WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardiac glycosides

  1. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Calderón-Montaño; Estefanía Burgos-Morón; Manuel Luis Orta; Dolores Maldonado-Navas; Irene García-Domínguez; Miguel López-Lázaro

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typ...

  2. Medicinal Plants, Containing Cardiac Glycosides and Their Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Ahmetzhanova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider bioecological peculiarities of some species of medicinal plants, containing cardiac glycosides and their distribution. The paper presents the tables, which contain data of the quantitative content of the amount of cardiac glycosides in the aerial and underground parts of some species of the Cruciferous, Buttercups, etc. in different ecological conditions. The article also introduces the specie of foxglove from the family of figwort, which defines the quantitative content of cardiac glycosides, as the leaves of these plants are a source of raw materials, producing cardiac glycosides.

  3. Evaluating the Cancer Therapeutic Potential of Cardiac Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Calderón-Montaño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides, also known as cardiotonic steroids, are a group of natural products that share a steroid-like structure with an unsaturated lactone ring and the ability to induce cardiotonic effects mediated by a selective inhibition of the Na+/K+-ATPase. Cardiac glycosides have been used for many years in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac arrhythmias. Recent data suggest that cardiac glycosides may also be useful in the treatment of cancer. These compounds typically inhibit cancer cell proliferation at nanomolar concentrations, and recent high-throughput screenings of drug libraries have therefore identified cardiac glycosides as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth. Cardiac glycosides can also block tumor growth in rodent models, which further supports the idea that they have potential for cancer therapy. Evidence also suggests, however, that cardiac glycosides may not inhibit cancer cell proliferation selectively and the potent inhibition of tumor growth induced by cardiac glycosides in mice xenografted with human cancer cells is probably an experimental artifact caused by their ability to selectively kill human cells versus rodent cells. This paper reviews such evidence and discusses experimental approaches that could be used to reveal the cancer therapeutic potential of cardiac glycosides in preclinical studies.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of cardiac glycoside poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Darren M; Gallapatthy, Gamini; Dunuwille, Asunga; Chan, Betty S

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac glycosides are an important cause of poisoning, reflecting their widespread clinical usage and presence in natural sources. Poisoning can manifest as varying degrees of toxicity. Predominant clinical features include gastrointestinal signs, bradycardia and heart block. Death occurs from ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia. A wide range of treatments have been used, the more common including activated charcoal, atropine, β-adrenoceptor agonists, temporary pacing, anti-digoxin Fab and magnesium, and more novel agents include fructose-1,6-diphosphate (clinical trial in progress) and anticalin. However, even in the case of those treatments that have been in use for decades, there is debate regarding their efficacy, the indications and dosage that optimizes outcomes. This contributes to variability in use across the world. Another factor influencing usage is access. Barriers to access include the requirement for transfer to a specialized centre (for example, to receive temporary pacing) or financial resources (for example, anti-digoxin Fab in resource poor countries). Recent data suggest that existing methods for calculating the dose of anti-digoxin Fab in digoxin poisoning overstate the dose required, and that its efficacy may be minimal in patients with chronic digoxin poisoning. Cheaper and effective medicines are required, in particular for the treatment of yellow oleander poisoning which is problematic in resource poor countries. PMID:26505271

  5. Variation in cardiac glycoside content of monarch butterflies from natural populations in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, L P; McEvoy, P B; Williamson, K L; Flannery, M A

    1972-08-01

    A new spectrophotometric assay has been used to determine the gross concentration of cardiac glycoside in individual monarch butterflies. Adults sampled during the fall migration in four areas of eastern North America exhibited a wide variation in cardiac glycoside concentration. The correlation between spectrophotometrically measured concentrations and emetic dose determinations supports the existence of a broad palatability spectrum in wild monarch butterflies. The cardiac gylcoside concentration is greater in females than in males and is independent of the dry weight of the butterflies; contrary to prediction, both the concentration mean and variance decrease southward. The defensive advantage of incorporating cardiac glycosides may be balanced by detrimental effects on individual viability. PMID:5043141

  6. Peruvoside, a Cardiac Glycoside, Induces Primitive Myeloid Leukemia Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qian; Leong, Wa Seng; Liu, Liang; Chan, Wai-In

    2016-01-01

    Despite the available chemotherapy and treatment, leukemia remains a difficult disease to cure due to frequent relapses after treatment. Among the heterogeneous leukemic cells, a rare population referred as the leukemic stem cell (LSC), is thought to be responsible for relapses and drug resistance. Cardiac glycosides (CGs) have been used in treating heart failure despite its toxicity. Recently, increasing evidence has demonstrated its new usage as a potential anti-cancer drug. Ouabain, one of the CGs, specifically targeted CD34⁺CD38(-) leukemic stem-like cells, but not the more mature CD34⁺CD38⁺ leukemic cells, making this type of compounds a potential treatment for leukemia. In search of other potential anti-leukemia CGs, we found that Peruvoside, a less studied CG, is more effective than Ouabain and Digitoxin at inducing cell death in primitive myeloid leukemia cells without obvious cytotoxicity on normal blood cells. Similar to Ouabain and Digitoxin, Peruvoside also caused cell cycle arrest at G₂/M stage. It up-regulates CDKN1A expression and activated the cleavage of Caspase 3, 8 and PARP, resulting in apoptosis. Thus, Peruvoside showed potent anti-leukemia effect, which may serve as a new anti-leukemia agent in the future. PMID:27110755

  7. Cardiac glycosides induce resistance to tubulin-dependent anticancer drugs in androgen-independent human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Ming; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Huang, Yao-Ting; Chueh, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Hui-Po; Teng, Che-Ming

    2002-01-01

    Due to high prevalence and mortality and the lack of effective therapies, prostate cancer is one of the most crucial health problems in men. Drug resistance aggravates the situation, not only in human prostate cancer but also in other cancers. In this study, we report for the first time that cardiac glycosides (e.g. ouabain and digitoxin) induced resistance of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in vitro to tubulin-binding anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, colchicine, vincristine and vinblastine. Cardiac glycosides exhibited amazing ability to reverse the G2/M arrest of the cell cycle and cell apoptosis induced by tubulin-binding agents. However, neither ionomycin (a Ca(2+) ionophore) nor veratridine (a Na(+) ionophore) mimicked the preventive action of cardiac glycosides, indicating that elevation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and Na(+) accumulation were not involved in the cardiac glycoside action. Furthermore, cardiac glycosides showed little influence on the effects induced by actinomycin D, anisomycin and doxorubicin, suggesting selectivity for microtubule-targeted anticancer drugs. Using in situ immunofluorescent detection of mitotic spindles, our data showed that cardiac glycosides diminished paclitaxel-induced accumulation of microtubule spindles; however, in a non-cell assay system, cardiac glycosides had little influence on colchicine- and paclitaxel-induced microtubule dynamics. Using an isotope-labeled assay method, we found that ouabain modestly but significantly inhibited the transport of [(14)C]paclitaxel from the cytosol into the nucleus. It is suggested that cardiac glycosides inhibit the G2/M arrest induced by tubulin-binding anticancer drugs via an indirect blockade on microtubule function. The decline in transport of these drugs into the nucleus may partly explain the action of cardiac glycosides. PMID:12218360

  8. Preparation and evaluation of technetium-99m labeled cardiac glycoside derivatives as potential myocardial imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Mridula; Sarkar, H.S.; Chatterjee, Mita; Banerjee, Somenath

    1988-01-01

    Three cardiac glycosides, two natural, cymarin and convallotoxin and one synthetic, strophanthidin-..beta..-D-glucoside were converted to their thiosemicarbazone and subsequently radiolabeled with sup(99m)Tc by chelation. The resulting radioactive chelate complexes were evaluated in animals to determine the suitability of this class of compounds for myocardial imaging. It was observed from the animal biodistribution data of the three radioactive compounds that there was a considerable variation in the heart to non-target organ uptake ratio. A possible explanation of this variation was offered in the light of their lipophilic character, protein binding ability and affinity towards non-target receptors. It is anticipated that this study may help to develop a sup(99m)Tc-cardiac glycoside complex with better distribution characteristics, and such a compound may offer a suitable alternative to /sup 201/Tl, which is at present used for myocardial imaging.

  9. Zebrafish chemical screening reveals the impairment of dopaminergic neuronal survival by cardiac glycosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaping Sun

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the prominent degeneration of dopaminergic (DA neurons among other cell types. Here we report a first chemical screen of over 5,000 compounds in zebrafish, aimed at identifying small molecule modulators of DA neuron development or survival. We find that Neriifolin, a member of the cardiac glycoside family of compounds, impairs survival but not differentiation of both zebrafish and mammalian DA neurons. Cardiac glycosides are inhibitors of Na(+/K(+ ATPase activity and widely used for treating heart disorders. Our data suggest that Neriifolin impairs DA neuronal survival by targeting the neuronal enriched Na(+/K(+ ATPase α3 subunit (ATP1A3. Modulation of ionic homeostasis, knockdown of p53, or treatment with antioxidants protects DA neurons from Neriifolin-induced death. These results reveal a previously unknown effect of cardiac glycosides on DA neuronal survival and suggest that it is mediated through ATP1A3 inhibition, oxidative stress, and p53. They also elucidate potential approaches for counteracting the neurotoxicity of this valuable class of medications.

  10. Determination of cardiac glycosides and total phenols in different generations of Securigera securidaca suspension culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tofighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The seeds of Securigera securidaca (L. Deg. & Dorf. (Fabaceae are used as anti-diabetic remedy in Iranian folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to establish the callus and suspension culture of S. securidaca seeds for the first time and to determine the major secondary metabolites including cardiac glycosides and total phenols. Methods: The culture of S. securidaca from seeds was initiated in hormone-supplemented MS medium containing 1 and 0.1 ppm 2, 4-D solution for solid and suspension cultures, respectively, sucrose and vitamins (B1, B2, B6, Folic acid, Biotin, Nicotinamide and Ca pantothenate at 25 °C and 12 h photoperiods. The cardiac glycosides were determined based on the calibration curve of securidaside which was isolated from the seeds extract of S. securidaca. Total phenolic compounds of different generations of suspension culture were determined using Folin Ciocalteu reagent. Results: Callus culture of S. securidaca was grown light cream to pale yellow in color and soft in texture while the cells of suspension culture grew cream to yellow with isolated cells and small aggregates. The production of cardiac glycosides in the 7th generation were more than the seeds extract (p

  11. Determination of cardiac glycosides and total phenols in different generations of Securigera securidaca suspension culture

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Tofighi; Ghazi saeidi; A. Hadjiakhoondi; Yassa, N.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives: The seeds of Securigera securidaca (L.) Deg. & Dorf. (Fabaceae) are used as anti-diabetic remedy in Iranian folk medicine. The aim of the present study was to establish the callus and suspension culture of S. securidaca seeds for the first time and to determine the major secondary metabolites including cardiac glycosides and total phenols. Methods: The culture of S. securidaca from seeds was initiated in hormone-supplemented MS medium containing 1 and 0.1 ppm 2, 4-D...

  12. Metabolic fate of cardiac glycosides and flavonoids upon fermentation of aqueous sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittel, Diana N; Stintzing, Florian C; Kammerer, Dietmar R

    2015-06-10

    Sea squill (Drimia maritima L.) extracts have been used for centuries for the medical treatment of heart diseases. A procedure for the preparation of Drimia extracts applied for such purposes comprising a fermentation step is described in the German Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia (GHP). However, little is known about the secondary metabolite profile of such extracts and the fate of these components upon processing and storage. Thus, in the present study sea squill extracts were monitored during fermentation and storage by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) and GC-MS to characterise and quantitate individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds. For this purpose, a previously established HPLC method for the separation and quantitation of pharmacologically relevant cardiac glycosides (bufadienolides) was validated. Within 12 months of storage, total bufadienolide contents decreased by about 50%, which was attributed to microbial and plant enzyme activities. The metabolisation and degradation rates of individual bufadienolide glycosides significantly differed, which was attributed to differing structures of the aglycones. Further degradation of bufadienolide aglycones was also observed. Besides reactions well known from human metabolism studies, dehydration of individual compounds was monitored. Quantitatively predominating flavonoids were also metabolised throughout the fermentation process. The present study provides valuable information about the profile and stability of individual cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds in fermented Drimia extracts prepared for medical applications, and expands the knowledge of cardiac glycoside conversion upon microbial fermentation. PMID:25841205

  13. Transcriptome and Metabolite analysis reveal candidate genes of the cardiac glycoside biosynthetic pathway from Calotropis procera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Akansha; Swarnkar, Vishakha; Pandey, Tushar; Srivastava, Piush; Kanojiya, Sanjeev; Mishra, Dipak Kumar; Tripathi, Vineeta

    2016-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant of immense importance due to its pharmaceutical active components, especially cardiac glycosides (CG). As genomic resources for this plant are limited, the genes involved in CG biosynthetic pathway remain largely unknown till date. Our study on stage and tissue specific metabolite accumulation showed that CG’s were maximally accumulated in stems of 3 month old seedlings. De novo transcriptome sequencing of same was done using high throughput Illumina HiSeq platform generating 44074 unigenes with average mean length of 1785 base pair. Around 66.6% of unigenes were annotated by using various public databases and 5324 unigenes showed significant match in the KEGG database involved in 133 different pathways of plant metabolism. Further KEGG analysis resulted in identification of 336 unigenes involved in cardenolide biosynthesis. Tissue specific expression analysis of 30 putative transcripts involved in terpenoid, steroid and cardenolide pathways showed a positive correlation between metabolite and transcript accumulation. Wound stress elevated CG levels as well the levels of the putative transcripts involved in its biosynthetic pathways. This result further validated the involvement of identified transcripts in CGs biosynthesis. The identified transcripts will lay a substantial foundation for further research on metabolic engineering and regulation of cardiac glycosides biosynthesis pathway genes. PMID:27703261

  14. The role of fluorescence polarization immuno-assay in the diagnosis of plant-induced cardiac glycoside poisoning livestock in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Schultz

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning with cardiac glycoside-containing plants is collectively the most important plant-associated poisoning of livestock in southern Africa. As a diagnosis of this significant poisoning is currently based on circumstantial evidence, a practical chemical procedure indicating the presence of cardiac glycosides in plants and animal specimens would be of considerable benefit. The fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA method, used to determine digoxin plasma levels in humans and dogs, was adapted to estimate cardiac glycoside levels in known cardiac-glycoside- containing plants as well as in the rumen and organs of dosed sheep. Positive FPIA values were obtained with bufadienolide-containing plants, while negative results were obtained with plants not known to contain cardiac glycosides. The FPIA has aided in the diagnosis of cardiac glycoside poisoning in livestock and game in 30 outbreaks examined at the Division of Toxicology, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. Each outbreak is briefly described. As a result of this assay, a better understanding of cardiac glycoside poisoning has been reached.

  15. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    CERN Document Server

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.

    2001-01-01

    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  16. Molecular pharmacology of cell receptors for cardiac glycosides, opiates, ACTH and ion channel modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnatowich, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of light and oxygen on molecular interactions between the artificial food dye, erythrosine (ERY), and (/sup 3/H)ouabain ((/sup 3/H)OUA) binding sites on (Na/sup +/ + K/sup +/)-ATPase in rat brain and guinea pig heart was investigated. Putative endogenous digitalis-like factors (DLF's) were studied in four in vitro assays for cardiac glycosides. (/sup 3/H)Etorphine binding was characterized in rat brain homogenates, depleted of opioids, from animals acutely and chronically treated with morphine and naloxone, and either unstressed or cold-restraint-stressed. Binding sites for the ion channel modulators (/sup 3/H)verapamil ((/sup 3/H)VER) and (/sup 3/H) phencyclidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP) were characterized in rat brain.

  17. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor signaling by the cardiac glycoside ouabain in medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolle, Daniel; Lee, Seung Joon; Li, Zhiqin; Litan, Alisa; Barwe, Sonali P; Langhans, Sigrid A

    2014-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling regulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Upon receptor binding, EGF triggers cascades of downstream signaling, including the MAPK and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways. Aberrant expression/activation of EGFR is found in multiple human cancers, including medulloblastoma, the most prevalent pediatric brain cancer, and often has been associated with metastasis, poor prognosis, and resistance to chemotherapy. Na,K-ATPase is an ion pump well known for its role in intracellular ion homeostasis. Recent studies showed that Na,K-ATPase also functions as a signaling platform and revealed a role in EGFR, MAPK, and PI3K signaling. While both EGFR and Na,K-ATPase seem to modulate similar signaling pathways, cardiac glycosides that are steroid-like inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase, exhibit antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in cancer cells. Thus, we sought to better understand the relationship between EGF and cardiac glycoside signaling. Here, we show that in medulloblastoma cells, both EGF and ouabain activate Erk1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling. Nevertheless, in medulloblastoma cells ouabain did not transactivate EGFR as has been reported in various other cell lines. Indeed, ouabain inhibited EGF-induced Erk1/2 and Akt activation and, moreover, prevented EGF-induced formation of actin stress fibers and cell motility, probably by activating a stress signaling response. Na,K-ATPase has been proposed to act as a signaling scaffold and our studies suggest that in medulloblastoma cells Na,K-ATPase might act as a check point to integrate EGF-associated signaling pathways. Thus, Na,K-ATPase might serve as a valid target to develop novel therapeutic approaches in tumors with aberrant activation of the EGFR signaling cascades. PMID:25052069

  18. Cardiac glycoside-induced cell death and Rho/Rho kinase pathway: Implication of different regulation in cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Aysun; Şimay, Yaprak Dilber; İbişoğlu, Burçin; Yaren, Biljana; Bülbül, Döne; Ark, Mustafa

    2016-05-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the Rho/ROCK pathway is involved in ouabain-induced apoptosis in HUVEC. In the current work, we investigated whether the Rho/ROCK pathway is functional during cardiac glycosides-induced cytotoxic effects in cancer cell lines, as well as in non-tumor cells. For that purpose, we evaluated the role of ROCK activation in bleb formation and cell migration over upstream and downstream effectors in addition to ROCK cleavage after cardiac glycosides treatment. All three cardiac glycosides (ouabain, digoxin and bufalin) induced cell death in HeLa and HepG2 cells and increased the formation of blebbing in HeLa cells. In contrast to our previous study, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 did not prevent bleb formation. Observation of ROCK II cleavage after ouabain, digoxin and oxaliplatin treatments in HeLa and/or HepG2 cells suggested that cleavage is independent of cell type and cell death induction. While inhibiting cleavage of ROCK II by the caspase inhibitors z-VAD-fmk, z-VDVAD-fmk and z-DEVD-fmk, evaluation of caspase 2 siRNA ineffectiveness on this truncation indicated that caspase-dependent ROCK II cleavage is differentially regulated in cancer cell lines. In HeLa cells, ouabain induced the activation of ROCK, although it did not induce phosphorylation of ERM, an upstream effector. While Y27632 inhibited the migration of HeLa cells, 10nM ouabain had no effect on cell migration. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the Rho/ROCK pathway is regulated differently in cancer cell lines compared to normal cells during cardiac glycosides-induced cell death.

  19. [Problems in the use of cardiac glycosides in ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modersohn, D; Urbaszek, W

    1975-08-01

    With the help of instances from literature and own experimental and clinical experiences is described that a schematic digitalisation in ischaemic heart diseases is not worth being advocated scientifically. Heart glycosides are indicated especially then, when a heart insufficiency stands in the foreground. In the acute phase of infarction, without manifest heart insufficiency, however, in individual cases they can deteriorate the myocardial oxygen balance and thus the clinical course. In myocardial infarction with severe heart insufficiency up to the cardiogenic shock all therapeutic possibilities should be utilized; to this belongs also the application of glycosides. As a rule in cardiogenic shock after myocardial infarction glycosides have no sufficient measurable influence on haemodynamics. Heart glycosides together with an individually adapted kinetotherapy are of importance for the metaphylaxis in patients with infarction. PMID:1189495

  20. Cardiac glycosides induced toxicity in human cells expressing α1-, α2-, or α3-isoforms of Na-K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniavsky Lev, Marina; Karlish, Steven J D; Garty, Haim

    2015-07-15

    The Na+-K+-ATPase is specifically inhibited by cardiac glycosides, some of which may also function as endogenous mammalian hormones. Previous studies using Xenopus oocytes, yeast cells, or purified isoforms demonstrated that affinities of various cardiac glycosides for three isoforms of the Na+-K+-ATPase (α1-α3β1) may differ, a finding with potential clinical implication. The present study investigates isoform selectivity and effects of cardiac glycosides on cultured mammalian cells under more physiological conditions. H1299 cells (non-small cell lung carcinoma) were engineered to express only one α-isoform (α1, α2, or α3) by combining stable transfection of isoforms and silencing endogenous α1. Cardiac glycoside binding was measured by displacement of bound 3H-ouabain. The experiments confirm moderate α1/α3:α2 selectivity of ouabain, moderate α2:α1 selectivity of digoxin, and enhanced α2:α1 selectivity of synthetic derivatives (Katz A, Tal DM, Heller D, Haviv H, Rabah B, Barkana Y, Marcovich AL, Karlish SJD. J Biol Chem 289: 21153-21162, 2014). Relative α2:α1 selectivity of digoxin vs. ouabain was also manifested by enhanced internalization of α2 in response to digoxin. Cellular proliferation assays of H1299 cells confirmed the patterns of α2:α1 selectivity for ouabain, digoxin, and a synthetic derivative and reveal a crucial role of surface pump density on sensitivity to cardiac glycosides. Because cardiac glycosides are being considered as drugs for treatment of cancer, effects of ouabain on proliferation of 12 cancer and noncancer cell lines, with variable plasma membrane expression of α1, have been tested. These demonstrated that sensitivity to ouabain indeed depends linearly on the plasma membrane surface density of Na+-K+-ATPase irrespective of status, malignant or nonmalignant. PMID:25994790

  1. Ouabain, a cardiac glycoside, inhibits the Fanconi anemia/BRCA pathway activated by DNA interstrand cross-linking agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wha Jun

    Full Text Available Modulation of the DNA repair pathway is an emerging target for the development of anticancer drugs. DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs, one of the most severe forms of DNA damage caused by anticancer drugs such as cisplatin and mitomycin C (MMC, activates the Fanconi anemia (FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway. Inhibition of the FA/BRCA pathway can enhance the cytotoxic effects of ICL-inducing anticancer drugs and can reduce anticancer drug resistance. To find FA/BRCA pathway inhibitory small molecules, we established a cell-based high-content screening method for quantitating the activation of the FA/BRCA pathway by measuring FANCD2 foci on DNA lesions and then applied our method to chemical screening. Using commercial LOPAC1280 chemical library screening, ouabain was identified as a competent FA/BRCA pathway inhibitory compound. Ouabain, a member of the cardiac glycoside family, binds to and inhibits Na(+/K(+-ATPase and has been used to treat heart disease for many years. We observed that ouabain, as well as other cardiac glycoside family members--digitoxin and digoxin--down-regulated FANCD2 and FANCI mRNA levels, reduced monoubiquitination of FANCD2, inhibited FANCD2 foci formation on DNA lesions, and abrogated cell cycle arrest induced by MMC treatment. These inhibitory activities of ouabain required p38 MAPK and were independent of cellular Ca(2+ ion increase or the drug uptake-inhibition effect of ouabain. Furthermore, we found that ouabain potentiated the cytotoxic effects of MMC in tumor cells. Taken together, we identified an additional effect of ouabain as a FA/BRCA pathway-inhibiting chemosensitization compound. The results of this study suggest that ouabain may serve as a chemosensitizer to ICL-inducing anticancer drugs.

  2. Glycoside vs. Aglycon: The Role of Glycosidic Residue in Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křen, Vladimír

    A large number of biologically active compounds are glycosides. Sometimes the glycosidic residue is crucial for their activity, in other cases glycosylation only improves pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology brought better understanding of aglycon vs. glycoside activities, and made possible the development of new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings - a very illustrative recent example is vancomycin. The new enzymatic methodology "glycorandomization" enabled preparation of glycoside libraries and opened up paths to the preparation of optimized or entirely novel glycoside antibiotics. This chapter deals with an array of glycosidic compounds currently used in medicine but also covers the biological activity of some glycosidic metabolites of known drugs. The chapter discusses glycosides of vitamins, polyphenolic glycosides (flavonoids), alkaloid glycosides, glycosides of antibiotics, glycopeptides, cardiac glycosides, steroid and terpenoid glycosides etc. The physiological role of the glycosyl moiety and structure-activity relations (SAR) in the glycosidic moiety (-ies) are also discussed.

  3. Cyanogenic glycosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Paquette, Susanne Michelle; Morant, Marc;

    2006-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are ancient biomolecules found in more than 2,650 higher plant species as well as in a few arthropod species. Cyanogenic glycosides are amino acid-derived β-glycosides of α-hydroxynitriles. In analogy to cyanogenic plants, cyanogenic arthropods may use cyanogenic glycosides ...

  4. The stereoisomers quinine and quinidine exhibit a marked stereoselectivity in the inhibition of hepatobiliary transport of cardiac glycosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedman, A; Meijer, DKF

    1998-01-01

    Background / Aims: Certain basic (cationic) drugs are known to interact with the hepatic transport, and renal and/or biliary clearance of cardia glycosides. The mechanisms behind these interactions are not fully understood, In the present study our was to investigate the effects of the two diastereo

  5. High-performance liquid chromatography-ionspray mass spectrometry for the specific determination of digoxin and some related cardiac glycosides in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracqui, A; Kintz, P; Ludes, B; Mangin, P

    1997-04-25

    An original method based upon high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ionspray mass spectrometry (HPLC-ISP-MS) has been developed for the identification and quantification in plasma of several cardiac glycosides, namely digoxin, digitoxin, lanatoside C and acetyldigitoxin. After single-step liquid-liquid extraction by chloroform-2-propanol (95:5, v/v) at pH 9.5 using oleandrin as an internal standard, solutes are separated on a 4 microm NovaPak C18 (Waters) column (150x2.0 mm, I.D.), using a gradient of acetonitrile-2 mM NH4COOH, pH 3 buffer (flow-rate 200 microl/min, post-column split 1:3). Detection is done by a Perkin-Elmer Sciex API-100 mass analyzer equipped with an ISP interface. In most instances the major ion observed is not [M+H]+ as expected, but [M+NH4]+. The mean retention times (min) are: lanatoside C, 5.74; digoxin, 6.00; digitoxin, 8.08, oleandrin, 8.30, acetyldigitoxin, 8.66 and 9.01 (isomers alpha and beta, respectively). The lower limits of detection in single ion monitoring mode range from 0.15 ng/ml (alpha- and beta-acetyldigitoxin) to 0.60 ng/ml (lanatoside C), making the method less sensitive than radioimmunoassay, whereas it is much more specific.

  6. Human breast tumor cells are more resistant to cardiac glycoside toxicity than non-tumorigenic breast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Clifford

    Full Text Available Cardiotonic steroids (CTS, specific inhibitors of Na,K-ATPase activity, have been widely used for treating cardiac insufficiency. Recent studies suggest that low levels of endogenous CTS do not inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity but play a role in regulating blood pressure, inducing cellular kinase activity, and promoting cell viability. Higher CTS concentrations inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity and can induce reactive oxygen species, growth arrest, and cell death. CTS are being considered as potential novel therapies in cancer treatment, as they have been shown to limit tumor cell growth. However, there is a lack of information on the relative toxicity of tumor cells and comparable non-tumor cells. We have investigated the effects of CTS compounds, ouabain, digitoxin, and bufalin, on cell growth and survival in cell lines exhibiting the full spectrum of non-cancerous to malignant phenotypes. We show that CTS inhibit membrane Na,K-ATPase activity equally well in all cell lines tested regardless of metastatic potential. In contrast, the cellular responses to the drugs are different in non-tumor and tumor cells. Ouabain causes greater inhibition of proliferation and more extensive apoptosis in non-tumor breast cells compared to malignant or oncogene-transfected cells. In tumor cells, the effects of ouabain are accompanied by activation of anti-apoptotic ERK1/2. However, ERK1/2 or Src inhibition does not sensitize tumor cells to CTS cytotoxicity, suggesting that other mechanisms provide protection to the tumor cells. Reduced CTS-sensitivity in breast tumor cells compared to non-tumor cells indicates that CTS are not good candidates as cancer therapies.

  7. Cardiac Glycosides Inhibit LPS-induced Activation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Whole Blood through an NF-kappa-B-dependent Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah VO*

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The process of hemodialysis (HD produces a pro-inflammatory state that can lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In part, this is the result of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-B in response to uremia as well as in response to HD itself, which not only involves exposure of blood leukocytes to abnormal surfaces but also potentially to any bacterial contamination associated with HD. Previously, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS to activate isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, as a model of HD-induced stress, and demonstrated that specific natural products that are known to inhibit the activation of NF-B exhibited a broad anti-inflammatory activity. These natural products, however, were not effective when whole blood was used. In the present study, a natural product library (TimTec NPL480 was screened, using whole blood, for the abilities of these natural products to protect against LPS-induced expression and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1 and IL-6. We report here that the cardiac glycosides strophanthidin, ouabain, proscillaridin A, digoxin, digitoxin and lanatoside C are effective natural products that limit the development of a pro-inflammatory state by preventing the activation of these pro-inflammatory signals. These active natural products also inhibited the stress-induced activation of NF-B in a reporter assay, suggesting that inhibition of NF-kappa-B is at least partly the mechanism by which these natural products protect whole blood leukocytes from activation by LPS. Industrial relevance: Media for hemodialysis is used millions of times annually for patients with end stage renal disease, each use representing a potential pro-inflammatory insult. It would be useful to have a drug that could be added to the media which would protect blood leukocytes from any pro-inflammatory activation that may accompany the dialysis procedure. A natural

  8. Effects of Cardiac Glycosides from Nerium indicum on Juvenile Carassius auratus%夹竹桃(Nerium indicum)皂甙对鲫鱼(Carassius auratus)幼鱼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 戴灵鹏; 郑祥河; 席启斐; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of cardiac glycosides of N. Indicum on non-target organism, the effects of different concentration of cardiac glycosides(0, 5.89, 20.12 mg·L-1 and 80.76 mg·L-1) on mortality, specific growth rate, glycogen and protein content, SOD activity as well as micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus were investigated during exposure for 14 d and its recovery response after 7 d by using semi-static test method. The results showed that fish did not die when the concentration of cardiac glycosides ≤20.12 mg·L-1 during 14 d exposure periods. However, with 80.76 mg·L-1, 100% of the fish died within 5 d. When cardiac glycosides concentration reach to 20.12 mg·L-1, the specific growth rate, glycogen and protein contents decreased gradually while the SOD activity increased first and then decreased during the whole experiment. After a recovery period of 7 d, the inhibition of specific growth rate and SOD activity were weakened gradually and the glycogen and protein content were no significant difference between control and treatment group. In addition, the result of micronucleus test showed that cardiac glycosides did not significantly affect the micronucleus rate of juvenile C. Auratus. These results suggested that cardiac glycosides was low toxicity and no genotoxicity found, which supports that the plant product is safe for use as a molluscicide for the control of harmful freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. However, higher concentration of cardiac glucosides seriously impaired the normal physiological metabolism, resulting in the growth inhibition of C. Auratus, even caused fish death in the end.%为了评价夹竹桃皂甙对非靶标生物的潜在危害,采用半静态法研究了不同浓度(0、5.89、20.12 mg·L-1和80.76 mg·L4)的夹竹桃皂甙对鲫鱼幼苗的死亡情况、特定生长率、糖原、蛋白质含量、SOD酶活性和微核率的影响.结果表明,当夹竹桃皂甙处理浓度≤20.12 mg·L-1时,处

  9. Immunomodulating Steroidal Glycosides from the Roots of Stephanotis Mucronata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YeYi-ping; LiXiao-yu; SunHong-Xiang; ChenFeng-yang; PanYuan-jian

    2005-01-01

    1 Introduction The plants beonging to the Asclepiadaceae family are reported to be rich in pregnane and cardiac glycosides.In recent years, the pregnanes and their glycosides hale been shown to possess antitumor, antiepilepsy, and antifertility activities. The dried roots of Stephanotis mncronata(BLANCO) Meer.

  10. Changes in cardiac glycoside receptor sites 86 rubidium uptake and intracellular sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of patients receiving digoxin during the early phases of treatment of cardiac failure in regular rhythm and of atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the binding of 12-α-[3H]-digoxin to the membranes of intact erythrocytes, erythrocytic 86Rb uptake and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations have been made in the red cells of patients receiving digoxin in the short-term for atrial fibrillation or cardiac failure in regular rhythm. During the first few days of treatment [3H]-digoxin binding and 86Rb uptake fall and intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations rise. Subsequently parallel fluctuations occur in [3H]-digoxin binding and 86Rb uptake but not in intraerythrocytic sodium concentrations and the significance of the fluctuations is discussed. The values of all three measurements correlate significantly with the response of the heart in sinus rhythm as measured by QS2I. Plasma digoxin concentrations do not correlate with QS2I. (author)

  11. Cyanohydrin glycosides of Passiflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin S; Wellendorph, Petrine;

    2002-01-01

    Nineteen species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) were examined for the presence of cyanogenic glycosides. Passibiflorin, a bisglycoside containing the 6-deoxy-beta-D-gulopyranosyl residue, was isolated from P. apetala, P. biflora, P. cuneata, P. indecora, P. murucuja and P. perfoliata. In some cas...

  12. Diterpene Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Prakash; Mani Upreti; Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2011-01-01

    Three novel diterpene glycosides were isolated for the first time from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, along with several known steviol glycosides, namely stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid (1), 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-16β-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2...

  13. Acylated flavone glycosides from Veronica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Grayer, Renée J.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal;

    2003-01-01

    A survey of the flavonoid glycosides of selected taxa in the genus Veronica yielded two new acylated 5,6,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone (6-hydroxyluteolin) glycosides and two rare allose-containing acylated 5,7,8,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (isoscutellarein) glycosides. The new compounds were isolated from...... Veronica (melittoside and globularifolin) were also isolated from V. intercedens....

  14. Neolignan glycoside from Angelica dahurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Zeng Zhao; Xu Feng; Xiao Dong Jia; Yun Fa Dong; Ming Wang

    2007-01-01

    A new neolignan glycoside, 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(7R, 8S)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol was isolated from the fresh roots of Angelica dahurica. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis.

  15. Diterpene Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Three novel diterpene glycosides were isolated for the first time from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, along with several known steviol glycosides, namely stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy] ent-kaur-15-en-19-oic acid (1, 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy]-16β-hydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid (2 and 13-methyl-16-oxo-17-nor-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3 on the basis of extensive 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies.

  16. Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishna, Chillara; Rao, Chirravuri V; Trimurtulu, Golakoti; Vanisree, Mulabagal; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V

    2005-12-01

    Two triterpenoid glycosides have been isolated along with 10 known saponins from Bacopa monnieri. Structures of the compounds have been elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] jujubogenin (1) and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] pseudojujubogenin (2) by high resolution NMR spectral data and chemical correlations. Further, the chemical compositions of bacosides A and B have been delineated.

  17. Iridoid glycosides from Gmelina arborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Neerja; Yadav, Akhilesh K; Srivastava, Pooja; Shanker, Karuna; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

    2008-09-01

    Three iridoid glycosides 6-O-(3''-O-benzoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (1a), 6-O-(3''-O-trans-cinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (2a) and 6-O-(3''-O-cis-cinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (3a) were isolated from aerial parts of Gmelina arborea and structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Additionally a known iridoid 6-O-(3'', 4''-O-dibenzoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (4) was also isolated and identified. PMID:18684476

  18. GLYCOSIDES FROM LINARIA VULGARIS MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mashcenko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside, 5,4′-dimethylkaempferol 3-O-β-D-(6′′-α-Lrhamnopyranosyl -glucopyranoside, together with three known compounds were isolated from the n-butanolic soluble fraction of underground and aerial parts of Linaria vulgaris Mill, collected on the territory of Moldova. The characterisation of these compounds was achieved by various chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and MS.

  19. Development of glycoside-bound radiopharmaceuticals; Novel radioiodination method for digoxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Yasutaka; Dote, Nobuhito; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji

    1994-01-01

    We combined 2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoylhydrazide (HMBH) with glycosides as a novel method for the radioiodination of physiologically active glycosides. This method was tested using digoxin, which is one of the cardiac glycosides. A digoxin-HMBH conjugate was synthesized by periodate cleavage of the third sugar ring, and was readily radiolabelled with Na[[sup 125]I] by the chloramine-T method. [sup 125]I labelled digoxin-HMBH conjugate retained Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase binding in vivo and in vitro, and also retained immunoreactivity to an anti-digoxin antibody. Thus, this [sup 125]I labelled digoxin-HMBH conjugate represents a potential radiopharmaceutical for Na[sup +], K[sup +]-ATPase imaging, as well as for the radioimmunoassay of digoxin. (author).

  20. A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides and a new derivation of phenolic glycoside from Paris Polyphylla var. yunnanensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Wen Yuan Gao; Tie Jun Zhang; Yuan Qiang Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel phenylpropanoid glycosides 1, named parispolyside F, and a novel derivation of phenolic glycoside 2, named parispolyside G, as well as two known flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the rhizome of Paris polyphylla var. Yunnanensis.Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  1. STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE ROOTS OF SOLANUM MELONGENA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepan Shvets

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One new cholestane glycoside, six steroidal glycosides of spirostane series and one pregnane glycoside have been isolated from the roots of Solanum melongena L. for the first time. Their structures were determined by physico-chemical methods.

  2. Two New Triterpene Glycosides from Centella asiatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Centella asiatica resulted in the isolation and characterization of one new ursane type triterpene glycoside; asiaticoside G along with nine known compounds, that were characterized as ursane type triterpenes and /or their glycoside; asiatic acid (2), mad...

  3. Phenolic glycosides from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Kikuzaki, Hiroe

    2008-11-01

    Three phenolic glycosides were isolated together with two known flavonol glycosides from the H2O-soluble fraction of rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora. Their structures were determined to be rel-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] (1), its rel-5aS,10bR isomer (2), and (2R,3S,4S)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-3'-O-methyl-ent-epicatechin-(2alpha-->O-->3,4alpha-->4)-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (3). The structures were elucidated on the basis of analyses of chemical and spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18922550

  4. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Orobanche caerulescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lie-Chwen; Chiou, Wen-Fei; Chou, Cheng-Jen

    2004-01-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, caerulescenoside ( 1), and 3'-methyl crenatoside ( 2), as well as five known phenylpropanoid glycosides [acteoside ( 3), isoacteoside ( 4), campneoside II ( 5), crenatoside ( 6), and desrhamnosyl acteoside ( 7)] were isolated from the whole plant of Orobanche caerulescens. The antioxidative effects of compounds 1 - 7 on human low-density lipoprotein were evaluated. All these compounds suppress concentration-dependently conjugated diene formation with IC (50) values of 1.25 +/- 0.06, 2.97 +/- 0.31, 0.31 +/- 0.01, 1.01 +/- 0.05, 1.15 +/- 0.04, 1.69 +/- 0.15, and 0.64 +/- 0.03 microM, respectively. Comparison of their antioxidative activities with that of resveratrol (IC (50) : 6.75 +/- 1.05 microM), a natural phenolic antioxidant isolated from grape, demonstrated that the prolonged effect on lag-time and the damping effect on oxidative rate by compounds 1 - 7 were all more potent. PMID:14765293

  5. A New Furostanol Glycoside from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonghua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S-5α-furostane-20(22-en-12-one-3β, 26-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1 on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  6. A New Furostanol Glycoside from Tribulus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Tonghua Liu; Yue Liu; Haiou Zhou; Shengxu Xie; Yunshan Si; Tunhai Xu; Yonghong Liu; Yajuan Xu; Dongming Xu

    2010-01-01

    Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-furostane-20(22)-en-12-one-3β, 26-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  7. A caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside from Plantago myosuros

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzyk, Henrik; Husum, Tommy Lykke; Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1998-01-01

    From Plantago myosuros, the iridoid glucoside, aucubin was isolated, together with the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides, plantalloside and verbascoside. Plantalloside is a new verbascoside analogue with a beta-allopyranosyl moiety. The structure was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy. (C) 1998...

  8. Triterpene glycosides from the Far Eastern sea cucumber Cucumaria conicospermium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilov, Sergey A; Antonov, Alexandr S; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Kalinin, Vladimir I; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Stonik, Valentin A; Riguera, Ricardo; Jimenez, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    Four new triterpene glycosides, cucumariosides A(2)-5 (1), A(3)-2 (2), A(3)-3 (3), and isokoreoside A (4), along with the previously isolated koreoside A (5), have been found in the sea cucumber Cucumariaconicospermium. Glycoside 1 was isolated as a native substance, while glycosides 2-5 were identified through their desulfated derivatives. Their structures have been deduced by extensive spectral analysis (NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. All the glycosides contain the same branched pentasaccharide carbohydrate chain but differ in the number and positions of the sulfate groups. Glycoside 1 has one, glycosides 2 and 3 have two, and glycosides 4 and 5 have three sulfate groups. Glycosides 2-5 are non-holostane derivatives; their aglycons lack the 18(20)-lactone and are characterized by shortened side chains, which is a very rare feature among the sea cucumber glycosides. PMID:12880305

  9. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any.

  10. A Synoptical Introduction of The Clinical Application of Tripterygium Glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-juan; GONG Ning-bo; GU Tong-nan

    2005-01-01

    @@ Tripterygium glycosides (TG) refers to the total glycosides, mainly the epoxy diterpene lactones extracted from the root of Tripterygium Wilfordii Hook f (TW), a common vine-like toxic plant grown in the wide area of South China.

  11. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Lysionotus pauciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Wen, Yaya; Tu, Yanbei; Du, Hongjian; Li, Qin; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yanfang

    2016-05-01

    Ten flavonoids (1-10), including a new glycoside (nevadensin-7-sambubioside, 7), together with a phenylpropanoid glycoside (11) were isolated from Lysionotus pauciflorus. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic methods and comparing with literature data. Five compounds (1, 3, 4, 8, and 9) were obtained from the family Gesneriaceae for the first time. The new compound was evaluated in vitro for anticholinesterase activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), but was found to be inactive. PMID:27319133

  12. Veronica: Acylated flavone glycosides as chemosystematic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Grayer, Renée J.; Kite, Geoffrey C.;

    2005-01-01

    HPLC/DAD and LCeMS of an extract of Veronica spicata subgenus Pseudolysimachium, Plantaginaceae) revealed the presence of six 6-hydroxyluteolin glycosides acylated with phenolic acids, three of which are new compounds and which we called spicosides. A flavonoid survey of seven more species...... instead. Spicosides appeared to be common in subgenus Pseudolysimachium (detected in five out of eight species), but we did not find them in subgenus Pentasepalae. Previously, acetylated 8-hydroxyflavone glycosides have been isolated from or detected in eight species of V. subgenus Pentasepalae (in 13...

