in screening individuals with risk factors for developing this illness. Technological developments of CMRI and CCT have contributed to the rise of several clinical indications of these imaging methods complimentarily to other investigation methods, particularly in cases where they are inconclusive. In terms of accuracy, CMRI and CCT are similar to the other imaging methods, with few absolute contraindications and minimal risks of adverse side-effects. This fact strengthens these methods as powerful and safe tools in the management of patients. The present study is aimed at describing the role played by CMRI and CCT in the diagnosis of ischemic cardiomyopathies. (author)

  5. Multislice-CT of the abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zech, Christoph Johannes; Reiser, Maximilian F. (eds.) [Univ. Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Baron, Richard [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Bartolozzi, Carlo [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Oncology; Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Transplants and Advanced Technology

    2012-07-01

    This book provides a lucid summary of modern multislice CT imaging of the abdomen, with a focus on the essential imaging findings. After a concise technical introduction, the most important abdominal diseases are described and illustrated with high-quality images. Sections are devoted to the liver and biliary system, the pancreas and spleen, the kidneys and urogenital system, and the bowel and peritoneal cavity. Throughout, key differential diagnostic features are highlighted. The editorial team is composed of internationally renowned radiologists from Europe and the United States, and all chapters have been written by recognized experts in the topic under consideration. Multislice CT of the Abdomen will serve as an excellent reference for radiologists participating in further professional training and will prove an ideal source of information for all who wish to deepen their personal knowledge of the subject.

  6. Assessment of left atrial volume and function: a comparative study between echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging and multi slice computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, J Tobias; Lønborg, Jacob; Fuchs, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    dynamic LA volume changes. Conversely, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) appears more appropriate for such measures. We sought to determine the relationship between LA size assessed with TTE and LA size and function assessed with CMR and MSCT. Fifty......Measurement of left atrial (LA) maximal volume (LA(max)) using two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) provides prognostic information in several cardiac diseases. However, the relationship between LA(max) and LA function is poorly understood and TTE is less well suited for measuring...

  7. A comparison of bolus injection of landiolol versus oral administration of propranolol before cardiac computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Yamaji, Kyohei; Saho, Tatsunori; Matsuzaki, Zyousin; Yuda, Itsuo; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate (HR) reduction is essential to achieve good image quality for cardiac computed tomography (CCT). We evaluated the efficacy of a bolus injection of landiolol, an ultra-short acting β-blocker, without the administration of oral β-blocker to reduce HR prior to CCT. We enrolled 678 consecutive patients who underwent CCT from December 2011 to March 2012 and divided them into three groups, which were a propranolol group (n = 277), a low-dose landiolol group (n = 188), and a high-dose lan...

  8. Computer simulations to estimate organ doses from clinically validated cardiac, neuro, and pediatric protocols for multiple detector computed tomography scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Monica

    Recent advances in Computed Tomography (CT) technology, particularly that of multiple detector CT (MDCT) scanning, have provided increased utilization and more diverse clinical applications including more advanced vascular and cardiac exams, perfusion imaging, and screening exams. Notwithstanding the benefits to the patient undergoing a CT study, the fundamental concern in radiation protection is the minimization of the radiation exposure delivered as well as the implementation of structures to prevent inappropriate ordering and clinical use of these advanced studies. This research work developed a computational methodology for routine clinical use to assess patient organ doses from MDCT scanners. To support the methodology, a computer code (DXS-Diagnostic X-ray Spectra) was developed to accurately and conveniently generate x-ray spectra in the diagnostic energy range (45-140 keV). The two accepted standard radiation transport calculation methods namely, deterministic and Monte Carlo, have been preliminarily investigated for their capability and readiness to support the proposed goal of the work. Thorough tests demonstrated that the lack of appropriate discrete photon interaction coefficients in the aforementioned diagnostic energy range impedes the applicability of the deterministic approach to routine clinical use; improvements in the multigroup treatment may make it more viable. Thus, the open source Monte Carlo code, MCNP5, was adapted to appropriately model an MDCT scan. For this, a new method, entirely based on routine clinical CT measurements, was developed and validated to generate an "equivalent source and filtration" model that obviates the need of proprietary information for a given CT scanner. Computer simulations employing the Monte Carlo methodology and UF's tomographic human phantoms were performed to assess, compare, and optimize pediatric, cardiac and neuro-imaging protocols for the new 320-slice scanner at Shands/UF based on dose considerations

  9. Cardiac sarcoidosis evaluated with gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance and contrast-enhanced 64-slice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Jan-Peter; Truter, Rene; de Klerk, Petra A; Zaaiman, Leonie; White, Leonie; Doubell, Anton F

    2006-09-20

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology with symptomatic cardiac involvement in up to 7% of patients. The clinical features of sarcoid heart disease include congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, and sudden death. We evaluated the value of contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography in delineating myocardial scar and granulomatous inflammation by comparing our findings with gadolinium magnetic resonance in a patient diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis. PMID:16257460

  10. The Morphology of Left Atrial Appendage Lobes: A Novel Characteristic Naming Scheme Derived through Three-Dimensional Cardiac Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Beutler, David S.; GERKIN, RICHARD D; Akil I. Loli

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study used cardiac CT to identify and name the different shapes of individual left atrial appendage (LAA) lobes and identified correlations between the size and shape of the LAA ostium and the volume of the LAA in a population of normal individuals. Background: The anatomy of the LAA appendage has become the subject of current research, because appendage occlusion devices have emerged for patients with atrial fibrillation. The development of cardiac computed tomography (CT) a...

  11. Improvement of Efficiency and Flexibility in Multi-slice Helical CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wen-wu; CHEN Si-ping; ZHUANG Tian-ge

    2008-01-01

    One of the main aspects in computed tomography (CT) development is to make CT rapidly scan a large longitudinal volume with high z-axis resolution. The combination of helical scanning with multi-slice CT is a promising approach. Image reconstruction in multi-slice CT becomes, therefore, the major challenge. Known algorithms need to derive the complementary data or work only for certain range of pitches. A reconstruction algorithm was presented that works with the direct data as well as arbitrary pitches. Filter interpolation based on the proposed method was implemented easy. The results of computer simulations under kinds of conditions for four-slice CT were presented. The proposed method can obtain higher efficiency than the conventional method.

  12. Development and clinical study of mobile 12-lead electrocardiography based on cloud computing for cardiac emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideo; Uchimura, Yuji; Waki, Kayo; Omae, Koji; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    To improve emergency services for accurate diagnosis of cardiac emergency, we developed a low-cost new mobile electrocardiography system "Cloud Cardiology®" based upon cloud computing for prehospital diagnosis. This comprises a compact 12-lead ECG unit equipped with Bluetooth and Android Smartphone with an application for transmission. Cloud server enables us to share ECG simultaneously inside and outside the hospital. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness by conducting a clinical trial with historical comparison to evaluate this system in a rapid response car in the real emergency service settings. We found that this system has an ability to shorten the onset to balloon time of patients with acute myocardial infarction, resulting in better clinical outcome. Here we propose that cloud-computing based simultaneous data sharing could be powerful solution for emergency service for cardiology, along with its significant clinical outcome. PMID:23920851

  13. Cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function analysis with electron beam computed tomography in health Chinese people (50 cases report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively measure cardiovascular diameters and function parameters by using electron beam computed tomography, EBCT. Methods: Men 50 health Chinese people accepted EBCT common transverse and short-axis enhanced movie scan (27 men, 23 women, average age 47.7 years.). The transverse scan was used to measure the diameters of the ascending aorta, descending aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. The movie study was used to measure the left ventricular myocardium thickness and analysis global, sectional and segmental function of the right and left ventricles. Results: The cardiovascular diameters and cardiac functional parameters were calculated. The diameters and most functional parameters (end syspoble volume, syspole volume, ejection fraction, cardiac-output, cardiac index) of normal Chinese men were greater than those of women (P>0.05). However, the EDV and MyM(myocardium mass) of both ventricles were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: EBCT is a minimally invasive method for cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function evaluation

  14. An application of x-ray computed tomography for complex cardiac anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) was performed in two patients with complex congenital heart disease in order to assess the clinical utility in the systemic morphological diagnosis. A Somotom 2 whole body CT scanner (Siemens Co) was used, and contrast enhanced CT scannings and a dynamic CT scanning were performed in one case (Case 2).; Case 1: A 20-year-old female with double outlet right ventricle (S, D, L), pulmonary stenosis and aortic insufficiency. The CT revealed a visceroatrial situs, ventriculoarterial relation, spatial interrelationship between the great arteries and a run of the stenotic pulmonary artery. The CT clarified spatial relationship among four cardiac chambers, ventricular septal defect and great arteries, contributing to the understanding of the complex cardiac structure. Case 2: A 26-year-old female with single ventricle (III-C solitus), pulmonary stenosis, dextroversion, left superior vena cava and WPW syndrome. The CT documented precisely a visceroatrial situs, dextroversion, ventriculoarterial relation, spatial interrelationship between the great arteries, stenotic main and left pulmonary arteries and a dilated right pulmonary artery due to the right Blalock-Taussig operation performed 15 years before. A diagnosis of left superior vena cava could be made by CT, and its flow into coronary sinus was visualized by dynamic CT. The dynamic CT also clarified a mixing of venous and arterial blood in the common ventricle, and revealed a rudimentary ventricular septum. Thus, the CT serves useful purposes especially as examination of visceroatrial situs, ventriculoarterial relation and spatial interrelationship between great arteries, and anomalies of the mediastinal vessels. Furthermore the relationship among four cardiac chambers, ventricular septal defect, and the pattern of blood flow were also clarified. (J.P.N.)

  15. Integration of cardiac computed tomography into pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Detailed anatomic information of the left atrium is necessary for securely performing radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation-triggering ectopies in the pulmonary vein ostia. In this study the impact of a preinterventionally acquired cardiac computed tomography (CT) on pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was assessed. Materials and methods: Examinations of 54 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing PVI were analyzed. In 27 patients a supplementary cardiac CT was obtained prior to PVI (CT group, 12 women, 15 men, 59.7 ± 9.9 years of age): 16 x 1.5 mm collimation, 0.2 pitch, 120 kV tube voltage, 400 effective mAs. The fluoroscopy time, effective dose and quantity of radiofrequency (RF) pulses of the following catheter ablation were compared to 27 patients undergoing stand-alone PVI (11 women, 16 men, 62.0 ± 9.9 years of age). Mann-Whitney tests served for statistical comparison. Results: CT datasets were successfully integrated into the ablation procedure of each patient in the CT group. The mean quantity of RF pulses was significantly lower in the CT group (22.1 ± 8.0 vs. 29.1 ± 11.9, p = 0.030), and a significant reduction of fluoroscopy time was found (41.8 ± 12.0 min vs. 51.2 ± 16.0 min, p = 0.005). Effective doses of the catheter ablation differed in an equivalent dimension but altogether not significantly (14.9 ± 10.0 mSv vs. 20.0 ± 16.0 mSv, p = 0.203). The mean additive effective dose of the cardiac CT was 85 ± 0.3 mSv. (orig.)

  16. Quantification of mitral regurgitation on cardiac computed tomography: comparison with qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arnous, Samer

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To assess whether cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can quantify the severity of chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) compared to qualitative and quantitative echocardiographic parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cardiac computed tomographic angiography was performed in 23 patients (mean +\\/- SD age, 63 +\\/- 16 years; range, 24-86 years) with MR and 20 patients without MR (controls) as determined by transthoracic echocardiography. Multiphasic reconstructions (20 data sets reconstructed at 5% increments of the electrocardiographic gated R-R interval) were used to analyze the mitral valve. Using CCTA planimetry, 2 readers measured the regurgitant mitral orifice area (CCTA ROA) during systole. A qualitative echocardiographic assessment of severity of MR was made by visual assessment of the length of the regurgitant jet. Quantitative echocardiographic measurements included the vena contracta, proximal isovelocity surface area, regurgitant volume, and estimated regurgitant orifice (ERO). Comparisons were performed using the independent t test, and correlations were assessed using the Spearman rank test. RESULTS: All controls and the patients with MR were correctly identified by CCTA. For patients with mild, moderate, or severe MR, mean +\\/- SD EROs were 0.16 +\\/- 0.03, 0.31 +\\/- 0.08, and 0.52 +\\/- 0.03 cm(2) (P < 0.0001) compared with mean +\\/- SD CCTA ROAs 0.09 +\\/- 0.05, 0.30 +\\/- 0.04, and 0.97 +\\/- 0.26 cm(2) (P < 0.0001), respectively. When echocardiographic measurements were graded qualitatively as mild, moderate, or severe, strong correlations were seen with CCTA ROA (R = 0.89; P < 0.001). When echocardiographic measurements were graded quantitatively, the vena contracta and the ERO showed modest correlations with CCTA ROA (0.48 and 0.50; P < 0.05 for both). Neither the proximal isovelocity surface area nor the regurgitant volume demonstrated significant correlations with CCTA ROA. CONCLUSIONS: Single-source 64-slice CCTA provides a

  17. The role of multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography in imaging complications post-cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been numerous advances in the field of cardiac imaging. The advent of multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) and in particular electrocardiographic (ECG)-gated acquisition has revolutionized the investigation of the complete spectrum of complications of common cardiothoracic surgical procedures. Generic complications, such as mediastinitis, pericardial effusion, sternal osteomyelitis, and mediastinal fibrosis, are discussed with illustrative examples of multiplanar and volume-rendered three-dimensional reconstructions. Graft-related complications of both coronary artery bypass grafts and aortic root grafts are reviewed. The role of MDCT-CA in the investigation of prosthetic valve endocarditis and root abscesses is outlined. We present a complete illustration of the detailed images that are obtained when investigating a full range of graft-related complications from both aortic and coronary surgery using ECG-gated MDCT-CA. MDCT-CA has the potential to become established as the optimal technique with which to image a multitude of complications post-cardiac surgery

  18. Anomalous origin of coronary artery: the role of multislice CT Angiography: a case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabelo, Daniel Rocha; Barros, Marcio Vinicius Lins; Nunes, Maria do Carmo Pereira; Siqueira, Maria Helena Albernaz, E-mail: marciovlbarros@uol.com.br [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Anomalous origin of coronary arteries is a relatively rare entity and can present different clinical forms. Recently, CT angiography of the coronary arteries have demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and management of these anomalies. We present the case of a young female without significant comorbidities who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest, being revived by a team of customer service mobile emergency. After completion of multislice CT angiography of the coronary arteries was observed anomalous origin of left main coronary artery in the right coronary artery, no signs of extrinsic compression. Patient received a defibrillator and had an uneventful follow-up performed. Multislice CT angiography is minimally invasive diagnostic methods to detect the origin and trajectory of the coronary arteries, allowing an alternative to cardiac catheterization for evaluation of patients with anomalous origin of coronary arteries. (author)

  19. Anomalous origin of coronary artery: the role of multislice CT Angiography: a case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous origin of coronary arteries is a relatively rare entity and can present different clinical forms. Recently, CT angiography of the coronary arteries have demonstrated an important role in the diagnosis and management of these anomalies. We present the case of a young female without significant comorbidities who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest, being revived by a team of customer service mobile emergency. After completion of multislice CT angiography of the coronary arteries was observed anomalous origin of left main coronary artery in the right coronary artery, no signs of extrinsic compression. Patient received a defibrillator and had an uneventful follow-up performed. Multislice CT angiography is minimally invasive diagnostic methods to detect the origin and trajectory of the coronary arteries, allowing an alternative to cardiac catheterization for evaluation of patients with anomalous origin of coronary arteries. (author)

  20. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  1. Clinical Diagnostic Biomarkers from the Personalization of Computational Models of Cardiac Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamata, Pablo; Cookson, Andrew; Smith, Nic

    2016-01-01

    Computational modelling of the heart is rapidly advancing to the point of clinical utility. However, the difficulty of parameterizing and validating models from clinical data indicates that the routine application of truly predictive models remains a significant challenge. We argue there is significant value in an intermediate step towards prediction. This step is the use of biophysically based models to extract clinically useful information from existing patient data. Specifically in this paper we review methodologies for applying modelling frameworks for this goal in the areas of quantifying cardiac anatomy, estimating myocardial stiffness and optimizing measurements of coronary perfusion. Using these indicative examples of the general overarching approach, we finally discuss the value, ongoing challenges and future potential for applying biophysically based modelling in the clinical context. PMID:26399986

  2. Optimisation of post mortem cardiac computed tomography compared to optical coherence tomography and histopathology - Technical note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle; Leth, Peter Mygind; Thygesen, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Coronary atherosclerosis is a leading cause of mortality. New technological developments in computed tomography (CT), including dual energy, iterative reconstructions and high definition scanning, could significantly improve the non-invasive identification of atherosclerosis plaques....... Here, a new method for optimising cardiac coronary CT with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology is presented. Materials and methods: Twenty human hearts obtained from autopsies were used. A contrast agent that solidifies after cooling was injected into the coronary arteries. CT...... scanning was performed on the heart alone as well as with the heart in a chest phantom. We used eight different CT protocols and the newest CT technique to image every heart. The OCT and CT images were compared with their corresponding histological sections. A procedure for ensuring the correct alignment...

  3. Assessment of cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography performance using a scanning linear observer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chih-Jie; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Volokh, Lana [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); GE Healthcare, Haifa 39120 (Israel)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is widely used to detect myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction. It is important to assess and compare different SPECT system designs in order to achieve the highest detectability of cardiac defects. Methods: Whitaker et al.'s study ['Estimating random signal parameters from noisy images with nuisance parameters: linear and scanning-linear methods,' Opt. Express 16(11), 8150-8173 (2008)] on the scanning linear observer (SLO) shows that the SLO can be used to estimate the location and size of signals. One major advantage of the SLO is that it can be used with projection data rather than with reconstruction data. Thus, this observer model assesses the overall hardware performance independent of any reconstruction algorithm. In addition, the computation time of image quality studies is significantly reduced. In this study, three systems based on the design of the GE cadmium zinc telluride-based dedicated cardiac SPECT camera Discovery 530c were assessed. This design, which is officially named the Alcyone Technology: Discovery NM 530c, was commercialized in August, 2009. The three systems, GE27, GE19, and GE13, contain 27, 19, and 13 detectors, respectively. Clinically, a human heart can be virtually segmented into three coronary artery territories: the left-anterior descending artery, left-circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. One of the most important functions of a cardiac SPECT system is to produce images from which a radiologist can accurately predict in which territory the defect exists [http://www.asnc.org/media/PDFs/PPReporting081511.pdf, Guideline from American Society of Nuclear Cardiology]. A good estimation of the extent of the defect from the projection images is also very helpful for determining the seriousness of the myocardial ischemia. In this study, both the location and extent of defects were estimated by the SLO, and the system performance was assessed by

  4. Performance of hybrid programming models for multiscale cardiac simulations: preparing for petascale computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Bernard J; Fitch, Blake G; Pitman, Michael C; Rice, John J; Reumann, Matthias

    2011-10-01

    Future multiscale and multiphysics models that support research into human disease, translational medical science, and treatment can utilize the power of high-performance computing (HPC) systems. We anticipate that computationally efficient multiscale models will require the use of sophisticated hybrid programming models, mixing distributed message-passing processes [e.g., the message-passing interface (MPI)] with multithreading (e.g., OpenMP, Pthreads). The objective of this study is to compare the performance of such hybrid programming models when applied to the simulation of a realistic physiological multiscale model of the heart. Our results show that the hybrid models perform favorably when compared to an implementation using only the MPI and, furthermore, that OpenMP in combination with the MPI provides a satisfactory compromise between performance and code complexity. Having the ability to use threads within MPI processes enables the sophisticated use of all processor cores for both computation and communication phases. Considering that HPC systems in 2012 will have two orders of magnitude more cores than what was used in this study, we believe that faster than real-time multiscale cardiac simulations can be achieved on these systems. PMID:21768044

  5. Etiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest diagnosed via detailed examinations including perimortem computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Moriwaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The spectrum of the etiology of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA has not been established. We have performed perimortem computed tomography (CT during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Aims: To clarify the incidence of non-cardiac etiology (NCE, actual distribution of the causes of OHCPA via perimortem CT and its usefulness. Settings and Design: Population-based observational case series study. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 1846 consecutive OHCPA cases and divided them into two groups: 370 showing an obvious cause of OHCPA with NCE (trauma, neck hanging, terminal stage of malignancy, and gastrointestinal bleeding and others. Results: Of a total OHCPA, perimortem CT was performed in 57.5% and 62.5% were finally diagnosed as NCE: Acute aortic dissection (AAD 8.07%, pulmonary thrombo-embolization (PTE 1.46%, hypoxia due to pneumonia 5.25%, asthma and acute worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.06%, cerebrovascular disorder (CVD 4.48%, airway obstruction 7.64%, and submersion 5.63%. The rates of patients who survived to hospital discharge were 6-14% in patients with NCE. Out of the 1476 cases excluding obvious NCE of OHCPA, 66.3% underwent perimortem CT, 14.6% of cases without obvious NCE and 22.1% of cases with perimortem CT were confirmed as having some NCE. Conclusions: Of the total OHCPA the incidences of NCE was 62.5%; the leading etiologies were AAD, airway obstruction, submersion, hypoxia and CVD. The rates of cases converted from cardiac etiology to NCE using perimortem CT were 14.6% of cases without an obvious NCE.

  6. Simulation study of respiratory-induced errors in cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heart disease is a leading killer in Canada and positron emission tomography (PET) provides clinicians with in vivo metabolic information for diagnosing heart disease. Transmission data are usually acquired with 68Ge, although the advent of PET/CT scanners has made computed tomography (CT) an alternative option. The fast data acquisition of CT compared to PET may cause potential misregistration problems, leading to inaccurate attenuation correction (AC). Using Monte Carlo simulations and an anthropomorphic dynamic computer phantom, this study determines the magnitude and location of respiratory-induced errors in radioactivity uptake measured in cardiac PET/CT. A homogeneous tracer distribution in the heart was considered. The AC was based on (1) a time-averaged attenuation map (2) CT maps from a single phase of the respiratory cycle, and (3) CT maps phase matched to the emission data. Circumferential profiles of the heart uptake were compared and differences of up to 24% were found between the single-phase CT-AC method and the true phantom values. Simulation results were supported by a PET/CT canine study which showed differences of up to 10% in the heart uptake in the lung-heart boundary region when comparing 68Ge- to CT-based AC with the CT map acquired at end inhalation

  7. Direct cone-beam cardiac reconstruction algorithm with cardiac banding artifact correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice helical computed tomography (CT) is a promising noninvasive technique for coronary artery imaging. Various factors can cause inconsistencies in cardiac CT data, which can result in degraded image quality. These inconsistencies may be the result of the patient physiology (e.g., heart rate variations), the nature of the data (e.g., cone-angle), or the reconstruction algorithm itself. An algorithm which provides the best temporal resolution for each slice, for example, often provides suboptimal image quality for the entire volume since the cardiac temporal resolution (TRc) changes from slice to slice. Such variations in TRc can generate strong banding artifacts in multi-planar reconstruction images or three-dimensional images. Discontinuous heart walls and coronary arteries may compromise the accuracy of the diagnosis. A β-blocker is often used to reduce and stabilize patients' heart rate but cannot eliminate the variation. In order to obtain robust and optimal image quality, a software solution that increases the temporal resolution and decreases the effect of heart rate is highly desirable. This paper proposes an ECG-correlated direct cone-beam reconstruction algorithm (TCOT-EGR) with cardiac banding artifact correction (CBC) and disconnected projections redundancy compensation technique (DIRECT). First the theory and analytical model of the cardiac temporal resolution is outlined. Next, the performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated by using computer simulations as well as patient data. It will be shown that the proposed algorithms enhance the robustness of the image quality against inconsistencies by guaranteeing smooth transition of heart cycles used in reconstruction

  8. Computational modeling of voltage-gated Ca channels inhibition: identification of different effects on uterine and cardiac action potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Chiu eTong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The uterus and heart share the important physiological feature whereby contractile activation of the muscle tissue is regulated by the generation of periodic, spontaneous electrical action potentials (APs. Preterm birth arising from premature uterine contractions is a major complication of pregnancy and there remains a need to pursue avenues of research that facilitate the use of drugs, tocolytics, to limit these inappropriate contractions without deleterious actions on cardiac electrical excitation. A novel approach is to make use of mathematical models of uterine and cardiac APs, which incorporate many ionic currents contributing to the AP forms, and test the cell-specific responses to interventions. We have used three such models – of uterine smooth muscle cells (USMC, cardiac sinoatrial node cells (SAN and ventricular cells – to investigate the relative effects of reducing two important voltage-gated Ca currents – the L-type (ICaL and T-type (ICaT Ca currents. Reduction of ICaL (10% alone, or ICaT (40% alone, blunted USMC APs with little effect on ventricular APs and only mild effects on SAN activity. Larger reductions in either current further attenuated the USMC APs but with also greater effects on SAN APs. Encouragingly, a combination of ICaL and ICaT reduction did blunt USMC APs as intended with little detriment to APs of either cardiac cell type. Subsequent overlapping maps of ICaL and ICaT inhibition profiles from each model revealed a range of combined reductions of ICaL and ICaT over which an appreciable diminution of USMC APs could be achieved with no deleterious action on cardiac SAN or ventricular APs. This novel approach illustrates the potential for computational biology to inform us of possible uterine and cardiac cell-specific mechanisms. Incorporating such computational approaches in future studies directed at designing new, or repurposing existing, tocolytics will be beneficial for establishing a desired uterine

  9. Characteristics and diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography examination of gastrointestinal lipoma%胃肠道脂肪瘤的多排螺旋CT检查特征与诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑汉朋; 王晓阳; 藤陈迪; 许崇永; 郑祥武; 邱乾德

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics and diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) examination of gastrointestinal lipoma.Methods The cross-sectional study was adopted.The clinicopathological data of 96 patients with gastrointestinal lipoma including 32 from the Second Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University,30 from the First Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University,17 from the Ruian People's Hospital of Zhejiang,11 from the Yueqing People's Hospital,3 from the Wenzhou Central Hospital and 3 from the Wenzhou People's Hospital from December 2006 to September 2015 were collected.All patients were fasted for 8 hours prior to the examination,and partial patients underwent enhanced scan after the conventional CT scanning with breathless scanning and no abdominal pressure.Coronal and sagittal images of gastrointestinal tract including the tumor were administrated with multiple planar reconstruction (MPR)techniques of Reformat software.Based on MPR images,the curves along the gastrointestinal tract were drawn,voxel distributed along the curve track were reconstructed,and curved planar reconstruction (CPR) images were obtained.The patients received operation or follow-up according to individual characteristics after examinations.The patients undergoing operation were followed up for detecting tumor recurrence and metastasis by CT examination and patients receiving follow-up were observed by endoscopy for detecting changes of tumor size and morphology up to June 2015.The analysis indexes included tumor location and size,performance of MSCT examination (tumor shape,density,margin,intussusceptions,enhanced MSCT examination),intraoperative findings,results of pathological examination and results of follow-up.Measurement data with normal distribution were presented as i ± s.Results All the 96 patients received MSCT plain scan and the 42 received enhanced MSCT scan.The CPR images in 30 patients were collected.(1) Tumor location

  10. Towards Real-Time Computation of Cardiac Electrophysiology for Training Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Hugo; Duriez, Christian; Courtecuisse, Hadrien; Relan, Jatin; Sermesant, Maxime; Cotin, Stéphane; Delingette, Hervé

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at developing a training simulator for interventional radiology and thermo-ablation of cardiac arrhythmias. To achieve this, a real-time model of the cardiac electrophysiology is needed, which is very challenging due to the stiff equations involved. In this paper, we detail our contributions in order to obtain efficient cardiac electrophysiology simulations. First, an adaptive parametrisation of the Mitchell-Schaeffer model as well as numerical optimizations are proposed. An ac...

  11. Fibroblast proliferation alters cardiac excitation conduction and contraction: a computational study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, He-qing; Xia, Ling; Shou, Guo-fa; Zang, Yun-liang; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of cardiac fibroblast proliferation on cardiac electric excitation conduction and mechanical contraction were investigated using a proposed integrated myocardial-fibroblastic electromechanical model. At the cellular level, models of the human ventricular myocyte and fibroblast were modified to incorporate a model of cardiac mechanical contraction and cooperativity mechanisms. Cellular electromechanical coupling was realized with a calcium buffer. At the tissue level...

  12. Simulation of cardiac electrophysiology on next-generation high-performance computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordas, Rafel; Carpentieri, Bruno; Fotia, Giorgio; Maggio, Fabio; Nobes, Ross; Pitt-Francis, Joe; Southern, James

    2009-05-28

    Models of cardiac electrophysiology consist of a system of partial differential equations (PDEs) coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations representing cell membrane dynamics. Current software to solve such models does not provide the required computational speed for practical applications. One reason for this is that little use is made of recent developments in adaptive numerical algorithms for solving systems of PDEs. Studies have suggested that a speedup of up to two orders of magnitude is possible by using adaptive methods. The challenge lies in the efficient implementation of adaptive algorithms on massively parallel computers. The finite-element (FE) method is often used in heart simulators as it can encapsulate the complex geometry and small-scale details of the human heart. An alternative is the spectral element (SE) method, a high-order technique that provides the flexibility and accuracy of FE, but with a reduced number of degrees of freedom. The feasibility of implementing a parallel SE algorithm based on fully unstructured all-hexahedra meshes is discussed. A major computational task is solution of the large algebraic system resulting from FE or SE discretization. Choice of linear solver and preconditioner has a substantial effect on efficiency. A fully parallel implementation based on dynamic partitioning that accounts for load balance, communication and data movement costs is required. Each of these methods must be implemented on next-generation supercomputers in order to realize the necessary speedup. The problems that this may cause, and some of the techniques that are beginning to be developed to overcome these issues, are described. PMID:19380320

  13. Virtual colonoscopy by multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of VC with MSCT and to determine the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of this method in comparison with conventional colonoscopy (CC). Method and Materials: Thirty patients were studied with MSCT and CC. CTs were performed with a multislice CT scanner, with slices of 2,5 mm thickness, 1,3 mm reconstruction interval, 50 mAs, 120 Kv. The mean acquisition time was 25 seconds. Findings were divided in normal and pathologic. The latter was subdivided according to the diameter of the lesions: 2a) 9 mm. Results: The Se and Sp was in 2a) 82% and 78%; in 2b) 100% and 93%; and in 2c) 100% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: VC with MSCT showed high Se and Sp for the detection of elevated lesions. Its fast way of acquisition allows better patient tolerance and better resolution without respiratory artifacts. (author)

  14. Establishment of computed tomography reference dose levels in Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study was to apply European Commission (EC) Reference Dose Levels (RDL) in Computed Tomography (CT) examinations at Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center (OCSC). These are weighted CT Dose Index (CTDIw ) for a single slice and Dose-Length Product (DLP) for a complete examination. During the period 1998-1999, the total number of CT examinations, every type of CT examination, patient related data and technical parameters of the examinations were recorded. The most frequent examinations were chosen for investigation which were the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis. CTDI measurements were performed and CTDIw and DLP were calculated. Third Quartile values of CTDIw were chosen to be 43mGy for head, 8mGy for chest, and 22mGy for abdomen and pelvis examinations. Third quartile values of DLP were chosen to be 740mGycm for head, 370mGycm for chest, 490mGycm for abdomen and 420mGycm for pelvis examination. Results confirm that OCSC follows successfully the proposed RDL for the head, chest, abdomen and pelvis examinations in terms of radiation dose. (author)

  15. Computational modeling of cardiac optogenetics: Methodology overview & review of findings from simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patrick M; Karathanos, Thomas V; Entcheva, Emilia; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2015-10-01

    Cardiac optogenetics is emerging as an exciting new potential avenue to enable spatiotemporally precise control of excitable cells and tissue in the heart with low-energy optical stimuli. This approach involves the expression of exogenous light-sensitive proteins (opsins) in target heart tissue via viral gene or cell delivery. Preliminary experiments in optogenetically-modified cells, tissue, and organisms have made great strides towards demonstrating the feasibility of basic applications, including the use of light stimuli to pace or disrupt reentrant activity. However, it remains unknown whether techniques based on this intriguing technology could be scaled up and used in humans for novel clinical applications, such as pain-free optical defibrillation or dynamic modulation of action potential shape. A key step towards answering such questions is to explore potential optogenetics-based therapies using sophisticated computer simulation tools capable of realistically representing opsin delivery and light stimulation in biophysically detailed, patient-specific models of the human heart. This review provides (1) a detailed overview of the methodological developments necessary to represent optogenetics-based solutions in existing virtual heart platforms and (2) a survey of findings that have been derived from such simulations and a critical assessment of their significance with respect to the progress of the field. PMID:26002074

  16. Thermal dilution measurement of cardiac output in dogs using an analog computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, F F; Schipperheyn, J J; Quanjer, P H

    1978-01-01

    Thermal dilution cardiac output determinations in dogs were compared to simultaneously performed Fick oxygen measurements. The purpose of this study was to validate in dog experiments a method for thermal dilution measurement which employs a double-thermistor catheter combined with an automatic computer as described by Olsson et al. Dilution and injectate temperature are entered directly into the calculation. The method does not employ logarithmic extrapolation, integration of the dilution signal being terminated when a preset cut-off level is reached. Errors due to recirculation, thermal capacitance of the right heart and heat exchange with the catheter's dead space require the use of an empirically derived correction factor, which in dogs was found to be significantly different from the factor used for human thermal dilution curves. With the appropriate cut-off level and correction factor a good agreement was found between the results of the thermal dilution and the Fick method. The regression equation for 47 experiments was found to be COtd = 0.95 COFick + 0.08; the correlation coefficient was 0.94. PMID:728031

  17. 64. The prevalence of coronary artery anomalies in Qassim province detected by cardiac computed tomography angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. smettei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs affect about 1% of the general population based on invasive coronary angiography (ICA data, computed tomography angiography (CTA enables better visualization of the origin, course, relation to the adjacent structures, and termination of CAAs compared to ICA. The aim of our work is to estimate the frequency of CAAs in Qassim province among patients underwent cardiac CTA at PSCCQ. Retrospective analysis of the CTA data of 2235 patients between 2009 and 2015. The prevalence of CAAs in our study was 1.029%. Among the 2235 patients, 241 (10.78% had CAAs or coronary variants, 198 (8.85% had myocardial bridging, 34 (1.52% had a variable location of the Coronary Ostia, Twenty two (0.98% had a separate origin of left anterior descending (LAD and left circumflex coronary (LCX arteries, ten (0.447% had a separate origin of the RCA and the Conus artery. Seventeen (0.76% had an anomalous origin of the coronaries. Six (0.268% had a coronary artery fistula, which is connected mainly to the right heart chambers, one of these fistulas was complicated by acute myocardial infarction. The incidence of CAAs in our patient population was similar to the former studies, CTA is an excellent tool for diagnosis and guiding the management of the CAAs.

  18. Optimization of pediatric examinations in a multislice helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological protection of pediatric patients undergoing medical imaging procedures involving ionizing radiation has always received special attention. This is due to the fact that children have higher radiation sensitivity and increased likelihood for radiation-induced cancer manifesting in many more years of their life than adults. In computed tomography (CT), such attention is more important because of the potential of relatively higher radiation doses during these procedures. Such high doses are possible with technological developments where volume scanning using faster multi-slice CT systems is now preferred to conventional CT equipment. The task of this study is to assess the optimization of paediatric doses in multi-slice CT examinations. It was carried out in Alrebat University Hospital for 31 pediatric patients, 43 examinations (27 head examination and 16 body (chest, abdomen and pelvis) examinations). Data were collected for scan parameters (kV, m As, pitch, scan length, number of slices and slice thickness) and doses displayed in monitor (CTDIvol and DLP) for head examinations and body (chest, abdomen and pelvis) examinations. For head CT, displayed CTDIvol ranged from 1.56 to 69.12 mGy, calculated value from 2.10 to 70.93 mGy. Displayed DLP ranged from 53 to 1817 mGy.cm, calculated from 95.30 to 1532.16 mGy. cm. For body examination, the range of displayed CTDI from 1.63 to 3.92 mGy, calculated value from 2.22 to 5.34 mGy. Displayed DLP ranged from 34 to 194 mGy.cm, for calculated from 45.89 to 161.98 mGy. cm. The calculated values are in agreement with reference study dose values although there are some high values in this study for some examinations, this variation or difference may attribute to variation in pediatric ages (9 days- 15 years), scan length and m As values. There is variation between calculated and displayed values. more optimization for CT doses is needed. (Author)

  19. Anatomical reconstructions of the human cardiac venous system using contrast-computed tomography of perfusion-fixed specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Julianne; Fitch, Emily; Iaizzo, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of the complexity and relative variability within the human cardiac venous system is crucial for the development of cardiac devices that require access to these vessels. For example, cardiac venous anatomy is known to be one of the key limitations for the proper delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)(1) Therefore, the development of a database of anatomical parameters for human cardiac venous systems can aid in the design of CRT delivery devices to overcome such a limitation. In this research project, the anatomical parameters were obtained from 3D reconstructions of the venous system using contrast-computed tomography (CT) imaging and modeling software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The following parameters were assessed for each vein: arc length, tortuousity, branching angle, distance to the coronary sinus ostium, and vessel diameter. CRT is a potential treatment for patients with electromechanical dyssynchrony. Approximately 10-20% of heart failure patients may benefit from CRT(2). Electromechanical dyssynchrony implies that parts of the myocardium activate and contract earlier or later than the normal conduction pathway of the heart. In CRT, dyssynchronous areas of the myocardium are treated with electrical stimulation. CRT pacing typically involves pacing leads that stimulate the right atrium (RA), right ventricle (RV), and left ventricle (LV) to produce more resynchronized rhythms. The LV lead is typically implanted within a cardiac vein, with the aim to overlay it within the site of latest myocardial activation. We believe that the models obtained and the analyses thereof will promote the anatomical education for patients, students, clinicians, and medical device designers. The methodologies employed here can also be utilized to study other anatomical features of our human heart specimens, such as the coronary arteries. To further encourage the educational value of this research, we have shared the venous models on our

  20. Impact of Cardiac Computed Tomographic Angiography Findings on Planning of Cancer Therapy in Patients with Concomitant Structural Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard Durand; Gregory Gladish; Elie Mouhayar; Syed Wamique Yusuf; Jose Banchs; Daher, Iyad N.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Exclusion of underlying coronary artery disease (CAD) is essential in the diagnosis of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Presence and severity of CAD can also impact the choice of therapy in cancer patients. The value of cardiac computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in this setting has not been reported. Methods. We collected data on the clinical presentation and indications for CCTA performed from January to December 2008 at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center ...

  1. Effect of respiration on cardiac filling at rest and during exercise in Fontan patients: A clinical and computational modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Van De Bruaene; Guido Claessen; Andre La Gerche; Ethan Kung; Alison Marsden; Pieter De Meester; Sarah Devroe; Jan Bogaert; Piet Claus; Hein Heidbuchel; Werner Budts; Marc Gewillig

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the absence of a sub-pulmonary ventricle, the Fontan circulation is sensitive to respiration-induced changes in intrathoracic pressure. However, the importance of a ‘respiratory pump’ in creating forward flow remains controversial. We aimed at evaluating the effect of respiration on ventricular filling during exercise using clinical data and computational modeling predictions. Methods: Ten Fontan patients (6 male, 20 ± 4 years) underwent ungated cardiac magnetic resonanc...

