WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardboard

  1. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Paper and cardboard are produced from pulp derived from plant fibers, primarily wood. Paper and cardboard is used for many different products, such as for packaging material, newsprint and advertisements. Most of these products have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  2. Graphene cardboard: From ripples to tunable metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Pekka

    2014-03-01

    Recently, graphene was introduced with tunable ripple texturing, a nanofabric enabled by graphene's remarkable elastic properties. However, one can further envision sandwiching the ripples, thus constructing composite nanomaterial, graphene cardboard. Here, the basic mechanical properties of such structures are investigated computationally. It turns out that graphene cardboard is highly tunable material, for its elastic figures of merit vary orders of magnitude, with Poisson ratio tunable from 10 to -0.5 as one example. These trends set a foundation to guide the design and usage of metamaterials made of rippled van der Waals solids.

  3. Cardboard Boat Building in Math Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omundsen, John

    2014-01-01

    If you want to get the attention of a group of eighth grade math students, tell them they are going to build a life-size cardboard boat. To increase interest, follow up this statement by telling them that two to four of them will actually be rowing this boat across a small pond. Eighth grade math students at Oasis Charter Middle School in…

  4. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  5. Humidity Sensors Printed on Recycled Paper and Cardboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Mraović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%–80% relative humidity (RH at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%–90%. Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag’s IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  6. Humidity sensors printed on recycled paper and cardboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mraović, Matija; Muck, Tadeja; Pivar, Matej; Trontelj, Janez; Pleteršek, Anton

    2014-07-28

    Research, design, fabrication and results of various screen printed capacitive humidity sensors is presented in this paper. Two types of capacitive humidity sensors have been designed and fabricated via screen printing on recycled paper and cardboard, obtained from the regional paper and cardboard industry. As printing ink, commercially available silver nanoparticle-based conductive ink was used. A considerable amount of work has been devoted to the humidity measurement methods using paper as a dielectric material. Performances of different structures have been tested in a humidity chamber. Relative humidity in the chamber was varied in the range of 35%-80% relative humidity (RH) at a constant temperature of 23 °C. Parameters of interest were capacitance and conductance of each sensor material, as well as long term behaviour. Process reversibility has also been considered. The results obtained show a mainly logarithmic response of the paper sensors, with the only exception being cardboard-based sensors. Recycled paper-based sensors exhibit a change in value of three orders of magnitude, whereas cardboard-based sensors have a change in value of few 10s over the entire scope of relative humidity range (RH 35%-90%). Two different types of capacitor sensors have been investigated: lateral (comb) type sensors and modified, perforated flat plate type sensors. The objective of the present work was to identify the most important factors affecting the material performances with humidity, and to contribute to the development of a sensor system supported with a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chip directly on the material, for use in smart packaging applications. Therefore, the authors built a passive and a battery-supported wireless module based on SL900A smart sensory tag's IC to achieve UHF-RFID functionality with data logging capability.

  7. Producing energy from cardboard factory waste, Finding sustainable solutions for handling non-recyclable waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Thijs

    2008-01-01

    Eska Graphic Board is a cardboard factory which requires large amounts of energy in the form of heat for the production of graphical cardboard. Currently, Eska has on-site gas powered boilers to produce heat and a combined-heat-and-power (CHP) system to p

  8. Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on corrugated cardboards for packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Enrico, E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Göthel, Frank [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Zichner, Ralf [Department Printed Functionalities, Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany); Baumann, Reinhard R. [Digital Printing and Imaging Technology, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz (Germany); Department Printed Functionalities, Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Chemnitz (Germany)

    2015-03-30

    Highlights: • Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on cardboard substrates. • Development of primer layer to compensate the absorptiveness of the cardboard and the rough surface. • Manufacturing of UHF antennas in a fully digital manner for packaging applications. - Abstract: In this study, a method based on inkjet printing has been established to develop UHF antennas on a corrugated cardboard for packaging applications. The use of such a standardized, paper-based packaging substrate as material for printing electronics is challenging in terms of its high surface roughness and high ink absorption rate, especially when depositing very thin films with inkjet printing technology. However, we could obtain well-defined silver layers on the cardboard substrates due to a primer layer approach. The primer layer is based on a UV-curable ink formulation and deposited as well as the silver ink with inkjet printing technology. Industrial relevant printheads were chosen for the deposition of the materials. The usage of inkjet printing allows highest flexibility in terms of pattern design. The primer layer was proven to optimize the surface characteristics of the substrate, mainly reducing the surface roughness and water absorptiveness. Thanks to the primer layer approach, ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) antennas were deposited by inkjet printing on the corrugated cardboards. Along with the characterization and interpretation of electrical properties of the established conductive antenna patterns, the performance of the printed antennas were analyzed in detail by measuring the scattering parameter S{sub 11} and the antenna gain.