  13. A New Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Prakash; Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2011-01-01

    From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, a new diterpene glycoside was isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compound was identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS) and chemical studies.

  14. A New Diterpene Glycoside from Stevia rebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana, a new diterpene glycoside was isolated besides the known steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, rubusoside and dulcoside A. The new compound was identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-(2-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1 on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (NMR and MS and chemical studies.

  15. Five new phenolic glycosides from Hedyotis scandens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Li, Tao; Deng, Fang-Ye; Li, Yao-Lan; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2013-03-01

    Five new phenolic glycosides, hedyotosides A-E (1-5), including a new cyanogenic glycoside (1), along with 10 known compounds (6-15) were isolated from the whole plants of Hedyotis scandens. The structures of compounds 1-5 were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) with cytopathic effect (CPE) reduction assay. Compounds 6 and 15 showed anti-RSV effects with IC(50) values of 20 and 25 μg/mL, respectively. PMID:23333151

  16. Cardiac arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Article.jsp. Accessed June 16, 2014. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Approach to cardiac arrest and life-threatening ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 63. Myerburg RJ, Castellanos A. Cardiac arrest and audden aardiac death. In: ...

  17. Two New Flavonoid Glycosides from Chrysanthemum morifolium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian ZHANG; An Wei DING; You Bin LI; Da Wei QIAN; Jin Ao DUAN; Zhi Qi YIN

    2006-01-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides were isolated from the flowering heads of Chrysanthemum morifolium. Their structures were determined to be luteolin 4'-methoxy-7- O-(6"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and acacetin 7-O-(3"-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) by means of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR technique.

  18. Anticancer Activity of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry L. Aminin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Triterpene glycosides are characteristic secondary metabolites of sea cucumbers (Holothurioidea, Echinodermata. They have hemolytic, cytotoxic, antifungal, and other biological activities caused by membranotropic action. These natural products suppress the proliferation of various human tumor cell lines in vitro and, more importantly, intraperitoneal administration in rodents of solutions of some sea cucumber triterpene glycosides significantly reduces both tumor burden and metastasis. The anticancer molecular mechanisms include the induction of tumor cell apoptosis through the activation of intracellular caspase cell death pathways, arrest of the cell cycle at S or G2/M phases, influence on nuclear factors, NF-κB, and up-down regulation of certain cellular receptors and enzymes participating in cancerogenesis, such as EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor, Akt (protein kinase B, ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases, FAK (focal adhesion kinase, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9 and others. Administration of some glycosides leads to a reduction of cancer cell adhesion, suppression of cell migration and tube formation in those cells, suppression of angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and tumor invasion. As a result, marked growth inhibition of tumors occurs in vitro and in vivo. Some holothurian triterpene glycosides have the potential to be used as P-gp mediated MDR reversal agents in combined therapy with standard cytostatics.

  19. A Steroidal Glycoside from Cynanchum versicolor Bunge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Guang ZHENG; Run Hui LIU; Ling Yi KONG; Wei Dong ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A new C21 steroidal glycoside, named cynanversicoside F (1), was isolated from the root of Cynanchum versicolor Bunge. Its structure was established as glaucogenin-A 3-O-β-D-digitoxopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  20. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Caryopteris terniflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hong ZHANG; Qing Yi WEI; Zhong Li LIU; Li YANG; Dong Liang CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from the Chinese medicinal plantCaryopteris terniflora. The spectroscopic and chemical evidences revealed that their structures tobe 6′-(β-sitosteroyl-3-O-β-glucopyranosidyl) hexacosanate 1 and 6′-(stigmasteroyl-3-O-β-glucopyranosidyl) linolenate 2, respectively.

  1. Nematicidal isochromane glycoside from Kigelia pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi ATOLANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic nematicides such as oxamyl and carbofuran play significant roles in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, their negative environmental impacts have it imperative to search for safer alternatives. As part of our contribution in the search for bio-nematicides, compounds from plant extract were screened for possible potent nematicidal agent. A new isochromane carboxylic acid glycoside, isolated from the leaves of Kigelia pinnata (Lam. Benth (Bignoniaceae was evaluated for its nematicidal activity. The structure of the proposed compound was characterized by various spectroscopic methods, which included UV, FTIR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR, FAB-MS, TOF-ESI-MS and TOF-ESI-MS/MS (TANDEM. The in vitro experiment conducted on the glycoside against Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and eggs indicated an induced mortality. Its activity can be compared favourably with oxamyl, when tested at 0.1 mg/mL concentration. At four hours of observation, no significant difference (P < 0.05 between oxamyl and the glycoside was observed. The present data sustains that natural glycoside is a promising oxamyl alternate for controlling nematode-induced plant root knots and may contribute to integrated pest management.

  2. New Acetylated Flavonol Glycosides from Knoxia corymbosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Bo WANG; Jian Xin PU; Hai Ying, REN; Jing Feng ZHAO; Shuang Xi MEI; Zi Yan LI; Hong Bin ZHANG; Liang LI

    2003-01-01

    Two new diacetylated flavonol glycosides, kampferol-3-O-β-3〃, 6〃-diacetylglucopyrano- side and quercetin-3-O-β-3〃, 6〃-diacetylglucopyranoside were isolated from knoxia corymbosa. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic evidents.

  3. New xanthone glycosides from Securidaca inappendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Dong; An, Ning; Xu, Li-Zhen; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2002-06-01

    Three new xanthone glycosides, securixanside A (1), securixanside B (2), and securixanside C (3) were isolated from the stems of Securidaca inappendiculata. These compounds were characterized by spectrometric and chemical methods, including FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:12067160

  4. A new sterol glycoside from Securidaca inappendiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Yang, Xue-Dong; Xu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Zhong-Mei; Yang, Shi-Lin

    2005-08-01

    From the roots of Securidaca inappendiculata, one new sterol glycoside securisteroside (1) has been isolated, along with two known sterols, spinasterol (2) and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-spinasterol (3). The new sterol was characterized by chemical and spectrometric methods, including EIMS, FABMS and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. PMID:16087640

  5. A New Flavone Glycoside from Isodon enanderianus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside, 5,8-dihydroxy-4',6,7-trimethoxyflavone 8-O-b -D-glucopyranoside 1, together with three known flavonoids, pedalitin 2, cirsimartin 3 and genkwanin 4, were isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon enanderianus. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data.

  6. A new withanolide glycoside from physalis peruviana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad; Malik; Afza; Yasmin

    1999-03-01

    A new withanolide glycoside, 17beta-hydroxy-14, 20-epoxy-1-oxo-[22R]-3beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-witha-5, 24-dienolide (1), has been isolated from the whole plant of Physalis peruviana. Its identity was determined using a combination of spectroscopic data including 2D NMR techniques and chemical transformations. PMID:10096867

  7. Two New Xanthone Glycosides from Securidaca inappendiculata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new xanthone glycosides, securixanside B and C, were isolated from the stems of Securidaca inappendiculata. Their structures were determined as 3-O-(-D-glucopyranosyl- 1,7-dihydroxy-2-methoxyxanthone and 6-O-(-D-glucopyranosyl-1-hydroxy-4,7-dimethoxyxan-thone by spectroscopic methods.

  8. A New Diterpene Glycoside from Isodon forrestii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new diterpene glycoside named 9(10?20)-abeo-7b,10b,11,15-tetrahydroxy-8,11,13- abietatrien-12-O-b-D-glucopyranoside was isolated from aerial parts of Isodon forrestii. Its structure was determined by means of spectroscopic studies.

  9. A Novel Pregnane Glycoside from Biondia chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Gen TAN; Shu Lin PENG; Xun LIAO; Jian LIANG; Li Sheng DING

    2003-01-01

    A novel pregnane glycoside, biondianoside E, was isolated from the roots of Biondiachinensis. By the spectroscopic and chemical methods, this structure was elucidated as 3β, 5β,14β, 20S, 21-pentahydroxypregnane 3- O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside.

  10. Advance on the Flavonoid C-glycosides and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Capanoglu, Esra; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Miron, Anca

    2016-07-29

    The dietary flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most vital phytochemicals in diets and are of great general interest due to their diverse bioactivity. Almost all natural flavonoids exist as their O-glycoside or C-glycoside forms in plants. The dietary flavonoid C-glycosides have received less attention than their corresponding O-glycosides. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding flavonoid C-glycosides and their influence on human health. Among the flavonoid C-glycosides, flavone C-glycosides, especially vitexin, isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin and their multiglycosides are more frequently mentioned than others. Flavonoid C-monoglycosides are poorly absorbed in human beings with very few metabolites in urine and blood and are deglycosylated and degraded by human intestinal bacteria in colon. However, flavonoid C-multiglycosides are absorbed unchanged in the intestine and distributed to other tissues. Flavonoid C-glycosides showed significant antioxidant activity, anticancer and antitumor activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, antiviral activity, antibacterial and antifungal activity, and other biological effects. It looks like that the C-glycosylflavonoids in most cases showed higher antioxidant and anti-diabetes potential than their corresponding O-glycosylflavonoids and aglycones. However, there is a lack of in vivo data on the biological benefits of flavonoid C-glycosides. It is necessary to investigate more on how flavonoid C-glycosides prevent and handle the diseases.

  11. Hepatoprotective phenylethanoid glycosides from Cirsium setosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinge; Guo, Yongming; Luo, Baomin; Liu, Wenmin; Wei, Rongrui; Yang, Chunxia; Ding, Chenghua; Xu, Xuefeng; He, Minghui

    2016-08-01

    Two new phenylethanoid glycosides, namely β-D-glucopyranoside, 1″-O-(7S)-7-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxyethyl-3″-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-4″-[(8E)-7-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-propenoate] (1) and β-D-glucopyranoside, 1″-O-(7S)-7-(3-methoxyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-methoxyethyl-3″-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-4″-[(8E)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-propenoate] (2), together with six phenylethanoid glycosides were isolated from Cirsium setosum. Their structures were elucidated by their spectroscopic data and references. Compounds 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 (10 μM) exhibited moderate hepatoprotective activities. Compounds (3-8) were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  12. Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Linum olympicum (Linaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    KONUKLUGİL, Belma; BAHADIR, Özlem

    2004-01-01

    The lignan content of Linum olympicum Boiss. was investigated by HPLC and GC-MS in comparison with standards, and 2 phenylpropanoid glycosides, syringin (1) and coniferin (2), were isolated from the aerial parts. Identification of the 2 compounds was achieved by comparison with standards using TLC and HPLC and the structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV and 1H-NMR analysis.

  13. Two New Cardenolide Glycosides from Biondia hemsleyana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new cardenolide glycosides, biondianosides A and B, were isolated from the roots of endemic plant of Biondia hemsleyana (Warb.) Tsiang. Their structures were elucidated as periplogenin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-cymaropyranoside (1) and 17βH-periplogenin-3-O-β-D-cymaropyranoside (2) by the spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  14. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Knoxia corymbosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Bo WANG; Shuang Xi MEI; Yao Hua WANG; Jing Feng ZHAO; Hai Ying REN; Jie GUO; Hong Bin ZHANG; Liang LI

    2003-01-01

    Two new flavonol glycosides (1 and 2) together with two known flavonoides (3 and 4),were isolated from the whole plant of Knoxia corymbosa willd. The structures of 1 and 2 wereelucidated as kaempferol-7-O-α-L-arabinosyl-3-O-β-D-6"-acetylglucopyranoside and kaempferol-7-O-α-L-arabinosyl-3-O-β-D-3",6"-diacetylglucopyranoside respectively.

  15. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Isodon sculponeatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Mei Li; Jian Xin Pu; Wei Lie Xiao; Han Dong Sun

    2011-01-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, sculponiside (1) was isolated from the aerial parts of Isodon sculponeatus (Vaniot) Kudo, along with six known compounds martynoside (2), verbascoside (3), (+)-hydroxypinoresinol-8-O-β-D-glucoside (4), cedrusin (5), 7-megastigmene-3S,5R,6R,7E,9S-tetrol (6) and 4-oxo-β-ionol-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Their chemical structures were elucidated from physicochemical data and by acidic hydrolysis.

  16. A new coumarin glycoside from Daphne giraldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new coumarin glycoside was isolated from the ethanol extract of the barks of stem of Daphne giraldii Nitsche. Its structure was defined as daphnetin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectral evidences.(C) 2007 Wei Dong Zhang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkyl and phenolic glycosides from Saussurea stella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Min; Wang, Ru-Feng; Chen, Hu-Biao; Shang, Ming-Ying; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2013-07-01

    One alkyl glycoside, saussurostelloside A (1), two phenolic glycosides, saussurostellosides B1 (2) and B2 (3), and 27 known compounds, including eleven flavonoids, seven phenolics, six lignans, one neolignan, one phenethyl glucoside and one fatty acid, were isolated from an ethanol extract of Saussurea stella (Asteraceae). Their structures were elucidated by NMR, MS, UV, and IR spectroscopic analysis. Of the known compounds, (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7), picraquassioside C (10), and diosmetin-3'-O-β-D-glucoside (27) were isolated from the Asteraceae family for the first time, while (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), di-O-methylcrenatin (11), protocatechuic acid (14), 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (17), formononetin (28), and phenethyl glucoside (29) were isolated from the Saussurea genus for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of three new compounds (1-3), five lignans ((-)-arctiin (4), (+)-pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (5), (+)-pinoresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), (+)-medioresinol-di-O-β-D-glucoside (7) and (+)-syringaresinol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (8)), one neolignan (picraquassioside C (10)), and one phenolic glycoside (di-O-methylcrenatin (11)) were evaluated by testing their inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase from PAF-stimulated neutrophils. Only compound 5 showed moderate inhibition of the release of β-glucuronidase, with an inhibition ratio of 39.1%.

  18. Synthesis of Indole Derivatives from 2-Keto Glycoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ 2-Oxo derivatives of glycosides, called 2-keto glycosides or glycoside 2-uloses, are biologically important in carbohydrate metabolism and are very useful in synthesis of branched-chain sugars and amino sugars. Very little is known of their chemistry because of the high susceptibility of these compounds to degradation in solution, and in particular their instability to base. Thus it is important to study the reactivities of 2-keto glycosides. In a previous paper, we reported the transformation of 2-keto glycosides in pyridine solution. During the transformation of 2-and 3-keto glycosides, a demethoxylation reaction of the enol intermediate was shown to take place simultaneously with elimination to give hex-1-enopyran-3-ulose.

  19. Synthesis of Indole Derivatives from 2-Keto Glycoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; HongMin

    2001-01-01

    2-Oxo derivatives of glycosides, called 2-keto glycosides or glycoside 2-uloses, are biologically important in carbohydrate metabolism and are very useful in synthesis of branched-chain sugars and amino sugars. Very little is known of their chemistry because of the high susceptibility of these compounds to degradation in solution, and in particular their instability to base. Thus it is important to study the reactivities of 2-keto glycosides. In a previous paper, we reported the transformation of 2-keto glycosides in pyridine solution. During the transformation of 2-and 3-keto glycosides, a demethoxylation reaction of the enol intermediate was shown to take place simultaneously with elimination to give hex-1-enopyran-3-ulose.……

  20. Microbial Degradation of Steviol derived from steviol glycosides

    OpenAIRE

    Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Monballiu, Annick; Moons, Nico; De Borggraeve, Wim; Dehaen, Wim; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    As well as from Paraguayan soil samples of a stevia plantation as from samples of Belgian soils that never had contact with stevia or steviol glycosides bacterial consortia were derived that hydrolysed steviol glycosides to steviol. This activity was not influenced by heating (20 min. 80 °C) or boiling (10 min. 100 °C) the soil samples. The type of steviol glycosides that were hydrolysed as well as the hydrolytic pathway of the hydrolysis was highly influenced by the conditions...

  1. A New Phenolic Glycoside from the Barks of Cinnamomum cassia

    OpenAIRE

    Junfen Zeng; Yongbo Xue; Yongji Lai; Guangmin Yao; Zengwei Luo; Yonghui Zhang; Jinwen Zhang

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside (1), named methyl 2-phenylpropanoate-2-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→6)-O-β-D–glucopyranoside, was isolated from the barks of Cinnamomum cassia, along with three known phenolic glycosides and four known lignan glycosides. The structure of 1 was elucidated by extensive interpretation of spectroscopic data and chemical method. Selected compounds were evaluated for their immunosuppressive activities against murine lymphocytes. Compounds 1, 2, 6 and 8 exhibited differential inhi...

  2. A New Phenylpropanoid Glycoside: Serratumoside A from Clerodendrum serratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new phenylpropanoid glycoside, serratumoside A, was isolated from the aerial parts of Clerodendrum serratum var. amplexifolium Moldenke. Its structure was determined by spectral and chemical methods.

  3. Bioactive Steroidal Glycosides from the Starfish Anasterias Minuta

    OpenAIRE

    Chludil, H.; M. S. Maier; A. M. Seldes

    2000-01-01

    Cytotoxic fractions obtained by purification of the ethanolic extract of Anasterias minuta contain sulfated hexasaccharide glycosides. These compounds show antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum.

  4. Bioactive Steroidal Glycosides from the Starfish Anasterias Minuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chludil

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic fractions obtained by purification of the ethanolic extract of Anasterias minuta contain sulfated hexasaccharide glycosides. These compounds show antifungal activity against Cladosporium cucumerinum.

  5. Cardiac Malpositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Shi Joon; Im, Chung Gie; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Hasn, Man Chung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    Cardiac Malposition refers to any position of the heart other than a left-sided heart in a situs solitus individual. Associated cardiac malformations are so complex that even angiocardiographic and autopsy studies may not afford an accurate information. Although the terms and classifications used to describe the internal cardiac anatomy and their arterial connections in cardiac malpositions differ and tend to be confusing, common agreement exists on the need for a segmental approach to diagnosis. Authors present 18 cases of cardiac malpositions in which cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography were done at the Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital between 1971 and 1979. Authors analyzed the clinical, radiographic, operative and autopsy findings with the emphasis on the angiocardiographic findings. The results are as follows: 1. Among 18 cases with cardiac malpositions, 6 cases had dextrocardia with situs inversus, 9 cases had dextrocardia with situs solitus and 3 cases had levocardia with situs inversus. 2. There was no genuine exception to visceroatrial concordance rule. 3. Associated cardiac malpositions were variable and complex with a tendency of high association of transposition and double outlet varieties with dextrocardia in situs solitus and levocardia in situs inversus. Only one in 6 cases of dextrocardia with situs inversus had pure transposition. 4. In two cases associated pulmonary atresia was found at surgery which was not predicted by angiocardiography. 5. Because many of the associated complex lesions can be corrected surgically provided the diagnosis is accurate, the selective biplane angiocardiography with or without cineradiography is essential.

  6. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively. PMID:27086163

  7. Two New Chromone Glycosides from Selaginella uncinata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new chromone glycosides, 5-hydroxy-2,6,8-trimethylchromon-7-O-β-D-gluco-pyranoside, named uncinoside A; 5-acetoxy-2,6,8-trimethylchromone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, named uncinoside B, and a known chromone compound named 8-methyl eugenitol were isolated from Selaginella uncinata. Their structures were elucidated by spectra analysis of FAB-MS, 1D NMR and 2D NMR including 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC and single-crystal X-ray diffraction techniques.

  8. Syntheses of dopa glycosides using glucosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-02-01

    Syntheses of L: -dopa 1a glucoside 10a,b and DL: -dopa 1b glycosides 10-18 with D: -glucose 2, D: -galactose 3, D: -mannose 4, D: -fructose 5, D: -arabinose 6, lactose 7, D: -sorbitol 8 and D: -mannitol 9 were carried out using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold, beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond and immobilized beta-glucosidase. Invariably, L: -dopa and DL: -dopa gave low to good yields of glycosides 10-18 at 12-49% range and only mono glycosylated products were detected through glycosylation/arylation at the third or fourth OH positions of L: -dopa 1a and DL: -dopa 1b. Amyloglucosidase showed selectivity with D: -mannose 4 to give 4-O-C1beta and D: -sorbitol 8 to give 4-O-C6-O-arylated product. beta-Glucosidase exhibited selectivity with D: -mannose 4 to give 4-O-C1beta and lactose 7 to give 4-O-C1beta product. Immobilized beta-glucosidase did not show any selectivity. Antioxidant and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (ACE) activities of the glycosides were evaluated glycosides, out of which L: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D: -galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D: -glucopyranosyl) phenylalanine 16 at 0.9 +/- 0.05 mM and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D: -glucopyranosyl) phenylalanine 11b,c at 0.98 +/- 0.05 mM showed the best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D: -sorbitol)phenylalanine 17 at 0.56 +/- 0.03 mM, L: -dopa-D: -glucoside 10a,b at 1.1 +/- 0.06 mM and DL: -3-hydroxy-4-O-(D: -glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine 11a-d at 1.2 +/- 0.06 mM exhibited the best IC(50) values for ACE inhibition. PMID:18712474

  9. Flavononol Glycosides of Reseda arabica (Resedaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djemaa Berrehal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Five flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3,7-di-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (1 , isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (2 , kaempferol 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (3 , isorhamnetin 3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (4, Kaempferol 3-O- β -xylopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O- α -L-rhamnopyranoside (5, have been isolated from the aerial parts of Reseda arabica. Their structures were established on the basis of physical and spectroscopic analysis, and by comparison with the literature data.

  10. Two pentasaccharide resin glycosides from Argyreia acuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong-Qin; Pan, Jie-Tao; Yu, Bang-Wei; Cui, Hong-Hua; Yan, You-Shao; Chen, Yan-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Two new compounds of acutacosides 1 and 2, pentasaccharide resin glycosides were isolated from the aerial parts of Argyreia acuta. The core of the two compounds was operculinic acid A, and they were esterfied at the same position, just one substituent group was linked at C-2 of Rha. The absolute configuration of the aglycone in the two compounds was established by Mosher's method, which was (11S)-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (jalapinolic acid). Their structures were established by a combination of spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  11. A new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Cirsium setosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Rui; Zhu, En-Yuan; Chou, Gui-xin

    2010-07-01

    To study the chemical constituents of Cirsium setosum (Willd.) MB., 70% ethanol extract of the aerial parts was subjected to column chromatography. One new phenylpropanoid glycoside, sinapyl alcohol 9-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl-4-O-beta-D-glucopyanoside (1) was isolated, along with three known compounds: lycoperodine-1 (2), apigenin-7-O-(6"-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (3) and quercetin (4). The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence. Compound 2 was obtained from Cirsium genus for the first time, compounds 3 and 4 were obtained from this plant for the first time.

  12. One New Iridoid Glycoside from Hedyotis tenelliflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Qing-mei; YANG Hong-wei; ZHAO Jing-feng; LI Liang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Hedyotis tenelliflora. Methods The compounds were isolated by chromatographic separation technology. The structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectral data. Results Four iridoid glycosides were isolated from the whole plant of H. tenelliflora. On the basis of the chemical and spectral methods, their structures were elucidated as teneoside C (1), harpagoside (2), harpagide (3), and asperulosidic acid (4). Conclusion Compound 1 is a new compound, and compounds 2 and 3 are isolated from H. tenelliflora for the first time.

  13. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of anthraquinone glycosides from Madder roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, G.C.H.; Naayer, M.; Beek, T.A. van; Capelle, A.; Haaksman, I.K.; Doren, H.A. van; Groot, Æ. de

    2003-01-01

    For the production of a commercially useful dye extract from madder, the glycoside ruberythric acid has to be hydrolysed to the aglycone alizarin which is the main dye component. An intrinsic problem is the simultaneous hydrolysis of the glycoside lucidin pritneveroside to the unwanted mutagenic agl

  14. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis fo anthraquinone glycosides from madder roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, G.C.H.; Naayer, M.; Beek, van T.A.; Capelle, A.; Haaksman, I.K.; Doren, H.A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2003-01-01

    For the production of a commercially useful dye extract from madder, the glycoside ruberythric acid has to be hydrolysed to the aglycone alizarin which is the main dye component. An intrinsic problem is the simultaneous hydrolysis of the glycoside lucidin primeveroside to the unwanted mutagenic agly

  15. Triterpene Glycosides from Sea Cucumber Holothuria scabra with Cytotoxic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hua; LI Ling; YI Yang-hua; WANG Xiao-hua; PAN Min-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the new triterpene glycosides from sea cucumber Holothuria scabra with cytotoxic activity.Methods Triterpene glycosides from H.scabra were separated and purified by chromatography on DA-101,silica gel,and reversed-phase silica gel column,as well as RP-HPLC.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral data and chemical evidence.Results Three triterpene glycosides were identified as scabraside D (1),fuscocineroside C (2),and 24-dehydroechinoside A (3).Their inhibition on P-388,A549,MKN-28,HCT116,and MCF-7 cells were significant.Conclusion Scabraside D (1) is a new triterpene glycoside,and compounds 2 and 3 are isolated from H.scabra for the first time.The glycosides 1-3 show the in vitro cytotoxicity against five human tumor cell lines in comparison to 10-hydroxycamptothecin.

  16. Cardiac rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attack or other heart problem. You might consider cardiac rehab if you have had: Heart attack Coronary heart disease (CHD) Heart failure Angina (chest pain) Heart or heart valve surgery Heart transplant Procedures such as angioplasty and stenting In some ...

  17. Thiol addition to protected allyl glycosides: an improved method for the preparation of spacer-arm glycosides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Seeventer, P.B. van; Dorst, J.A.L.M. van; Siemerink, J.F.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    A useful method for the preparation of differently functionalized sulfide spacer-arm glycosides is presented. Several protected allyl glycosides were variously elongated via a radical addition reaction with pentanethiol, methyl 3-mercaptopropionate, or 2-mercaptoethanol. The hydroxyl function of pro

  18. [Membranotropic effect of some triterpene glycosides possessing immunostimulating properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I A; Popov, A M; Kostetskiĭ, E Ia; Sanina, N M; Mazeĭka, A N; Boguslavskiĭ, V M

    2008-01-01

    The peculiarities of the interaction between cell membrane lipids and triterpene glycosides from holothurians Apostichopus japonicus S. and Cucumaria japonica (holotoxin A1 and cucumarioside A2-2, respectively) were studied in comparison with plant saponins from Quillaja saponaria, known as hemolytic, adjuvant, and structure-forming components of immunostimulating complexes. Similar to Quillaja saponins, the sea glycosides, holotoxin A1 and cucumarioside A2-2 were shown to possess a high hemolytic activity (2.6 and 3 microg/ml, respectively) and sterol-depending membranotropic effect mediated by the formation of nonbilayer sterol-lipid-glycoside complexes. At the same time, cucumarioside A2-2 bound exogenic cholesterol only in the presence of membrane lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine or monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, in contrast to Quillaja saponins and holotoxin A1, which bound cholesterol in the molar ratios 1:2 and 1:8, respectively. Moreover, in all cases, tree-component complexes containing cholesterol, lipid, and glycoside exhibited a lower hemolytic activity compared with two-component sterol-glycoside complexes. It was concluded that the hydrophobic medium of cell membranes performs a potentiative role in the effective interaction between triterpene glycosides and "sterol receptors". A method for decreasing the toxicity of membranotropic holothurian glycosides possessing the immunomodulating properties was suggested. PMID:18634319

  19. Determination of phenylethanoid glycosides and iridoid glycosides from therapeutically used Plantago species by CE-MEKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Batta, Gyula; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Máthé, Csaba; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-09-01

    CE methods are valuable tools for medicinal plant quality management, screening, and analysis. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to optimize and validate a CE-MEKC method for simultaneous quantification of four chief bioactive metabolites from Plantago species. The two most important secondary metabolite groups were aimed to be separated. Different electrolyte and surfactant types were tested. Surfactant concentration, BGE pH, electrolyte concentration, and buffering capacity were optimized. The final BGE consisted of 15 mM sodium tetraborate, 20 mM TAPS, and 250 mM DOC at pH 8.50. Acceptable precision, good stability, and accuracy were achieved, with high resolution for phenylethanoid glycosides. Analytes were separated within 20 min. The method was shown to be suitable for the quantification of the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol, and the phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (verbascoside) and plantamajoside from water extracts of different samples. The method was shown to be applicable to leaf extracts of Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, and Plantago asiatica, the main species with therapeutic applications, and a biotechnological product, plant tissue cultures (calli) of P. lanceolata. Baseline separation of the main constituents from minor peaks was achieved, regardless of the matrix type. PMID:23784714

  20. Steviol glycoside safety: are highly purified steviol glycoside sweeteners food allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jonathan D; Carakostas, Michael C; Taylor, Steve L

    2015-01-01

    Steviol glycoside sweeteners are extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni), a member of the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. Many plants from this family can induce hypersensitivity reactions via multiple routes of exposure (e.g., ragweed, goldenrod, chrysanthemum, echinacea, chamomile, lettuce, sunflower and chicory). Based on this common taxonomy, some popular media reports and resources have issued food warnings alleging the potential for stevia allergy. To determine if such allergy warnings are warranted on stevia-based sweeteners, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify all available data related to allergic responses following the consumption of stevia extracts or highly purified steviol glycosides. Hypersensitivity reactions to stevia in any form are rare. The few cases documented in the peer-reviewed literature were reported prior to the introduction of high-purity products to the market in 2008 when many global regulatory authorities began to affirm the safety of steviol glycosides. Neither stevia manufacturers nor food allergy networks have reported significant numbers of any adverse events related to ingestion of stevia-based sweeteners, and there have been no reports of stevia-related allergy in the literature since 2008. Therefore, there is little substantiated scientific evidence to support warning statements to consumers about allergy to highly purified stevia extracts. PMID:25449199

  1. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22694659

  2. A new phenolic glycoside from Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dalei; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Changhao; Luo, Jie; Li, Ren; Zheng, Mingshan; Cui, Jiongmo; Li, Gao

    2014-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 6-O-(4'-hydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxybenzoyl)-d-glucopyranose (4), and nine known compounds (1-3 and 5-10) were isolated from Juglans mandshurica Maxim. Compound structures were elucidated by NMR, HR-ESI-MS and acid hydrolysis. Compounds 5 and 6 are reported from this genus for the first time. Among compounds 1-10, only 1 exhibited cytotoxicity against MGC-803, A549, K562, JAR, HeLa, CaSKi and SiHa cell lines (IC50: 2.0, 5.3, 2.3, 6.9, 4.0, 6.6 and 2.7 μM, respectively).

  3. Cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Marc [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2011-07-01

    Computed tomography of the heart has become a highly accurate diagnostic modality that is attracting increasing attention. This extensively illustrated book aims to assist the reader in integrating cardiac CT into daily clinical practice, while also reviewing its current technical status and applications. Clear guidance is provided on the performance and interpretation of imaging using the latest technology, which offers greater coverage, better spatial resolution, and faster imaging. The specific features of scanners from all four main vendors, including those that have only recently become available, are presented. Among the wide range of applications and issues to be discussed are coronary artery bypass grafts, stents, plaques, and anomalies, cardiac valves, congenital and acquired heart disease, and radiation exposure. Upcoming clinical uses of cardiac CT, such as plaque imaging and functional assessment, are also explored. (orig.)

  4. Cardiac echinococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović-Krstić Branislava A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatid disease is rare. We report on an uncommon hydatid cyst localized in the right ventricular wall, right atrial wall tricuspid valve left atrium and pericard. A 33-year-old woman was treated for cough, fever and chest pain. Cardiac echocardiograpic examination revealed a round tumor (5.8 x 4 cm in the right ventricular free wall and two smaller cysts behind that tumor. There were cysts in right atrial wall and tricuspidal valve as well. Serologic tests for hydatidosis were positive. Computed tomography finding was consistent with diagnosis of hydatid cyst in lungs and right hylar part. Surgical treatment was rejected due to great risk of cardiac perforation. Medical treatment with albendazole was unsuccessful and the patient died due to systemic hydatid involvement of the lungs, liver and central nervous system.

  5. Astonishing diversity of natural surfactants: 6. Biologically active marine and terrestrial alkaloid glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2005-11-01

    This review article presents 209 alkaloid glycosides isolated and identified from plants, microorganisms, and marine invertebrates that demonstrate different biological activities. They are of great interest, especially for the medicinal and/or pharmaceutical industries. These biologically active glycosides have good potential for future chemical preparation of compounds useful as antioxidants, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antibacterial agents. These glycosidic compounds have been subdivided into several groups, including: acridone; aporphine; benzoxazinoid; ergot; indole; enediyne alkaloidal antibiotics; glycosidic lupine alkaloids; piperidine, pyridine, pyrrolidine, and pyrrolizidine alkaloid glycosides; glycosidic quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids; steroidal glycoalkaloids; and miscellaneous alkaloid glycosides. PMID:16459921

  6. Two New C - 21 Steroidal Glycosides from Cynanchum aurichulatum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new C-21 steroidal glycosides, cynanauriculoside I and cynanauriculoside II, were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum aurichulatum. Their structures were established using spectroscopic methods including one and two-dimensional NMR.

  7. A New Pregnane Glycoside from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new minor pregnane glycoside was isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Its structure was elucidated as (20S)-5α-pregnane-3β, 20-diol 20-O-β-D-glucopyrano- side (1) by spectral methods.

  8. Resin glycosides from the aerial parts of Operculina turpethum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wenbing; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Wu, Ping; Xu, Liangxiong; Wei, Xiaoyi

    2012-09-01

    Three glycosidic acids, turpethic acids A-C, and two intact resin glycosides, turpethosides A and B, all having a common pentasaccharide moiety and 12-hydroxy fatty acid aglycones of different chain lengths, were obtained from the aerial parts of Operculina turpethum. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlations. The aglycones were characterized as 12-hydroxypentadecanoic acid in two compounds, 12-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid in two other components, and 12-hydroxyheptadecanoic acid in the fifth compound, which were all confirmed by synthesis. The absolute configurations of these aglycones were all established as S by Mosher's method. These compounds represent the first examples of resin glycosides with a monohydroxylated 12-hydroxy fatty acid as an aglycone, and one compound is the first described resin glycoside having a hydroxylated C(17) fatty acid as its aglycone.

  9. [Cardiac amyloidosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Caroline; Angermann, Christiane E; Knop, Stefan; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan

    2008-03-15

    Amyloidoses are a heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders, which are characterized by an extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Typically affected are the heart, liver, kidneys, and nervous system. More than half of the patients die due to cardiac involvement. Clinical signs of cardiac amyloidosis are edema of the lower limbs, hepatomegaly, ascites and elevated jugular vein pressure, frequently in combination with dyspnea. There can also be chest pain, probably due to microvessel disease. Dysfunction of the autonomous nervous system or arrhythmias may cause low blood pressure, dizziness, or recurrent syncope. The AL amyloidosis caused by the deposition of immunoglobulin light chains is the most common form. It can be performed by monoclonal gammopathy. The desirable treatment therapy consists of high-dose melphalan therapy twice followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Due to the high peritransplantation mortality, selection of appropriate patients is mandatory. The ATTR amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by the amyloidogenic form of transthyretin, a plasmaprotein that is synthesized in the liver. Therefore, liver transplantation is the only curative therapy. The symptomatic treatment of cardiac amyloidosis is based on the current guidelines for chronic heart failure according to the patient's New York Heart Association (NYHA) state. Further types of amyloidosis with possible cardiac involvement comprise the senile systemic amyloidosis caused by the wild-type transthyretin, secondary amyloidosis after chronic systemic inflammation, and the beta(2)-microglobulin amyloidosis after long-term dialysis treatment. PMID:18344065

  10. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines. PMID:22032697

  11. A new anthraquinone glycoside from seeds of Cassia obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying Tang; Zhu Ju Wang; Mei Hong Fu; Yan He; Hong Wei Wu; Lu Qi Huang

    2008-01-01

    A new anthraquinone glycoside 1, along with a known anthraquinone glycoside aurantio-obtusin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside 2, were isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia. On the basis of spectral and chemical evidences, the structure of 1 was established as 1-demethylaurantio-obtusin-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside. Moreover, the 13C NMR of 2 was assigned totally and correctly for the first time based on the two-dimensional NMR.

  12. Flavonol 3-O-Glycosides from Three Algerian Bupleurum Species

    OpenAIRE

    Reguia Bencheraiet; Ahmed Kabouche; Zahia Kabouche; Rachid Touzani; Maurice Jay

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids distribution in three algerian Bupleureum (Apiaceae) species has been investigated. Quercetin (1), quercetin 3-rutinoside (2) and isorhamnetin 3-rutinoside (3) were found in the endemic species B. plantagineum Desf. Three kaempferol glycosides, kaempferol 3-glucoside (4), kaempferol 3-galactoside (5), kaempferol 3-rutinoside (6) and three quercetin glycosides, quercetin 3-rutinoside (2), quercetin 3-glucoside (7) and quercetin 3-galactoside (8), have been isolated from B. fruticosu...

  13. Neolignan, Flavonoid, Phenylethanoid and Iridoid Glycosides from Phlomis integrifolia

    OpenAIRE

    SARACOĞLU, İclal; VAREL, Mehtap; ÇALIŞ, İhsan

    2003-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Phlomis integrifolia Hub.-Mor. (Lamiaceae) were isolated a neolignan glucoside, dehyrodiconiferyl alcohol-4-O-b -D-glucopyranoside (1), an ester flavone glycoside, chrysoeriol 7-O-(3''-O-trans-p-coumaroyl)-b -D-glucopyranoside (2), four phenylethanoid glycosides, forsythoside B (3), verbascoside (=acteoside) (4), leucosceptoside A (5) and martynoside (6) along with an iridoid glucoside, lamiide (7). The structure elucidation of the isolated compound...

  14. Synthesis and Fluorescence Properties of Coumarin Glycosides and Triazoylglycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zheng; FU Xin-ling; YANG Nan; WANG Qiu-an

    2013-01-01

    Four coumarin glycosides(1-4) and four coumarin triazoylglycosides(5-8) were synthesized by phase transfer catalytic glycosylation and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition(CuAAC) respectively from 4-methyl-7-hydroxyl coumarin(4-methylumbelliferone).The structures were characterized by 1H NMR,MS or IR.The fluorescent properties of the coumarin glycosides and triazoylglycosides were studied in different solvents and compared to those of 4-methyl-7-hydroxyl coumarin.

  15. Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2012-10-24

    As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples.

  16. Stability of steviol glycosides in several food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooken, Etienne; Amery, Ruis; Struyf, Tom; Duquenne, Barbara; Geuns, Jan; Meesschaert, Boudewijn

    2012-10-24

    As steviol glycosides are now allowed as a food additive in the European market, it is important to assess the stability of these steviol glycosides after they have been added to different food matrices. We analyzed and tested the stability of steviol glycosides in semiskimmed milk, soy drink, fermented milk drink, ice cream, full-fat and skimmed set yogurt, dry biscuits, and jam. The fat was removed by centrifugation from the dairy and soy drink samples. Proteins were precipitated by the addition of acetonitrile and also removed by centrifugation. Samples of jam were extracted with water. Dry biscuits were extracted with ethanol. The resulting samples were concentrated with solid-phase extraction and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on a C18 stationary phase and a gradient of acetonitrile/aqueous 25 mM phosphoric acid. The accuracy was checked using a standard addition on some samples. For assessing the stability of the steviol glycosides, samples were stored in conditions relevant to each food matrix and analyzed periodically. The results indicate that steviol glycosides can be analyzed with good precision and accuracy in these food categories. The recovery was between 96 and 103%. The method was also validated by standard addition, which showed excellent agreement with the external calibration curve. No sign of decomposition of steviol glycosides was found in any of the samples. PMID:23020306

  17. Decomposition of α-Tocopheryl Glycosides in Rat Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaś, Małgorzata; Wałejko, Piotr; Maj, Jadwiga; Hryniewicka, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Stanisław; Borzym-Kluczyk, Małgorzata; Dudzik, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of our investigation was to estimate the stability of α-tocopheryl O-glycosides in relation to activity of exoglycosidases in selected rat tissues. Material and Methods Acetylated glycosides were obtained in glucosidation of α-tocopherol using the Helferich method. The activity of exoglycosidases was determined by the Zwierz et al. method. Protein concentrations were determined by the biuret method. The concentration of released α-tocopherol was determined with the HPLC method. Results The comparison of the amount of released α-tocopherol with the amount of released p-nitrophenol shows that glycoside bound in 2a–5a derivatives of α-tocopherol undergoes hydrolysis significantly harder than in appropriate 2b–5b p-nitrophenyl derivatives. Conclusion The results indicate that tocopheryl O-glycosides are more resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis than appropriate p-nitrophenol O-glycosides 2a–5a. Among examined tocopheryl O-glycosides, galactoside 4 is the only compound that caused the significant increase in tocopherol concentration, as compared to its endogenic content. PMID:19696909

  18. Cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chlumský, Jaromír; Holá, Dana; Hlaváček, Karel; Michal, Michal; Švec, Alexander; Špatenka, Jaroslav; Dušek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac sarcoma is a very rare neoplasm and is difficult to diagnose. The case of a 51-year-old man with a left atrial tumour, locally recurrent three months after its surgical removal, is presented. Computed tomography showed metastatic spread to the lung parenchyma. On revised histology, the mass extirpated was a sarcoma. Because of the metastatic spread, further therapy was symptomatic only; the patient died 15 months after the first manifestation of his problems. Immunohistochemical stain...

  19. Structures of Some Novel α-Glucosyl Diterpene Glycosides from the Glycosylation of Steviol Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new minor diterpene glycosides with a rare α-glucosyl linkage were isolated from a cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase glucosylated stevia extract containing more than 98% steviol glycosides. The new compounds were identified as 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester] (1, 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester] (2, 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyloxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3, and 13-[(2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-(4-O-(4-O-(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl- β-D-glucopyranosyloxy] ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid-[(4-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester] (4 on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral (MS data as well as hydrolysis studies.