  2. Nonrigid registration-based coronary artery motion correction for cardiac computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagalia, Roshni; Pack, Jed D.; Miller, James V.; Iatrou, Maria [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States); GE Healthcare, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: X-ray computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the modality of choice to noninvasively monitor and diagnose heart disease with coronary artery health and stenosis detection being of particular interest. Reliable, clinically relevant coronary artery imaging mandates high spatiotemporal resolution. However, advances in intrinsic scanner spatial resolution (CT scanners are available which combine nearly 900 detector columns with focal spot oversampling) can be tempered by motion blurring, particularly in patients with unstable heartbeats. As a result, recently numerous methods have been devised to improve coronary CTA imaging. Solutions involving hardware, multisector algorithms, or {beta}-blockers are limited by cost, oversimplifying assumptions about cardiac motion, and populations showing contraindications to drugs, respectively. This work introduces an inexpensive algorithmic solution that retrospectively improves the temporal resolution of coronary CTA without significantly affecting spatial resolution. Methods: Given the goal of ruling out coronary stenosis, the method focuses on 'deblurring' the coronary arteries. The approach makes no assumptions about cardiac motion, can be used on exams acquired at high heart rates (even over 75 beats/min), and draws on a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) nonrigid bidirectional labeled point matching approach to estimate the trajectories of the coronary arteries during image acquisition. Motion compensation is achieved by employing a 3D warping of a series of partial reconstructions based on the estimated motion fields. Each of these partial reconstructions is created from data acquired over a short time interval. For brevity, the algorithm 'Subphasic Warp and Add' (SWA) reconstruction. Results: The performance of the new motion estimation-compensation approach was evaluated by a systematic observer study conducted using nine human cardiac CTA exams acquired over a range of average heart

  3. Multislice CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study aims to evaluate the efficacy of multislice computed tomography combined with colon distension by water enteroclysis (MSCTe) in determining the presence and depth of bowel endometriotic lesions. Ninety-eight women with symptoms suggestive of colorectal endometriosis underwent MSCTe; locations, number of nodule/s, size of the nodule/s and depth of bowel wall infiltration were determined. Independently from the findings of MSCTe, all women underwent laparoscopy. MSCTe findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Abnormal findings suggestive of bowel endometriotic nodules were detected by MSCTe in 75 of the 76 patients with bowel endometriosis. MSCTe identified 110 (94.8%) of the 116 bowel endometriotic nodules removed at surgery; 6 nodules missed at MSCTe were located on the rectum. MSCTe correctly determined the degree of infiltration of the bowel wall in all of the 34 serosal bowel nodules identified at MSCTe. In six nodules reaching the submucosa, the depth of infiltration was underestimated by MSCTe. MSCTe had a sensitivity of 98.7%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 95.7% in identifying women with bowel endometriosis. MSCTe is effective in determining the presence and depth of bowel endometriotic lesions. (orig.)

  4. Multislice CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of bowel endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian A. [' ' Duchesse of Galliera' ' -Hospital, Genoa (Italy). Dept. of Radiology; Ferrero, Simone; Ragni, Nicola; Remorgida, Valentino [San Martino Hospital and Genoa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Obstretics and Gynaecology; Fulcheri, Ezio [San Martino Hospital and Genoa Univ. (Italy). Unit of Anatomy and Histopathology

    2007-01-15

    This prospective study aims to evaluate the efficacy of multislice computed tomography combined with colon distension by water enteroclysis (MSCTe) in determining the presence and depth of bowel endometriotic lesions. Ninety-eight women with symptoms suggestive of colorectal endometriosis underwent MSCTe; locations, number of nodule/s, size of the nodule/s and depth of bowel wall infiltration were determined. Independently from the findings of MSCTe, all women underwent laparoscopy. MSCTe findings were compared with surgical and histological results. Abnormal findings suggestive of bowel endometriotic nodules were detected by MSCTe in 75 of the 76 patients with bowel endometriosis. MSCTe identified 110 (94.8%) of the 116 bowel endometriotic nodules removed at surgery; 6 nodules missed at MSCTe were located on the rectum. MSCTe correctly determined the degree of infiltration of the bowel wall in all of the 34 serosal bowel nodules identified at MSCTe. In six nodules reaching the submucosa, the depth of infiltration was underestimated by MSCTe. MSCTe had a sensitivity of 98.7%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 95.7% in identifying women with bowel endometriosis. MSCTe is effective in determining the presence and depth of bowel endometriotic lesions. (orig.)

  5. Sudden Cardiac Risk Stratification with Electrocardiographic Indices - A Review on Computational Processing, Technology Transfer, and Scientific Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno-Blanes, Francisco J.; Blanco-Velasco, Manuel; Barquero-Pérez, Óscar; García-Alberola, Arcadi; Rojo-Álvarez, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Great effort has been devoted in recent years to the development of sudden cardiac risk predictors as a function of electric cardiac signals, mainly obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. But these prediction techniques are still seldom used in clinical practice, partly due to its limited diagnostic accuracy and to the lack of consensus about the appropriate computational signal processing implementation. This paper addresses a three-fold approach, based on ECG indices, to structure this review on sudden cardiac risk stratification. First, throughout the computational techniques that had been widely proposed for obtaining these indices in technical literature. Second, over the scientific evidence, that although is supported by observational clinical studies, they are not always representative enough. And third, via the limited technology transfer of academy-accepted algorithms, requiring further meditation for future systems. We focus on three families of ECG derived indices which are tackled from the aforementioned viewpoints, namely, heart rate turbulence (HRT), heart rate variability (HRV), and T-wave alternans. In terms of computational algorithms, we still need clearer scientific evidence, standardizing, and benchmarking, siting on advanced algorithms applied over large and representative datasets. New scenarios like electronic health recordings, big data, long-term monitoring, and cloud databases, will eventually open new frameworks to foresee suitable new paradigms in the near future. PMID:27014083

  6. Sudden Cardiac Risk Stratification with Electrocardiographic Indices - A Review on Computational Processing, Technology Transfer, and Scientific Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier eGimeno-Blanes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Great effort has been devoted in recent years to the development of sudden cardiac risk predictors as a function of electric cardiac signals, mainly obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG analysis. But these prediction techniques are still seldom used in clinical practice, partly due to its limited diagnostic accuracy and to the lack of consensus about the appropriate computational signal processing implementation. This paper addresses a three-fold approach, based on ECG indexes, to structure this review on sudden cardiac risk stratification. First, throughout the computational techniques that had been widely proposed for obtaining these indexes in technical literature. Second, over the scientific evidence, that although is supported by observational clinical studies, they are not always representative enough. And third, via the limited technology transfer of academy-accepted algorithms, requiring further meditation for future systems. We focus on three families of ECG derived indexes which are tackled from the aforementioned viewpoints, namely, heart rate turbulence, heart rate variability, and T-wave alternans. In terms of computational algorithms, we still need clearer scientific evidence, standardizing, and benchmarking, siting on advanced algorithms applied over large and representative datasets. New scenarios like electronic health recordings, big data, long-term monitoring, and cloud databases, will eventually open new frameworks to foresee suitable new paradigms in the near future.

  7. Clinical experiences of delayed contrast enhancement with cardiac computed tomography: case series

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu Manavjot S; Ghoshhajra Brian B; Uthamalingam Shanmugam; Kilcullen Niamh; Engel Leif-Christopher; Medina Hector M; Venkatesh Vikram; Vorasettakarnkij Yongkasem; Hoffmann Udo; Cury Ricardo C; Abbara Suhny; Brady Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE) by gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI is well established for myocardial scar assessment in ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. The role of MDE by cardiac CT (CT-MDE) is not yet defined. Findings We reviewed all clinical cases of CT-MDE at a tertiary referral center to present the cases as a case series. All clinical cardiac CT exams which utilized CT-MDE imaging between January 1, 2005 and October 1, 2010 were collected as a series a...

  8. The relative role of patient physiology and device optimisation in cardiac resynchronisation therapy: A computational modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Andrew; Blazevic, Bojan; Lamata, Pablo; Plank, Gernot; Ginks, Matthew; Duckett, Simon; Sohal, Manav; Shetty, Anoop; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Razavi, Reza; Smith, Nicolas P; Niederer, Steven A

    2016-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is an established treatment for heart failure, however the effective selection of patients and optimisation of therapy remain controversial. While extensive research is ongoing, it remains unclear whether improvements in patient selection or therapy planning offers a greater opportunity for the improvement of clinical outcomes. This computational study investigates the impact of both physiological conditions that guide patient selection and the optimisation of pacing lead placement on CRT outcomes. A multi-scale biophysical model of cardiac electromechanics was developed and personalised to patient data in three patients. These models were separated into components representing cardiac anatomy, pacing lead location, myocardial conductivity and stiffness, afterload, active contraction and conduction block for each individual, and recombined to generate a cohort of 648 virtual patients. The effect of these components on the change in total activation time of the ventricles (ΔTAT) and acute haemodynamic response (AHR) was analysed. The pacing site location was found to have the largest effect on ΔTAT and AHR. Secondary effects on ΔTAT and AHR were found for functional conduction block and cardiac anatomy. The simulation results highlight a need for a greater emphasis on therapy optimisation in order to achieve the best outcomes for patients. PMID:26546827

  9. A study of the dose modulation systems in two multislice CT scanners; Estudio de los sistemas de modulacion de dosis en dos equipos de tomografia computarizada multicorte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Giron, I.; Valverde Moran, J.; Mendez Fernandez, R.; Aramburu Nunez, D.; Nunez Villavicencio, C.; Calzado Cantera, A.

    2009-07-01

    Multislice computed tomography (TCMC) is a technique that for its gradual introduction and the spectacular increase in its indications in clinical practice represents the main contribution to the collective dose in diagnostic radiology. It is essential to optimize the protocols maintaining doses as low as possible without affecting the diagnostic quality of images. Automatic tube current modulation systems are a tool currently available in all CT scanners. They adapt the tube current to morphological characteristics of the patient and the anatomical area under study. The aim of this work has been to analyze two scanners from the same manufacturer and featuring similar geometry by assessing the relative dose differences and image quality. Modulation systems of general use can decrease the dose in a 20-60% with a reduction in the signal to noise ratio between 6% and 37%. Dedicated cardiac-CT modulation system gave rise to high relative differences (36-40%) even when varying the heart rate. Significant changes in image quality were not appreciated though the motion of the heart has not been simulated in this study. (Author) 14 refs.

  10. Assessment of Left Ventricular Volumes and Function: Intra individual Comparison of Multi-slice Spiral CT and Electron Beam CT in an Animal Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for measurements of left ventricular volumes, ejection fraction (EF), and myocardial mass in comparison with electron beam CT (EBCT) as a reference method. Material and Methods: Six minipigs underwent both standardized contrast-enhanced MSCT (effective acquisition time per cardiac cycle 125.7±30.1 ms, reconstructed slice thickness 8 mm) and EBCT (acquisition time 50 ms, collimated slice thickness 8 mm). The contrast-to-noise ratio of the left ventricle was measured in each animal, and the contour sharpness of the myocardium was analyzed. Volumes (EDV, ESV, SV) ejection fraction (EF), and muscle mass were calculated by MSCT and by EBCT using the slice summation method. Results: MSCT had a higher contrast-to-noise ratio and delineated the myocardial contours more sharply than EBCT. There was a close linear correlation between both modalities for all parameters (EDV: r P =0.88, ESV: r P =0.91, SV: r P =0.85, EF: r P =0.93; mass: r P =0.90; P <0.05 each). MSCT slightly overestimated ESV and slightly underestimated SV and EF compared with EBCT ( P <0.05 each). Conclusions: Image quality in MSCT is superior to that of EBCT. Functional parameters correlate well between both modalities, but the accuracy of MSCT is limited by its lower temporal resolution

  11. Computational Chemical Imaging for Cardiovascular Pathology: Chemical Microscopic Imaging Accurately Determines Cardiac Transplant Rejection

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Saumya; Reddy, Vijaya B.; Bhargava, Rohit; Raman, Jaishankar

    2015-01-01

    Rejection is a common problem after cardiac transplants leading to significant number of adverse events and deaths, particularly in the first year of transplantation. The gold standard to identify rejection is endomyocardial biopsy. This technique is complex, cumbersome and requires a lot of expertise in the correct interpretation of stained biopsy sections. Traditional histopathology cannot be used actively or quickly during cardiac interventions or surgery. Our objective was to develop a st...

  12. Integrative computational models of cardiac arrhythmias -- simulating the structurally realistic heart

    OpenAIRE

    Trayanova, Natalia A.; Tice, Brock M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation of cardiac electrical function, and specifically, simulation aimed at understanding the mechanisms of cardiac rhythm disorders, represents an example of a successful integrative multiscale modeling approach, uncovering emergent behavior at the successive scales in the hierarchy of structural complexity. The goal of this article is to present a review of the integrative multiscale models of realistic ventricular structure used in the quest to understand and treat ventricular arrhyth...

  13. Radiation Dose to the Thyroid and Gonads in Patients Undergoing Cardiac CT Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present data show a global increase in the rate of cardiovascular disease. Cardiac CT angiography has developed as a fast and non-invasive cardiac imaging modality following the introduction of multi-slice computed tomogaraphy. The aim of this study was to measure the radiation dose to the thyroid and pelvis regions in patients undergoing cardiac CT angiography using the Care Dose 4D method of 64-slice scanner. Eighty-one patients (41 males and 40 females) who were diagnosed with suspected coronary artery disease and were referred to Golestan Hospital, Imaging Department were recruited. Inclusion criteria were based on the protocol of multi-slice CT coronary angiography. The radiation dose to the thyroid and pelvis regions was measured using thermo luminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The mean radiation dose to the thyroid in male and female subjects was 0.32 mSv and 0.41 mSv, respectively (P = 0.032) (total mean, 0.36 mSv). The mean radiation dose to the pelvis in male and female subjects was 81 μSv and 112 μSv, respectively (P = 0.026) (total mean, 96.5 μSv), The total mean radiation dose to the thyroid and gonads was 0.36 mSv, and 96.5 μSv, respectively for the subjects. These values were high for one organ in a single study. Gender can affect the radiation dose to the thyroid and gonads. This can be attributed to the anatomical characteristic differences of the male and female subjects

  14. Computational Modeling of Open-Irrigated Electrodes for Radiofrequency Cardiac Ablation Including Blood Motion-Saline Flow Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Suárez, Ana; Berjano, Enrique; Guerra, Jose M.; Gerardo-Giorda, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is a routine treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. During RFCA, the electrode-tissue interface temperature should be kept below 80°C to avoid thrombus formation. Open-irrigated electrodes facilitate power delivery while keeping low temperatures around the catheter. No computational model of an open-irrigated electrode in endocardial RFCA accounting for both the saline irrigation flow and the blood motion in the cardiac chamber has been proposed yet. We present the first computational model including both effects at once. The model has been validated against existing experimental results. Computational results showed that the surface lesion width and blood temperature are affected by both the electrode design and the irrigation flow rate. Smaller surface lesion widths and blood temperatures are obtained with higher irrigation flow rate, while the lesion depth is not affected by changing the irrigation flow rate. Larger lesions are obtained with increasing power and the electrode-tissue contact. Also, larger lesions are obtained when electrode is placed horizontally. Overall, the computational findings are in close agreement with previous experimental results providing an excellent tool for future catheter research. PMID:26938638

  15. TC multicorte (TCMC cardiaca: aplicaciones clínicas Multislice CT of the heart: clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bastarrika

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available La introducción de los equipos de TC multicorte y el desarrollo de técnicas de adquisición de imágenes con sincronización electrocardiográfica y reconstrucción retrospectiva han permitido que la TC multicorte cardiaca se pueda considerar hoy en día una técnica no invasiva muy útil para el estudio de la patología cardiaca en la práctica clínica diaria. La valoración de las arterias coronarias es una de las principales aplicaciones clínicas de esta técnica diagnóstica e incluye la detección y cuantificación del calcio coronario, la coronariografía por TC multicorte (estudio de la anatomía coronaria, variantes anatómicas y anomalías del origen y trayecto, la valoración angiográfica de la permeabilidad de injertos aortocoronarios y endoprótesis vasculares y la caracterización de las placas de ateroma. Los nuevos programas de reconstrucción y postprocesamiento permiten obtener, además, parámetros de morfología y contracción miocárdica y función cardiaca. Otras aplicaciones clínicas incluyen la caracterización de masas cardiacas intracavitarias y la valoración del pericardio.Since the introduction of last generation multislice MSCT systems and the development of simultaneous electrocardiographic-tracing image acquisition and retrospective reconstruction techniques into clinical routine, cardiac MSCT has been considered a very useful non-invasive technique for the study of cardiac pathology in the daily clinical practice. One of the main clinical applications of this diagnostic technique is the evaluation of the coronary arteries including detection and quantification of coronary calcium, multislice CT coronary angiography (anatomy, anatomical variants and anomalies of the origin and course, the angiographic evaluation of the patency of aortocoronary by-pass grafts and coronary stents, and plaque characterization. The new reconstruction and postprocessing programs allow to obtain, in addition, parameters of

  16. Clinical experiences of delayed contrast enhancement with cardiac computed tomography: case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidhu Manavjot S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial delayed enhancement (MDE by gadolinium-enhanced cardiac MRI is well established for myocardial scar assessment in ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease. The role of MDE by cardiac CT (CT-MDE is not yet defined. Findings We reviewed all clinical cases of CT-MDE at a tertiary referral center to present the cases as a case series. All clinical cardiac CT exams which utilized CT-MDE imaging between January 1, 2005 and October 1, 2010 were collected as a series and their findings were also compared with available myocardial imaging to assess for myocardial abnormalities, including echocardiography (wall motion, morphology, cardiac MRI (delayed enhancement, morphology, SPECT MPI (perfusion defects. 5,860 clinical cardiac CT exams were performed during the study period. CT-MDE was obtained in 18 patients and was reported to be present in 9 patients. The indications for CT-MDE included ischemic and non-ischemic heart diseases. In segments positive for CT-MDE, there was excellent agreement of CT with other modalities: echocardiography (n=8 demonstrated abnormal morphology and wall motion (k=1.0 and k=0.82 respectively; prior MRI (n=2 demonstrated abnormal delayed enhancement (MR-MDE (k=1.0; SPECT MPI (n=1 demonstrated fixed perfusion defects (k=1.0. In the subset of patients without CT-MDE, no abnormal segments were identified by echocardiography (n=8, MRI (n=1 and nuclear MPI (n=0. Conclusions CT-MDE was performed in rare clinical situations. The indications included both ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease and there was an excellent agreement between CT-MDE and abnormal myocardium by echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and nuclear MPI.

  17. The Role of Imaging with Cardiac Computed Tomography in Cardio-Oncology Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitekova, Barbora; Ravi, Sriram; Shah, Shimoli V; Mladosievicova, Beata; Heitner, Stephen; Ferencik, Maros

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and cancer represent the two most common causes of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries. With the increase in long-term survival of cancer patients, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality for many cancer survivors. In this article, we will review the most common cardiovascular toxicities of cancer therapies and will describe the role of cardiac CT in the detection and monitoring of cardiovascular disease. While there is limited evidence for the use of CT imaging in cancer patients, we will discuss the utility of cardiac CT in the detection and management of coronary artery disease, pericardial and valvular heart disease. PMID:27443383

  18. The clinical meaning of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cote, C.; Dumont, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: christian.cote@chuq.qc.ca

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate prospectively the incidence and clinical meaning, if any, of gastric-wall hyperactivity observed on sestamibi cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This phenomenon is completely different from the well-known intraluminal gastric reflux of sestamibi. A group of 819 patients who underwent sestamibi cardiac SPECT was studied from January 2000 to October 2000. Gastric-wall activity was graded qualitatively. Only patients with gastric-wall activity near or equivalent to their heart activity were considered for subsequent analysis. The medical records of patient candidates were reviewed, and their family physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire by telephone when further information was needed. We identified 13 patients with significant gastric-wall hyperactivity, which was more intense on rest images. Our review of the clinical data shows that all these patients were suffering from dyspepsia and were taking gastric medication. These 13 cases were assigned to 3 groups: gastroesophageal reflux, chronic functional dyspepsia and nonspecific gastritis. Significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is an infrequent observation on sestamibi cardiac SPECT. Our results indicate that the presence of significant gastric-wall hyperactivity is associated with dyspepsia. It is important to realize that this gastric-wall hyperactivity by its proximity to the inferior myocardial wall could in some circumstances lead to either false-negative or false-positive findings, representing a diagnostic problem. Although infrequent, this situation could be avoided by proper quality control, including a systematic review of the raw cine data before reading the images. (author)

  19. Radiation dose reduction by using 100-kV tube voltage in cardiac 64-slice computed tomography: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate a 100-kilovoltage (kV) tube voltage protocol regarding radiation dose and image quality, in comparison with the standard 120 kV setting in cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: 103 patients undergoing retrospective ECG-gated helical 64-slice CCTA were enrolled (100 kV group: 51 patients; 120 kV group: 52 patients). Inclusion criteria were: (1) BMI 2; (2) weight 25 kg/m2). Conclusions: The 100 kV protocol significantly reduces the radiation dose in CCTA in patients with a low BMI 2 and a low calcium load while maintaining high image quality and the advantages of helical scan algorithm.

  20. 多层螺旋CT冠状动脉成像的临床应用%Clinical application of multislice spiral computed tomography in the diagnosis of coronary image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王照谦

    2004-01-01

    近年,随着多层螺旋CT(muhislice spiral computed tomography,MSCT)的问世,尤其16层螺旋CT冠状动脉(冠脉)成像技术在临床上的应用,已可逐渐替代传统的插管法冠脉造影以诊断冠脉病变。

  1. MULTEM: A new multislice program to perform accurate and fast electron diffraction and imaging simulations using Graphics Processing Units with CUDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main features and the GPU implementation of the MULTEM program are presented and described. This new program performs accurate and fast multislice simulations by including higher order expansion of the multislice solution of the high energy Schrödinger equation, the correct subslicing of the three-dimensional potential and top-bottom surfaces. The program implements different kinds of simulation for CTEM, STEM, ED, PED, CBED, ADF-TEM and ABF-HC with proper treatment of the spatial and temporal incoherences. The multislice approach described here treats the specimen as amorphous material which allows a straightforward implementation of the frozen phonon approximation. The generalized transmission function for each slice is calculated when is needed and then discarded. This allows us to perform large simulations that can include millions of atoms and keep the computer memory requirements to a reasonable level. - Highlights: • The main features and the GPU implementation of the open source MULTEM program are described. • Accurate and fast multislice simulations for TEM simulations. • Three dimensional frozen phonon calculations at no extra computational cost

  2. Chaste: A case study of parallelisation of an open source finite-element solver with applications to computational cardiac electrophysiology simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabeu, M. O.; Southern, J.; Wilson, N; Strazdins, P.; Cooper, J; Pitt-Francis, J.

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of cardiac electrophysiology is a mature field in computational physiology. Recent advances in medical imaging, high-performance computing and numerical methods mean that computational models of electrical propagation in human heart tissue are ripe for use in patient-specific simulation for diagnosis, for prognosis and for selection of treatment methods. However, in order to move in this direction, it is necessary to make efficient use of modern petascale computing resources. ...

  3. Feasibility study to demonstrate cardiac imaging using fast kVp switching dual-energy computed tomography: phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhav, Priti; Imai, Yasuhiro; Narayanan, Suresh; Dutta, Sandeep; Chandra, Naveen; Hsieh, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography is a novel imaging tool that has the potential to reduce beam hardening artifacts and enhance material separation over conventional imaging techniques. Dual-energy acquisitions can be performed by using a fast kVp technology to switch between acquiring adjacent projections at two distinct x-ray spectra (80 and 140 kVp). These datasets can be used to further compute material density and monochromatic images for better material separation and beam hardening reduction by virtue of the projection domain process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using dual-energy in cardiac imaging for myocardial perfusion detection and coronary artery lumen visualization. Data was acquired on a heart phantom, which consisted of the chambers and aorta filled with Iodine density solution (500 HU @ 120 kVp), a defect region between the aorta and chamber (40 HU @ 120 kVp), two Iodinefilled vessels (400 HU @ 120 kVp) of different diameters with high attenuation (hydroxyapatite) plaques (HAP), and with a 30-cm water equivalent body ring around the phantom. Prospective ECG-gated single-energy and prospective ECG-gated dual-energy imaging was performed. Results showed that the generated monochromatic images had minimal beam hardening artifacts which improved the accuracy and detection of the myocardial defect region. Material density images were useful in differentiating and quantifying the actual size of the plaque and coronary artery lumen. Overall, this study shows that dual-energy cardiac imaging will be a valuable tool for cardiac applications.

  4. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beitzke, D.; Berger-Kulemann, V.; Unterhumer, S.; Loewe, C.; Wolf, F. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, V. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image Guided Therapy, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Spitzer, E. [Bern University Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Bern (Switzerland); Feuchtner, G.M. [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck (Austria); Gyoengyoesi, M. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Uyanik-Uenal, K.; Zuckermann, A. [Medical University Vienna, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  5. Dual-source cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the follow-up of cardiac transplant: comparison of image quality and radiation dose using three different imaging protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively evaluate image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of dual-source cardiac computed tomography (CCTA) using different imaging protocols. CCTA was performed in 150 patients using the retrospective ECG-gated spiral technique (rECG) the prospective ECG-gated technique (pECG), or the prospective ECG-gated technique with systolic imaging and automated tube voltage selection (pECGsys). IQ was rated using a 16-segment coronary artery model. Techniques were compared for overall IQ, IQ of the large and the small coronary artery segments. Effective dose was used for comparison of radiation dose. Overall IQ and IQ of the large segments showed no differences between the groups. IQ analysis of the small segments showed lowered IQ in pECGsys compared to rECG (p = 0.02), but not to pECG (p = 0.6). Effective dose did not differ significantly between rECG and pECG (p = 0.13), but was significantly lower for pECGsys (p < 0.001 vs. rECG and pECG). Radiation dose of dual-source CCTA in heart transplant recipients is significantly reduced by using prospective systolic scanning and automated tube voltage selection, while overall IQ and IQ of the large coronary segments are maintained. IQ appears to be lower compared to retrospective techniques with regard to small coronary segments. (orig.)

  6. Construction of a computational anatomical model of the peripheral cardiac conduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Rafael; Zimmerman, Viviana; Romero, Daniel; Frangi, Alejandro F

    2011-12-01

    A methodology is presented here for automatic construction of a ventricular model of the cardiac conduction system (CCS), which is currently a missing block in many multiscale cardiac electromechanic models. It includes the His bundle, left bundle branches, and the peripheral CCS. The algorithm is fundamentally an enhancement of a rule-based method known as the Lindenmayer systems (L-systems). The generative procedure has been divided into three consecutive independent stages, which subsequently build the CCS from proximal to distal sections. Each stage is governed by a set of user parameters together with anatomical and physiological constrains to direct the generation process and adhere to the structural observations derived from histology studies. Several parameters are defined using statistical distributions to introduce stochastic variability in the models. The CCS built with this approach can generate electrical activation sequences with physiological characteristics. PMID:21896384

  7. Effect of modulation of ionic channel conductivities on restitution processes in cardiac cells (Computer modelling)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pásek, Michal; Šlichta, J.

    Třešť : Institute of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineer, 2001 - (Kotek, V.; Kratochvíl, C.; Ehrenberger, Z.), s. 235-236 ISBN 80-7204-207-6. [Mechatronics robotics and biomechanics. Třešť (CZ), 10.09.2001-12.09.2001] Grant ostatní: ÚT AV ČR(XC) PP52018 Keywords : cardiac cell * electrical restitution Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  8. Cardiac Multidetector Computed Tomography: Basic Physics of Image Acquisition and Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Bardo, Dianna M.E; Brown, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac MDCT is here to stay. And, it is more than just imaging coronary arteries. Understanding the differences in and the benefits of one CT scanner from another will help you to optimize the capabilities of the scanner, but requires a basic understanding of the MDCT imaging physics. This review provides key information needed to understand the differences in the types of MDCT scanners, from 64 – 320 detectors, flat panels, single and dual source configurations, step and shoot prospective a...

  9. Reference values for quantitative left ventricular and left atrial measurements in cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess reference values for left ventricular (LV) and left atrial (LA) dimensions, global LV function, and LV-myocardial mass for cardiac CT. We examined 120 subjects undergoing a coronary angiography using 64-slice and dual-source CT. All individuals had a low cardiovascular risk, normal ECG, negative biomarkers, and a normal cardiac CT examination. All subjects had a negative medical history of cardiovascular disease both on admission and at clinical 6-month follow-up. The following measurements were obtained: septal wall thickness (SWT), posterior wall thickness (PWT), LV inner diameter (LVID), LA anterior posterior diameter (LADsys), end-systolic volume (ESV), and end-diastolic volume (EDV), LV-myocardial mass (LVMM). We found significant gender-related differences for all LV dimensions (SWTsys, SWTdia,PWTsys,PWTdia,LVIDsys,LVIDdia). LADsys showed no significant difference between males and females. Significant differences were found for global LV functional parameters including ESV, EDV, and SV, whereas no significant differences were found for the EF. LV-myocardial mass parameters showed significant gender-related differences. No significant correlation was found between any of these parameters and age. All data were transferred to percentile ranks. This study provides gender-related reference values and percentiles for LV and LA quantitative measurements for cardiac CT and should assist in interpreting results. (orig.)

  10. Application of Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography To Diagnose Hyoid Fracture%多层螺旋CT对舌骨骨折的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建中; 石士奎; 季立平

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨多层螺旋CT(multi-slice spiral computed tomography,MSCT)对舌骨骨折的诊断价值,提高对舌骨骨折临床重要性的认识.方法 回顾性分析6例舌骨骨折的MSCT及临床表现特点.结果 本组6例舌骨骨折中,舌骨大角骨折1例,舌骨体部骨折1例,舌骨大角与体部连接处骨折4例,其中舌骨大角与体部连接处骨折MSCT仅表现为连接处间隙增宽、错位,未见明确骨皮质连续性中断征象.结论 MSCT对舌骨骨折具有重要的诊断价值,对可疑舌骨骨折患者应行MSCT检查.

  11. Paediatric cardiac computed tomography: a review of imaging techniques and radiation dose consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Carolyn; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom); Owens, Catherine M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health, Cardiorespiratory Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The significant challenges involved in imaging the heart in small children (<15 kg) have been addressed by, and partially resolved with improvement in temporal and spatial resolution secondary to the advent of new multi-detector CT technology. This has enabled both retrospective and prospective ECG-gated imaging in children even at high heart rates (over 100 bpm) without the need for beta blockers. Recent studies have highlighted that the radiation burden associated with cardiac CT can be reduced using prospective ECG-gating. Our experience shows that the resultant dose reduction can be optimised to a level equivalent to that of a non-gated study. This article reviews the different aspects of ECG-gating and the preferred technique for cardiac imaging in the young child (<15 kg). We summarize our evidenced based recommendations for readers, referencing recent articles and using our in house data, protocols and dose measurements discussing the various methods available for dose calculations and their inherent bias. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of effective doses between computed tomography cardiac angiography and conventional angiography at Pantai Hospital, Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Faizal; Moin, F. H. A.

    2013-05-01

    This research studies two types of cardiac angiography procedures, namely Computed Tomography Cardiac Angiography (CTCA) and Conventional Angiography (CA). The following research was executed to estimate the difference of mean effective doses that the patients received through both procedures. The mean dose-length-product (DLP) from CTCA and mean dose-area-product (DAP) from CA were utilized in calculating the effective doses. The result shows that the mean effective dose for CTCA and CA are 1.71±0.59 mSv and 53.25±14.22 mSv respectively. This proves that the mean effective dose received by patients undergoing CA is higher than patients undergoing CTCA. According to t-test, both procedures differ significantly, with a difference amounting to p<0.0001. The increases of the effective dose that the patients received through CA procedure were influenced by exposure time, the coronary anatomical condition, the operator's experience, and the operation methods.

  13. Contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography resolves the 3-dimensional morphology of the cardiac conduction system in mammalian hearts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Stephenson

    Full Text Available The general anatomy of the cardiac conduction system (CCS has been known for 100 years, but its complex and irregular three-dimensional (3D geometry is not so well understood. This is largely because the conducting tissue is not distinct from the surrounding tissue by dissection. The best descriptions of its anatomy come from studies based on serial sectioning of samples taken from the appropriate areas of the heart. Low X-ray attenuation has formerly ruled out micro-computed tomography (micro-CT as a modality to resolve internal structures of soft tissue, but incorporation of iodine, which has a high molecular weight, into those tissues enhances the differential attenuation of X-rays and allows visualisation of fine detail in embryos and skeletal muscle. Here, with the use of a iodine based contrast agent (I(2KI, we present contrast enhanced micro-CT images of cardiac tissue from rat and rabbit in which the three major subdivisions of the CCS can be differentiated from the surrounding contractile myocardium and visualised in 3D. Structures identified include the sinoatrial node (SAN and the atrioventricular conduction axis: the penetrating bundle, His bundle, the bundle branches and the Purkinje network. Although the current findings are consistent with existing anatomical representations, the representations shown here offer superior resolution and are the first 3D representations of the CCS within a single intact mammalian heart.

  14. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  15. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  16. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment: comparison with cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and objective: Few studies addressed the comparison between real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) and cardiac computed tomography (CCT) concerning left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes assessment. We sought to compare both techniques regarding left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction function and volumes analysis. Methods: we studied by RT3DE (Philips IE 33, And, MA, USA) and by CCT (Toshiba, 64-slice, Otawara, Japan) 41 consecutive patients (29 males, 58 ± 11 yrs). We analysed by both techniques LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV. RT3DE and CCT data were compared by coefficients of determination (r: Pearson), Bland and Altman test and linear regression, 95% CI. Results: RT3DE data: LVEF ranged from 56.7 to 78.9 % (65.3 + 5.7 ); LVEDV ranged from 49.6 to 178.2 (88 + 27.5) mL; LVESV from 11.4 to 78 ( 33.9 + 13.7) mL. CCT data: LVEF ranged from 53 to 86 % (67.3 + 7.9 ); LVEDV ranged from 51 to 186 (106.4 + 30.7) mL; LVESV from 7 to 72 ( 35.1 + 13.8) mL. Correlations relative to RT3DE and CCT were: LVEF (r: 0. 7877, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6327 to 0.8853 ); LVEDV (r:0.7671, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.5974 to 0.8745); LVESV (r: 0.8121, p<0.0001, 95 % CI 0.6659 to 0.8957). Conclusions: it was observed adequate correlation between real-time 3D echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography concerning ejection fraction and volumes assessment. (author)

  17. Contrast-fluid level in the inferior vena cava (IVC niveau sign) in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. Computed tomography findings during acute cardiac tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to report a new computed tomography (CT) finding in acute cardiac tamponade: a contrast-fluid level in the hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC) during an arterial dominant phase CT study (IVC niveau sign) in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. We retrospectively reviewed CT studies with the diagnosis of proximal aortic dissection (Stanford type A) with acute cardiac tamponade. There were 12 patients enrolled in the study (6 women, 6 men; mean age 66 years). A total of 62 patients were selected as a control chronic pericardial effusion group to compare with the acute cardiac tamponade group. Among the 12 patients with acute cardiac tamponade, the IVC niveau sign was seen in 7 (58%). In the control chronic pericardial effusion group (n=62), we identified the IVC niveau sign in only one patient (1.6%). There was a significant difference in the presence of the IVC niveau sign between the acute cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial effusion groups (P<0.0001). The presence of the IVC niveau sign suggests acute cardiac tamponade in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. (author)

  18. Dynamic shim updating (DSU) for multislice signal acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Robin A; Brown, Peter B; McIntyre, Scott; Rothman, Douglas L; Nixon, Terence W

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic shim updating (DSU) is a technique for achieving optimal magnetic field homogeneity over extended volumes by dynamically updating an optimal shim setting for each individual slice in a multislice acquisition protocol. Here the practical implementation of DSU using all first- and second-order shims is described. In particular, the hardware modifications and software requirements are demonstrated. Furthermore, the temporal effects of dynamically switching shim currents are investigated and a Z(2)-to-Z(0) compensation unit is described and implemented to counteract the temporal Z(0) variations following a change in the Z(2) shim current. The optimal shim settings for all slices are determined with a quantitative and user-independent, multislice phase-mapping sequence. The performance of DSU is evaluated from multislice phase maps and spectroscopic images acquired on rat brain in vivo. DSU improved the magnetic field homogeneity over all spatial slices, with a more pronounced effect on the slices positioned away from the magnet isocenter, thereby making the magnetic field homogeneity highly uniform over an extended volume. PMID:12594742

  19. Influence of respiratory gating, image filtering, and animal positioning on high-resolution electrocardiography-gated murine cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Chao; Vaissier, Pieter E. B.; Vastenhouw, Brendan; de Jong, Johan R.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Beekman, Freek J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac parameters obtained from single-photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images can be affected by respiratory motion, image filtering, and animal positioning. We investigated the influence of these factors on ultra-high-resolution murine myocardial perfusion SPECT. Five mice were inject

  20. Value of multislice CT for the work-up of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) of the pulmonary arteries has overcome the limitations of single-slice CT and is accepted as the sole reference standard for imaging pulmonary embolism (PE) in many institutions. This technique provides the opportunity of efficient risk stratification to enable adequate differential therapy. With a low or intermediate pretest probability and a negative CT angiography (CTA), relevant PE can be ruled out safely. In >30% further diagnoses other than pulmonary embolism, e.g., pneumonia or aortic aneurysm, can be established on the basis of thoracic CTA. This article discusses the present role of MSCT in diagnostic imaging of PE and provides optimized acquisition protocols as well as practical aspects for secondary image reconstruction. Examples of typical imaging features of PE are shown. Diagnostic algorithms for daily emergency practice are discussed with respect to artifacts and pitfalls in image interpretation. (orig.)

  1. A novel approach for the automated segmentation and volume quantification of cardiac fats on computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, É O; Morais, F F C; Morais, N A O S; Conci, L S; Neto, L V; Conci, A

    2016-01-01

    The deposits of fat on the surroundings of the heart are correlated to several health risk factors such as atherosclerosis, carotid stiffness, coronary artery calcification, atrial fibrillation and many others. These deposits vary unrelated to obesity, which reinforces its direct segmentation for further quantification. However, manual segmentation of these fats has not been widely deployed in clinical practice due to the required human workload and consequential high cost of physicians and technicians. In this work, we propose a unified method for an autonomous segmentation and quantification of two types of cardiac fats. The segmented fats are termed epicardial and mediastinal, and stand apart from each other by the pericardium. Much effort was devoted to achieve minimal user intervention. The proposed methodology mainly comprises registration and classification algorithms to perform the desired segmentation. We compare the performance of several classification algorithms on this task, including neural networks, probabilistic models and decision tree algorithms. Experimental results of the proposed methodology have shown that the mean accuracy regarding both epicardial and mediastinal fats is 98.5% (99.5% if the features are normalized), with a mean true positive rate of 98.0%. In average, the Dice similarity index was equal to 97.6%. PMID:26474835

  2. Value of combining 64 multi-slice spiral computer tomography and serum amyloid A protein in surgical decision-making in rectal cancer%多层螺旋CT联合血清淀粉样蛋白A术前评估直肠癌在外科决策中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓东; 吕东昊; 宋欢; 秦昌龙; 吴俊华; 李臻辉; 李立

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨64排多层螺旋CT(MSCT)和血清淀粉样蛋白A(SAA)联合术前评估进行直肠癌术前分期的准确性及其临床应用价值.方法 前瞻性纳入2007年10月至2008年10月期间住院的225例直肠癌患者,将患者随机分为MSCT组和MSCT与SAA联合组,联合组术前行MSCT和SAA联合评估,MSCT组术前只行MSCT评估.分别将两组术前T、N、M、TNM分期准确度进行比较,并比较两组手术方案的预测符合率.结果 本研究实际纳入病例225例,MSCT和SAA联合组110例,MSCT组115例,两组基线情况具有可比性.联合组术前T、N、M和TNM分期的准确度分别为87.3%、85.2%、100%和86.4%,MSCT组的准确度分别为85.2%、67.0%、100%和66.1%;两组术前N分期和TNM分期准确度差异具有统计学意义(P=0.009、0.001).两组手术方案的预测符合率分别为94.7%和81.7%,差异具有统计学意义(P=0.003).结论 MSCT和SAA联合评估的策略可以提高直肠癌患者术前分期N、TNM的准确性,并可提高预测手术方案的符合率.%Objective To determine the accuracy and clinical value of combining 64 multi-slice spiral computer tomography (MSCT) and serum amyloid A protein (SAA) in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer.Methods Prospectively enrolled patients with rectal cancer from October 2007 to October 2008.The patients were randomly assigned into two groups:MSCT and SAA combined group:both MSCT and SAA combinative assessment were performed for preoperative evaluation; MSCT group:only MSCT was performed preoperatively for tumor staging.The accuracy of the preoperative T,N,M,and TNM staging and the concordance rate of predictive operative strategy were compared between the two groups.Results Total of 225 cases with rectal cancer were enrolled in this study.There were 110 cases in MSCT and SAA combined group and 115 cases in MSCT group.The baseline characteristics was comparable between the two groups.For MSCT and SAA combined group,the accuracies of

  3. Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumský, Jaromír; Holá, Dana; Hlaváček, Karel; Michal, Michal; Švec, Alexander; Špatenka, Jaroslav; Dušek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm and is difficult to diagnose. The case of a 51-year-old man with a left atrial tumour, locally recurrent three months after its surgical removal, is presented. Computed tomography showed metastatic spread to the lung parenchyma. On revised histology, the mass extirpated was a sarcoma. Because of the metastatic spread, further therapy was symptomatic only; the patient died 15 months after the first manifestation of his problems. Immunohistochemical stain...