  9. Isolation and Screening of Polyhydroxyalkanoates Producing Bacteria from Pulp, Paper, and Cardboard Industry Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Kumari Bhuwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  10. Isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates producing bacteria from pulp, paper, and cardboard industry wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuwal, Anish Kumari; Singh, Gulab; Aggarwal, Neeraj Kumar; Goyal, Varsha; Yadav, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Background. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are storage materials that accumulate by various bacteria as energy and carbon reserve materials. They are biodegradable, environmentally friendly, and also biocompatible bioplastics. Unlike petrochemical-based plastics that take several decades to fully degrade, PHAs can be completely degraded within a year by variety of microorganisms into CO2 and water. In the present study, we aim to utilize pulp, paper, and cardboard industry sludge and waste water for the isolation and screening of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) accumulating bacteria and production of cost-effective PHB using cardboard industry waste water. Results. A total of 42 isolates showed black-blue coloration when stained with Sudan black B, a preliminary screening agent for lipophilic compounds, and a total of 15 isolates showed positive result with Nile blue A staining, a more specific dye for PHA granules. The isolates NAP11 and NAC1 showed maximum PHA production 79.27% and 77.63% with polymer concentration of 5.236 g/L and 4.042 g/L with cardboard industry waste water. Both of the selected isolates, NAP11 and NAC1, were classified up to genus level by studying their morphological and biochemical characteristics and were found to be Enterococcus sp., Brevundimonas sp. and, respectively. Conclusion. The isolates Enterococcus sp. NAP11 and Brevundimonas sp. NAC1 can be considered as good candidates for industrial production of PHB from cardboard industry waste water. We are reporting for the first time the use of cardboard industry waste water as a cultivation medium for the PHB production.

  11. Waste heat potentials in the drying section of the paper machine in Umka Cardboard Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankes Goran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper production is one of the most energy intensive industrial processes. The use of waste heat is very important for energy efficiency improvement in paper industry. This paper deals with methods for calculation of potentials of waste heat generated in paper/board production process. For that purpose, the material and heat balance of the cardboard machine at Umka Cardboard Mill has been determined. Field measurements were conducted in order to define the unknown values of process parameters used for calculation in the balance equations and modelling. The focus was given to the cardboard drying section, which consumes most of the energy supplied to the machine. Additional aim of the work presented in the paper was to evaluate the specific energy consumption and the thermal efficiency of all individual energy units within the machine’s drying section. The results indicate two main sources of waste heat: waste heat released to the atmosphere with the discharge air from the present waste heat recovery system (14,380 kW; and waste heat released into the hall from the machine and extracted by the hall ventilation system (4,430 kW. Waste heat from both sources is characterized by fairly low temperatures 58-75ºС and fairly high moisture content (30-40 g/kg. The waste heat can be partly utilized for preheating the fresh air in cardboard drying process, saving up to 13% of steam consumption. The specific heat consumption and specific steam consumption (consumption per tonne of produced cardboard of the machine was 1,490 kWh/t and 1.4 t/t, respectively. The thermal efficiency of drying section and coating drying section was 55.6% and 33.6%, respectively. All these figures imply necessity for further waste heat utilization with the aim of improving the efficiency of energy use.

  12. Effect of cardboard under a sleeping bag on sleep stages during daytime nap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Mizuno, Kazue; Mizuno, Koh; Tanabe, Motoko; Niwano, Katsuko

    2016-05-01

    Fourteen healthy male subjects slept from 13:30 to 15:30 under ambient temperature and relative humidity maintained at 15 °C and 60%, respectively. They slept under two conditions: in a sleeping bag on wooden flooring (Wood) and in a sleeping bag with corrugated cardboard between the bag and the flooring (CC). Polysomnography, skin temperature (Tsk), microclimate, bed climate, and subjective sensations were obtained. The number of awakenings in the CC had significantly decreased compared to that in the Wood. The mean, back, and thigh Tsk, and bed climate temperature were significantly higher in the CC than that in the Wood. Subjective thermal sensations were warmer in the CC than in the Wood. These results suggest that using corrugated cardboard under a sleeping bag may reduce cold stress, thereby decreasing the number of awakenings and increasing subjective warmth; the mean, back, and thigh Tsk; and bed climate temperature.