  20. [Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of quercetin and its glycosides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu-xia; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de; Chen, Kun-song

    2015-12-01

    Quercetin and its glycosides are important flavonols in traditional herbal drugs and plant-derived food, and they have diverse hiological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. Numerous studies have demonstrated that quercetin and its glycosides were effective in the prevention and treatment of non-infectious chronic disease such as diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. They can regulate glucose and lipid metaholism through different mechanisms. They can decrease blood glucose via protecting pancreatic/p cells or/and improving insulin sensitivity. Also, they have lipid-lowering effects, which may be the result of regulation of lipid catabolism or/and anabolism. Their distributions, as well as the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects are reviewed in this paper. In addition, further bioactivities as well as their dose-activity relationship, structure-activity relationship, bioavailability, and future clinical application of quercetin and its glycosides are discussed and proposed. PMID:27141664

  1. Bioactive triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscocinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2006-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active n-BuOH extract of the sea cucumber Holothuria fuscocinerea resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, fuscocinerosides A (1), B (2), and C (3), along with two known glycosides, pervicoside C (4) and holothurin A (5), as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. Compounds 1-5 possess the same tetrasaccharide moiety, 3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-4-O-sodiumsulfato-beta-D-xylopyranosyl, linked to C-3 of holostane triterpene aglycones that differ in their side chains and 17-substituents. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectral studies as well as chemical evidence. All the glycosides showed in vitro cytotoxicity against two human tumor cell lines. PMID:17067169

  2. Cytotoxic sulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Tang, Hai-Feng

    2006-07-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active BuOH extract of the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus resulted in the isolation of three new sulfated triterpene glycosides, i.e., violaceusides I, II, and III (1-3, resp.), as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR and MS experiments, as well as chemical evidence. Compounds 1-3 exhibit the same structural features, i.e., the presence of a 16-oxo group in the holostane-type triterpene aglycone with the C(7)=C(8) bond, but differ in the side chains and the tetrasaccharide moieties. Compound 1 possesses one sulfate group, while 2 and 3 are disulfated glycosides. All the glycosides showed significant in vitro cytotoxicities against human gastric cancer MKN-45 and human colon cancer HCT-116 cells. PMID:17193313

  3. Automated assembly of oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Heung Sik; Hurevich, Mattan; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-09-01

    Automated glycan assembly (AGA) has advanced from a concept to a commercial technology that rapidly provides access to diverse oligosaccharide chains as long as 30-mers. To date, AGA was mainly employed to incorporate trans-glycosidic linkages, where C2 participating protecting groups ensure stereoselective couplings. Stereocontrol during the installation of cis-glycosidic linkages cannot rely on C2-participation and anomeric mixtures are typically formed. Here, we demonstrate that oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages can be prepared efficiently by AGA using monosaccharide building blocks equipped with remote participating protecting groups. The concept is illustrated by the automated syntheses of biologically relevant oligosaccharides bearing various cis-galactosidic and cis-glucosidic linkages. This work provides further proof that AGA facilitates the synthesis of complex oligosaccharides with multiple cis-linkages and other biologically important oligosaccharides.

  4. Direct and correlated responses to selection on iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Plantago lanceolata L. (ribwort plantain) produces two costly terpenoid secondary plant compounds, the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol. We performed an artificial selection experiment to investigate direct and correlated responses to selection on the constitutive level of iridoid glycosides

  5. Structural investigation of resin glycosides from Ipomoea lonchophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, J K; Ward, A; Oelrichs, P B

    1997-05-01

    A fraction from Ipomoea lonchophylla, which was toxic to mice, contained an inseparable mixture of resin glycosides with differing numbers of C5 ester groups on the hexasaccharide chain. After alkaline hydrolysis of the esters, the structure of the major component (1) was elucidated using high-field NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, chemical studies, and comparison with known resin glycosides. Compound 1 was identified as 3,11-dihydroxytetradecanoic acid 11-O-beta-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)- [alpha-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4)]-quinovopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta -fucopyranoside. PMID:9170289

  6. Caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides in Sanango racemosum and in the gesneriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    relationship with the Gesneriaceae. A survey of 20 species within this family showed that sanangoside was present in four species of subfamily Gesnerioideae and that all the investigated plants in the family contained CPGs, while no iridoids could be detected. The European genera Ramonda and Haberlea were......An investigation of Samango racemosum for systematically useful glycosides has been performed. No iridoids could be detected, but reverse phase chromatography provided the caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides (CPGs) calceolarioside C and conandroside together with the new 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl...

  7. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  8. Flavonol 3-O-Glycosides from Three Algerian Bupleurum Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguia Bencheraiet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids distribution in three algerian Bupleureum (Apiaceae species has been investigated. Quercetin (1, quercetin 3-rutinoside (2 and isorhamnetin 3-rutinoside (3 were found in the endemic species B. plantagineum Desf. Three kaempferol glycosides, kaempferol 3-glucoside (4, kaempferol 3-galactoside (5, kaempferol 3-rutinoside (6 and three quercetin glycosides, quercetin 3-rutinoside (2, quercetin 3-glucoside (7 and quercetin 3-galactoside (8, have been isolated from B. fruticosum L. while isorhamnetin (9, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside (10 and isorhamnetin 3-galactorhamnoside (11 were found in B. spinosum L. Seven flavonols are reported here for the first time from the genus.

  9. Iridoid glycosides from Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. (devil's claw).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin; Chen, Ji-Jun; Cheng, Zhi-Hong; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Yu, Bo-Yang; Qiu, Samuel X

    2006-07-01

    Iridoid glycosides, harprocumbide A (6''-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylharpagoside, 1) and harprocumbide B (6''-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-procumbide, 2) were isolated from the tubers of Harpagophytum prucumbens D.C., along with nine known iridoid glycosides 6-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosylharpagoside (3), and harpagoside (4), harpagide (5), 8-cinnamoylmyoporoside (6), 8-O-feruloylhapagide (7), procumbide (8), 6''-O-(p-coumaroyl)-procumbide (9), 8-O-(p-coumaroyl)-harpagide (10) and 8-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-harpagide (11). Compound 10 showed marginal inhibition activity against macrophages respiratory burst. PMID:16857222

  10. A New Flavone C-Glycoside from Clematis rehderiana

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Zhi Du; Xian-Wen Yang; Hao Han; Xiang-Hai Cai; Xiao-Dong Luo

    2010-01-01

    A new flavone C-glycoside, isovitexin 6″-O-E-p-coumarate (1) and two known flavonoid glycosides—quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2) and isoorientin (3)—were isolated from an ethanol extract of aerial parts of Clematis rehderiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant effects of the two flavone C-glycosides were evaluated by both the MTT and DPPH assays. Compound 1 showed potent activities against H2O2-induced impairment in PC12 cells within the conce...

  11. A New Sesquiterpene Glycoside from the Aerial Parts of Saussurea triangulata

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Ro Lee; Ki Hyun Kim; Kyu Ha Lee; Sung Min Kim; Min Cheol Yang

    2007-01-01

    Column chromatographic separation of a MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Saussurea triangulata led to the isolation of a new sesquiterpene glycoside 6, together with three quinic acid derivatives, two phenolics, two sesquiterpene glycosides and two flavonoids. The new compound 6 was identified as amarantholidol A glycoside by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  12. Steviol glycosides in purified stevia leaf extract sharing the same metabolic fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Sidd; Markosyan, Avetik; Prakash, Indra; Bhusari, Sachin; Pugh, George; Lynch, Barry; Roberts, Ashley

    2016-06-01

    The safety of steviol glycosides is based on data available on several individual steviol glycosides and on the terminal absorbed metabolite, steviol. Many more steviol glycosides have been identified, but are not yet included in regulatory assessments. Demonstration that these glycosides share the same metabolic fate would indicate applicability of the same regulatory paradigm. In vitro incubation assays with pooled human fecal homogenates, using rebaudiosides A, B, C, D, E, F and M, as well as steviolbioside and dulcoside A, at two concentrations over 24-48 h, were conducted to assess the metabolic fate of various steviol glycoside classes and to demonstrate that likely all steviol glycosides are metabolized to steviol. The data show that glycosidic side chains containing glucose, rhamnose, xylose, fructose and deoxy-glucose, including combinations of α(1-2), β-1, β(1-2), β(1-3), and β(1-6) linkages, were degraded to steviol mostly within 24 h. Given a common metabolite structure and a shared metabolic fate, safety data available for individual steviol glycosides can be used to support safety of purified steviol glycosides in general. Therefore, steviol glycosides specifications adopted by the regulatory authorities should include all steviol glycosides belonging to the five groups of steviol glycosides and a group acceptable daily intake established. PMID:26924787

  13. Cardiac MRI in Athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is often used in athletes to image cardiac anatomy and function and is increasingly requested in the context of screening for pathology that can cause sudden cardiac death (SCD). In this thesis, patterns of cardiac adaptation to sports are investigated with C

  14. Monoterpene Glycosides from the Roots of Paeonia lactiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling WANG; Wei JIAO; Xun LIAO; Shu Ling PENG; Li Sheng DING

    2006-01-01

    A new monoterpene glycoside, together with nine known ones, 3-O-methylpaeoniflorin,mudanpioside J, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin,oxybenzoylpaeoniflorin, albiflorin and lactiflorin, was isolated from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as galloylalbiflorin by the spectroscopic evidence including ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra.

  15. A Novel Hexanordammarane Glycoside from the Roots of Panax notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Notoginsenoside R10, a novel hexanordammarane glycoside was isolated from the roots of Panax nototginseng, as a minor constituent. Its structure was determined as 6-O-(b-D-glucopyranosyl)-3b,6a,12b-trihydroxy-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanordammaran-20-one(1), by means of spectroscopic methods.

  16. Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides from Gelsemium elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Hua; Qing Chun Zhao; Jia Yang; Guo Bing Shi; Li Jun Wu; Tao Guo

    2008-01-01

    Two new benzofuran lignan glycosides,gelsemiunoside A and B,were isolated from the whole plant of Gelsemium elegans Benth.Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.Furthermore,gelsemiunoside A and B were shown a potent cytotoxic activity by suppressing the proliferation of A375-S2 cells.

  17. A New 10-Hydroxyl Anthrone Glycoside from Cassia siamea Lam.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new 10-hydroxyl anthrone glycoside, 1, 8, 10 - trihydroxyl-1-O-β-D-glucopyrano-syl-3-methyl-10- C (S) - β - D- glucopyranosyl-anthrone-9 1 was isolated from the stem of Cassia siamea Lam. The structure was elucidated by spectral evidences, especially by 2 D techniques.

  18. Two new glycosides from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Zhang; Gui Liu Li; Yong Qing Xiao; Li Li; Zhen Pang

    2009-01-01

    Two new glycosides,nor-rubrofusarin-6-O-β-D-(6'-O-acetyl)glucopyranoside(1)and l-desmethylaurantio-obtusin-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside(2)were isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia and their structures were established by chemical and spectral evidences.

  19. Cytotoxicity of natural ginseng glycosides and semisynthetic analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atopkina, LN; Malinovskaya, GV; Elyakov, GB; Uvarova, NI; Woerdenbag, HJ; Koulman, A; Potier, P

    1999-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of natural glycosides from Ginseng, semisynthetic analogues and related triterpenes of the dammarane series, isolated from the leaves of the Far-East species of the genus Betula was studied in order to elucidate structure-activity relationships. Some of the compounds studied were ac

  20. New flavone and isoflavone glycoside from Belamcanda chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jin; Hai Sheng Chen; Zhao Bao Xiang; Shuang Liang; Yong Sheng Jin; Jian Guo Liu

    2007-01-01

    The new flavone, 5,4'-dihydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxy-3'-methoxyflavone, and one new isoflavone glycoside, 3',5'-dimethoxy irisolone-4'-O-β-D-glucoside were isolated from the rhizomes of Belamcanda chinensis. Their structures were established based on the spectroscopic methods.

  1. Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2010-01-01

    This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

  2. A Chromatographic Study on the Glycosides of Aerva lanata L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamunadevi M; Wesely EG; Johnson M

    2011-01-01

    AIM: In order to identify the HPTLC profile (bio-marker), at species level, for the identification and confirmation of crude drugs, HPTLC separation was initiated on different parts of Aerva lanata L. from South India. METHODS: Preliminary phyto-chemical screening was done by the method of Harbome. HPTLC studies were carried out following Harborne and Wagner et al method. The Ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (8∶2∶ 1.2) was employed as mobile phase for glycosides. RESULTS: The methanolic extract of stem, leaves, root, flowers and seeds of A. lanata showed the presence of 23 different types of glycosides with 23 different Rf values with range 0.02 to 0.86. In general higher degree of glycoside diversity has been observed in vegetative parts when compared to the reproductive part. Maximum number (12) of glycosides has been observed in root followed by stem (9). CONCLUSION: The results of the present study supplemented the folkloric usage of the studied plants which possess several known and unknown bioactive compounds with bio-activity. By isolating and identifying these bioactive compounds new drugs can be formulated to treat various diseases.

  3. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:12049220

  4. A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside from Euphorbia helioscopia L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A new lathyrane diterpene glycoside,named 3β,7β,15β-trihydroxy-14-oxolathyra-5E,12E-dienyl-16-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Euphorbia helioscopia L.Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

  5. Chlorophytoside A, a New Labdane Diterpene Glycoside from Chlorophytum laxum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Heng GAO; Quan Xi MEI; Hui Fei WU; Yuan Ming DIAO; Xin Sheng PENG; Rui Fang ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A new labdane-type diterpene glycoside 1 , chlorophytoside A, had been isolated from Chlorophytum laxum R.Br. The structure had been elucidated as (10S)-6α-hydroxylabda-8,13-dien-15,16-olide 3R-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic data.

  6. THREE SPIROSTANOL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE SEEDS OF HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lunga

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Three steroidal glycosides of spirostane series have been isolated from the seeds of Hyoscyamus niger L.(Solanaceae. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical evidence and extensive spectroscopic methods including one-dimensional, two-dimensional NMR and MS analysis. In the genus Hyoscyamus the given compounds have been found out for the first time.

  7. Marruboside, a new phenylethanoid glycoside from Marrubium vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Hennebelle, Thierry; Bailleul, François

    2002-06-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside, marruboside, has been isolated from the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare L. Its structure was established as 3,4-dihydroxy-beta-phenylethoxy-O-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)]-4-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of cardiac glycoside mimics as potential anticancer drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie; Schmidt, Steffen; Fedosova, Natalya;

    2011-01-01

    the bioactivity decreases as the size increases. The most potent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitors are the compounds with the shortest ethylene glycol chain (K(app) 0.48 μM) and thiodigitoxigenin (K(app) 0.42 μM), which both are comparable with digitoxigenin (K(app) 0.52 μM). For the cancer cell viability assay...

  9. BDNF Mediates Neuroprotection against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation by the Cardiac Glycoside Oleandrin

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kanegan, Michael J.; He, Dong Ning; Dunn, Denise E.; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; West, Anne E; Lo, Donald C.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the botanical drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, provides neuroprotection in both in vitro and in vivo brain slice-based models for focal ischemia (Dunn et al., 2011). Intriguingly, plasma levels of the neurotrophin BDNF were increased in patients treated with PBI-05204 in a phase I clinical trial (Bidyasar et al., 2009). We thus tested the hypothesis that neuroprotection provided by PBI-05204 to rat brain slices damaged by ...

  10. Cardiac glycosides isolated from the Indian-snuff, Maquira sclerophylla Ducke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ernesto de Carvalho

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of the powdered bark of the Indian-snuff Maquira sclerophylla Ducke was purified by column chromatography in silica-gel and the major cardenolide isolated from preparative TLC was identified by 1H-NMR, 1 2 C-NMR and IR analyses. The spectra showed that the active substance has strophanthidin as aglicone.

  11. Cardiac perception and cardiac control. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, D

    1977-12-01

    The evidence regarding specific cardiac perception and discrimination, and its relationship to voluntary cardiac control, is critically reviewed. Studies are considered in three sections, depending on the method used to assess cardiac perception: questionnaire assessment, discrimination procedures, and heartbeat tracking. The heartbeat tracking procedure would appear to suffer least from interpretative difficulties. Recommendations are made regarding the style of analysis used to assess heartbeat perception in such tracking tasks. PMID:348240

  12. New flav-3-en-3-ol glycosides, kaempferiaosides C and D, and acetophenone glycosides, kaempferiaosides E and F, from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaipech, Saowanee; Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Two new flav-3-en-3-ol glycosides, kaempferiaosides C (3) and D(4), and two new acetophenone glycosides, kaempferiaosides E (5) and F (6), were isolated from the Thai natural medicine Krachai Dum, the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker. Their structures were established mainly on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data. PMID:22101441

  13. Lupane-triterpene glycosides from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Chang-Soo; Liu, Xiang-Qian; Chang, Seung-Yeup; Park, Sang-Yong; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2002-10-01

    A novel lupane-triterpene glycoside, called wujiapioside B (1), was isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus (Araliaceae) together with three known lupane-triterpene glycosides, acankoreoside C (2), acantrifoside A (3) and 3-epibetulinic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (4). Based on spectroscopic data, the chemical structure of 1 was determined as 3alpha,23-dihydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester. Compounds 2-3 were obtained for the first time from this plant and compound 4 has not been isolated from Acanthopanax genus yet. PMID:12372869

  14. A New Flavone C-Glycoside from Clematis rehderiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Zhi Du

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new flavone C-glycoside, isovitexin 6″-O-E-p-coumarate (1 and two known flavonoid glycosides—quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2 and isoorientin (3—were isolated from an ethanol extract of aerial parts of Clematis rehderiana. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. The antioxidant effects of the two flavone C-glycosides were evaluated by both the MTT and DPPH assays. Compound 1 showed potent activities against H2O2-induced impairment in PC12 cells within the concentration range tested, whereas compound 3 scavenged DPPH radical strongly, with an IC50 value of 13.5 μM.

  15. Malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Three flavonol glycosides, kaempferol 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside, and myricetin 3-O-(2",6"-di-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside were isolated from the petals of Clitoria ternatea cv. Double Blue, together with eleven known flavonol glycosides. Their structures were identified using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. They were characterized as kaempferol and quercetin 3-(2(G)- rhamnosylrutinoside)s, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin 3-neohesperidosides, 3-rutinosides, and 3-glucosides in the same tissue. In addition, the presence of myricetin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was inferred from LC/MS/MS data for crude petal extracts. The flavonol compounds identified in the petals of C. ternatea differed from those reported in previous studies. PMID:12482461

  16. New phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Dou, De-Qiang; Xu, Liang; Chi, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Ting-Guo; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2009-07-01

    Two new phenolic glycosides were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. Their structures were elucidated as (2-hydroxy)phenylcarbinyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4-beta-D-(glucopyranosyl hydroxymethyl)phenyl 5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence.

  17. Flavonoid glycosides and pharmacological activity of Amphilophium paniculatum

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Eskander, Dina M.; Grace, Mary H.; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Amany A Sleem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nothing is reported on Amphilophium paniculatum (L.) Kunth. This study aimed at investigation of chemical constituents of the leaves of Amphilophium paniculatum, grown in Egypt, in addition to pharmacological evaluation. Materials and Methods: Isolation of a new compound, along with 5 known flavonoids. Pharmacological activities were carried out on different extracts of A. paniculatum leaves. Results: Identification of a new flavone glycoside, acacetin 8-C-β-D- glucopyranosy l-(1→...

  18. Two aurone glycosides from heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Watal, Geeta

    2004-12-01

    Two new aurone glycosides, 6 hydroxy 5 methyl 3',4',5' trimethoxy aurone 4-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside and 6,4' dihydroxy aurone 4-O-rutinoside have been isolated from the ethanolic extract of the wood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analysis (UV, IR, EIMS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). PMID:15541741

  19. Two new glycosides from the genus of Cassia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two new glycosides were isolated and characterized by spectral analysis from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia and the leaves of Cassia angustifolia. The structure was elucidated as 1-hydroxyl-2-acetyl-3,8-dimethoxynaphthalene-6-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucopyranoside and 2-acetyl-3-methyl-8-methoxyl-1,4-naphthoquinone-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  20. A New Anthranquinone Glycoside from the Seeds of Cassia obtusifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Hua LI; Xiao Yi WEI; Xu ELI; Ping WU; Bao Jiang GUO

    2004-01-01

    A new anthraquinone glycoside, emodin-1-O-β-gentiobioside 1, together with three known compounds, chrysophanol-1-O-β-gentiobioside 2, physcion-8-O-β-gentiobioside 3, and chrysophanol- 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glucopyranoside 4 was isolated from the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  1. A New Antimicrobial Flavonol Glycoside from Alchornea davidii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A new flavonol glycoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-xyloside, was isolated from the extract of leaves and twigs of Alchornea davidii (Euphorbiaceae). Its structure was established on the basis of the spectral analysis and chemical degradation. Antimicrobial assay showed that it moderately inhibited the growth of test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens) and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Trichophyton rubrum) with MICs at 50 μg/Ml.

  2. Vina-Carb: Improving Glycosidic Angles during Carbohydrate Docking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedha, Anita K; Thieker, David F; Makeneni, Spandana; Hu, Huimin; Woods, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    Molecular docking programs are primarily designed to align rigid, drug-like fragments into the binding sites of macromolecules and frequently display poor performance when applied to flexible carbohydrate molecules. A critical source of flexibility within an oligosaccharide is the glycosidic linkages. Recently, Carbohydrate Intrinsic (CHI) energy functions were reported that attempt to quantify the glycosidic torsion angle preferences. In the present work, the CHI-energy functions have been incorporated into the AutoDock Vina (ADV) scoring function, subsequently termed Vina-Carb (VC). Two user-adjustable parameters have been introduced, namely, a CHI- energy weight term (chi_coeff) that affects the magnitude of the CHI-energy penalty and a CHI-cutoff term (chi_cutoff) that negates CHI-energy penalties below a specified value. A data set consisting of 101 protein-carbohydrate complexes and 29 apoprotein structures was used in the development and testing of VC, including antibodies, lectins, and carbohydrate binding modules. Accounting for the intramolecular energies of the glycosidic linkages in the oligosaccharides during docking led VC to produce acceptable structures within the top five ranked poses in 74% of the systems tested, compared to a success rate of 55% for ADV. An enzyme system was employed in order to illustrate the potential application of VC to proteins that may distort glycosidic linkages of carbohydrate ligands upon binding. VC represents a significant step toward accurately predicting the structures of protein-carbohydrate complexes. Furthermore, the described approach is conceptually applicable to any class of ligands that populate well-defined conformational states. PMID:26744922

  3. Enzymatic Biosynthesis of Novel Resveratrol Glucoside and Glycoside Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Parajuli, Prakash; Shin, Ju Yong; Lee, Jisun; Lee, Seul; Hong, Young-Soo; Park, Yong Il; Kim, Joong Su; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-01-01

    A UDP glucosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis was overexpressed, purified, and incubated with nucleotide diphosphate (NDP) d- and l-sugars to produce glucose, galactose, 2-deoxyglucose, viosamine, rhamnose, and fucose sugar-conjugated resveratrol glycosides. Significantly higher (90%) bioconversion of resveratrol was achieved with α-d-glucose as the sugar donor to produce four different glucosides of resveratrol: resveratrol 3-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratrol 4′-O-β-d-glucoside, resveratr...

  4. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-02-15

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

  5. β-cyclodextrin assistant flavonoid glycosides enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The content of icaritin and genistein in herba is very low, preparation with relatively large quantities is an important issue for extensive pharmacological studies. Objective: This study focuses on preparing and enzymic hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex to increase the hydrolysis rate. Materials and Methods: The physical property of newly prepared inclusion complex was tested by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were optimized for the bioconversion of flavonoid glycosides /β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex by mono-factor experimental design. The experiments are using the icariin and genistein as the model drugs. Results: The solubility of icariin and genistein were increased almost 17 times from 29.2 μg/ml to 513.5 μg/ml at 60˚ C and 28 times from 7.78 μg/ml to 221.46 μg/ml at 50˚ C, respectively, demonstrating that the inclusion complex could significantly increase the solubility of flavonoid glycosides. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction time of icariin and genistin decreased by 68% and 145%, when compared with that without β-CD inclusion. By using this enzymatic condition, 473 mg icaritin (with the purity of 99.34% and 567 mg genistein(with the purity of 99.46%, which was finally determined by melt point, ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR, was obtained eventually by transforming the inclusion complex(contains 1.0 g substrates. Conclusion: This study can clearly indicate a new attempt to improve the speed of enzyme-hydrolysis of poorly water-soluble flavonoid glycosides and find a more superior condition which is used to prepare icaritin and genistein.

  6. Mahuangchiside, a New Flavone Glycoside from Chirita fimbrisepala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new flavone glycoside, named mahuangchiside, was isolated from the root of Chirita fimbrisepala Hand.-Mazz. The structure was elucidated as 5,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-flavone-7-O-β -D-xylopyranosyl(1(r) 2)-β -D-xylopyranoside on the basis of spectral analysis (1H-1H COSY, 13C-1H HETCOR and HMBC) and chemical evidence.

  7. Iridoid Glycosides from Pedicularis dolichocymba Hand.-Mazz.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Biao Chu; Ning-Hua Tan

    2006-01-01

    During investigation of the chemical constituents of the whole plant ethanol extract of Pedicularis dolichocymba Hand.-Mazz. (Scrophulariaceae), four new iridoid glycosides, dolichocymbosides A (compound 1), B (compound 2), C (compound 3) and D (compound 4), were isolated. Their structures were determined based on spectral data including 1D and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-1H COSY, HSQC,HMBC, ROESY) and FAB--MS.

  8. New monocyclic monoterpenoid glycoside from Mentha haplocalyx Briq.

    OpenAIRE

    She Gai-Mei; Xu Chao; Liu Bin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new monocyclic monoterpenoid glycosides, rel-(1R,2S,3R,4R) p-menthane-1,2,3-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and rel- (1S,2R,3S) terpinolene-1,2,3-triol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from aqueous acetone extract of the aerial parts of Mentha haplocalyx Briq.. Their structures were elucidated through spectral analysis using MS and NMR spectrometers.

  9. A new glycoside from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Min Su; Jing Qu; You Cai Hu; Shi Shan Yu; Wen Zhao Tang; Yun Bao Liu; Shuang Gang Ma; De Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new ionone glycoside (6R,9R)-blumenyl α-L-rhanmopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (1),together with a new natural product 2-methoxyl-4-trans-propenyl-phenol α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2),was isolated from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola.Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis.Compound 1 showed weak anti-inflammatory and low-level antioxidant activities.

  10. Forced Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides Extraced from Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Ye; ZHANG Wei-yu; MENG Qing-fan; LI Dan-hui; GARG Sajay; TENG Li-rong; WEN Jing-yuan

    2013-01-01

    The degradation of flavonol glycosides extracted from Ginkgo biloba was performed under different conditions and the degraded products were determined by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method.Four stress conditions including acid(0.1 mol/L HCl),base(0.1 mol/L NaOH),temperature (70 ℃) and oxidation(0.03% H2O2,volume fraction) were used for the forced degradation studies.The pH stabilities of the flavonol glycosides were determined in phosphate buffers of varying pH values from 4.5 to 7.4.The degradation rate constants and half-life of three Ginkgo flavonol aglycones(quercetin,kaempferol and isorhamnetin) which represent Ginkgo flavonol glycosides were calculated in forced degradation and pH-stability studies of them.The resuits indicate that the three substances were more stable when incubated under acid condition and showed pH-dependent stability.The degradation was observed to follow first-order kinetics in all degradation studies.The stability results could provide important bases on development,preparation and storage of products of Ginkgo biloba extract and should be significantly considered during the further formulation development.

  11. Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Fronczek, Frank R; McChesney, James D; Wu, Chongming; Nettles, Brian J; Venkataraman, Sylesh K; Jaksch, Frank

    2014-05-23

    Two new diterpene glycosides in addition to five known glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 (rebaudioside KA) was shown to be 13-[(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 2, 12-α-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester. Five additional known compounds were identified, rebaudioside E, rebaudioside M, rebaudioside N, rebaudioside O, and stevioside, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of stevioside afforded the known ent-kaurane aglycone 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol) (3). The isolated metabolite 1 possesses the ent-kaurane aglycone steviol (3), while compound 2 represents the first example of the isomeric diterpene 12-α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid existing as a glycoside in S. rebaudiana. The structures of the isolated metabolites 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 has formed, which allowed the acquisition of X-ray diffraction data that confirmed its structure. The structural similarities between the new metabolites and the commercially available stevioside sweeteners suggest the newly isolated metabolites should be examined for their organoleptic properties. Accordingly rebaudiosides E, M, N, O, and KA have been isolated in greater than gram quantities. PMID:24758242

  12. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry. PMID:11308344

  13. Thermal Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides in Noni Leaves During Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability.

  14. Minor diterpene glycosides from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Alves, Kamilla; Fronczek, Frank R; McChesney, James D; Wu, Chongming; Nettles, Brian J; Venkataraman, Sylesh K; Jaksch, Frank

    2014-05-23

    Two new diterpene glycosides in addition to five known glycosides have been isolated from a commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana. Compound 1 (rebaudioside KA) was shown to be 13-[(O-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 2, 12-α-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid β-d-glucopyranosyl ester. Five additional known compounds were identified, rebaudioside E, rebaudioside M, rebaudioside N, rebaudioside O, and stevioside, respectively. Enzymatic hydrolysis of stevioside afforded the known ent-kaurane aglycone 13-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (steviol) (3). The isolated metabolite 1 possesses the ent-kaurane aglycone steviol (3), while compound 2 represents the first example of the isomeric diterpene 12-α-hydroxy-ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid existing as a glycoside in S. rebaudiana. The structures of the isolated metabolites 1 and 2 were determined based on comprehensive 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) studies. A high-quality crystal of compound 3 has formed, which allowed the acquisition of X-ray diffraction data that confirmed its structure. The structural similarities between the new metabolites and the commercially available stevioside sweeteners suggest the newly isolated metabolites should be examined for their organoleptic properties. Accordingly rebaudiosides E, M, N, O, and KA have been isolated in greater than gram quantities.

  15. C-Glycosidic Genistein Conjugates and Their Antiproliferative Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rusin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our attempt to investigate scopes and the limitations of olefin cross-metathesis (CM reaction in the synthesis of complex C-glycosides of genistein and evaluation of their antiproliferative activities. Novel genistein glycoconjugates were synthesized with the utility of CM reaction initiated by first and second generation of Grubbs catalysts. The relative reactivity of utilized olefins, based on categories proposed by Grubbs, was estimated. In vitro experiments in cancer cell lines showed that the selected derivatives (3a and 3f exhibited higher antiproliferative potential than the parent compound, genistein, and were able to block the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The observed mechanism of action of C-glycosidic derivatives was similar to the activity of their O-glycosidic counterparts. These compounds were stable in culture medium. The obtained results show that our approach to genistein modification with application of cross-metathesis reaction allowed to obtain stable glycoconjugates with improved anticancer potential, compared to the parent isoflavone.

  16. Two new phenolic glycosides from the stems of Clematis parviloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-hua; Xu, Li-zhen; Wang, Zhi-min; Zhang, Qi-wei; Yang, Shi-lin

    2010-12-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the stems of Clematis parviloba, six compounds were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, ODS, Sephadex LH-20, and semi-preparative HPLC. Two new phenolic glycosides, 2-((E)-3-carboxybut-2-en-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-phenyl-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 4'-hydroxy-phenol-beta-D-[6-O-(4"-hydroxy-3", 5"-dimethoxy-benzoate)] glucopyranoside (2) were isolated, together with a known phenolic glycoside, 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxy-phenol-beta-D-[6-O-(4"-hydroxy-3", 5"-dimethoxy-benzoate)] glucopyranoside (3) as well as three known megastigmane glycosides, linarionoside A (4), linarionoside C (5), and staphylionoside K (6). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Among them, compounds 1 and 2 were named as clemaparvilosides A (1) and B (2), respectively, and compounds 3-6 were obtained from Clematis genus for the first time. PMID:21348422

  17. Cardiac sodium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Amin; A. Asghari-Roodsari; H.L. Tan

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (I-Na) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of I-Na for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of

  18. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  19. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  20. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae: Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin A. Stonik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  1. Cytotoxic and antifungal triterpene glycosides from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chludil, Hugo D; Muniain, Claudia C; Seldes, Alicia M; Maier, Marta S

    2002-06-01

    Two new sulfated triterpene glycosides, hemoiedemosides A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from the Patagonian sea cucumber Hemoiedema spectabilis. Their structures have been established by a combination of spectroscopic analysis (NMR and FABMS) and chemical transformations. Both glycosides present the same aglycon and differ in the degree of sulfation of the tetrasaccharide chain. Hemoiedemoside B (2) is a new example of a small number of trisulfated triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the family Cucumariidae. Glycosides 1 and 2 exhibit considerable antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, while the semisynthetic desulfated derivative 1a is less active. PMID:12088428

  2. Glycosides from Marine Sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae): Structures, Taxonomical Distribution, Biological Activities and Biological Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Stonik, Valentin A.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Natalia V. Ivanchina

    2012-01-01

    Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed.

  3. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  4. Stimulating endogenous cardiac regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eFinan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration,a combination of these approaches couldameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation ofmultiple cell players.

  5. A New Flavonoid Glycoside from Salix denticulata Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Bamola

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A new flavonoid glycoside (1 has been isolated from the aerial parts of Salix denticulata (Salicaceae together with five known compounds, β-sitosterol, 2,6-dihydroxy- 4-methoxy acetophenone, eugenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-β-D-(3’-benzoyl salicyl alcohol and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6-glucopyranoside. The structure of 1 was elucidated as 2’,5-dihydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by means of chemical and spectral data including 2D NMR studies.

  6. A New Phenylpropanoid Glycoside from Dragon's Blood of Dracaena cambodiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hai-yan; WANG Hui; ZUO Wen-jian; ZHAO You-xing; LUO Ying; MEI Wen-li; DAI Hao-fu

    2013-01-01

    A new phenylpropanoid glycoside,named cambodianin F(1),together with three known compounds,1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-2-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene(2),1-O-(6-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-2-hydroxy-4-allylbenzene(3) and 1,2-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene(4) was isolated from the dragon's blood of Dracaena cambodiana.The new compound was elucidated by HR-ESI-MS and spectroscopic techniques(UV,IR,1D and 2D NMR).

  7. Additional Minor Diterpene Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Prakash; Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2013-01-01

    Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1), and 13-{β-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oi...

  8. Flavonoid Glycosides from Arnica montana and Arnica chamissonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merfort, I; Wendisch, D

    1987-10-01

    Five flavonoid glycosides were identified from flowers of ARNICA MONTANA, four from A. CHAMISSONIS subsp. FOLIOSA var. INCANA. The structures were established on the basis of total acid hydrolysis and spectral data (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, MS) as hispidulin 7- O-beta-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3- O-beta-glucoside, 3- O-beta- D-glucopyranosides of spinacetin, 6-methoxykaempferol and patuletin and querectin 3- O-(6''- O-acetyl)-beta- D-glucopyranoside. The latter compound can serve as distinctive marker between these two ARNICA species. The (1)H-NMR spectra in CD (3)OD are discussed.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism of Total Glycosides of Acanthopanax Giraldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 陈杰; 许国敏; 郑加嘉; 龙启才

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of total glycosides of Acanthopanax Giraldii (TGA).Methods:The changes of prostaglandin E_2(PGE_2),tumor necrosis factor(TNF-α),nitric oxide(NO), and expressions of COX-1 mRNA and COX-2 mRNA in BALB/c mouse macrophages were observed by the radioimmunoassay,ELISA and nitric acid reduction and RT-PCR in the presence or absence of TGA.Results: (1) TGA could significantly decrease the production of PGE_2 and NO in mouse peritoneal macrophages.The inhibitory...

  10. FLAVONE AND FLAVONE GLYCOSIDE FROM CICHORIUM INTYBUS LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam Patil et al.

    2012-01-01

    Cichorium intybus Linn (Compositae) contains UV-absorbing metabolites. Studies on methanol extract of Cichorium intybus Linn by means of HPLC-UV, NMR, HPLC-MS resulted in isolation and identification of three previously unknown flavones glycosides: 5, 6, 7, 3′, 4′, 7′-hexahydroxy flavones-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3, 5, 7 – trihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-6, 4′-dimethoxy flavones (3) also ...

  11. Pentasaccharide resin glycosides from Ipomoea cairica and their cytotoxic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bangwei; Luo, Jianguang; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Dongming; Yu, Shishan; Kong, Lingyi

    2013-11-01

    Six partially acylated pentasaccharide resin glycosides, cairicosides A-F, were isolated from the aerial parts of Ipomoea cairica. These compounds were characterized as a group of macrolactones of simonic acid A, partially acylated with different organic acids. The lactonization site of 11S-hydroxyhexadecanoic acid (jalapinolic acid) was bound to the second saccharide moiety at C-3 in cairicosides A-E, while at C-2 in cairicoside F. Structures were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Compounds cairicosides A-E exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against a small panel of human tumor cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 4.28-14.31μM.

  12. Calysolins I-IV, resin glycosides from Calystegia soldanella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigawa, Ayako; Muto, Haruka; Kabata, Kiyotaka; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru

    2011-11-28

    Four new resin glycosides having intramolecular cyclic ester structures (jalapins), named calysolins I-IV (1-4), were isolated from the methanol extract of leaves, stems, and roots of Calystegia soldanella , along with one known jalapin (5) derivative. The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. They fall into two types, one having a 22-membered ring (1 and 4) and the other with a 27-membered ring (2 and 3). The sugar moieties of 1-4 were partially acylated by some organic acids. Compound 4 is the first example of a hexaglycoside of jalapin.

  13. Two new glycosides from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shu-Min; Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.), and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and amyl-1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively.

  14. Two New Glycosides from the Fruits of Morinda citrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the chemical constituents of the fruits of noni (Morinda citrifolia L., and find novel compounds, an n-butanol extract of the ethanol soluble fraction was subjected to repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography and HPLC. Two new glycosides were isolated and their structures elucidated by NMR and HRFAB-MS spectrometry as (2E,4E,7Z-deca-2,4,7-trienoate-2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyra-noside (1 and amyl-1-O-β-D-apio-furanosyl-1,6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, respectively.

  15. A New Iridoid Glycoside from the Roots of Dipsacus asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglin Yang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new iridoid glycoside, named loganic acid ethyl ester (1, together with five known compounds: chlorogenic acid (2, caffeic acid (3, loganin (4, cantleyoside (5 and syringaresinol-4′,4′′-O-bis-β-D-glucoside (6 were isolated from the roots of Dipsacus asper. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses. Lignan is isolated from Dipsacaceae species for the first time. Compounds 1, 4 and 5 had moderate neuroprotective effects against the Aβ25–35 induced cell death in PC12 cells.

  16. Additional New Minor Cucurbitane Glycosides from Siraitia grosvenorii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous phytochemical studies of the crude extract of Luo Han Guo (Siraitia grosvenorii furnished three additional new cucurbitane triterpene glycosides, namely 11-deoxymogroside V, 11-deoxyisomogroside V, and 11-deoxymogroside VI. The structures of all the isolated compounds were characterized on the basis of extensive NMR and mass spectral data as well as hydrolysis studies. The complete 1H- and 13C-NMR spectral assignments of the three unknown compounds are reported for the first time based on COSY, TOCSY, HSQC, and HMBC spectroscopic data.

  17. New Cucurbitane Triterpenoids and Steroidal Glycoside from Momordica charantia

    OpenAIRE

    Cui-Fang Wang; Ming-Hua Qiu; Jian-Chao Chen; Jie-Qing Liu

    2009-01-01

    Three new cucurbitane triterpenoids 1–3 and one new steroidal glycoside 4, were isolated together with ten known compounds from Momordica charantia. The structures of new compounds were determined to be 19(R)-n-butanoxy-5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,25-diol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (1), 23-O-β-allopyranosylecucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol 3-O-β-allopyranoside. (2), 23(R),24(S),25-trihydroxycucurbit-5-ene 3-O-{[β-glucopyranosyl(1→6)]-O-β-glucopyranosyl}-25-O-β-glucopyranoside (...

  18. Investigations of Reactive Carbohydrates in Glycosidic Bond Formation and Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuckendorff, Mads

    was to develop new synthetic methods to evolve the field of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry. In addition, easy methods for obtaining complex oligosaccharides are needed to accommodate biochemical research and drug development. Furthermore, the aim was to shed light on the complex mechanisms of glycosylation...... and hy rolysis of glycosides. This mechanistic insight can then be used to develop new synthetic methods and obtain a better understanding of already existing methods. In Chapter 1 general aspects of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry is described with an emphasis on elements that affects reactivity...

  19. Structural Characterization of Anhydroicaritin Glycosides Using ESI-FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to determine the structures of anhydroicaritin glycosides by the MS/MS experiments of anhydroicaritin glycosides and their methylated derivatives. With high accuracy FT-ICR-MS provides much information about the structures of compounds, FT-ICR-MS shows the great potential application in the structural characterization of unknown compounds.

  20. Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

    2003-02-01

    Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides. PMID:12608878

  1. Two new nor-triterpene glycosides from peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Yokoya, Masashi; Takayama, Hiromitsu; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio

    2003-02-01

    Two new 27-nor-triterpene glycosides, tomentosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical interconversions. This is the first report of naturally occurring pyroquinovic acid glycosides.

  2. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  3. A soluble flavonoid-glycoside, alphaG-rutin, is absorbed as glycosides in the isolated gastric and intestinal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Megumi; Matsukawa, Noriko; Mineo, Hitoshi; Chiji, Hideyuki; Hara, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the absorption and metabolism of the highly soluble quercetin glycoside αG-rutin, a glucose adduct of insoluble rutin, using the isolated mucosa of the rat stomach and intestines equipped with the Ussing chamber. αG-rutin and rutin appeared in the serosal sides of the gastric body and all the intestinal mucosa after the addition of αG-rutin (1 mM) to the mucosal fluid. The degree of αG-rutin appearance was much lower in the gastric fundus than in the other parts. Quercetin was...

  4. New acylated flavone and cyanogenic glycosides from Linum grandiflorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M. D.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.;

    2009-01-01

    The first investigation of Linum grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of one new acylated flavone O-diglycoside known as luteolin 7-O-a-D-(6000-E-feruloyl)glucopyranosyl (1!2)--D-glucopyranoside, and one new cyanogenic glycoside known as 2-[(30-isopropoxy-O--D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2-methylbutane......The first investigation of Linum grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of one new acylated flavone O-diglycoside known as luteolin 7-O-a-D-(6000-E-feruloyl)glucopyranosyl (1!2)--D-glucopyranoside, and one new cyanogenic glycoside known as 2-[(30-isopropoxy-O--D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-2......-methylbutanenitrile, together with four known flavonoid glycosides, three known cyanogenic glycosides and one alkyl glycoside. The new compounds were structurally elucidated via the extensive 1D, 2D NMR and DIFNOE together with ESI-TOFCID-MS/MS and HR-MALDI/MS....