  4. Optimization of scanning parameters for multi-slice CT colonography: Experiments with synthetic and animal phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To determine the optimal collimation, pitch, tube current and reconstruction interval for multi-slice computed tomography (CT) colonography with regard to attaining satisfactory image quality while minimizing patient radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multi-slice CT was performed on plastic, excised pig colon and whole pig phantoms to determine optimal settings. Performance was judged by detection of simulated polyps and statistical measures of the image parameters. Fat and muscle conspicuity was measured from images of dual tube-current prone/supine patient data to derive a measure of tube current effects on tissue contrast. RESULTS: A collimation of 4x2.5 mm was sufficient for detection of polyps 4 mm and larger, provided that a reconstruction interval of 1.25 mm was used. A pitch of 1.5 allowed faster scanning and reduced radiation dose without resulting in a loss of important information, i.e. detection of small polyps, when compared with a pitch of 0.75. Tube current and proportional radiation dose could be lowered substantially without deleterious effects on the detection of the air-mucosal interface, however, increased image noise substantially reduced conspicuity of different tissues. CONCLUSION: An optimal image acquisition set-up of 4x2.5 mm collimation, reconstruction interval of 1.25 mm, pitch of 1.5 and dual prone/supine scan of 40/100 mA tube current is proposed for our institution for scanning symptomatic patients. Indications are that where CT colonography is used for colonic polyp screening in non-symptomatic patients, a 40 mA tube current could prove satisfactory for both scans

  5. Optimization of scanning parameters for multi-slice CT colonography: Experiments with synthetic and animal phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Embleton, K.V. E-mail: k.embleton@man.ac.uk; Nicholson, D.A.; Hufton, A.P.; Jackson, A

    2003-12-01

    AIM: To determine the optimal collimation, pitch, tube current and reconstruction interval for multi-slice computed tomography (CT) colonography with regard to attaining satisfactory image quality while minimizing patient radiation dose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Multi-slice CT was performed on plastic, excised pig colon and whole pig phantoms to determine optimal settings. Performance was judged by detection of simulated polyps and statistical measures of the image parameters. Fat and muscle conspicuity was measured from images of dual tube-current prone/supine patient data to derive a measure of tube current effects on tissue contrast. RESULTS: A collimation of 4x2.5 mm was sufficient for detection of polyps 4 mm and larger, provided that a reconstruction interval of 1.25 mm was used. A pitch of 1.5 allowed faster scanning and reduced radiation dose without resulting in a loss of important information, i.e. detection of small polyps, when compared with a pitch of 0.75. Tube current and proportional radiation dose could be lowered substantially without deleterious effects on the detection of the air-mucosal interface, however, increased image noise substantially reduced conspicuity of different tissues. CONCLUSION: An optimal image acquisition set-up of 4x2.5 mm collimation, reconstruction interval of 1.25 mm, pitch of 1.5 and dual prone/supine scan of 40/100 mA tube current is proposed for our institution for scanning symptomatic patients. Indications are that where CT colonography is used for colonic polyp screening in non-symptomatic patients, a 40 mA tube current could prove satisfactory for both scans.

  6. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  7. Cardiac computed tomography imaging in familial hypercholesterolaemia: implications for therapy and clinical trials.

    OpenAIRE

    Sijbrands, EJ; Nieman, K.; Budoff, MJ

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present review is to summarize the potential clinical applications of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in familial hypercholesterolemia so far and recent advances of CTA research in other high-risk patients.Long-term, aggressively statin-treated, asymptomatic familial hypercholesterolemia patients may still have dramatic coronary artery disease (CAD). A clear association between the presence and the extent of nonobstructive CAD and all-cause mortality was found in the...

  8. Application of the FDK algorithm for multi-slice tomographic image reconstruction; Aplicacao do algoritmo FDK para a reconstrucao de imagens tomograficas multicortes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto, E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFUSP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Araujo, Ericky Caldas de Almeida [Fine Image Technology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This work consisted on the study and application of the FDK (Feldkamp- Davis-Kress) algorithm for tomographic image reconstruction using cone-beam geometry, resulting on the implementation of an adapted multi-slice computed tomography system. For the acquisition of the projections, a rotating platform coupled to a goniometer, an X-ray equipment and a digital image detector charge-coupled device type were used. The FDK algorithm was implemented on a computer with a Pentium{sup R} XEON{sup TM} 3.0 processor, which was used for the reconstruction process. Initially, the original FDK algorithm was applied considering only the ideal physical conditions in the measurement process. Then some artifacts corrections related to the projections measurement process were incorporated. The implemented MSCT system was calibrated. A specially designed and manufactured object with a known linear attenuation coefficient distribution ({mu}(r)) was used for this purpose. Finally, the implemented MSCT system was used for multi-slice tomographic reconstruction of an inhomogeneous object, whose distribution {mu}(r) was unknown. Some aspects of the reconstructed images were analyzed to assess the robustness and reproducibility of the system. During the system calibration, a linear relationship between CT number and linear attenuation coefficients of materials was verified, which validate the application of the implemented multi-slice tomographic system for the characterization of linear attenuation coefficients of distinct several objects. (author)

  9. In Vivo Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Structure, Function, Perfusion and Viability Using Cardiac Micro-computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deel, Elza; Ridwan, Yanto; van Vliet, J Nicole; Belenkov, Sasha; Essers, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The use of Micro-Computed Tomography (MicroCT) for in vivo studies of small animals as models of human disease has risen tremendously due to the fact that MicroCT provides quantitative high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) anatomical data non-destructively and longitudinally. Most importantly, with the development of a novel preclinical iodinated contrast agent called eXIA160, functional and metabolic assessment of the heart became possible. However, prior to the advent of commercial MicroCT scanners equipped with X-ray flat-panel detector technology and easy-to-use cardio-respiratory gating, preclinical studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in small animals required a MicroCT technologist with advanced skills, and thus were impractical for widespread implementation. The goal of this work is to provide a practical guide to the use of the high-speed Quantum FX MicroCT system for comprehensive determination of myocardial global and regional function along with assessment of myocardial perfusion, metabolism and viability in healthy mice and in a cardiac ischemia mouse model induced by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). PMID:26967592

  10. Comparison of cardiac output of the left and right side of the heart by ultrafast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfkiel, C.J.; Ferguson, J.L.; Law, W.R.; Chomka, E.V.; Brundage, B.H.

    1986-03-05

    Ultrafast computed tomography (CT) evaluation of cardiac output (CO) can be determined using indicator dilution theory. The concentration of an iodinated contrast agent injected into a vein of a subject can be measured as a function of time by serial EKG, gated CT imaging. The contrast density of the blood pool measured by CT defines the indicator concentration. CT CO is proportional to the area under a time density curve from a region of the blood pool. Proper subject position and scanning timing allows CT to measure CO in the pulmonary (PA) artery and the aorta (AO) with the same contrast bolus. Three anesthetized dogs were multiply scanned following simultaneous injections of contrast and radioactive tracer microspheres. Microsphere CO was determined by reference withdrawal method. Multiple thermodilution CO measurements were made just prior and after each CT CO procedure. 24 comparisons were made of thermodilution, microsphere and CT CO measured in the PA (right sided CO (RSCO)) and the AO (left sided CO (LSCO)). CT CO was calculated as the ratio of the volume of contrast injected to the time density curve area corrected for the relation of contrast density to CT number. RSCO agreed very closely to LSCO (r = .99, p < .001; y = 1.0x +/- .32). RSCO correlated to thermodilution (r = .96, p < .001; y = 1.2x +/- 1.3) and microsphere CO (r = .93, p < .001; y = .69x +/- 1.3). These data show that CT CO measurements can be made in the PA and AO with equal accuracy.

  11. Cardiac tamponade in an infant during contrast infusion through central venous catheter for chest computed tomography; Tamponamento cardiaco durante infusao de contraste em acesso venoso central para realizacao de tomografia computadorizada do torax em lactente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daud, Danilo Felix; Campos, Marcos Menezes Freitas de; Fleury Neto, Augusto de Padua [Hospital Geral de Palmas, TO (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Complications from central venous catheterization include infectious conditions, pneumothorax, hemothorax and venous thrombosis. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade hardly occurs, and in infants is generally caused by umbilical catheterization. The authors describe the case of cardiac tamponade occurred in an infant during chest computed tomography with contrast infusion through a central venous catheter inserted into the right internal jugular vein. (author)

  12. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac computed tomography: What the radiologist needs to know

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is an established tool for the investigation of shortness of breath and chest pain. Although CCTA is performed to assess vessels that could well be diseased, one must review the study for evidence of cardiomyopathy, which can provoke similar symptoms. Cardiomyopathies can coexist with various causes of chest pain including obstructive coronary artery disease and may, therefore, be identifiable at CCTA. Furthermore, symptoms such as shortness of breath and chest pain that the clinician may suspect are secondary to coronary disease leading to investigation with CCTA, may be secondary to cardiomyopathy. We review several important causes of cardiomyopathy that may be detected by CCTA, which are important for radiologists to identify given the implications for further management and prognosis.

  13. A COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING THE CARDIAC ELECTROMECHANICAL ACTIVATION SEQUENCE IN THE NORMAL AND FAILING HEART, WITH TRANSLATION TO THE CLINICAL PRACTICE OF CRT

    OpenAIRE

    Constantino, Jason; Hu, Yuxuan; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established clinical treatment modality that aims to recoordinate contraction of the heart in dyssynchrous heart failure (DHF) patients. Although CRT reduces morbidity and mortality, a significant percentage of CRT patients fail to respond to the therapy, reflecting an insufficient understanding of the electromechanical activity of the DHF heart. Computational models of ventricular electromechanics, are now poised to fill this knowledge gap and pr...

  14. Looking Outside the “Cardiac” Box: Incidental Detection of a Metastatic Lung Tumor on Cardiac Position Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Shawgi, Mohamed; Arumugam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Incidental extracardiac findings are not uncommon in patients undergoing cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and some of these findings can have significant clinical impact. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who presented with dyspnea and left sided chest pain. 82-rubidium PET/CT imaging showed normal myocardial perfusion. Review of the low dose CT scan performed for attenuation correction purposes (CTAC) incidentally revealed a 4 cm mass in the left lung, wh...

  15. Cardiac emission computed tomography (ECT) using a rotating gamma camera, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of stress and redistribution thallium-201 emission computed tomography (ECT) for detecting individual coronary artery involvement was analyzed in 58 cases, including 8 normal cases and 48 cases with angiographically proved coronary artery disease (CAD). Perfusion defect was observed in 45 of the 48 cases with CAD (94%) and in 78 of the 95 diseased coronary arteries (82%). Number of diseased coronary arteries was accurately predicted in 78% of those with single vessel disease and 69% of those with two-vessel disease, but only in 53% of those with three-vessel disease. Quantitative assessment of thallium distribution and washout rate improved the sensitivity for detection of diseased vessels (95%) and accuracy for prediction of three vessel disease (76%). The sensitivity for detection of individual coronary artery involvement was 85% for RCA, 90% for LAD, and 63% for LCX The specificity was also high (90% for RCA, 93% for LAD, and 100% for LCX.) Segmental analysis of ECT imaging was comparatively assessed with the results of contrast left ventriculography. Marked wall motion abnormalities (dys- or akinesis) were seen in 15% of the segments with transient perfusion defect, but in 63% of those with persistent perfusion defect. We conclude that stress and redistribution thallium ECT imaging is a sensitive and specific tool for predicting individual coronary artery involvement and regional myocardial viability. (author)

  16. Clinical relevance of multislice CT of the spine after osteosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the clinical relevance of multislice CT (MSCT) scans in postoperative checks of the spine after osteosynthesis. Material and Methods: The results of x-rays (apical lateral) in 30 patients having spinal surgery involving Xosteosynthesis (5 x metastasis, 20 x fractures, 3 x spondylolisthesis, 2 x scoliosis) were correlated to those of MSCT (140 kV, 200 mAs, collimation 4 x 1 mm, pitch 0.75; VolumeZoom, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with multiplanar reconstruction. Two radiologists independently checked the conventional X-ray and multislice CT scans for anatomical positioning, damage of osteosynthetic material, and intraspinal dislocation of bone fragments. Results: By correlating conventional spinal X-rays with MSCT, additional diagnostic information was gained. In 9 of 30 patients MSCT revealed the extraosseal location of a screw tip (X-ray, 5/30), in 8/30 patients a narrowing of the spinal canal by osteosynthetic material was detected in MSCT (X-ray, 4/30), in 2/30 patients osteal fragments were detected in the vertebral canal by MSCT (X-ray, 0/30). In MSCT and in conventional X-ray a fracture of the osteosynthesis was correctly diagnosed in 3 patients. One patient underwent corrective surgery for dislocated osteosynthetic material, which was solely diagnosed with MSCT. Conclusion: Due to the high degree of additional diagnostic information MSCT seems to be the method of choice for postoperative spinal surgery involving osteosynthesis. (orig.)

  17. Understanding multislice CT urography techniques: many roads lead to Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT urography has emerged as a serious alternative to conventional urography by utilizing the advantages of modern multislice CT techniques for the visualization of the entire upper urinary tract. Several different examination techniques have been developed in multislice CT (MSCT) urography for improving the opacification and distension of the urinary tract. All efforts in performing MSCT urography have to compromise between the best possible image quality and a reasonably low radiation exposure. Initial low-dose examination protocols are already available. Operating modern MSCT urography properly is not difficult, but it presupposes basic knowledge on the variety of current MSCT urography techniques, including such issues as present-day indications, split-bolus injection, compression, saline infusion, low-dose diuretic administration, hybrid scanning, timing of the acquisition delay, examination protocols, postprocessing, image analysis, and radiation exposure. This article is not intended to provide guidelines of how to conduct MSCT urography, but everyone will be able to understand the functionality of several robust operating MSCT urography techniques, which helps making an individual selection for the clinical practice. In the near future, systematic studies are awaited evaluating the morphologic and diagnostic accuracy of MSCT urography regarding diverse urinary tract disorders. (orig.)

  18. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  19. Design Consideration and Reconstruction Method for Double-source Double-multislice Spiral CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zun-gang; ZHAO Jun; ZHUANG Tian-ge

    2007-01-01

    To accelerate the scan speed and improve the image quality, a new type of CT configuration, "doublesource double-multislice spiral CT" (DSDMS-CT), which is based on two sets of single-source multislice spiral CT was proposed with a special reconstruction algorithm.Simulation results using the fan-beam filtered backprojection algorithm with a special interpolation method were presented for both single-source multislice spiral CT and DSDMS-CT.The results of new CT model show that it scans faster than the traditional spiral CT and has a better slice sensitivity profile (SSP) with larger pitch value.

  20. Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection

  1. Multi-slice spiral CT of living-related liver transplantation in children: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seong Hoon; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    In pediatric living-related liver transplantation, preoperative evaluation of the recipient is important for surgical planning, while the accurate diagnosis of postoperative complications is essential for graft salvage. Multiplanar and three dimensional imaging using multi-slice spiral CT can be used for preoperative vascular imaging, as well as for evaluating postoperative complications. In this essay, we describe the usefulness of multi-slice CT, combined with a variety of different reconstruction techniques, for the preoperative evaluation of transplant recipients. In addition, we demonstrate the multi-slice CT findings of postoperative complications, including vascular stenosis or thrombosis, bile duct leak or stricture, and extrahepatic fluid collection.

  2. Suitability of helical multislice acquisition technique for routine unenhanced brain CT: an image quality study using a 16-row detector configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subjective and objective image quality (IQ) criteria, radiation doses, and acquisition times were compared using incremental monoslice, incremental multislice, and helical multislice acquisition techniques for routine unenhanced brain computed tomography (CT). Twenty-four patients were examined by two techniques in the same imaging session using a 16-row CT system equipped with 0.75-width detectors. Contiguous ''native'' 3-mm-thick slices were reconstructed for all acquisitions from four detectors for each slice (4 x 0.75 mm), with one channel available per detector. Two protocols were tailored to compare: (1) one-slice vs four-slice incremental images; (2) incremental vs helical four-slice images. Two trained observers independently scored 12 subjective items of IQ. Preference for the technique was assessed by one-tailed t test and the interobserver variation by two-tailed t test. The two observers gave very close IQ scores for the three techniques without significant interobserver variations. Measured IQ parameters failed to reveal any difference between techniques, and an approximate half radiation dose reduction was obtained by using the full 16-row configuration. Acquisition times were cumulatively shortened by using the multislice and the helical modality. (orig.)

  3. Detección precoz por Tomografía Computada Cuantitativa Multicorte de alteraciones en la densidad mineral ósea, inducidas por una dieta aterogénica, en un modelo experimental en ratas en crecimiento Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography allozos early detectíon of bone mineral density alterations induced by atherogenic diet in a growing rat experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Joaquín Gubert

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Propósito. Demostrar la utilidad de la tomografía computada cuantitativa multicorte (QCT-MC en la detección precoz de alteraciones en la densidad mineral ósea (DMO mandibular, inducidas por una dieta aterogénica, en un modelo experimental en ratas en crecimiento. Materiales y Métodos. Ratas Wistar macho (n=16 al destete, loteadas por peso en 2 grupos: Control (C y experimental (E; peso promedio inicial sin diferencias significativas (p > 0,05; recibieron a libre demanda: C, dieta stock para roedores y E, dieta aterogénica por 3 semanas. Se monitorearon zoometría (peso y longitud corporales y consumo de dieta (g/100 g rata/día. A las 3 semanas en suero (mg/dL, se evaluó el perfil lipídico-lipoproteico: colesterol total (col-T, triglicéridos (TG, col HDL y noHDL, y la QCT-MC (Philips 64 CT, cuantificado con eFilm Workstation 2.1 de siete zonas mandibulares (ZM: n° 1 a 4, desde forámen mentoniano hacia mandibular; n° 5, proceso coronoide; n° 6, proceso condilar; n° 7, proceso angular. Se realizó análisis estadístico Pearson: correlación entre DMO de cada ZM y valor sérico de col-T (nivel de significación p 0,05. Los coeficientes de correlación (r y respectivos niveles de significación (p mostraron, en cinco de siete ZM, ser significativos: ZM 1: -0,580 (p = 0,019, ZM 2: -0,709 (p = 0,002, ZM 3: -0,635 (p = 0,008, ZM 5: -0.674 (p = 0,004, ZM 6: -0,564 (p = 0,023. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la QCT-MC es un método de diagnóstico por imágenes que permite detectar precozmente alteraciones inducidas por una dieta aterogénica en la arquitectura ósea de la mandíbula. La correlación inversa entre la DMO y el col-T indicaría una asociación entre el consumo de una dieta aterogénica y posibles disfunciones témporo-mandibulares.Purpose. To demónstrate the utility of Multislice Quantitative Computed Tomography (MS-QCT in the early detection of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD alterations induced by an

  4. Use of inflammatory factors combined with multi-slice spiral computer tomography for preoperative staging and operative strategy in colon cancer%三种不同炎性因子联合多层螺旋CT对结肠癌术前分期与术式预测的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪晓东; 欧阳书睿; 吕东昊; 刘丹; 李立

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical value of C-reactive protein(CRP), fibrinogen (FIB), or serum amyloid A protein (SAA) combined with 64 multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) for preoperative staging and operative strategy in colon cancer. Methods Patients with colon cancer were prospectively enrolled at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University from November 2007 to July 2009,and were equally randomized into 3 groups undergoing different preoperative evaluation: MSCT combined with CRP(CRP group), MSCT combined with FIB (FIB group), and MSCT combined with SAA (SAA group). The agreement between preoperative staging and postoperative pathologic staging and that between expected surgical procedure and procedure adopted were compared. Results Baseline characteristics among three groups were similar(P>0.05). In CRP group, the accuracies of preoperative staging T, N, M and TNM were 65.7%, 72.4%, 100% and 66.7%, respectively. In FIB group, the accuracies of preoperative staging T, N, M and TNM were 71.4%, 74.3%, 99.0% and 65.7%, respectively. In SAA group, the accuracies of preoperative staging T, N, M and TNM were 60.0%, 55.2%, 96.2%and 51.4%, respectively. The accuracies of N and TNM staging in CRP group and FIB group were significantly higher than those in SAA group(P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between FIB and CRP group(P>0.05). There were no significant differences in accuracy of predicting surgical procedures among three groups(93.3%, 92.3% and 87.6%, P>0.05). Conclusion Combined assessment of MSCT and CRP or FIB may improve the accuracy of preoperative staging and procedure prediction, and is superior to MSCT combined with SAA.%目的 探讨纤维蛋白原(FIB)、血清淀粉样蛋白(SAA)和C反应蛋白(CRP)联合64排多层螺旋CT(MSCT)在结肠癌术前评估与术式预测中的临床价值.方法 前瞻性纳入2007年11月至2009年7月期间四川大学华西医院结直肠外科专业组

  5. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  6. 右心房血管肉瘤1例与心电门腔CT%Right atrial angiosarcoma and electrocardiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Gong; Jianming Tian; Yi Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are quite rare and most of these tumors are benign. In this report, a patient presented with chest distress and shortness of breath after activity. Echocardiography of other hospital showed a hyperechoic right atrial mass. Electrocerdiogram-gated cardiac computed tomography (ECG-Gated CT) of our hospital provided accurate information about the site and extent of the tumor, and the involvement of neighboring structures, even about the malignant nature of the lesion. The pathological study indicated angiosarcorna. The role of ECG-Gated CT in the assessment of cardiac masses and tumors was discussed. Cardiac tumors are extremely rare and can be divided into benign and malignant lesions. Myxomas are the most common type of cardiac benign tumor, while angiosarcomas are the most common type of cardiac malignant tumor.Imaging studies play an important role in the diagnosis of cardiac angiosarcomas. Echocardiogram, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most common imaging studies for tumors evaluation. However, the precise tumor location is often difficult to evaluate precisely on the basis of two-dimensional source images. We conducted ECG-gated cardiac CT examination with 3D reconstruction for preoperative assessment in a patient with a angiosarcorna arising in the right atrium.

  7. Computed tomography to estimate cardiac preload and extravascular lung water. A retrospective analysis in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In critically ill patients intravascular volume status and pulmonary edema need to be quantified as soon as possible. Many critically ill patients undergo a computed tomography (CT-scan of the thorax after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. This study investigates whether CT-based estimation of cardiac preload and pulmonary hydration can accurately assess volume status and can contribute to an early estimation of hemodynamics. Methods Thirty medical ICU patients. Global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD serving as reference method (with established GEDVI/EVLWI normal values. Central venous pressure (CVP was determined. CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP by two different radiologists (R1, R2 without analyzing software. Primary endpoint: predictive capabilities of CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP compared to TPTD and measured CVP. Secondary endpoint: interobserver correlation and agreement between R1 and R2. Results Accuracy of CT-estimation of GEDVI ( 800 mL/m2 was 33%(R1/27%(R2. For R1 and R2 sensitivity for diagnosis of low GEDVI (2 was 0% (specificity 100%. Sensitivity for prediction of elevated GEDVI (> 800 mL/m2 was 86%(R1/57%(R2 with a specificity of 57%(R1/39%(R2 (positive predictive value 38%(R1/22%(R2; negative predictive value 93%(R1/75%(R2. Estimated CT-GEDVI and TPTD-GEDVI were significantly different showing an overestimation of GEDVI by the radiologists (R1: mean difference ± standard error (SE: 191 ± 30 mL/m2, p 2, p 10 mL/kg was 30% for R1 and 40% for R2. CT-EVLWI and TPTD-EVLWI were significantly different (R1: mean difference ± SE: 3.3 ± 1.2 mL/kg, p = 0.013; R2: mean difference ± SE: 2.8 ± 1.1 mL/kg, p = 0.021. Again ccc was low with -0.02 (R1; 95% CI: -0.20 to +0.13, BCF = 0.44 and +0.14 (R2; 95% CI: -0.05 to +0.32, BCF = 0.53. GEDVI, EVLWI and CVP estimations of R1 and R2 showed a poor

  8. Software compensation of eddy current fields in multislice high order dynamic shimming

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Saikat; Avison, Malcolm J; Gore, John C.; Welch, E. Brian

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic B0 shimming (DS) can produce better field homogeneity than static global shimming by dynamically updating slicewise shim values in a multislice acquisition. The performance of DS however is limited by eddy current fields produced by the switching of 2nd and 3rd order unshielded shims. In this work, we present a novel method of eddy field compensation (EFC) applied to higher order shim induced eddy current fields in multislice DS. This method does not require shim shielding, extra hard...

  9. How will the introduction of multi-slice CT affect patient doses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging protocols for patients undergoing CT examinations on a conventional single section scanner (GE CT/i) were compared with those developed after a multi-slice scanner (GE LightSpeed) was introduced into clinical practice. For multi-slice CT, the reduction in patient scan time was a more than a factor of two for head scans, and approximately 25% for body scans. The number of images available for review on the multi-slice CT system increased by approximately 40%. Use of this multi-slice CT scanner resulted in an effective dose of 1.2 mSv for head examinations and 9.1 mSv for body examinations. The increase in patient effective dose after the introduction of multi-slice CT was approximately 30% for head CT examinations and 150% for body examinations. Higher patient doses were due to a shorter CT geometry, x-ray beam profiles that are greater than the detector width, and the use of a pitch ratio of only 0.75. Since multi-slice CT offers major reductions in scan time as well as improved image quality, it is anticipated that both individual and collective doses from CT will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. (author)

  10. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery. First reported case in Uruguay diagnosed by multislice tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital heart disease (1 in 300,000 live births or 0.5% of all congenital heart diseases in children), producing myocardial ischemia with left ventricular dysfunction and mitral insufficiency of varying degree (dilated cardiomyopathy). Diagnosis allows curative treatment most likely to return as early as ad integrum is made.The clinical diagnosis is suspected by the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in infants with an electrocardiogram (ECG) showing a characteristic image and pathognomonic . The diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of the anatomical origin of the left coronary artery from the main pulmonary artery. This demonstration is done classically color Doppler echocardiography and cardiac catheterization with coronary angiography showing the right coronary artery (dilated) originating from the aorta and circulation intercoronary displayed the left coronary artery in the main pulmonary artery. Currently you have new imaging techniques such as multislice CT, able to demonstrate satisfactorily that anomaly. We report the case of an infant with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, suspected clinically, anatomically demonstration by multislice CT and confirmed by coronary angiography

  11. Morphological and Volumetric Analysis of Left Atrial Appendage and Left Atrium: Cardiac Computed Tomography-Based Reproducibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taina, Mikko; Korhonen, Miika; Haataja, Mika; Muuronen, Antti; Arponen, Otso; Hedman, Marja; Jäkälä, Pekka; Sipola, Petri; Mustonen, Pirjo; Vanninen, Ritva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Left atrial appendage (LAA) dilatation and morphology may influence an individual's risk for intracardiac thrombi and ischemic stroke. LAA size and morphology can be evaluated using cardiac computed tomography (cCT). The present study evaluated the reproducibility of LAA volume and morphology assessments. Methods A total of 149 patients (47 females; mean age 60.9±10.6 years) with suspected cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack underwent cCT. Image quality was rated based on four categories. Ten patients were selected from each image quality category (N = 40) for volumetric reproducibility analysis by two individual readers. LAA and left atrium (LA) volume were measured in both two-chamber (2CV) and transversal view (TV) orientation. Intertechnique reproducibility was assessed between 2CV and TV (200 measurement pairs). LAA morphology (A = Cactus, B = ChickenWing, C = WindSock, D = CauliFlower), LAA opening height, number of LAA lobes, trabeculation, and orientation of the LAA tip was analysed in all study subjects by three individual readers (447 interobserver measurement pairs). The reproducibility of volume measurements was assessed by intra-class correlation (ICC) and the reproducibility of LAA morphology assessments by Cohen's kappa. Results The intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility of LAA and LA volume measurements was excellent (ICCs>0.9). The LAA (ICC = 0.954) and LA (ICC = 0.945) volume measurements were comparable between 2CV and TV. Morphological classification (ĸ = 0.24) and assessments of LAA opening height (ĸ = 0.1), number of LAA lobes (ĸ = 0.16), trabeculation (ĸ = 0.15), and orientation of the LAA tip (ĸ = 0.37) was only slightly to fairly reproducible. Conclusions LA and LAA volume measurements on cCT provide excellent reproducibility, whereas visual assessment of LAA morphological features is challenging and results in unsatisfactory agreement between readers

  12. Morphological and volumetric analysis of left atrial appendage and left atrium: cardiac computed tomography-based reproducibility assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Taina

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Left atrial appendage (LAA dilatation and morphology may influence an individual's risk for intracardiac thrombi and ischemic stroke. LAA size and morphology can be evaluated using cardiac computed tomography (cCT. The present study evaluated the reproducibility of LAA volume and morphology assessments. METHODS: A total of 149 patients (47 females; mean age 60.9±10.6 years with suspected cardioembolic stroke/transient ischemic attack underwent cCT. Image quality was rated based on four categories. Ten patients were selected from each image quality category (N = 40 for volumetric reproducibility analysis by two individual readers. LAA and left atrium (LA volume were measured in both two-chamber (2CV and transversal view (TV orientation. Intertechnique reproducibility was assessed between 2CV and TV (200 measurement pairs. LAA morphology (A = Cactus, B = ChickenWing, C = WindSock, D = CauliFlower, LAA opening height, number of LAA lobes, trabeculation, and orientation of the LAA tip was analysed in all study subjects by three individual readers (447 interobserver measurement pairs. The reproducibility of volume measurements was assessed by intra-class correlation (ICC and the reproducibility of LAA morphology assessments by Cohen's kappa. RESULTS: The intra-observer and interobserver reproducibility of LAA and LA volume measurements was excellent (ICCs>0.9. The LAA (ICC = 0.954 and LA (ICC = 0.945 volume measurements were comparable between 2CV and TV. Morphological classification (ĸ = 0.24 and assessments of LAA opening height (ĸ = 0.1, number of LAA lobes (ĸ = 0.16, trabeculation (ĸ = 0.15, and orientation of the LAA tip (ĸ = 0.37 was only slightly to fairly reproducible. CONCLUSIONS: LA and LAA volume measurements on cCT provide excellent reproducibility, whereas visual assessment of LAA morphological features is challenging and results in unsatisfactory agreement between readers.

  13. A retrospectively ECG-gated multislice spiral CT scan and reconstruction technique with suppression of heart pulsation artifacts for cardio-thoracic imaging with extended volume coverage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for cardio-thoracic multislice spiral CT imaging with ECG gating for suppression of heart pulsation artifacts is introduced. The proposed technique offers extended volume coverage compared with standard ECG-gated spiral scan and reconstruction approaches for cardiac applications: Thin-slice data of the entire thorax can be acquired within one breath-hold period using a four-slice CT system. The extended volume coverage is enabled by a modified approach for ECG-gated image reconstruction. For a CT system with 0.5-s gantry rotation time, images are reconstructed with 250-ms image temporal resolution. Instead of selecting scan data acquired in exactly the same phase of the cardiac cycle for each image as in standard ECG-gated reconstruction techniques, the patient's ECG signal is used to omit scan data acquired during the systolic phase of highest cardiac motion. With this approach cardiac pulsation artifacts in CT studies of the aorta, of paracardiac lung segments, and of coronary bypass grafts can be effectively reduced. (orig.)

  14. Four-dimensional computed tomography: a method of assessing right ventricular outflow tract and pulmonary artery deformations throughout the cardiac cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schievano, Silvia; Capelli, Claudio; Young, Carol; Lurz, Philipp; Nordmeyer, Johannes; Owens, Catherine; Bonhoeffer, Philipp; Taylor, Andrew M. [UCL, Institute of Child Health and Great, Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Cardiovascular Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    To characterise 3D deformations of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT)/ pulmonary arteries (PAs) during the cardiac cycle and estimate the errors of conventional 2D assessments. Contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) findings were retrospectively analysed from 12 patients. The acquisition of 3D images over 10 phases of the cardiac cycle created a four-dimensional CT (4DCT) dataset. The datasets were reconstructed and deformation measured at various levels of the RVOT/PAs in both space and time. Section planes were either static or dynamic relative to the motion of the structures. 4DCT enabled measurement and characterisation of in vivo 3D changes of patients' RVOT/PA during the cardiac cycle. The studied patient population showed a wide range of RVOT/PA morphologies, sizes and dynamics that develop late after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. There were also significant differences in the measured cross-sectional areas of the structures between static and dynamic section planes (up to 150%, p < 0.05) secondary to large 3D displacements and rotations. 4DCT imaging data suggest high variability in RVOT/PA dynamics and significant errors in deformation measurements if 3D analysis is not carried out. These findings play an important role for the development of novel percutaneous approaches to pulmonary valve intervention. (orig.)

  15. Clinical value of diagnosing intracranial aneurysms with fly-around of multislice helical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To exploring the clinical value of multislice helical CT fly-around as a new method for diagnosing micro intracranial aneurysms (≤2 mm in diameter). Methods: In this retrospective study, the authors compared the usefulness of multislice helical computed tomographic three dimensional angiography (MS 3D-CTA), digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and surgery for the detection and assessment of clinical suspected intracranial aneurysms in 104 patients, 86 patients who presented with acute, non-traumatic SAH. Row data was acquired by Multislice helical CT-Aquilion (Toshiba). The parameters of scanning and images reconstructing were: slice thickness 1.0 mm, helical pitch 3.5, scan speed was 0.5 s per rotation, delay time was 15 - 23 s; Nonionic contrast medium was injected intravenously (2.0 ml/kg) at speed of 3.0 - 5.0 ml/s. Source images were processed using a workstation SGI-O2, images post-processing software was Alatoview, ver: 1.42. The reconstructed images were then processed into fly-around and shaded volume rendering (SVR) and maximal intensity projection (MIP), and Entire brain DSA was performed. Images of MS 3D-CTA and DSA were analyzed by 3 radiologists at double blinded. Results: 70 aneurysms were proved at DSA and surgery, largest aneurysms was 24.0 mm in diameter and smallest aneurysms was 1.0 mm in diameter. Five of 70 aneurysms was large aneurysms, 40 was small aneurysms and 25 was micro aneurysms: fly-around found out 25 micro aneurysms, SVR and MIP found out 23 of them, DSA found out only 21 of them. For detected micro aneurysm, accuracy of fly-around was 95.71%, sensitivity was 100.0% and specificity was 93.33%, positive predictive value was 89.29, negative predictive value was 100.0%, accuracy of SVR and MIP was 95.71%, sensitivity was 92.0% and specificity was 97.78%, positive predictive value was 95.83%, negative predictive value was 95.65%, accuracy of DSA was 94.29%, sensitivity was 84.0% and specificity was 100.0%, positive

  16. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  17. Assessment of the Right Ventricular Function and Mass Using Cardiac Multi-Detector Computed Tomography in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to assess the relationship between measurements of the right ventricular (RV) function and mass, with using cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as determined by the pulmonary function test (PFT). Measurements of PFT and cardiac MDCT were obtained in 33 COPD patients. Using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification, the patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of the disease: stage I (mild, n = 4), stage II (moderate, n = 15) and stage III (severe, n = 14). The RV function and the wall mass were obtained by cardiac MDCT. The results were compared among the groups using the Student-Newman-Keuls method. Person's correlation was used to evaluate the relationship between the right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) and the wall mass results with the PFT results. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The RVEF and mass were 47 ±3% and 41 ±2 g in stage I, 46 ±6% and 46 ±5 g in stage II, and 35 ±5% and 55 ±6 g in stage III, respectively. The RVEF was significantly lower in stage III than in stage I and II (p < 0.01). The RV mass was significantly different among the three stages, according to the disease severity of COPD (p < 0.05). The correlation was excellent between the MDCT results and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (r = 0.797 for RVEF and r -0.769 for RV mass) and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec to the forced vital capacity (r = 0.745 for RVEF and r = -0.718 for RV mass). Our study shows that the mean RV wall mass as measured by cardiac MDCT correlates well with the COPD disease severity as determined by PFT

  18. Myocardial bridges and mural coronary artery: identification with multi-slice CT versus coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the feasibility of multi-slices computed tomography (MSCT) versus coronary angiography(CAG) for identification of myocardial bridges and mural coronary artery(MB-MCA). Methods: For 76 patients suspecting coronary heart disease the MSCT and CAG were performed for the coronary imaging. The MB-MCAs were identified on the CT images and angiograms by radiologists and cardiologists separately and independently before and after consulting each other. The data was statistically analyzed using χ2-squrae test. Results: Before consulting each other, 29 MB-MCA in 27 patients and 2 MB-MCA in two cases were detected using MSCT and CAG by radiologists and cardiologist separately and independently with significant difference statistically (χ2 = 10.52, P2=28.82, P2=10.52, P2=-0.33, P<0.05). Conclusion: MSCT is outperformed the CAG in detecting of MB-MCA and the coronary tortuosity on angiograms can be of the suggesting to existing of MB-MCA. (authors)

  19. Three-dimensional image reconstruction for PET by multi-slice rebinning and axial image filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewittt, R M; Muehllehner, G; Karpt, J S

    1994-03-01

    A fast method is described for reconstructing volume images from three-dimensional (3D) coincidence data in positron emission tomography (PET). The reconstruction method makes use of all coincidence data acquired by high-sensitivity PET systems that do not have inter-slice absorbers (septa) to restrict the axial acceptance angle. The reconstruction method requires only a small amount of storage and computation, making it well suited for dynamic and whole-body studies. The method consists of three steps: (i) rebinning of coincidence data into a stack of 2D sinograms; (ii) slice-by-slice reconstruction of the sinogram associated with each slice to produce a preliminary 3D image having strong blurring in the axial (z) direction, but with different blurring at different z positions; and (iii) spatially variant filtering of the 3D image in the axial direction (i.e. 1D filtering in z for each x-y column) to produce the final image. The first step involves a new form of the rebinning operation in which multiple sinograms are incremented for each oblique coincidence line (multi-slice rebinning). The axial filtering step is formulated and implemented using the singular value decomposition (SVD). The method has been applied successfully to simulated data and to measured data for different kinds of phantom (multiple point sources, multiple discs, a cylinder with cold spheres, and a 3D brain phantom). PMID:15551583

  20. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Robin D.; Saueressig, Ulrich; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Bley, Thorsten A. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Strohm, Peter C.; Zwingmann, Joern; Suedkamp, Norbert P. [University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Uhl, Markus [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD{+-}7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  1. Effective dose estimation in whole-body multislice CT in paediatric trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of multislice CT (MSCT) scans performed in polytraumatized children has increased rapidly. There is growing concern regarding the radiation dose in MSCT and its long-term consequences, especially in children. To determine the effective dose to polytraumatized children who undergo whole-body MSCT. A total of 51 traumatized children aged 0-16 years underwent a polytrauma protocol CT scan between November 2004 and August 2006 at our institution. The effective dose was calculated retrospectively by a computer program (CT-Expo 1.5, Hannover, Germany). The mean effective dose was 20.8 mSv (range 8.6-48.9 mSv, SD±7.9 mSv). There was no statistically significant difference in the effective dose between male and female patients. Whole-body MSCT is a superior diagnostic tool in polytraumatized children with 20.8 mSv per patient being a justified mean effective dose. In a potentially life-threatening situation whole-body MSCT provides the clinicians with relevant information to initiate life-saving therapy. Radiologists should use special paediatric protocols that include dose-saving mechanisms to keep the effective dose as low as possible. Further studies are needed to examine and advance dose-saving strategies in MSCT, especially in children. (orig.)