  13. PROS AND CONS OF P. FLORIDA CULTIVATION FOR MANAGING WASTE OF HANDMADE PAPER AND CARDBOARD INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Shweta Kulshreshtha, Nupur Mathur, and Pradeep Bhatnagar

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing handmade paper and cardboard industrial sludges in the production of edible mushrooms involves risk of introducing toxic substances into the human food chain. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic assessment of P. florida (Pleurotus florida) cultivated on these industrial sludges and their combination with wheat straw was done by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA100. Interestingly, P. florida carpophores, cultivated on wheat straw did not sh...

  14. Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on corrugated cardboards for packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowade, Enrico; Göthel, Frank; Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a method based on inkjet printing has been established to develop UHF antennas on a corrugated cardboard for packaging applications. The use of such a standardized, paper-based packaging substrate as material for printing electronics is challenging in terms of its high surface roughness and high ink absorption rate, especially when depositing very thin films with inkjet printing technology. However, we could obtain well-defined silver layers on the cardboard substrates due to a primer layer approach. The primer layer is based on a UV-curable ink formulation and deposited as well as the silver ink with inkjet printing technology. Industrial relevant printheads were chosen for the deposition of the materials. The usage of inkjet printing allows highest flexibility in terms of pattern design. The primer layer was proven to optimize the surface characteristics of the substrate, mainly reducing the surface roughness and water absorptiveness. Thanks to the primer layer approach, ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) antennas were deposited by inkjet printing on the corrugated cardboards. Along with the characterization and interpretation of electrical properties of the established conductive antenna patterns, the performance of the printed antennas were analyzed in detail by measuring the scattering parameter S11 and the antenna gain.

  15. Roadmap Dutch paper and cardboard industry; Routekaart Nederlandse papier- en kartonindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2004, the VNP launched an energy program with the aim to halve energy consumption in 2020 throughout the paper and cardboard chain in the Netherlands. From 2011 to 2030 the VNP aims at two developing themes: (1) Sustainability: the efficient use of energy and materials for cost reduction and sustainability, and (2) Innovative products and services with high added value [Dutch] In 2004 is de VNP gestart met een energietransitieprogramma met als doel het energieverbruik in de gehele papier- en kartonketen te halveren in 2020. Vanaf 2011 tot 2030 zet de VNP in op twee ontwikkelthema's: (1) Duurzaamheid: het efficient omgaan met energie en materialen ten behoeve van kostenreductie en verduurzaming; en (2) Innovatieve producten en diensten met hoge toegevoegde waarde.

  16. A Case of Cardboard Boxes Likely Facilitating the Biting of a Patient by Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Triatomine Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolhun, Eduardo P.; Antes, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a vector-borne and potentially fatal parasitic disease that is transmitted by the triatomine bug, a nocturnal feeding, flying arthropod, often referred to by its colloquial name, the “kissing bug.” Vector-borne transmission is considered the most important means of spreading Chagas disease in endemic and nonendemic areas. Corrugated cardboard boxes may accelerate the spread of these insect vectors to nonendemic areas through their ability to harbor and transport small terrestrial arthropods such as silverfish, termites, and cockroaches. We report the case of a patient living in northern California who presented to a community clinic 6 weeks after being bitten by a positively identified triatomine bug. A local pest control company identified a total of eight adult Triatoma protracta, nine nymphs, and two eggs; all within the patient's bedding. No bugs were found outside of the patient's bedroom. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed one adult female was positive for Trypanosoma cruzi via polymerase chain reaction. The patient's bedroom doubled as an office and regularly received and stored corrugated cardboard shipping boxes. Corrugated cardboard boxes have been used to trap and study the triatomine bug. This is the first documented case that provides circumstantial evidence that corrugated cardboard boxes may be an inadvertent and unrecognized factor in the spread of Chagas disease. PMID:27601526