  5. Host plant influences on iridoid glycoside sequestration of generalist and specialist caterpillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan C; Bowers, M Deane

    2010-10-01

    The effect of diet on sequestration of iridoid glycosides was examined in larvae of three lepidopteran species. Larvae were reared upon Plantago major, or P. lanceolata, or switched from one to the other in the penultimate instar. Junonia coenia is a specialist on iridoid glycoside-producing plants, whereas the arctiids, Spilosoma congrua and Estigmene acrea, are both polyphagous and eat iridoid-producing plants. All species sequestered iridoids. The specialist J. coenia sequestered from three to seven times the amounts sequestered by the two generalist species. Junonia coenia iridoid glycoside content depended on diet, and they sequestered from 5 to 15% dry weight iridoid glycosides. Estigmene acrea iridoid glycoside sequestration was relatively low, around 2% dry weight and did not vary with diet. Spilosoma congrua sequestration varied with diet and ranged from approximately 3 to 6% dry weight. PMID:20809144

  6. Mass spectrometric imaging of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in Ginkgo biloba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sebastian; Stengel, Julia

    2016-10-01

    Ginkgo biloba L. is known to be rich in flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides. However, the distribution within specific plant organs (e.g. within leaves) is not known. By using HPLC-MS and MS/MS we have identified a number of previously known G. biloba flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids from leaves. Namely, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, myricetin, laricitrin/mearnsetin and apigenin glycosides were identified. Furthermore, biflavonoids like ginkgetin/isoginkgetin were also detected. The application of MALDI mass spectrometric imaging, enabled the compilation of concentration profiles of flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids in G. biloba L. leaves. Both, flavonoid glycosides and biflavonoids show a distinct distribution in leaf thin sections of G. biloba L. PMID:27233155

  7. Merremins A-G, resin glycosides from Merremia hederacea with multidrug resistance reversal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-qiong; Song, Wei-bin; Lan, Xiao-jing; Huang, Min; Xuan, Li-jiang

    2014-10-24

    Five new pentasaccharide resin glycosides, named merremins A-E (1-5), two new pentasaccharide resin glycoside methyl esters, named merremins F and G (6, 7), and four known resin glycosides, murucoidin IV, murucoidin V, stoloniferin IV, and murucoidin XVII, were obtained from the aerial parts of Merremia hederacea. This is the first report of resin glycosides obtained from M. hederacea. In addition, the new compounds can be divided into three types: those possessing an 18-membered ring (1-4), compound 5 with a 20-membered ring, and those with an acyclic core (6, 7). Furthermore, the different types of resin glycosides were evaluated for their multidrug resistance reversal activities. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and murucoidin V were noncytotoxic and enhanced the cytotoxicity of vinblastine by 2.3-142.5-fold at 25 μM. Compound 5 and murucoidin V, with 20-membered rings, were more active than compound 1, with an 18-membered ring.

  8. Quantitation of sweet steviol glycosides by means of a HILIC-MS/MS-SIDA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Caroline; Frank, Oliver; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-11-27

    Meeting the rising consumer demand for natural food ingredients, steviol glycosides, the sweet principle of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni), have recently been approved as food additives in the European Union. As regulatory constraints require sensitive methods to analyze the sweet-tasting steviol glycosides in foods and beverages, a HILIC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the accurate and reliable quantitation of the major steviol glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A-F, steviolbioside, rubusoside, and dulcoside A by using the corresponding deuterated 16,17-dihydrosteviol glycosides as suitable internal standards. This quantitation not only enables the analysis of the individual steviol glycosides in foods and beverages but also can support the optimization of breeding and postharvest downstream processing of Stevia plants to produce preferentially sweet and least bitter tasting Stevia extracts.

  9. Allosteric indicator displacement enzyme assay for a cyanogenic glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, D Amilan; Elstner, Martin; Schiller, Alexander

    2013-10-18

    Indicator displacement assays (IDAs) represent an elegant approach in supramolecular analytical chemistry. Herein, we report a chemical biosensor for the selective detection of the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin in aqueous solution. The hybrid sensor consists of the enzyme β-glucosidase and a boronic acid appended viologen together with a fluorescent reporter dye. β-Glucosidase degrades the cyanogenic glycoside amygdalin into hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde. Only the released cyanide binds at the allosteric site of the receptor (boronic acid) thereby inducing changes in the affinity of a formerly bound fluorescent indicator dye at the other side of the receptor. Thus, the sensing probe performs as allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) for cyanide in water. Interference studies with inorganic anions and glucose revealed that cyanide is solely responsible for the change in the fluorescent signal. DFT calculations on a model compound revealed a 1:1 binding ratio of the boronic acid and cyanide ion. The fluorescent enzyme assay for β-glucosidase uses amygdalin as natural substrate and allows measuring Michaelis-Menten kinetics in microtiter plates. The allosteric indicator displacement assay (AIDA) probe can also be used to detect cyanide traces in commercial amygdalin samples. PMID:24123550

  10. Syntheses of alpha-tocopheryl glycosides by glucosidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponrasu, Thangavel; Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of water-soluble alpha-tocopheryl glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold or beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions for the amyloglucosidase were: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D-glucose 0.5 mmol, 400 activity unit (AU) amyloglucosidase, 0.2 mM pH 7 phosphate buffer and 72 h; and for the beta-glucosidase: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D: -glucose 0.5 mmol, 110 AU beta-glucosidase, 0.1 mM pH 6 phosphate buffer and 72 h. Out of 11 carbohydrates employed, amyloglucosidase reacted only with D-glucose to give 50% of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol. However, the beta-glucosidase gave 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol and 6-O-(beta-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol in yields ranging from 10-25%. Water solubility of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol was 26 g/l at 25 degrees C. alpha-Tocopheryl glycosides showed antioxidant activities with IC(50) values from 0.5 to 1 mM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with IC(50) values from 1.3 to 2.6 mM. PMID:18368294

  11. Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway.

  12. Cycloartane and oleanane-type glycosides from Astragalus pennatulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Un, Rabia; Horo, Ibrahim; Masullo, Milena; Falco, Antonia; Senol, Serdar G; Piacente, Sonia; Alankuş-Çalıskan, Özgen

    2016-03-01

    Four new cycloartane and one new oleanane-type glycosides were isolated from Astragalus pennatulus along with five known cycloartane-type glycosides. The structures of the new compounds were established as 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,6α,16β-trihydroxy-24-oxo-20(R),25-epoxycycloartane (1), 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-3β,16β,24α-trihydroxy-20(R),25-epoxycycloartane (2), 3-O-[β-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranosyl]-3β,16β,25-trihydroxy-20(R),24(S)-epoxycycloartane (3), 3,25-di-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-3β,6α,16β,25-tetrahydroxy-20(R),24(S)-epoxycycloartane (4), 29-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-abrisapogenol B (5) by 1D and 2D-NMR experiments along with ESIMS and HRMS analyses. The aglycone of compound 1, 3β,6α,16β-trihydroxy-24-oxo-20(R),25-epoxycycloartane, is reported for the first time. The cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three cancer cell lines including A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), A375 (human melanoma) and DeFew (human B lymphoma) cells. None of the tested compounds caused a significant reduction of the cell number. PMID:26804373

  13. Mathematical cardiac electrophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Colli Franzone, Piero; Scacchi, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the main mathematical and numerical models in computational electrocardiology, ranging from microscopic membrane models of cardiac ionic channels to macroscopic bidomain, monodomain, eikonal models and cardiac source representations. These advanced multiscale and nonlinear models describe the cardiac bioelectrical activity from the cell level to the body surface and are employed in both the direct and inverse problems of electrocardiology. The book also covers advanced numerical techniques needed to efficiently carry out large-scale cardiac simulations, including time and space discretizations, decoupling and operator splitting techniques, parallel finite element solvers. These techniques are employed in 3D cardiac simulations illustrating the excitation mechanisms, the anisotropic effects on excitation and repolarization wavefronts, the morphology of electrograms in normal and pathological tissue and some reentry phenomena. The overall aim of the book is to present rigorously the mathematica...

  14. Biomaterials for cardiac regeneration

    CERN Document Server

    Ruel, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications. This book also: Provides a valuable overview of the engineering of biomaterials for cardiac regeneration, including coverage of combined biomaterials and stem cells, as well as extracellular matrices Presents readers with multidisciplinary coverage of biomaterials for cardiac repair, including ...

  15. Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Two Strawberry Cultivars in Response to Furostanol Glycosides Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Petronela CĂULEŢ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Furostanol glycosides represent a large group of steroid compounds of plant origin with a broad spectrum of biological activities (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-fungal and nematicidal. Most of the research exhibits this effect in stress induced response on different pathogen attacks and only a few studies show the effect of glycoside on plants growth and development. In order to investigate the effects of furostanol glycoside treatment on rooting, growth performance and photosynthetic system efficiency, young unrooted strawberry plants (cv. ‘Real’ and ‘Magic’ were immersed in different concentrations (0.03 mM, 0.3 mM, 3 mM of G1 solution (glycoside extracted from Lycopersicon sp. and G2 (extracted from Digitalis sp. and morphometric parameters were determined. The results showed that immersion in 0.3 mM glycoside solution improved the quality of strawberry planting material by increasing the number and length of roots, as well as by stimulating formation of new leaves. Moreover, the influence of foliar spraying with G1 and G2 on plants growth, assimilator pigments content and photosynthesis was determined. Foliar spraying with both glycosides solutions improved radicular growth and development, but dimensions of foliar apparatus increased only in G1 treated variants. Although both glycoside treatments induced an increase in assimilator pigments content, photosynthetic rate decreased as a consequence of stomatal limitations associated with better efficiency of water use and of internal CO2, which suggests that these chemicals may have an antitranspirant action.

  16. Acutifoliside, a novel benzoic acid glycoside from Salix acutifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanqi; Dobermann, Darja; Beale, Michael H; Ward, Jane L

    2016-08-01

    Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) profiling of a polar solvent extract of juvenile stem tissue of Salix acutifolia Willd. identified a range of phenolic metabolites. Salicortin, 1, a well-known salicinoid, was the major compound present and the study identified young stem tissue of this species as a potential source of this compound for future studies. Three further known metabolites (salicin 2, catechin 3 and tremuloidin 4) were also present. The UHPLC-MS analysis also revealed the presence of a further, less polar, unknown compound, which was isolated via HPLC peak collection. The structure was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectroscopic analysis, 1- and 2-D NMR analysis and chemical derivatisation and was shown to be a novel benzoic acid glycoside 5, which we have named as acutifoliside. PMID:26820172

  17. New Cucurbitane Triterpenoids and Steroidal Glycoside from Momordica charantia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Fang Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three new cucurbitane triterpenoids 1–3 and one new steroidal glycoside 4, were isolated together with ten known compounds from Momordica charantia. The structures of new compounds were determined to be 19(R-n-butanoxy-5β,19-epoxycucurbita-6,23-diene-3β,25-diol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (1, 23-O-β-allopyranosylecucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R,23(S-tetraol 3-O-β-allopyranoside. (2, 23(R,24(S,25-trihydroxycucurbit-5-ene 3-O-{[β-glucopyranosyl(1→6]-O-β-glucopyranosyl}-25-O-β-glucopyranoside (3, and 24(R-stigmastan-3β,5α,6β-triol-25-ene 3-O-β-glucopyranoside (4, respectively. Their structures were elucidated by the combination of mass spectrometry (MS, one and two-dimensional NMR experiments and chemical reactions.

  18. A New Acylated Flavonol Glycoside from Chenopodium foliosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatina Kokanova-Nedialkova, , , , , and

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A new acylated flavonol glycoside, namely gomphrenol-3-O-( 5 '''-O-E-feruloyl-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6]-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the aerial parts of Chenopodium foliosum Asch. The structure of 1 was determined by means of spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and HRESIMS. Radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of 1 were established using DPPH and ABTS radicals, FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LP in linoleic acid system by the ferric thiocyanate method. Compound 1 showed low activity (DPPH and ABTS or lack of activity (FRAP and LP. In combination with CCl 4, 1 reduced the damage caused by the hepatotoxic agent and preserved cell viability and GSH level, decreased LDH leakage and reduced lipid damage. Effects were concentration dependent, most visible at the highest concentration (100 µg/m L , and similar to those of silymarin .

  19. Four New Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Brugmansia suaveolens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Geller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Brugmansia suaveolens: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside-7-O-į-D-gluco-pyranoside (2, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-[6'''-O-(E-caffeoyl]-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-[2'''-O-(E-caffeoyl]-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structure elucidation was performed by MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses.

  20. Chemotaxonomy of Plantago. Iridoid glucosides and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønsted, N.; Göbel, E.; Franzyk, Henrik;

    2000-01-01

    Data for 34 species of Plantago (Plantaginaceae), including subgen. Littorella (=Littorella uniflora), have been collected with regard to their content of iridoid glucosides and caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycosides (CPGs). In the present work, 21 species were investigated for the first time and many...... are present in all species investigated. With regard to the iridoids, the distribution patterns showed a good correlation with the classification of Rahn. Thus, aucubin is typical for the whole genus, while bartsioside and catalpol as well as 5-substituted iridoids are each characteristic for a subgenus...... in the family. Finally, the close relationship between Plantago and Veronica suggested by chloroplast DNA sequence analysis, could be corroborated by the common occurrence of the rare 8,9-unsaturated iridoids in these two genera. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  1. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianMingJIN; XiKuiLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, ere isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S,25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(1) and (25R)-5α-spiro-stan-3β,6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyra-nosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  2. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, were isolated from the fcrmcnted leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S, 25R)-5α-spirostan-3β, 6α, 23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)- β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-( 1 →3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-( l →4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and (25R)-5α-spiro stan-3β, 6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[ β-D-xylopyranosyl-(l→3)]- β-D-glucopyra nosyl-(1→4)- β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  3. FLAVONE AND FLAVONE GLYCOSIDE FROM CICHORIUM INTYBUS LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Patil et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cichorium intybus Linn (Compositae contains UV-absorbing metabolites. Studies on methanol extract of Cichorium intybus Linn by means of HPLC-UV, NMR, HPLC-MS resulted in isolation and identification of three previously unknown flavones glycosides: 5, 6, 7, 3′, 4′, 7′-hexahydroxy flavones-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1, 3, 5, 7 – trihydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-flavone-7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4-β-D-xylopyranosyl-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (2, 3, 5, 7-trihydroxy-6, 4′-dimethoxy flavones (3 also isolated were three known flavones, luteolin (4, ladanetin (5 and spicoside (6.

  4. Diterpene glycosides from the ethanol extract of Diplopterygium rufopilosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Mao, Xia; Shi, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation on the 70% EtOH extract from the dry fronds of Diplopterygium rufopilosum afforded two new labdane-type diterpene glycosides, (3β,13S)-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-13-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-labda-8(17),14-diene (1) and (3β,13S)-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-13-O-[6-O-acetyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-2-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl]-labda-8(17),14-diene (2). Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical method and spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS analyses.

  5. Hypotensive action of coumarin glycosides from Daucus carota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, A H; Shaheen, E; Saeed, S A; Bibi, S; Irfanullah; Sadiq, M; Faizi, S

    2000-10-01

    Daucus carota (carrot) has been used in traditional medicine to treat hypertension. Activity-directed fractionation of aerial parts of D. carota resulted in the isolation of two cumarin glycosides coded as DC-2 and DC-3. Intravenous administration of these compounds caused a dose-dependent (1-10 mg/kg) fall in arterial blood pressure in normotensive anaesthetised rats. In the in vitro studies, both compounds caused a dose-dependent (10-200 microg/ml) inhibitory effect on spontaneously beating guinea pig atria as well as on the K+ -induced contractions of rabbit aorta at similar concentrations. These results indicate that DC-2 and DC-3 may be acting through blockade of calcium channels and this effect may be responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect of the compounds observed in the in vivo studies. PMID:11081994

  6. C21 steroidal glycosides from the roots of Cynanchum paniculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Feng, Baomin; Chen, Shaofei; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhifeng; Lu, Xiaojie; Sang, Xianan; An, Xiao; Wang, Haifeng; Pei, Yuehu

    2016-09-01

    As a part of our continuing research for bioactive constituents from Cynanchum plants, four new C21 steroidal glycosides, cynapanoside D-G (1-4), together with six known compounds (5-10) were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum paniculatum (Bge.) Kitag. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic data as well as HR-ESI-MS analysis. Compound 8 exhibited potent inhibitory activities against HL-60, HT-29, PC-3 and MCF-7 cell lines with IC50 values of 8.3, 7.5, 34.3 and 19.4μM, respectively and compounds 1-4 and 9 displayed moderate cytotoxicity against the four cell lines. The in vitro antioxidant activities of compounds 1-4, 8 and 9 were assayed by DPPH radical scavenging activity. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of compounds 1-4, 8 and 9 were also tested. PMID:27380712

  7. Flavonoid glycosides from Erythroxylum pulchrum A. St.-Hil. (Erythroxylaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phytochemical investigation of Erythroxylum pulchrum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae) led to the isolation of three known flavonoid glycosides quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminoside, ombuin-3-ruthinoside and ombuin-3-ruthinoside-5-glucoside. These flavonoids are being described for the first time in this E. pulchrum. The structures of the compounds were determined by analysis of IR, MS and NMR data, as well as by comparison with literature data. The methanolic extract of leaves from E. pulchrum inhibited the growth of the Bacillus subtilis CCT 0516, Escherichia coli ATCC 2536, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 8027, P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25925, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 15300, S. salivarius ATCC 7073, S. mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus ATCC. S. aureus ATCC 25925 was the most sensitive among the other S. sanguinis while S. salivarius proved the most resistant. (author)

  8. Flavanone glycosides as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: Computational and experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Remya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter called acetylcholine and is crucially involved in the regulation of neurotransmission. One of the observable facts in the neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer′s disease is the decrease in the level of acetylcholine. Available drugs that are used for the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease are primarily acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with multiple activities. They maintain the level of acetylcholine in the brain by inhibiting the acetylcholinesterase function. Hence acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can be used as lead compounds for the development of drugs against AD. In the present study, the binding potential of four flavanone glycosides such as naringin, hesperidin, poncirin and sakuranin against acetylcholinesterase was analysed by using the method of molecular modeling and docking. The activity of the top scored compound, naringin was further investigated by enzyme inhibition studies and its inhibitory concentration (IC 50 towards acetylcholinesterase was also determined.

  9. Antiviral compounds and one new iridoid glycoside from Cornus officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    From Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of four active tannin compounds with high effectiveness of inhibiting Hepatitis C virus NS3 serine protease in vitro. The compounds are: 1, 2, 3, 6-tetragalloyl-β-D-glucopyranose ( 1 ), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6- pentagalloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2), Tellimagrandin Ⅰ (3) and Tellimagrandin Ⅱ (4). The four compounds could inhibit HCV NS3 protease in vitro with IC50 values of 6.98, 5.11, 7.0 and 4.8 μmol/L respectively. In addition, a new iridoid glycoside (5) was also isolated from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., which was assigned to be 7-O-butyl morroniside by spectroscopic analysis.

  10. [Cardiac evaluation before non-cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzenbach, Jan; Boehm, Olaf

    2016-07-01

    Before non-cardiac surgery, evaluation of cardiac function is no frequent part of surgical treatment. European societies of anesthesiology and cardiology published consensus-guidelines in 2014 to present a reasonable approach for preoperative evaluation. This paper intends to differentiate the composite of perioperative risk and to display the guidelines methodical approach to handle it. Features to identify patients at risk from an ageing population with comorbidities, are the classification of surgical risk, functional capacity and risk indices. Application of diagnostic means, should be used adjusted to this risk estimation. Cardiac biomarkers are useful to discover risk of complications or mortality, that cannot be assessed by clinical signs. After preoperative optimization and perioperative cardiac protection, the observation of the postoperative period remains, to prohibit complications or even death. In consideration of limited resources of intensive care department, postoperative ward rounds beyond intensive care units are considered to be an appropriate instrument to avoid or recognize complications early to reduce postoperative mortality. PMID:27479258

  11. Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS in Stevia rebaudiana: insights into steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Guleria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway has emerged as bifurcation from ent-kaurenoic acid, substrate of methyl erythritol phosphate pathway that also leads to gibberellin biosynthesis. However, the genetic regulation of steviol glycoside biosynthesis has not been studied. So, in present study RNA interference (RNAi based Agrobacterium mediated transient gene silencing (AMTS approach was followed. SrKA13H and three SrUGTs (SrUGT85C2, SrUGT74G1 and SrUGT76G1 genes encoding ent-kaurenoic acid-13 hydroxylase and three UDP glycosyltransferases of steviol glycoside biosynthesis pathway were silenced in Stevia rebaudiana to understand its molecular mechanism and association with gibberellins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RNAi mediated AMTS of SrKA13H and three SrUGTs has significantly reduced the expression of targeted endogenous genes as well as total steviol glycoside accumulation. While gibberellins (GA3 content was significantly enhanced on AMTS of SrUGT85C2 and SrKA13H. Silencing of SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 was found to block the metabolite flux of steviol glycoside pathway and shifted it towards GA3 biosynthesis. Further, molecular docking of three SrUGT proteins has documented highest affinity of SrUGT76G1 for the substrates of alternate pathways synthesizing steviol glycosides. This could be a plausible reason for maximum reduction in steviol glycoside content on silencing of SrUGT76G1 than other genes. CONCLUSIONS: SrKA13H and SrUGT85C2 were identified as regulatory genes influencing carbon flux between steviol glycoside and gibberellin biosynthesis. This study has also documented the existence of alternate steviol glycoside biosynthesis route.

  12. Reaction of hydroxyl radical with phenylpropanoid glycosides from Pedicularis species: a pulse radiolysis study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潘奋; 郑荣梁; 高建军; 贾忠建; 王文峰; 姚思德; 张加山; 林念芸

    1996-01-01

    Using pulse radiolysis technique, the reaction between hydroxyl radical and 7 phenylpropanoidglycosides: echinacoside, verbascoside, leucosceptoside A, martynoside, pediculariosides A, M and N which were isolated from Pedicularis were examined. The rate constants of these reactions were determined by transient absorption spectra. All 7 phenylpropanoid glycosides react with hydroxyl radical at high rate constants within (0.97-1.91)×1010L · mol-1 · s-1. suggesting that they are effective hydroxyl radical scavengers. The results demonstrate that the numbers of phenolic hydroxyl groups of phenylpropanoid glycosides are directly related to their scavenging activities. The scavenging activities are likely related to o-dihydroxy group of phenylpropanoid glycosides as well.

  13. Synthesis and Sensory Evaluation of ent-Kaurane Diterpene Glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai Prakash Chaturvedula

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrogenation of the three ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides isolated from Stevia rebaudiana, namely rubusoside, stevioside, and rebaudioside-A has been carried out using Pd(OH2 and their corresponding dihydro derivatives have been isolated as the products. Synthesis of reduced steviol glycosides was performed using straightforward chemistry and their structures were characterized on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectral data and chemical studies. Also, we report herewith the sensory evaluation of all the reduced compounds against their corresponding original steviol glycosides and sucrose for the sweetness property of these molecules.

  14. Cardiac metabolism and arrhythmias

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Andreas S.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2009-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death remains a leading cause of mortality in the Western world, accounting for up to 20% of all deaths in the U.S.1, 2 The major causes of sudden cardiac death in adults age 35 and older are coronary artery disease (70–80%) and dilated cardiomyopathy (10–15%).3 At the molecular level, a wide variety of mechanisms contribute to arrhythmias that cause sudden cardiac death, ranging from genetic predisposition (rare mutations and common polymorphisms in ion channels and structural...

  15. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Hochstrasser, Stefan; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe O;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The costs of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation are established and compared to the corresponding costs of usual care. The effect on health-related quality of life is analyzed. METHODS: An unprecedented and very detailed cost assessment was carried out, as no guidelines existed...... and may be as high as euro 1.877. CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is more costly than usual care, and the higher costs are not outweighed by a quality of life gain. Comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is, therefore, not cost-effective....

  16. Cardiac Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to assess cardiac risk include: High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) : Studies have shown that measuring ... LDL-C but does not respond to typical strategies to lower LDL-C such as diet, exercise, ...

  17. Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Atrial Fibrillation (AFib) Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) SCA: Who's At Risk? Prevention of SCA What Causes SCA? SCA Awareness Atrial Flutter Heart Block Heart Failure Sick Sinus Syndrome Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  18. Socially differentiated cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Larsen, Finn Breinholt;

    2012-01-01

    to a standard rehabilitation programme (SRP). If patients were identified as socially vulnerable, they were offered an extended version of the rehabilitation programme (ERP). Excluded patients were offered home visits by a cardiac nurse. Concordance principles were used in the individualised programme elements......%. Patients were equally distributed to the SRP and the ERP. No inequality was found in attendance and adherence among referred patients. Conclusions: It seems possible to overcome unequal referral, attendance, and adherence in cardiac rehabilitation by organisation of systematic screening and social......Aim: The comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme after myocardial infarction (MI) improves quality of life and results in reduced cardiac mortality and recurrence of MI. Hospitals worldwide face problems with low participation rates in rehabilitation programmes. Inequality...

  19. Cardiac arrest - cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basri Lenjani; Besnik Elshani; Nehat Baftiu; Kelmend Pallaska; Kadir Hyseni; Njazi Gashi; Nexhbedin Karemani; Ilaz Bunjaku; Taxhidin Zaimi; Arianit Jakupi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation(CPR) measures within the golden minutes inEurope.Methods:The material was taken from theUniversityClinical Center ofKosovo -EmergencyCentre inPristina, during the two(2) year period(2010-2011).The collected date belong to the patients with cardiac arrest have been recorded in the patients' log book protocol at the emergency clinic.Results:During the2010 to2011 in the emergency center of theCUCK inPristina have been treated a total of269 patients with cardiac arrest, of whom159 or59.1% have been treated in2010, and110 patients or40.9% in2011.Of the269 patients treated in the emergency centre,93 or34.6% have exited lethally in the emergency centre, and176 or 65.4% have been transferred to other clinics.In the total number of patients with cardiac arrest, males have dominated with186 cases, or69.1%.The average age of patients included in the survey was56.7 year oldSD±16.0 years.Of the269 patients with cardiac arrest, defibrillation has been applied for93 or34.6% of patients.In the outpatient settings defibrillation has been applied for3 or3.2% of patients.Patients were defibrillated with application of one to four shocks. Of27 cases with who have survived cardiac arrest, none of them have suffered cardiac arrest at home,3 or11.1% of them have suffered cardiac arrest on the street, and24 or88.9% of them have suffered cardiac arrest in the hospital.5 out of27 patients survived have ended with neurological impairment.Cardiac arrest cases were present during all days of the week, but frequently most reported cases have been onMonday with32.0% of cases, and onFriday with24.5% of cases. Conclusions:All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care(with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care) the rate of survival is higher.

  20. Awareness in cardiac anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Serfontein, Leon

    2010-02-01

    Cardiac surgery represents a sub-group of patients at significantly increased risk of intraoperative awareness. Relatively few recent publications have targeted the topic of awareness in this group. The aim of this review is to identify areas of awareness research that may equally be extrapolated to cardiac anesthesia in the attempt to increase understanding of the nature and significance of this scenario and how to reduce it.

  1. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, Marthin; Held, Klaus; Bjarnason-Wehrens, Birna

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the rehabilitation measures provided for cardiac patients in Germany and to outline its legal basis and outcomes. In Germany the cardiac rehabilitation system is different from rehabilitation measures in other European countries. Cardiac rehabilitation in Germany since 1885 is based on specific laws and the regulations of insurance providers. Cardiac rehabilitation has predominantly been offered as an inpatient service, but has recently been complemented by outpatient services. A general agreement on the different indications for offering these two services has yet to be reached. Cardiac rehabilitation is mainly offered after an acute cardiac event and bypass surgery. It is also indicated in severe heart failure and special cases of percutaneous coronary intervention. Most patients are men (>65%) and the age at which events occur is increasing. The benefits obtained during the 3-4 weeks after an acute event, and confirmed in numerous studies, are often later lost under 'usual care' conditions. Many attempts have been made by rehabilitation institutions to improve this deficit by providing intensive aftercare. One instrument set up to achieve this is the nationwide institution currently comprising more than 6000 heart groups with approximately 120000 outpatients. After coronary artery bypass grafting or acute coronary syndrome cardiac rehabilitation can usually be started within 10 days. The multidisciplinary rehabilitation team consists of cardiologists, psychologists, exercise therapists, social workers, nutritionists and nurses. The positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation are also important economically, for example, for the improvement of secondary prevention and vocational integration. PMID:17301623

  2. Cardiac tumours in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadava, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tumours in infancy are rare and are mostly benign with rhabdomyomas, fibromas and teratomas accounting for the majority. The presentation depends on size and location of the mass as they tend to cause cavity obstruction or arrhythmias. Most rhabdomyomas tend to regress spontaneously but fibromas and teratomas generally require surgical intervention for severe haemodynamic or arrhythmic complications. Other relatively rare cardiac tumours too are discussed along with an Indian perspect...

  3. Infected cardiac hydatid cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, M; Becit, N; Kocak, H.

    2001-01-01

    A 24 year old woman presented with chest pain and palpitation. The presence of a semisolid mass—an echinococcal cyst or tumour—in the left ventricular apex was diagnosed by echocardiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The infected cyst was seen at surgery. The cyst was removed successfully by using cardiopulmonary bypass with cross clamp.


Keywords: cardiac hydatid cyst; infected cardiac hydatid cyst

  4. Three New C21 Steroidal Glycosides from the Roots of Cynanchum komarovii Al.Iljinski

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qin WANG; Yue Mao SHEN; Yu Qing WEI; Xing XU; Jun ZHOU

    2004-01-01

    Three new C21 steroidal glycosides named komaroside A, komaroside B, komaroside C were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the roots of Cynanchum komarovii Al.Iljinski (Asclepiadaceae), their structures were determined by physiochemical and spectroscopic analysis.

  5. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Andrographolide C-Glycoside Derivatives as a-Glycosidase Inhibitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严琳; 徐海伟; 刘丰五; 赵瑾; 刘宏民

    2012-01-01

    A series of new andrographolide C-glycoside derivatives were synthesized by a facile route. The new com- pounds showed higher potency than the parent andrographolide evaluated as a-glycosidase inhibitors in the pre- liminary study.

  6. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis of heptyl-β-glycosides: effect of water coalescence at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Carmina; Bustos-Jaimes, Ismael; Bárzana, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Alkyl glycosides can be synthesized by glycosidases in organic media with limited amounts of water. These systems, however, limit the solubility of the sugar substrates and decrease reaction yields. Herein we report the enzymatic synthesis of heptyl-β-glycosides in heptanol catalyzed by a hyperthermophilic β-glycosidase at 90°C. Our results indicate that dispersion of water in heptanol changes with time producing coalescence of water at the bottom of the reactor, playing a key role in the reaction yield. Water-soluble substrate, enzyme and products are concentrated in the aqueous phase, according to their partition coefficients, promoting side reactions that inactivate the enzyme. Reaction yield of heptyl-β-glycosides was 35% relative to lactose, at 7% water. The increase in the water phase to 12% diminished the enzyme inactivation and increased the heptyl-β-glycosides yield to 52%. Surface-active compounds, SDS and octyl glucoside, increased water dispersion but were unable to prevent coalescence.

  7. Two New Labdane Diterpene Glycoside from Flowers of Bacchris Medulosa DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Cifuente

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new labdane-type diterpene glycoside, were isolated from the flowers of Baccharis medulosa DC (Asteraceae. Structures of these compounds were established by application of various spectroscopic techniques.

  8. A NEW PHENOLIC GLYCOSIDE AND A NEW TRANS-CLERODANE DITERPENE FROM CONYZA BLINII

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-FANG SU; DEAN GUO; YA-JUN CUI; JIAN-SHENG LIU; JUN-HUA ZHENG

    2001-01-01

    A new phenolic glycoside, 4-propionyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and a new trans-clerodane diterpene named 19-deacetylconyzalactone (2), were isolated from the aerial parts of Conyza blinii.

  9. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn M. Huber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min of ultrasound wavelengths of dehydrated apple peel powder in 80% to 100% (v/v methanol in 1:50 (w:v solid to solvent ratio provided the optimum extraction conditions for quercetin and its glycosides. Acidification of extraction solvent with 0.1% (v/v or higher concentrations of HCl led to hydrolysis of naturally occurring quercetin glycosides into the aglycone as an extraction artifact.

  10. A Novel Protocol for the Regioselective Bromination of Primary Alcohols in Unprotected Carbohydrates or Glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟华; 张立芬

    2012-01-01

    The regioselective and efficient bromination of primary hydroxyl groups in unprotected carbohydrates or glycosides is successfully achieved by using (chloro-phenylthio-methylene)dimethylammoniumchloride (CPMA) in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) in dry DMF.

  11. Cardiac applications of optogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Christina M; Klimas, Aleksandra; Yu, Jinzhu; Entcheva, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    In complex multicellular systems, such as the brain or the heart, the ability to selectively perturb and observe the response of individual components at the cellular level and with millisecond resolution in time, is essential for mechanistic understanding of function. Optogenetics uses genetic encoding of light sensitivity (by the expression of microbial opsins) to provide such capabilities for manipulation, recording, and control by light with cell specificity and high spatiotemporal resolution. As an optical approach, it is inherently scalable for remote and parallel interrogation of biological function at the tissue level; with implantable miniaturized devices, the technique is uniquely suitable for in vivo tracking of function, as illustrated by numerous applications in the brain. Its expansion into the cardiac area has been slow. Here, using examples from published research and original data, we focus on optogenetics applications to cardiac electrophysiology, specifically dealing with the ability to manipulate membrane voltage by light with implications for cardiac pacing, cardioversion, cell communication, and arrhythmia research, in general. We discuss gene and cell delivery methods of inscribing light sensitivity in cardiac tissue, functionality of the light-sensitive ion channels within different types of cardiac cells, utility in probing electrical coupling between different cell types, approaches and design solutions to all-optical electrophysiology by the combination of optogenetic sensors and actuators, and specific challenges in moving towards in vivo cardiac optogenetics.

  12. The Essential Oil and Glycosidically Bound Volatile Compounds of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi

    OpenAIRE

    Mastelić, Josip; Miloš, Mladen; Kuštrak, Danica; Radonić, Ani

    1998-01-01

    Results of the investigation of the essential oil and glycosidically bound volatile compounds of Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi are presented in the paper. The essential oil was isolated by hydrodistillation and glycosides were extracted with ethyl acetate. The yield of essential oil was W = 0.91%. The essential oil was fractionated on a microcolumn with solvents of different polarity. One fraction of terpene hydrocarbons and four fractions of oxygenated terpene compounds were obtained. All frac...

  13. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pasquel; M. A. A. Meireles; M.O.M. Marques; A. J. PETENATE

    2000-01-01

    Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i) Pretreatment ...

  14. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo; Janet A. Gutiérrez-Uribe; Carlos Martínez-Vitela; Sergio O. Serna-Saldívar

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  15. Leucospilotaside C, a new sulfated triterpene glycoside from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new triterpene glycoside, leueospilotaside C, along with two known saponin, was isolated from sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota collected from the South China Sea, and its structure was elucidated as 3-O-{4'-O-sodiumsulfate-β-D-xylopyranosyl }-holosta-22,25-epoxy-9-ene-3β, 12a, 17a-triol (1) by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. The glycosides have the same triterpene aglycone, but differ in the oligosaccharide moieties.

  16. Application of in vitro stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) cultures in obtaining steviol glycoside rich material

    OpenAIRE

    Luwańska Aleksandra; Perz Aleksandra; Mańkowska Grażyna; Wielgus Karolina

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a plant attracting attention due to its capability to synthesize a group of chemical compounds with sweet taste, i.e. steviol glycosides. Steviol glycosides are successfully applied as a natural sweetener, and some of them have also therapeutic properties. This paper presents available information on the use of stevia plant tissue cultures with the focus on their potential application in food industry. Detailed analysis was done concerning the research employing in vitro culture tec...

  17. Influence of drying method on steviol glycosides and antioxidants in Stevia Rebaudiana leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Periche Santamaría, Angela; Castelló Gómez, María Luisa; Heredia Gutiérrez, Ana Belén; Escriche Roberto, Mª Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The application of different drying conditions (hot air drying at 100 degrees C and 180 degrees C, freeze drying and shade drying) on steviol glycosides (stevioside, dulcoside A, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C) and antioxidants in Stevia leaves was evaluated. Stevioside, the major glycoside found in fresh leaves (81.2 mg/g), suffered an important reduction in all cases, although shade drying was the least aggressive treatment. Considering the antioxidant parameters (total phenols, flavonoi...

  18. Gmelinosides A-L, twelve acylated iridoid glycosides from Gmelina arborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, M; Rosazza, J P

    1998-06-26

    Besides the known iridoids 6-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (1), 6-O-(3"-O-trans-feruloyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (14), 6-O-(2"-O-acetyl-3", 4"-O-di-trans-cinnamoyl)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol (15) and the known phenylpropanoid glycosides verbascoside (acteoside) and martynoside, 12 new acylated iridoid glycosides named gmelinosides A-L (2-13) have been isolated from the leaves of Gmelina arborea. These compounds were structurally characterized using a variety of spectral methods. PMID:9644056

  19. Rate of hydrolysis and degradation of the cyanogenic glycoside - dhurrin - in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Henrik; Damgaard, Lars Holm; Olsen, Carl Erik;

    2007-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are common plant toxins. Toxic hydrogen cyanide originating from cyanogenic glycosides may affect soil processes and water quality. In this study, hydrolysis, degradation and sorption of dhurrin (4-hydroxymandelonitrile-b-D-glucoside) produced by sorghum has been studied in ......%, indicating the importance of enzymatic degradation processes. The highest risk of dhurrin leaching will take place when the soil is a low activity acid shallow soil with low content of clay minerals, iron oxides and humic acids....

  20. 6-Hydroxypelargonidin glycosides in the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Saito, Norio; Murata, Naho; Shinoda, Koichi; Shigihara, Atsushi; Honda, Toshio

    2003-04-01

    Two 6-hydroxypelargonidin glycosides were isolated from the orange-red flowers of Alstroemeria cultivars, and determined to be 6-hydroxypelargonidin 3-O-(beta-D-glucopyranoside) and 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside], respectively, by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, five known anthocyanidin glycosides, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, 6-hydroxycyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside were identified in the flowers. PMID:12648544

  1. Controlling selectivity and enhancing yield of flavonoid glycosides in recombinant yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Sean R; Morgan, John A

    2010-09-01

    Flavonoid glycosides are known for their medicinal properties and potential use as natural sweeteners. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a flavonoid glucosyltransferase from Dianthus caryophyllus was used as a whole-cell biocatalyst. The yeast system's performance was characterized using the flavanone naringenin as a model substrate for the production of naringenin glycosides. It was found that final naringenin glycoside yields increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing initial naringenin substrate concentrations. However, naringenin concentrations >0.5 mM did not give further enhancements in glycoside yield. In addition, a method for controlling overall selectivity was discovered where the glucose content in the culture medium could be altered to control the selectivity, making either naringenin-7-O-glucoside (N7O) or naringenin-4'-O-glucoside (N4O) the major products. The highest yields achieved were 87 mg/L of N7O and 82 mg/L of N4O using 40MSGI and 2xMSGI media, respectively. The effects of two intermediates involved in UDP-glucose biosynthesis, uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) and orotic acid, on glycoside yields were also determined. Addition of UMP to the culture medium significantly decreased glycoside yield. In contrast, addition of orotic acid to the culture medium significantly enhanced the glycoside yield and shifted the selectivity toward N7O. The highest naringenin glycoside yield achieved using 10 mM orotic acid in the 40MSGI media was 155 mg/L, a 71% conversion of substrate to product.

  2. Ultrasonication-Assisted Solvent Extraction of Quercetin Glycosides from ‘Idared’ Apple Peels

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, Gwendolyn M.; H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe; Priya Kathirvel

    2011-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glycosides are physiologically active flavonol molecules that have been attributed numerous health benefits. Recovery of such molecules from plant matrices depends on a variety of factors including polarity of the extraction solvent. Among the solvents of a wide range of dielectric constants, methanol recovered the most quercetin and its glycosides from dehydrated ‘Idared’ apple peels. When ultra-sonication was employed to facilitate the extraction, exposure of 15 min ...

  3. In vitro biosynthesis of the C-glycosidic bond in aloin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, M; Franz, G

    1981-10-01

    Biosynthetic studies with cell-free extracts from Aloe arborescens Mill. demonstrate the transfer of the glucose moiety from UDP-glucose to aloe emodin anthrone, forming the C-glycosidic linkage in the anthracene derivative aloin. The pH-dependence and the specificity of UDP-glucose and aloe emodin anthrone for the biosynthesis of the C-glycosidic bond in aloin are shown. PMID:24301161

  4. THE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME POROUS RESINS AND THEIR ADSORPTION PROPERTY ON STEVIA GLYCOSIDES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYang; ChenTianhong; 等

    1998-01-01

    A series of porous resins (PYR) with different content of pyridyl group were prepared,and their physical structure and adsorption properties on the stevia glycosides were studied in detail.After the selective adsorption of PYR resins,the rebaudioside A could be separated from the other components of the stevia glycosides,and a new method for obtaining pure rebaudioside A is reported.