  2. Multi-slice CT angiography by triple-phase enhancement in preoperative evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Xi-gang; HAN Xue; SHAN Wei-dong; LI An-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Triple-phase enhancement of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has markedly improved the diagnostic accuracy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and MSCT angiography (MSCTA) has been proved useful in detecting vascular anatomy noninvasively. This study aimed to explore the value of MSCTA by triple-phase enhancement in preoperative evaluation of HCC.Methods Fifty-six consecutive cases of primary HCC scheduled for resection were studied with MSCTA by triple-phase enhancement. The raw data images were processed on a workstation for multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The findings after processing of the data were compared with those after surgery or intraoperative sonography. Results The false positive rate of MSCTA by triple-phase enhancement was 10.1% and its false negative rate was 4.3% in detecting HCC. No significant difference was observed in MSCTA and surgery or intraoperative sonography in detecting vascular anatomy anomalies and pathologic variations, whereas significant difference was found in detecting bile duct invasion with MSCT compared to intraoperative sonography.Conclusions MSCTA by triple-phase enhancement not only improves the detection of HCC, but also provides valuable preoperative information about hepatic vascular architecture and parenchyma. MSCTA by triple-phase enhancement is worthy of application as a non-invasive method in preoperative evaluation of HCC.

  3. Assessment of multislice CT to quantify pulmonary emphysema function and physiology in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun; Krishnamurthi, Ganapathy; Presson, Robert G., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate multi-slice computed tomography technology to quantify functional and physiologic changes in rats with pulmonary emphysema. Method: Seven rats were scanned using a 16-slice CT (Philips MX8000 IDT) before and after artificial inducement of emphysema. Functional parameters i.e. lung volumes were measured by non-contrast spiral scan during forced breath-hold at inspiration and expiration followed by image segmentation based on attenuation threshold. Dynamic CT imaging was performed immediately following the contrast injection to estimate physiology changes. Pulmonary perfusion, fractional blood volume, and mean transit times (MTTs) were estimated by fitting the time-density curves of contrast material using a compartmental model. Results: The preliminary results indicated that the lung volumes of emphysema rats increased by 3.52+/-1.70mL (pemphysema rats decreased by 91.76+/-68.11HU (pemphysema rats were 0.25+/-0.04ml/s/ml and 0.32+/-0.09ml/s/ml respectively. The fractional blood volumes for normal and emphysema rats were 0.21+/-0.04 and 0.15+/-0.02. There was a trend toward faster MTTs for emphysema rats (0.42+/-0.08s) than normal rats (0.89+/-0.19s) with ppulmonary emphysema appears promising for small animals.

  4. Applicability of ECG-gated multislice helical CT to patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) is reconstructed by electrocardiogram (ECG) gating and consequently it is difficult to obtain coronary artery images from patients with arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (AF), by the conventional method. Eleven patients with AF (9 males, 2 females; mean age: 62.5 years) underwent CTCA using a slice thickness of 0.5 mm, gantry rotation of 0.4 or 0.5 s/rot and pitch of 3.2-4.0. A segmented reconstruction method was used to construct CTCA images at the conventional relative 70-75% (mid-diastolic phase) and 30-35% (end-systolic phase) of the R-R interval and furthermore, the absolute mid-diastolic phase and end-systolic phase from the R wave. Three investigators, who were unaware of the coronary angiography results, independently evaluated the curved multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) images. In both the relative and absolute phase reconstruction, there were motion artifacts in the mid-diastolic than in the end-systolic phase. The absolute phase images had less motion artifacts than the conventional relative phase images. Optimal curved MPR images were obtained in the absolute end-systolic phase. The quality and motion artifacts of those optimal images from AF patients were similar to those from patients in sinus rhythm. The absolute end-systolic phase is the best time to get optimal CTCA images in AF patients. (author)

  5. Ultrafast multi-slice spatiotemporally encoded MRI with slice-selective dimension segmented.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jianpan; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    As a recently emerging method, spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high robustness to field inhomogeneity and chemical shift effect. It has been broadened from single-slice scanning to multi-slice scanning. In this paper, a novel multi-slice SPEN MRI method was proposed. In this method, the slice-selective dimension was segmented to lower the specific absorption rate (SAR) and improve the image quality. This segmented method, dubbed SeSPEN method, was theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with phantom, lemon and in vivo rat brain experiments. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained from the spin-echo EPI, spin-echo SPEN method and multi-slice global SPEN method proposed by Frydman and coauthors (abbr. GlSPEN method). All the SPEN images were super-resolved reconstructed using deconvolution method. The results indicate that the SeSPEN method retains the advantage of SPEN MRI with respect to resistance to field inhomogeneity and can provide better signal-to-noise ratio than multi-slice GlSPEN MRI technique. The SeSPEN method has comparable SAR to the GlSPEN method while the T1 signal attenuation effect is alleviated. The proposed method will facilitate the multi-slice SPEN MRI to scan more slices within one scan with better image quality. PMID:27301072

  6. Ultrafast multi-slice spatiotemporally encoded MRI with slice-selective dimension segmented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jianpan; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    As a recently emerging method, spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high robustness to field inhomogeneity and chemical shift effect. It has been broadened from single-slice scanning to multi-slice scanning. In this paper, a novel multi-slice SPEN MRI method was proposed. In this method, the slice-selective dimension was segmented to lower the specific absorption rate (SAR) and improve the image quality. This segmented method, dubbed SeSPEN method, was theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with phantom, lemon and in vivo rat brain experiments. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained from the spin-echo EPI, spin-echo SPEN method and multi-slice global SPEN method proposed by Frydman and coauthors (abbr. GlSPEN method). All the SPEN images were super-resolved reconstructed using deconvolution method. The results indicate that the SeSPEN method retains the advantage of SPEN MRI with respect to resistance to field inhomogeneity and can provide better signal-to-noise ratio than multi-slice GlSPEN MRI technique. The SeSPEN method has comparable SAR to the GlSPEN method while the T1 signal attenuation effect is alleviated. The proposed method will facilitate the multi-slice SPEN MRI to scan more slices within one scan with better image quality.

  7. Method for reducing windmill artifacts in multislice CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin M.; Žabic, Stanislav

    2011-03-01

    Thin-slice images reconstructed from helical multi-slice CT scans typically display artifacts known as windmill artifacts, which arise from not satisfying the Nyquist sampling criteria in the patient longitudinal direction. Since these are essentially aliasing artifacts, they can be reduced or removed by trading off resolution, either globally (by reconstructing thicker slices) or locally (by local smoothing of the strong gradients). The obvious drawback to this approach is the associated loss in resolution. Another approach is to utilize an x-ray tube with the capability to modulate the focal spot in the z-direction, to effectively improve the sampling rate. This work presents a new method for windmill artifact reduction based on total variation minimization in the image domain, which is capable of removing windmill artifacts while at the same time preserving the resolution of anatomic structures within the images. This is a big improvement over previous reconstruction methods that sacrifice resolution, and it provides practically the same benefits as a z-switching x-ray tube with a much simpler impact to the overall CT system.

  8. Role of Multislice Dental CT in Assessment of Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa A Elaty *, Ahmed M Monib *, Yasser A Mohamed *,Ahmed F Abd elghany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of dental implants to restore missing teeth has become increasingly widespread over the past two decades. Dental MSCT plays an important role in the preoperative planning of dental implants because it provides accurate measurement of the width and depth of the edentulous ridge as well as the bone density. And postoperatively, dental MSCT images can show the failure of an endosseous implant to osseointegrate, improper placement of an implant, and violation of important structures. Aim of the work: Is to determine the success of dental implants following pre-operative multi-slice dental CT planning and for early detection of post-operative complications.Methods: The study included 25 patients that were divided in to 2 groups, Group I included 14 partially edentulous patients who underwent pre and post- operative dental MSCT, while group II included 11patients that already have dental implants and underwent post-operative dental MSCT using16-slice helical CT scanner.Results: There is highly significant (P < 0.001 relation between preoperative dental MSCT assessment and postoperative results and dental MSCT was very accurate in the evaluation of osseointegration and very sensitive in the detection of postoperative complications. Conclusion: Dental MSCT is a promising method that can be used as an imaging tool in the preoperative planning and postoperative assessment of dental implants

  9. Evaluation of pituitary adenomas by multidirectional multislice dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Multidetector-row CT is a new technology with a short scanning time. Multislice dynamic CT (MSDCT) in various directions can be obtained using the multidetector-row CT with multiplanar reformatting (MPR) technique. Material and Methods: We evaluated the initial results of sagittal and coronal MSDCT images reconstructed by MPR (MSDCT-MPR) in 3 pituitary adenoma patients with a pacemaker. Results: In a patient with microadenoma, the maximum contrast between the normal anterior pituitary gland and the adenoma occurred approximately 50 s after the start of the contrast medium injection. A microadenoma was depicted as a less enhanced area relative to normal pituitary tissue. The macroadenomas were depicted as a less enhanced mass with cavernous sinus invasion in 1 patient and as a non-uniformly enhanced mass in another patient. Bone destruction and incomplete opening of the sellar floor during previous surgery were clearly detected in 2 patients with macroadenomas. These pituitary adenomas were removed via the transnasal route based on information from the MSDCT-MPR images only. The findings were verified surgically. Conclusion: The MSDCT-MPR provided the information needed for surgery with good image quality in the 3 patients with pacemakers. MSDCT-MPR appears to be a useful technique for patients with a pituitary adenoma in whom MR imaging is not available. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of the MSDCT-MPR technique being used to demonstrate pituitary disorders

  10. Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of carotid body tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to explore the Multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) findings of carotid body tumor (CBT). Methods: Twelve cases of CBT proved by surgery were collected in this study and all patients accepted contrast-enhanced MSCT examination. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional post-processing were performed at diagnostic workstation using Aquilion 1.42. The CT features of CBT were analyzed. Results Each of 12 patients had one lesion. All lesions demonstrated well-marginated masses of homogeneous soft- tissue density with CT value within 29-48 HU on pre-enhanced images. All lesions were markedly enhanced with CT value over 200 HU on arterial-phase images, and the density of lesions decreased rapidly on delay- phase images. Twelve lesions were all located at the level of carotid artery bifurcation, 3 of them enveloping common carotid artery and internal/external carotid artery, and other 9 of them riding right on the carotid bifurcation. Internal carotid artery usually were shifted toward posterior-lateral, and external carotid artery toward anterior or anterior-medial. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MSCT examination not only can make a qualitative diagnosis of CBT, but determine its accurate location. It plays an importantly instructional role in clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  11. Multislice algorithms revisited: Solving the Schrödinger equation numerically for imaging with electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wacker, C., E-mail: christian.wacker@bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de; Schröder, R.R.

    2015-04-15

    For a long time, the high-energy approximation was sufficient for any image simulation in electron microscopy. This changed with the advent of aberration correctors that allow high-resolution imaging at low electron energies. To deal with this fact, we present a numerical solution of the exact Schrödinger equation that is novel in the field of electron microscopy. Furthermore, we investigate systematically the advantages and problems of several multislice algorithms, especially the real-space algorithms. - Highlights: • A new multislice algorithm based on the exact Schrödinger equation is introduced. • The quality of multislice algorithms in direct space and Fourier space is compared. • We demonstrate the need of going beyond the high-energy approximation.

  12. Multislice algorithms revisited: Solving the Schrödinger equation numerically for imaging with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long time, the high-energy approximation was sufficient for any image simulation in electron microscopy. This changed with the advent of aberration correctors that allow high-resolution imaging at low electron energies. To deal with this fact, we present a numerical solution of the exact Schrödinger equation that is novel in the field of electron microscopy. Furthermore, we investigate systematically the advantages and problems of several multislice algorithms, especially the real-space algorithms. - Highlights: • A new multislice algorithm based on the exact Schrödinger equation is introduced. • The quality of multislice algorithms in direct space and Fourier space is compared. • We demonstrate the need of going beyond the high-energy approximation

  13. Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary-DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic impact of multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods: 994 vessel segments of 14 consecutive patients with CTEPH were investigated with multislice-CT (slice thickness 3 mm, collimation 2.5 mm, reconstruction intervall 2 mm) and selective pulmonary DSA posterior-anterior, 45 oblique, and lateral projection. Analysis was performed by 2 investigators independently for CT and DSA. Diagnostic criteria were occlusions and non-occlusive changes like webs and bands, irregularities of the vessel wall, diameter reduction and thromboembolic depositions at different levels from central pulmonary arteries to subsegmental arteries. Reference diagnosis was made by synopsis of CT and DSA by consensus. Results: Concerning patency CT and DSA showed concordant findings overall in 88.9%, 92.9% for segmental arteries and 85.4% for subsegmental arteries. Concerning any thromboembolic changes, multislice-CT was significantly inferior to selective DSA (concordance 67.0% overall, 70.4% for segments and 63.6% for subsegments). Non-occlusive changes of the vessels were significantly underdiagnosed by CT (concordance of CT versus DSA: 23.1%). Conclusion: Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are equivalent for diagnosis of vessel occlusions at the level of segmental and subsegmental arteries. However, for visualisation of the non-occlusive thromboembolic changes of the vessel wall selective pulmonary DSA is still superior compared to multislice-CT. Multislice-CT and selective pulmonary DSA are complementary tools for diagnosis and treatment planning of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). (orig.)

  14. Impedance measurement to assess epicardial fat prior to RF intraoperative cardiac ablation: a feasibility study using a computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency (RF) cardiac ablation is used to treat certain types of arrhythmias. In the epicardial approach, efficacy of RF ablation is uncertain due to the presence of epicardial adipose tissue interposed between the ablation electrode and the atrial wall. We planned a feasibility study based on a theoretical model in order to assess a new technique to estimate the quantity of fat by conducting bioimpedance measurements using a multi-electrode probe. The finite element method was used to solve the electrical problem. The results showed that the measured impedance profile coincided approximately with the epicardial fat profile measured under the probe electrodes and also that the thicker the epicardial fat, the higher the impedance values. When the lateral fat width was less than 4.5 mm, the impedance values altered, suggesting that measurements should always be conducted over a sizeable fat layer. We concluded that impedance measurement could be a practical method of assessing epicardial fat prior to RF intraoperative cardiac ablation, i.e. 'to map' the amount of adipose tissue under the probe. (note)

  15. Congenital abnormalities of aortic artery. Assessment in neonates and early childhood with multislice tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the evaluation of aortic artery congenital abnormalities, the echocardiography and the plain X ray are the traditionally used imaging methods. Multislice angiotomography appears as an important method in diagnosis of these different diseases allowing evaluate these entities in a non invasive, fast and accurate form, giving to cardiovascular surgeons very important information to delineate the surgical strategy. In this article, we review the applications of multislice angiotomography in the evaluation of most frequent congenital anomalies of aorta artery, performed in neonates and early childhood. (authors)

  16. Multislice CT of the abdomen. Current indications and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multislice CT systems allow the simultaneous acquisition of multiple slices per gantry rotation. In combination with faster gantry rotation times of 0.5 seconds, the abdominal structures can be displayed in higher spatial and temporal resolution. In MS-CT of the liver it is possible to scan the entire organ with an optimal slice thickness of 2 - 3 mm within a defined perfusion phase in less than 10 seconds. This results in an improved detection and characterization of focal liver lesions. A high-quality, 3-dimensional reconstruction of the hepatic arterial and portalvenous system is obtained with the same data set. The diagnostic use of the simultaneously acquired perfusion data will lead to a better characterization of focal liver lesions in the future. The diagnostics of the pancreas also profits from MS-CT, especially for the detection of small tumors and the evaluation of resectability of a pancreatic carcinoma. All abdominal structures can be displayed in a coronal view without loss of image quality because of the almost isotropic voxels obtained. This proves to be beneficial for the preoperative diagnostics of renal cell carcinomas, especially if the tumor extension into adjacent organs (e.g., liver or spleen) in the longitudinal direction has to be evaluated. The multiplanar display and the sophisticated 3-dimensional reconstruction tools have a substantial value for the abdominal CT angiography. It proves to have a major diagnostic impact on acute abdominal aortic and visceral arterial diseases because even large distances in the z-direction can be covered with high spatial resolution. (orig.)

  17. Towards real-time thermometry using simultaneous multislice MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, P T S; Bos, C; de Boorder, T; Raaymakers, B W; Moonen, C T W; Crijns, S P M

    2016-09-01

    MR-guided thermal therapies, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) and laser-induced thermal therapy (MRgLITT) are increasingly being applied in oncology and neurology. MRI is used for guidance since it can measure temperature noninvasively based on the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS). For therapy guidance using PRFS thermometry, high temporal resolution and large spatial coverage are desirable. We propose to use the parallel imaging technique simultaneous multislice (SMS) in combination with controlled aliasing (CAIPIRINHA) to accelerate the acquisition. We compare this with the sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration technique. Two experiments were performed to validate that SMS can be used to increase the spatial coverage or the temporal resolution. The first was performed in agar gel using LITT heating and a gradient-echo sequence with echo-planar imaging (EPI), and the second was performed in bovine muscle using HIFU heating and a gradient-echo sequence without EPI. In both experiments temperature curves from an unaccelerated scan and from SMS, SENSE, and SENSE/SMS accelerated scans were compared. The precision was quantified by a standard deviation analysis of scans without heating. Both experiments showed a good agreement between the temperature curves obtained from the unaccelerated, and SMS accelerated scans, confirming that accuracy was maintained during SMS acceleration. The standard deviations of the temperature measurements obtained with SMS were significantly smaller than when SENSE was used, implying that SMS allows for higher acceleration. In the LITT and HIFU experiments SMS factors up to 4 and 3 were reached, respectively, with a loss of precision of less than a factor of 3. Based on these results we conclude that SMS acceleration of PRFS thermometry is a valuable addition to SENSE, because it allows for a higher temporal resolution or bigger spatial coverage, with a higher precision. PMID:27524666

  18. A z gain nonuniformity correction for multislice volumetric CT scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, G; Hu, H; Xie, M; He, D; Seidenschnur, G; Bromberg, N

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents a calibration and correction method for detector cell gain variations. A key functionality of current CT scanners is to offer variable slice thickness to the user. To provide this capability in multislice volumetric scanners, while minimizing costs, it is necessary to combine the signals of several detector cells in z, when the desired slice thickness is larger than the minimum provided by a single cell. These combined signals are then pre-amplified, digitized, and transmitted to the system for further processing. The process of combining the output of several detector cells with nonuniform gains can introduce numerical errors when the impinging x-ray signal presents a variation along z over the range of combined cells. These numerical errors, which by nature are scan dependent, can lead to artifacts in the reconstructed images, particularly when the numerical errors vary from channel-to-channel (as the filtered-backprojection filter includes a high-pass filtering along the channel direction, within a given slice). A projection data correction algorithm has been developed to subtract the associated numerical errors. It relies on the ability of calibrating the individual cell gains. For effectiveness and data flow reasons, the algorithm works on a single slice basis, without slice-to-slice exchange of information. An initial error vector is calculated by applying a high-pass filter to the projection data. The essence of the algorithm is to correlate that initial error vector, with a calibration vector obtained by applying the same high-pass filter to various z combinations of the cell gains (each combination representing a basis function for a z expansion). The solution of the least-square problem, obtained via singular value decomposition, gives the coefficients of a polynomial expansion of the signal z slope and curvature. From this information, and given the cell gains, the final error vector is calculated and subtracted from the projection

  19. MEGACELL: A nanocrystal model construction software for HRTEM multislice simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image simulation has an invaluable importance for the accurate analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) results, especially due to its non-linear image formation mechanism. Because the as-obtained images cannot be interpreted in a straightforward fashion, the retrieval of both qualitative and quantitative information from HRTEM micrographs requires an iterative process including the simulation of a nanocrystal model and its comparison with experimental images. However most of the available image simulation software requires atom-by-atom coordinates as input for the calculations, which can be prohibitive for large finite crystals and/or low-symmetry systems and zone axis orientations. This paper presents an open source citation-ware tool named MEGACELL, which was developed to assist on the construction of nanocrystals models. It allows the user to build nanocrystals with virtually any convex polyhedral geometry and to retrieve its atomic positions either as a plain text file or as an output compatible with EMS (Electron Microscopy Software) input protocol. In addition to the description of this tool features, some construction examples and its application for scientific studies are presented. These studies show MEGACELL as a handy tool, which allows an easier construction of complex nanocrystal models and improves the quantitative information extraction from HRTEM images. -- Highlights: → A software to support the HRTEM image simulation of nanocrystals in actual size. → MEGACELL allows the construction of complex nanocrystals models for multislice image simulation. → Some examples of improved nanocrystalline system characterization are presented, including the analysis of 3D morphology and growth behavior.

  20. MEGACELL: A nanocrystal model construction software for HRTEM multislice simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroppa, Daniel G., E-mail: dstroppa@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mechanical Engineering School, University of Campinas, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Righetto, Ricardo D. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Campinas, 13083-852 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Montoro, Luciano A. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramirez, Antonio J. [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Mechanical Engineering School, University of Campinas, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Image simulation has an invaluable importance for the accurate analysis of High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) results, especially due to its non-linear image formation mechanism. Because the as-obtained images cannot be interpreted in a straightforward fashion, the retrieval of both qualitative and quantitative information from HRTEM micrographs requires an iterative process including the simulation of a nanocrystal model and its comparison with experimental images. However most of the available image simulation software requires atom-by-atom coordinates as input for the calculations, which can be prohibitive for large finite crystals and/or low-symmetry systems and zone axis orientations. This paper presents an open source citation-ware tool named MEGACELL, which was developed to assist on the construction of nanocrystals models. It allows the user to build nanocrystals with virtually any convex polyhedral geometry and to retrieve its atomic positions either as a plain text file or as an output compatible with EMS (Electron Microscopy Software) input protocol. In addition to the description of this tool features, some construction examples and its application for scientific studies are presented. These studies show MEGACELL as a handy tool, which allows an easier construction of complex nanocrystal models and improves the quantitative information extraction from HRTEM images. -- Highlights: {yields} A software to support the HRTEM image simulation of nanocrystals in actual size. {yields} MEGACELL allows the construction of complex nanocrystals models for multislice image simulation. {yields} Some examples of improved nanocrystalline system characterization are presented, including the analysis of 3D morphology and growth behavior.

  1. Assessment of left ventricular function by gated cardiac blood-pool emission computed tomography using a rotating gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To elucidate the usefulness of gated cardiac blood-pool single photon emission CT (SPECT) with Tc-99m for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) global and regional functions, 18 patients with coronary artery disease were studied. Thirty-two gated projection images were obtained over 360-degree at 16 frames per cardiac cycle. As LV volume was calculated by integrating the numbers of voxels which constituted LV and multiplying by the volume of a single voxel (0.1143 ml), we performed phantom studies to determine the appropriate cut-off level to detect LV outline. These cut-off levels were affected by the background activity and organ volume itself. So we constructed Volume-Cut-Level-Curve at each background activity. In clinical studies, short axis images which constituted LV were selected and provisional LV volumes were calculated at the cut-off levels of 45, 50 and 55%. These volumes were plotted on the Volume-Cut-Level-Curve and the true cut-off levels were obtained to calculate LV end-diastolic or end-systolic volume (EDV, ESV). The cut-off levels were different at every patient and ED or ES. EDV, ESV and LV ejection fraction obtained by SPECT were correlatd well with those obtained by contrast ventriculography (LVG) (r=0.89, 0.94, 0.94 each, p<0.01). For the LV wall motion analysis, LVGs obtained at two projections were compared with SPECT or gated cardiac blood-pool planar imaging (Planar) in 5 segments. In addition to visual comparison, wall motion scores (WMS) based on the degree of wall motion abnormality were calculated in each segment. Correlation of WMS between LVG and SPECT (r=0.84) was significantly (p<0.01) superior to that between LVG and Planar (r=0.62). Especially in SPECT, wall motion analyses at septal and infero-posterior segments were superior to those in Planar. Although gated SPECT requires relatively long time to perform, it is a useful method to detect LV global and regional functions. (author)

  2. First experiences from Copenhagen with paediatric single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jann; Bech, Birthe Højlund; Højgaard, Liselotte;

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the diagnostic value of single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT)/multislice computed tomographic (MSCT) fusion images compared with planar scintigraphy in children. METHODS: Fifteen children [eight girls, mean age 13 years (range 2-17 years)] who were...

  3. Evaluation of cardiac function in patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent of myocardial ischemia was evaluated in 20 patients with Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) by using Bull's eye method of thallium-201 myocardial SPECT. It was examined in relation to skeletal muscle involvement, age, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and ventricular premature contractions (VPCs). Myocardial ischemia was detected in all of patients with DMD. Ischemic lesion was mostly detected in the apical side of the LV lateral wall and interventricular septum, while the extent of myocardial ischemia had no correlations with either the stage of functional disability of skeletal muscle or age. The more ischemic ratio was higher, the more LV ejection fraction decreased. The total number of VPCs was relatively small and it did not have any relation to myocardial ischemic ratio. These results suggest that younger DMD patients having extensive myocardial ischemia and/or ventricular tachycardia will have a high risk of cardiac death. (author)

  4. Cardiac C-arm computed tomography using a 3D + time ROI reconstruction method with spatial and temporal regularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mory, Cyril, E-mail: cyril.mory@philips.com [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Philips Research Medisys, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes (France); Auvray, Vincent; Zhang, Bo [Philips Research Medisys, 33 rue de Verdun, 92156 Suresnes (France); Grass, Michael; Schäfer, Dirk [Philips Research, Röntgenstrasse 24–26, D-22335 Hamburg (Germany); Chen, S. James; Carroll, John D. [Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, 12605 East 16th Avenue, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Rit, Simon [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1 (France); Centre Léon Bérard, 28 rue Laënnec, F-69373 Lyon (France); Peyrin, Françoise [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); X-ray Imaging Group, European Synchrotron, Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Douek, Philippe; Boussel, Loïc [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1 (France); Hospices Civils de Lyon, 28 Avenue du Doyen Jean Lépine, 69500 Bron (France)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Reconstruction of the beating heart in 3D + time in the catheter laboratory using only the available C-arm system would improve diagnosis, guidance, device sizing, and outcome control for intracardiac interventions, e.g., electrophysiology, valvular disease treatment, structural or congenital heart disease. To obtain such a reconstruction, the patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) must be recorded during the acquisition and used in the reconstruction. In this paper, the authors present a 4D reconstruction method aiming to reconstruct the heart from a single sweep 10 s acquisition. Methods: The authors introduce the 4D RecOnstructiOn using Spatial and TEmporal Regularization (short 4D ROOSTER) method, which reconstructs all cardiac phases at once, as a 3D + time volume. The algorithm alternates between a reconstruction step based on conjugate gradient and four regularization steps: enforcing positivity, averaging along time outside a motion mask that contains the heart and vessels, 3D spatial total variation minimization, and 1D temporal total variation minimization. Results: 4D ROOSTER recovers the different temporal representations of a moving Shepp and Logan phantom, and outperforms both ECG-gated simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique and prior image constrained compressed sensing on a clinical case. It generates 3D + time reconstructions with sharp edges which can be used, for example, to estimate the patient's left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions: 4D ROOSTER can be applied for human cardiac C-arm CT, and potentially in other dynamic tomography areas. It can easily be adapted to other problems as regularization is decoupled from projection and back projection.

  5. Congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities in adults detected by gated cardiac multidetector computed tomography: Clefts, aneurysms, diverticula and terminology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities (clefts, aneurysms and diverticula), describe and illustrate imaging features, discuss terminology problems and determine their prevalence detected by cardiac CT in a single center. Materials and methods: Coronary CT angiography images of 2093 adult patients were evaluated retrospectively in order to determine congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities. Results: The incidence of left ventricular clefts (LVC) was 6.7% (141 patients) and statistically significant difference was not detected between the sexes regarding LVC (P = 0.5). LVCs were single in 65.2% and multiple in 34.8% of patients. They were located at the basal to mid inferoseptal segment of the left ventricle in 55.4%, the basal to mid anteroseptal segment in 24.1%, basal to mid inferior segment in 17% and septal–apical septal segment in 3.5% of cases. The cleft length ranged from 5 to 22 mm (mean 10.5 mm) and they had a narrow connection with the left ventricle (mean 2.5 mm). They were contractile with the left ventricle and obliterated during systole. Congenital left ventricular septal aneurysm that was located just under the aortic valve was detected in two patients (0.1%). No case of congenital left ventricular diverticulum was detected. Conclusion: Cardiac CT allows us to recognize congenital left ventricular wall abnormalities which have been previously overlooked in adults. LVC is a congenital structural variant of the myocardium, is seen more frequently than previously reported and should be differentiated from aneurysm and diverticulum for possible catastrophic complications of the latter two.

  6. High-resolution MRI vs multislice spiral CT: Which technique depicts the trabecular bone structure best?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to compare trabecular bone structure parameters obtained from high-resolution magnetic resonance (HRMR) and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) images with those determined in contact radiographs from corresponding specimen sections. High-resolution MR and MSCT images were obtained in 39 distal radius specimens. For HRMR the in-plane spatial resolution was 0.152 x 0.153 mm2 with a slice thickness of 0.9 and 0.3 mm using a 3D T1-weighted spin-echo sequence. For MSCT the resolution was 0.247 x 0.247 mm2 with a collimation of 1 mm. Using a diamond saw, 117 0.9- to 1-mm-thick sections were obtained from these specimens and contact radiographs were acquired. In the corresponding sections structure parameters analogous to bone histomorphometry were determined. Significant correlations between MR- and CT-derived structure parameters and those derived from the contact radiographs were found (p<0.01); r values of up to 0.75 were obtained for HRMR imaging and up to 0.70 for MSCT. On the average, structure parameters showed higher correlations for the MR- than for the CT-derived data. For the MR data the threshold algorithm used for binarizing the images substantially affected these correlations. In conclusion, trabecular bone structure parameters assessed in distal radius HRMR and MSCT images are significantly correlated with those determined in corresponding specimen sections (p<0.01). High-resolution MR-derived structure parameters, however, performed better in the prediction of trabecular bone structure. (orig.)

  7. Postoperative monitoring of distal intraarticular radial fractures treated with osteosynthesis by means of multislice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, M.; Wedegaertner, U.; Weber, C.; Adam, G.; Lorenzen, J. [Universitaetsklinik Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: This study evaluates multislice CT (MSCT) for the postsurgical control of intraarticular fractures of the distal radius. Materials and Methods: In 131 patients conventional X-rays in two planes and MSCT were performed. In a consensus process two experienced radiologists judged conventional X-ray and computed tomography images in a random view. The correct position of the osteosynthetic material was assessed and it was ascertained whether an articular surface incongruity, a gap between two fracture fragments, or an intraarticular bone element was detectable. For each point of evaluation a confidence level of the evaluation was assessed on a five-point scale. Results: Ninety patients were classified as having correct alignment and osteosynthesis according to conventional X-ray, while when using the findings from axial CT scans only, 82 patients, and after the addition of multiplanar re-constructions (MPR) only 73 patients were found to have almost proper alignment and osteosynthesis. In 42 patients dehiscence of the fragments was diagnosed with MSCT, but was not visualized by X-ray, leading to surgical revision in eight patients, confirming the diagnosis. In five patients an intraarticular position of intraarticular material was confirmed with MSCT and surgical revision. A significant advantage for the evaluation confidence level was achieved for MPRs in comparison with axial CT scans and X-ray. Conclusion: The marked diagnostic advantage with a high evaluation confidence level in comparison with conventional X-ray methods justify the use of MSCT during postoperative monitoring of articular radial fractures treated with osteosynthesis. (orig.)

  8. Postoperative monitoring of distal intraarticular radial fractures treated with osteosynthesis by means of multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study evaluates multislice CT (MSCT) for the postsurgical control of intraarticular fractures of the distal radius. Materials and Methods: In 131 patients conventional X-rays in two planes and MSCT were performed. In a consensus process two experienced radiologists judged conventional X-ray and computed tomography images in a random view. The correct position of the osteosynthetic material was assessed and it was ascertained whether an articular surface incongruity, a gap between two fracture fragments, or an intraarticular bone element was detectable. For each point of evaluation a confidence level of the evaluation was assessed on a five-point scale. Results: Ninety patients were classified as having correct alignment and osteosynthesis according to conventional X-ray, while when using the findings from axial CT scans only, 82 patients, and after the addition of multiplanar re-constructions (MPR) only 73 patients were found to have almost proper alignment and osteosynthesis. In 42 patients dehiscence of the fragments was diagnosed with MSCT, but was not visualized by X-ray, leading to surgical revision in eight patients, confirming the diagnosis. In five patients an intraarticular position of intraarticular material was confirmed with MSCT and surgical revision. A significant advantage for the evaluation confidence level was achieved for MPRs in comparison with axial CT scans and X-ray. Conclusion: The marked diagnostic advantage with a high evaluation confidence level in comparison with conventional X-ray methods justify the use of MSCT during postoperative monitoring of articular radial fractures treated with osteosynthesis. (orig.)

  9. Technique for producing cardiac radionuclide motion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequential frames of different portions of the cardiac cycle are gated into a minicomputer by using an EKG signal recorded onto digital tape simultaneously with imaging information. Serial display of these frames on the computer oscilloscope or projection of 35-mm half frames of these images provides a cardiac motion image with information content adequate for qualitatively assessing cardiac motion. (U.S.)

  10. Multi-slice 3D-CTA - an improvement over single slice helical CTA for cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the utility of volume rendered multi-slice helical three-dimensional CT angiography in patients with cerebral aneurysm when compared with single slice CT angiography and formal digital subtraction angiography. A prototype Toshiba Aquilon multi-slice CT scanner was employed with the following scan conditions: voltage 135 kV; current 300 mA; slice thickness 0.8 mm; scan speed 0.75 sec/cycle; couch speed 1 mm/sec; range 50 mm from foramen magnum; scan pitch 3; three dimensional images were reconstructed using multiple image projections and integral volume rendering algorithms on a Xlink/Xtension workstation. 80 cases of multi-slice CTA for cerebral aneurysm carried out at Fujita University from January 1999 to January 2001 were reviewed. The advantages of multi-slice imaging are illustrated with representative cases of cerebral aneurysm - good demonstration of three dimensional anatomy, appreciation of perforators down to 1 mm in size, delineation of the vessels around the aneurysm complex, relationship between the aneurysm and skull base, information on calcification, thrombus and blebs in the wall and eleven routine views for perusal. Multi-slice CTA is a significant improvement over single slice CTA for cerebral aneurysms. It is our experience the superior and precise images produced by multi-slice technology displays anatomical information not readily available from standard DSA. Multislice 3D-CTA is relatively non-invasive and provides better and adequate detail for surgical planning. The basis of multi-slice CT angiography is described. Multi slice CTA is changing the way cerebral aneurysms are being managed nowadays. New advances in the technology of multi-slice CTA resulting in increased image resolution are outlined. (author)

  11. Detection of intracranial aneurysms with multislice CT: comparison with conventional angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dammert, S.; Krings, T.; Moller-Hartmann, W.; Ueffing, E.; Mull, M.; Thron, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of the Technical University Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Hans, F.J. [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of the Technical University Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany); Willmes, K. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of the Technical University Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of multislice CT in detection of intracranial aneurysms in patients presenting with subarachnoid or intracranial haemorrhage. Multislice CT and multiplanar digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images were obtained in 50 consecutive patients presenting with subarachnoid (SAH) and/or intracranial haemorrhage and reviewed by three neuroradiologists for the number, size and site of any aneurysms. The CT data were assessed using multiplanar reformats (MPR), maximum-intensity projections (MIP), surface-shaded display (SSD) and volume-rendering (VRT). In conventional angiography 51 aneurysms were detected in 41 patients. CT angiography (CTA) showed up to 48 aneurysms in 39 patients, depending on the observer. The overall sensitivity of multislice CT was 83.3% for small (<4 mm), 90.6% for medium-size (5-12 mm) and 100% for large (>13 mm) aneurysms. The sensitivity of multislice CTA to medium-size and large intracranial aneurysm is within the upper part of the range reported for helical single-slice CT. However, as small aneurysms may not be found, DSA remains the standard technique for investigation of SAH. (orig.)

  12. Detection of intracranial aneurysms with multislice CT: comparison with conventional angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammert, S; Krings, T; Moller-Hartmann, W; Ueffing, E; Hans, F J; Willmes, K; Mull, M; Thron, A

    2004-06-01

    We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of multislice CT in detection of intracranial aneurysms in patients presenting with subarachnoid or intracranial haemorrhage. Multislice CT and multiplanar digital subtraction angiography (DSA) images were obtained in 50 consecutive patients presenting with subarachnoid (SAH) and/or intracranial haemorrhage and reviewed by three neuroradiologists for the number, size and site of any aneurysms. The CT data were assessed using multiplanar reformats (MPR), maximum-intensity projections (MIP), surface-shaded display (SSD) and volume-rendering (VRT). In conventional angiography 51 aneurysms were detected in 41 patients. CT angiography (CTA) showed up to 48 aneurysms in 39 patients, depending on the observer. The overall sensitivity of multislice CT was 83.3% for small ( 13 mm) aneurysms. The sensitivity of multislice CTA to medium-size and large intracranial aneurysm is within the upper part of the range reported for helical single-slice CT. However, as small aneurysms may not be found, DSA remains the standard technique for investigation of SAH. PMID:15105978

  13. Clinical relevance and scope of accidental extracoronary findings in coronary computed tomography angiography: A cardiac versus thoracic FOV study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aglan, Iman; Jodocy, Daniel; Hiehs, Stefan; Soegner, Peter; Frank, Renate; Haberfellner, Berhard; Klauser, Andrea; Jaschke, Werner [Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria); Feuchtner, Gudrun M. [Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Gudrun.Feuchtner@i-med.ac.at

    2010-04-15

    Objective: To assess the spectrum and clinical relevance of extracoronary findings in coronary CT angiography (CCTA), and to compare a small (cardiac) field of view (FOV) to a large (thoracic) FOV setting. Material and methods: 1084 consecutive patients (mean 57 years) with low-to-intermediate risk of coronary artery disease were enrolled. 542 CCTA scans were interpreted with small FOV (160-190 mm{sup 2}) encompassing the cardiac region. In another 542 CCTA (patients matched for age and gender), read-out of an additional full FOV (>320 mm{sup 2}) covering the thorax was performed. Clinical relevance of extracoronary findings was considered as either 'significant' or 'non-significant'. 'Significant' findings were subclassified as either score 1: findings necessitating immediate therapeutic actions, or score 2: findings with undoubted clinical or prognostic relevance, requiring clinical awareness, follow-up or further investigations (non-urgent). 'Non-significant' findings were assigned to either score 3: findings not requiring follow-up or further tests, or as score 4: irrelevant incidental findings. Results: Significantly more patients with extracoronary findings were identified by using a full FOV with 43.2% (234/542) compared to a small FOV with 33.6% (182/542) (p = 0.001). Similarly, a higher total number of extracoronary findings (n = 394) was found on full FOV compared to small FOV (n = 250) (p < 0.001). The detection rate of clinically significant findings was higher by using full FOV compared to small FOV (25.6% versus 15.4%) (p < 0.001), out of those 2.2% versus 1.8% of findings required immediate actions (score 1), and 23.4% versus 13.6% (p = 0.0001), respectively were of clinical relevance (non-urgent, score 2). The rate of malign findings was 0.2%, and of acute pulmonary embolism 0.1%. More lung pathologies were observed by using full FOV compared to small FOV (22% versus 7%) (p < 0.0001), and the detection rate of

  14. Effect of respiration on cardiac filling at rest and during exercise in Fontan patients: A clinical and computational modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Van De Bruaene

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: In Fontan patients, inspiration resulted in increased ventricular filling at rest and during exercise. Results were confirmed using a computational model indicating a phased time delay between peak SV and peak caval vein flow.

  15. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 ± 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 ± 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 ± 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  16. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui, E-mail: rui_wang1979@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Zhang Zhaoqi, E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Xu Lei, E-mail: leixu2001@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Ma Qin, E-mail: tel1367@gmail.com [Department of Emergency, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); He Yi, E-mail: heyi139@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Lu Dongxu, E-mail: larry.hi@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yu Wei, E-mail: yuwei02@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Fan Zhanming, E-mail: fanzm120@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 {+-} 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 {+-} 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 {+-} 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  17. Subtraction imaging of the ECG gated cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subtracting manipulation of contrast-enhanced gated cardiac CT (GCCT) images was experimentally studied with TCT 60A - 30 type (Toshiba) for clinical use, thereby reducing the amount of contrast medium (CM). Initiallythe optimum relationship between the concentration of CM and its injected velocity was determined using the model of resected canine hearts and in actual dogs. The emphasized good-subtracted images were obtained when the difference of CT values was approximately 40 H.U. between cardiac cavity and myocardium. Such condition was feasible in the use of 25 % Diatrizoic acid and its injected veloclty of 0.02 ml/kg/sec. Finally the reduction of the amount of CM by 1/3 became possible in clinical settings. The method is applicable to multi-slice GCCT in various heart diseases. (author)

  18. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack or other heart problem. You might consider cardiac rehab if you have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery Heart transplant Procedures such as angioplasty and stenting In some ...