  17. The influence of surface topography of UV coated and printed cardboard on the print gloss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Karlović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The incident light on the printed surface undergoes through several processes of scattering, absorbtion and reflectiondepending on the surface topography and structure of the material. The specular part of the surface reflection is commonlyattributed as the geometric component of the reflection, and when measured is associated with specular gloss.The diffuse part of the surface reflection contains the chromatic part of the reflection and is commonly calculatedthrough colorimetric values. Using UV coatings as surface enhacement materials which affect the optical propertiesof coated surfaces and final appearance of the printed product forms new surface topography over the existingone. We have investigated the influence of three different amounts of UV glossy and matte oveprint coating on themeasured specular gloss of printed cardboard samples. The different amount of coatings on the printed samples wereachived using three different screen stencils of 180 threads/cm, 150 threads/cm and 120 threads/cm thread count.The cardboard samples were analysed with AFM and SEM microscopes to obtain surface topography and roughnessvalues which were evaluated with the measured geometric values speficied as instrumental gloss. The surfaceswith a specific amount of UV coatings showed a new formed topography which influences the reflection of light.The changes in topography were evaluated through surface roughness parameters which showed a decline of surfaceroughness with tht additional ammount of glossy and matte coatings. The obtained and calculated correlations showthere is a high correlation between coating ammount and surface roughness change and gloss for the glossy UVcoating. The results for the matte UV coatings showed lower correlation for the gloss and surface roughness.

  18. Cucurto's Cardboard Coloring Book: Argentine Independence and other Stories to Recycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Sommer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca probar el carácter de materiales reciclables de los actuales discursos histórico y literario, como se puede constatar en el marco de las celebraciones oficiales con motivo del bicentenario de la independencia argentina. Para ello se analiza el trabajo adelantado por Washington Cucurto, seudónimo del escritor argentino Santiago Vega (1973, en su editorial Eloísa Cartonera (edición de textos a partir de materiales reciclables adquiridos a los cartoneros bonaerenses, su aguda mirada de los procesos migratorios desde diferentes lugares de Latinoamérica hacia Argentina y su peculiar manera de concebir la re-escritura de la literatura.This article tries to prove how present historical and literary discourses are recyclable materials, as the framework of Argentina’s Bicentennial Independence official celebrations shows. The work done by Washington Cucurto in his Eloisa Cartonera’s press (editing texts from recyclable materials, acquired from the Buenos Aires’ cardboards, his sharp view on the migratory processes from different places of Latin America toward Argentina and his particular way of thinking the re-writing of literature contribute to prove the recyclable character of these discourses.

  19. Migration of novel offset printing inks from cardboard packaging into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tina; Gude, Thomas; Simat, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    We report the migration potential of newly patented low-migration offset printing inks from cardboard food packaging and estimate the potential risk of their migration into food. The complete printing formulation was available and, due to the fact that the solvent compounds in these inks differ from those used in conventional printing inks, the investigation focused on these solvents. Instead of containing mineral and vegetable oils, the low-migration printing inks are based on a novel fatty acid ester. The migration of this alternative solvent was investigated according to DIN EN 14338 in Tenax simulant and in different types of food. For specific detection of the fatty acid ester, LC-MS/MS (APCI) was chosen due to its higher sensitivity and selectivity than GC/MS. Printed packaging materials from three different commercially available food products (meat, chocolate and sweets) were tested. Migration of the fatty acid ester from the packaging into simulants was analysed. For food samples, a clean-up method based on solid-phase extraction was developed and migration of the fatty acid ester into meat, chocolate and sweets was also demonstrated. Levels of contamination of these foods were between 5 and 80 microg fatty acid ester/kg, but levels in food were lower than those in simulants.

  20. Rapid and sensitive solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography for the analysis of mineral oil saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in cardboard and dried foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2012-06-22

    A rapid off-line solid phase extraction-large volume injection-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (SPE-LVI-GC-FID) method, based on the use of silver silica gel and low solvent consumption, was developed for mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH) and mineral oil aromatic hydrocarbon (MOAH) determination in cardboard and dried foods packaged in cardboard. The SPE method was validated using LVI with a conventional on-column injector and the retention gap technique (which allowed to inject up to 50 μL of the sample). Detector response was linear over all the concentration range tested (0.5-250 μg/mL), recoveries were practically quantitative, repeatability was good (coefficients of variation lower than 7%) and limit of quantification adequate to quantify the envisioned limit of 0.15 mg/kg proposed in Germany for MOAH analysis in food samples packaged in recycled cardboard. Rapid heating of the GC oven allowed to increase sample throughput (3-4 samples per hour) and to enhance sensitivity. The proposed method was used for MOSH and MOAH determination in selected food samples usually commercialised in cardboard packaging. The most contaminated was a tea sample (102.2 and 7.9 mg/kg of MOSH and MOAH below n-C25, respectively), followed by a rice and a sugar powder sample, all packaged in recycled cardboard.