  5. Kaempferol 3,7,4'-glycosides from the flowers of Clematis cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2013-08-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-glucopyranoside-7,4'-di-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1) was isolated from the flowers of Clematis cultivars "Jackmanii Superba" and "Fujimusume", together with the known compound kaempferol 3,7,4'-tri-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2). The chemical structures of the isolated kaemferol glycosides were established by UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, LC-MS, and characterization of acid hydrolysates. PMID:24079175

  6. A new taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside from the roots of Clematis uncinata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuo-Guo; Li, Man-Mei; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-01-01

    A new taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside, clematiunicinoside I (1), together with four known ones (2-5), was isolated from the roots of Clematis uncinata. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and acid hydrolysis. The cytotoxic activities of all the compounds against caski cervical cancer (Caski) cells were evaluated. This is the first report of the presence of taraxastane-type triterpenoid glycoside in the genus Clematis. PMID:26651184

  7. Characterization and Modeling of the Collision Induced Dissociation Patterns of Deprotonated Glycosphingolipids: Cleavage of the Glycosidic Bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid fragmentation behavior was investigated by combining results from analysis of a series of negative ion tandem mass spectra and molecular modeling. Fragmentation patterns extracted from 75 tandem mass spectra of mainly acidic glycosphingolipid species (gangliosides) suggest prominent cleavage of the glycosidic bonds with retention of the glycosidic oxygen atom by the species formed from the reducing end (B and Y ion formation). Dominant product ions arise from dissociation of sialic acids glycosidic bonds whereas product ions resulting from cleavage of other glycosidic bonds are less abundant. Potential energy surfaces and unimolecular reaction rates of several low-energy fragmentation pathways leading to cleavage of glycosidic bonds were estimated in order to explain observed dissociation patterns. Glycosidic bond cleavage in both neutral (unsubstituted glycosyl group) and acidic glycosphingolipids was the outcome of the charge-directed intramolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2) mechanism. According to the suggested mechanism, the nucleophile in a form of carboxylate or oxyanion attacks the carbon at position one of the sugar ring, simultaneously breaking the glycosidic bond and yielding an epoxide. For gangliosides, unimolecular reaction rates suggest that dominant product ions related to the cleavage of sialic acid glycosidic bonds are formed via direct dissociation channels. On the other hand, low abundant product ions related to the dissociation of other glycosidic bonds are more likely to be the result of sequential dissociation. Although results from this study mainly contribute to the understanding of glycosphingolipid fragmentation chemistry, some mechanistic findings regarding cleavage of the glycosidic bond may be applicable to other glycoconjugates.

  8. Direct analysis of Stevia leaves for diterpene glycosides by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Ayanna U; Tata, Alessandra; Wu, Chunping; Perry, Richard H; Haas, George; West, Leslie; Cooks, R Graham

    2009-05-01

    The analysis of Stevia leaves has been demonstrated without any sample preparation using desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry. Direct rapid analysis was achieved using minimal amounts of sample ( approximately 0.15 cm x 0.15 cm leaf fragment). Characteristic constituents of the Stevia plant are observed in both the positive and negative ion modes including a series of diterpene 'sweet' glycosides. The presence of the glycosides was confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry analysis using collision-induced dissociation and further supported by exact mass measurements using an LTQ-Orbitrap. The analysis of both untreated and hexane-extracted dry leaves proved that DESI can be successfully used to analyze untreated leaf fragments as identical profiles were obtained from both types of samples. Characterization and semi-quantitative determination of the glycosides was achieved based on the glycoside profile within the full mass spectrum. In addition, the presence of characteristic glycosides in an all-natural commercial Stevia dietary supplement was confirmed. This study provides an example of the application of DESI to direct screening of plant materials, in this case diterpene glycosides. PMID:19381377

  9. Extraction, radiolabeling and in vivo biological evaluation of {sup 131}I labeled egonol glycosides extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akguel, Yurdanur; Pazar, Erdinc [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Dept.; Yilmaz, Habibe; Sanlier, Senay Hamarat [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Biochemistry Dept.; Lambrecht, Fatma Yurt [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications; Yilmaz, Osman [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Lab. Animal Science

    2015-09-01

    Crude extract of S. officinalis L. was found to have suspending agent, hemolytic, antitumor, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Its major components benzofurans and benzofuran glycosides have antifungal, anticancer, antibacterial and anticomplement activities and display acetylcholinesterase-cyclooxygenase inhibitory and cytotoxic properties. Recently, it has been reported that egonolgentiobioside is a valuable target for structural modification and warrants further investigation for its potential as a novel pharmaceutical tool for the prevention of estrogen deficiency induced diseases. The aim of the current study is to perform in vivo biological evaluation of a glycosides extract, which was isolated from the fruits endocarp of Styrax officinalis L, identified as egonolgentiobioside and homoegonolgentiobioside and labeled with {sup 131}I. The radiolabeled glycosides extract was labeled with {sup 131}I with high yield. The labeled obtained radiolabeled compound was found to be quite stable and lipophilic. In order to determine its tissue distribution, an in vivo study was performed using healthy female Albino Wistar rats injected by {sup 131}I-glycosides. The biodistribution results showed that clearance of the radiolabeled compound is through the hepatobiliary pathway. The experimental study indicated that the radiolabeled glycosides extract accumulated in the large intestine. Therefore, the potential of {sup 131}I-glycosides might be evaluated in colon cancer cell lines and this might be a promising of tumor-imaging agent.

  10. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26948641

  11. The effects of different processing parameters (cold soak and percent alcohol (v/v) at dejuicing) on the concentrations of grape glycosides and glycoside fractions and glycosidase activities in selected yeast and lactic acid bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Heather

    1998-01-01

    Grape-derived aroma and flavor precursors exist partially as non-volatile, sugar-bound glycosides. Hydrolysis of these compounds may modify sensory attributes and potentially enhance wine quality. Cold soak (prefermentation skin contact) at two temperatures and alcohol content (%, v/v) at dejuicing were monitored to determine effects on Cabernet Sauvignon glycoside concentration. Total, phenolic-free, and red-free glycoside concentrations were estimated by the quantification of glycosyl-...

  12. A New Neolignan Glycoside from the Leaves of Acer truncatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yang Liu

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new neolignan glycoside, (7R,8R-7,8-dihydro-9′-hydroxyl-3′-methoxyl- 8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1′-benzofuranpropanol 9′-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (1 was isolated from the leaves of Acer truncatum along with (7R,8R-7,8-dihydro-9′-hydroxyl-3′-methoxyl-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-O-α-L-rhamno- pyranosyloxy-3-methoxyphenyl-1′-benzofuranpropanol (2, schizandriside (3, lyoniresinol (4, berchemol (5, (--pinoresinol-4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, hecogenin (7, chlorogenic acid (8 and neochlorogenic acid (9. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 was established by its CD spectrum. The antibacterial activities of compounds 1-7 were evaluated.

  13. beta-glucosidase catalyzed syntheses of pyridoxine glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of pyridoxine glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether organic medium using beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions determined for the reaction with D-glucose were 40% (w/w D-glucose) beta-glucosidase at 0.18 mM (1.8 ml) of pH 5 acetate buffer over a 72 h incubation period. Of 11 carbohydrates employed, beta-glucosidase gave 7-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)pyridoxine 5a, 7-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)pyridoxine 5b, 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)pyridoxine 5c, 7-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)pyridoxine 6a, 7-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)pyridoxine 6b, 6-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)pyridoxine 6c, 7-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)pyridoxine 7a, 7-O-(beta-D-mannopyranosyl)pyridoxine 7b, and 6-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)pyridoxine 7c in yields ranging from 23 to 40%. PMID:19129657

  14. Structure and cytotoxicity of steroidal glycosides from Allium schoenoprasum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timité, Gaoussou; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2013-04-01

    A phytochemical analysis of the whole plant of Allium schoenoprasum, has led to the isolation of four spirostane-type glycosides (1-4), and four known steroidal saponins. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry as (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,12β,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (20S,25S)-spirost-5-en-3β,11α,21-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), laxogenin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,11α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (4). Four of the isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against the HCT 116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cell lines. PMID:23357597

  15. A new indole glycoside from the seeds of Raphanus sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hong-Guang; Ko, Hae Ju; Chowdhury, Md Anisuzzaman; Lee, Dong-Sung; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2016-06-01

    A new indole glycoside, β-D-glucopyranosyl 2-(methylthio)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate, named raphanuside A (1), as well as eight known compounds, β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (2), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-α-D-glucopyranoside (3), (3-O-sinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (4), (3,4-O-disinapoyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 → 1)-(6-O-sinapoyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside (5), isorhamnetin 3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucoside (6), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside-7-O-α-L-rhamnoside (7), isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-glucoside (8) and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (9) were isolated from the seeds of Raphanus sativus. Furthermore, compounds 1-3 and 6-9, were isolated from this plant for the first time. The structures of compounds 1-9 were identified using 1D and 2D NMR, including (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY spectroscopic analyses. The inhibitory activity of these isolated compounds against interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in TNF-α stimulated MG-63 cells was also examined. PMID:27193305

  16. Two New Flavonol Glycosides from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Qiu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed chemical investigation of the herb Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate resulted in the isolation of two new flavonol glycosides, namely, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-OE- feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-feruloyl-β-Dgalactopyranoside (2. In addition, four known compounds, quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-Dglucopyranoside (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, quercetin-3- O-(6′′-O-E-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, and isorhamnetin-3-O-(6′′-O-E-pcoumaroyl- β-D-glucopyranoside (6 were obtained. The structures of the new isolates were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis.

  17. [Determination of 7 flavonol glycosides in Ginkgo biloba reference extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-hui; Chen, Jing; Wang, Meng-meng; Fu, Xin-tong; Chen, You-gen; Guo, Hong-zhu

    2015-10-01

    Six flavonol glycosides were isolated and calibrated from Ginkgo biloba extract, and then used to calibrate the content in 2 baiches of G. biloba reference extract, so was rutin. RSD values of rutin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glu- coside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnop-yranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coum-aroyl) - glucoside were around 1.1%-4.6%, nevertheless, RSD values of quercetin-3-O-glucoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were more than 5%. According to the results, the reference extract of G. biloba can be used as the substitute to determine rutin, kaempferol-3-O- rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside-2-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside and kaempferol-3-0-rhamnopyranosyl-2-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside instead of corresponding reference substances. So reference extract in place of single component reference in assay is feasible. PMID:27062820

  18. Antitrypanosomal isothiocyanate and thiocarbamate glycosides from Moringa peregrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyari, Mahdi; Salehi, Peyman; Ebrahimi, Samad Nejad; Zimmermann, Stefanie; Portmann, Lena; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Kaiser, Marcel; Brun, Reto; Rezadoost, Hassan; Rezazadeh, Shamsali; Hamburger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    O-Methyl (1), O-ethyl (2), and O-butyl (3) 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] thiocarbamate (E), along with 4-(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate (4) have been isolated from the aerial parts of Moringa peregrina. The compounds were tested for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and cytotoxicity in rat skeletal myoblasts (L6 cells). The most potent compound was 4 with an IC50 of 0.10 µM against T.b. rhodesiense and a selectivity index of 73, while the thiocarbamate glycosides 1, 2, and 3 showed only moderate activity. Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg/kg body weight/day of 4 in the T.b. rhodesiense STIB 900 acute mouse model revealed significant in vivo toxicity. Administration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day resulted in a 95% reduction of parasitemia on day 7 postinfection, but did not cure the animals. Because of its high in vitro activity and its ability to irreversibly inhibit trypanothione reductase, an attractive parasite-specific target enzyme, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate (4), can be considered as a lead structure for the development and characterization of novel antitrypanosomal drugs.

  19. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominantly beta-anomer of diosgenin glucoside (DG) was synthesized and its effects on cholesterol homeostasis were tested in monkeys. Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were fed, during two 3-week periods, a semipurified diet with 0.1% cholesterol and a similar ration containing 1% DG, respectively. A Chow diet was given for 5 weeks between the experimental periods. Cholesterol and bile acid balance were analyzed during the last week of each semipurified diet. Diosgenin glucoside reduced cholesterolemia from 292 mg/dl to 172 mg/dl, decreased intestinal absorption of exogenous cholesterol from 62.4% to 26.0%, and increased secretion of endogenous cholesterol from -0.8 to 93.5 mg/day. The fecal excretion of neutral steroids rose from 40.7 to 157.3 mg/day; that of bile acids changed, nonsignificantly, from 23.1 to 16.0 mg/day. The cholesterol balance was -44 mg/day in the control period, and 88 mg/day in the DG-fed animals. No toxic signs were observed. Thus, when long-term studies demonstrate that the glucoside is well tolerated, DG and other synthetic glycosides with similar activities may be of use in the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis

  20. Additional Minor Diterpene Glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Prakash

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two additional novel minor diterpene glycosides were isolated from the commercial extract of the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. The structures of the new compounds were identified as 13-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-O-β-D-glucupyranosyl-ester} (1, and 13-{β-D-6-deoxy-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxy} ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid {β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl-ester} (2, on the basis of extensive 1D (1H- and 13C- 2D NMR (COSY, HSQC and HMBC and MS spectroscopic data as well as chemical studies.

  1. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic phenolics and phenolic glycosides from Sargentodoxa cuneata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaobin; Wang, Hai; Gong, Zhongqing; Huang, Jinghui; Pei, Weijing; Wang, Xueyan; Zhang, Jingzhao; Tang, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    Five new phenolic glycosides, Sargentodosides A-E, and two new dihydronaphthalene lignans, Sargentodognans F-G, together with thirty-two known phenolic compounds were isolated from the 60% ethanol extracts of Sargentodoxa cuneata. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments. In bioscreening experiments, twelve compounds (22-26, 29, 33-34, 36, 38) exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus ATCC 29213 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2-516μg/mL. And compound 29 showed the highest antibacterial activity against S. aureus ATCC 29213 with MIC values of 2μg/mL, while the MIC values of levofloxacin was 8μg/mL. Three compounds (29, 33, 36) exhibited antibacterial activities against S. aureus ATCC 25923 with MIC values of 256-516μg/mL. Two compounds (29, 33) exhibited antibacterial activities against A. baumanii ATCC 19606 with MIC values of 128-516μg/mL. However, no compound exhibited antimicrobial activities against C. albicans ATCC 10231. Moreover, three compounds (10, 25, 36) exhibited significant inhibition of proliferation in the two cell lines Hela and Siha, and showed stronger inhibitive activity of these two selected cell lines than cisplatin in the cytotoxic assay. Thus, S. cuneata is a potential plant source for further research targeting bacteria and cancer diseases. PMID:25598187

  2. New approaches to enzymatic glycoside synthesis through directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittl, Roman; Withers, Stephen G

    2010-07-01

    The expanding field of glycobiology requires tools for the synthesis of structurally defined oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates, while any potential therapeutic applications of sugar-based derivates would require access to substantial quantities of such compounds. Classical chemical approaches are not well suited for such large-scale syntheses, thus enzymatic approaches are sought. Traditional routes to the enzymatic assembly of oligosaccharides have involved the use of either Nature's own biosynthetic enzymes, the glycosyl transferases, or glycosidases run in transglycosylation mode. However, each approach has drawbacks that have limited its application. Glycosynthases are mutant glycosidases in which the catalytic nucleophile has been replaced by mutation, inactivating them as hydrolases. When used in conjunction with glycosyl fluorides of the opposite anomeric configuration to that of the substrate, these enzymes function as highly efficient transferases, frequently giving stoichiometric yields of products. Further improvements can be obtained through directed evolution of the gene encoding the enzyme in question, but this requires the ability to screen very large libraries of catalysts. In this review we survey new screening methods for the formation of glycosidic linkages using high-throughput techniques, such as FACS, chemical complementation, and robot-assisted ELISA assays. Enzymes were evolved to have higher catalytic activity with their natural substrates, to show altered substrate specificities or to be promiscuous for efficient application in oligosaccharide, glycolipid, and glycoprotein synthesis. PMID:20427037

  3. Pediatric cardiac postoperative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. José Otávio Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo, Medical School is a referral center for the treatment of congenital heart diseases of neonates and infants. In the recent years, the excellent surgical results obtained in our institution may be in part due to modern anesthetic care and to postoperative care based on well-structured protocols. The purpose of this article is to review unique aspects of neonate cardiovascular physiology, the impact of extracorporeal circulation on postoperative evolution, and the prescription for pharmacological support of acute cardiac dysfunction based on our cardiac unit protocols. The main causes of low cardiac output after surgical correction of heart congenital disease are reviewed, and methods of treatment and support are proposed as derived from the relevant literature and our protocols.

  4. The cardiac anxiety questionnaire: cross-validation among cardiac inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.H. van; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Deelen, F.M. van; Balkom, A.J. van; Pop, G.A.; Speckens, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the D

  5. THE CARDIAC ANXIETY QUESTIONNAIRE : CROSS-VALIDATION AMONG CARDIAC INPATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, M. H. C. T.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude; van Deelen, F. M.; van Balkom, A. J. L. M.; Pop, G.; Speckens, A. E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: General anxiety symptoms are common in patients with cardiac disease and considered to have an adverse effect on cardiac prognosis. The role of specific cardiac anxiety, however, is still unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the D

  6. Immunomodulatory action of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Cucumaria okhotensis: stimulation of activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Stepanov, Vadim G; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2010-12-01

    Six monosulfated triterpene glycosides, frondoside A1 (1), okhotoside B1 (2), okhotoside A1-1 (3), frondoside A (4), okhotoside A2-1 (5) and cucumarioside A2-5 (6), isolated from Cucumaria okhotensis Levin et Stepanov, stimulate spreading and lysosomal activity of mouse macrophages and ROS-formation in the macrophages. The highest macrophage spreading and stimulation of their lysosomal activity was induced by glycosides 1, 4 and 6. All glycosides similarly stimulate ROS formation in macrophages, but glycoside 2 caused minimal stimulation. PMID:21299111

  7. Giant Cardiac Cavernous Hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Eric; Costic, Joseph; Laub, Glenn

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic giant cardiac cavernous hemangioma in a 71-year-old man. The intracardiac mass was discovered incidentally during surveillance for his prostate cancer; however, the patient initially declined intervention. On presentation to our institution 7 years later, the lesion had enlarged significantly, and the patient consented to excision. At surgery, an 8 × 6.5 × 4.8 cm intracardiac mass located on the inferior heart border was excised with an intact capsule through a median sternotomy approach. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course. We discuss the diagnostic workup, treatment, and characteristics of this rare cardiac tumor. PMID:26140782

  8. Perioperative management of cardiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresti, N A; Malik, A A; Ihsan, K M; Aftab, S M E; Khan, W S

    2014-01-01

    Pre-existing cardiac disease contributes significantly to morbidity and mortality amongst patients undergoing non cardiac surgery. Patients with pre-existing cardiac disease or with risk factors for it, have as much as a 3.9% risk of suffering a major perioperative cardiac event (Lee et al 1999, Devereaux 2005). Furthermore, the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is increased 10 to 50 fold in patients with previous coronary events (Jassal 2008).

  9. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Phenolic Glycosides from Clematis tashiroi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Huang, Hung-Tse; Huang, Shih-Yen; Lin, Zhi-Hu; Shen, Chien-Chang; Tsai, Wei-Jern; Kuo, Yao-Haur

    2015-07-24

    From the 95% EtOH extract of dried aerial parts of Clematis tashiroi, eight new and four known phenolic (caffeic acid, coumaric acid, ferrulic acid) glycosides were isolated and characterized. The structures of the new isolates (clematisides A-H) were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation as trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D- glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (1), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-feruloyl-β-D-glucopyranosyll)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (2), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (3), trans-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl p-coumaric acid (4), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (5), trans-3-O-(6-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-9-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl caffeic acid (6), 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (7), and 6-(3',4'-dihydroxystyryl)-2-pyrone-4-O-{6-O-[4-O-(6-O-trans-caffeoyl)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-trans-caffeoyl}-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), respectively. In a DPPH radical-scavenging test, compounds 1, 7, and 8 showed more potent antioxidant activity than that of the positive control, vitamin E. In addition, compound 7 also showed inhibitory activity in an antinitric oxide release assay. PMID:26143931

  10. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  11. Stereoselective Synthesis of C-Glycosides by Suzuki Cross-coupling Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Xiao-Liu; XING,Chun-Yong; WANG,Huan-Xin; TAKAHASHI,Hideyo; IKEGAMI,Shiro

    2004-01-01

    @@ Carbohydrates and their conjugates have been recognized to play a wide variety of metabolic roles in numerous biological processes.[1] Various modified sugars and analogues have been recently synthesized for further investigation of glycosidase reactions and for the development of specific glycosidase inhibitors.[2] As one of the most important carbohydrate mimics, C-glycosides have attracted great attention due to their stability to chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage. A number of methodologies for the preparation of C-glycosides have been extensively investigated.[3] We have recently reported the syntheses of novel C-glycosyl amino acids and amino-C-disaccharides possessing a ketose form via the stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of exo-methylenesugars (1) and nitrones.[4,5] As a continuation of our research on the synthesis of C-glycosides using exo-methylenesugar as the precursor, we wish to describe here a stereoselective synthesis of C-glycosides by Suzuki cross-coupling reaction.

  12. The cardiac malpositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perloff, Joseph K

    2011-11-01

    Dextrocardia was known in the 17th century and was 1 of the first congenital malformations of the heart to be recognized. Fifty years elapsed before Matthew Baillie published his account of complete transposition in a human of the thoracic and abdominal viscera to the opposite side from what is natural. In 1858, Thomas Peacock stated that "the heart may be congenitally misplaced in various ways, occupying either an unusual position within the thorax, or being situated external to that cavity." In 1915, Maude Abbott described ectopia cordis, and Richard Paltauf's remarkable illustrations distinguished the various types of dextrocardia. In 1928, the first useful classification of the cardiac malpositions was proposed, and in 1966, Elliott et al's radiologic classification set the stage for clinical recognition. The first section of this review deals with the 3 basic cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral asymmetry. The second section deals with cardiac malpositions in the presence of bilateral left-sidedness or right-sidedness. Previous publications on cardiac malpositions are replete with an arcane vocabulary that confounds rather than clarifies. Even if the terms themselves are understood, inherent complexity weighs against clarity. This review was designed as a guided tour of an unfamiliar subject.

  13. Hepato-cardiac disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasser; Mahrous; Fouad; Reem; Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mutual relationship between the liver and the heart is important for both hepatologists and cardiologists. Hepato-cardiac diseases can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting the heart and the liver at the same time. Differential diagnoses of liver injury are extremely important in a cardiologist’s clinical practice calling for collaboration between cardiologists and hepatologists due to the many other diseases that can affect the liver and mimic haemodynamic injury. Acute and chronic heart failure may lead to acute ischemic hepatitis or chronic congestive hepatopathy. Treatment in these cases should be directed to the primary heart disease. In patients with advanced liver disease, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy may develop including hemodynamic changes, diastolic and systolic dysfunctions, reduced cardiac performance and electrophysiological abnormalities. Cardiac evaluation is important for patients with liver diseases especially before and after liver transplantation. Liver transplantation may lead to the improvement of all cardiac changes and the reversal of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. There are systemic diseases that may affect both the liver and the heart concomitantly including congenital, metabolic and inflammatory diseases as well as alcoholism. This review highlights these hepatocardiac diseases

  14. Cardiac effects of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien; Dicken, Bryan; Bigam, David; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2014-07-01

    Vasopressin is an essential hormone involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. It has been in use therapeutically for many decades, with an emphasis on its vasoconstrictive and antidiuretic properties. However, this hormone has a ubiquitous influence and has specific effects on the heart. Although difficult to separate from its powerful vascular effects in the clinical setting, a better understanding of vasopressin's direct cardiac effects could lead to its more effective clinical use for a variety of shock states by maximizing its therapeutic benefit. The cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin are complex and require further elucidation. Complicating our understanding include the various receptors and secondary messengers involved in vasopressin's effects, which may lead to various results based on differing doses and varying environmental conditions. Thus, there have been contradictory reports on vasopressin's action on the coronary vasculature and on its effect on inotropy. However, beneficial results have been found and warrant further study to expand the potential therapeutic role of vasopressin. This review outlines the effect of vasopressin on the coronary vasculature, cardiac contractility, and on hypertrophy and cardioprotection. These cardiac-specific effects of vasopressin represent an interesting area for further study for potentially important therapeutic benefits. PMID:24621650

  15. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...

  16. Cardiac pacemaker power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of chemical and radioisotope batteries used in cardiac pacemakers is presented. The battery systems are examined in terms of longevity, reliability, cost, size and shape, energy density, weight, internal resistance versus time, end-of-life voltage, chemical compatibility, and potential failure mechanisms

  17. Stereoselective inhibition by the diastereomers quinidine and quinine of uptake of cardiac glycosides into isolated rat hepatocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hedman, A; Meijer, D.K F

    1998-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic interaction between quinidine and digoxin in patients is well-known, in general requiring a dose reduction of digoxin in patients concomitantly treated with quinidine. Quinine, the diastereomer of quinidine, has not been as extensively studied in this respect. In addition to an i

  18. New insights into the structure-cytotoxicity relationship of spirostan saponins and related glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Labrada, Karell; Brouard, Ignacio; Estévez, Sara; Marrero, María Teresa; Estévez, Francisco; Bermejo, Jaime; Rivera, Daniel G

    2012-04-15

    A variety of spirostan saponins and related glycosides were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human myeloid leukemia cell line (HL-60). A linear glycosylation strategy allowed for accessing a variety of functionalization patterns at both the spirostanic and the saccharide moieties, which provides new information regarding the structure-cytotoxicity relationship of this family of steroidal glycosides. Intriguing results were achieved with respect to hecogenyl and 5α-hydroxy-laxogenyl β-chacotriosides, turning out to be the former very cytotoxic and the latter no cytotoxic at all. Importantly, the partially pivaloylated β-d-glucosides of 5α-hydroxy-laxogenin were the most potent cytotoxic compounds among all tested glycosides. This comprises the first report on acylated spirostanyl glucosides displaying significant cytotoxicity, and therefore, it opens up new opportunities toward the development of saponin analogues as anticancer agents. PMID:22405922

  19. Two new bioactive triterpene glycosides from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yu; Yi, Yang-Hua; Tang, Hai-Feng; Li, Ling; Sun, Peng; Wu, Jun

    2006-01-01

    By activity-guided fractionation, two new triterpene glycosides, violaceusides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the sea cucumber Pseudocolochirus violaceus as active compounds causing morphological abnormality of Pyricularia oryzae mycelia. By extensive 2D NMR techniques and chemical evidence, the structures of the two new glycosides were established as 16beta-acetoxy-3-O-[3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-quinovopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-4-O-sodiumsulphate-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]-holosta-7,24-diene-3beta-ol (1) and 16beta-acetoxy-3-O-[3-O-methyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-4-O-sodiumsulphate-beta-D-xylopyranosyl]-holosta-7,24-diene-3beta-ol (2), respectively. The two glycosides also exhibited significant cytotoxicity against HL-60 and BEL-7402 cancer cell lines. PMID:16753775

  20. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of enzymatically synthesized phenolic and vitamin glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-03-01

    Amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mould and beta-glucosidase from sweet almond were employed for the preparation of phenolic and vitamin glycosides of vanillin, N-vanillylnonanamide, DL-dopa, dopamine, curcumin, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E), pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), ergocalciferol (vitamin D(2)), thiamin (vitamin B(1)) and riboflavin (vitamin B(2)). Approx. 20 enzymatically prepared phenolic and vitamin glycosides were subjected to ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibition activity measurements, and 14 glycosides were tested for antioxidant activities. Both phenolic and vitamin glycosides exhibited IC(50) values for ACE inhibition in the 0.52+/-0.03-3.33+/-0.17 mM range and antioxidant activities ranging from 0.8+/-0.04 to 1.18+/-0.06 mM. Comparable ACE inhibition values were observed between free phenols and vitamin glycosides. However, antioxidant activities of glycosides were, in general, lesser than those of free phenols. Best IC(50) value for ACE inhibition were observed for 11-O-(D-fructofuranosyl)thiamin (0.52+/-0.03 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(6-D-sorbitol)phenylalanine (0.56+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM), 4-O-(D-galactopyranosyl)vanillin (0.61+/-0.03 mM) and pyridoxine-D-glucoside (0.84+/-0.04 mM). Similarly, best IC(50) values for antioxidant activity were observed for 1,7-O-(bis-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)curcumin (0.8+/-0.04 mM), 4-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)vanillin (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 3-hydroxy-4-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1'-->4)beta-D-glucopyranosyl)phenylalanine (0.9+/-0.05 mM), 20-O-(D-glucopyranosyl)ergocalciferol (0.9+/-0.05 mM) and dopamine-D-galactoside (0.93+/-0.05 mM). PMID:18547170

  1. Cardiac fusion and complex congenital cardiac defects in thoracopagus twins: diagnostic value of cardiac CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Jun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Hye-Sung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Most thoracopagus twins present with cardiac fusion and associated congenital cardiac defects, and assessment of this anatomy is of critical importance in determining patient care and outcome. Cardiac CT with electrocardiographic triggering provides an accurate and quick morphological assessment of both intracardiac and extracardiac structures in newborns, making it the best imaging modality to assess thoracopagus twins during the neonatal period. In this case report, we highlight the diagnostic value of cardiac CT in thoracopagus twins with an interatrial channel and complex congenital cardiac defects. (orig.)

  2. The approach to the synthesis of novel amino- C-glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhiwei; Li Xiaoliu; Duan Kefang; Chen Hua

    2006-01-01

    Stereoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of exo-glycals 1 to nitrones 2,5 and 8 were investigated under the catalysis of Lewis acid or in a refluxing benzene or toluene solution,and afforded the corresponding cycloadducts of ketosyl spiro-isoxazolidines.The reductive cleavage of the N-O bond in the isoxazolidine ring and debenzylation by the catalytic hydrogenation [Pd(OH)2/C] were approached using the glucose-type cycloadducts 6b and 6e to alkyl-C-glycoside derivatives 12,providing a new access to a novel alkyl-C-glycoside containing an amino group on the side alkyl chain.

  3. Syntheses of retinol glycosides using beta-glucosidase in SCCO(2) media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein Charles, Rajachristu; Ponrasu, Thangavel; Sankar, Kadimi Udaya; Divakar, Soundar

    2009-10-01

    beta-Glucosidase isolated from sweet almond catalyzed syntheses of water soluble retinol glycosides were carried out in SCCO(2) media with carbohydrates-D-glucose 2, D-galactose 3, D-mannose 4, D-fructose 5, and D-sorbitol 6. Retinol glycosides yields were in the 9-34% range. Reaction with D-fructose 5 gave a highest yield of 34%. Excellent regioselectivity was observed with D-mannose 4 and D-sorbitol 6 which gave exclusively C1beta-mannoside and C1-D-sorbitolide. PMID:19005623

  4. Iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides in the New Zealand sun hebes (Veronica; Plantaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Rilka M.; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Garnock-Jones, Phil J.;

    2012-01-01

    The sun hebes are a small clade of New Zealand Veronica formerly classified as Heliohebe. The water-soluble compounds of Veronica pentasepala, Veronica raoulii and Veronica hulkeana were studied and 30 compounds including 15 iridoid glucosides, 12 phenylethanoid glycosides, the acetophenone...... and F, all derivatives of aragoside. The esters of cinnamic acid derivatives with iridoid and phenylethanoid glycosides and an unusually high concentration of verminoside were found to be the most distinctive chemotaxonomic characters of the sun hebes. The chemical profiles of the species were compared...

  5. A New ent-Kaurane Glycoside from the Stems of Acanthopanax gracilistylus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAN Li-na; QIAN Shi-hui

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents from the stems of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.Methods Thechemical constituents of the plant were isolated and puried by column chromatography and their structures wereelucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral data.Results A new ent-kaurane glycoside,named kaurane acid glycoside A { 16α,17-dihydroxy-ent-kauran-19-oic 19-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-Dglucopyranosyl]ester}(1),was isolated from the n-butanol part.Conclusion Compound 1 is a new one.

  6. Enrichment and separation of rebaudioside A from stevia glycosides by a novel adsorbent with pyridyl group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈天红; 张杨; 刘晓航; 史作清; 孙君坦; 何炳林

    1999-01-01

    The adsorptive capacity and selectivity of a novel adsorbent with pyridyl group toward stevia glycosides were studied. The effect of polarity and physical structure of the sorbent on the selectivity was investigated in detail. Two separation methods were applied in the enrichment of rebaudioside A(RA). They were selective elution using methanol or ethanol solution as solvent, and dynamic chromatographic separation using pyridyl resin with high selectivity. Results show that the chromatographic separation method can effectively enrich RA from stevia glycoside with high content of stevioside.

  7. New Labdane Diterpenes and Their Glycoside Derivatives from the Roots of Isodon adenantha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, La-Bin; Xiao, Chao-Jiang; Jiang, Xue; Qiu, Lin; Dong, Xiang; Jiang, Bei

    2015-08-01

    Two new labdane-type diterpenes (adenanthic acids A and B; 1 and 2, resp.) and three new labdane diterpene glycosides (adenanthosides A-C; 3-5, resp.) were isolated from the roots of Isodon adenantha, together with 23 known constituents including seven diterpenoids (6-12), eight triterpenoids (13-20), one lignan glycoside (21), six steroids (22-27), and one ceramide (28). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including extensive 2D-NMR techniques. Cytotoxicity and antibacterial activities of the samples were measured by the MTT method and the filter paper disc agar diffusion method. But none of them showed significant activities.

  8. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity evaluation of triterpenoids and a monoterpenoid glycoside from Harpagophytum procumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin; Li, Na; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Yu, Bo-Yang; Qiu, Samuel X

    2010-11-01

    A new triterpenoid glycoside, designated harproside (1), and a new iridoid glycoside, named pagide (2), along with six known triterpenoids (3-8), were obtained from the tubers of Harpagophytum procumbens D. C. (devil's claw), and their structures were established through chemical methods and spectroscopic analyses. In an in vitro assay, the six triterpenoids showed anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 3, 7, and 8 showed significant inhibitory activity against neutrophil respiratory burst stimulated by PMA, while compounds 4, 5, and 6 showed marginal inhibitory activity. PMID:20577946

  9. A New Diterpene Glycoside: 15α-Hydroxy-Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Snyder, Tara M; Priedemann, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    In a continued search for novel diterpenoid glycosides, we recently isolated and characterized a Rebaudioside M derivative with a hydroxyl group at position 15 in the central diterpene core from an extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Here we report the complete structure elucidation of 15α-hydroxy-Rebaudioside M (2) on the basis of NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY, NOESY) and mass spectral data. Steviol glycoside with a hydroxyl group at C-15 in the central diterpene core has not been previously reported.

  10. Cordifolide A, a Sulfur-containing Clerodane Diterpene Glycoside from Tinospora cordifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li; Terrazas, Cesar; Lezama-Davila, Claudio M.; Rege, Nirmala; Gallucci, Judith C.; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Cordifolide A (1), a novel unprecedented sulfur-containing clerodane diterpene glycoside, together with other two new diterpene glycosides, cordifolides B (2) and C (3), and four known analogues, was isolated from a methanol-soluble extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation, with that of cordifolide A (1) confirmed by a single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. All isolates were evaluated for their in vitro immunomodulatory activity using mouse bone marrow-derived dentritic cells (BMDCs). PMID:22497272

  11. A New Diterpene Glycoside: 15α-Hydroxy-Rebaudioside M Isolated from Stevia rebaudiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Indra; Ma, Gil; Bunders, Cynthia; Devkota, Krishna P; Charan, Romila D; Ramirez, Catherine; Snyder, Tara M; Priedemann, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    In a continued search for novel diterpenoid glycosides, we recently isolated and characterized a Rebaudioside M derivative with a hydroxyl group at position 15 in the central diterpene core from an extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Here we report the complete structure elucidation of 15α-hydroxy-Rebaudioside M (2) on the basis of NMR (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC-DEPT, HMBC, 1D TOCSY, NOESY) and mass spectral data. Steviol glycoside with a hydroxyl group at C-15 in the central diterpene core has not been previously reported. PMID:26410999

  12. STEROIDAL GLYCOSIDES FROM THE SEEDS OF HYOSCYAMUS NIGER L. AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lunga

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical analysis of the seeds of Hyocyamus niger L. (Solonaceae resulted in the isolation of six steroidal glycosides, two furostanol (1, 2 and four spirostanol saponins (3, 4, 5, 6, which were found in this plant for the first time. The structures of these compounds were determined by detailed analysis of their spectral data, including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and MS spectroscopy. The antifungal activity of a crude steroidal glycoside extract, fractions of spirostanoles and individual glicosides was investigated in vitro against a panel of human pathogenic fungi, yeasts as well as dermatophytes and filamentous species.

  13. Synthesis of O- and C-glycosides derived from β-(1,3)-D-glucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marca, Eduardo; Valero-Gonzalez, Jessika; Delso, Ignacio; Tejero, Tomás; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramon; Merino, Pedro

    2013-12-15

    A series of β-(1,3)-d-glucans have been synthesized incorporating structural variations specifically on the reducing end of the oligomers. Both O- and C-glucosides derived from di- and trisaccharides have been obtained in good overall yields and with complete selectivity. Whereas the O-glycosides were obtained via a classical Koenigs-Knorr glycosylation, the corresponding C-glycosides were obtained through allylation of the anomeric carbon and further cross-metathesis reaction. Finally, the compounds were evaluated against two glycosidases and two endo-glucanases and no inhibitory activity was observed.

  14. Molecular Characterization of a Highly-Active Thermophilic β-Glucosidase from Neosartorya fischeri P1 and Its Application in the Hydrolysis of Soybean Isoflavone Glycosides

    OpenAIRE

    Xinzhuo Yang; Rui Ma; Pengjun Shi; Huoqing Huang; Yingguo Bai; Yaru Wang; Peilong Yang; Yunliu Fan; Bin Yao

    2014-01-01

    Isoflavone occurs abundantly in leguminous seeds in the form of glycoside and aglycone. However, isoflavone glycoside has anti-nutritional effect and only the free type is beneficial to human health. In the present study we identified a β-glucosidase from thermophilic Neosartorya fischeri P1, termed NfBGL1, capable of efficiently converting isoflavone glycosides into free isoflavones. The gene, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 3, was successfully overexpressed in Pichia pastoris at hig...

  15. Sudden Cardiac Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipsy María Gutiérrez Báez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the twentieth century, dying suddenly due to heart-related problems has become the main health issue in all countries where infectious diseases are not prevalent. Sudden death from cardiac causes is an important global health problem. Major databases were searched for the leading causes of sudden cardiac death. It has been demonstrated that there is a group of hereditary diseases with structural alterations or without apparent organic cause that explains many cases of sudden death in young people, whether related or not to physical exertion. Certain population groups are at higher risk for this disease. They are relatively easy to identify and can be the target of primary prevention measures.

  16. Inherited cardiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Charron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Major advances have been achieved over the two last decades in the field of genetic cardiovascular diseases, not only through increased recognition and understanding of underlying molecular defects but also through rapid translation of knowledge into clinical practice. Genetic counseling and organization of cardiac family screening has become part of the medical management of these diseases, and these should be performed systematically unless an acquired cause has been diagnosed...

  17. Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    MILICA RADISIC; GORDANA VUNJAK-NOVAKOVIC

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that clinically sized (1-5 mm thick),compact cardiac constructs containing physiologically high density of viable cells (~108 cells/cm3) can be engineered in vitro by using biomimetic culture systems capable of providing oxygen transport and electrical stimulation, designed to mimic those in native heart. This hypothesis was tested by culturing rat heart cells on polymer scaffolds, either with perfusion of culture medium (physiologic interstitial velocity, supplementation of p...

  18. Cardiac developmental toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Jonathan T Butcher

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is a highly prevalent problem with mostly unknown origins. Many cases of CHD likely involve an environmental exposure coupled with genetic susceptibility, but practical and ethical considerations make nongenetic causes of CHD difficult to assess in humans. The development of the heart is highly conserved across all vertebrate species, making animal models an excellent option for screening potential cardiac teratogens. This review will discuss exposures known to cause ...

  19. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of the glycoside hydrolase activity of a Brettanomyces strain on glycosides from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) used in the production of special fruit beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daenen, Luk; Sterckx, Femke; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2008-11-01

    The glycoside hydrolase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brettanomyces custersii was examined on sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) glycosides with bound volatile compounds. Refermentations by the beta-glucosidase-negative S. cerevisiae strains LD25 and LD40 of sour cherry juice-supplemented beer demonstrated only a moderate increase of volatiles. In contrast, the beta-glucosidase-positive B. custersii strain LD72 showed a more pronounced activity towards glycosides with aliphatic alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenoid alcohols. Important contributors to sour cherry aroma such as benzaldehyde, linalool and eugenol were released during refermentation as shown by analytical tools. A gradually increasing release was observed during refermentations by B. custersii when whole sour cherries, sour cherry pulp or juice were supplemented in the beer. Refermentations with whole sour cherries and with sour cherry stones demonstrated an increased formation of benzyl compounds. Thus, amygdalin was partially hydrolysed, and a large part of the benzaldehyde formed was mainly reduced to benzyl alcohol and some further esterified to benzyl acetate. These findings demonstrate the importance and interesting role of certain Brettanomyces species in the production of fruit lambic beers such as 'Kriek'. PMID:18673394

  1. Preparative Isolation and Purification of Five Flavonoid Glycosides and One Benzophenone Galloyl Glycoside from Psidium guajava by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography (HSCCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yindi Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava leaves have a diverse phytochemical composition including flavonoids, phenolics, meroterpenoids and triterpenes, responsible for the biological activities of the medicinal parts. In particular, flavonol glycosides show beneficial effects on type II diabetes mellitus. A simple and efficient HSCCC method has been developed for the preparative separation of five flavonoid glycosides and one diphenylmethane glycoside from P. guajava. A solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (0.7:4:0.8:4, v/v/v/v was optimized for the separation. The upper phase was used as the stationary phase, and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase. Under the optimized conditions, hyperoside (15.3 mg, isoquercitrin (21.1 mg, reynoutrin (65.2 mg, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside (71.7 mg, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside (105.6 mg and 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzophenone 4-O-(6''-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (98.4 mg were separated from crude sample (19.8 g. The structures of all the isolates were identified by ESI-MS, 1H- and 13C-NMR analyses and their purities (>95% were determined using HPLC.

  2. Indeterminacy of Spatiotemporal Cardiac Alternans

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2007-01-01

    Cardiac alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in action potential duration (at the cellular level) or in ECG morphology (at the whole heart level), is a marker of ventricular fibrillation, a fatal heart rhythm that kills hundreds of thousands of people in the US each year. Investigating cardiac alternans may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias and eventually better algorithms for the prediction and prevention of such dreadful diseases. In paced cardiac tissue, alternans develops under increasingly shorter pacing period. Existing experimental and theoretical studies adopt the assumption that alternans in homogeneous cardiac tissue is exclusively determined by the pacing period. In contrast, we find that, when calcium-driven alternans develops in cardiac fibers, it may take different spatiotemporal patterns depending on the pacing history. Because there coexist multiple alternans solutions for a given pacing period, the alternans pattern on a fiber becomes unpredictable. Usin...