  19. Cardiac Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) is a medically supervised program to help people who have A heart attack Angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting for coronary heart disease A heart valve repair or replacement A ...

  20. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    OpenAIRE

    Costello BT; Nadel J.; Taylor AJ

    2016-01-01

    Benedict T Costello,1,2 James Nadel,3 Andrew J Taylor,1,21Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, 3School of Medicine, University of Notre Dame, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cardiac sarcoidosis is a rare but life-threatening condition, requiring a high degree of clinical suspicion and low threshold for investigation to make the diagnosis. The cardiac manifestations include heart failure, conducting syst...

  1. High-resolution computed tomography in patients with atypical 'cardiac' chest pain: a study investigating patients at 10-year cardiovascular risks defined by the Framingham and PROCAM scores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choon Kiat ANG; Kui Hian SIM; Alan Yean Yip FONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tiong Kiam ONG; Seyfarth M Tobias; Wei Ling CHAN; Chee Khoon LIEW; Rapaee ANNUAR; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective Atypical 'cardiac' chest pain (ACCP) is not usually caused by myocardial ischaemia. Current noninvasive investigations for these symptoms are not yet as accurate as invasive coronary angiography. The latest 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) technology is non-invasive, has high specificity and negative predictive values for the detection of significant coronary disease. Our aim was to investigate if this modality can provide more information in the assessment of outpatients with ACCP in addition to established cardiovascular risk scores. Methods Seventy consecutive patients presenting to the outpatient clinic with ACCP underwent 64-row MDCT scan of the coronary arteries. They were categorized into low, medium or high risk groups based upon the Framingham and PROCAM scores. We defined a clinically abnormal MDCT scan as coronary stenosis =50% or calcium score >400 Agatston. Results Fifty-three (75.7%) patients did not have clinically abnormal scans. Framingham score classified 43 patients as low-risk while PROCAM classified 59 patients as low-risk. MDCT scans were abnormal for 18.6% and 22.0% of the respective low-risk group of patients. For patients with medium-to-high risk, 33.3% and 36.4% of Framingham and PROCAM patient groups respectively had abnormal MDCT scans. Conclusion MDCT adds valuable information in the assessment of patients with ACCP by identifying a significant proportion of patients categorized as low-risk to have underlying significant coronary stenosis and coronary calcification by established cardiovascular risk scores.

  2. Multi-slice spiral CT and pathological correlation of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze relationship between characteristics on multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) and pathology of renal cell carcinoma. Methods: Multi-slice spiral CT and surgical pathological results on 32 cases of renal cell carcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Of the 32 cases, 28 were pathologically diagnosed as clear cell carcinoma, with tumor contrast enhancement similar to the normal cortex in the renal cortical phase (146-175HU), slight contrast washout in the renal parenchyma phase and significant contrast washout from the tumor in the pyelographic phase. Granular cell carcinoma in 4 patients showed no or mild contrast enhancement (38- 55HU) in all three phase. The overall diagnostic accordance rate was 100%, with preoperative staging accordance rate of 96.42%. Conclusion: The triple-phase contrast-enhanced MSCT is useful in predicting the tumor cell type and staging of renal cell carcinoma. (authors)

  3. Diagnosis on multi-slice spiral CT in acute pancreatitis and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze multi-slice CT features and to assess the diagnostic value of CT in acute pancreatitis. Methods: CT was performed on 21 patients with acute pancreatitis in the unenhanced, arterial (28 seconds after intravenous contrast injection), venous (60 seconds) phases. The morphology and contrast enhancement enhancement patterns were analyzed. Results: Of 21 patients, pancreatic necrosis was found in 9 and acute edematous pancreatitis in 12. Associated findings included bile duct stones or cholecystitis (13), liver abscess (1), systemic lupus erythematosis (1), abdominal trauma (2), and pancreatic divisum (1). Complications included pseudoaneurysm (1), venous thrombosis (1), ascites (7), pleural effusion (4) and right lower lobe lung atelectasis (1). Conclusion: Tri-phasic multi-slice spiral CT can accurately distinguish acute edematous pancreatitis from acute hemorrhagic necrotic pancreatitis. CT allows comprehensive evaluation of the cause and complication of acute pancreatitis. (authors)

  4. Treatment of vertebral metastases using multislice CT-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the multislice CT-guided percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) in treatment of vertebral metastases. Methods: The efficacy and complications of CT-guided PVP in 25 patients with vertebral metastases were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The percutaneous paracentesis was successful in all 30 vertebrae in 25 patients. After PVP, the pain in all patients subsided gradually. Complete remission was obtained in 18 cases out of 25, and partial remission was accomplished in the rest 7 cases in one month after the intervention. In one case, bone cement (polymethy methacrylate PMMA) leaked into vertebral disc during the procedure while the treatment remained asymptomatic eventually. Conclusion: The multislice CT-guided PVP is a simple, precise, and safe interventional procedure, which is a practical treatment to improve the life quality of patients with vertebral metastases. (authors)

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of late iodine enhancement on cardiac computed tomography with a denoise filter for the evaluation of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takuya; Kido, Teruhito; Itoh, Toshihide; Saeki, Hideyuki; Shigemi, Susumu; Watanabe, Kouki; Kido, Tomoyuki; Aono, Shoji; Yamamoto, Masaya; Matsuda, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the image quality and diagnostic performance of late iodine enhancement (LIE) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) with low kilo-voltage peak (kVp) images and a denoise filter for the detection of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in comparison with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Hospital Ethics Committee approved the study protocol. Before discharge, 19 patients who received percutaneous coronary intervention after AMI underwent DSCT and 1.5 T MRI. Immediately after coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography, contrast medium was administered at a slow injection rate. LIE-CT scans were acquired via dual-energy CT and reconstructed as 100-, 140-kVp, and mixed images. An iterative three-dimensional edge-preserved smoothing filter was applied to the 100-kVp images to obtain denoised 100-kVp images. The mixed, 140-kVp, 100-kVp, and denoised 100-kVp images were assessed using contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and their diagnostic performance in comparison with MRI and infarcted volumes were evaluated. Three hundred four segments of 19 patients were evaluated. Fifty-three segments showed LGE in MRI. The median CNR of the mixed, 140-, 100-kVp and denoised 100-kVp images was 3.49, 1.21, 3.57, and 6.08, respectively. The median CNR was significantly higher in the denoised 100-kVp images than in the other three images (P LIE-CT. PMID:26202159

  6. Curved planar reformation of the facial nerve canal with multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the methods of delineating the whole length of bilateral facial nerve canals in one image. Methods: High resolution computed tomography of the temporal bone was performed in 60 cases (120 ears) by Philips Mx8000 multislice spiral CT. Parameters: 120 kV, 200-250 mAs, Collimation: 0.5 mm, Pitch: 0.875, Scan time: 0.75 s/ring, Matrix: 512 x 512, Reformation interval: 0.1-0.2 mm, Reformation matrix: 1024 x 1024. Curved planar reformation (CPR) images were prepared along the facial nerve canal in the axial plane, and in the coronal and sagittal plane of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR). In the axial plane, a reference line was traced following the facial nerve canal from the internal auditory meatus, through the labyrinthine segment, the tympanic segment up to the second genu and mastoid segment. Another two protocols of curved reformatting were adopted: (a) a curved line was delineated along the facial nerve canal on the coronal reformatted image; (b) a curved line was drawn along the facial nerve canal on the sagittal reformatted image. The reference lines were carefully revised and moved exactly to the center of each segment of the facial nerve canal. For displaying bilateral facial nerve canals in one image, one reference line should be drawn along bilateral facial nerve canals. Results: In 56 cases of 60 CPR, images in the axial plane, and coronal plane of MPR could show the unilateral or bilateral facial nerve canals clearly. The result of CPR of bilateral facial nerve canals in sagittal plane of MPR was unsatisfactory. The image on one side was often clear, but just part of it could be showed on the other. So the left and right facial nerve canals should be reformed separately. In 4 cases, CPR was unsatisfactory. In 1 of them the labyrinthine and tympanic segment had breaks because the patient's head shook during the scanning. In 3 of them the facial nerve canals were showed unsatisfactorily because of the inexact position of head during the

  7. Quantification in non-invasive cardiac imaging: CT and MR

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The diagnosis and management of cardiac disease require a precise assessment of morphological and functional cardiac parameters. This thesis is divided in three parts. Part I emphasizes the role of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of patients with ischemic heart disease. Part 2 describes the role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac CT in the diagnosis, interventional planning, and follow-up of patients with aortic valve stenosis. Part ...

  8. Pancreatic carcinoma: the role of high-resolution multislice spiral CT in the diagnosis and assessment of resectability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Carlo; Laghi, Andrea; Fraioli, Francesco; Pediconi, Federica; Napoli, Alessandro; Danti, Massimiliano; Reitano, Isabella; Passariello, Roberto [Department of Radiology, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , V.le Regina Elena, 324, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in the assessment of patients with clinical, laboratory, and US suspicion of pancreatic neoplasm, and to evaluate resectability status. Forty-six patients with a suspected pancreatic tumor underwent MSCT. After a preliminary precontrast survey, a postcontrast scan was performed in the arterial and portal venous phase with the following protocol: 4 x 1-mm collimation; 1.25- and 5-mm slice thickness width, respectively, and 1- and 5-mm reconstruction interval. In all patients pathological correlation was obtained. The evaluation of all images provided a diagnosis in 44 patients, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 97, 80, and 96%, respectively. The MSCT correctly provided a diagnosis of unresectability with sensitivity of 96%, specificity of 86%, and accuracy of 93%. Evaluation of 1-mm slices demonstrated 83 of the 91 liver metastases found at surgery; conversely, the 5-mm slices detected only 76 of these lesions. Infiltration of peripancreatic major vessels was demonstrated, and was confirmed at surgery in 18 patients. High-resolution MSCT improves prediction of resectability in patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma. Parenchymal and vascular information can be achieved with a single MSCT examination. (orig.)

  9. Noninvasive detection of coronary abnormalities in pediatric patients with Kawassaki disease using multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and value of detecting coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease using multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). Methods: Thirty-four pediatric patients underwent 16-slice or 64-slice CT coronary, angiography. 18 patients were also examined with 2 dimension echocardiography (2DE). In all cases, visibility of coronary artery segment was recorded. The diameter of the LCA, RCA were measured in MSCTA and compared with 2DE. Correlation coefficient of dimension and coincidence rate of two methods were calculated. Results: Coronary artery lesions were found in 14 patients (22 branches) of the 34 cases with KD on MSCT. Six cases were dialated, 3 cases were dialated with aneurysms, 2 cases had aneurysms without dialation. Coronary artery stenosis in 1 eases, calcification in 2 cases. Three cases had multiple aneurysms with the presence of alternate stenosis that made the artery a bead-like appearance. CC of LM and RCA were 0.85, 0.91, respectively (P>0.05). Three coronary artery aneurysm in the distal RCA was missed by 2DE. MSCT could not detect slight or moderate mitral regurgitation in 2 patients and artery wall thickening in 5 patients. Conclusion: MSCT would be an effective complementary or alternative method for CDEC to evaluate coronary artery lesions non-invasively in pediatric patients with Kawasaki disease. (authors)

  10. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase III Study of the Short-Acting β1-Adrenergic Receptor Blocker Landiolol Hydrochloride for Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography in Japanese Patients with Suspected Ischemic Cardiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masaharu; Yamashina, Akira; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ikari, Yuji; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Iino, Misako; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Tanimoto, Mitsunobu; Kuribayashi, Sachio; ,

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and Background The objective of this study was to investigate the image quality-improving and heart rate-lowering effects of landiolol hydrochloride (a short-acting β1-adrenergic receptor blocker) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). During CCTA, β-adrenergic receptor blockers have been commonly used to lower heart rate and improve image quality. Methods A total of 258 subjects suspected of having ischemic cardiac disease and requiring CCTA were randomized to either ...

  11. Edge tracing for the determination of the left ventricular projection, computer program and application for the clinic. Cardiac nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, A. (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Iwaki, Y.

    1981-09-01

    RI cardioangiography, especially blood pool scintigram which is made to synchronize with the cycles of electro-cardiogram, has been one of the two prime movers which, together with /sup 201/TlCl (thallium chloride) used in the study of myocardial blood flow, have contributed much to the development of the cardiovascular nuclear medicine, levelling it up to its present day state. Formerly, however, big computers and trained programmers were essential for the data processing of RI cardioangiography. Besides, only universities and research institutes could afford such expensive facilities. Nowadays, the situation has changed, and necessary data processing units have become available at considerably reduced costs. Even in common size city hospitals, cardioangiography has come to be applied for a routine practice in their medical examinations. Recently, Siemens Gammasonics, Inc. has put on sale a new system to replace the formerly introduced data processing unit called ''Scintiview''. It is the Auto Edge Detection System of the Left Ventricular to be used as a means of automatic cardiogram analysis program (ACAP). We have studied and reviewed differences of the setting-up methods of the region of interest which affect results of estimation of the left ventricular ejection fraction (EF).

  12. Cardiac sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, J.P.; Zondervan, P.E.; van Hagen, P.; ten Cate, F.J.; Bresser, P.; Doubell, A.F.; Pattynama, P.; Hoogsteden, H.C.; Balk, A.H.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology. Symptomatic cardiac involvement occurs in approximately 5% of patients. The prevalence of sarcoidosis in the Netherlands is unknown, but estimated to be approximately 20 per 100,000 population (3200 patients). We report on five patients who presented with different manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis, and give a brief review on the current management of this condition. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be of great help in diagnosing this condition as well as in the follow-up of the response to therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:25696121

  13. Reduction of radiation exposure and improvement of image quality with BMI-adapted prospective cardiac computed tomography and iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols and iterative reconstruction algorithms (iDose) on patient radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: Image quality and radiation exposure were systematically analyzed in 100 patients. 60 Patients underwent prospective ECG-triggered CCTA using a non-tailored protocol and served as a ‘control’ group (Group 1: 120 kV, 200 mA s). 40 Consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent prospective CCTA, using BMI-adapted tube voltage and standard (Group 2: 100/120 kV, 100–200 mA s) versus reduced tube current (Group 3: 100/120 kV, 75–150 mA s). Iterative reconstructions were provided with different iDose levels and were compared to filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Image quality was assessed in consensus of 2 experienced observers and using a 5-grade scale (1 = best to 5 = worse), and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR) were quantified. Results: CCTA was performed without adverse events in all patients (n = 100, heart rate of 47–87 bpm and BMI of 19–38 kg/m2). Patients examined using the non-tailored protocol in Group 1 had the highest radiation exposure (3.2 ± 0.4 mSv), followed by Group 2 (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) and Group 3 (1.2 ± 0.6 mSv) (radiation savings of 47% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Iterative reconstructions provided increased SNR and CNR, particularly when higher iDose level 5 was applied with Multi-Frequency reconstruction (iDose5 MFR) (14.1 ± 4.6 versus 21.2 ± 7.3 for SNR and 12.0 ± 4.2 versus 18.1 ± 6.6 for CNR, for FBP versus iDose5 MFR, respectively, p < 0.001). The combination of BMI adaptation with iterative reconstruction reduced radiation exposure and simultaneously improved image quality (subjective image quality of 1.4 ± 0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 for Group 2 reconstructed using iDose5 MFR versus

  14. Cardiac valve calcifications on low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography: inter-observer and inter-examination reliability, agreement and variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability for aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral valve and annulus calcification (MC) in low-dose unenhanced ungated lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). We included 578 lung cancer screening trial participants who were examined by CT twice within 3 months to follow indeterminate pulmonary nodules. On these CTs, AVC and MC were measured in cubic millimetres. One hundred CTs were examined by five observers to determine the inter-observer variability. Reliability was assessed by kappa statistics (κ) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Variability was expressed as the mean difference ± standard deviation (SD). Inter-examination reliability was excellent for AVC (κ = 0.94, ICC = 0.96) and MC (κ = 0.95, ICC = 0.90). Inter-examination variability was 12.7 ± 118.2 mm3 for AVC and 31.5 ± 219.2 mm3 for MC. Inter-observer reliability ranged from κ = 0.68 to κ = 0.92 for AVC and from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.66 for MC. Inter-observer ICC was 0.94 for AVC and ranged from 0.56 to 0.97 for MC. Inter-observer variability ranged from -30.5 ± 252.0 mm3 to 84.0 ± 240.5 mm3 for AVC and from -95.2 ± 210.0 mm3 to 303.7 ± 501.6 mm3 for MC. AVC can be quantified with excellent reliability on ungated unenhanced low-dose chest CT, but manual detection of MC can be subject to substantial inter-observer variability. Lung cancer screening CT may be used for detection and quantification of cardiac valve calcifications. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction: comparison of two dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 64-row multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Khoon LIEW; Kui Hian SIM; Rapaee ANNUAR; Tiong Kiam ONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tobias Seyfarth; Yean Yip FONG; Wei Ling CHAN; Choon Kiat ANG; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To compare left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) determined from 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-row MDCT) with those determined from two dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods Thirty-two patients with coronary artery disease underwent trans-thoracic 2D echo, CMR and contrast-enhanced 64-row MDCT for assessment of LVEF within 48 hours of each other. 64-row MDCT LVEF was derived using the Syngo Circulation software; CMR LVEF was by Area Length Ejection Fraction (ALEF) and Simpson method and 2D echo LVEF by Simpson method.Results The LVEF was 49.13 ± 15.91% by 2D echo, 50.72 ± 16.55% (ALEF method) and 47.65 ± 16.58%(Simpson method) by CMR and 50.00 ± 15.93% by 64-row MDCT. LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured with CMR using either the ALEF method (Pearson correlation r = 0.94, P <0.01) or Simpson method (r = 0.92, P<0.01). It also correlated well with LVEF measured using 2D echo (r = 0.80, P < 0.01). Conclusion LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured by CMR and 2D echo. The correlation between 64-row MDCT and CMR was better than the correlation between 2D echo with CMR. Standard data set from a 64-row MDCT coronary study can be reliably used to calculate the LVEF.

  16. Cardiac valve calcifications on low-dose unenhanced ungated chest computed tomography: inter-observer and inter-examination reliability, agreement and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Willemink, Martin J.; Takx, Richard A.P.; Eikendal, Anouk L.M.; Budde, Ricardo P.J.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P.; Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-07-15

    To determine inter-observer and inter-examination variability for aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral valve and annulus calcification (MC) in low-dose unenhanced ungated lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). We included 578 lung cancer screening trial participants who were examined by CT twice within 3 months to follow indeterminate pulmonary nodules. On these CTs, AVC and MC were measured in cubic millimetres. One hundred CTs were examined by five observers to determine the inter-observer variability. Reliability was assessed by kappa statistics (κ) and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Variability was expressed as the mean difference ± standard deviation (SD). Inter-examination reliability was excellent for AVC (κ = 0.94, ICC = 0.96) and MC (κ = 0.95, ICC = 0.90). Inter-examination variability was 12.7 ± 118.2 mm{sup 3} for AVC and 31.5 ± 219.2 mm{sup 3} for MC. Inter-observer reliability ranged from κ = 0.68 to κ = 0.92 for AVC and from κ = 0.20 to κ = 0.66 for MC. Inter-observer ICC was 0.94 for AVC and ranged from 0.56 to 0.97 for MC. Inter-observer variability ranged from -30.5 ± 252.0 mm{sup 3} to 84.0 ± 240.5 mm{sup 3} for AVC and from -95.2 ± 210.0 mm{sup 3} to 303.7 ± 501.6 mm{sup 3} for MC. AVC can be quantified with excellent reliability on ungated unenhanced low-dose chest CT, but manual detection of MC can be subject to substantial inter-observer variability. Lung cancer screening CT may be used for detection and quantification of cardiac valve calcifications. (orig.)

  17. Study of CdTe:Cl and CdZnTe detectors for medical multi-slices X-ray Computed Tomography; Etude de detecteurs en CdTe:Cl et CdZnTe pour la tomographie X medicale multicoupes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricq, St

    1999-09-28

    The application of CdTe and CdZnTe detectors to medical X-ray Computed Tomography have been investigated. Different electrodes (Au, Pt, In) have been deposited on CdZnTe HPBM and on CdTe:ClTHM. Their injection properties have been determined with Current-Voltage characteristics. Under X-ray in CT conditions, injection currents measurements reveal trapped carriers space-charges formation. The same way, the comparisons of the responses to X-beam cut-off with various injection possibilities enable to follow the space-charges evolutions and then to determine the predominant traps types. Nevertheless, both hole and electron traps are responsible for the memory effect e.g. the currents levels dependence with irradiation history. This effect is noticed in particular on responses to fast flux variations that simulate scanner's conditions. Trap levels probably corresponding to native defects are responsible for these limitations. In order to make such detectors suitable for X-ray Computed Tomography, significant progresses in CdTe for CdZnTe crystal growth with an important defects densities reduction (factor 10), or possibly counting mode operation, seem necessary. (author)

  18. Cardiac tamponade: contrast reflux as an indicator of cardiac chamber equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauta Foeke Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic hemopericardium remains a rare entity; it does however commonly cause cardiac tamponade which remains a major cause of death in traumatic blunt cardiac injury. Objectives We present a case of blunt chest trauma complicated by cardiac tamponade causing cardiac chamber equalization revealed by reflux of contrast. Case report A 29-year-old unidentified male suffered blunt chest trauma in a motor vehicle collision. Computed tomography (CT demonstrated a periaortic hematoma and hemopericardium. Significant contrast reflux was seen in the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins suggesting a change in cardiac chamber pressures. After intensive treatment including cardiac massage this patient expired of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Reflux of contrast on CT imaging can be an indicator of traumatic cardiac tamponade.

  19. Cardiac Pacemakers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete survey of physiological biophysical,clinical and engineering aspects of cardiac facing,including the history and an assessment of possible future developments.Among the topics studied are: pacemakers, energy search, heart stimulating with pacemakers ,mathematical aspects of the electric cardio stimulation chronic, pacemaker implants,proceeding,treatment and control

  20. Multislice CT as a Primary Screening Tool for the Prediction of an Involved Mesorectal Fascia and Distant Metastases in Primary Rectal Cancer : A Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolberink, Steven V. R. C.; Beets-Tan, Regina G. H.; de Haas-Kock, Danielle F. M.; van de Jagt, Eric J.; Span, Mark M.; Wiggers, Theo

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to assess whether multislice CT can identify tumors having a free or involved circumferential margin, to investigate the additional role of multislice CT as a "one-stop shopping'' staging tool for staging nodal and distant metastases. METHODS: A total of 250

  1. Rapid assessment of myocardial infarct size in rodents using multi-slice inversion recovery late gadolinium enhancement CMR at 9.4T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausenloy Derek J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial infarction (MI can be readily assessed using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Inversion recovery (IR sequences provide the highest contrast between enhanced infarct areas and healthy myocardium. Applying such methods to small animals is challenging due to rapid respiratory and cardiac rates relative to T1 relaxation. Methods Here we present a fast and robust protocol for assessing LGE in small animals using a multi-slice IR gradient echo sequence for efficient assessment of LGE. An additional Look-Locker sequence was used to assess the optimum inversion point on an individual basis and to determine most appropriate gating points for both rat and mouse. The technique was applied to two preclinical scenarios: i an acute (2 hour reperfused model of MI in rats and ii mice 2 days following non-reperfused MI. Results LGE images from all animals revealed clear areas of enhancement allowing for easy volume segmentation. Typical inversion times required to null healthy myocardium in rats were between 300-450 ms equivalent to 2-3 R-waves and ~330 ms in mice, typically 3 R-waves following inversion. Data from rats was also validated against triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and revealed close agreement for infarct size. Conclusion The LGE protocol presented provides a reliable method for acquiring images of high contrast and quality without excessive scan times, enabling higher throughput in experimental studies requiring reliable assessment of MI.

  2. Cardiac imaging: Current and emerging applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jankharia B; Raut A

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scan have made big inroads as modalities used for evaluation of various pathologies of the heart. Cardiac MRI is typically used for perfusion and viability studies as well as to study various cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases and the pericardium. It has been used in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases over the last two decades. Cardiac CT is used mainly for the evaluation of the coronary arteries, typically in the...

  3. Multi-slice spiral CT of aortocoronary grafts and internal mammary artery bypasses: Assessment of bypasses and their anastomoses; Mehrzeilen-Spiral-CT von aortokoronaren Venenbypaessen und Mammaria-interna-Bypaessen: Beurteilung der Bypaesse und ihrer Anastomosen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehner, S.; Wagner, M.; Schmitt, R.; Christopoulos, G.; Coblenz, G. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Brunn, J.; Mueller, M.; Kerber, S. [Fachbereich Kardiologie, Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany); Urbanski, P. [Klinik fuer Herzchirurgie, Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Objective: To assess aortocoronary grafts and internal mammary artery bypasses by means of EKG-triggered contrast-enhanced multi-slice spiral CT, and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this new imaging modality. Material and methods: 59 patients with up to 5 aortocoronary grafts and/or internal mammary artery bypasses per patient were examined with regard to bypass morphology, the free passage, and the proximal as well as the distal anastomoses using multi-slice computed tomography. Axial source images were calculated by means of retrospective triggering at different diastolic delay times, and were postprocessed in several planes with the multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVR) software. Results: On the pre-condition that data sets were acquired at sinus rhythm and at a heart rate lower than 65/min, aortocoronary grafts and internal mammary artery bypasses could be depicted in adequate diagnostic quality in about 80% of all cases with contrast-enhanced multi-slice spiral CT. Both, the free passage of the bypasses as well as the morphology of the proximal anastomoses were sufficiently assessed with multiplanar volume reconstruction (MPVR), whereas the distal anastomoses couldn't be depicted sufficiently in 20% of all cases. Conclusion: As a non-invasive method, contrast-enhanced and ECG-triggered multi-slice spiral computed tomography has gained diagnostic potential for the accurate visualization of aortocoronary grafts and the internal mammary artery bypasses. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die vorliegende Arbeit stellt die Moeglichkeiten der kontrastmittelverstaerkten, EKG-getriggerten Mehrzeilen-Computertomographie in der Beurteilung von aortokoronaren Venenbypaessen und Mammaria-interna-Bypaessen dar. Material und Methode: Bei 59 Patienten mit 1 bis 5 aortokoronaren Venen-Bypaessen bzw. Mammaria-interna-Bypaessen wurden deren Morphologie, Durchgaengigkeit, die proximalen Anastomosen und die distalen Insertionsstellen mittels Mehrzeilen-Spiral-CT untersucht

  4. Cardiac manifestations in systemic sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevdalina; Lambova

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, which develops as a direct consequence of systemic sclerosis(SSc), may manifest as myocardial damage, fibrosis of the conduction system, pericardial and, less frequently, as valvular disease. In addition, cardiac complications in SSc may develop as a secondary phenomenon due to pulmonary arterial hypertension and kidney pathology. The prevalence of primary cardiac involvement in SSc is variable and difficult to determine because of the diversity of cardiac manifestations, the presence of subclinical periods, the type of diagnostic tools applied, and the diversity of patient populations. When clinically manifested, cardiac involvement is thought to be an important prognostic factor. Profound microvascular disease is a pathognomonic feature of SSc, as both vasospasm and structural alterations are present. Such alterations are thought to predict macrovascular atherosclerosis over time. There are contradictory reports regarding the prevalence of atherosclerosis in SSc. According to some authors, the prevalence of atherosclerosis of the large epicardial coronary arteries is similar to that of the general population, in contrast with other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the level of inflammation in SSc is inferior. Thus, the atherosclerotic process may not be as aggressive and not easily detectable in smaller studies. Echocardiography(especially tissue Doppler imaging), single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography are sensitive techniques for earlier detection of both structural and functional scleroderma-related cardiac pathologies. Screening for subclinical cardiac involvement via modern, sensitive tools provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, which is of crucial importance for a positive outcome.

  5. Clinical study of multislice spiral computed tomography and angiogram in osteotomy of mandibular angle%多层螺旋CT及血管造影在下颌角肥大截骨术中的临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昕; 吴越; 刘晓燕; 杨本强

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用多层螺旋CT测量与下颌骨肥大截骨术相关的基本影像学指标,为下颌角肥大分型并选择截骨方案积累相应的数据资料.方法 对10例下颌角肥大患者分别于手术前行多层螺旋CT扫描,通过平面及三维立体图像对临床上需要的各种指标进行测量.结果下颌骨的各项测量指标结果如下:下颌角间距为(103.50±5.34)mm;下颌角角度为113.23°±4.12°.下颌角肥大初步分型:①外翻型;②后下突出型;③复合型.结论 多层螺旋CT扫描可以获得与下颌骨肥大截骨术相关的基本影像学指标,为临床下颌角肥大分型及手术方案的制定提供重要的参考依据.%Objective To measure ihe imaging index concerned lo osleolomy of mandibular angle in ap-plicalion of mullislice spiral compuled lomography, and lo eslablish ihe corresponding dala for ihe classification of osleolomy of mandibular angle and choosing feasible melhod. Methods The mullislice spiral compuled lomography was applied preoperalively for 10 palienls wilh mandibular angle hyperlrophy. The relation among all factors were discussed, and mandibular angle hyperlrophy were classified, ihen ihe feasible mealhod was chosen. Results The distance between mandibular angles was mm, the gonial angle was 113. 23° ±4. 12°. The classification of mandibular angle hyperlrophy was as follows: ecstrophy, posleroinferior protrusion, combination. Conclusion The imaging index about osteotomy of mandibular angle could obtained by mullislice spiral computed lomography. They provided evidence for the classification and reflected the severe degree . Consequently, it is an important reference means to osteotomy of mandibular angle hypertrophy.

  6. 3D Reconstruction in Spiral Multislice CT Scans

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghafouri

    2005-01-01

    Introduction & Background: The rapid development of spiral (helical) computed tomography (CT) has resulted in exciting new applications for CT. One of these applications, three-dimensional (3D) CT with volume ren-dering, is now a major area of clinical and academic interest. One of the greatest advantages of spiral CT with 3D volume rendering is that it provides all the necessary information in a single radiologic study (and there-fore at the lowest possible price) in cases that previousl...

  7. Cardiac Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Joorabian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a spectrum of different types of cardiac"ncalcifications with the importance and significance"nof each type of cardiac calcification, especially"ncoronary artery calcification. Radiologic detection of"ncalcifications within the heart is quite common. The"namount of coronary artery calcification correlates"nwith the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD."nCalcification of the aortic or mitral valve may indicate"nhemodynamically significant valvular stenosis."nMyocardial calcification is a sign of prior infarction,"nwhile pericardial calcification is strongly associated"nwith constrictive pericarditis. A spectrum of different"ntypes of cardiac calcifications (linear, annular,"ncurvilinear,... could be seen in chest radiography and"nother imaging modalities. So a carful inspection for"ndetection and reorganization of these calcifications"nshould be necessary. Numerous modalities exist for"nidentifying coronary calcification, including plain"nradiography, fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound,"nMRI, echocardiography, and conventional, helical and"nelectron-beam CT (EBCT. Coronary calcifications"ndetected on EBCT or helical CT can be quantifie,"nand a total calcification score (Cardiac Calcification"nScoring may be calculated. In an asymptomatic"npopulation and/or patients with concomitant risk"nfactors like diabetes mellitus, determination of the"npresence of coronary calcifications identifies the"npatients at risk for future myocardial infarction and"ncoronary artery disease. In patients without coronary"ncalcifications, future cardiovascular events could"nbe excluded. Therefore, detecting and recognizing"ncalcification related to the heart on chest radiography"nand other imaging modalities such as fluoroscopy, CT"nand echocardiography may have important clinical"nimplications.

  8. Cardiac arrhythmia classification using autoregressive modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan Narayanan; Ge Dingfei; Krishnan Shankar M

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Computer-assisted arrhythmia recognition is critical for the management of cardiac disorders. Various techniques have been utilized to classify arrhythmias. Generally, these techniques classify two or three arrhythmias or have significantly large processing times. A simpler autoregressive modeling (AR) technique is proposed to classify normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and various cardiac arrhythmias including atrial premature contraction (APC), premature ventricular contraction (...

  9. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and the underlying venous thrombosis by multi-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of multi-slice CT for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism and an underlying venous thrombosis. Methods: 70 patients with clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism were examined. Using multi-slice CT a combined examination of the pulmonary arteries and the veins of the lower limb, pelvis and abdomen was performed. Only one single bolus of 150 ml iopromid 300 was injected into a cubital vein with a flow of 4 ml/s. First, the pulmonary arteries were scanned with a slice thickness of 2.5 mm and a pitch of 1.5. On arrival of the contrast medium at the popliteal veins, indicated by bolus trakking, the veins of the lower limbs up to the end of the inferior vena cava were imaged using a slice thickness of 3.75 mm and a pitch of 1.5. The results could be compared with a ventilation-perfusion scan in 48 cases, with a Doppler ultrasound examination in 46 cases, and with a venography in 10 cases. Furthermore, the image quality of all arterial and venous regions was subjectively assessed. Results: In all patients who underwent multi-slice CT the pulmonary arteries as well as the veins of the lower half of the body could be recorded completely. Regarding the pulmonary arteries the image quality showed excellent results for the central and segmental arteries. The region up to the 3rd division in subsegmental branches could be sufficiently judged. More peripherally, a diagnostic assessment was not possible. The image quality of the veins was excellent in all sections, except the calf, where a reliable diagnosis could not be made. The comparison with the other techniques confirmed the superiority of multi-slice CT concerning the central and segmental pulmonary arteries and the veins from the popliteal vein to the inferior vena cava. In contrast, peripheral pulmonary emboli can be detected more certainly in ventilation/perfusion scans. The veins of the calf can be evaluated more reliably with venography. (orig.)

  10. N-13 ammonia myocardial positron computed tomography, (1). Comparative study with thallium-201 SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Senda, Michio; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    1985-02-01

    Myocardial positron computed tomography (PCT) was obtained in 11 cases and the images were compared with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The myocardial PCT was performed at rest after 10-20 mCi of N-13 labeled ammonia injection using whole-body multislice PCT device (Positologica III). The PCT clearly delineated 2.5-3.0 mm hot spots while the SPECT barely showed 5.0 mm hot spots of Derenzo phantom. The myocardial images looked better in PCT because of the better spatial resolution and count statistics. The myocardium looked thinner and the papillary muscle was visualized by PCT. The PCT also showed the right ventricle in each case. Furthermore, PCT detected increased lung uptake of ammonia in 2 of the 8 cases with myocardial infarction, suggesting presence of pulmonary congestion. Perfusion defect was clearly seen by PCT as well as SPECT. However, the cardiac short-axis and long-axis sections which were easily obtained by SPECT were useful for the localization of the lesion. We conclude that both PCT and SPECT were valuable for the assessment of coronary artery disease. (author).

  11. Quantification in non-invasive cardiac imaging: CT and MR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rossi (Alexia)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The diagnosis and management of cardiac disease require a precise assessment of morphological and functional cardiac parameters. This thesis is divided in three parts. Part I emphasizes the role of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of patients with ische

  12. Contemporary Breast Radiotherapy and Cardiac Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboa, Debra Nana; Evans, Suzanne Buckley

    2016-01-01

    Long-term cardiac effects are an important component of survivorship after breast radiotherapy. The pathophysiology of cardiotoxicity, history of breast radiotherapy, current methods of cardiac avoidance, modern outcomes, context of historical outcomes, quantifying cardiac effects, and future directions are reviewed in this article. Radiation-induced oxidative stress induces proinflammatory cytokines and is a process that potentiates late effects of fibrosis and intimal proliferation in endothelial vasculature. Breast radiation therapy has changed substantially in recent decades. Several modern technologies exist to improve cardiac avoidance such as deep inspiration breath hold, gating, accelerated partial breast irradiation, and use of modern 3-dimensional planning. Modern outcomes may vary notably from historical long-term cardiac outcomes given the differences in cardiac dose with modern techniques. Methods of quantifying radiation-related cardiotoxicity that correlate with future cardiac risks are needed with current data exploring techniques such as measuring computed tomography coronary artery calcium score, single-photon emission computed tomography imaging, and biomarkers. Placing historical data, dosimetric correlations, and relative cardiac risk in context are key when weighing the benefits of radiotherapy in breast cancer control and survival. Estimating present day cardiac risk in the modern treatment era includes challenges in length of follow-up and the use of confounding cardiotoxic agents such as evolving systemic chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Future directions in both multidisciplinary management and advancing technology in radiation oncology may provide further improvements in patient risk reduction and breast cancer survivorship. PMID:26617212

  13. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  14. Split-bolus single-phase cardiac multidetector computed tomography for reliable detection of left atrial thrombus. Comparison to transesophageal echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, W.; Zwaka, P.A.; Sohns, J.M.; Schwarz, A.; Lotz, J. [University Medical Center Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Sohns, C.; Vollmann, D.; Zabel, M.; Hasenfuss, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology and Pneumology; Schneider, S. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Medical Statistics

    2014-11-15

    Evaluation of a new cardiac MDCT protocol using a split-bolus contrast injection protocol and single MDCT scan for reliable diagnosis of LA/LAA thrombi in comparison to TEE, optimizing radiation exposure and use of contrast agent. A total of 182 consecutive patients with drug refractory AF scheduled for PVI (62.6% male, mean age: 64.1 ± 10.2 years) underwent routine diagnostic work including TEE and cardiac MDCT for the evaluation of LA/LAA anatomy and thrombus formation between November 2010 and March 2012. Contrast media injection was split into a pre-bolus of 30 ml and main bolus of 70 ml iodinated contrast agent separated by a short time delay. In this study, split-bolus cardiac MDCT identified 14 of 182 patients with filling defects of the LA/LAA. In all of these 14 patients, abnormalities were found in TEE. All 5 of the 14 patients with thrombus formation in cardiac MDCT were confirmed by TEE. MDCT was 100% accurate for thrombus, with strong but not perfect overall results for SEC equivalent on MDCT.

  15. Accuracy of dual-energy computed tomography for the measurement of iodine concentration using cardiac CT protocols: validation in a phantom model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonce, James D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Charleston, SC (United States); Schmidt, Bernhard; Flohr, Thomas G. [Siemens Healthcare, Imaging and Therapy Division, Forchheim (Germany); Wahlquist, Amy E.; Nietert, Paul J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Public Health Services, Charleston, SC (United States); Bastarrika, Gorka [University of Navarra, Department of Radiology, Pamplona (Spain); Meinel, Felix G. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To assess the accuracy of dual-energy CT (DECT) for the quantification of iodine concentrations in a thoracic phantom across various cardiac DECT protocols and simulated patient sizes. Experiments were performed on first- and second-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) systems in DECT mode using various cardiac DECT protocols. An anthropomorphic thoracic phantom was equipped with tubular inserts containing known iodine concentrations (0-20 mg/mL) in the cardiac chamber and up to two fat-equivalent rings to simulate different patient sizes. DECT-derived iodine concentrations were measured using dedicated software and compared to true concentrations. General linear regression models were used to identify predictors of measurement accuracy Correlation between measured and true iodine concentrations (n = 72) across CT systems and protocols was excellent (R = 0.994-0.997, P < 0.0001). Mean measurement errors were 3.0 ± 7.0 % and -2.9 ± 3.8 % for first- and second-generation DSCT, respectively. This error increased with simulated patient size. The second-generation DSCT showed the most stable measurements across a wide range of iodine concentrations and simulated patient sizes. Overall, DECT provides accurate measurements of iodine concentrations across cardiac CT protocols, strengthening the case for DECT-derived blood volume estimates as a surrogate of myocardial blood supply. (orig.)