  1. On the relationship between cardboard burning in a sunshine recorder and the direct solar irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, A.; Calbó, J.; González, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    physical characteristics of the heliograph and of the cardboard from which the bands are made may also have an important role in this relationship. The method was applied to a limited series of bands so the results and conclusions are preliminary. The first conclusion is the lack of accuracy that has the threshold value of 120 W/m2 and the difficulty of giving a single value of this threshold. The sudden changes and intermittent weather conditions, combined with the poor temporal resolution of the measure of the burn width, reduce the correlation between burn and DSI. For further research aimed at the study of the behavior of the insolation due to the changing concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere, we need to increase the number of burned sunshine bands and to describe with more accuracy the limitations of heliographs.

  2. Mitigation of biofilm formation on corrugated cardboard fresh produce packaging surfaces using a novel thiazolidinedione derivative integrated in acrylic emulsion polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eBrandwein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analogue cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed.

  3. Mitigation of Biofilm Formation on Corrugated Cardboard Fresh Produce Packaging Surfaces Using a Novel Thiazolidinedione Derivative Integrated in Acrylic Emulsion Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwein, Michael; Al-Quntar, Abed; Goldberg, Hila; Mosheyev, Gregory; Goffer, Moshe; Marin-Iniesta, Fulgencio; López-Gómez, Antonio; Steinberg, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Various surfaces associated with the storage and packing of food are known to harbor distinct bacterial pathogens. Conspicuously absent among the plethora of studies implicating food packaging materials and machinery is the study of corrugated cardboard packaging, the worldwide medium for transporting fresh produce. In this study, we observed the microbial communities of three different store-bought fruits and vegetables, along with their analog cardboard packaging using high throughput sequencing technology. We further developed an anti-biofilm polymer meant to coat corrugated cardboard surfaces and mediate bacterial biofilm growth on said surfaces. Integration of a novel thiazolidinedione derivative into the acrylic emulsion polymers was assessed using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analysis and surface topography was visualized and quantified on corrugated cardboard surfaces. Biofilm growth was measured using q-PCR targeting the gene encoding 16s rRNA. Additionally, architectural structure of the biofilm was observed using SEM. The uniform integration of the thiazolidinedione derivative TZD-6 was confirmed, and it was determined via q-PCR to reduce biofilm growth by ~80% on tested surfaces. A novel and effective method for reducing microbial load and preventing contamination on food packaging is thereby proposed.

  4. Brush-Painting and Photonic Sintering of Copper Oxide and Silver Inks on Wood and Cardboard Substrates to Form Antennas for UHF RFID Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erja Sipilä

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive deposition of inks with metallic inclusions provides compelling means to embed electronics into versatile structures. The need to integrate electronics into environmentally friendly components and structures increases dramatically together with the increasing popularity of the Internet of Things. We demonstrate a novel brush-painting method for depositing copper oxide and silver inks directly on wood and cardboard substrates and discuss the optimization of the photonic sintering process parameters for both materials. The optimized parameters were utilized to manufacture passive ultra high frequency (UHF radio frequency identification (RFID tag antennas. The results from wireless testing show that the RFID tags based on the copper oxide and silver ink antennas on wood substrate are readable from ranges of 8.5 and 11 meters, respectively, and on cardboard substrate from read ranges of 8.5 and 12 meters, respectively. These results are well sufficient for many future wireless applications requiring remote identification with RFID.

  5. Migration of photoinitiators from cardboard into dry food: evaluation of Tenax® as a food simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Houwe, Kathy; Evrard, Caroline; Van Loco, Joris; Lynen, Frederic; Van Hoeck, Els