  3. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-11-01

    Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In this article we review the different steps of heart development, focusing on the processes of alignment and septation. We also show, as often as possible, the links between abnormalities of cardiac development and the main congenital heart defects. The development of animal models has permitted the unraveling of many mechanisms that potentially lead to cardiac malformations. A next step towards a better knowledge of cardiac development could be multiscale cardiac modelling. PMID:24138816

  4. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, Meagan M; Hutter, Adolph M; Weiner, Rory B

    2016-01-01

    There are clear health benefits to exercise; even so, patients with cardiac conditions who engage in exercise and athletic competition may on rare occasion experience sudden cardiac death (SCD). This article reviews the epidemiology and common causes of SCD in specific athlete populations. There is ongoing debate about the optimal mechanism for SCD prevention, specifically regarding the inclusion of the ECG and/or cardiac imaging in routine preparticipation sports evaluation. This controversy and contemporary screening recommendations are also reviewed. PMID:27486488

  5. Structural Elucidation and HPLC Analysis of Six Flavone Glycosides from Artemisia frigida Willd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-hu; AO Wu-li-ji; DAI Na-yin-tai

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the EtOAc-soluble fraction from the aerial parts ofArtemisiafrigida Willd.(A.frigida)led to the isolation of three new flavonoid glycosides together with three known compounds.Their structures were elucidated by spectral experiments.At the same time,high-performance liquid chromatographic(HPLC) method was used for the simultaneous determination of the six flavonoid glycosides from the aerial parts of A.frigida.The separation by gradient elution was performed on a Hypersil ODS-2 column(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) at 30 ℃ with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phase,and monitored by absorbance at 276 nm.The parameters of linearity,precision,accuracy and specificity of the method were evaluated.The recovery of the method is 96.50%-98.01%,and linearity(r>0.9992) was obtained for all the flavonoid glycosides.A high degree of specificity as well as repeatability and reproducibility(relative standard deviation values less than 2.0%) were also achieved.This assay was applied to the determination of six flavonoid glycosides in ten samples.The results indicate that the developed assay method was ranid,accurate,reliable and could be readily utilized as a quantitative analysis method for A.frigida.

  6. DFT STUDY OF ALPHA-MALTOSE: INFLUENCE OF HYDROXYL ORIENTATIONS ON THE GLYCOSIDIC BOND

    Science.gov (United States)

    The result of DFT geometry optimization of 68 unique alpha-maltose conformers at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory is described. Particular attention is paid to the hydroxyl group rotational positions and their influence on the glycosidic bond dihedral angles. The orientation of lone pair elect...

  7. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Rabdosia lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)Hara.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Sheng Feng; Xin Yu Zang; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang

    2009-01-01

    A new phenylethanoid glycoside,3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-β-phenylethoxy-P-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-3)-2-O-acetyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,named Iophanthoside A,was isolated from Rabdosia lophanthoides(Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)Hara.Its structurewas determined by spectroscopic evidences.

  8. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeduka, Takao; Suzuki, Shiro; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-06-21

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eugenol levels and up to 22-fold eugenol glycoside levels in leaves of transgenic aspen plants. The overexpression of PhEGS alone resulted in a subtle increase in either eugenol or eugenol glycosides, and the overexpression of both PhCFAT and PhEGS resulted in significant increases in the levels of both eugenol and eugenol glycosides which were nonetheless lower than the increases seen with overexpression of PhCFAT alone. On the other hand, overexpression of PhCFAT in transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco did not cause any synthesis of eugenol. These results indicate that aspen leaves, but not Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, have a partially active pathway to eugenol that is limited by the level of CFAT activity and thus the flux of this pathway can be increased by the introduction of a single heterologous gene.

  9. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M M

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products. They are characterized by bearing a wide spectrum of structures, such as sulfated, non-sulfated and acetylated glycosides. Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones. The majority of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides are of the holostane type containing a C18 (20) lactone group and either Δ(7(8)) or Δ(9(11)) double bond in their genins. The acetoxy group is mainly connected to the C-16, C-22, C-23 and/or C-25 of their aglycone. Apparently, the presence of an acetoxy group, particularly at C-16 of the aglycone, plays a significant role in the bioactivity; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds. This manuscript highlights the structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships. PMID:27527190

  10. Investigation of Breaking Efficiency of N-Glycosidic Bond Between Sulfonamide and Honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-hua; LI Li; CHEN Chia-hung; CHENG Shuenn-ren; LEE Mu-sheng; YU Pu-ping; CHANG-CHIEN Guo-ping

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonamide residue in honey existed in a form bonded to sugar via the N-glycosidic bond.It would result in the possible underestimation of concentration of sulfonamide if it is not decomposed by chemical methods.However,in Mainland China and Taiwan(P.R.China),the regulation for sulfonamide residue analysis does not include hydrolysis and has been applied to a very broad range of samples,for example,egg,milk,meat,seafood as well as honey.This paper demonstrates the necessity of hydrolysis of it prior to extracting honey.The breaking efficiencies of N-glycosidic bond were investigated by 2 mol/L hydrochloric acid,pure methanol and 0.5 mol/L hydrochloric acid in methanol,respectively.It was found that acid plays the key role in breaking the N-glycosidic bond,and it was also noticed that the dissolution of liberated sulfonamide in methanol could carry the reaction forward in favor of breaking the N-glycosidic bond.

  11. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides. PMID:24249153

  12. Phenylethanoid and iridoid glycosides in the New Zealand snow hebes (Veronica, Plantaginaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Rilka M.; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Ryan, Ken G.;

    2010-01-01

    of phenylethanoid glycosides were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Further, eight known phenylethanoids, nine iridoids, 6'-feruloyl-sucrose and mannitol are also reported. It was found that the iridoid profile of the snow hebes was different from the other species of Veronica in New Zealand but similar...... to the alpine Northern Hemisphere representatives of the genus....

  13. New radiopharmaceuticals for adrenal scanning: radioiodine labelled tyramine derivates of heart glycosides and the respective aglycons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to avoid certain disadvantages of the test substances for adrenal scanning currently being used, new radiopharmaceuticals - hydroxyphenylethylamine derivatives from digitalis glycosides - were synthesized, radioiodine-labelled and tested scintigraphically in animal experiments. The new compounds have been shown to be very appropriate, and it can be expected that they are well suited for clinical purposes especially when labelled by 123Iodine. (orig.)

  14. Isolation, Characterization, and Surfactant Properties of the Major Triterpenoid Glycosides from Unripe Tomato Fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamanaka, T.; Vincken, J.P.; Waard, de P.; Sanders, M.G.; Takada, N.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Various triterpenoid glycosides were extracted from whole unripe tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Cedrico), using aqueous 70% (v/v) ethanol to study their surfactant properties. Cation-exchange chromatography using a Source 15S column and subsequent semipreparative HPLC using an XTerra RP1

  15. Three new naphthalenyl glycosides from the root bark of Juglans cathayensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jia-Xiang; Zhao, Xiao-Ya; Fu, Xiao-Fang; Yu, Heng-Yi; Li, Xue; Li, Shu-Ming; Ruan, Han-Li

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical investigations of the root bark of Juglans cathayensis DODE. led to the isolation of three new naphthalenyl glycosides, Jugnaphthalenoside A-C (1-3). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicities of the three new compounds were also evaluated.

  16. Three new C21 steroidal glycosides from the roots of Cynanchum inamoenum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Three new C21 steroidal glycosides named inamoside E (1), inamoside F (2) and inamoside G (3) were isolated from the roots of Cynanchum inamoenum (Maxim.) Loes. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, especially by 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  17. Extraction of steviol glycosides from fresh Stevia using acidified water; clarification followed by ultrafiltration and nanofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Huurman, Sander

    2016-01-01

    As part of the PPS Kleinschalige bioraffinage project (WP1b), fresh Stevia material was used in the extraction of steviol glycosides using water acidified through conversion of sugar by microorganisms naturally present on the plant. Two successive harvests from the same plot were used. Previous expe

  18. Utilisation of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) by lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunová, Gabriela; Rada, Vojtěch; Vidaillac, Adrien; Lisova, Ivana

    2014-05-01

    In the current study, eight strains of bifidobacteria and seven strains of lactobacilli were tested for their ability to grow in the presence of rebaudioside A and steviol glycosides from the sweetener Natusweet M001 originating from herb Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni). Stevia is gaining popularity as a natural, non-caloric sugar substitute, and recently, it was allowed as a food additive by European Union too. Utilisation of steviol glycosides by intestinal microbiota suggests that they might have potential prebiotic effect. Based on the evaluation of bacterial density and pH values in our in vitro study, it was found that lactobacilli and bifidobacteria tested were able to utilise steviol glycosides as a carbon source only to a very limited extent. All strains tested showed significantly lower change in the absorbance A540 (P < 0.05) and pH decrease of the growth media as compared with the positive controls (medium containing glucose as a carbon source and de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth). We concluded that a suggested prebiotic effect was not confirmed either in the case of rebaudioside A or in the case of the sweetener Natusweet M001 containing a mixture of steviol glycosides.

  19. Clerodane and Ent-kaurane Diterpene Glycosyl and Glycoside Derivatives from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five new clerodane diterpene glycosides caseariasides A-E (1-4) and three new ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides C-E (6-8) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses....

  20. A New ent-Labdane Diterpene Glycoside form the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestin (1), a new ent-labdane glycoside, was isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. The structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. The diterpenoid of ent-labdane type was isolated for the first time from C. sylvestris....

  1. Potential anti-inflammatory phenolic glycosides from the medicinal plant Moringa oleifera fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of the ethyl acetate extract of Moringa oleifera fruits yielded three new phenolic glycosides; 4-[(2'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl]isothiocyanate (1), 4-[(3'-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate (2), and S-methyl-N-{4-[(a-L-rhamnosyloxy)benz...

  2. 7-O-methylpelargonidin glycosides from the pale red flowers of Catharanthus roseus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi

    2013-08-01

    Two new anthocyanidin glycosides were isolated from the pale red flowers of Catharanthus roseus 'Equator Apricot with Red Eye', and identified as 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-[6-O-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-galactopyranoside] and 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-(beta-galactopyranoside) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. PMID:24079176

  3. A new benzophenone glycoside from the leaves of Psidium guajava L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zheng Fu; Jing Zhi Yang; Chuang Jun Li; Dong Ming Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A new benzophenone glycoside, 2,6-dihydroxy-4-O-β-D-glucopyranosylbenzophenone (1), was isolated from the leaves of guajava L. Its structure was elucidated by spectral and chemical methods. 1 showed significant activities to secretion of NO in mouse peritoneal macrophages in 10 μmol/L.

  4. Acetylated Triterpene Glycosides and Their Biological Activity from Holothuroidea Reported in the Past Six Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Yadollah; Franco, Christopher M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Sea cucumbers have been valued for many centuries as a tonic and functional food, dietary delicacies and important ingredients of traditional medicine in many Asian countries. An assortment of bioactive compounds has been described in sea cucumbers. The most important and abundant secondary metabolites from sea cucumbers are triterpene glycosides (saponins). Due to the wide range of their potential biological activities, these natural compounds have gained attention and this has led to their emergence as high value compounds with extended application in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, medicinal and pharmaceutical products. They are characterized by bearing a wide spectrum of structures, such as sulfated, non-sulfated and acetylated glycosides. Over 700 triterpene glycosides have been reported from the Holothuroidea in which more than 145 are decorated with an acetoxy group having 38 different aglycones. The majority of sea cucumber triterpene glycosides are of the holostane type containing a C18 (20) lactone group and either Δ7(8) or Δ9(11) double bond in their genins. The acetoxy group is mainly connected to the C-16, C-22, C-23 and/or C-25 of their aglycone. Apparently, the presence of an acetoxy group, particularly at C-16 of the aglycone, plays a significant role in the bioactivity; including induction of caspase, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, anticancer, antifungal and antibacterial activities of these compounds. This manuscript highlights the structure of acetylated saponins, their biological activity, and their structure-activity relationships. PMID:27527190

  5. A Novel Phenylpropanoid-substituted Catechin Glycoside and a New Dihydrochalcone from Sarcandra glabra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan LI; Dong Ming ZHANG; Shi Shan YU; Jian Bei LI; Yong Ming LUO

    2006-01-01

    A novel phenylpropanoid-substituted catechin glycoside glabraoside A 1 and a new dihydrochalcone 3'-(7″-allylphenyl)-2′,4′,4″-trihydroxy-6′-methoxydihydrochalcone 2 were isolated from the herbs of Sarcandra glabra. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chiroptical methods.

  6. Diphenyl Ether Glycoside from the Stems of Ilex litseaefolia Hu et Tang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Hua Xiao; Ai-Lian Zhang; Guo-Lin Zhang

    2007-01-01

    New diphenyl ether glycoside, ilexfoliaoside, was isolated from the stems of Ilex litseaefolia Hu et Tang, along with esculetin and 3,4-dimethoxybenzylacetic acid. The structure of ilexfoliaoside was determined as 6,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-di-vanilloyloxymethyl-1,1'-diphenyl ether 2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  7. Identification, Quantification, and Sensory Characterization of Steviol Glycosides from Differently Processed Stevia rebaudiana Commercial Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinoza, M.I.; Vincken, J.P.; Sanders, M.G.; Castro, C.; Stieger, M.A.; Agosin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different tec

  8. A new macrolide and glycosides from the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Xian Chen; Dai Lin Liu; Wen Yuan Gao; Tie Jun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new macrolide glycoside, cuneataside F was isolated from the n-butanol extract of the stem of Sargentodoxa cuneata. The structure was elucidated on the basis of extensive ID and 2D NMR as well as HRESI-MS spectroscopic analysis.

  9. Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90 Rhamnoside Hydrolase, a New Type of Flavonoid Glycoside Hydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tingqiang; Yu, Hongshan; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Piao, Yongzhe; Ohba, Masashi; Tang, Minqian; Yuan, Xiaodong; Wei, Shenghua; Wang, Kan; Ma, Anzhou; Feng, Xue; Qin, Siqing; Mukai, Chisato; Tsuji, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A novel rutin-α-l-rhamnosidase hydrolyzing α-l-rhamnoside of rutin, naringin, and hesperidin was purified and characterized from Aspergillus niger DLFCC-90, and the gene encoding this enzyme, which is highly homologous to the α-amylase gene, was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The novel enzyme was classified in glycoside-hydrolase (GH) family 13.

  10. Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-08-01

    Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  11. Case Report: Penetrating Cardiac Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Grbolar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Penetrating cardiac injurys caused by gunshots and penetrating tools have high mortality rates. The way of injury, how the cardiac area is effected and the presence of cardiac tamponadecauses mortality in different rates. However the better treatment quality of hospitals, increasingoperative techniques, and internel care unit quality has not been change during the years. Searching the literature, we want to present a 42 years old male patient whowas injured by knife and had a 1 cm skin wound on chest with cardiac tamponade. After sternotomy a 7 cm laseration was observed in heart. Cardioraphy was performed.

  12. Antifibrinolytics in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Dhir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery exerts a significant strain on the blood bank services and is a model example in which a multi-modal blood-conservation strategy is recommended. Significant bleeding during cardiac surgery, enough to cause re-exploration and/or blood transfusion, increases morbidity and mortality. Hyper-fibrinolysis is one of the important contributors to increased bleeding. This knowledge has led to the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents especially in procedures performed under cardiopulmonary bypass. Nothing has been more controversial in recent times than the aprotinin controversy. Since the withdrawal of aprotinin from the world market, the choice of antifibrinolytic agents has been limited to lysine analogues either tranexamic acid (TA or epsilon amino caproic acid (EACA. While proponents of aprotinin still argue against its non-availability. Health Canada has approved its use, albeit under very strict regulations. Antifibrinolytic agents are not without side effects and act like double-edged swords, the stronger the anti-fibrinolytic activity, the more serious the side effects. Aprotinin is the strongest in reducing blood loss, blood transfusion, and possibly, return to the operating room after cardiac surgery. EACA is the least effective, while TA is somewhere in between. Additionally, aprotinin has been implicated in increased mortality and maximum side effects. TA has been shown to increase seizure activity, whereas, EACA seems to have the least side effects. Apparently, these agents do not differentiate between pathological and physiological fibrinolysis and prevent all forms of fibrinolysis leading to possible thrombotic side effects. It would seem prudent to select the right agent knowing its risk-benefit profile for a given patient, under the given circumstances.

  13. A comparative study in vitro of physiological activity of triterpene glycosides of marine invertebrates of echinoderm type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, T A; Anisimov, M M; Popov, A M; Baranova, S I; Afiyatullov, Sh Sh; Kapustina, I I; Antonov, A S; Elyakov, G B

    1982-01-01

    1. The cytostatic and antimicrobial activity of triterpene glycosides of 19 holothurian species of the Pacific tropical zone has been studied. 2. It has been demonstrated that yeast and tumor cells display a comparable sensibility to the action of triterpene oligosides of sea cucumbers. 3. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria are not sensible to the action of glycosides in doses to 500 mkg/ml. 4. Triterpene glycosides-stichoposides, thelothurins and oligosides of Holothuria of genus Bohadschia are the most active in relation to fungal, yeast microflora and tumor cells. PMID:6128178

  14. Cardiac arrest – cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Lenjani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: All survivors from cardiac arrest have received appropriate medical assistance within 10 min from attack, which implies that if cardiac arrest occurs near an institution health care (with an opportunity to provide the emergent health care the rate of survival is higher.

  15. Leadership in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Christopher; Patel, Vanash; Ibrahim, Michael; Ahmed, Kamran; Wong, Kathie A; Darzi, Ara; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Athanasiou, Thanos

    2011-06-01

    Despite the efficacy of cardiac surgery, less invasive interventions with more uncertain long-term outcomes are increasingly challenging surgery as first-line treatment for several congenital, degenerative and ischemic cardiac diseases. The specialty must evolve if it is to ensure its future relevance. More importantly, it must evolve to ensure that future patients have access to treatments with proven long-term effectiveness. This cannot be achieved without dynamic leadership; however, our contention is that this is not enough. The demands of a modern surgical career and the importance of the task at hand are such that the serendipitous emergence of traditional charismatic leadership cannot be relied upon to deliver necessary change. We advocate systematic analysis and strategic leadership at a local, national and international level in four key areas: Clinical Care, Research, Education and Training, and Stakeholder Engagement. While we anticipate that exceptional individuals will continue to shape the future of our specialty, the creation of robust structures to deliver collective leadership in these key areas is of paramount importance. PMID:20884217

  16. Interventional cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala, J; Nykanen, D; Freedom, R M; Benson, L N

    1999-04-01

    Over the past decade, transcatheter interventions have become increasingly important in the treatment of patients with congenital heart lesions. These procedures may be broadly grouped as dilations (e.g., septostomy, valvuloplasty, angioplasty, and endovascular stenting) or as closures (e.g., vascular embolization and device closure of defects). Balloon valvuloplasty has become the treatment of choice for patients in all age groups with simple valvar pulmonic stenosis and, although not curative, seems at least comparable to surgery for congenital aortic stenosis in newborns to young adults. Balloon angioplasty is successfully applied to a wide range of aortic, pulmonary artery, and venous stenoses. Stents are useful in dilating lesions of which the intrinsic elasticity results in vessel recoil after balloon dilation alone. Catheter-delivered coils are used to embolize a wide range of arterial, venous, and prosthetic vascular connections. Although some devices remain investigational, they have been successfully used for closure of many arterial ducts and atrial and ventricular septal defects. In the therapy for patients with complex CHD, best results may be achieved by combining cardiac surgery with interventional catheterization. The cooperation among interventional cardiologists and cardiac surgeons was highlighted in a report of an algorithm to manage patients with tetralogy of Fallot or pulmonary atresia with diminutive pulmonary arteries, involving balloon dilation, coil embolization of collaterals, and intraoperative stent placement. In this setting, well-planned catheterization procedures have an important role in reducing the overall number of procedures that patients may require over a lifetime, with improved outcomes.

  17. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  18. Pneumothorax in cardiac pacing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To identify risk factors for pneumothorax treated with a chest tube after cardiac pacing device implantation in a population-based cohort.METHODS AND RESULTS: A nationwide cohort study was performed based on data on 28 860 patients from the Danish Pacemaker Register, which included all Danish...... patients who received their first pacemaker (PM) or cardiac resynchronization device from 1997 to 2008. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% confidence intervals for the association between risk factors and pneumothorax treated with a chest tube. The median...... age was 77 years (25th and 75th percentile: 69-84) and 55% were male (n = 15 785). A total of 190 patients (0.66%) were treated for pneumothorax, which was more often in women [aOR 1.9 (1.4-2.6)], and in patients with age >80 years [aOR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], a prior history of chronic obstructive pulmonary...

  19. Affect intensity and cardiac arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blascovich, J; Brennan, K; Tomaka, J; Kelsey, R M; Hughes, P; Coad, M L; Adlin, R

    1992-07-01

    Relationships between affect intensity and basal, evoked, and perceived cardiac arousal were investigated in 3 experiments. Affect intensity was assessed using Larsen and Diener's (1987) Affect Intensity Measure (AIM). Cardiac arousal was evoked with exercise in the 1st study and with mental arithmetic in the 2nd and 3rd. Perceived cardiac arousal was measured under optimal conditions using a standard heartbeat discrimination procedure. Women as a group scored higher on the AIM. Affect intensity was unrelated to basal or evoked cardiac arousal and was negatively related to perceived cardiac arousal in all 3 studies. Data suggest that affect intensity, although unrelated to actual physiological arousal, is negatively related to the accuracy with which individuals perceive their own arousal. Results are discussed within the context of an expanded arousal-regulation model (Blascovich, 1990). PMID:1494983

  20. Acid-Assisted Ball Milling of Cellulose as an Efficient Pretreatment Process for the Production of Butyl Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissou, Florent; Sayoud, Nassim; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Barakat, Abdellatif; Marinkovic, Sinisa; Estrine, Boris; Jérôme, François

    2015-10-12

    Ball milling of cellulose in the presence of a catalytic amount of H2SO4 was found to be a promising pre-treatment process to produce butyl glycosides in high yields. Conversely to the case of water, n-butanol has only a slight effect on the recrystallization of ball-milled cellulose. As a result, thorough depolymerization of cellulose prior the glycosylation step is no longer required, which is a pivotal aspect with respect to energy consumption. This process was successfully transposed to wheat straw from which butyl glycosides and xylosides were produced in good yields. Butyl glycosides and xylosides are important chemicals as they can be used as hydrotropes but also as intermediates in the production of valuable amphiphilic alkyl glycosides. PMID:26346950

  1. Cytotoxic action of triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers from the genus Cucumaria on mouse spleen lymphocytes. Inhibition of nonspecific esterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminin, Dmitry L; Silchenko, Alexandra S; Avilov, Sergey A; Stepanov, Vadim G; Kalinin, Vladimir I

    2009-06-01

    Four triterpene glycosides from sea cucumbers belonging to the genus Cucumaria, okhotoside A(1)-1 (1), cucumarioside A(0)-1 (2), frondoside A (3) and cucumarioside A(2)-2 (4) inhibit the activity of nonspecific esterase of mouse spleen lymphocytes. The dependence of the inhibitory activity of the glycosides on their structure is similar to that for hemolytic activity. The absence of inhibitory activity for the preparation Cumaside, which is a complex of cucumarioside A(2)-2 and related compounds with cholesterol, shows a cholesterol-dependent character of the inhibitory action of the glycosides. The effective inhibitory concentrations of frondoside A and cucumarioside A(2)-2 are significantly higher than the immunomodulatory doses of these glycosides. PMID:19634320

  2. Identification and quantitation of glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three tobacco types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Xiang, Zhangmin; Pan, Wenjie; Zhao, Huina; Ren, Zhu; Lei, Bo; Geng, Zhaoliang

    2013-10-11

    Glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three different types of tobacco were investigated. After isolation of extracts obtained by Amberlite XAD-2 adsorption and ethyl acetate elution, glycosides were analyzed after enzymatic hydrolysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) or directly after trifluoroacetylated (TFA) derivatization by GC-MS in electron ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI) mode. In total 21 bound aglycones were identified by β-glucosidase hydrolysis. These aglycones mainly consisted of C13-norisoprenoids, aromatic components and sesquiterpenoids. Additionally, with the aid of enzymatic hydrolysis, 15 β-d-glucopyranosides and 1 β-d-rutinoside were tentatively identified by TFA derivatization. TFA method was validated by repeatability and successfully employed to analyze different types of tobacco. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried out on identified glycoside variables to visualize the difference between the tobacco types and the relationship between the glycoside variables and the tobacco types was established. PMID:24011421

  3. New oleanan-type triterpene and cincholic acid glycosides from Peruvian "Uña de Gato" (Uncaria tomentosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Mariko; Hashimoto, Ken-Ichiro; Sandoval, Manuel; Aimi, Norio; Takayama, Hiromitsu

    2004-10-01

    A new oleanan-type triterpene and three new cincholic acid glycosides were isolated from Peruvian "Una de Gato" (Cat's claw, plant of origin: Uncaria tomentosa), a traditional herbal medicine in Peru. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis.

  4. Physics of Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karma, Alain

    2013-04-01

    A normal heartbeat is orchestrated by the stable propagation of an excitation wave that produces an orderly contraction. In contrast, wave turbulence in the ventricles, clinically known as ventricular fibrillation (VF), stops the heart from pumping and is lethal without prompt defibrillation. I review experimental, computational, and theoretical studies that have shed light on complex dynamical phenomena linked to the initiation, maintenance, and control of wave turbulence. I first discuss advances made to understand the precursor state to a reentrant arrhythmia where the refractory period of cardiac tissue becomes spatiotemporally disordered; this is known as an arrhythmogenic tissue substrate. I describe observed patterns of transmembrane voltage and intracellular calcium signaling that can contribute to this substrate, and symmetry breaking instabilities to explain their formation. I then survey mechanisms of wave turbulence and discuss novel methods that exploit electrical pacing stimuli to control precursor patterns and low-energy pulsed electric fields to control turbulence.

  5. HPLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS Analysis and Biological Activity of Triterpene Glycosides from the Colombian Marine Sponge Ectyoplasia ferox

    OpenAIRE

    Jhonny Colorado-Ríos; Diana Muñoz; Guillermo Montoya; Diana Márquez; Maria-Elena Márquez; Juan López; Alejandro Martínez

    2013-01-01

    The marine sponge Ectyoplasia ferox produces antipredatory and allelopathic triterpenoid glycosides as part of its chemical defense repertoire against predators, competitors, and fouling organisms. These molecules are responsible for the pharmacological potential found in the glycosides present in this species. In order to observe the glycochemical diversity present in E. ferox, a liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometry approach to analyse a complex polar fraction of this ...

  6. [Complexation between triterpene glycosides of holothurians and cholesterol is the basis of lipid-saponin carriers of subunit protein antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeĭka, A N; Popov, A M; Kalinin, V I; Avilov, S A; Sil'chenko, A S; Kostetskiĭ, E Ia

    2008-01-01

    The ability of some triterpene glycosides of holothurians: cucumarioside A2-2 from Cucumaria japonica, cucumarioside G1 from Cucumaria fraudatrix, frondoside A from Cucumaria frondosa, and holotoxin A1 from A postichopus japonicus to form lipid-saponin supramolecular complexes was studied. The formation of supramolecular cholesterol-glycosides complexes between cholesterol and these glycosides in water medium was observed by transmission electron microscopy. These complexes were considered as nanoparticles with different structure. Complexes formed by cholesterol with cucumarioside A2-2, holotoxin A1, and frondoside A are tubular nanoparticles. In contrast, complexes between cholesterol and cucumarioside G1 have different structured. The structure of nanoparticles formed in the presence of cucumarioside A2-2, holotoxin A1, and cucumarioside G1 was dependent on the ratio of cholesterol in the lipid-saponin system. On the other hand, frondoside A did not shown this tendency. In lipid-saponin systems with a similar molar ratio cholesterol-glycoside, the ordering of the supramolecular structure decreases in the following order: cucumarioside A2-2, holotoxin A1, frondoside A. A comparative analysis of the morphology of the supramolecular complexes and the peculiarities of the molecular structure of triterpene glycosides studied, demonstrated that the structure of supramolecular complexes formed depends on the branching and length of the glycoside carbohydrate chain. On the other hand, the formation of monomeric cholesterol-glycosides complexes depends on the peculiarities of the structure of aglycone. Thus, the possibility of the formation of a new type of antigen carries on the basis of marine triterpene glycosides was proved. PMID:18954012

  7. Mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noedir A. G. Stolf

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessment of incidence and behavior of mediastinitis after cardiac transplantation. METHODS: From 1985 to 1999, 214 cardiac transplantations were performed, 12 (5.6% of the transplanted patients developed confirmed mediastinitis. Patient's ages ranged from 42 to 66 years (mean of 52.3±10.0 years and 10 (83.3% patients were males. Seven (58.3% patients showed sternal stability on palpation, 4 (33.3% patients had pleural empyema, and 2 (16.7% patients did not show purulent secretion draining through the wound. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was the infectious agent identified in the wound secretion or in the mediastinum, or both, in 8 (66.7% patients. Staphylococcus epidermidis was identified in 2 (16.7% patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 1 (8.3% patient, and the cause of mediastinitis could not be determined in 1 (8.3% patient. Surgical treatment was performed on an emergency basis, and the extension of the débridement varied with local conditions. In 2 (16.7% patients, we chose to leave the surgical wound open and performed daily dressings with granulated sugar. Total sternal resection was performed in only 1 (8.3% patient. Out of this series, 5 (41.7% patients died, and the causes of death were related to the infection. Autopsy revealed persistence of mediastinitis in 1 (8.3% patient. CONCLUSION: Promptness in diagnosing mediastinitis and precocious surgical drainage have changed the natural evolution of this disease. Nevertheless, observance of the basic precepts of prophylaxis of infection is still the best way to treat mediastinitis.

  8. Platelets and cardiac arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas S De Jong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death remains one of the most prevalent modes of death in industrialized countries, and myocardial ischemia due to thrombotic coronary occlusion is its primary cause. The role of platelets in the occurrence of SCD extends beyond coronary flow impairment by clot formation. Here we review the substances released by platelets during clot formation and their arrhythmic properties. Platelet products are released from three types of platelet granules: dense core granules, alpha-granules, and platelet lysosomes. The physiologic properties of dense granule products are of special interest as a potential source of arrhythmic substances. They are released readily upon activation and contain high concentrations of serotonin, histamine, purines, pyrimidines, and ions such as calcium and magnesium. Potential arrhythmic mechanisms of these substances, e.g. serotonin and high energy phosphates, include induction of coronary constriction, calcium overloading, and induction of delayed after-depolarizations. Alpha-granules produce thromboxanes and other arachidonic acid products with many potential arrhythmic effects mediated by interference with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. Alpha-granules also contain hundreds of proteins that could potentially serve as ligands to receptors on cardiomyocytes. Lysosomal products probably do not have an important arrhythmic effect. Platelet products and ischemia can induce coronary permeability, thereby enhancing interaction with surrounding cardiomyocytes. Antiplatelet therapy is known to improve survival after myocardial infarction. Although an important part of this effect results from prevention of coronary clot formation, there is evidence to suggest that antiplatelet therapy also induces anti-arrhythmic effects during ischemia by preventing the release of platelet activation products.

  9. Metoclopramide-induced cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Rumore

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of cardiac arrest in a patient receiving intravenous (IV metoclopramide and review the pertinent literature. A 62-year-old morbidly obese female admitted for a gastric sleeve procedure, developed cardiac arrest within one minute of receiving metoclopramide 10 mg via slow intravenous (IV injection. Bradycardia at 4 beats/min immediately appeared, progressing rapidly to asystole. Chest compressions restored vital function. Electrocardiogram (ECG revealed ST depression indicative of myocardial injury. Following intubation, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit. Various cardiac dysrrhythmias including supraventricular tachycardia (SVT associated with hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred. Following IV esmolol and metoprolol, the patient reverted to normal sinus rhythm. Repeat ECGs revealed ST depression resolution without pre-admission changes. Metoclopramide is a non-specific dopamine receptor antagonist. Seven cases of cardiac arrest and one of sinus arrest with metoclopramide were found in the literature. The metoclopramide prescribing information does not list precautions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to cardiac arrest. The reaction is not dose related but may relate to the IV administration route. Coronary artery disease was the sole risk factor identified. According to Naranjo, the association was possible. Other reports of cardiac arrest, severe bradycardia, and SVT were reviewed. In one case, five separate IV doses of 10 mg metoclopramide were immediately followed by asystole repeatedly. The mechanism(s underlying metoclopramide’s cardiac arrest-inducing effects is unknown. Structural similarities to procainamide may play a role. In view of eight previous cases of cardiac arrest from metoclopramide having been reported, further elucidation of this ADR and patient monitoring is needed. Our report should alert clinicians to monitor patients and remain diligent in surveillance and

  10. A New Isorhamnetin Glycoside and Other Phenolic Compounds from Callianthemum taipaicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Juan Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A new flavonol glycoside together with five known phenolic compounds were isolated from the whole herb of Callianthemum taipaicum. The compounds were identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-arabinoside-7-O-β-D-glucoside (1, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (2, dibutyl phthalate (3, (+-1-hydroxylpinoresinol-4'-β-D-glucoside (4, pinoresinol-4'-O-β-D-glucoside (5 and 2-phenylethyl-β-primeveroside (6. Compound 1 was identified as a new flavonol glycoside. The compound 6 was isolated for the first time as natural product. All compounds were isolated for the first time from the Callianthemum genus. Furthermore, the 2D-NMR data of the four known compounds 2–5 are given for the first time in this paper. All the structures were identified on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. The compounds 1 and 4 exhibited certain antifungal activity.

  11. Relationships between chemical structures and functions of triterpene glycosides isolated from sea cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-In ePark

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many marine triterpene glycosides have in vitro and in vivo activities with very low toxicity, suggesting that they are suitable agents for the prevention and treatment of different diseases, particularly cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of action of natural marine compounds in cancer, immune and other various cells are not fully known. This review focuses on the structural characteristics of marine triterpene glycosides and how these affect their biological activities and molecular mechanisms. In particular, the membranotropic and membranolytic activities of frondoside A and cucumariosides from sea cucumbers and their ability to induce cytotoxicity and apoptosis have been discussed, with a focus on structure-activity relationships. In addition, the structural characteristics and antitumor effects of stichoposide C and stichoposide D have been reviewed along with underlying their molecular mechanisms.

  12. Synthesis of thymol glycosides under SCCO2 conditions using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tiruppur Venkatachallam Suresh; Sankar, Kadimi-Udaya; Divakar, Soundar

    2013-08-01

    Enzymatic synthesis of water soluble thymol glycosides were carried out using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold under supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) conditions of 120 bar pressure at 50 °C. Thymol 1 formed glycosides with D-galactose 2, D-mannose 3, D-fructose 4, D-ribose 5 and D-arabinose 6 in yields ranging from 20.6% to 54.2%. Spectral characterization studies revealed that the reaction occurred between the phenolic OH group of thymol and 1-O/2-O groups of D-fructose and C-1 group of D-galactose, D-mannose, D-ribose and D-arabinose resulting in monoglycosylated/arylated derivatives. PMID:24425985

  13. Anthraquinone glycosides from Cassia roxburghii and evaluation of its free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Toumy, Sayed A; El Souda, Sahar S; Mohamed, Tahia K; Brouard, Iñaki; Bermejo, Jame

    2012-10-01

    The methanolic extract of the leaves of Cassia roxburghii DC., was investigated for its anthraquinone glycosides and antioxidant activity. Two new anthraquinone glycosides named emodin 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-glucopyranoside (1) and aloemodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-glucopyranoside (2) along with aloemodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), emodin (4), aloemodin (5) and one flavonoid, quercetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of C. roxburghii. Structures of the isolated compounds were established by UV, HRESI-MS, and 1D/2D (1)H/(13)C NMR spectroscopy. The total extract and some isolated compounds were determined against DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)hydrazinyl radical, for their free radical scavenging activity, the total alcoholic extract showed strong antioxidant activity while the two new compounds showed weak antioxidant activity.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of Hapten-Protein Conjugates for Antibody Production against Cyanogenic Glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat Folashade

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of cyanogenic plants can cause serious health problems for humans. The ability to detect and quantify cyanogenic glycosides, capable of generating cyanide, could contribute to prevention of cyanide poisoning from the consumption of improperly processed cyanogenic plants. Hapten-protein conjugates were synthesized with amygdalin and linamarin by using a novel approach. Polyclonal antibodies were generated by immunizing four New Zealand White rabbits with synthesized amygdalin-bovine serum albumin and linamarin-bovine serum albumin immunogen. This is the first time an antibody was produced against linamarin. Antibody titer curves were obtained from all the four rabbits by using a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High antibody titer was obtained at dilutions greater than 1:50,000 from both immunogens. This new method is an important step forward in preventing ingestion of toxic cyanogenic glycosides. PMID:26197297

  15. Carbohydrate analysis of hemicelluloses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of acteylated methyl glycosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Plackett, David; Egsgaard, Helge

    2012-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of acetylated methyl glycosides was developed in order to analyze monosaccharides obtained from various hemicelluloses. The derivatives of monosaccharide standards, arabinose, glucose, and xylose were studied in detail and 13C-labele......-labeled analogues were used for identification and quantitative analysis. Excellent chromatographic separation of the monosaccharide derivatives was found and identification of the anomeric configuration was feasible through a prepared and identified pure methyl 2,3,4,6-tetra......A method based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of acetylated methyl glycosides was developed in order to analyze monosaccharides obtained from various hemicelluloses. The derivatives of monosaccharide standards, arabinose, glucose, and xylose were studied in detail and 13C...

  16. New Acylated Flavonol Glycosides and a Phenolic Profile of Pritzelago alpina, a Forgotten Edible Alpine Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Elisabetta; De Mieri, Maria; Cadisch, Larissa; Abbet, Christian; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Thirteen acylated flavonoid glycosides, 1-13, including eleven new congeners, 3-13, were isolated from the aerial parts of Pritzelago alpina (Brassicaceae) by a combination of column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, and preparative and semi-preparative HPLC. The structures were established by extensive NMR and MS experiments in combination with acid hydrolysis and sugar analysis by GC/MS. The new compounds were shown to be kaempferol and quercetin glycosides acylated for most of them by a branched short chain fatty acid or a hydroxycinnamic acid residue on the sugar portion. As shown by a HPLC-DAD analysis of a MeOH extract, these compounds are the main phenolic constituents in the aerial parts of the plant. PMID:26880431

  17. An Acylated Kaempferol Glycoside from Flowers of Foeniculum vulgare and F. Dulce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahera M. Ezzat

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An acylated kaempferol glycoside, namely kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(2”,3”-di-E-pcoumaroyl-rhamnoside (1 was isolated from the flowers of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and F. dulce DC. It is thus isolated for the first time from family Apiaceae. In addition, the different organs of both plants afforded six flavonoid glycosides - namely afzelin (kaempferol-3-O-α-L-rhamnoside (2, quercitrin (3, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside (4, isoquercitrin (5, rutin (6, and miquelianin (quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (7. Structure elucidation of the above mentioned flavonoids was achieved by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC and EI-MS.

  18. Acylated delphinidin glycosides from violet and violet-blue flowers of Clematis cultivars and their coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Keisuke; Kitajima, Junichi; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2013-11-01

    Three new acylated delphinidin glycosides, delphinidin 3-O-beta-[(2"-trans-caffeoylglucopyranosyl)-(1 --> 2)-(6"-succinylgalactopyranoside)]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (1), delphinidin 3-O-beta-[(2"-trans-caffeoylglucopyranosyl)-(1 --> 2)-(6"-trans-caffeoyl-tartaroyl-malonylgalactopyranoside)]-7-O-beta-glucopyranoside (2), and delphinidin 3-O-beta-[(2"-trans-caffeoylglucopyranosyl)-(1 --> 2)-(6"-trans-caffeoyl-tartaroyl-malonylgalactopyranoside)]-3'-O-beta-glucuronopyranoside (3), were isolated from the violet and violet-blue sepals of Clematis cultivars 'Jackmanii Superba' and 'Fujimusume'. The chemical structures of the isolated anthocyanins were determined by LC-MS, characterization of hydrolyzates, and UV, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The visible absorption spectra of these anthocyanins were compared with those of fresh sepals and crude extracts in pH 5.1 buffer solution. In addition, the co-pigment effect with some kaempferol glycosides and caffeoylglucose was examined. PMID:24427942

  19. Mycotoxins and cyanogenic glycosides in staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Krska, Rudolf; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the incidence and levels of mycotoxins in the main staple foods of three indigenous people of the Colombian Amazon. A total of 20 corn, 24 rice and 59 cassava samples were analysed by a multi-analyte liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method covering the major classes of mycotoxins. In addition, cassava samples were also analysed for cyanogenic glycosides. The indigenous Amazon communities tested are exposed to potentially carcinogenic mycotoxins (particularly aflatoxins), as well as other mycotoxins, mainly through the intake of locally grown corn. Citrinin content in this corn was unusually high and has not been reported elsewhere. Two cassava samples contained high levels of cyanogenic glycosides. It is strongly recommended not to grow corn in the Amazon but instead purchase it from vendors capable of guaranteeing mycotoxin levels below the maximum allowable concentration in Colombia.

  20. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with isorhamnetin glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Moreno-García, Beatriz E; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Alvarez, Mario M; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2014-12-01

    (OFI) contains health-promoting compounds like flavonoids, being the isorhamnetin glycosides the most abundant. We evaluated the effect of OFI extracts with different isorhamnetin glycosides against two different human colon cancer cells (HT-29 and Caco2). The extracts were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH at 40 °C during 15, 30 or 60 min. Tri and diglycosides were the most abundant isorhamnetin glycosides, therefore these compounds were isolated to compare their cytotoxic effect with the obtained from the extracts. The OFI extracts and purified isorhamnetin glycosides were more cytotoxic against HT-29 cells than Caco2 cells. OFI-30 exhibited the lowest IC50 value against HT-29 (4.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL) and against Caco2 (8.2 ± 0.3 μg/mL). Isorhamnetin diglycosides IG5 and IG6 were more cytotoxic than pure isorhamnetin aglycone or triglycosides when they were tested in HT-29 cells. Bioluminescent analysis revealed increased activity of caspase 3/7 in OFI extracts-treated cells, particularly for the extract with the highest concentration of isorhamnetin triglycosides. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that OFI extract and isorhamnetin glycosides induced a higher percentage of apoptosis in HT-29 than in Caco2, while isorhamnetin was more apoptotic in Caco2. This research demonstrated that glycosilation affected antiproliferative effect of pure isorhamnetin glycosides or when they are mixed with other phytochemicals in an extract obtained from OFI.