  16. The study of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome with multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively investigate the upper airway (UA) characteristics of the obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) with multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT), and to analyze the value of MSCT in the clinical diagnosis and pathogeny research of OSAHS. Methods: The pharynxes of 28 cases with OSAHS and 14 controls were scanned by MSCT at the time of deep inspiration, deep expiration, normal respiration, and Mueller action. The cross-section area with its corresponding sagittal and transverse diameters at naso-, velo-, and tongue-pharyngeal level, the length and thickness of soft palate, the site and range of UA obstruction, and the pharyngeal collapsibility were measured and calculated, respective. Results: (1) MSCT with its software package could ideally and accurately help to observe the UA, measure the required data, and judge the range of UA obstruction. (2) Mean cross-section areas of velo-pharynx and tongue-pharynx in OSAHS were significantly less than those in the control group, which mostly occurred at the end of deep inspiration (P<0.05 ). (3) The collapsibilities at the velo-pharyngeal and tongue-pharyngeal levels in OSAHS were higher than those in the control group (F=15.133, P=0.001; F=5.552, P=0.025). (4) The soft palates of OSAHS were thicker than those in the controls (F=15.908, P=0.000). Conclusions: The straitness and the larger collapsibility at the velo-pharynx and tongue-pharynx are perhaps the main causes of OSAHS. MSCT is relatively convenient, quick, and accurate in the observation of the UA, thuspossessing the practical value in the clinical diagnosis and pathogeny research of OSAHS. (authors)

  17. Cardiac conduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals ... to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle ...

  18. The clinical application of multi-slice spiral CT angiography in abdominal aortic disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of multi-slice spiral CT angiography(MSCTA) in the assessment of abdominal aortic disease. Methods: Fifty-four patients underwent multi-slice spiral CT angiography of abdomen. Contrast agent (Omnipaque 300 I g/L) 1.5 ml/kg was injected and the injection rate was 3 ml/s. The delay time was determined by bolus tracking technique,Tll level abdominal aorta was set as the target vessel and the threshold was 180-200 Hu, slice width was 3 mm and with a pitch of 4-6.Original data were transferred to working-station to perform functional reconstruction. Results: Ten cases were normal, twenty-eight cases were abdominal aortic aneurysms, five abdominal aortic dissecting aneurysms (Debakay type Ⅲ ) and eleven aortic sclerosis. SSD showed the body of aneurysm and the relationship between aneurysm and adjacent blood vessel, MIP better displayed calcification of blood vessel wall and condition of the stent, MPR demonstrated true and false lumen, rupture site of abdominal aorta intima and mural thrombus. Conclusion: MSCTA axial and reconstruction image can show the extent of abdominal aortic disease and the relationship with adjacent blood vessels. It is a safe, simple and non-invasive examination method.

  19. Software compensation of eddy current fields in multislice high order dynamic shimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Saikat; Avison, Malcolm J.; Gore, John C.; Welch, E. Brian

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic B0 shimming (DS) can produce better field homogeneity than static global shimming by dynamically updating slicewise shim values in a multislice acquisition. The performance of DS however is limited by eddy current fields produced by the switching of 2nd and 3rd order unshielded shims. In this work, we present a novel method of eddy field compensation (EFC) applied to higher order shim induced eddy current fields in multislice DS. This method does not require shim shielding, extra hardware for eddy current compensation or subject specific prescanning. The interactions between shim harmonics are modeled assuming steady state of the medium and long time constant, cross and self term eddy fields in a DS experiment and ‘correction factors’ characterizing the entire set of shim interactions are derived. The correction factors for a given time between shim switches are shown to be invariable with object scanned, shim switching pattern and actual shim values, allowing for their generalized prospective use. Phantom and human head, 2nd and 3rd order DS experiments performed without any hardware eddy current compensation using the technique show large reductions in field gradients and offsets leading to significant improvements in image quality. This method holds promise as an alternative to expensive hardware based eddy current compensation required in 2nd and 3rd order DS. PMID:21458339

  20. Role of 320-slice multislice computed tomography coronary angiography in the assessment of coronary artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Youssef

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, MSCT coronary angiography is a very helpful and rapid non-invasive coronary imaging modality that was able to detect and grade coronary artery stenosis better than other noninvasive examinations used to detect CAD, such as exercise stress testing. Due to its very high negative predictive value, it may eliminate the need for invasive coronary procedures in the presence of normal coronary imaging.

  1. Non-invasive Coronary Imaging with Multislice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography

    OpenAIRE

    Mollet, Nico

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAtherosclerosis is a systemic, chronic inflammatory disease of the intima layer of the vessel wall affecting both large and medium-sized muscular arteries. The process of atherosclerosis is complex and develops progressively during time, already starting in the 2nd and 3rd decade of life1. Symptoms do not occur during the earlier phases of atherosclerosis and remain absent for several decades2. Chronic symptoms occur when an atherosclerotic plaque causes a significant obstruction ...

  2. Is multislice computed tomography an important tool for breast cancer staging and follow-up?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Santos, Carla Jotta Justo dos; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda, E-mail: maiachristiana@globo.com [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (MedRadiUS), Maceio, AL (Brazil); Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Padilha, Igor Gomes; Andrade, Anna Carolina de Mendonca de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo [Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the leading cause of cancer death among the female population. Extramammary findings related to breast cancer play an important role in the prognosis and treatment of such entity and the correct diagnosis of such alterations is essential for increasing the chance of cure. Most of the times, such manifestations result from complications arising from treatment, and may be associated with lymph node involvement, locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis. (author)

  3. 3D Reconstruction in Spiral Multislice CT Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghafouri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: The rapid development of spiral (helical computed tomography (CT has resulted in exciting new applications for CT. One of these applications, three-dimensional (3D CT with volume ren-dering, is now a major area of clinical and academic interest. One of the greatest advantages of spiral CT with 3D volume rendering is that it provides all the necessary information in a single radiologic study (and there-fore at the lowest possible price in cases that previously required two or more studies. Three-dimensional vol-ume rendering generates clinically accurate and immediately available images from the full CT data set with-out extensive editing. It allows the radiologist and clinician to address specific questions concerning patient care by interactively exploring different aspects of the data set. Three-dimensional images integrate a series of axial CT sections into a form that is often easier to interpret than the sections themselves and can be made to appear similar to other more familiar images such as catheter angiograms. The data are organized into a 3D matrix of volume elements (voxels. The screen of the computer monitor is a 2D-surface composed of discrete picture elements (pixels. Presenting what is stored in memory (ie, floating within the monitor on a 2D-screen is a challenge, but it is the very problem that 3D reconstruc-tion software has creatively solved. Voxel selection is usually accomplished by projecting lines (rays through the data set that correspond to the pixel matrix of the desired 2D image. Differences in the images produced with various 3D rendering techniques are the result of variations in how voxels are selected and weighted. In this article, I compare 3D volume rendering of spiral CT data with other rendering techniques (shaded surface display, maximum intensity projection and present a brief history of 3D volume rendering and discuss the im-plementation of this promising technology in terms of

  4. Extra-cardiac findings in cardiovascular magnetic resonance: what the imaging cardiologist needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonathan C L; Lyen, Stephen M; Loughborough, William; Amadu, Antonio Matteo; Baritussio, Anna; Dastidar, Amardeep Ghosh; Manghat, Nathan E; Bucciarelli-Ducci, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an established non-invasive technique to comprehensively assess cardiovascular structure and function in a variety of acquired and inherited cardiac conditions. A significant amount of the neck, thorax and upper abdomen are imaged at the time of routine clinical CMR, particularly in the initial multi-slice axial and coronal images. The discovery of unsuspected disease at the time of imaging has ethical, financial and medico-legal implications. Extra-cardiac findings at the time of CMR are common, can be important and can change clinical management. Certain patient groups undergoing CMR are at particular risk of important extra-cardiac findings as several of the cardiovascular risk factors for atherosclerosis are also risk factors for malignancy. Furthermore, the presence of certain extra-cardiac findings may contribute to the interpretation of the primary cardiac pathology as some cardiac conditions have multi-systemic extra-cardiac involvement. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the type of extra-cardiac findings that may become apparent on CMR, subdivided by anatomical location. We focus on normal variant anatomy that may mimic disease, common incidental extra-cardiac findings and important imaging signs that help distinguish sinister pathology from benign disease. We also aim to provide a framework to the approach and potential further diagnostic work-up of incidental extra-cardiac findings discovered at the time of CMR. However, it is beyond the scope of this review to discuss and determine the clinical significance of extracardiac findings at CMR. PMID:27156861

  5. Role of multislice CT and magnetic resonance cholangiography in preoperative evaluation of potential donor in living related liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M. Abdel-Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Multislice CT is a valuable tool in the evaluation of potential living liver donors that provides complete information on the hepatic vascular anatomy, the liver parenchyma, and volumetric measurements. MRC with a 3.0-T MR system demonstrates the preoperative biliary evaluation very well with a high accuracy rate.

  6. Multislice CT cholangiography without biliary contrast agent: technique and initial clinical results in the assessment of patients with biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandrino, F.; Benzi, L.; Ferretti, M.L.; Ferrando, R.; Reggiani, G.; Musante, F. [Department of Radiology, Azienda Ospedaliera ' ' SS Antonio e Biagio e C. Arrigo' ' , Alessandria (Italy)

    2002-05-01

    Our objective was to describe our technique for multislice CT cholangiography without cholangiographic contrast agent, and to present our preliminary clinical results. Thirty-seven patients with suspected biliary obstruction were studied. A multislice CT unit was used with the following technical parameters: 2.5-mm collimation; 7.5-mm/s table speed; pitch 6; 0.8-s rotation time; 300 mA; 120 kVp; 18- to 24-s scan time; scan volume ranging from the hepatic dome to below the pancreatic head; 70-s delay after injection of 150 ml of iodinated contrast agent at 4 ml/s. No biliary contrast material was given; oral iodinated contrast agent was administered to opacify bowel loops. Axial, multiplanar reformatted, and minimum intensity projection images were evaluated. The CT findings were compared with the gold standard techniques: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) in 30 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in 5, and intraoperative cholangiography in 2. In 5 patients with ampullary lesions biopsy was made during ERCP, 9 underwent surgery, and 11 US-guided fine-needle aspiration. Bile ducts appeared hypodense within the surrounding enhanced structures. Regarding the site of obstruction, agreement between multislice CT and conventional cholangiography was observed in all cases. One patient presented negative findings on both CT and ERCP. In 31 of 36 (86%) patients, multislice CT cholangiography without cholangiographic contrast agent correctly assessed the cause of bile duct obstruction. Multislice CT cholangiography without cholangiographic contrast agent seems to be a promising diagnostic tool in the assessment of patients with bile duct obstruction. (orig.)

  7. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Part 1: Impact on patient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruettner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.gruettner@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Walter, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.walter@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); Saur, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.saur@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Sueselbeck, Tim, E-mail: tim.sueselbeck@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Traunwieser, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.traunwieser@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Takx, Richard, E-mail: richard.takx@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, Ashley River Tower, 25 Courtenay Drive, Charleston, SC 29425-2260 (United States); and others

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of coronary CT angiography (coronary CTA) or “triple-rule-out” CT angiography (TRO-CTA) on patient management in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk profile. Materials and methods: 100 patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) underwent coronary CTA or TRO-CTA for the evaluation of chest pain. Patients with a high and low cardiac risk profile were not included in this study. All patients with significant coronary stenosis >50% on coronary CTA underwent invasive coronary catheterization (ICC). Important other pathological findings were recorded. All patients had a 90-day follow-up period for major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Results: Based on a negative coronary CTA 60 of 100 patients were discharged on the same day. None of the discharged patients showed MACE during the 90-day follow-up. Coronary CTA revealed a coronary stenosis >50% in 19 of 100 patients. ICC confirmed significant coronary stenosis in 17/19 patients. Among the 17 true positive patients, 9 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation, 7 were received intensified medical therapy, and 1 patient underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. A TRO-CTA protocol was performed in 36/100 patients due to elevated D-dimer levels. Pulmonary embolism was present in 5 patients, pleural effusion of unknown etiology in 3 patients, severe right ventricular dysfunction with pericardial effusion in 1 patient, and an incidental bronchial carcinoma was diagnosed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Coronary CTA and TRO-CTA allow a rapid and safe discharge in the majority of patients presenting with acute chest pain and an intermediate risk for ACS while at the same time identifies those with significant coronary artery stenosis.

  8. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  9. Imaging of head and neck tumors -- methods: CT, spiral-CT, multislice-spiral-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Ulrich E-mail: baum@idr.med.uni-erlangen.de; Greess, Holger; Lell, Michael; Noemayr, Anton; Lenz, Martin

    2000-03-01

    Spiral-CT is standard for imaging neck tumors. In correspondence with other groups we routinely use spiral-CT with thin slices (3 mm), a pitch of 1.3-1.5 and an overlapping reconstruction increment (2-3 mm). In patients with dental fillings a short additional spiral parallel to the corpus of the mandible reduces artifacts behind the dental arches and improves the diagnostic value of CT. For the assessment of the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the palate and paranasal sinuses an additional examination in the coronal plane is helpful. Secondary coronal reconstructions of axial scans are helpful in the evaluation of the crossing of the midline by small tumors of the tongue base or palate. For an optimal vascular or tissue contrast a sufficient volume of contrast medium and a start delay greater than 70-80 s are necessary. In our opinion the best results can be achieved with a volume of 150 ml, a flow of 2.5 ml/s and a start delay of 80 s. Dynamic enhanced CT is only necessary in some special cases. There is clear indication for dynamic enhanced CT where a glomus tumor is suspected. Additional functional CT imaging during i-phonation and/or Valsalva's maneuver are of great importance to prove vocal cords mobility. Therefore, imaging during i-phonation is an elemental part of every thorough examination of the hypopharynx and larynx region. Multislice-spiral-CT allows almost isotropic imaging of the head and neck region and improves the assessment of tumor spread and lymph node metastases in arbitrary oblique planes. Thin structures (the base of the skull, the orbital floor, the hard palate) as well as the floor of the mouth can be evaluated sufficiently with multiplanar reformations. Usually, additional coronal scanning is not necessary with multislice-spiral-CT. Multislice-spiral-CT is especially advantageous in defining the critical relationships of tumor and lymph node metastases and for functional imaging of the hypopharynx and larynx not only in the

  10. Proximal arterioportal shunt in hepatocellular carcinoma: multi-slice spiral CT features and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the dynamic enhanced multi-slice spiral CT features and the formative mechanisms of proximal arterioportal shunt (APS) associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to assess the CT diagnostic ability and clinical value for proximal APS by comparing with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Methods: One hundred and sixty-eight patients with HCC received both dynamic enhanced multi-slice spiral CT scan and DSA of the liver, and the time lapse between these two examinations was from 3 to 15 days. Of the 168 patients, 37 were massive tumors, 102 were nodular, and 29 were diffuse, respectively. Spiral CT signs and its diagnostic ability for proximal APS were analyzed and compared with the golden standard of DSA. Peripheral hepatic segmental or subsegmental small APS were excluded in our study. Results: Of the 168 patients with HCC, 42 (25.0%) were demonstrated to have proximal APS on DSA , and all the of 42 patients had positive CT findings related to proximal APS in arterial phase. Of the 6 patients proved to have false positive CT signs, 2 showed lower enhancement of portal vein (PV) than that of the aorta. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive value of spiral CT in diagnosing proximal APS were 100.0%, 95.2 %, 96.4%, 87.5% and 100.0 %, respectively. There was a good correlation on the extent of APS to main PV, left or right PV, superior mesenteric vein, splenic vein, and coronary vein between CT and DSA in 35 patients (83.3%). The extent of APS to main PV and left or right PV was well correlated between CT and DSA in 38 patients (90.5%). The direct CT signs of proximal APS in arterial phase were revealed as early and strong enhancement of main PV and/or left or right PV approaching the density of the aorta (n=38). The indirect CT signs of proximal APS in arterial phase were demonstrated as high attenuation of normal hepatic parenchyma in the lobar distribution ipsilateral to the tumor (n=4

  11. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  12. Utility of computed axial tomography angiography in anatomic evaluation of pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization are used as first option tools for congenital heart diseases diagnosis, computed tomography angiography is a minimally invasive exam that through two to three dimensional images in real time gives an adequate approach to patients having this type of pathologies that require a rapid and precise evaluation of its extra cardiac anatomy. Objective: describe the institutional experience from August 2005 to August 2006 in the use of angiography by tomography as a complementary diagnostic method in the evaluation of pediatric patients with congenital heart diseases. Method: serial descriptive study. 58 pediatric patients with clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of congenital heart diseases were evaluated through the General Electric Multislice Light peed/16 scanner. Results: 58 patients with history of congenital heart disease were evaluated through CT angiography. Mean age was 2.4 ± 4.03 years. Twenty (33.8%) had diagnosis of pulmonary atresia, four (6.7%) had tricuspid atresia, eight (13.5%,) had double-outlet right ventricle, seven (11.8%) had tetralogy of Fallot, nine (15.2%) had alterations of the aortic arch, seven (11.8%) had coarctation of the aorta two (3.3%) had interrupted aortic arch, six (10.3%) had persistent ductus arteriosus, four (6.7%) had anomalous venous drainage and three (5.1 %) had transposition of the great arteries. High quality images that allowed assessing the precise vascular anatomy were obtained. Conclusions: computed tomography angiography turned out to be a useful tool in the diagnostic approach of congenital heart diseases, because it allowed a tridimensional anatomic reconstruction. New studies that may permit the assessment of sensitivity, specificity and concordance level of this technique with other invasive diagnostic methods available for the diagnosis of this type of diseases, are required

  13. Mechanical Regulation of Cardiac Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HuseyinCagatayYalcin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical forces are an essential contributor to and unavoidable component of cardiac formation, both inducing and orchestrating local and global molecular and cellular changes. Experimental animal studies have contributed substantially to understanding the mechanobiology of heart development. More recent integration of high-resolution imaging modalities with computational modeling has greatly improved our quantitative understanding of hemodynamic flow in heart development. Merging these latest experimental technologies with molecular and genetic signaling analysis will accelerate our understanding of the relationships integrating mechanical and biological signaling for proper cardiac formation. These advances will likely be essential for clinically translatable guidance for targeted interventions to rescue malforming hearts and/or reconfigure malformed circulations for optimal performance. This review summarizes our current understanding on the levels of mechanical signaling in the heart and their roles in orchestrating cardiac development.

  14. GPU Accelerated Simulation of Cardiac Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongdong Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Much efforts have been made to develop realistic cardiac models for clinical and research purposes. However, to implement these models always needs to handle excessive computational loads due to the complex and dynamic natures of the heart given limited computational power of Central Processing Unit (CPU. In this paper, a real-time approach to cardiac modeling is proposed based on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU. A hardware platform is first designed and tested with a simplified model to represent the cardiac activities. Motion of mesh-based heart is then approximated to simulate the movement of each vertex. Time functions are used within the GPU platform to describe the cardiac cycle. The parallel computing feature of GPU platform significantly speeds up the computation process in real-time with over 140,000 vertices motion based on the time functions. The program is developed on top of CUDA architecture proposed and developed by nVIDIA. Computational Experiments show visualization of the cardiac dynamics is significantly benefiting from this new solution. Further improvement of the GPU based cardiac simulation is discussed.

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of sixty four multi-slice CT angiography in assessment of arterial cut-off and run-off in comparison with surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate anatomic mapping and determination of the severity of arterial disease, an important health problem of the elderly, is of great significance. We aimed to determine the diagnostic value of 64-multislice CT angiography in run-off and cut-off sites of arterial disease. Patients and Methods: Throughout the study, multislice CT angiography followed by an operative intervention was carried out on a total of 38 patients with clinical signs and symptoms suggestive of arterial disease all of whom had the indication for vascular surgery. The mean age of patients was 34±15.86 (range, 23 to 93) years. Multislice CT angiography was executed using a 64-slice CT scanner, during the arterial phase of injecting the nonionic, contrast medium with a power injector at the rate of 5 ml/sec into the antecubital vein and exploration and revascularization of peripheral arterial disease was performed intraoperatively. Results: Atherosclerosis and arterial disease, the most common causes of vascular occlusion, were more common in the lower extremities. According to multislice CT angiography findings, the most frequent site of stenosis was the superficial femoral artery. Spear man's correlation coefficient showed a high degree of agreement amongst the raters. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and the accuracy of multislice CT angiography compared to surgery were 83.8%, 96%, 96.8%, 81.3% and 89%, respectively. Multislice CT angiography findings were compared with surgery as a standard of reference, which showed concordance in the majority of cases (81.6%). Cut-off sites were correctly identified by multislice CT angiography in 97.3% of the patients and the most common sites of discordance were the run-off sites (18.2%). Conclusion: multislice CT angiography angiography as a novel diagnostic modality may be a suitable alternative and a viable choice for routine clinical diagnosis.

  16. A dynamic study of intravenously administered 13NH3 in man with positron computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A whole body, multislice positron computed tomograph (POSITOLOGICA-II) was used to study the time course of concentration of 13N following intravenous administration of 13NH3 in the human heart, lungs and liver. Serial 30 seconds or 1 minute Positron-CT scans 6 to 7 minutes were performed immediately after intravenous administration of 13NH3 and time activity curves of the blood pool in the right and left ventricles, myocardium, lungs and liver were derived from these scans. The first scan gave cardiac blood pool images and these intracavitary 13N activity disappeared rapidly thereafter. On the other hand the myocardial 13N activity remained nearly constant throughout the period of observation and high quality cross-sectional images of the left ventricular myocardium were obtained. The patients with myocardial infarction revealed diminished accumulaton of 13N at the sites corresponding to the infaction. In the lung, there was a moderate uptake of 13N and this was washed out more slowly than in the intracavitary blood pool. The liver revealed a late uptake of 13N. These observations may represent transference of metabolized 13NH3. As the results, the present study clealy demonstrated the usefulness of 13NH3 as an imaging agent not only to the heart but also to the lungs and liver. (author)

  17. Virtual bronchoscopy of pediatric patients based on multislice spiral CT (MSCT): initial clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the benefit of the accelerated examination based on multislice spiral CT (MSCT) in the pediatric patient which has not been reported so far. Material and methods: MSCT (tube voltage 120 kV, tube current 110 mA, 4x1 mm slice thickness, 500 ms rotation time, pitch 6) was performed on a CT scanner of the latest generation (Volume Zoom, Siemens Corp., Forchheim, Germany). In total we examined 11 patients. Results: In all patients we obtained sufficient data for 3D reconstruction avoiding general anesthesia. 6/11 examinations were described to be without pathological finding. A definite diagnosis was obtained in 10 patients. Virtual bronchoscopy could avoid other invasive diagnostic examination in 8/11 patients. (orig.)

  18. Multislice CT characteristics of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the plaque characteristics of acute coronary, syndrome (ACS) and stable angina (SA) by multislice CT(MSCT). Methods: MSCT images of 27 patients with ACS and SA were compared. Results: The frequency of positive vascular remodeling was significantly different in ACS (19/31) and SA (6/41, χ2=16.95, P2=8.00, P2=3.62, P<0.05). The mean CT value of non- calcified plaques in ACS [(35.0±15.1) HU] was lower than in SA [(67.5±26.5) HU(t=4.82,P< 0.01)]. Conclusion: The MSCT characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques in ACS include positive vascular remodeling, low plaque density, spotty calcification, and eccentric stenosis. (authors)

  19. Diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT angiography in visceral aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT angiography (MSCTA) in visceral aneurysm. Methods: Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT scans in 42 cases of visceral aneurysm were retrospectively analyzed. volume rendering and multiplanar reconstruction were performed to reconstruct the vascular images. Results: The relationship between parent arteries and 58 aneurysms found in 42 patients were displayed clearly. The aneurysms arose from the splenic artery (27, 46.6%), hepatic artery (6, 17.2%), mesenteric artery (7, 12.1%), celiac artery (8, 13.8%). Three of the aneurysms were ruptured (5.2%) and 8 were associated with parent artery stenosis (13.8%). Conclusion: MSCTA clearly depict visceral aneurysm and complications. (authors)

  20. 3D Multislice CT Angiography in Post-Aortic Stent Grafting: A Pictorial Essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helical CT angiography has been widely used in both pre- and post-aortic stent grafting and it has been confirmed to be the preferred modality when compared to conventional angiography. The recent development of multislice CT (MSCT) has further enhanced the applications of CT angiography for aortic stent grafting. One of the advantages of MSCT angiography over conventional angiography is that the 3D reconstructions, based on the volumetric CT data, provide additional information during follow-up of aortic stent grafting. While endovascular repair has been increasingly used in clinical practice, the use of 3D MSCT imaging in endovascular repair continues to play an important role. In this pictorial essay, we aimed to discuss the diagnostic performance of 3D MSCT angiography in post aortic stent grafting, including the most commonly used surface shaded display, curvilinear reformation, the maximum intensity projection, volume rendering and virtual endoscopy. The advantages and disadvantages of each 3D reconstruction are also explored

  1. Cardiac carcinoid: tricuspid delayed hyperenhancement on cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT and magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martos, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare condition in adults. Its diagnosis can be easily missed in a patient presenting to a primary care setting. We revised the advantages of using coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid heart disease and right heart failure using transthoracic Doppler-echocardiogram, cardiac MDCT and MRI. Cardiac echocardiogram revealed marked thickening and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with dilated right atrium and ventricle. Cardiac MDCT and MRI demonstrated fixation and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with delayed contrast hyperenhancement of the tricuspid annulus. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates fascinating imaging findings of cardiac carcinoid disease and highlights the increasing utility of contrast-enhanced MRI and cardiac MDCT in the diagnosis of this interesting condition.

  2. Integration of cardiac computed tomography into pulmonary vein isolation in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation; Integration einer praeinterventionellen Computertomografie des Herzens in die therapeutische Pulmonalvenenisolation bei Patienten mit paroxysmalem Vorhofflimmern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, T.F. [Abt. Radiologie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany); Klemm, H.; Willems, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Kardiologie und Angiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Koops, A.; Adam, G.; Begemann, P.G. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf (Germany); Nagel, H.D. [Philips Medizin Systeme GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: Detailed anatomic information of the left atrium is necessary for securely performing radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation-triggering ectopies in the pulmonary vein ostia. In this study the impact of a preinterventionally acquired cardiac computed tomography (CT) on pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) was assessed. Materials and methods: Examinations of 54 patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation undergoing PVI were analyzed. In 27 patients a supplementary cardiac CT was obtained prior to PVI (CT group, 12 women, 15 men, 59.7 {+-} 9.9 years of age): 16 x 1.5 mm collimation, 0.2 pitch, 120 kV tube voltage, 400 effective mAs. The fluoroscopy time, effective dose and quantity of radiofrequency (RF) pulses of the following catheter ablation were compared to 27 patients undergoing stand-alone PVI (11 women, 16 men, 62.0 {+-} 9.9 years of age). Mann-Whitney tests served for statistical comparison. Results: CT datasets were successfully integrated into the ablation procedure of each patient in the CT group. The mean quantity of RF pulses was significantly lower in the CT group (22.1 {+-} 8.0 vs. 29.1 {+-} 11.9, p = 0.030), and a significant reduction of fluoroscopy time was found (41.8 {+-} 12.0 min vs. 51.2 {+-} 16.0 min, p = 0.005). Effective doses of the catheter ablation differed in an equivalent dimension but altogether not significantly (14.9 {+-} 10.0 mSv vs. 20.0 {+-} 16.0 mSv, p = 0.203). The mean additive effective dose of the cardiac CT was 85 {+-} 0.3 mSv. (orig.)

  3. Multiphase contrast-enhanced CT of the liver with a multislice CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of the injection rate of contrast material and of a 5% dextrose flush on enhancement in multiphase hepatic CT using a multislice CT scanner. Most patients had chronic hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis. One hundred eighty examinations, in which two sequential acquisitions were performed during a single breath-hold followed by third- and fourth-pass acquisitions, were randomized into four protocols: contrast injection at 0.1 ml/kg body weight s-1 over 21 s without and with a 30-ml flush in groups 1 and 2, respectively, and contrast injection at 0.07 ml/kg body weight s-1 over 30 s without and with a flush in groups 3 and 4, respectively. Contrast enhancement in each acquisition was measured in the aorta, portal vein, and liver. The visualization of hepatic arterial branches was scored by visual assessment. The highest aortic enhancement was observed in the first-pass acquisition in all groups. At the higher injection rate (groups 1 and 2), aortic enhancement in the first-pass acquisition was significantly more intense, whereas portal venous and hepatic enhancement was significantly less intense. The use of a flush considerably improved aortic enhancement at the beginning of the second-pass acquisition. In the visual assessment of hepatic arterial branches, the protocols with the higher injection rate received significantly higher grades. Multislice CT permits the entire liver to be imaged during an almost exclusively arterial phase by shortening the injection duration for a given volume of contrast material. (orig.)

  4. Multi-slice spiral CT angiography: clinical application and the evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of multi-slice spiral CT angiography (MSCTA) in diagnosis of vascular diseases. Methods: Imaging materials of multi-slice spiral CT angiography of 73 cases were retrospectively analyzed, including 27 cases of intracranial vascular CTA, 8 of carotid CTA, 10 of pulmonary artery CTA, 6 of coronary artery CTA, 11 of aortic CTA, and 11 of low extremity artery CTA. After the raw data was reconstructed by overlapping slice-chickness, the axial images were uploaded to workstation for post data processing, and were then evaluated and reconstructed using 3D software including maximum intensity projection (MIP), shaded surface display (SSD), and volume rendering technique (VRT). Results: The blood vessels were successfully demonstrated in 71 cases out of 73. Abnormality was found in 63 cases out of 71. The intracranial CTA showed aneurysm in 7 cases, arteriovenous malformation in 5, carotid-cavernous fistula in 2, cerebral vascular occlusion in 2, astrocytoma in 2, and meningioma in 3. The carotid CTA revealed carotid stenosis in 4 cases, vertebral artery stenosis in 2 and a post-bracket implantation subclavian artery. In pulmonary artery CTA, pulmonary artery embolism and 5 cases of pulmonary artery involved with lung cancer were seen in 3 cases. In coronary artery CTA, coronary artery stenosis were shown in 3 cases. The aortic CTA demonstrated aortic dissection in 4, aortic stenosis calcification in 5, aortic aneurysm in 2, liver cancer in 2, renal artery stenosis in 2, and Budd-Chiari syndrome in 2. CTA of low extremity artery revealed external iliac artery occlusion in 2 and femoral artery stenosis in 5. Conclusion: By combining axial images with various reconstructed with adjacent organs can also be evaluated. MSCTA is of convenience, reliability, safety and noninvasive. (authors)

  5. Is It Possible to Predict Heart Rate and Range during Enhanced Cardiac CT Scan from Previous Non-enhanced Cardiac CT?

    OpenAIRE

    Horiguchi, Jun; Yamamoto, Hideya; Arie, Ryuichi; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako; Ohtaki, Megu; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    The effect of heart rate and variation during cardiac computed tomography (CT) on the examination quality. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to predict heart rate and range during enhanced cardiac computed CT scan from previous non-enhanced cardiac CT scan. Electrocardiograph (ECG) files from 112 patients on three types of cardiac 64-slice CT (non-enhanced, prospective ECG-triggered and retrospective ECG-gated enhanced scans) were recorded. The mean heart rate...

  6. Cardiac imaging in patients with chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Signe; Hove, Jens D; Møller, Søren

    2016-01-01

    dysfunction at rest by application of new myocardial strain techniques. Experience with other modalities such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography is limited. Future studies exploring these imaging modalities are necessary to characterize and monitor the cardiac changes in...... involved in the development of hepatic nephropathy and is associated with an impaired survival. In the field of cardiac imaging, CCM is not yet a well-characterized entity, hence various modalities of cardiac imaging have been applied. Stress testing with either physiologically or pharmacologically induced...

  7. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D

    1977-12-01

    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  8. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview In autumn the main focus was to process and handle CRAFT data and to perform the Summer08 MC production. The operational aspects were well covered by regular Computing Shifts, experts on duty and Computing Run Coordination. At the Computing Resource Board (CRB) in October a model to account for service work at Tier 2s was approved. The computing resources for 2009 were reviewed for presentation at the C-RRB. The quarterly resource monitoring is continuing. Facilities/Infrastructure operations Operations during CRAFT data taking ran fine. This proved to be a very valuable experience for T0 workflows and operations. The transfers of custodial data to most T1s went smoothly. A first round of reprocessing started at the Tier-1 centers end of November; it will take about two weeks. The Computing Shifts procedure was tested full scale during this period and proved to be very efficient: 30 Computing Shifts Persons (CSP) and 10 Computing Resources Coordinators (CRC). The shift program for the shut down w...

  9. Incidental Cardiac Findings on Thoracic Imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kok, Hong Kuan

    2013-02-07

    The cardiac structures are well seen on nongated thoracic computed tomography studies in the investigation and follow-up of cardiopulmonary disease. A wide variety of findings can be incidentally picked up on careful evaluation of the pericardium, cardiac chambers, valves, and great vessels. Some of these findings may represent benign variants, whereas others may have more profound clinical importance. Furthermore, the expansion of interventional and surgical practice has led to the development and placement of new cardiac stents, implantable pacemaker devices, and prosthetic valves with which the practicing radiologist should be familiar. We present a collection of common incidental cardiac findings that can be readily identified on thoracic computed tomography studies and briefly discuss their clinical relevance.

  10. Influence of trigger type, tube voltage and heart rate on calcified plaque imaging in dual source cardiac computed tomography: phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the impact of high pitch cardiac CT vs. retrospective ECG gated CT on the quantification of calcified vessel stenoses, with assessment of the influence of tube voltage, reconstruction kernel and heart rate. A 4D cardiac movement phantom equipped with three different plaque phantoms (12.5%, 25% and 50% stenosis at different calcification levels), was scanned with a 128-row dual source CT scanner, applying different trigger types (gated vs. prospectively triggered high pitch), tube voltages (100-120 kV) and heart rates (50–90 beats per minute, bpm). Images were reconstructed using different standard (B26f, B46f, B70f) and iterative (I26f, I70f) convolution kernels. Absolute and relative plaque sizes were measured and statistically compared. Radiation dose associated with the different methods (gated vs. high pitch, 100 kV vs. 120 kV) were compared. Compared to the known diameters of the phantom plaques and vessels both CT-examination techniques overestimated the degrees of stenoses. Using the high pitch CT-protocol plaques appeared larger (0.09 ± 0.31 mm, 2 ± 8 percent points, PP) in comparison to the ECG-gated CT-scans. Reducing tube voltage had a similar effect, resulting in higher grading of the same stenoses by 3 ± 8 PP. In turn, sharper convolution kernels lead to a lower grading of stenoses (differences of up to 5%). Pairwise comparison of B26f and I26f, B46f and B70f, and B70f and I70f showed differences of 0–1 ± 6–8 PP of the plaque depiction. Motion artifacts were present only at 90 bpm high pitch experiments. High-pitch protocols were associated with significantly lower radiation doses compared with the ECG-gated protocols (258.0 mGy vs. 2829.8 mGy CTDIvol, p ≤ 0.0001). Prospectively triggered high-pitch cardiac CT led to an overestimation of plaque diameter and degree of stenoses in a coronary phantom. This overestimation is only slight and probably negligible in a clinical situation. Even at higher heart rates high pitch CT

  11. The comparative study between multi-slice spiral CT angiography and color flow ultrasonography in hepatic and splenic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of multi-slice spiral CT angiography and color flow ultra- sonography in hepatic and splenic trauma. Methods Thirty-six cases of hepatic and splenic trauma were collected, the MSCT were analyzed and compared with that of color flow ultrasonography. Results: Seventeen cases were Hepatic trauma including nine cases of hepatic contusion, six cases of sub-envelope hematoma, two cases of both sub-envelope hematoma and hepatic contusion. Nineteen cases were splenic trauma including nine cases of splenic contusion, ten cases of sub-envelope hematoma. Conclusion: Multi-slice spiral CT angiography show hepatic and splenic trauma clearer than that of color flow ultrasonography, and can provide reliable basis for clinic diagnosis and therapy. (authors)

  12. The application of multi-slice CT and image post processing techniques in diagnosing of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To characterize the pulmonary embolism (PE) on multi-slice CT pulmonary angiography, and to evaluate the role of multi-slice CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the diagnosis of PE. Methods: Forty-five patients with PE confirmed by CTPA were retrospective analyzed. Images were reconstructed with maximal intensity projection (MIP), multiple planar reconstruction (MPR) and volume rendering technique (VRT). The display of pulmonary arteries and the ability of detecting embolisms were compared among the three different reconstruction techniques. Results: MPR images showed superiority to MIP and VRT images in displaying embolisms (P<0.05). Conclusion: MPR images were better than those of MIP and VRT, but provided poor three-dimensional information; MIP and VRT were more straightforward than MPR in displaying large branches of pulmonary artery. MPR combined with MIP and VRT could help to accurately establish PE diagnosis. (author)

  13. Cardiac imaging: Current and emerging applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankharia B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and computed tomography (CT scan have made big inroads as modalities used for evaluation of various pathologies of the heart. Cardiac MRI is typically used for perfusion and viability studies as well as to study various cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases and the pericardium. It has been used in the evaluation of congenital heart diseases over the last two decades. Cardiac CT is used mainly for the evaluation of the coronary arteries, typically in the setting of "to rule out coronary artery disease".

  14. Fast high resolution reconstruction in multi-slice and multi-view cMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Toledo, Nelson; Romero Castro, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) is an useful tool in diagnosis, prognosis and research since it functionally tracks the heart structure. Although useful, this imaging technique is limited in spatial resolution because heart is a constant moving organ, also there are other non controled conditions such as patient movements and volumetric changes during apnea periods when data is acquired, those conditions limit the time to capture high quality information. This paper presents a very fast and simple strategy to reconstruct high resolution 3D images from a set of low resolution series of 2D images. The strategy is based on an information reallocation algorithm which uses the DICOM header to relocate voxel intensities in a regular grid. An interpolation method is applied to fill empty places with estimated data, the interpolation resamples the low resolution information to estimate the missing information. As a final step a gaussian filter that denoises the final result. A reconstructed image evaluation is performed using as a reference a super-resolution reconstructed image. The evaluation reveals that the method maintains the general heart structure with a small loss in detailed information (edge sharpening and blurring), some artifacts related with input information quality are detected. The proposed method requires low time and computational resources.

  15. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    The Computing Project is preparing for a busy year where the primary emphasis of the project moves towards steady operations. Following the very successful completion of Computing Software and Analysis challenge, CSA06, last fall, we have reorganized and established four groups in computing area: Commissioning, User Support, Facility/Infrastructure Operations and Data Operations. These groups work closely together with groups from the Offline Project in planning for data processing and operations. Monte Carlo production has continued since CSA06, with about 30M events produced each month to be used for HLT studies and physics validation. Monte Carlo production will continue throughout the year in the preparation of large samples for physics and detector studies ramping to 50 M events/month for CSA07. Commissioning of the full CMS computing system is a major goal for 2007. Site monitoring is an important commissioning component and work is ongoing to devise CMS specific tests to be included in Service Availa...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction CMS distributed computing system performed well during the 2011 start-up. The events in 2011 have more pile-up and are more complex than last year; this results in longer reconstruction times and harder events to simulate. Significant increases in computing capacity were delivered in April for all computing tiers, and the utilisation and load is close to the planning predictions. All computing centre tiers performed their expected functionalities. Heavy-Ion Programme The CMS Heavy-Ion Programme had a very strong showing at the Quark Matter conference. A large number of analyses were shown. The dedicated heavy-ion reconstruction facility at the Vanderbilt Tier-2 is still involved in some commissioning activities, but is available for processing and analysis. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Facility and Infrastructure operations have been active with operations and several important deployment tasks. Facilities participated in the testing and deployment of WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request...

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Overview During the past three months activities were focused on data operations, testing and re-enforcing shift and operational procedures for data production and transfer, MC production and on user support. Planning of the computing resources in view of the new LHC calendar in ongoing. Two new task forces were created for supporting the integration work: Site Commissioning, which develops tools helping distributed sites to monitor job and data workflows, and Analysis Support, collecting the user experience and feedback during analysis activities and developing tools to increase efficiency. The development plan for DMWM for 2009/2011 was developed at the beginning of the year, based on the requirements from the Physics, Computing and Offline groups (see Offline section). The Computing management meeting at FermiLab on February 19th and 20th was an excellent opportunity discussing the impact and for addressing issues and solutions to the main challenges facing CMS computing. The lack of manpower is particul...

  18. Enhancement of the low resolution image quality using randomly sampled data for multi-slice MR imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Yong; Yu, Baiying; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Low resolution images are often acquired in in vivo MR applications involving in large field-of-view (FOV) and high speed imaging, such as, whole-body MRI screening and functional MRI applications. In this work, we investigate a multi-slice imaging strategy for acquiring low resolution images by using compressed sensing (CS) MRI to enhance the image quality without increasing the acquisition time. In this strategy, low resolution images of all the slices are acquired using multiple-slice imag...