    2016-05-01

    Photoinitiators are widely used to cure ink on packaging materials used in food applications such as cardboards for the packaging of dry foods. Conventional migration testing for long-term storage at ambient temperature with Tenax(®) was applied to paperboard for the following photoinitiators: benzophenone (BP), 4,4'-bis(diethylamino)benzophenone (DEAB), 2-chloro-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (CTX), 1-chloro-4-propoxy-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (CPTX), 4-(dimethylamino)benzophenone (DMBP), 2-ethylanthraquinone (EA), 2-ethylhexyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDB), ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (EDMAB), 4-hydroxybenzophenone (4-HBP), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMBP), 2-hydroxy-4'-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-methylpropiophenone (HMMP), 2-isopropyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (ITX), 4-methylbenzophenone (MBP) and Michler's ketone (MK). Test conditions (10 days at 60°C) were according to Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011 and showed different migration patterns for the different photoinitiators. The results were compared with the migration in cereals after a storage of 6 months at room temperature. The simulation with Tenax at 60°C overestimated actual migration in cereals up to a maximum of 92%. In addition, the effect of a lower contact temperature and the impact of the Tenax pore size were investigated. Analogous simulation performed with rice instead of Tenax resulted in insufficiently low migration rates, showing Tenax is a much stronger adsorbent than rice and cereals.

  6. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid determination of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) in cardboard and paper intended for food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Sander, Maren; Purcaro, Giorgia; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2013-10-15

    Packaging can represent a primary source of food contamination with mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH), especially when recycled cardboard or mineral oil based printing inks are used. A pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method, followed by on-line LC-GC analysis, has been optimized for rapid mineral oil determination in cardboard and paper samples. The proposed method involves extraction with hexane (2 cycles) at 60°C for 5 min, and allows for the processing of up to 6 samples in parallel with minimal sample manipulation and solvent consumption. It gave good repeatability (coefficient of variation lower than 5%) and practically quantitative extraction yield (less than 2% of the total contamination found in a third separate cycle). The method was applied to different cardboards and paper materials intended for food contact. Results obtained were similar to those obtained by applying classical solvent extraction with hexane/ethanol 1:1 (v/v) as described by Lorenzini et al. [20].

  7. Cardboard Loom Weaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Cynthia Cox

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students in grades three to six can create looms and learn about weaving. Discusses the process for weaving. Includes ideas for furthering the students' knowledge of weaving, a list of vocabulary and materials, and directions for creating the loom. (CMK)

  8. Application of Enzymatic Starch on Surface Sizing of Cardboard%酶改性淀粉用于箱纸板表面施胶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王耀; 张庆栋; 马晓东

    2012-01-01

    Liquid amylase was instead of ammonium persulfate to modify starch in the cardboard surface sizing. The results showed that the use of liquid amylase as a viscosity reducer can not only improve the physical strength of the paper, but can reduce production costs.%介绍液体淀粉酶替代过硫酸铵在箱纸板表面施胶中的应用。结果表明:使用液体淀粉酶作为降黏剂不仅可以提高成纸的物理指标,而且能降低生产成本。

  9. Environmental Analyses of Paper and Cardboard. Prioritary flows of chain-oriented waste management; Milieuanalyses Papier en Karton. Ten behoeve van prioritaire stromen ketengericht afvalbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevenster, M.N.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2010-07-15

    Dutch consumption of paper and cardboard is analyzed for total environmental impact across the chain. This consists partly of paper and cardboard produced in the Netherlands and partly from imported products. Because the collection of paper in the Netherlands is relatively high, a large proportion of the raw materials is recovered. This 'baseline' was conducted under the Waste Chain oriented waste policy, a new approach under the Second National Waste Management Plan (LAP2). Guiding goal is to reduce the environmental load on the chain by 20% in 2015. Three measures are considered that together provide potential savings of 8%. The savings include efficiency improvements in printing, including reduction of paper waste and the use of alternative raw fibers. [Dutch] De Nederlandse consumptie van papier en karton is geanalyseerd op complete milieuimpact over de keten. Deze bestaat deels uit in Nederland geproduceerd papier en karton en deels uit geimporteerde producten. Omdat in Nederland de inzameling van papier relatief hoog is, wordt een groot deel van de grondstof weer teruggewonnen. Deze 'nulmeting' is uitgevoerd in het kader van het Ketengericht Afvalbeleid, een nieuwe aanpak in het kader van het Tweede Landelijk Afvalbeheerplan (LAP2). Richtinggevende doelstelling is om 20% vermindering van milieudruk over de keten te realiseren in 2015. Een drietal beschouwde maatregelen leveren tezamen een besparingspotentieel van 8%. De besparingen betreffen onder andere efficientieverbetering bij drukkerijen, inclusief reductie van papieruitval in die schakel, en het gebruik van alternatieve vezelgrondstoffen.