  1. Epigenetic regulation in cardiac fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ming; Yu; Yong; Xu

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis represents an adoptive response in the heart exposed to various stress cues. While resolution of the fibrogenic response heralds normalization of heart function, persistent fibrogenesis is usually associated with progressive loss of heart function and eventually heart failure. Cardiac fibrosis is regulated by a myriad of factors that converge on the transcription of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins, a process the epigenetic machinery plays a pivotal role. In this minireview, we summarize recent advances regarding the epigenetic regulation of cardiac fibrosis focusing on the role of histone and DNA modifications and non-coding RNAs.

  2. Cardiac perioperative complications in noncardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović Dragana; Kolak Radmila; Stokić Aleksandar; Radovanović Zoran; Jovanović Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Anesthesiologists are confronted with an increasing population of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who are at risk for cardiac complications in the perioperative period. Perioperative cardiac complications are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of perioperative (operative and postoperative) cardiac complications and correlations between the incidence of perioperative cardiac complications and type of surgical ...

  3. Enhancement of production of eugenol and its glycosides in transgenic aspen plants via genetic engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Koeduka, Takao; SUZUKI, SHIRO; Iijima, Yoko; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Bunta; Shibata, Daisuke; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Pichersky, Eran; Hiratake, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenylpropene found in many plant species, exhibits antibacterial and acaricidal activities. This study attempted to modify the production of eugenol and its glycosides by introducing petunia coniferyl alcohol acetyltransferase (PhCFAT) and eugenol synthase (PhEGS) into hybrid aspen. Gas chromatography analyses revealed that wild-type hybrid aspen produced small amount of eugenol in leaves. The heterologous overexpression of PhCFAT alone resulted in up to 7-fold higher eug...

  4. Regioselective synthesis of plant (iso)flavone glycosides in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xian-Zhi; Li, Wen-Sheng; Blount, Jack W.; Dixon, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    The flavonoids genistein, biochanin A, luteolin, quercetin, and kaempferol are plant natural products with potentially useful pharmacological and nutraceutical activities. These natural products usually exist in plants as glycosides, and their glycosylation has a remarkable influence on their pharmacokinetic properties. The glycosyltransferases UGT71G1 and UGT73C8 from Medicago truncatula are excellent reagents for the regioselective glycosylation of (iso)flavonoids in Escherichia coli grown ...

  5. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC) are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high...

  6. Synthetic sugar cassettes for the efficient production of flavonol glycosides in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Prakash; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background A multi-monocistronic synthetic vector was used to assemble multiple genes of a nucleotide diphosphate (NDP)-sugar biosynthetic pathway to construct robust genetic circuits for the production of valuable flavonoid glycosides in Escherichia coli. Characterized functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose and thymidine diphosphate (TDP)-rhamnose from various microbial sources along with glucose facilitator diffusion protein (glf) and glucokinase ...

  7. Characterization and content of flavonoid glycosides in genetically modified tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; DuPont, M Susan; Mellon, Fred A; Davis, Adrienne L; Collins, Geoff J; Verhoeyen, Martine E; Colquhoun, Ian J

    2003-04-23

    There is a growing interest in producing food plants with increased amounts of flavonoids because of their potential health benefits. Tomatoes contain small amounts of flavonoids, most of which are located in the peel of the fruit. It has been shown that flavonoid accumulation in tomato flesh, and hence an overall increase in flavonoid levels in tomato fruit, can be achieved by means of simultaneous overexpression of the maize transcription factors LC and C1. Fruit from progeny of two modified lines (2027 and 2059) was selected for a detailed analysis and individual identification of flavonoids, at different stages of maturity. Nine major flavonoids were detected in the flesh of transgenic ripe tomatoes. LC/NMR, LC/MS, and LC/MS/MS enabled us to identify these as kaempferol-3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside (2), two dihydrokaempferol-O-hexosides (3 and 4), rutin (5), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), kaempferol-3-O-glucoside (7), naringenin-7-O-glucoside (8) and naringenin chalcone (9), which were quantified by HPLC/DAD. All but 5, 6, and 9 were detected in tomato for the first time. The total flavonoid glycoside content of ripe transgenic tomatoes of line 2059 was about 10-fold higher than that of the controls, and kaempferol glycosides accounted for 60% of this. Kaempferol glycosides comprised around 5% of the flavonoid glycoside content of ripe control tomatoes (the rest was rutin and naringenin chalcone). The rutin concentration in both transgenic and control fruits was similar.

  8. Solid-phase de novo synthesis of a (+/-)-2-deoxy-glycoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, Céline; Arboré, Amélie; Pascual, Sagrario; Fontaine, Laurent; Maignan, Christian; Dujardin, Gilles

    2010-04-19

    The solid-phase synthesis of methyl 2-deoxy-3-O-benzyl-D,L-arabino-hexopyranoside was achieved in a six-step sequence via a de novo strategy based on the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl ether supported on an azalactone-functionalized polystyrene resin, followed by the functional modification of the heteroadduct and the final release of the methyl glycoside by acidic solvolysis. PMID:20171610

  9. Clostridium beijerinckii cells expressing Neocallimastix patriciarum glycoside hydrolases show enhanced Lichenan utilization and solvent production

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Contreras, A.; Oost, van der, J.; Claassen, P.; Mooibroek, H.; De Vos

    2001-01-01

    Growth and the production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 on several polysaccharides and sugars were analyzed. On crystalline cellulose, growth and solvent production were observed only when a mixture of fungal cellulases was added to the medium. On lichenan growth and solvent production occurred, but this polymer was only partially utilized. To increase utilization of these polymers and subsequent solvent production, the genes for two new glycoside hyd...

  10. Oblongionosides A-F, megastigmane glycosides from the leaves of Croton oblongifolius Roxburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshige, Yuya; Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2012-08-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a MeOH extract of the leaves of Croton oblongifolius Roxburgh, collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand, six megastigmane glycosides, named oblongionosides A-F were isolated together with eight known compounds, and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. Absolute structures were determined by HPLC analyses and application of the modified Mosher's method. PMID:22683317

  11. Stevia : A True Glycoside Used as a Sweetener and Not Affecting Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Axel Dero, Roger Cammaerts

    2016-01-01

    Using ants as models, the glycoside rebaudioside A, a sweetener extracted from the plant Stevia rebaudiana and commercialized under the name ‘stevia’, was shown to have no effect on their food consumption, locomotion, precision of reaction, response to pheromones, brood caring, cognition, visual and olfactory conditioning and memory, although this sweetener slightly increased the ants audacity. However, when having the choice between stevia and saccharose, the ants somewhat preferred the latt...

  12. Terpene Glycosides from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Hemostatic Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Zi-Long Zhang; Xin Liu; Shuang Zhang; Lu He; Zhe Wang; Guang-Shu Wang

    2012-01-01

    Guided by a hemostasis bioassay, seven terpene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the grounds of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as citronellol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (1), geraniol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (

  13. Methylenebisnicotiflorin: a rare methylene-bridged bisflavonoid glycoside from ripe Pu-er tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Mu-Ke; Xu, Min; Zhang, Han; Chen, Hui; Liu, Chang; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-01-01

    A new methylene-bridged dimeric flavonol glycoside, methylenebisnicotiflorin (1), was isolated from ripe Pu-er tea, along with 10 known flavonoids (2-11) and seven known phenolic compounds (12-18). The structure elucidation was based on spectroscopic analysis. Among them, 1,3-dihydroxyphenyl-2-O-sulfate (13), 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic acid (16) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl (18) are reported from tea plants for the first time.

  14. A male gift to its partner? Cyanogenic glycosides in the spermatophore of longwing butterflies (Heliconius)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Márcio Zikán; Gilbert, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    Males of several insect species transfer nuptial gifts to females during mating, typically in the form of a protein-rich spermatophore. In chemically defended species, males could potentially enhance such a gift with chemicals that help protect the female, her eggs, or both. This was shown for lepidopteran species that accumulate pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Most Heliconius butterflies are presumably protected from predators by virtue of de novo synthesized and/or sequestered cyanogenic glycosides. Males of Heliconius species are known to transfer nutritional gifts to the females but whether defensive chemicals could also be transferred is not known. To ascertain whether transfer of cyanogens occurs, we dissected freshly mated females from nine different Heliconius species and analyzed spermatophores for cyanogenic glycosides. We found cyanogens in the spermatophores of all nine species. This is the first time cyanogenic glycosides are reported in the spermatophores of arthropods. We discuss the implications of these findings for Heliconius biology and for other cyanogenic insects as well. We suggest that chemically defended species commonly lace their nuptial gifts with defensive chemicals to improve gift quality.

  15. Inhibition of aldose reductase by phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the seeds of Paulownia coreana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Yeon Sil; Kim, Seon Ha; Bae, Young Soo; Lim, Soon Sung

    2011-01-01

    Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitors have considerable therapeutic potential against diabetic complications and do not increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Through bioassay-guided fractionation of the 70% acetone extract obtained from Paulownia coreana seeds, phenylpropanoid glycosides (compounds 1-4) and 5 phenolic compounds were isolated (compounds 5-9). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with reported data. All the isolates were subjected to in vitro bioassays to evaluate their inhibitory activities against recombinant human aldose reductase (rhAR) and sorbitol formation in human erythrocytes. Phenylethanoid glycosides showed more effective than the phenolic compounds in inhibiting rhAR. Among the compounds, isocampneoside II (3) was found to significantly inhibit rhAR with an IC(50) value of 9.72 µM. In kinetic analyses performed using Lineweaver-Burk plots of 1/velocity and 1/concentration of substrate, isocampneoside II (3) showed uncompetitive inhibition against rhAR. Furthermore, it inhibited sorbitol formation in a rat lens incubated with a high concentration of glucose; this finding indicated that isocampneoside II (3) may effectively prevent osmotic stress in hyperglycemia. Thus, the P. coreana-derived phenylethanoid glycoside isocampneoside II (3) may have a potential therapeutics against diabetic complications. PMID:21212537

  16. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves.

  17. Influence of Extraction Methods on the Yield of Steviol Glycosides and Antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, Maria Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the application of ultrasound techniques and microwave energy, compared to conventional extraction methods (high temperatures at atmospheric pressure), for the solid-liquid extraction of steviol glycosides (sweeteners) and antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity) from dehydrated Stevia leaves. Different temperatures (from 50 to 100 °C), times (from 1 to 40 min) and microwave powers (1.98 and 3.30 W/g extract) were used. There was a great difference in the resulting yields according to the treatments applied. Steviol glycosides and antioxidants were negatively correlated; therefore, there is no single treatment suitable for obtaining the highest yield in both groups of compounds simultaneously. The greatest yield of steviol glycosides was obtained with microwave energy (3.30 W/g extract, 2 min), whereas, the conventional method (90 °C, 1 min) was the most suitable for antioxidant extraction. Consequently, the best process depends on the subsequent use (sweetener or antioxidant) of the aqueous extract of Stevia leaves. PMID:25726419

  18. Structure-activity relationship for antiinflammatory effect of luteolin and its derived glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odontuya, G; Hoult, J R S; Houghton, P J

    2005-09-01

    Luteolin and its derived glycosides such as a cynaroside, cesioside, isoorientin and stereolensin have been isolated and identified from different kinds of plant species. A (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of stereolensin has been done for the first time. These structurally related flavonoids were examined in vitro for their abilities to inhibit enzymes for the synthesis of thromboxane B(2) and leukotriene B(4) as well as hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Luteolin exhibited a high inhibitory activity against both thromboxane and leukotriene synthesis. In particular, a remarkable inhibitory effect was observed against leukotriene enzyme activity. The glycosides, cynaroside and cesioside, possessed a moderate inhibition activity against both enzyme synthesis pathways, while isoorientin and stereolensin exhibited selectively good activity against thromboxane synthesis. All the flavonoids showed excellent scavenging activity for the hydrogen peroxide at all the concentrations tested. The results demonstrated that the reactivities of luteolin and its related glycosides against arachidonic acid synthesis and hydrogen peroxide scavenging are dependent on their molecular structures. The presence of ortho-dihydroxy groups at the B ring and OH substitution pattern at C-5 position of the A ring could significantly contribute to the antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of flavonoids. PMID:16220571

  19. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Norihiko; Watanabe, Go

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of the significant advantages of minimizing surgical trauma has resulted in the development of minimally invasive surgical procedures. Endoscopic surgery offers patients the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, and surgical robots have enhanced the ability and precision of surgeons. Consequently, technological advances have facilitated totally endoscopic robotic cardiac surgery, which has allowed surgeons to operate endoscopically rather than through a median sternotomy during cardiac surgery. Thus, repairs for structural heart conditions, including mitral valve plasty, atrial septal defect closure, multivessel minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting (MIDCAB), and totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), can be totally endoscopic. Robot-assisted cardiac surgery as minimally invasive cardiac surgery is reviewed. PMID:26134073

  20. Recent developments in cardiac pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodak, D J

    1995-10-01

    Indications for cardiac pacing continue to expand. Pacing to improve functional capacity, which is now common, relies on careful patient selection and technical improvements, such as complex software algorithms and diagnostic capabilities.

  1. Robotic Applications in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P. Kypson

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cardiac surgery has been performed through a median sternotomy, which allows the surgeon generous access to the heart and surrounding great vessels. As a paradigm shift in the size and location of incisions occurs in cardiac surgery, new methods have been developed to allow the surgeon the same amount of dexterity and accessibility to the heart in confined spaces and in a less invasive manner. Initially, long instruments without pivot points were used, however, more recent robotic telemanipulation systems have been applied that allow for improved dexterity, enabling the surgeon to perform cardiac surgery from a distance not previously possible. In this rapidly evolving field, we review the recent history and clinical results of using robotics in cardiac surgery.

  2. Cardiac Biomarkers in Hyperthyroid Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Sangster, Jodi Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyperthyroidism has substantial effects on the circulatory system. The cardiac biomarkers NT-proBNP and troponin I (cTNI) have proven useful in identifying cats with myocardial disease but have not been as extensively investigated in hyperthyroidism.Hypothesis: Plasma NT-proBNP and cTNI concentrations are higher in cats with primary cardiac disease than in cats with hyperthyroidism and higher in cats with hyperthyroidism than in healthy control cats.Animals: Twenty-three hyperthyr...

  3. Cardiac manifestations in systemic sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sevdalina; Lambova

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, which develops as a direct consequence of systemic sclerosis(SSc), may manifest as myocardial damage, fibrosis of the conduction system, pericardial and, less frequently, as valvular disease. In addition, cardiac complications in SSc may develop as a secondary phenomenon due to pulmonary arterial hypertension and kidney pathology. The prevalence of primary cardiac involvement in SSc is variable and difficult to determine because of the diversity of cardiac manifestations, the presence of subclinical periods, the type of diagnostic tools applied, and the diversity of patient populations. When clinically manifested, cardiac involvement is thought to be an important prognostic factor. Profound microvascular disease is a pathognomonic feature of SSc, as both vasospasm and structural alterations are present. Such alterations are thought to predict macrovascular atherosclerosis over time. There are contradictory reports regarding the prevalence of atherosclerosis in SSc. According to some authors, the prevalence of atherosclerosis of the large epicardial coronary arteries is similar to that of the general population, in contrast with other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the level of inflammation in SSc is inferior. Thus, the atherosclerotic process may not be as aggressive and not easily detectable in smaller studies. Echocardiography(especially tissue Doppler imaging), single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and cardiac computed tomography are sensitive techniques for earlier detection of both structural and functional scleroderma-related cardiac pathologies. Screening for subclinical cardiac involvement via modern, sensitive tools provides an opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment, which is of crucial importance for a positive outcome.

  4. Computational Modeling of Cardiac Electromechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are a leading cause of death worldwide. Notably, the electrophysiologiy and microstructural requirements for a fatal ventricular arrhythmia remain incompletely understood, thereby the treatment remains largely empirical. Standard antiarrhythmic drug therapy has failed to reduce, and in some instances has increased, the incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD). Hence, a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that foment a fatal arrhythmia is needed and computational m...

  5. Current trends in cardiac rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Dafoe, W; Huston, P

    1997-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation can reduce mortality and morbidity for patients with many types of cardiac disease cost-effectively, yet is generally underutilized. Rehabilitation is helpful not only for patients who have had a myocardial infarction but also for those with stable angina or congestive heart failure or those who have undergone myocardial revascularization procedures, a heart transplant or heart valve surgery. The beneficial effects of rehabilitation include a reduction in the rate of de...

  6. An overview of cardiac morphogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Schleich, Jean-Marc; Abdulla, Tariq; Summers, Ron; Houyel, Lucile

    2013-01-01

    International audience Accurate knowledge of normal cardiac development is essential for properly understanding the morphogenesis of congenital cardiac malformations that represent the most common congenital anomaly in newborns. The heart is the first organ to function during embryonic development and is fully formed at 8 weeks of gestation. Recent studies stemming from molecular genetics have allowed specification of the role of cellular precursors in the field of heart development. In th...

  7. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  8. FGF21 and cardiac physiopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna ePlanavila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The heart is not traditionally considered either a target or a site of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21 production. However, recent findings indicate that FGF21 can act as a cardiomyokine; that is, it is produced by cardiac cells at significant levels and acts in an autocrine manner on the heart itself. The heart is sensitive to the effects of FGF21, both systemic and locally generated, owing to the expression in cardiomyocytes of β-Klotho, the key co-receptor known to confer specific responsiveness to FGF21 action. FGF21 has been demonstrated to protect against cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac inflammation, and oxidative stress. FGF21 expression in the heart is induced in response to cardiac insults, such as experimental cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial infarction in rodents, as well as in failing human hearts. Intracellular mechanisms involving PPARα and Sirt1 mediate transcriptional regulation of the FGF21 gene in response to exogenous stimuli. In humans, circulating FGF21 levels are elevated in coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis, and are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. These findings provide new insights into the role of FGF21 in the heart and may offer potential therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.

  9. [Stem cells and cardiac regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Millan, Maria Ines; Lorenti, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by virtue of their functional attributes: absence of tissue specific differentitated markers, capable of proliferation, able to self-maintain the population, able to produce a large number of differentiated, functional progeny, able to regenerate the tissue after injury. Cell therapy is an alternative for the treatment of several diseases, like cardiac diseases (cell cardiomyoplasty). A variety of stem cells could be used for cardiac repair: from cardiac and extracardiac sources. Each cell type has its own profile of advantages, limitations, and practicability issues in specific clinical settings. Differentiation of bone marrow stem cells to cardiomyocyte-like cells have been observed under different culture conditions. The presence of resident cardiac stem cell population capable of differentiation into cardiomyocyte or vascular lineage suggests that these cells could be used for cardiac tissue repair, and represent a great promise for clinical application. Stem cells mobilization by cytokines may also offer a strategy for cardiac regeneration. The use of stem cells (embryonic and adult) may hold the key to replacing cells lost in many devastating diseases. This potential benefit is a major focus for stem cell research.

  10. Cardiac Regeneration and Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqiang; Mignone, John; MacLellan, W Robb

    2015-10-01

    After decades of believing the heart loses the ability to regenerate soon after birth, numerous studies are now reporting that the adult heart may indeed be capable of regeneration, although the magnitude of new cardiac myocyte formation varies greatly. While this debate has energized the field of cardiac regeneration and led to a dramatic increase in our understanding of cardiac growth and repair, it has left much confusion in the field as to the prospects of regenerating the heart. Studies applying modern techniques of genetic lineage tracing and carbon-14 dating have begun to establish limits on the amount of endogenous regeneration after cardiac injury, but the underlying cellular mechanisms of this regeneration remained unclear. These same studies have also revealed an astonishing capacity for cardiac repair early in life that is largely lost with adult differentiation and maturation. Regardless, this renewed focus on cardiac regeneration as a therapeutic goal holds great promise as a novel strategy to address the leading cause of death in the developed world.

  11. Cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm;

    2014-01-01

    genetic testing for DM1. Information on incident cardiac diseases was obtained from the NPR. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cardiac disease compared with the background population, overall and according to selected diagnostic subgroups (cardiomyopathy, heart failure, conduction...... disorders, arrhythmias, and device implantation). In the DM cohort, SIR for any cardiac disease was 3.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.01-3.86]; for a cardiac disease belonging to the selected subgroups 6.91 (95% CI: 5.93-8.01) and for other cardiac disease 2.59 (95% CI: 2.03-3.25). For a cardiac disease...... belonging to the selected subgroups, the risk was particularly high in the first year after DM diagnosis [SIR 15.4 (95% CI: 10.9-21.3)] but remained significantly elevated in subsequent years [SIR 6.07 (95% CI: 5.11-7.16]). The risk was higher in young cohort members [e.g. 20-39 years: SIR 18.1 (95% CI: 12...

  12. Cardiac imaging. A multimodality approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelen, Manfred [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany); Erbel, Raimund [University Hospital Essen (Germany). Dept. of Cardiology; Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Johannes Gutenberg University Hospital, Mainz (Germany). Clinic and Polyclinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Barkhausen, Joerg (eds.) [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2009-07-01

    An excellent atlas on modern diagnostic imaging of the heart Written by an interdisciplinary team of experts, Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach features an in-depth introduction to all current imaging modalities for the diagnostic assessment of the heart as well as a clinical overview of cardiac diseases and main indications for cardiac imaging. With a particular emphasis on CT and MRI, the first part of the atlas also covers conventional radiography, echocardiography, angiography and nuclear medicine imaging. Leading specialists demonstrate the latest advances in the field, and compare the strengths and weaknesses of each modality. The book's second part features clinical chapters on heart defects, endocarditis, coronary heart disease, cardiomyopathies, myocarditis, cardiac tumors, pericardial diseases, pulmonary vascular diseases, and diseases of the thoracic aorta. The authors address anatomy, pathophysiology, and clinical features, and evaluate the various diagnostic options. Key features: - Highly regarded experts in cardiology and radiology off er image-based teaching of the latest techniques - Readers learn how to decide which modality to use for which indication - Visually highlighted tables and essential points allow for easy navigation through the text - More than 600 outstanding images show up-to-date technology and current imaging protocols Cardiac Imaging: A Multimodality Approach is a must-have desk reference for cardiologists and radiologists in practice, as well as a study guide for residents in both fields. It will also appeal to cardiac surgeons, general practitioners, and medical physicists with a special interest in imaging of the heart. (orig.)

  13. Risk factors and the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on cardiac and non-cardiac mortality in MADIT-CRT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkiomaki, Juha S; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Kutyifa, Valentina;

    2015-01-01

    causes, 108 (63.9%) deemed cardiac, and 61 (36.1%) non-cardiac. In multivariate analysis, increased baseline creatinine was significantly associated with both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths [hazard ratio (HR) 2.97, P ...AIMS: To understand modes of death and factors associated with the risk for cardiac and non-cardiac deaths in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) vs. implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy, which may help clarify...... the action and limitations of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in relieving myocardial dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: In Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT), during 4 years of follow-up, 169 (9.3%) of 1820 patients died of known...

  14. Bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of a single meal of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosides: a crossover study in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Klaus; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cyanide is determined by its peak levels reached in the body. Compared to the ingestion of free cyanide, lower peak levels may be expected after consumption of foods containing cyanogenic glycosides with the same equivalent dose of cyanide. This is due to possible delayed and/or incomplete release of cyanide from the cyanogenic glycosides depending on many factors. Data on bioavailability of cyanide after consumption of foods containing high levels of cyanogenic glycosid...

  15. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  16. Evaluation of the Antihyperglycemic Effect of Minor Steviol Glycosides in Normoglycemic and Induced-Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-González, Irma; Moguel-Ordóñez, Yolanda; Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Segura-Campos, Maira; Betancur-Ancona, David

    2016-09-01

    Steviol glycosides are a family of compounds found in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni that are responsible for sweetness capacity. The antihyperglycemic effect of the two major steviol glycosides, Rebaudioside A and Stevioside, has been studied and it has been found that despite having the same common structure, only Stevioside exerts an antihyperglycemic effect. Although other steviol derivatives are found in smaller amounts (minor steviol glycosides) in S. rebaudiana, whether or not they possess antihyperglycemic activity has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antihyperglycemic effect of minor steviol glycosides in normoglycemic and diabetic (streptozotocin/nicotinamide) Wistar rats. Rats were subjected to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) both before and after chronic treatment (28 days). After 6 h of fasting, IPGTT was conducted in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats using 1 g/kg of glucose plus 20 mg/kg of the minor glycoside (Dulcoside A, Rebaudioside B, C, D, or Steviolbioside) or control treatment (distilled water, glibenclamide, or metformin); the blood of the tip of the tail was collected at time 0, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min.; and blood glucose was measured, and its net area under the curve (AUCnet) was calculated. After 28-day chronic oral administration, IPGTT was again performed. Differences were considered significant at P < .05 by one-way ANOVA. Acute intraperitoneal or chronic oral administration of 20 mg/kg of minor steviol glycosides had no antihyperglycemic effect in normoglycemic or induced-diabetic Wistar rats. Considering the dose tested, it is unlikely that these glycosides have an effect on glucose in diabetic or normoglycemic humans. PMID:27513814

  17. Structural Analysis of a Family 101 Glycoside Hydrolase in Complex with Carbohydrates Reveals Insights into Its Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katie J; Suits, Michael D L; Deng, Lehua; Vocadlo, David J; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2015-10-16

    O-Linked glycosylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications of proteins. Within the secretory pathway of higher eukaryotes, the core of these glycans is frequently an N-acetylgalactosamine residue that is α-linked to serine or threonine residues. Glycoside hydrolases in family 101 are presently the only known enzymes to be able to hydrolyze this glycosidic linkage. Here we determine the high-resolution structures of the catalytic domain comprising a fragment of GH101 from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4, SpGH101, in the absence of carbohydrate, and in complex with reaction products, inhibitor, and substrate analogues. Upon substrate binding, a tryptophan lid (residues 724-WNW-726) closes on the substrate. The closing of this lid fully engages the substrate in the active site with Asp-764 positioned directly beneath C1 of the sugar residue bound within the -1 subsite, consistent with its proposed role as the catalytic nucleophile. In all of the bound forms of the enzyme, however, the proposed catalytic acid/base residue was found to be too distant from the glycosidic oxygen (>4.3 Å) to serve directly as a general catalytic acid/base residue and thereby facilitate cleavage of the glycosidic bond. These same complexes, however, revealed a structurally conserved water molecule positioned between the catalytic acid/base and the glycosidic oxygen. On the basis of these structural observations we propose a new variation of the retaining glycoside hydrolase mechanism wherein the intervening water molecule enables a Grotthuss proton shuttle between Glu-796 and the glycosidic oxygen, permitting this residue to serve as the general acid/base catalytic residue.

  18. Direct synthesis of C-glycosides from unprotected 2-N-acyl-aldohexoses via aldol condensation-oxa-Michael reactions with unactivated ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sherida; Tanaka, Fujie

    2016-01-01

    C-glycosides are important compounds as they are used as bioactive molecules and building blocks. We have developed methods to concisely synthesize C-glycosides from unprotected 2-N-acyl-aldohexoses and unactivated ketones; we designed aldol-condensation-oxa-Michael addition reactions catalyzed by amine-based catalysts using additives. Depending on the conditions used, C-glycosides were stereoselectively obtained. Our methods allowed the C-C bond formations at the anomeric centers of unprotected carbohydrates under mild conditions to lead the C-glycosides in atom- and step-economical ways. PMID:26565955

  19. Patch in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Alizadeh Ghavidel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excessive bleeding presents a risk for the patient in cardiovascular surgery. Local haemostatic agents are of great value to reduce bleeding and related complications. TachoSil (Nycomed, Linz, Austria is a sterile, haemostatic agent that consists of an equine collagen patchcoated with human fibrinogen and thrombin. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of TachoSil compared to conventional technique.Methods: Forty-two patients scheduled for open heart surgeries, were entered to this study from August 2010 to May 2011. After primary haemostatic measures, patients divided in two groups based on surgeon’s judgment. Group A: 20 patients for whom TachoSil was applied and group B: 22 patients that conventional method using Surgicel (13 patients or wait and see method (9 cases, were performed in order to control the bleeding. In group A, 10 patients were male with mean age of 56.95±15.67 years and in group B, 9 cases were male with mean age of 49.95±14.41 years. In case group 70% (14/20 of the surgeries were redo surgeries versus 100% (22/22 in control group.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. In TachoSil group 75% of patients required transfusion versus 90.90% in group B (P=0.03.Most transfusions consisted of packed red blood cell; 2±1.13 units in group A versus 3.11±1.44 in group B (P=0.01, however there were no significant differences between two groups regarding the mean total volume of intra and post-operative bleeding. Re-exploration was required in 10% in group A versus 13.63% in group B (P=0.67.Conclusion: TachoSil may act as a superior alternative in different types of cardiac surgery in order to control the bleeding and therefore reducing transfusion requirement.

  20. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  1. Computed tomography of cardiac pseudotumors and neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anavekar, Nandan S; Bonnichsen, Crystal R; Foley, Thomas A; Morris, Michael F; Martinez, Matthew W; Williamson, Eric E; Glockner, James F; Miller, Dylan V; Breen, Jerome F; Araoz, Philip A

    2010-07-01

    Important features of cardiac masses can be clearly delineated on cardiac computed tomography (CT) imaging. This modality is useful in identifying the presence of a mass, its relationship with cardiac and extracardiac structures, and the features that distinguish one type of mass from another. A multimodality approach to the evaluation of cardiac tumors is advocated, with the use of echocardiography, CT imaging and magnetic resonance imaging as appropriately indicated. In this article, various cardiac masses are described, including pseudotumors and true cardiac neoplasms, and the CT imaging findings that may be useful in distinguishing these rare entities are presented. PMID:20705174

  2. Cardiac Penetrating Injuries and Pseudoaneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shifeng

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the early diagnosis and treatment of cardiac penetrating injuries and pseudoaneurysm. Methods 18 cases of cardiac penetrating injuries, in which 2 cases were complicated with pseudoaneurysm, were diagnosed by emergency operation and color Doppler echocardiography between May 1973 and Dec. 2001 in our hospital. The basis for emergency operation is the injured path locating in cardiac dangerous zone, severe shock or pericardial tamponade. ResultsAmong 18 cases of this study, 17 cases underwent emergency operation. During the operation, 11 cases were found injured in right ventricle, 2 cases were found injured in right atrium, 1 case was found injured in pulmonary artery,4 cases were found injured in left ventricle, 2 cases were found complicated with pseudoaneurysm. 17cases underwent cardiac repair including 1 case of rupture of aneurysm. 1 case underwent elective aneurysm resection. In whole group, 15 cases survived(83.33% ), 3 cases died( 16.67%). The cause of death is mainly hemorrhagic shock. Conclusion Highly suspicious cardiac penetrating injuries or hemopericaridium should undergo direct operative exploration. Pseudoaneurysm should be resected early,which can prevent severe complications.

  3. Vitamin D and Cardiac Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene M; Norris, Keith C; Artaza, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-D3) is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D. Experimental studies of vitamin D receptors and 1,25-D3 establish calcitriol to be a critical regulator of the structure and function of the heart. Clinical studies link vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Emerging evidence demonstrates that calcitriol is highly involved in CVD-related signaling pathways, particularly the Wnt signaling pathway. Addition of 1,25-D3 to cardiomyocyte cells and examination of its effects on cardiomyocytes and mainly Wnt11 signaling allowed the specific characterization of the role of calcitriol in cardiac differentiation. 1,25-D3 is demonstrated to: (i) inhibit cell proliferation without promoting apoptosis; (ii) decrease expression of genes related to the regulation of the cell cycle; (iii) promote formation of cardiomyotubes; (iv) induce expression of casein kinase-1-α1, a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway; and (v) increase expression of noncanonical Wnt11, which has been recognized to induce cardiac differentiation during embryonic development and in adult cells. Thus, it appears that vitamin D promotes cardiac differentiation through negative modulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and upregulation of noncanonical Wnt11 expression. Future work to elucidate the role(s) of vitamin D in cardiovascular disorders will hopefully lead to improvement and potentially prevention of CVD, including abnormal cardiac differentiation in settings such as postinfarction cardiac remodeling. PMID:26827957

  4. Cardiac factors in orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löllgen, H.; Dirschedl, P.; Koppenhagen, K.; Klein, K. E.

    Cardiac function is determined by preload, afterload, heart rate and contractility. During orthostatic stress, the footward blood shift is compensated for by an increase of afterload. LBNP is widely used to analyze effects of volume displacement during orthostatic stress. Comparisons of invasive ( right heart catheterization) and non-invasive approach (echocardiography) yielded similar changes. Preload and afterload change with graded LBNP, heart rate increases, and stroke volume and cardiac output decrease. Thus, the working point on the left ventricular function curve is shifted to the left and downward, similar to hypovolemia. However, position on the Frank-Starling curve, the unchanged ejection fraction, and the constant Vcf indicate a normal contractile state during LBNP. A decrease of arterial oxygen partial pressure during LBNP shwos impaired ventilation/perfusion ratio. Finally, LBNP induced cardiac and hemodynamic changes can be effectively countermeasured by dihydroergotamine, a potent venoconstrictor. Comparison of floating catheter data with that of echocardiography resulted in close correlation for cardiac output and stroke volume. In addition, cardiac dimensions changed in a similar way during LBNP. From our findings, echocardiography as a non-invasive procedure can reliably used in LBNP and orthostatic stress tests. Some informations can be obtained on borderline values indicating collaps or orthostatic syncope. Early fainters can be differentiated from late fainters by stroke volume changes.

  5. Animal models of cardiac cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Francesca; Malara, Natalia; Mollace, Vincenzo; Rosano, Giuseppe; Ferraro, Elisabetta

    2016-09-15

    Cachexia is the loss of body weight associated with several chronic diseases including chronic heart failure (CHF). The cachectic condition is mainly due to loss of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue depletion. The majority of experimental in vivo studies on cachexia rely on animal models of cancer cachexia while a reliable and appropriate model for cardiac cachexia has not yet been established. A critical issue in generating a cardiac cachexia model is that genetic modifications or pharmacological treatments impairing the heart functionality and used to obtain the heart failure model might likely impair the skeletal muscle, this also being a striated muscle and sharing with the myocardium several molecular and physiological mechanisms. On the other hand, often, the induction of heart damage in the several existing models of heart failure does not necessarily lead to skeletal muscle loss and cachexia. Here we describe the main features of cardiac cachexia and illustrate some animal models proposed for cardiac cachexia studies; they include the genetic calsequestrin and Dahl salt-sensitive models, the monocrotaline model and the surgical models obtained by left anterior descending (LAD) ligation, transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and ascending aortic banding. The availability of a specific animal model for cardiac cachexia is a crucial issue since, besides the common aspects of cachexia in the different syndromes, each disease has some peculiarities in its etiology and pathophysiology leading to cachexia. Such peculiarities need to be unraveled in order to find new targets for effective therapies. PMID:27317993

  6. Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manvendra K. Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The death of cardiac myocytes resulting from myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure worldwide. Effective therapies for regenerating lost cardiac myocytes are lacking. Recently, the epicardium has been implicated as a source of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and progenitor cells that modulate the response to myocardial injury. During embryonic development, epicardially-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple cardiac lineages, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle and potentially other cell types. In the healthy adult heart, epicardial cells are thought to be generally quiescent. However, injury of the adult heart results in reactivation of a developmental gene program in the epicardium, which leads to increased epicardial cell proliferation and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs into various cardiac lineages. Recent work suggests that epicardial reactivation after injury is accompanied by, and contributes to, a robust inflammatory response. In this review, we describe the current status of research related to epicardial biology in cardiac development and regeneration, highlighting important recent discoveries and ongoing controversies.

  7. Cardiac perioperative complications in noncardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Anesthesiologists are confronted with an increasing population of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery who are at risk for cardiac complications in the perioperative period. Perioperative cardiac complications are responsible for significant mortality and morbidity. The aim of the present study was to determine the incidence of perioperative (operative and postoperative cardiac complications and correlations between the incidence of perioperative cardiac complications and type of surgical procedure, age, presence of concurrent diseases. A total of 100 patients with cardiac diseases undergoing noncardiac surgery were included in the prospective study (Group A 50 patients undergoing intraperitoneal surgery and Group B 50 patients undergoing breast and thyroid surgery. The patients were followed up during the perioperative period and after surgery until leaving hospital to assess the occurrence of cardiac events. Cardiac complications (systemic arterial hypertension, systemic arterial hypotension, abnormalities of cardiac conduction and cardiac rhythm, perioperative myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction occurred in 64% of the patients. One of the 100 patients (1% had postoperative myocardial infarction which was fatal. Systemic arterial hypertension occurred in 57% of patients intraoperatively and 33% postoperatively, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm in 31% of patients intraoperatively and 17% postoperatively, perioperative myocardial ischemia in 23% of patients intraoperatively and 11% of postoperatively. The most often cardiac complications were systemic arterial hypertension, abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and perioperative myocardial ischemia. Factors independently associated with the incidence of cardiac complications included the type of surgical procedure, advanced age, duration of anaesthesia and surgery, abnormal preoperative electrocardiogram, abnormal preoperative chest radiography and diabetes.

  8. Crystal structure of glycoside hydrolase family 127 β-L-arabinofuranosidase from Bifidobacterium longum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HypBA1 β-L-arabinofuranosidase belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 127. • Crystal structure of HypBA1 was determined. • HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel and two additional β-sandwich domains. • The active site contains a Zn2+ coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines. • A possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed. - Abstract: Enzymes acting on β-linked arabinofuranosides have been unknown until recently, in spite of wide distribution of β-L-arabinofuranosyl oligosaccharides in plant cells. Recently, a β-L-arabinofuranosidase from the glycoside hydrolase family 127 (HypBA1) was discovered in the newly characterized degradation system of hydroxyproline-linked β-L-arabinooligosaccharides in the bacterium Bifidobacterium longum. Here, we report the crystal structure of HypBA1 in the ligand-free and β-L-arabinofuranose complex forms. The structure of HypBA1 consists of a catalytic barrel domain and two additional β-sandwich domains, with one β-sandwich domain involved in the formation of a dimer. Interestingly, there is an unprecedented metal-binding motif with Zn2+ coordinated by glutamate and three cysteines in the active site. The glutamate residue is located far from the anomeric carbon of the β-L-arabinofuranose ligand, but one cysteine residue is appropriately located for nucleophilic attack for glycosidic bond cleavage. The residues around the active site are highly conserved among GH127 members. Based on biochemical experiments and quantum mechanical calculations, a possible reaction mechanism involving cysteine as the nucleophile is proposed

  9. Anti-proliferative and computational studies of two new pregnane glycosides from Desmidorchis flava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raees, Muhammad Adil; Hussain, Hidayat; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Csuk, René; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Khan, Husain Yar; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Abbas, Ghulam; Al-Broumi, Mohammed Abdullah; Green, Ivan R; Elyassi, Ali; Mahmood, Talat; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2016-08-01

    Two new pregnane glycosides named desmiflavasides C (1) and D (2) were isolated from the sap of Desmidorchis flava (N.E.Br.) Meve & Liede and have had their structures confirmed from 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and mass spectrometry (ESIMS). Further, the effects of desmiflavasides C (1) and D (2) on the proliferation of breast and ovarian cancer cells as well as normal breast epithelial cells in culture were examined. Interestingly, desmiflavasides C (1) and D (2) were able to cause a substantial decline in the viability of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, treatment of normal cells with compound 2 resulted in no significant growth inhibition, indicating that its cytotoxicity was selective towards cancer cells. Furthermore, the activity of compound 2 against cancer as well as normal epithelial cells was found to be similar to that of a previously reported pregnane glycoside, nizwaside (3). Molecular docking studies of desmiflavasides C (1) and D (2) and nizwaside (3) were carried out to ascertain if it was possible to predict any important binding orientations required of small molecule drug candidates with suggested protein target molecules for the purposes of being able to predict the affinity and activity to an acceptable degree by such compounds. Desmiflavaside D (2) showed a relatively good binding affinity (-22.4449kcal/mol) as compared to the other two compounds viz., nizwaside (3) (-20.0319kcal/mol), and desmiflavaside C (1) (-19.4042kcal/mol). Docking results of the three pregnane glycosides viz., 1-3 revealed that these ligand molecules can accurately interact with the target protein. PMID:27299811

  10. Electrophysiological Cardiac Modeling: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Mohammadali; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Krishnan, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiological modeling in conjunction with experimental and clinical findings has contributed to better understanding of electrophysiological phenomena in various species. As our knowledge on underlying electrical, mechanical, and chemical processes has improved over time, mathematical models of the cardiac electrophysiology have become more realistic and detailed. These models have provided a testbed for various hypotheses and conditions that may not be easy to implement experimentally. In addition to the limitations in experimentally validating various scenarios implemented by the models, one of the major obstacles for these models is computational complexity. However, the ever-increasing computational power of supercomputers facilitates the clinical application of cardiac electrophysiological models. The potential clinical applications include testing and predicting effects of pharmaceutical agents and performing patient-specific ablation and defibrillation. A review of studies involving these models and their major findings are provided.

  11. Structures of new phenolic glycosides from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Xu, Jing; Dou, De-Qiang; Chi, Xiao-Feng; Kang, Ting-Guo; Kuang, Hai Xue

    2009-04-01

    A new phenolic glycoside and three known compounds were isolated from the seeds of Cucurbita moschata. The structures of the new compound was elucidated as phenylcarbinyl 5-O-(4-hydroxy)benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and chemical evidence. Three known compounds were identified as 1-O-benzyl[5-O-benzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside 2, cucurbitosides C 3 and A 4, by comparison of the spectral data with reported data. Compound 2 was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  12. Two New Dammarane Glycosides from the Acid Hydrolysis Product of Panax Notoginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Two new dammarane glycosides named notoginsenoside T1 and T2 were isolated from the mild acid hydrolysis products of the root saponins of Panax notoginseng. On the basis of spectroscopic evidences, their structures were elucidated to be 6-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-24(25)-epoxy-3?,6?,12?,23ξ-tetrahydroxydammar-20(22)(E)-ene 1 and 6-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-24(25)-epoxy-23ξ-methoxyl-3?,6?,12?-trihydroxydamm-ar-20(22)(E)-ene 2, respectively.

  13. THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF SOLASODINE RHAMNOSYL GLYCOSIDES FOR LARGE SKIN CANCERS: TWO CLINICAL CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill E. Cham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solasodine rhamnosyl glycosides (BEC are a new class of antineoplastics, the efficiency of which administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal, and intratumoral routes is higher than that of many other antitumor agents. Early investigations have established the efficiency of topical BEC applications as a treatment option for non-melanoma skin cancers. There have recently been two clinical cases that count in favor of the fact that the cream formulation Curaderm containing BEC has a very high efficacy in the treatment of large non-melanoma skin cancers that are incurable by other existing methods. Also, Curaderm treatment shows a splendid cosmetic effect. 