  19. Correction of misaligned slices in multi-slice cardiovascular magnetic resonance using slice-to-volume registration

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkes David J; Schnabel Julia A; Netsch Thomas; Pinder Richard J; Chandler Adam G; Hill Derek LG; Razavi Reza

    2008-01-01

    Abstract A popular technique to reduce respiratory motion for cardiovascular magnetic resonance is to perform a multi-slice acquisition in which a patient holds their breath multiple times during the scan. The feasibility of rigid slice-to-volume registration to correct for misalignments of slice stacks in such images due to differing breath-hold positions is explored. Experimental results indicate that slice-to-volume registration can compensate for the typical misalignments expected. Correc...

  20. Automatic fuzzy contouring and parameter extraction of the left ventricle from multi-slice MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardiac MR Imaging is a non invasive technique that allows the acquisition of a series of short-axis slices of the heart. These images encompass the entire left ventricle in the different phases of the cardiac cycle. The principal physiological parameters extracted from this series are the ejection fraction and the wall thickness. To this end, the determination of both the endocardial and the epicardial contour is required. Following the extraction of three parameters for each pixel, the fuzzy set of the cardiac contour points is defined. The first parameter depends on the pixel grey level value, the second on the presence of an edge and the third on the information retrieved on the previous slice. The calculation of the membership degree to the fuzzy set of the cardiac contour points for each pixel involves the creation of a matrix of membership degrees. The cardiac contours are determined on this matrix with the aid of a dynamic programming technique, graph searching. (authors)

  1. 3D multislice CT angiography for the assessment of relevant stenoses in patients with peripheral artery occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Method/Materials: For this study we examined 31 patients with peripheral artery occlusive disease. All patients received a multislice helical CT angiography and arterial digital subtraction angiography. Multislice CT angiography was performed with a Somatom Plus 4 Volume Zoom (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). After test bolus injection of 20 ml Ultravist 370 (Schering AG, Berlin) additional 150 ml were applied with a flow rate of 3 ml/sec and a scan delay between 20-35 sec depending on individual blood circulation time. Collimation was 4x2.5 mm with a pitch of 6. Reconstructed slice thickness was 3 mm. 3D reconstructions of arteries of pelvic and lower extremity arteries were performed in volume rendering technique on a 3D Virtuoso workstation (Siemens, Erlangen). Results: For the assessment of therapeutically relevant stenoses (over 50% reduction of luminal diameter) multislice CT achieved the following results compared to conventional angiography for the diagnosis of stenosis: sensitivity of 86%, specifity of 86% and an accuracy of 72%. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of Hemodynamics in a Rat Model of Liver Cirrhosis with Precancerous Lesions Using Multislice Spiral CT Perfusion Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale and Objectives. To develop an optimal scanning protocol for multislice spiral CT perfusion (CTP imaging to evaluate hemodynamic changes in liver cirrhosis with diethylnitrosamine- (DEN- induced precancerous lesions. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group (n=80 and the precancerous liver cirrhosis group (n=40. The control group received saline injection and the liver cirrhosis group received 50 mg/kg DEN i.p. twice a week for 12 weeks. All animals underwent plain CT scanning, CTP, and contrast-enhanced CT scanning. Scanning parameters were optimized by adjusting the diatrizoate concentration, the flow rate, and the delivery time. The hemodynamics of both groups was further compared using optimized multislice spiral CTP imaging. Results. High-quality CTP images were obtained with following parameters: 150 kV; 150 mAs; 5 mm thickness, 5 mm interval; pitch, 1; matrix, 512×512; and FOV, 9.6 cm. Compared to the control group, the liver cirrhosis group had a significantly increased value of the hepatic arterial fraction and the hepatic artery perfusion (P<0.05 but significantly decreased hepatic portal perfusion and mean transit time (P<0.05. Conclusion. Multislice spiral CTP imaging can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic changes in the rat model of liver cirrhosis with precancerous lesions.

  3. Long-term follow-up of surgically excluded popliteal artery aneurysms with multi-slice CT angiography and Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) angiography in the follow-up of popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) that have been operated on. Aneurysm exclusion and progression, graft patency and graft-related complications were analyzed. Fourteen patients with 21 surgically excluded PAAs were evaluated with MSCT angiography with slice thickness of 1.25 mm. The mean follow-up time was 67 months. MSCT demonstrated blood flow in six non-excluded PAAs (24%), with an average increase in the diameter of 21 mm over time. Fifteen PAAs demonstrated no blood flow and revealed an average decrease of 7 mm in diameter. The origin of this residual perfusion was demonstrated, and collaterals were involved in five of six non-excluded PAAs. In addition, MSCT demonstrated three graft stenoses. Furthermore, two occluded grafts were visualized. Twenty-four percent of the patients after surgical exclusion of PAAs revealed residual perfusion within the aneurysmal sac during follow-up, with a significant increase in the aneurysmal size with MSCT. Moreover, evaluation of the graft patency could also be done as could demonstration of anastomotic abnormalities. Thus, MSCT might be considered as a new tool to evaluate residual collateral feeding of popliteal aneurysmal sac and could be useful in identification and localization of feeding vessels. (orig.)

  4. What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is Cardiac Rehabilitation? A cardiac rehabilitation (rehab) program takes place in a hospital or ... special help in making lifestyle changes. During your rehabilitation program you’ll… • Have a medical evaluation to ...

  5. Late enhanced computed tomography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy enables accurate left-ventricular volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Late enhancement (LE) multi-slice computed tomography (leMDCT) was introduced for the visualization of (intra-) myocardial fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). LE is associated with adverse cardiac events. This analysis focuses on leMDCT derived LV muscle mass (LV-MM) which may be related to LE resulting in LE proportion for potential risk stratification in HCM. N=26 HCM-patients underwent leMDCT (64-slice-CT) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). In leMDCT iodine contrast (Iopromid, 350 mg/mL; 150mL) was injected 7 minutes before imaging. Reconstructed short cardiac axis views served for planimetry. The study group was divided into three groups of varying LV-contrast. LeMDCT was correlated with CMR. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14 years. The groups of varying contrast differed in weight and body mass index (p 0.05). In the group with sufficient contrast LV-MM appeared with 172 ± 30.8 g in leMDCT vs. 165.9 ± 37.8 in CMR (p > 0.05). Overall intra-/inter-observer variability of semiautomatic assessment of LV-MM showed an accuracy of 0.9 ± 8.6 g and 0.8 ± 9.2 g in leMDCT. All leMDCT-measures correlated well with CMR (r > 0.9). LeMDCT primarily performed for LE-visualization in HCM allows for accurate LV-volumetry including LV-MM in > 90 % of the cases. (orig.)

  6. Late enhanced computed tomography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy enables accurate left-ventricular volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Christoph; Lutz, M.; Kuehl, C.; Frey, N. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany); Partner Site Hamburg/Kiel/Luebeck, DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), Kiel (Germany); Both, M.; Sattler, B.; Jansen, O; Schaefer, P. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany); Harders, H.; Eden, M. [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet Kiel, Department of Cardiology, Angiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Late enhancement (LE) multi-slice computed tomography (leMDCT) was introduced for the visualization of (intra-) myocardial fibrosis in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM). LE is associated with adverse cardiac events. This analysis focuses on leMDCT derived LV muscle mass (LV-MM) which may be related to LE resulting in LE proportion for potential risk stratification in HCM. N=26 HCM-patients underwent leMDCT (64-slice-CT) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). In leMDCT iodine contrast (Iopromid, 350 mg/mL; 150mL) was injected 7 minutes before imaging. Reconstructed short cardiac axis views served for planimetry. The study group was divided into three groups of varying LV-contrast. LeMDCT was correlated with CMR. The mean age was 64.2 ± 14 years. The groups of varying contrast differed in weight and body mass index (p < 0.05). In the group with good LV-contrast assessment of LV-MM resulted in 147.4 ± 64.8 g in leMDCT vs. 147.1 ± 65.9 in CMR (p > 0.05). In the group with sufficient contrast LV-MM appeared with 172 ± 30.8 g in leMDCT vs. 165.9 ± 37.8 in CMR (p > 0.05). Overall intra-/inter-observer variability of semiautomatic assessment of LV-MM showed an accuracy of 0.9 ± 8.6 g and 0.8 ± 9.2 g in leMDCT. All leMDCT-measures correlated well with CMR (r > 0.9). LeMDCT primarily performed for LE-visualization in HCM allows for accurate LV-volumetry including LV-MM in > 90 % of the cases. (orig.)

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing activity had ramped down after the completion of the reprocessing of the 2012 data and parked data, but is increasing with new simulation samples for analysis and upgrade studies. Much of the Computing effort is currently involved in activities to improve the computing system in preparation for 2015. Operations Office Since the beginning of 2013, the Computing Operations team successfully re-processed the 2012 data in record time, not only by using opportunistic resources like the San Diego Supercomputer Center which was accessible, to re-process the primary datasets HTMHT and MultiJet in Run2012D much earlier than planned. The Heavy-Ion data-taking period was successfully concluded in February collecting almost 500 T. Figure 3: Number of events per month (data) In LS1, our emphasis is to increase efficiency and flexibility of the infrastructure and operation. Computing Operations is working on separating disk and tape at the Tier-1 sites and the full implementation of the xrootd federation ...

  8. Computer

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The pixelated rectangle we spend most of our day staring at in silence is not the television as many long feared, but the computer-the ubiquitous portal of work and personal lives. At this point, the computer is almost so common we don't notice it in our view. It's difficult to envision that not that long ago it was a gigantic, room-sized structure only to be accessed by a few inspiring as much awe and respect as fear and mystery. Now that the machine has decreased in size and increased in popular use, the computer has become a prosaic appliance, little-more noted than a toaster. These dramati

  9. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  10. Rejection in the cardiac transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard chest radiography remains the most frequent applied method for monitoring post surgical cardiac transplant patients. Evidence suggests that after the 1st month cardiac enlargement is indeed a useful indicator of rejection, sometimes being caused by pericardial effusion and/or changes in left ventricular mass. Opportunistic infections, either pulmonary lesions or mediastinal abscesses, as well as malignant tumours may all occur and require evaluation or exclusion. Conventional computed transmission tomography is an excellent technique for surveying the entire thorax relatively non-invasively and is recommended whenever pulmonary, cardiac or mediastinal changes are unexplained. Coronary arteriography with or without digital subtraction remains the definitive method for examining the coronary arteries. Left ventricular function can be evaluated with either angiography or other non-invasive methods including such techniques as echocardiography and nuclear medicine. More recently monoclonal antibody labels for antimyosin show promise for identifying rejection. Ultrafast CT scanning is now available in a number of centres. It allows millisecond cross-sectional cine-tomography of the heart as well as of the whole chest, and also provides 3-D quantitative analyses of end-diastolic and systolic function including regional wall thickening dynamics and estimations of myocardial mass. Right, as well as left-sided cardiac chambers, are demonstrated routinely during the same ultrafast CT procedure. MRI, like ultrafast CT, is a new technique still being explored. MRI as well as MR spectroscopy are regarded as diagnostic radiology procedures. (author). 32 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  11. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of integrating coronary CT angiography (cCTA) or whole chest “triple-rule-out” CTA (TRO-CTA) in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain. Materials and methods: 100 consecutive emergency department patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for ACS underwent cCTA or TRO-CTA (cCTA group). Diagnostic performance, rate and length of hospitalization, hospital costs, hospital reimbursement and hospital profit were analyzed. All findings were compared to those of 100 different patients with acute chest pain that were evaluated with a standard of care (SOC) diagnostic algorithm (SOC group) that did not include cCTA. Diagnostic performance (“safety”) of both algorithms was defined as the absence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 90-day follow-up period. Results: In the cCTA group 60/100 patients were safely discharged at the same day. 19/100 patients were hospitalized due to significant coronary stenosis on cCTA, which was confirmed by invasive coronary catheterization (ICC) in 17/19 patients. Relevant non-coronary disease that led to hospitalization were found in 21 patients of the cCTA group. In the SOC group all patients were hospitalized. 87 of these hospitalized patients underwent ICC for exclusion of coronary artery stenosis. A significant coronary artery stenosis was found in only 25 of these patients. Within the cCTA group no patient suffered from MACE over the 90-day follow-up period. In the SOC group 2 patients were rehospitalized during the 90-day follow-up period due to recurrent chest pain and 1 patient because of a pseudoaneurym of the left femoral artery after ICC. The median hospital costs per patient were significantly lower in the cCTA group than in the SOC group (428.9€ vs. 1575.0€, p < 0.001). The median reimbursement of the cCTA group was less compared to the SOC group (589.8€ vs. 2412.1€, p < 0.001) and patients in the cCTA group gained less profit than

  12. Coronary computed tomography and triple rule out CT in patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for acute coronary syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzler, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.henzler@medma.uni-heidelberg.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Gruettner, Joachim, E-mail: joachim.gruettner@umm.de [Emergency Department, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Meyer, Mathias, E-mail: mr.meyer.mathias@gmail.com [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Rothhaar, Baerbel, E-mail: baerbel.rothhaar@umm.de [Business Development – Medical Controlling, University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Apfaltrer, Paul, E-mail: Paul.Apfaltrer@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Metzger, Franz, E-mail: franz.metzger@umm.de [Business Development – Medical Controlling, University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Borggrefe, Martin, E-mail: martin.borggrefe@umm.de [1st Department of Medicine (Cardiology), University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoenberg, Stefan O., E-mail: stefan.schoenberg@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim (Germany); and others

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To evaluate the economic impact of integrating coronary CT angiography (cCTA) or whole chest “triple-rule-out” CTA (TRO-CTA) in the work-up of patients with acute chest pain. Materials and methods: 100 consecutive emergency department patients with acute chest pain and an intermediate cardiac risk for ACS underwent cCTA or TRO-CTA (cCTA group). Diagnostic performance, rate and length of hospitalization, hospital costs, hospital reimbursement and hospital profit were analyzed. All findings were compared to those of 100 different patients with acute chest pain that were evaluated with a standard of care (SOC) diagnostic algorithm (SOC group) that did not include cCTA. Diagnostic performance (“safety”) of both algorithms was defined as the absence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) over a 90-day follow-up period. Results: In the cCTA group 60/100 patients were safely discharged at the same day. 19/100 patients were hospitalized due to significant coronary stenosis on cCTA, which was confirmed by invasive coronary catheterization (ICC) in 17/19 patients. Relevant non-coronary disease that led to hospitalization were found in 21 patients of the cCTA group. In the SOC group all patients were hospitalized. 87 of these hospitalized patients underwent ICC for exclusion of coronary artery stenosis. A significant coronary artery stenosis was found in only 25 of these patients. Within the cCTA group no patient suffered from MACE over the 90-day follow-up period. In the SOC group 2 patients were rehospitalized during the 90-day follow-up period due to recurrent chest pain and 1 patient because of a pseudoaneurym of the left femoral artery after ICC. The median hospital costs per patient were significantly lower in the cCTA group than in the SOC group (428.9€ vs. 1575.0€, p < 0.001). The median reimbursement of the cCTA group was less compared to the SOC group (589.8€ vs. 2412.1€, p < 0.001) and patients in the cCTA group gained less profit than

  13. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion An activity that is still in progress is computing for the heavy-ion program. The heavy-ion events are collected without zero suppression, so the event size is much large at roughly 11 MB per event of RAW. The central collisions are more complex and...

  14. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann P. McBride Edited by M-C. Sawley with contributions from: P. Kreuzer D. Bonacorsi S. Belforte F. Wuerthwein L. Bauerdick K. Lassila-Perini M-C. Sawley

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the comput...

  15. Diagnosis and staging of pancreatic carcinoma: MRI versus multislice-CT - A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate multislice-CT versus MRI in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic carcinoma in a prospective multi-reader analysis. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma underwent both multislice-CT (4-Row, 'hydro-technique') and state-of-the-art MRI (two 1.5 T units). In correlation with histopathologic findings or in case of a non-lesion diagnosis by follow-up (6-month interval), we evaluated MRI versus CT in a multi-reader analysis (2 reader pairs) for: 1. diagnostic quality; 2. examination time; 3. accuracy of potential respectability; 4. kappa analysis of observer variations; and 5. overall diagnostic reliability. Results: A total of 28 lesions (n=22 malignant, n=6 benign) were present in the cohort group versus 22 patients without a focal lesion (n=10 pancreatitis, n=12 no tumor). For lesion detection, CT had a sensitivity of 100/89% (reader pair 1/2) and specificity of 77%, and MRI had a sensitivity of 75/89% and specificity of 77/73%. For the subgroup of adenocarcinomas of the pancreas (n=17), we found a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 61% for CT versus a sensitivity of 82/94% and a specificity of 67/61% for MRI. The accuracy for determining the resectability was 91/82% for CT and 90/82% for MRI. The kappa analysis showed a good correlation for CT (0.71) and a moderate correlation of both groups for MRI (0.49). Conclusion: CT and MRI showed comparable results in the detection of pancreatic carcinomas as well as in the determination of resectability. Chronic pancreatitis as a 'tumor-like-lesion' was the major factor of a missed diagnosis. The results of multi-reader analysis for both reading groups were almost identical with a moderate to good kappa correlation. There is no reason to prefer MRI (more expensive) over CT for patients with the presumptive diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (orig.)

  16. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 ± 54 versus 125 ± 59 min, respectively, p 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size. (orig.)

  17. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The first data taking period of November produced a first scientific paper, and this is a very satisfactory step for Computing. It also gave the invaluable opportunity to learn and debrief from this first, intense period, and make the necessary adaptations. The alarm procedures between different groups (DAQ, Physics, T0 processing, Alignment/calibration, T1 and T2 communications) have been reinforced. A major effort has also been invested into remodeling and optimizing operator tasks in all activities in Computing, in parallel with the recruitment of new Cat A operators. The teams are being completed and by mid year the new tasks will have been assigned. CRB (Computing Resource Board) The Board met twice since last CMS week. In December it reviewed the experience of the November data-taking period and could measure the positive improvements made for the site readiness. It also reviewed the policy under which Tier-2 are associated with Physics Groups. Such associations are decided twice per ye...

  18. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CCRC’08 challenges and CSA08 During the February campaign of the Common Computing readiness challenges (CCRC’08), the CMS computing team had achieved very good results. The link between the detector site and the Tier0 was tested by gradually increasing the number of parallel transfer streams well beyond the target. Tests covered the global robustness at the Tier0, processing a massive number of very large files and with a high writing speed to tapes.  Other tests covered the links between the different Tiers of the distributed infrastructure and the pre-staging and reprocessing capacity of the Tier1’s: response time, data transfer rate and success rate for Tape to Buffer staging of files kept exclusively on Tape were measured. In all cases, coordination with the sites was efficient and no serious problem was found. These successful preparations prepared the ground for the second phase of the CCRC’08 campaign, in May. The Computing Software and Analysis challen...

  19. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction It has been a very active quarter in Computing with interesting progress in all areas. The activity level at the computing facilities, driven by both organised processing from data operations and user analysis, has been steadily increasing. The large-scale production of simulated events that has been progressing throughout the fall is wrapping-up and reprocessing with pile-up will continue. A large reprocessing of all the proton-proton data has just been released and another will follow shortly. The number of analysis jobs by users each day, that was already hitting the computing model expectations at the time of ICHEP, is now 33% higher. We are expecting a busy holiday break to ensure samples are ready in time for the winter conferences. Heavy Ion The Tier 0 infrastructure was able to repack and promptly reconstruct heavy-ion collision data. Two copies were made of the data at CERN using a large CASTOR disk pool, and the core physics sample was replicated ...

  20. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction During the past six months, Computing participated in the STEP09 exercise, had a major involvement in the October exercise and has been working with CMS sites on improving open issues relevant for data taking. At the same time operations for MC production, real data reconstruction and re-reconstructions and data transfers at large scales were performed. STEP09 was successfully conducted in June as a joint exercise with ATLAS and the other experiments. It gave good indication about the readiness of the WLCG infrastructure with the two major LHC experiments stressing the reading, writing and processing of physics data. The October Exercise, in contrast, was conducted as an all-CMS exercise, where Physics, Computing and Offline worked on a common plan to exercise all steps to efficiently access and analyze data. As one of the major results, the CMS Tier-2s demonstrated to be fully capable for performing data analysis. In recent weeks, efforts were devoted to CMS Computing readiness. All th...

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Computing continued with a high level of activity over the winter in preparation for conferences and the start of the 2012 run. 2012 brings new challenges with a new energy, more complex events, and the need to make the best use of the available time before the Long Shutdown. We expect to be resource constrained on all tiers of the computing system in 2012 and are working to ensure the high-priority goals of CMS are not impacted. Heavy ions After a successful 2011 heavy-ion run, the programme is moving to analysis. During the run, the CAF resources were well used for prompt analysis. Since then in 2012 on average 200 job slots have been used continuously at Vanderbilt for analysis workflows. Operations Office As of 2012, the Computing Project emphasis has moved from commissioning to operation of the various systems. This is reflected in the new organisation structure where the Facilities and Data Operations tasks have been merged into a common Operations Office, which now covers everything ...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. McBride

    It has been a very active year for the computing project with strong contributions from members of the global community. The project has focused on site preparation and Monte Carlo production. The operations group has begun processing data from P5 as part of the global data commissioning. Improvements in transfer rates and site availability have been seen as computing sites across the globe prepare for large scale production and analysis as part of CSA07. Preparations for the upcoming Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 are progressing. Ian Fisk and Neil Geddes have been appointed as coordinators for the challenge. CSA07 will include production tests of the Tier-0 production system, reprocessing at the Tier-1 sites and Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 sites. At the same time there will be a large analysis exercise at the Tier-2 centres. Pre-production simulation of the Monte Carlo events for the challenge is beginning. Scale tests of the Tier-0 will begin in mid-July and the challenge it...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction More than seventy CMS collaborators attended the Computing and Offline Workshop in San Diego, California, April 20-24th to discuss the state of readiness of software and computing for collisions. Focus and priority were given to preparations for data taking and providing room for ample dialog between groups involved in Commissioning, Data Operations, Analysis and MC Production. Throughout the workshop, aspects of software, operating procedures and issues addressing all parts of the computing model were discussed. Plans for the CMS participation in STEP’09, the combined scale testing for all four experiments due in June 2009, were refined. The article in CMS Times by Frank Wuerthwein gave a good recap of the highly collaborative atmosphere of the workshop. Many thanks to UCSD and to the organizers for taking care of this workshop, which resulted in a long list of action items and was definitely a success. A considerable amount of effort and care is invested in the estimate of the co...

  4. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m2] undergoing stress 99mTc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  5. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography for major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular and renal events in patients with chronic kidney disease: results from first year of follow-up of the Gunma-CKD SPECT multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan (Kitakanto Cardiovascular Hospital), Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Toyama, Takuji [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Gunma Prefectural Cardiovascular Center, Maebashi (Japan); Sato, Makito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Tatebayashi Kosei Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Sano, Hirokazu [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Isesaki Municipal Hospital, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Isesaki (Japan); Ueda, Tetsuya [Fujioka General Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Fujioka (Japan); Sasaki, Toyoshi [Takasaki General Medical Center, Division of Cardiology, Takasaki (Japan); Nakahara, Takehiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Medicine and Biological Science (Cardiovascular Medicine), Maebashi, Gunma (Japan); Higuchi, Tetsuya; Tsushima, Yoshito [Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. We examined whether stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) provides reliable prognostic markers for these patients. In this multicenter, prospective cohort trial from the Gunma-CKD SPECT study protocol, patients with CKD [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 min/ml per 1.73 m{sup 2}] undergoing stress {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT for suspected or possible ischemic heart disease were initially followed for 1 year, with the following study endpoints: primary, the occurrence of cardiac deaths (CDs), and secondary, major adverse cardiac, cerebrovascular, and renal events (MACCREs). The summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) were estimated with the standard 17-segment, 5-point scoring model. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume (ESV), and ejection fraction were measured using electrocardiogram-gated SPECT. During the first year of follow-up, 69 of 299 patients experienced MACCREs (CD, n = 7; non-fatal myocardial infarction, n = 3; hospitalization for heart failure, n = 13; cerebrovascular accident, n = 1; need for revascularization, n = 38; and renal failure, i.e., hemodialysis initiation, n = 7). ESV and SSS were associated with CDs (p < 0.05), and eGFR and SDS were associated with MACCREs (p < 0.05), in multivariate logistic analysis. Patients with high ESV and high SSS had a significantly higher CD rate during the first year than the other CKD patient subgroups (p < 0.05). Patients with low eGFR and high SDS had a significantly higher MACCRE rate than the other subgroups (p < 0.05). Myocardial perfusion SPECT can provide reliable prognostic markers for patients with CKD. (orig.)

  6. Three-dimensional display and measurement of cardiac dynamic indexes from MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cardiac dynamic index, to which such variables as cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion contribute, is routinely determined using various modalities such as angiography, radionuclide imaging, US, and x-ray CT. Each of these modalities, however, has some disadvantages in regard to evaluating the cardiac dynamic index. The authors have obtained precise multidirectional projection images of the heart by means of computer graphics and reformatted data of cardiac MR images obtained with cardiac gating. The contiguous coronal MR images of the heart are made at an interimage distance of 5 mm. In each section, five or six cardiac images can be obtained, depending on the systolic or diastolic phase. These images are stored in a computer, and a three-dimensional display of the heart with biocular observation and with multiplex holograms is made possible with computer graphics. Three-dimensional measurement of the cardiac index is now being attempted, including cardiac output, ejection fraction, and wall motion

  7. Value of multi-slice spiral CT MPVR reconstruction in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value of multi-slice spiral CT MPVR reconstruction in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods: A total of 39 patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis underwent surgery from February, 2002 to September, 2003. They were prospectively examined before surgery with routine CT scanning and MPVR reconstruction spiral CT. 31 cases of appendicitis were confirmed after appendectomy. CT scans and surgery-pathology reports were evaluated on a five-grade scale from hyperemic-edematous appendix to abscess (normal appendix: 0 grade). Results: The results of spiral CT MPVR reconstruction were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings at appendectomy, yielding an accuracy of 87.2%, sensitivity of 90.3%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 93.3%, and negative predictive value of 66.7%, respectively. Results of routine CT yielded an accuracy of 38.5%, sensitivity of 38.7%, specificity of 37.5%, positive predictive value of 70.6%, and negative predictive value of 13.6%, respectively. MPVR reconstruction signs of 28 patients with acute appendicitis included enlarged appendix ( > 6 mm) (96.4%), appendicoliths (26.7%), caecal apical thickening (36.7%), periappendiceal inflammation (71.4%), and abscess (10.7%). Conclusion: The use of spiral CT MPVR reconstruction in patients with equivocal clinical presentation suspected of having acute appendicitis can lead to a significant improvement in the preoperative diagnosis and maybe a decrease in surgical-pathologic severity of appendiceal disease. (authors)

  8. The application and advantages of multi-slice CT in the diagnosis of myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the ability of electrocardiogram-gated multislice CT (MSCT) in the diagnosis of myocardial bridging. Methods: Fifty-one patients (82 coronary arteries) with suspected coronary artery disease underwent multi-detector row CT, conventional coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasonography as well. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MSCT for the detection of myocardial bridging were determined. The interobserver agreement was calculated by using Cohen's Kappa test. Results: A total of 26 tunneled arteries exclusively located near the middle segment of left anterior descending coronary artery were found by coronary angiography and intravascular ultrasonography. Compared to the invasive methods, MSCT correctly detected 23 of 26 myocardial bridges with a sensitivity of 88% (23/26), specificity of 96% (52/54) and accuracy of 94% (75/80). The Kappa value for overall interobserver variation was 0. 62. Two myocardial bridges diagnosed by MSCT were missed with the invasive method. With the results of invasive and non-invasive methods combined as the standard of reference, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MSCT in detecting myocardial bridging were 89% (25/28) , 91% (21/23), and 90% (46/51), respectively. Conclusion: As a non-invasive imaging modality, MSCT is feasible and reliable in the detection of myocardial bridging. (authors)

  9. Dose reduction in subsecond multislice spiral CT examination of children by online tube current modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of online tube current modulation in subsecond multislice spiral CT (MSCT) examinations of children to reduce the dose without a loss in image quality is investigated in a controlled patient study. The dose can be reduced for oval patient sectional view without an increase in noise if the tube current is reduced where the patient diameter and, consequently, attenuation are small. We investigated a product version of an online control for tube current in a SOMATOM Sensation 4 (Siemens, Forchheim). We evaluated image quality, noise and dose reduction for examinations with online tube current modulation in 30 MSCT of thorax/abdomen and abdomen and compared mA s for tube current modulation to the mA s in standard weight-adapted children protocols. Image quality was rated as ''very good,'' ''good,'' ''diagnostic'' and ''poor'' in a consensus by three radiologists. Noise was assessed in comparison to 24 MSCT examinations without tube current modulation measured as SD in ROIs. The dose was reduced from 26 to 43% (mean 36%), depending on the patient's geometry and weight. (orig.)

  10. Multiplanar functional imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx with multislice spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, Michael M.; Greess, Holger; Janka, Rolf; Bautz, Werner A.; Baum, Ulrich [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hothorn, Torsten [University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate multislice spiral CT (MSCT) in multiplanar functional imaging of the larynx and hypopharynx and to define the optimal image planes for the delineation of the tumor and specific anatomical structures. Forty patients with suspected tumors of the larynx or hypopharynx were examined with MSCT during quiet breathing (QB), E-phonation (EP) and modified Valsalva maneuver (VM). Images were read in the axial, coronal and sagittal planes. Overall image quality, delineation of the tumor and anatomic structures for different conditions and orientations were graded using a three-point scale; the conditional permutation test was applied to detect quality differences. Differences between image types were statistically significant. The axial plane was superior in overall image quality and the delineation of the tumor, pyriform sinus, vocal cords and fat within the parapharyngeal/visceral space. The coronal plane was best for delineating the ventricle and the paraglottic space, the sagittal plane for the retropharyngeal and the preepiglottic space. For tumor detection, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 0.92, 1.0 and 0.93 for QB.ax, 0.94, 0.8 and 0.92 for EP.ax and 0.85, 1.0 and 0.87 for VM.ax, respectively. Examination during QB should be the standard procedure; additional scanning with EP improved tumor assessment. (orig.)

  11. Multislice spiral CT virtual endoscopy: the clinical application in the diagnosis of vascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the display ability and the clinical application of multislice spiral CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE) in the diagnosis of vascular diseases. Methods: Fifty-six patients were examined by CT virtual endoscopy. 32 patients also had DSA for comparison. 18 patients were confirmed by operation (3 patients also had DSA). 9 patients with pulmonary embolism were confirmed by other examinations and treatments. Results: 56 patients showed successful CT virtual endoscopy images. CT virtual endoscopy images could clearly show the inner wall and inner structures of the vessels, mural thrombus, calcification form, stenosis of the vessels, the true and false lumina of aortic dissections, the lesion of false aneurysm, and the anatomic relationship between the lesion and surrounding structures of the normal vessels. Out of the 32 patients with vessel abnormalities on DSA, 24 patients (75%) showed the lesions on CTVE. 17 out of 18 patients with operation showed the lesions on CTVE. All 9 patients with pulmonary embolism showed the abnormalities on CTVE. Chi-square test: χ2=5.2809, P=0.071 patients showed the vascular diseases on CTVE in 56 patients (84%). Conclusion: MSCT virtual endoscopy could provide more information of the vessel by displaying the inner wall and allowing users to map the vessels in a display. It is helpful in correct diagnosis and guiding surgery

  12. Multi-slice CT evaluation of glenoid bone loss in patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate multi-slice CT (MSCT) in glenoid bone loss of patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. Methods: MSCT findings of 108 patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation and 12 with single anterior shoulder dislocation were retrospectively studied. The incidence, degrees and locations of glenoid bone losses were recorded. The incidence was analyzed with Fisher exact test. The maximum length,depth and proportion were compared with Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Glenoid bone loss was detected in 91.7% (99/108) patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The proportion of glenoid bone loss was (16.0 ± 6.0)%, and the central locations of glenoid bone loss were from 2: 20 to 4: 25 (mean 3: 20). Sixty-two percent (67/108) patients had bony Bankart lesions in which 58.2% (39/67) bony fragments were free and 41.8% (28/67) were adherent to the anterior border of the glenoid cavity. Seventy-five percent (9/12) patients with single shoulder dislocation had anterior glenoid bone loss,and the proportion of glenoid bone loss was (15.2 ± 7.1)%. There were no statistical differences of the incidence (P=0.100) and proportion of glenoid bone loss (P=0.453) between the recurrent and single anterior shoulder dislocation. Conclusions: Anterior glenoid bone loss is common in patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. (authors)

  13. Value of MRI with sliding multi-slice technique for staging ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the technical characteristics of sliding multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (SMS-MRI), and to evaluate the value of staging ovarian carcinoma by SMS-MRI. Methods: Pre-operative SMS-MRI of chest, abdomen and pelvis was performed on 15 patients with ovarian carcinoma. Sequences included TSE T2WI, SMS TIRM and fat-suppressed contrast-enhanced SMS FLASH. The SMS-MRI was analyzed and staged according to FIGO's classification by two radiologists. The location of tumor, local invasion of uterus and fallopian tube or other pelvic tissues, peritoneum metastasis, lymph node metastasis and distal metastasis were recorded. The results were compared with operative and pathological findings. Results: The pathological diagnosis was serous cystadenocarcinoma (9), mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (2), endometrioid carcinoma (2), clear cell carcinoma (1) and granular cell carcinoma (1) at stage II (2), stage III (10) and stage IV (3). The accuracy of SMS-MRI staging was 100% (15/15). The tumor location, involvement of uterus and fallopian tubes as well as distant metastasis were accurately demonstrated by SMS-MRI. Conclusion: SMS-MRI can be a faster one-stop examination with good image quality. SMS-MRI is an alternative imaging method of staging ovarian carcinoma. (authors)

  14. Assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic head cancer with multislice spiral CT: value of multiplanar reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruegel, Melanie; Link, Thomas M.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Lange, Peter; Dobritz, Martin [Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich (Germany); Theisen, Joerg [Department of Surgery, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ismaninger Strasse 22, 81675, Munich (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The use of multiplanar reconstructions (MPRs) generated from multislice spiral CT (MSCT) data sets in the preoperative assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic cancer was evaluated. Forty patients underwent biphasic high-resolution MSCT prior to surgery for pancreatic head cancer. Image reconstruction included thin-slice axial, sagittal and coronal MPRs as well as an MPR perpendicular to the course of a major peripancreatic vessel in proximity to the tumor. CT criteria for vascular invasion were: (1) circumferential involvement >180 and (2) vessel narrowing. Imaging findings of 52 vessels were correlated with surgical and histopathological reports. Regarding the CT criterion circumferential involvement, vascular invasion was demonstrated on axial MPRs with a sensitivity and specificity of 58 and 97%. For the assessment with coronal and sagittal MPRs sensitivity was only 47%. Vascular invasion was recognized best on perpendicular MPRs with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 74, 97 and 88%, respectively. Vessel narrowing was a less reliable CT criterion for vascular invasion, mainly due to the lower specificity of 91% obtained with each available MPR. Thin-slice MPRs oriented perpendicularly to a possibly invaded vessel exactly depict the grade of circumferential involvement and thus have the capability to improve the assessment of vascular invasion in pancreatic cancer. (orig.)

  15. Multi-slice spiral CT appearances of pulmonary infections after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) appearances of pulmonary infections after liver transplantation (LT) and the diagnostic values of MSCT. Methods: The clinical data and CT images of liver transplantation receptors were reviewed from 2001 August to 2007 June, the types, onset time and CT appearances of pulmonary infections were analyzed retrospectively. Chi square test was used for the statistics. Results: The incidence rate of pulmonary infections after LT was 32.9% (174/529), the mortality was 9.8% (17/174), The incidence of bacterial infection, fungus or associated fungus infection, and virus or associated virus infection were 17.2% (n=91), 14.7% (n=78)and 2.3% (n=12)respectively, the pulmonary infections were seen in 64.7%, 28.7% and 6.6% of patients 1 to 30 days, 31-90 days and after 90 days following LT. Consolidations (n=32), ground-glass opacities (n= 22), nodules (n=10), reticular or lineal opacities (n=4) were found in 45 patients who had CT examination, there were no statistic differences in incidence rate between bacterial infection and mycotic infection (P>0.05). Conclusion: Pulmonary bacterial and fungus infection are common after LT, and often present as the mixed infection, the high risk period for infection is within 30 days after LT, thoracic CT scan is very important for characterizing the pulmonary infections after LT. (authors)

  16. Measurement and analysis of cardiopulmonary vascular in Lanzhou healthy adults with multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To constitute a normal standard of cardiopulmonary vascular diameter and size of normal adult in Lanzhou, and to compared with the other's data reported in the previous bibliography by measuring diameter and area of cardiopulmonary artery lumen of the healthy adults in Lanzhou with multislice spiral CT (MSCT). Methods: Three hundred Lanzhou adults with no cardiopulmonary disease were equally assigned to 3 groups according to their age (A group: 18-39 years, B group: 40-60 years, C group: 61-80 years; 50 females and 50 males in each group). CT data were acquired at the end of deep inspiration phase and measurements were done on 3D reconstruction image with precise landmarks. All the results were statistically analyzed. Results: The diameters and areas of the main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery right pulmonary artery ascending aorta and descending aorta differed significantly among the 3 groups (P<0.05). In groups B and C, there were significant differences in diameters and areas of pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary between different genders (P<0.05). Conclusion: Imaging standard is provided for Lanzhou adult in early diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disease. The diameters and areas of main pulmonary artery left pulmonary artery and right pulmonary artery of Lanzhou healthy adults are different from that of other regions. It may be related to the geographical environment and the state of air pollution in Lanzhou. (authors)

  17. Multislice simulation of transmission electron microscopy imaging of helium bubbles in Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Bo; Edwards, Danny J.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Odette, George R.; Yamamoto, Takuya

    2012-10-04

    Formation of nanoscale helium (He) bubbles in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels may lead to degradation of mechanical properties of materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been commonly used to image the Fresnel contrast of He bubbles using a defocus of 0.5 µm ~ 1 µm. This paper presents our study of multislice simulation of the size correlation between imaged Fresnel rings and the actual He bubbles. It was found that for bubbles equal to or larger than 3 nm in diameter, the imaged bubble size, represented by its inner diameter of the first dark Fresnel ring (Din) in under-focused imaging conditions, increases with increasing electron-beam incoherency, but decreases with increasing defocus. The electron-beam accelerating voltage, bubble size, bubble position, and TEM sample thickness were found to have no significant influence on the deviation of Din from the actual bubble size (D0). For bubbles equal to or smaller than 2 nm, however, Din/Do increases dramatically with increasing defocus when it is above a threshold defocus. It was also suggested by this study that He bubbles can be differentiated from argon (Ar) bubbles by contrast differences.

  18. The clinical research of multi-slice spiral CT in intestinal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the value and usefulness of optimized multislice CT enterography (MSCTE) with orally administered isosmotic mannitol (2.5%) as negative contrast in demonstrating the small bowel and its abnormality. Methods: Forty patients suspected of intestinal tumors were randomly divided into two groups and underwent conventional or optimized MSCTE. The expansion degree of bowel lumen and the thickness of bowel wall were evaluated for the six segments of the small intestine. The other 20 patients suspected of gastrointestinal diseases underwent gastrointestinal CT imaging, The expansion degree of bowel lumen and the wall thickness of bowel wall were statistically analyzed with Chi-Square test and t test. Results: The wall thickness of the stomach, ileum and colon were (2.56± 0.52), (1.41±0.15), (1.46±0.13), (1.91±0.25), (1.97±0.26), (2.01±0.19), (2.04±0.24) and (2.05±0.18)mm. Optimized method was superior to conventional method in the expansion degree of the second and third segments of the small intestine (P0.05). The gastrointestinal CT imaging was poor in the depiction of' the duodenum and jejunum, but stomach, ileum and colon were fully illustrated. Conclusion: Optimized MSCTE was superior to conventional method in demonstrating the small bowel, and gastrointestinal CT imaging can expand diagnostic scope because of good observation of whole gastrointestinal tract. (authors)

  19. Functional Study of the Heart using MRI and Multi-slice CT (MSCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Sh. Akhlaghpour

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: By using newer imaging techniques (MRI and MSCT, it is possible to perform functional studies of the heart including, wall mo-tion, chamber volume evaluation, and myocardial mass and wall thickness. While MRI had recently been introduced as the gold standard method for the morphological and functional studies of the heart, recent advances in the number of detectors, rotation time, and reconstruction protocols made Multislice CT (MSCT another new application for functional studies of the heart too. Ordinary raw data for coro-nary CT angiography is sufficient for these functional studies. Apart from the point that which technique is to be used to get a standard and reproducible meas-urement, a proper imaging strategy is necessary. To use MSCT, various softwares are available for these studies. By the use of these two modalities, valvular evaluations are also possible as addressed in many recent publications. In this article the strategy for functional study of the heart is presented and some case studies are also discussed.