  14. Biomolecular proteomics discloses ATP synthase as the main target of the natural glycoside deglucoruscin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Federica; Festa, Carmen; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Vasaturo, Michele; Casapullo, Agostino; De Marino, Simona; Riccio, Raffaele; Monti, Maria Chiara

    2016-10-20

    Extracts of Ruscus aculeatus are a rich source of bioactive steroidal glycosides, such as ruscogenins which are reported to act against chronic venous disorders. Nowadays, several preparations of its roots, commonly used in traditional medicine, are on the market as food supplements for health care and maintenance. Although spirostanol deglucoruscin is one of the main metabolites in these extracts, literature reports about its pharmacological profile are scarce. In this paper, a multi-disciplinary approach, based on chemical proteomics, molecular modelling and bio-organic assays, has been used to disclose the whole interactome of deglucoruscin and the F0-F1 ATP synthase complex has been found as its main target.

  15. Cytotoxic activity of kaempferol glycosides against human leukaemic cell lines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimas, K; Demetzos, C; Mitaku, S; Marselos, M; Tzavaras, T; Kokkinopoulos, D

    2000-01-01

    Two kaempferol coumaroyl glycosides (i.e. platanoside and tiliroside) isolated from the methanolic extract of Platanus orientalis L. buds, were examined for their in vitro cytotoxic activity against a panel of human leukaemic cell lines. Platanoside (1) exhibited cytotoxic activity against most of the cell lines tested, while tiliroside (2) was active against two of the nine tested cell lines. Compound 1, was examined for its effect on the uptake of [(3)H]thymidine as a marker of DNA synthesis. Kaempferol was used as a control.

  16. Microphynolides A and B, new spiro-γ-lactone glycosides from Thymelaea microphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Hasna; Haba, Hamada; Marcourt, Laurence; Benkhaled, Mohammed; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Two new spiro-γ-lactone glycosides named microphynolide A (1) and microphynolide B (2), together with twelve known compounds including five biflavonoids namely neochamaejasmin A, neochamaejasmin B, daphnodorin B, genkwanol A and stelleranol, one bis-coumarin daphnoretin, two lignans called pinoresinol and matairesinol, one flavonoid glucoside, tiliroside, a sinapyl alcohol glucoside, syringin, and two phytosterols, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, were isolated from ethyl acetate extracts of the aerial parts and roots of the plant Thymelaea microphylla Coss. and Dur. All the isolated compounds were characterised by using spectroscopic methods and comparison with the literature data.

  17. A new lupane-triterpene glycoside from the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Qian; Chang, Seung-Yeup; Park, Sang-Yong; Nohara, Toshihiro; Yook, Chang-Soo

    2002-12-01

    A new and two known lupane-triterpene glycosides were isolated from the hot MeOH fraction of the leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W. Smith. Based on the physical properties and spectroscopic data, their chemical structures were determined as acankoreoside A (1), acankoreoside D (2), and 3alpha-hydroxy-lup-23-al-20(29)-en-28-oic acid 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), respectively. To our best knowledge, compound 3 appears to be novel, which was named as wujiapioside A. PMID:12510834

  18. Two New Phenolic Glycosides from Gnaphalium affine D. Don and Their Anti-Complementary Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new phenolic glycosides, named gnaphaffine A and B (compounds 1 and 2, were isolated from Gnaphalium affine. together with six known compounds, including caffeic acid (3, everlastoside L (4, isorhamnetin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, quercetin- 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, scutellarein-7-O-β-D-glucoside (7 and api-genin-7-O-β-D- glucopyranoside (8. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including ESI-MS and 2D NMR spectroscopy (HMQC and HMBC. All compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activity on the classical pathway of the complement system in vitro.

  19. Synthesis of Pro-Xylane: a new biologically active C-glycoside in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavezza, Alexandre; Boulle, Christophe; Guéguiniat, Amélie; Pichaud, Patrick; Trouille, Simon; Ricard, Louis; Dalko-Csiba, Maria

    2009-02-01

    The scope and limitation of Lubineau's reaction were evaluated for the synthesis of C-glycosides (compounds 1-13). Further transformation of side chain carbonyl was also achieved (compounds 16-23). Optimization of these two steps was investigated in xylose case. Some of the compounds were shown to stimulate sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) synthesis. Compound 20 (called Pro-Xylane) was identified as the best activator of GAGs biosynthesis. Pro-Xylane was developed using environmentally friendly conditions relevant to 'Green-Chemistry' principles and launched on the market in September 2006. This compound is the first example of 'Green' chemical used in cosmetic.

  20. Effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract and its iridoid glycosides on blood fluidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kazuya; Abe, Yumi; Futamura-Masuda, Megumi; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Deng, Shixin; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Morinda citrifolia fruit on blood fluidity. M. citrifolia fruit extract (MCF-ext) was investigated for its influence on blood aggregation and fibrinolysis. MCF-ext inhibited polybrene-induced erythrocyte aggregation and thrombin activity. The fibrinolytic activity of MCF-ext, in the euglobulin lysis time test and fibrin plate assay, is reported here for the first time. One of the active compounds was an iridoid glycoside, asperulosidic acid. The results indicated that MCF-ext is a potentially useful health food which is capable of improving blood flow and preventing lifestyle-related diseases.

  1. 17-Dehydroxyholothurin A, a New Sulfated Triterpene Glycoside from Sea Cucumber Holothuria impatiens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng SUN; Yang Hua YI; Ling LI; Min GUI; Hai Feng TAN; Da Zhi ZHANG; Shi Long ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    A new sulfated triterpene glycoside named as 17-dehydroxyholothurin A 1 was isolated from the sea cucumber Holothuria impatiens. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data (2D NMR and MS) and chemical evidence. Compound 1 showed cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines MKN-28, MFC-7, KB, HL-60 and Hep G2 with IC50 values of 1.98, 4.53, 2.01, 4.69 and 2.80 ×10-6 mol/L, respectively.

  2. Two new ent-kaurane-type diterpene glycosides from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Ando, Hiromi; Maekawa, Ken-Ichiro; Arie, Hiroki; Yamada, Takeshi; Tanaka, Reiko

    2015-12-01

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides; 12α-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7β-hydroxykaurenolide (1) and 7β-(β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-12α-hydroxykaurenolide (2), a new steroid; (24S)-stigmasta-7,22E,25-trien-3-one (12), and known compounds (3-11, 13-14) were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds. The absolute structures of 1 and 2 were determined by acid hydrolysis and application of a modified Moscher's method. Furthermore, isolated compounds (1-14), and a derivative, 1a, were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on macrophage activation by an inhibitory assay of nitric oxide (NO) production.

  3. Chemical Components of Helicia nilagirica Beed. I. Structure of Three New Flavonol Glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Helicia nilagirica Beed.. The structures were elucidated as kaempferol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glyco- pyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glycopy- ranosyl-(1→2)-[-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, and quercetin-3-O-β-D- xylopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-D-glycopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, named as Helicianeoside A、B and C, respectively.

  4. Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device implantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkfeldt, Rikke Esberg; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard;

    2013-01-01

    Complications after cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) treatment, including permanent pacemakers (PMs), cardiac resynchronization therapy devices with defibrillators (CRT-Ds) or without (CRT-Ps), and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), are associated with increased patient...

  5. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without ... of all ages and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool ...

  6. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W

    2015-01-01

    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...

  7. Effect of qualitative and quantitative variation in allelochemicals on a generalist insect: Iridoid glycosides and the southern armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, G M; Bowers, M D

    1988-01-01

    The behavioral and physiological effects of plant allelochemicals have been difficult to demonstrate; it is not often clear whether the compounds are deterrent, toxic, or both. In this study, we compared the qualitative and quantitative effects of several iridoid glycosides on a generalist lepidopteran herbivore,Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae). Larval growth and survivorship and larval preference or avoidance were measured on artificial diets containing different iridoid glycosides at different concentrations. We also tested the toxicity/deterrence of these compounds. We found that iridoid glycosides retarded larval growth significantly at relatively low concentrations and that they were usually avoided in preference tests. The toxicity/ deterrence test did not always reflect the results of these other tests. The merits of using a variety of methods for determining deterrence and/or toxicity of plant allelochemicals are discussed. PMID:24277013

  8. [Monosulfated triterpene glycosides from Cucumaria okhotensis Levin et Stepanov, a new species of sea cucumbers from Sea of Okhotsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil'chenko, A S; Avilov, S A; Kalinin, V I; Stonik, V A; Kalinovskiĭ, A I; Dmitrenok, P S; Stepanov, V G

    2007-01-01

    Three compounds were isolated from the fraction of monosulfated triterpene glycosides from Cucumaria okhotensis, a new sea cucumber species, and their structures were elucidated. First of them, okhotoside A1-1, is a new glycoside containing tetrasaccharide sugar moiety; the second, okhotoside A2-1, is a new pentaoside with a glucose residue in the second position of sugar moiety (such a structural peculiarity has been found in holothurians of the genus Cucumaria for the first time); and the third is a previously known pentaoside cucumarioside A0-1 from C. japonica. The species-specificity of the triterpene glycosides from C. okhotensis was revealed, which justifies the description of this sea cucumber as a new species. PMID:17375663

  9. Identification of Phenylethanoid Glycosides in Plant Extract of Plantago asiatica L. by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Li; LIU,Chunming; LIU,Zhiqiang; TSAO,Rong; LIU,Shuying

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry(LC-ESI-MS)method for rapid identification of phenylethanoid glycosides in plant extract from Plnmgo asiatica L.By using a binary mobile phase system consisting of 0.2% acetic acid and acetonitrile under gradient conditions,a good sepa-ration was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 column.The[M-H] ions,the molecular weights,and the fragmentions of phenvlethanoid glycosides were obtained in the negative ion mode using LC-ESI-MS.The identification of the phenylethanoid glycosides(peaks 1-3) in the extract of P. asiatica L.was based on matching their retention time.the detection of molecular ions.and the fragment ions obtained by collision-induced dissociation(CID)ex-periments with those of the authentic standards and data reported in the literature.

  10. Polymerized liposomes containing C-glycosides of sialic acid: Potent inhibitors of influenza virus in vitro infectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spevak, W.; Bednarski, M.D.; Nagy, J.O.; Charych, D.H (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Schaefer, M.E.; Gilbert, J.H. (Glycomed, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States))

    1993-02-10

    The surface lectin of the influenza virus, hemagglutinin, binds to terminal [alpha]-glycosides of N-acetylneuraminic acid (NeuAc) on cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids. Viral binding to cells expression terminal NeuAc residues can be inhibited by [alpha]-O-glycosides of NeuAc (O-sialosides). Recently, dramatic enhancements in the inhibition of viral adhesion to erythrocytes have been achieved using synthetic polyvalent sialosides. In this communication, the authors report that polymerized liposomes containing [alpha]-C-glycosides of sialic acid are potent inhibitors of influenza virus in vitro infectivity. Their results also indicate that the capacity to inhibit hemagglutination does not necessarily reflect the capacity to inhibit in vitro infectivity. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Elevated sensitivity to cardiac ischemia in proteinuric rats is independent of adverse cardiac remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, Mariusz K.; Hillege, Hans L.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Garrelds, Ingrid M.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic renal dysfunction severely increases cardiovascular risk. Adverse cardiac remodeling is suggested to play a major role as predisposition for increased cardiac ischemic vulnerability. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of adverse cardiac remodeling in cardiac sen

  12. [Cardiac output monitoring by impedance cardiography in cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H; Seki, S; Mizuguchi, A; Tsuchida, H; Watanabe, H; Namiki, A

    1990-04-01

    The cardiac output monitoring by impedance cardiography, NCCOM3, was evaluated in adult patients (n = 12) who were subjected to coronary artery bypass grafting. Values of cardiac output measured by impedance cardiography were compared to those by the thermodilution method. Changes of base impedance level used as an index of thoracic fluid volume were also investigated before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Correlation coefficient (r) of the values obtained by thermodilution with impedance cardiography was 0.79 and the mean difference was 1.29 +/- 16.9 (SD)% during induction of anesthesia. During the operation, r was 0.83 and the mean difference was -14.6 +/- 18.7%. The measurement by impedance cardiography could be carried out through the operation except when electro-cautery was used. Base impedance level before CPB was significantly lower as compared with that after CPB. There was a negative correlation between the base impedance level and central venous pressure (CVP). No patients showed any signs suggesting lung edema and all the values of CVP, pulmonary artery pressure and blood gas analysis were within normal ranges. From the result of this study, it was concluded that cardiac output monitoring by impedance cardiography was useful in cardiac surgery, but further detailed examinations will be necessary on the relationship between the numerical values of base impedance and the clinical state of the patients. PMID:2362347

  13. Health Literacy Predicts Cardiac Knowledge Gains in Cardiac Rehabilitation Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Colleen C.; Rawson, Katherine; Hughes, Joel W.; Waechter, Donna; Rosneck, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Health literacy is increasingly recognised as a potentially important patient characteristic related to patient education efforts. We evaluated whether health literacy would predict gains in knowledge after completion of patient education in cardiac rehabilitation. Method: This was a re-post observational analysis study design based on…

  14. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy: the nuclear option

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to an increased workload. After myocardial infarction (MI) the surviving muscle tissue has to work harder to maintain cardiac output. This sustained increase in workload leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Despite its apparent appropriateness, cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure and is therefore called pathological hypertrophy. That hypertrophy is not bad per se, is illustrated by the hyp...

  15. 1-C-(2 '-Oxoalkyl)-Glycosides as Latent α, β-Unsaturated Conjugates. Synthesis of Aza-C-glycosides and Thio-C-Glycosides by an Intramolecular Hetero-michael Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi; An-tai WU; Shih-hsiung WU; Wei ZOU

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Aza-sugars, a class of polyhydroxylated pyrrolidine and piperidine, are powerful glyco-processing enzyme inhibitors and potential therapeutics for the treatment of diabetic, cancer, viral infection and other diseases[1].For example, N-hydroxyethyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (Miglitol) and N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (Zavestca)have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and type 1 Gaucher disease, respectively. Numerous synthetic methods towards azasugars have been developed[1,2] which include various reductive and double-reductive amination between an azido/amino group and carbonyl groups and SN2 substitutions by nucleophilic amine to epoxides, halides, and other leaving groups. Aza-C-glycosides, azasugars with a C-linked aglycon,which often possess improved inhibition specificity and membrane permeability, have been obtained from azasugars via an elimination reaction followed by the addition of organometallic reagent, and from properly constructed substrates by an intramolecular or intermolecular conjugate additions of nucleophilic amines[3,4]. One of the major limitations associated with these procedures, however, is the accessibility of the intermediates,which highly depend on the stereochemistry of the hydroxy groups of the starting material to achieve regio-selective protection. Therefore, an easy access to molecules with both amine and α ,β-unsaturated ester (ketone) functionalities is desired.

  16. Induction of apoptosis in colon cancer cells treated with isorhamnetin glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Moreno-García, Beatriz E; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Aráiz-Hernández, Diana; Alvarez, Mario M; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O

    2014-12-01

    (OFI) contains health-promoting compounds like flavonoids, being the isorhamnetin glycosides the most abundant. We evaluated the effect of OFI extracts with different isorhamnetin glycosides against two different human colon cancer cells (HT-29 and Caco2). The extracts were obtained by alkaline hydrolysis with NaOH at 40 °C during 15, 30 or 60 min. Tri and diglycosides were the most abundant isorhamnetin glycosides, therefore these compounds were isolated to compare their cytotoxic effect with the obtained from the extracts. The OFI extracts and purified isorhamnetin glycosides were more cytotoxic against HT-29 cells than Caco2 cells. OFI-30 exhibited the lowest IC50 value against HT-29 (4.9 ± 0.5 μg/mL) and against Caco2 (8.2 ± 0.3 μg/mL). Isorhamnetin diglycosides IG5 and IG6 were more cytotoxic than pure isorhamnetin aglycone or triglycosides when they were tested in HT-29 cells. Bioluminescent analysis revealed increased activity of caspase 3/7 in OFI extracts-treated cells, particularly for the extract with the highest concentration of isorhamnetin triglycosides. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that OFI extract and isorhamnetin glycosides induced a higher percentage of apoptosis in HT-29 than in Caco2, while isorhamnetin was more apoptotic in Caco2. This research demonstrated that glycosilation affected antiproliferative effect of pure isorhamnetin glycosides or when they are mixed with other phytochemicals in an extract obtained from OFI. PMID:25186940

  17. Terpene Glycosides from the Roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and Their Hemostatic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Guided by a hemostasis bioassay, seven terpene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the grounds of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as citronellol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6-β-d-glucopyranoside (1, geraniol-1-O-α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6-β-d-glucopyranoside (2, geraniol-1-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1→6-β-d-glucopyranoside (3, 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyloxy]-19α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (4, 3β-[(α-l-arabinopyranosyl-oxy]-19α-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (ziyu-glycoside I, 5, 3β,19α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (6 and 3β,19α-di-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-d-glucopyranoside (7. Compound 1 is a new mono-terpene glycoside and compounds 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from the Sanguisorba genus for the first time. Compounds 17 were assayed for their hemostatic activities with a Goat Anti-Human α2-plasmin inhibitor ELISA kit, and ziyu-glycoside I (5 showed the strongest hemostatic activity among the seven terpene glycosides. This is the first report that ziyu-glycoside Ι has strong hemostatic activity.

  18. Systemic, genotype-specific induction of two herbivore-deterrent iridoid glycosides in Plantago lanceolata L. in response to fungal infection by Diaporthe adunca (Rob.) Niessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marak, H.B.; Biere, A.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Iridoid glycosides are a group of terpenoid secondary plant compounds known to deter generalist insect herbivores. In ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), the iridoid glycosides aucubin and catalpol can be induced following damage by insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated whether the s

  19. Effect of harvest timing on leaf production and yield of diterpene glycosides in Stevia rebaudiana Bert: a specialty perennial crop for Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevia rebaundiana (Bertoni), a perennial shrub of the Asteraceae, is one of the most important sources of non-caloric natural sweeteners. Stevia’s plant extracts and glycosides have been used for several years in Paraguay and Brazil. Several studies suggest that Stevia and its glycosides exert ben...

  20. MRI of cardiac rhabdomyoma in the fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivelitz, Dietmar E.; Muehler, Matthias [Institut fuer Radiologie, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Charite, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10098, Berlin (Germany); Rake, Annett; Chaoui, Rabih [Klinik fuer Gynaekologie und Geburtshilfe, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Charite, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10098, Berlin (Germany); Scheer, Ianina [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie, Medizinische Fakultaet, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Charite, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10098, Berlin (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are rarely diagnosed in utero and are usually seen on prenatal echocardiography. Cardiac rhabdomyomata can be associated with tuberous sclerosis. Prenatal MRI can be performed to assess associated malformations. This case report illustrates the ability of fetal MRI to image cardiac rhabdomyata and compares it with prenatal and postnatal echocardiography. (orig.)

  1. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophy: the nuclear option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W.D. Kuster (Diederik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCardiac hypertrophy is the response of the heart to an increased workload. After myocardial infarction (MI) the surviving muscle tissue has to work harder to maintain cardiac output. This sustained increase in workload leads to cardiac hypertrophy. Despite its apparent appropriateness, c

  2. Childhood cancer survivors: cardiac disease & social outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. Feijen

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is divided in two parts; Cardiac health problems and healthcare consumption & social outcomes in CCS. The general aims of part 1 creates optimal conditions for the evaluation of cardiac events in 5-year childhood cancer survivors, evaluation of the long term risk of cardiac events, and to

  3. Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside isolation from the highly copper-tolerant plant Elsholtzia splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Zhang, Xue-Hong; Xu, Jin-Zhong

    2016-06-01

    Elsholtzia splendens (Lamiaceae) is a copper-tolerant plant species growing on copper deposits in the south of China. Chromatographic separation of n-BuOH extracts from the flowering aerial biomass afforded apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside, using macroporous resin, Sephadex™ LH-20 gel, polyamide resin as well as preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (P-HPLC) columns. Chemical structure was elucidated using HPLC/ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and (1)D- and (2)D-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Apigenin-7-O-β-D-glycoside could be the post-harvesting product from E. splendens biomass. PMID:27256678

  4. Biosynthesis of malonylated flavonoid glycosides on the basis of malonyltransferase activity in the petals of Clitoria ternatea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Koichiro; Kazuma, Kohei; Kato, Naoki; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2007-07-01

    The crude malonyltransferase from the petals of Clitoria ternatea was characterized enzymatically to investigate its role on the biosynthetic pathways of anthocyanins and flavonol glycosides. In C. ternatea, a blue flower cultivars (DB) and mauve flower variety (WM) accumulate polyacylated anthocyanins (ternatins) and delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside which is one of the precursors of ternatins, respectively. Moreover, WM accumulates minor delphinidin glycosides - 3-O-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside of delphinidin. These glycosidic patterns for minor anthocyanins in WM are also found among the minor flavonol glycosides in all the varieties including a white flower variety (WW) although the major flavonol glycosides are 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(6''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside, 3-O-(2'',6''-di-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucoside of kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. How do the enzymatic characteristics affect the variety of glycosidic patterns in the flavonoid glycoside biosynthesis among these varieties? While the enzyme from DB highly preferred delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside in the presence of malonyl-CoA, it also has a preference for other anthocyanidin 3-O-beta-glucosides. It could use flavonol 3-O-beta-glucosides in much lower specific activities than anthocyanins; however, it could not utilize 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl)-beta-glucosides of anthocyanins and flavonols, and 3,3'-di- and 3,3',5'-tri-O-beta-glucoside of delphinidin - other possible precursors in ternatins biosynthesis. It highly preferred malonyl-CoA as an acyl donor in the presence of delphinidin 3-O-beta-glucoside. The crude enzymes prepared from WM and WW had the same enzymatic characteristics. These results suggested that 3-O-(2''-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucosides of flavonoids were synthesized via 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucosides rather than via 3-O

  5. Cardiac tumors: optimal cardiac MR sequences and spectrum of imaging appearances.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donnell, David H

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the optimal cardiac MRI sequences for and the spectrum of imaging appearances of cardiac tumors. CONCLUSION: Recent technologic advances in cardiac MRI have resulted in the rapid acquisition of images of the heart with high spatial and temporal resolution and excellent myocardial tissue characterization. Cardiac MRI provides optimal assessment of the location, functional characteristics, and soft-tissue features of cardiac tumors, allowing accurate differentiation of benign and malignant lesions.

  6. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions. PMID:24040627

  7. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient. PMID:25821823

  8. Photochemical properties of a new kind of anti-cancer drug: N-glycoside compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ping; WANG Mei; ZHANG ShuPing; SHAO SiChang; SUN XiaoYu; YAO SiDe; WANG ShiLong

    2008-01-01

    Due to the nontoxicity and efficient anti-cancer activity, more and more attention has been paid to N-glycoside compounds. Laser photolysis of N-(α-D-glucopyranoside) salicyloyl hydrazine (NGSH) has been performed for the first time. The research results show that NGSH has high photosensitivity and is vulnerable to be photo-ionized via a monophotonic process with a quantum yield of 0.02, generating NGSH+ and hydrated electrons. Under the aerobic condition of cells, the hydrated electrons are very easy to combine with oxygen to generate 1O2 and O2-, both of which are powerful oxidants that can kill the cancer cells. In addition, NGSH+ can be changed into neutral radicals by deprotonation with a pKa value of 4.02 and its decay constant was determined to be 2.55×109dm3·mol-1·s-1. NGSH also can be oxidized by SO4- with a rate constant of 1.76×109 dm3·mol-1·s-1, which further confirms the results of photoionization. All of these results suggest that this new N-glycoside compound might be useful for cancer treatment.

  9. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Dai, Longhai; Liu, Yueping; Rong, Long; Dou, Dequan; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Lanqing

    2016-06-13

    Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world's most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  10. Photochemical properties of a new kind of anti-cancer drug: N-glycoside compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Due to the nontoxicity and efficient anti-cancer activity, more and more attention has been paid to N-glycoside compounds. Laser photolysis of N-(α-D-glucopyranoside) salicyloyl hydrazine (NGSH) has been performed for the first time. The research results show that NGSH has high photosensitivity and is vulnerable to be photo-ionized via a monophotonic process with a quantum yield of 0.02, generating NGSH+· and hydrated electrons. Under the aerobic condition of cells, the hydrated electrons are very easy to combine with oxygen to generate 1O2 and O2-, both of which are powerful oxidants that can kill the cancer cells. In addition, NGSH+· can be changed into neutral radicals by deprotonation with a pKa value of 4.02 and its decay constant was determined to be 2.55×109dm3·mol-1·s-1. NGSH also can be oxidized by SO4-. with a rate constant of 1.76×109 dm3·mol-1.s-1, which further confirms the results of photoionization. All of these results suggest that this new N-glycoside compound might be useful for cancer treatment.

  11. Synthesis of water soluble glycosides of pentacyclic dihydroxytriterpene carboxylic acids as inhibitors of α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiancong; Nie, Xuliang; Hong, Yanping; Jiang, Yan; Wu, Guoqiang; Yin, Xiaoli; Wang, Chunrong; Wang, Xiaoqiang

    2016-04-01

    A series of compounds were synthesized by glycosylation of maslinic acid (MA) and corosolic acid (CA) with monosaccharides and disaccharides, and the structures of the derivatives were elucidated by standard spectroscopic methods including (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and HRMS. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of all the novel compounds were evaluated in vitro. The solubility and inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase assays showed that the bis-disaccharide glycosides of triterpene acids possessed higher water solubility and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the bis-monosaccharide glycosides. Among these compounds, maslinic acid bis-lactoside (8e, IC50 = 684 µM) and corosolic acid bis-lactoside (9e, IC50 = 428 µM) had the best water solubility, and 9e exhibited a better inhibitory activity than acarbose (IC50 = 478 µM). However, most of glycosylated derivatives possessed lower inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, although their water solubility was enhanced obviously. Moreover, the kinetic inhibition studies indicated that 9e was a non-competitive inhibitor, and structure-activity relationships of the derivatives are also discussed. PMID:26974355

  12. Influence of drying method on steviol glycosides and antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, María Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The application of different drying conditions (hot air drying at 100 °C and 180 °C, freeze drying and shade drying) on steviol glycosides (stevioside, dulcoside A, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C) and antioxidants in Stevia leaves was evaluated. Stevioside, the major glycoside found in fresh leaves (81.2mg/g), suffered an important reduction in all cases, although shade drying was the least aggressive treatment. Considering the antioxidant parameters (total phenols, flavonoids and total antioxidants), the most suitable drying method was hot air at 180 °C, since it substantially increased all of them (76.8 mg gallic acid, 45.1mg catechin and 126 mg Trolox, all equivalent/g Stevia, respectively), with respect to those present in fresh leaves (44.4, 2.5 and 52.9 mg equivalent/g). Therefore, the ideal method for drying Stevia leaves depends on their final use (sweetener or antioxidant), although, hot air at 180 °C is the most recommendable if only one treatment has to be chosen. PMID:25442516

  13. Fast methodology of analysing major steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Cándida; Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Plaza, Miguel; Quintanilla, Carmen; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work is to propose an HPLC method for analysing major steviol glycosides as well as to optimise the extraction and clarification conditions for obtaining these compounds. Toward this aim, standards of stevioside and rebaudioside A with purities ⩾99.0%, commercial samples from different companies and Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves from Paraguay supplied by Insobol, S.L., were used. The analytical method proposed is adequate in terms of selectivity, sensitivity and accuracy. Optimum extraction conditions and adequate clarification conditions have been set. Moreover, this methodology is safe and eco-friendly, as we use only water for extraction and do not use solid-phase extraction, which requires solvents that are banned in the food industry to condition the cartridge and elute the steviol glycosides. In addition, this methodology consumes little time as leaves are not ground and the filtration is faster, and the peak resolution is better as we used an HPLC method with gradient elution. PMID:24679813

  14. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. PMID:25053094

  15. Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, María Inés; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Sanders, Mark; Castro, Cristian; Stieger, Markus; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-12-10

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different technologies, was characterized using UHPLC-ESI-MS(n). The composition of one of the ethanol-crystallized extracts (EC2) was entirely rebaudioside A, whereas the enzymatically modified (EM) extract contained the lowest concentration of this compound (2.7 mg/100 mg). The membrane-purified (MP) extract had the highest content of minor natural steviol glycosides (23.7 mg/100 mg total extract) versus an average of 2.4 mg/100 mg total extract for the EC samples. Thirteen trained panelists evaluated sweetness, bitterness, licorice, and metallic attributes of all four extracts. The highest licorice intensity (p ≤ 0.05) was found for MP. Both samples EC1 and EC2, despite their different chemical compositions, showed no significant differences in sensory perception. PMID:25393842

  16. Ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Cueva, Carolina; Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2015-11-15

    Grape aroma precursors are odourless glycosides that represent a natural reservoir of potential active odorant molecules in wines. Since the first step of wine consumption starts in the oral cavity, the processing of these compounds in the mouth could be an important factor in influencing aroma perception. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to evaluate the ability of human oral microbiota to produce wine odorant aglycones from odourless grape glycosidic aroma precursors previously isolated from white grapes. To do so, two methodological approaches involving the use of typical oral bacteria or the whole oral microbiota isolated from human saliva were followed. Odorant aglycones released in the culture mediums were isolated and analysed by HS-SPME-GC/MS. Results showed the ability of oral bacteria to hydrolyse grape aroma precursors, releasing different types of odorant molecules (terpenes, benzenic compounds and lipid derivatives). The hydrolytic activity seemed to be bacteria-dependent and was subject to large inter-individual variability. PMID:25977005

  17. Zebrafish bioassay-guided microfractionation identifies anticonvulsant steroid glycosides from the Philippine medicinal plant Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challal, Soura; Buenafe, Olivia E M; Queiroz, Emerson F; Maljevic, Snezana; Marcourt, Laurence; Bock, Merle; Kloeti, Werner; Dayrit, Fabian M; Harvey, Alan L; Lerche, Holger; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Crawford, Alexander D

    2014-10-15

    Medicinal plants used for the treatment of epilepsy are potentially a valuable source of novel antiepileptic small molecules. To identify anticonvulsant secondary metabolites, we performed an in vivo, zebrafish-based screen of medicinal plants used in Southeast Asia for the treatment of seizures. Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae) was identified as having significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish larvae with seizures induced by the GABAA antagonist pentylenetetrazol (PTZ). This finding correlates well with the ethnomedical use of this plant in the Philippines, where a water decoction of S. torvum leaves is used to treat epileptic seizures. HPLC microfractionation of the bioactive crude extract, in combination with the in vivo zebrafish seizure assay, enabled the rapid localization of several bioactive compounds that were partially identified online by UHPLC-TOF-MS as steroid glycosides. Targeted isolation of the active constituents from the methanolic extract enabled the complete de novo structure identification of the six main bioactive compounds that were also present in the traditional preparation. To partially mimic the in vivo metabolism of these triterpene glycosides, their common aglycone was generated by acid hydrolysis. The isolated molecules exhibited significant anticonvulsant activity in zebrafish seizure assays. These results underscore the potential of zebrafish bioassay-guided microfractionation to rapidly identify novel bioactive small molecules of natural origin. PMID:25127088

  18. α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Effect and Simultaneous Quantification of Three Major Flavonoid Glycosides in Microctis folium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cai Ye

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Microctis Folium, the leaves of Microcos paniculata L., is a commonly used herbal tea material. The methanol extract of Microctis Folium and its principle compounds vitexin (1, isovitexin (2 and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-rutinoside (3 were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. The extract showed strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect (IC50 = 61.30 μg/mL and the three flavonoid glycosides 1–3 exerted satisfactory α-glucosidase inhibitory effects, with IC50 values of 244.0 μM, 266.2 μM and 275.4 μM, respectively. A simple and reliable HPLC-DAD method was developed for the quantification of the three flavonoid glycosides in Microctis Folium and applied successfully to determine contents of these components in samples collected from different locations. This study suggested that Microctis Folium may be a promising candidate for development of herbal antidiabetes drugs, and vitexin, isovitexin and isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-rutinoside can be the biomarkers and chemical markers for this plant substance.

  19. Biogenesis of C-glycosyl flavones and profiling of flavonoid glycosides in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Li

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in nine tissues of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD and HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MSn. Thirty-eight flavonoids were identified; eleven C-glycosides and five O-glycosides were discovered for the first time in N. nucifera. Most importantly, the C-glycosyl apigenin or luteolin detected in lotus plumules proved valuable for deep elucidation of flavonoid composition in lotus tissues and for further utilization as functional tea and medicine materials. Lotus leaves possessed the significantly highest amount of flavonoids (2.06E3±0.08 mg 100 g(-1 FW and separating and purifying the bioactive compound, quercetin 3-O-glucuronide, from leaves showed great potential. In contrast, flavonoids in flower stalks, seed coats and kernels were extremely low. Simultaneously, the optimal picking time was confirmed by comparing the compound contents in five developmental phases. Finally, we proposed the putative flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in N. nucifera.

  20. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars. PMID:24444903

  1. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  2. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  3. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%.

  4. Influence of drying method on steviol glycosides and antioxidants in Stevia rebaudiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Castelló, María Luisa; Heredia, Ana; Escriche, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    The application of different drying conditions (hot air drying at 100 °C and 180 °C, freeze drying and shade drying) on steviol glycosides (stevioside, dulcoside A, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C) and antioxidants in Stevia leaves was evaluated. Stevioside, the major glycoside found in fresh leaves (81.2mg/g), suffered an important reduction in all cases, although shade drying was the least aggressive treatment. Considering the antioxidant parameters (total phenols, flavonoids and total antioxidants), the most suitable drying method was hot air at 180 °C, since it substantially increased all of them (76.8 mg gallic acid, 45.1mg catechin and 126 mg Trolox, all equivalent/g Stevia, respectively), with respect to those present in fresh leaves (44.4, 2.5 and 52.9 mg equivalent/g). Therefore, the ideal method for drying Stevia leaves depends on their final use (sweetener or antioxidant), although, hot air at 180 °C is the most recommendable if only one treatment has to be chosen.

  5. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition.

  6. Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, María Inés; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Sanders, Mark; Castro, Cristian; Stieger, Markus; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-12-10

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different technologies, was characterized using UHPLC-ESI-MS(n). The composition of one of the ethanol-crystallized extracts (EC2) was entirely rebaudioside A, whereas the enzymatically modified (EM) extract contained the lowest concentration of this compound (2.7 mg/100 mg). The membrane-purified (MP) extract had the highest content of minor natural steviol glycosides (23.7 mg/100 mg total extract) versus an average of 2.4 mg/100 mg total extract for the EC samples. Thirteen trained panelists evaluated sweetness, bitterness, licorice, and metallic attributes of all four extracts. The highest licorice intensity (p ≤ 0.05) was found for MP. Both samples EC1 and EC2, despite their different chemical compositions, showed no significant differences in sensory perception.

  7. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  8. Substrate recognition by glycoside hydrolase family 74 xyloglucanase from the basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takuya; Yaoi, Katsuro; Hiyoshi, Ayako; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    2007-11-01

    The basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces xyloglucanase Xgh74B, which has the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 74 catalytic domain and family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, in cellulose-grown culture. The recombinant enzyme, which was heterologously expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, had high hydrolytic activity toward xyloglucan from tamarind seed (TXG), whereas other beta-1,4-glucans examined were poor substrates for the enzyme. The existence of the carbohydrate-binding module significantly affects adsorption of the enzyme on crystalline cellulose, but has no effect on the hydrolysis of xyloglucan, indicating that the domain may contribute to the localization of the enzyme. HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS analyses of the hydrolytic products of TXG clearly indicated that Xgh74B hydrolyzes the glycosidic bonds of unbranched glucose residues, like other GH family 74 xyloglucanases. However, viscometric analysis suggested that Xgh74B hydrolyzes TXG in a different manner from other known GH family 74 xyloglucanases. Gel permeation chromatography showed that Xgh74B initially produced oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization (DP) 16-18, and these oligosaccharides were then slowly hydrolyzed to final products of DP 7-9. In addition, the ratio of oligosaccharides of DP 7-9 versus those of DP 16-18 was dependent upon the pH of the reaction mixture, indicating that the affinity of Xgh74B for the oligosaccharides of DP 16-18 is affected by the ionic environment at the active site. PMID:17922847

  9. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  10. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  11. Antiproliferative Activity of Triterpene Glycoside Nutrient from Monk Fruit in Colorectal Cancer and Throat Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer and throat cancer are the world’s most prevalent neoplastic diseases, and a serious threat to human health. Plant triterpene glycosides have demonstrated antitumor activity. In this study, we investigated potential anticancer effects of mogroside IVe, a triterpenoid glycoside from monk fruit, using in vitro and in vivo models of colorectal and laryngeal cancer. The effects of mogroside IVe on the proliferation of colorectal cancer HT29 cells and throat cancer Hep-2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the expression levels of p53, phosphorylated ERK1/2, and MMP-9 were analyzed by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that mogroside IVe inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the proliferation of HT29 and Hep-2 cells in culture and in xenografted mice, which was accompanied by the upregulation of tumor suppressor p53, and downregulation of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9 and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2. This study revealed the suppressive activity of mogroside IVe towards colorectal and throat cancers and identified the underlying mechanisms, suggesting that mogroside IVe may be potentially used as a biologically-active phytochemical supplement for treating colorectal and throat cancers.

  12. Salicylic Acid Treatment Increases the Levels of Triterpene Glycosides in Black Cohosh (Actaea Racemosa) Rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Capite, Annette; Lancaster, Tyler; Puthoff, David

    2016-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) serves as the host plant for the Appalachian azure butterfly, Celastrina neglectamajor. Overharvesting of Black cohosh for the dietary supplement industry may result in its extirpation, and may also cause the elimination of the dependent butterfly. One way to increase or maintain the number of host plants in forested environments would be to reduce the number harvested, for example by increasing the levels of the desired metabolites in Black cohosh rhizomes. The secondary metabolites actein and deoxyactein are triterpene glycosides and are among the compounds associated with the putative activity of Black cohosh extracts. Acetein and deoxyacetein are used to standardize Black cohosh supplements. To gain an understanding of mechanisms that may control actein and deoxyactein accumulation, Black cohosh rhizomes were treated with exogenous salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, or ethylene, or were mechanically wounded. Salicylic acid treatment significantly increased the levels of actein and deoxyactein in the rhizome of Black cohosh, suggesting that the synthesis of triterpene glycosides is controlled in part by salicylic acid. Using salicylic acid or related chemicals to increase the levels of actein and deoxyactein in rhizomes may help supply the supplement industry and, simultaneously, help conserve Black cohosh and species dependent upon it.

  13. Cardiac connexins and impulse propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Jansen; T.A.B. van Veen; J.M.T. de Bakker; H.V.M. van Rijen

    2010-01-01

    Gap junctions form the intercellular pathway for cell-to-cell transmission of the cardiac impulse from its site of origin, the sinoatrial node, along the atria, the atrioventricular conduction system to the ventricular myocardium. The component parts of gap junctions are proteins called connexins (C

  14. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syn

  15. Molecular therapies for cardiac arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.J. Boink

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ongoing advances in pharmacology, devices and surgical approaches to treat heart rhythm disturbances, arrhythmias are still a significant cause of death and morbidity. With the introduction of gene and cell therapy, new avenues have arrived for the local modulation of cardiac disease. Th

  16. Historical highlights in cardiac pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, L A

    1990-01-01

    The benchmarks in cardiac pacing are identified, beginning with F. Steiner (1871), who rhythmically stimulated the chloroform-arrested hearts of 3 horses, 1 donkey, 10 dogs, 14 cats, and 8 rabbits. The chloroform-arrested heart in human subjects was paced by T. Greene in the following year (1872) in the UK. In 1882, H. Ziemssen in Germany applied cardiac pacing to a 42-year old woman who had a large defect in the anterior left chest wall subsequent to resection of an enchondroma. Intentional cardiac pacing did not occur until 1932, when A.A. Hyman in the US demonstrated that cardiac pacing could be clinically practical. Hyman made a batteryless pacemaker for delivery in induction shock stimuli (60-120/min) to the atria. His pacemaker was powered by a hand-wound, spring-driven generator which provided 6 min of pacemaking without rewinding. Closed-chest ventricular pacing was introduced in the US in 1952 by P.M. Zoll et al. Zoll (1956) also introduced closed-chest ventricular defibrillation. W.L. Weirich et al. (1958) demonstrated that direct-heart stimulation in closed-chest patients could be achieved with slender wire electrodes. S. Furman and J.B. Schwedel (1959) developed a monopolar catheter electrode for ventricular pacing in man. In the same year, W. Greatbatch and W.M. Chardack developed the implantable pacemaker. PMID:18238328

  17. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei HUA

    2006-01-01

    @@ Congestive heart failure (HF) is a major and growing public health problem. The therapeutic approach includes non-pharmacological measures, pharmacological therapy,mechanical devices, and surgery. Despite the benefits of optimal pharmacologic therapy, the prognosis is still not ideal. At this time, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)has gained wide acceptance as an alternative treatment for HF patients with conduction delay.1

  18. Cardiac pacemakers and nuclear batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the introduction giving the indications for cardiac pacemaker therapy with special regard to the use of pacemakers powered by nuclear batteries, reference is made to the resulting radiation exposure of the patient. The activities of the Federal Health Office in this field such as recommendations and surveys including the entire Federal Republic are outlined. (orig.)

  19. CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION: AN ANESTHETIC CHALLENGE

    OpenAIRE

    Premalatha; Jayaraman,

    2014-01-01

    : Heart transplantation has emerged as the definitive therapy for patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy. The two most common forms of cardiac disease that lead to transplantation are ischemic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy, which together comprise approximately 90% of cases. The other less common forms of heart disease include viral cardiomyopathy, infiltrative cardiomyopathy, postpartum cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease and congenital heart disease

  20. Epidural analgesia for cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Svircevic; M.M. Passier; A.P. Nierich; D. van Dijk; C.J. Kalkman; G.J. van der Heijden

    2013-01-01

    Background A combination of general anaesthesia (GA) with thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) may have a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes by reducing the risk of perioperative complications after cardiac surgery. Objectives The objective of this review was to determine the impact of perioperativ