  20. Infarct size in primary angioplasty without on-site cardiac surgical backup versus transferal to a tertiary center: a single photon emission computed tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaapen, Paul; Rossum, Albert C. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mulder, Maarten de; Peels, Hans O.; Cornel, Jan H.; Umans, Victor A.W.M. [Medical Center Alkmaar, Department of Cardiology, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Zant, Friso M. van der [Medical Center Alkmaar, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Twisk, Jos W.R. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in large community hospitals without cardiac surgery back-up facilities (off-site) reduces door-to-balloon time compared with emergency transferal to tertiary interventional centers (on-site). The present study was performed to explore whether off-site PCI for acute myocardial infarction results in reduced infarct size. One hundred twenty-eight patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction were randomly assigned to undergo primary PCI at the off-site center (n = 68) or to transferal to an on-site center (n = 60). Three days after PCI, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT was performed to estimate infarct size. Off-site PCI significantly reduced door-to-balloon time compared with on-site PCI (94 {+-} 54 versus 125 {+-} 59 min, respectively, p < 0.01), although symptoms-to-treatment time was only insignificantly reduced (257 {+-} 211 versus 286 {+-} 146 min, respectively, p = 0.39). Infarct size was comparable between treatment centers (16 {+-} 15 versus 14 {+-} 12%, respectively p = 0.35). Multivariate analysis revealed that TIMI 0/1 flow grade at initial coronary angiography (OR 3.125, 95% CI 1.17-8.33, p = 0.023), anterior wall localization of the myocardial infarction (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.38-8.55, p < 0.01), and development of pathological Q-waves (OR 5.07, 95% CI 2.10-12.25, p < 0.01) were independent predictors of an infarct size > 12%. Off-site PCI reduces door-to-balloon time compared with transferal to a remote on-site interventional center but does not reduce infarct size. Instead, pre-PCI TIMI 0/1 flow, anterior wall infarct localization, and development of Q-waves are more important predictors of infarct size. (orig.)

  1. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    P. MacBride

    The Computing Software and Analysis Challenge CSA07 has been the main focus of the Computing Project for the past few months. Activities began over the summer with the preparation of the Monte Carlo data sets for the challenge and tests of the new production system at the Tier-0 at CERN. The pre-challenge Monte Carlo production was done in several steps: physics generation, detector simulation, digitization, conversion to RAW format and the samples were run through the High Level Trigger (HLT). The data was then merged into three "Soups": Chowder (ALPGEN), Stew (Filtered Pythia) and Gumbo (Pythia). The challenge officially started when the first Chowder events were reconstructed on the Tier-0 on October 3rd. The data operations teams were very busy during the the challenge period. The MC production teams continued with signal production and processing while the Tier-0 and Tier-1 teams worked on splitting the Soups into Primary Data Sets (PDS), reconstruction and skimming. The storage sys...

  2. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Matthias Kasemann

    Overview The main focus during the summer was to handle data coming from the detector and to perform Monte Carlo production. The lessons learned during the CCRC and CSA08 challenges in May were addressed by dedicated PADA campaigns lead by the Integration team. Big improvements were achieved in the stability and reliability of the CMS Tier1 and Tier2 centres by regular and systematic follow-up of faults and errors with the help of the Savannah bug tracking system. In preparation for data taking the roles of a Computing Run Coordinator and regular computing shifts monitoring the services and infrastructure as well as interfacing to the data operations tasks are being defined. The shift plan until the end of 2008 is being put together. User support worked on documentation and organized several training sessions. The ECoM task force delivered the report on “Use Cases for Start-up of pp Data-Taking” with recommendations and a set of tests to be performed for trigger rates much higher than the ...

  3. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    Introduction A large fraction of the effort was focused during the last period into the preparation and monitoring of the February tests of Common VO Computing Readiness Challenge 08. CCRC08 is being run by the WLCG collaboration in two phases, between the centres and all experiments. The February test is dedicated to functionality tests, while the May challenge will consist of running at all centres and with full workflows. For this first period, a number of functionality checks of the computing power, data repositories and archives as well as network links are planned. This will help assess the reliability of the systems under a variety of loads, and identifying possible bottlenecks. Many tests are scheduled together with other VOs, allowing the full scale stress test. The data rates (writing, accessing and transfer¬ring) are being checked under a variety of loads and operating conditions, as well as the reliability and transfer rates of the links between Tier-0 and Tier-1s. In addition, the capa...

  4. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    Contributions from I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The start of the 2012 run has been busy for Computing. We have reconstructed, archived, and served a larger sample of new data than in 2011, and we are in the process of producing an even larger new sample of simulations at 8 TeV. The running conditions and system performance are largely what was anticipated in the plan, thanks to the hard work and preparation of many people. Heavy ions Heavy Ions has been actively analysing data and preparing for conferences.  Operations Office Figure 6: Transfers from all sites in the last 90 days For ICHEP and the Upgrade efforts, we needed to produce and process record amounts of MC samples while supporting the very successful data-taking. This was a large burden, especially on the team members. Nevertheless the last three months were very successful and the total output was phenomenal, thanks to our dedicated site admins who keep the sites operational and the computing project members who spend countless hours nursing the...

  5. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2012-01-01

      Introduction Computing activity has been running at a sustained, high rate as we collect data at high luminosity, process simulation, and begin to process the parked data. The system is functional, though a number of improvements are planned during LS1. Many of the changes will impact users, we hope only in positive ways. We are trying to improve the distributed analysis tools as well as the ability to access more data samples more transparently.  Operations Office Figure 2: Number of events per month, for 2012 Since the June CMS Week, Computing Operations teams successfully completed data re-reconstruction passes and finished the CMSSW_53X MC campaign with over three billion events available in AOD format. Recorded data was successfully processed in parallel, exceeding 1.2 billion raw physics events per month for the first time in October 2012 due to the increase in data-parking rate. In parallel, large efforts were dedicated to WMAgent development and integrati...

  6. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2013-01-01

    Computing operation has been lower as the Run 1 samples are completing and smaller samples for upgrades and preparations are ramping up. Much of the computing activity is focusing on preparations for Run 2 and improvements in data access and flexibility of using resources. Operations Office Data processing was slow in the second half of 2013 with only the legacy re-reconstruction pass of 2011 data being processed at the sites.   Figure 1: MC production and processing was more in demand with a peak of over 750 Million GEN-SIM events in a single month.   Figure 2: The transfer system worked reliably and efficiently and transferred on average close to 520 TB per week with peaks at close to 1.2 PB.   Figure 3: The volume of data moved between CMS sites in the last six months   The tape utilisation was a focus for the operation teams with frequent deletion campaigns from deprecated 7 TeV MC GEN-SIM samples to INVALID datasets, which could be cleaned up...

  7. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Just two months after the “LHC First Physics” event of 30th March, the analysis of the O(200) million 7 TeV collision events in CMS accumulated during the first 60 days is well under way. The consistency of the CMS computing model has been confirmed during these first weeks of data taking. This model is based on a hierarchy of use-cases deployed between the different tiers and, in particular, the distribution of RECO data to T1s, who then serve data on request to T2s, along a topology known as “fat tree”. Indeed, during this period this model was further extended by almost full “mesh” commissioning, meaning that RECO data were shipped to T2s whenever possible, enabling additional physics analyses compared with the “fat tree” model. Computing activities at the CMS Analysis Facility (CAF) have been marked by a good time response for a load almost evenly shared between ALCA (Alignment and Calibration tasks - highest p...

  8. Cardiac MRI and CT features of inheritable and congenital conditions associated with sudden cardiac death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparrow, Patrick; Merchant, Naeem; Provost, Yves; Doyle, Deirdre; Nguyen, Elsie; Paul, Narinder [University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, Division of Cardiothoracic Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Cardiac MRI (CMR) and electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) are increasingly important tools in the identification and assessment of cardiac-related disease processes, including those associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). While the commonest cause of SCD is coronary artery disease (CAD), in patients under 35 years inheritable cardiomyopathies such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy are important aetiologies. CMR in particular offers both accurate delineation of the morphological abnormalities associated with these and other conditions and the possibility for risk stratification for development of ventricular arrhythmias with demonstration of macroscopic scar by delayed enhancement imaging with intravenous gadolinium. (orig.)

  9. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  10. Cardiac cell modelling: Observations from the heart of the cardiac physiome project

    OpenAIRE

    Finka, Martin; Niederer, Steven A.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Fenton, Flavio H.; Koivumki, Fenton, Jussi T.; Seemann, Gunnar; Thul, R¨udiger; Zhang, Henggui; Sachse, Frank B; Crampin, Edmund J.; Smith, Nicolas P.; Beard, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the state of cardiac cell modelling in the context of international initiatives such as the IUPS Physiome and Virtual Physiological Human Projects, which aim to integrate computational models across scales and physics. In particular we focus on the relationship between experimental data and model parameterisation across a range of model types and cellular physiological systems. Finally, in the context of parameter identification and model reuse within the Cardiac ...

  11. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Fisk

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The Computing Team successfully completed the storage, initial processing, and distribution for analysis of proton-proton data in 2011. There are still a variety of activities ongoing to support winter conference activities and preparations for 2012. Heavy ions The heavy-ion run for 2011 started in early November and has already demonstrated good machine performance and success of some of the more advanced workflows planned for 2011. Data collection will continue until early December. Facilities and Infrastructure Operations Operational and deployment support for WMAgent and WorkQueue+Request Manager components, routinely used in production by Data Operations, are provided. The GlideInWMS and components installation are now deployed at CERN, which is added to the GlideInWMS factory placed in the US. There has been new operational collaboration between the CERN team and the UCSD GlideIn factory operators, covering each others time zones by monitoring/debugging pilot jobs sent from the facto...

  12. Radiation protection in newer medical imaging techniques: Cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical imaging has seen many developments as it has evolved since the mid-1890s. In the last 30-40 years, the pace of innovation has increased, starting with the introduction of computed tomography (CT) in the early 1970s. During the last decade, the rate of change has accelerated further, in terms of continuing innovation and its global application. Most patient exposure now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. These developments are evident in the technology on which this volume is based - multislice/detector CT scanning and its application in cardiac imaging. However, this advance is achieved at the cost of a radiation burden to the individual patient, and possibly to the community, if its screening potential is exploited. Much effort will be required to ensure that the undoubted benefit of this new practice will not pose an undue level of detriment to the individual in multiple examinations. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that innovation has been driven by both the imaging industry and an increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practices lag (inevitably) behind the industrial and clinical innovations. This series of Safety Reports (Nos 58, 60 and 61) is designed to help fill this growing vacuum, by bringing up to date and timely advice from experienced practitioners to bear on the problems involved. The advice in this report has been developed as part of the IAEA's statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionizing radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of these standards. The Fundamental Safety Principles and the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) were issued by the IAEA and co-sponsored by organizations including the Food and Agriculture

  13. Multislice spiral CT for the diagnostics of pancreatic tumors; Mehrzeilen-Spiral-CT in der Diagnostik von Pankreastumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, U.; Lell, M.; Noemayr, A.; Greess, H.; Bautz, W. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Wolf, H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik; Brunner, T. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    1999-11-01

    Purpose. Investigation of the capabilities of MSCT and its value for the staging of pancreatic carcinomas. Methods. 50 Patients with suspected pancreatic carcinoma were examined with a biphasic multislice-spiral-CT protocol: Slice collimation 4x1 mm, Pitch 3.5-4 mm. After administration of 120 ml contrast medium and 50 ml NaCl with a flow rate of 3.0 ml/s the examination was started with a delay of 40 s (pancreatic phase) and 80 s (portalvenous phase). Results: Multislice spiral CT allows the examination of the whole upper abdomen with nearly isotropic data sets. This is the premise for the optimal assessment of the tumor extent in all planes, excellent demarcation of the tumor against the adjacent vessels and organs and the demarcation of small peripancreatic lymph nodes. Conclusions. Multislice spiral CT and the use of interactive multiplanar reconstructions improve the staging of pancreatic cancer. (orig.) [German] Ziel unserer Untersuchungen war es, die Moeglichkeiten der Mehrzeilen-Detektor-Spiral-CT und ihre Bedeutung fuer das Staging von Pankreastumoren zu evaluieren. Bei insgesamt 50 Patienten, bei denen der Verdacht auf ein Pankreaskarzinom bestand, wurde im Rahmen der Tumorstagings ein biphasisches hochaufgeloestes Mehrzeilen-Spiral-CT mit einer Schichtkollimation von 4x1 mm, einem Pitch von 3,5-4, 120 ml Kontrastmittel, 50 ml 0,9%NaCl-Bolus, 3,0 ml/s Fluss und einem Startdelay von durchschnittlich 40 s (Pankreasparenchymphase) und 80 s (portalvenoese Phase) durchgefuehrt. Die Mehrzeilen-Spiral-CT ist in der Lage die gesamte Pankreasloge und auch die angrenzenden Organe mit hoher Ortsaufloesung in allen Raumebenen abzubilden. Die nahezu isotrope multiplanare Bildgebung erlaubt die vollstaendige Erfassung der Tumorausdehnung in allen Raumebenen und eine bessere Abgrenzung der Tumoren gegenueber dem angrenzenden Fettgewebe, den benachbarten Organen (Gefaesse, Duodenum, Magen) und einen sichereren Nachweis von peripankreatischen Lymphknoten. Die Mehrzeilen

  14. [Accuracy of multislice CT in restaging patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using a multiparametric approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Guerrini, Susanna; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Voltolini, Luca; Mazzei, Francesco G; Volterrani, Luca; Macarini, Luca

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diagnostic accuracy of multislice CT in restaging patients with N2 non-small cell lung carcinoma after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, using a multiparametric approach as compared with traditional size-based radiological criteria. All patients staged as N2 at histologic examination after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were correctly staged with multislice CT (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and accuracy were 100%, 80%, 85%, 100% and 93,7% respectively, vs 34%, 60%, 34%, 60% and 50% using size-based criteria), suggesting that a multiparametric approach results in improved diagnostic accuracy. PMID:23096733

  15. Preoperative cardiac risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Vidaković Radosav; Poldermans Don; Nešković Aleksandar N.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 100 million people undergo noncardiac surgery annually worldwide. It is estimated that around 3% of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery experience a major adverse cardiac event. Although cardiac events, like myocardial infarction, are major cause of perioperative morbidity or mortality, its true incidence is difficult to assess. The risk of perioperative cardiac complications depends mainly on two conditions: 1) identified risk factors, and 2) the type of the surgical p...

  16. COMPUTING

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Kasemann

    CMS relies on a well functioning, distributed computing infrastructure. The Site Availability Monitoring (SAM) and the Job Robot submission have been very instrumental for site commissioning in order to increase availability of more sites such that they are available to participate in CSA07 and are ready to be used for analysis. The commissioning process has been further developed, including "lessons learned" documentation via the CMS twiki. Recently the visualization, presentation and summarizing of SAM tests for sites has been redesigned, it is now developed by the central ARDA project of WLCG. Work to test the new gLite Workload Management System was performed; a 4 times increase in throughput with respect to LCG Resource Broker is observed. CMS has designed and launched a new-generation traffic load generator called "LoadTest" to commission and to keep exercised all data transfer routes in the CMS PhE-DEx topology. Since mid-February, a transfer volume of about 12 P...

  17. Multi-slice echo-planar spectroscopic MR imaging provides both global and local metabolite measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Henrik Kahr; Tscherning, Thomas; Sorensen, Per Soelberg;

    2005-01-01

    MR spectroscopy (MRS) provides information about neuronal loss or dysfunction by measuring decreases in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a metabolite widely believed to be a marker of neuronal viability. In multiple sclerosis (MS), whole-brain NAA (WBNAA) has been suggested as a marker of disease...... longitudinal studies have often been hampered by standardization and reproducibility problems. Multi-slice echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) is presented as a promising alternative to single-voxel or nonlocalized spectroscopy for obtaining global metabolite estimates in MS. In the same session...

  18. Verification of cardiac tissue electrophysiology simulators using an N-version benchmark

    OpenAIRE

    Niederer, Steven A.; Kerfoot, Eric; Benson, Alan P.; Bernabeu, Miguel O.; Bernus, Olivier; Bradley, Chris; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Clayton, Richard; Fenton, Flavio H.; Garny, Alan; Heidenreich, Elvio; Land, Sander; Maleckar, Mary; Pathmanathan, Pras; Plank, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing developments in cardiac modelling have resulted, in particular, in the development of advanced and increasingly complex computational frameworks for simulating cardiac tissue electrophysiology. The goal of these simulations is often to represent the detailed physiology and pathologies of the heart using codes that exploit the computational potential of high-performance computing architectures. These developments have rapidly progressed the simulation capacity of cardiac virtual physio...

  19. Implementation of virtual simulation with a wide-bore multislice helcalct scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Multislice large-bore CT scanners specifically designed for radiotherapy have very recently become available. The issues relating to these type of scanners in radiotherapy and the implementation of virtual simulation are therefore of much current interest. A GE LightSpeed RT 4-slice helical CT scanner with a 80 cm bore size was installed in the radiation oncology department of the Newcastle Mater Hospital. This replaced our only simulator, a conventional unit. Specific issues relating to the imaging performance, and virtual simulation process with the large-bore multislice scanner were studied to ensure an accurate radiotherapy process. The detector array fully samples a 50 cm diameter scan circle. The reconstructed diameter can be increased to 65 cm with partial sampling of the extra volume. The GE Advantage Sim (ASim) virtual simulation software was commissioned, with transfer of CT images and DICOM RT plans to the Pinnacle radiotherapy planning system (RTPS) for dose calculation. Some specific issues investigated were: 1) The image quality performance for image reconstruction with the 65 cm area compared to 50 cm was measured with a line-pair phantom. 2) The accuracy of CT numbers with lateral position was assessed with a commercial electron density phantom. 3) Couch lateral movement and sag during acquisition were measured with the couch weighted with 86 kg. 4) The accuracy of the transfer of plans from ASim to Pinnacle was verified with known plan geometries. Image resolution throughout the entire CT image was found to be significantly lower when scan reconstruction was performed with 65 cm scan circle compared to 50 cm. The 0.3, 0.38 and 0.5 1p/mm bars were clearly distinguishable with the 50 cm reconstruction compared to only the 0.3 1p/mm bars in the 65 cm reconstruction. 2) CT numbers varied significantly outside the 50 cm reconstructed area. 3) Couch lateral movement during scanning was within 1 mm. Couch sag was 4 mm at the imaging plane

  20. Model digital signal cardiac processing in developed Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kervin Benito Rojas Ochoa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe present research aimed to design a model of digital cardiac signal processing developed in MatLab. This is because they wanted to use the potentialities of the computer tool, to emulate a digital processing environment. The design is not experimental, transactional since this model does not directly manipulates the cardiac patient information, but uses the theoretical characteristics of the variable in study. In addition, research is documentary, driven by the precepts of a feasible project, whose methodology consisted of four key stages: characterization of cardiac signal, establishment of the requirements for filtering of cardiac wave, sampling and coding of the signal, and representation of the model in MatLab, as a result, achieved the model of digital processing of cardiac signals using the MatLab tool and corroborating their applicability.Keywords: Model, Process, Cardiac Signals, MatLab.

  1. Non-invasive 16-row multislice CT coronary angiography: usefulness of saline chaser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of saline chaser in 16-row multislice CT (16-MSCT) coronary angiography. Forty-two patients were divided into two groups for contrast material (CM) administration: group 1 (140 ml at 4 ml/s) and group 2 (100 ml at 4 ml/s followed by 40 ml of saline chaser at 4 ml/s). All patients underwent retrospectively ECG-gated 16-MSCT coronary angiography. The attenuation at the origin coronary vessels was assessed. Three regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn throughout the data set: (a) ascending aorta (ROI 1); (b) descending aorta (ROI 2); and (c) pulmonary artery (ROI 3). The attenuation in the superior vena cava was recorded (ROI 4). The average attenuation and the slope were calculated in each ROI and differences were assessed with a Student's t test. The average attenuation in the coronary vessels was not significantly different in the two groups. The average attenuations in ROI 1 were 325 and 327 HU, in ROI 2 were 328 and 329 HU and in ROI 3 were 357 and 320 HU, for groups 1 and 2, respectively (p>0.05). The slopes in ROI 1 were -0.2 and 1.1, in ROI 2 were 2.8 and 2.1 (p>0.05) and in ROI3 were 3.9 and -9.0 (p<0.05), for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The average attenuations in ROI 4 were 927 and 643 HU (p<0.05), for groups 1 and 2, respectively. One hundred milliliters of CM with 40 ml of saline chaser provides the same attenuation as 140 ml of CM (35% less) with decreased hyper-attenuation in the superior vena cava. (orig.)

  2. Multi-slice CT and MRI findings of the Listranc's ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the multislice CT and MRI features of the Lisfranc's ligament injuries. Methods: In 23 cases of the tarsometatarsal joins injuries, 16 are men and 7 are women. The average age is 37 years(range 17-67 years). Ten cases are induced by the direct force and 13 cases are caused by the indirect force. All of the 23 cases were examined by the Siemens 64-slice CT scan, and then reformatted the tarsometatarsal joins with the MPR, CPR, SSD and VR. Ten of 23 cases were examined by oblique axial, sagittal and coronal view of the Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Results: On CT, the distance between the second metatarsus base and the medial cuneiform showed increase in 14 cases and the distance between the base of the second metatarsus and the first metatarsus was over 2 mm. In addition, the inside base of the second metatarsus and the lateral edge of the first cuneiform bone revealed fractures in 5 cases, respectively. The above CT characteristics may suggest the injuries of Lisfranc's ligament. Ten of the 14 cases were examined by MRI. The Lisfranc ligament was found to have injuries in these cases. The injuries were divided into 3 types: type I (Lisfranc ligament breaks) was 5 cases; type II (Lisfranc ligament shape is complete, but accompanied with avulsion fracture of the second metatarsal bone basis interior margin of attachment point of Lisfranc ligament) was 4 cases; and type III (Lisfranc ligament shape is complete, but accompanied with avulsion fracture of exterior margin of the inside cuneiform of attachment point of Lisfranc ligament) was 1 case. Conclusion: CT can demonstrate local soft tissue swelling, suggesting the Lisfranc ligament damage, and demonstrate clearly avulsion fracture of attachment point of Lisfranc ligament, but MRI can appraise accurately the Lisfranc ligament injuries. (authors)

  3. Multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion imaging in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: Twenty COPD patients and 20 volunteers underwent 8-row detector spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion imaging using cine scan mode with 5 mm slice thickness, 0.5 s rotation time and a total scan time of 45 s with 5 s intervals. 60 ml contrast agent (300 nag I/ml) were administered at a rate of 4 ml/s from the forearm superficial vein. The imaging data were transferred to a workstation. A time-density curve and pseudo-color map were generated automatically with GE CT perfusion 3 software, the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface (PS) were measured. Results: Time-density curve was flatter and the peak of the curve was obviously lower in COPD patients than the volunteers. The BF, BV, PS in COPD patients was (24.77±11.49) ml·min-1·100 g-1, (2.48±1.02) ml/100 g and (2.75±1.13) ml· min-1·100 g-1 respectively. In volunteers was (290.14±107.59) ml·min-1·100 g-1, (16.51 ± 5.98) ml/100 g, (8.80±3.03) ml·min-1·100 g-1 respectively. The MTT in COPD patients and volunteers was (10.58±4.85) s and (4.50±1.71)s respectively. The BF, BV and PS in COPD patients was lower than the volunteers, the MTY was higher (P<0.01). Conclusion: MSCT perfusion imaging is helpful for the diagnosis of COPD. (authors)

  4. Primary study of quantitative measurement in different grades of COPD using low-dose multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the feasibility of airway measurement at the trunk of apical bronchus of right upper lobe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and airway dimensions and lung density changes in different COPD stages. Methods: 1) Fifteen randomly selected COPD patients underwent low -dose chest multi -slice CT scan. The wall thickness-to-diameter ratio (TDR) and percentage wall area (WA%) at apical bronchus of right upper lobe section and mean TDR and WA% of small airway (<2 mm) were calculated. 2) Another fifty-five randomly selected COPD patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of pulmonary function tests. There were sixteen patients with grade 1, sixteen patients with grade 2, fourteen patients with grade 3. and nine patients with grade 4. Fifteen non-COPD patients were selected as controls. The total lung was scanned with low-dose multi-slice CT during inspiration. The mean lung attenuation (MLA) and voxel index (VI) were measured. Inner area of bronchus (Ai), TDR and WA% of the apical bronchus of right upper lobe were measured. Results: 1) The TDR of the apical bronchus of right were smaller than the mean TDR of the small airways; The WA% of the apical bronchus of right were larger than the mean WA% of the small airways; but there were good correlation (r=0.793 and 0.784, respectively). 2) The MLA values were decreased with increase of COPD stage. The VI values were increased with increase of COPD stage. However, the values did not differ between adjacent stages. The luminal areas of stage 3-4 patients were smaller than that of other stages. There was no statistics difference in TDR between adjacent groups, except between stages 3 and 4. For WA%, the higher stage group had higher WA%. Conclusion: There were good correlations for TDR and WA% between the apical bronchus of right upper lobe and small airway. WA% is the most sensitive index for detecting thickened airway. (authors)

  5. Multi-slice CT-colonography in low-dose technique - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Assessment of multi-slice CT-colonography (MSCTC) with standard and low-dose technique in comparison to conventional colonoscopy (CC). Materials and Methods: After standardized bowel cleansing, 28 men and 24 women (mean age 60,3 years) underwent CC within two hours after MSCTC had been performed (4 x 2.5 mm collimation, 3 mm slice width, 17.5 mm table feed, 120 kVp). In 19 patients, MSCTC was performed with 120 mAs (CTDIw,eff: 11.28 mGy), and in 33 patients with 10 mAs (CTDIw,eff: 0.94 mGy), respectively. After noise reduction using mathematical algorithms by a dedicated software (ECCET), images were analyzed by two blinded readers in simultaneously displayed 2D- and 3D-modes. Findings in MSCTC were compared to the results obtained with CC. Results: Calculated effective doses ranged between 9 and 12 mSv for 120 mAs, and between 0.75 and 1 mSv for the low-dose technique. In standard dose MSCTC, 20 of 25 lesions (80%) were found: all 7 tumors (100%), one large polyp (> 10 mm; 100%), 6 of 7 medium sized polyps (9.9 to 5 mm; 86%) and 6 of 10 small polyps (< 5 mm; 60%). In low-dose MSCTC, 32 of 44 lesions (73%) were seen: all three large polyps (100%), 13 of 14 medium sized polyps (93%) and 16 of 27 small polyps (59%). An overall sensitivity of 78% with a specificity of 68% was calculated. False positive findings were seen mostly for small lesions (12 for standard dose, 11 for low-dose). Conclusion: Despite a 12-fold reduction of radiation exposure, MSCTC in low-dose technique performs comparably well to standard dose MSCTC. After mathematical noise reduction, more than 90% of polyps larger than 5 mm can be detected. (orig.)

  6. Multi-slice CT for visualization of pulmonary embolism using perfusion weighted color maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of our preliminary study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new technique for the perfusion weighted color display of the density of lung parenchyma derived from multi-slice CT (MSCT) data sets of clinical routine examinations for visualization of pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and Methods: Imaging of patients with suspected PE was performed on a commercially available MSCT (Somatom Volume Zoom; Siemens, Forchheim, Germany) after intravenous application of 120 cc of contrast-medium using a power injector. Scan parameters were 140 kV and 100 mAs, using a thin collimation of 4x1 mm and a table speed of 7 mm (pitch: 1.75). Derived from thin collimation axial slices (slice thicknesseff. 1.25 mm, reconstruction increment 0.8 mm), a new image processing technique was deployed. Based on these source images, an automated 3D-segmentation of the lungs was performed followed by threshold based extraction of major airways and vascular structures. The filtered volume data were color encordes and finally overlayed onto the original CT images. This color encoded display of parenchymal density distribution of the lungs was shown in axial, coronal and sagittal plans orientation. In four patients with excluded PE as well as in two patients with proven PE this new technique was performed. Results: In the four patients that were considered negative regarding PE on MSCT, lung densitometry showed a homogeneous distribution of color encoded densities without circumscribed decreased or increased areas, beside the usually present gravity-dependent gradient in ventro-dorsal direction. In the two patients with proven PE, low density values on perfusion weighted color maps were found distally to the occluded pulmonary arteries. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of transplant renal artery stenosis examined by multislice spiral CT angiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of multislice CT angiography (MSCTA) in transplant renal artery stenosis (TRAS). Methods: Fifteen cases of TRAS underwent enhanced MSCT scanning postoperation. Multi-planar reformation (MPR), CPR (curved-planar reformation), volume rendering (VR), multi-planar volume reformation (MPVR), maximum intensity projection (MIP) and vessel probe (VP) reformation were performed to observe transplant kidney's artery. To analyse all the reconstruction technique and find the advantage and shortage of them. Results: CT findings of TRAS showed local vascular thining and enhanced renal parenchyma degradinged. CT reconstruction technique: 1 Trans-plant kidney's artery of only one case could be shown in the same MPR plane; 2 Transplant kidney's artery of 13 cases could be shown in CPR coronal and sagittal plane; 3 with 15 cases of VR, stage of courser and shape of angiostegnosis could be observed clearly through rotating the reconstruction image from different directions; 4 15 cases of MPVR could reveal transplant kidney's artery and TRAS at the same time; 5 9 cases of MIP could show TRAS in one plane; 6 15 cases of VP could show condition inside the vessel of transplant kidney, with the degree of stenosis appeared clearly. Of 15 cases of TRAS, stenosis occurred in stoma (8 cases), distant place from stoma (4 cases), stoma and distant place form stoma (2 cases), stenosis occurred in whole range (oe case). Conclusion: MSCTA has an important role as an imaging technique to evaluate TRAS of transplant kidney, which can replace DSA. It can reveal the stenosis part of vessel and direct PTA, to evaluate therapeutic effect of endovascular stent placement. MSCTA will be widespread used clinically. (authors)

  8. Detection and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms with 16-row multislice CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of 16-row multislice CT angiography (CTA) in evaluating intracranial aneurysms, by comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and intraoperative findings. METHODS: A consecutive series of 57 patients, scheduled for DSA for suspected intracranial aneurysm, was prospectively recruited to have CTA. This was performed with a 16-detector row machine, detector interval 0.75 mm, 0.5 rotation/s, table speed 10 mm/rotation and reconstruction interval 0.40 mm. CTA studies were independently and randomly assessed by two neuroradiologists and a vascular neurosurgeon blinded to the DSA and surgical findings. Review of CTA was performed on workstations with an interactive 3D volume-rendered algorithm. RESULTS: DSA or intraoperative findings or both confirmed 53 aneurysms in 44 patients. For both independent readers, sensitivity and specificity per aneurysm of DSA were 96.2% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA were also 96.2% and 100%, respectively. Mean diameter of aneurysms was 6.3 mm (range 1.9 to 28.1 mm, SD 5.2 mm). For aneurysms of less than 3 mm, CTA had a sensitivity of 91.7% for each reader. Although the neurosurgeon would have been happy to proceed to surgery on the basis of CTA alone in all cases, he judged that DSA might have provided helpful additional anatomical information in 5 patients. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic accuracy of 16-slice CTA is promising and appears equivalent to that of DSA for detection and evaluation of intracranial aneurysms. A strategy of using CTA as the primary imaging method, with DSA reserved for cases of uncertainty, appears to be practical and safe

  9. The study on three-dimensional measurement of the Human Eustachian tube examined by Multislice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological aberration of the Eustachian tube is a significant factor of various middle ear diseases. Traditionally, cadaveric specimens have been used for studies on the morphology of Eustachian tubes. However, this approach was not too efficient, as samples were limited in number as they were difficult to obtain, and biological conditions were not reflected due to rigor mortis and atrophy during specimen preparation. We thus decided to use Multi-Slice CT (MSCT) to perform 3-dimensional (3-D) anatomic measurements of the Eustachian tube. MSCT has benefits of isotropy and high resolution, and it is useful in preparing images of any plane. Forty-eight adults were studied. For the purpose of measurement, various anatomic indices were carefully and precisely defined to identify each area on the image. Calculations based on each coordinate value enabled the measurement of length, diameter and angle of the Eustachian tube of normal adults. Therefore, measurements of the Eustachian tube, which were traditionally difficult as it is located in the deep part of the cranium, were simplified in many specimens. Mean value of total length was 39.2±3.2 mm, cartilage part length of the tube 30.0±2.7 mm and bony part 9.2±1.6 mm. Mean values of diameter of tympanic orifice were 5.2 x 3.2 mm, and pharyngeal orifice 9.7 x 4.4 mm. Mean value of angle between bony part and cartilage part was 160.9±13.6 degrees. This approach to anatomic measurement is expected to contribute greatly to investigation on various middle ear diseases. (author)

  10. Mediastinite aguda: aspectos de imagem pós-cirurgias cardíacas na tomografia computadorizada de multidetectores Acute mediastinitis: multidetector computed tomography findings following cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Aguiar de Macedo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinite pós-cirurgias torácicas é definida como a infecção dos órgãos e tecidos do espaço mediastinal, ocorrendo em 0,4% a 5% dos casos. A gravidade da infecção pós-operatória varia desde infecção de tecidos superficiais da parede torácica até mediastinite fulminante com envolvimento esternal. O critério diagnóstico da tomografia computadorizada para mediastinite aguda pós-cirúrgica é a presença de coleção mediastinal, podendo estar associada ou não a anormalidades periesternais como edema/borramento de partes moles, separação dos segmentos esternais com reabsorção óssea marginal, esclerose e osteomielite. Achados associados incluem linfonodomegalias, consolidações pulmonares e derrame pleural e pericárdico. Pequenas coleções e gás mediastinais podem ser usualmente encontradas em pós-operatório recente de cirurgias torácicas sem a presença de infecções, limitando a eficácia da tomografia computadorizada nas duas primeiras semanas. Após esse período, a tomografia alcança quase 100% de sensibilidade e especificidade. Pacientes com suspeita clínica de mediastinite devem ser submetidos a exame de tomografia para pesquisa de coleções, identificando a extensão da doença e sua natureza. A versão de multidetectores propicia recursos de reconstruções em diversos planos e janelas, contribuindo especialmente para o estudo do esterno.Postoperative mediastinitis is defined as an infection of the organs and tissues in the mediastinal space, with an incidence ranging between 0.4% and 5% of cases. This disease severity varies from infection of superficial tissues in the chest wall to fulminant mediastinitis with sternal involvement. Diagnostic criterion for postoperative detection of acute mediastinitis at computed tomography is the presence of fluid collections and gas in the mediastinal space, which might or might not be associated with peristernal abnormalities such as edema of soft tissues

  11. Fused aortic valve without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice in patients with severe aortic stenosis: cardiac computed tomography is useful for differentiation between bicuspid aortic valve with raphe and tricuspid aortic valve with commissural fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective is to determine cardiac computed tomography (CCT) features capable of differentiating between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with fused cusp and without elliptical-shaped systolic orifices. We retrospectively enrolled 53 patients who had severe AS with fused cusps and without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice on CCT and who had undergone surgery. CCT features were analyzed using: (1) aortic valve findings including cusp size, cusp area, opening shape, midline calcification, fusion length, calcium volume score, and calcium grade; (2) diameters of ascending and descending aorta, and main pulmonary artery; and (3) rheumatic mitral valve findings. The variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. At surgery, 19 patients had BAV and 34 had TAV. CCT features including uneven cusp size, uneven cusp area, round-shaped systolic orifice, longer cusp fusion, and dilatation of ascending aorta were significantly associated with BAV (P < 0.05). In particular, fusion length (OR, 1.76; P = 0.001), uneven cusp area (OR, 10.46; P = 0.012), and midline calcification (OR, 0.08; P = 0.013) were strongly associated with BAV. CCT provides diagnostic clues that helps differentiate between BAV with raphe and TAV with commissural fusion in patients with severe AS. (orig.)

  12. Fused aortic valve without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice in patients with severe aortic stenosis: cardiac computed tomography is useful for differentiation between bicuspid aortic valve with raphe and tricuspid aortic valve with commissural fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, So Hyeon; Ko, Sung Min [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Departments of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Meong Gun; Shin, Je Kyoun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Kim, Jun Suk [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Departments of Thoracic Surgery, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-01

    The objective is to determine cardiac computed tomography (CCT) features capable of differentiating between bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) in severe aortic stenosis (AS) patients with fused cusp and without elliptical-shaped systolic orifices. We retrospectively enrolled 53 patients who had severe AS with fused cusps and without an elliptical-shaped systolic orifice on CCT and who had undergone surgery. CCT features were analyzed using: (1) aortic valve findings including cusp size, cusp area, opening shape, midline calcification, fusion length, calcium volume score, and calcium grade; (2) diameters of ascending and descending aorta, and main pulmonary artery; and (3) rheumatic mitral valve findings. The variables were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. At surgery, 19 patients had BAV and 34 had TAV. CCT features including uneven cusp size, uneven cusp area, round-shaped systolic orifice, longer cusp fusion, and dilatation of ascending aorta were significantly associated with BAV (P < 0.05). In particular, fusion length (OR, 1.76; P = 0.001), uneven cusp area (OR, 10.46; P = 0.012), and midline calcification (OR, 0.08; P = 0.013) were strongly associated with BAV. CCT provides diagnostic clues that helps differentiate between BAV with raphe and TAV with commissural fusion in patients with severe AS. (orig.)

  13. Repeatability and reproducibility of phase analysis of gated single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging used to quantify cardiac dyssynchrony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Mark A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; Adams, George L.; Honeycutt, Emily F.; Pagnanelli, Robert A.; Barnhart, Huiman X.; Chen, Ji; Iskandrian, Ami E.; Garcia, Ernest V.; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Background A novel method to quantify dyssynchrony has been developed using phase analysis of gated single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging. We report on the effect of variability in image reconstruction on the phase analysis results (repeatability) and on the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of the technique. Methods Phase standard deviation (SD) and bandwidth are phase indices that quantify dyssynchrony. To evaluate repeatability, raw data sets were processed twice in 50 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and 50 normal controls. To determine the optimal processing method, two replicated phase analysis results were obtained using automated and manual base parameter placement. Reproducibility of the phase analysis was determined using the data from 20 patients. Results In normal controls, manual base parameter placement improves repeatability of the phase analysis as measured by the mean absolute difference between two reads for phase SD (12.0° vs. 1.2°, P< 0.0001) and bandwidth (33.7° vs. 3.6°, P< 0.0001). Repeatability is better for normal controls than for patients with left ventricular dysfunction for phase SD (1.2° vs. 6.0°, P < 0.0001) and bandwidth (3.6° vs. 26.5°, P < 0.0001). Reproducibility of the phase analysis is high as measured by the intraclass correlation coefficients for phase SD and bandwidth of 0.99 and 0.99 for the interobserver comparisons and 1.00 and 1.00 for the intraobserver comparisons. Conclusion A novel method to quantify dyssynchrony has been developed using gated single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imaging. Manual base parameter placement reduces the effect that variability in image reconstruction has on phase analysis. A high degree of reproducibility of phase analysis is observed. PMID:18317303

  14. Blunt cardiac rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T D; Flynn, T C; Rowlands, B J; Ward, R E; Fischer, R P

    1984-04-01

    Blunt injury to the heart ranges from contusion to disruption. This report comprises 14 patients seen during a 6-year period with cardiac rupture secondary to blunt trauma. Eight patients were injured in automobile accidents, two patients were injured in auto-ped