  10. Preparation Method of Aluminum- plated Corrugated Cardboard and its Commercial Application%镀铝瓦楞纸板商业化应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颐; 周威

    2011-01-01

    本着绿色设计低碳生产和经济的可持续发展理念,探讨真空镀铝磁控溅射镀膜理论及其技术方法制备镀铝瓦楞纸板。从而获得绿色环保的镀铝瓦楞纸板新材料。深入分析镀铝瓦楞纸板商业化应用,生产新颖、美观具有时代特点的镀铝瓦楞纸板家具,满足市场需要并获得重大的经济效益和社会效益。%According to the concept of low -carbon production and sustainable economic development, the mechanism of vacuum magnetron sputtering coating and its technology of preparing the aluminum - plated corrugated cardboard were explored in this paper in order to obtain the environment - friendly new material. Furthermore, the commercial application of aluminum - plated corrugated cardboard was analyzed to produce original elegant and fashionable furniture to meet the needs of the market and gain significant economic and social benefits.

  11. Analysis and Experimental Study of Air-cushion Pressure Used to Cardboard Adhesive%一种用于纸板黏合的气垫压合分析及实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波

    2014-01-01

    Cushion has a wide range of applications in engineering. It is a new attempt to use it in the lamination process of corrugated cardboard adhesive, to get the theoretical analysis and experimental research. It is made to numerical simulation of multi-stoma pressure distribution from a single stomatal mathematical model by using ANSYS finite element software. It can be used to the experimental device that conveyor speed, air supply’s pressure and flow, and air-cushion thickness can be adjusted. Experiments show that the device can meet analysis results by a test system for relevant parameters. The result shows that the pressure of air distribution simulation is in good agreement with the measured results. The corrugated cardboard and pressing orthogonal ex-perimental results show that is the more appropriate for the pressure of air 1000Pa, air cushion thickness 2mm, pressing time 3min, air cushion pressure used in corrugated cardboard and pressing is feasible.%将气垫用于瓦楞纸板黏合的压合工艺是一种新的尝试,为了探讨气垫压力形成、压力分布及工艺效果,进行了理论分析和实验研究。利用ANSYS有限元软件,从单个气孔的压力分布数学模型出发,对多气孔的压力分布进行数值模拟,用一种供风压力、流量、气垫厚度都可调节的气垫压合实验装置,通过相关参数测试系统,验证了分析结果。结果表明:气垫压力分布模拟与实测结果吻合较好,瓦楞纸板黏合压合正交实验表明,选用气垫压力1000Pa、气垫厚度2mm、压合时间3min是比较合适的,气垫压合用于瓦楞纸黏合压合是可行的。

  12. Rigidez do papelão ondulado: comparação entre resultados experimentais e os obtidos por cálculo analítico Bending stiffness evaluation of cardboard: comparison between experimental and analytically results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo G. Magalhães

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Embalagens de papelão ondulado para produtos hortícolas têm como função principal a proteção do produto. O dimensionamento de uma embalagem de papelão requer o conhecimento da rigidez à flexão, que depende dos módulos de elasticidade dos elementos que o constituem. Este trabalho teve por objetivo calcular, a partir da caracterização física do papelão em laboratório, o módulo de elasticidade por diferentes métodos, comparando os resultados com os valores obtidos experimentalmente. Dez corpos de prova de cada um dos papéis selecionados para este estudo foram testados na direção de fabricação e na direção transversal. A resistência à tração dos papéis, capa e miolo, utilizada para calcular a rigidez, foi determinada em máquina universal de ensaios. Para a obtenção da rigidez à flexão, foi realizado o teste de quatro pontos. Foi observada expressiva variação entre os métodos pelos quais se obtêm os módulos de elasticidade que reflete nos valores de rigidez da estrutura. Os valores de rigidez obtidos experimentalmente foram sempre superiores aos valores obtidos por cálculos analíticos. Essa diferença pode ser atribuída a dois fatores conjugados: o processo de fabricação que confere maior rigidez do que os componentes isoladamente, e o outro componente é a adição de camada adesiva que não é levada em consideração nos cálculos analíticos.Cardboard packing for horticultural products has as main function to protect them. The design of a cardboard packing request the knowledge of the bending stiffens which is depending on the modulus of elasticity. The objective of this work was to calculate the cardboard modulus of elasticity from data obtained in laboratory using physical characterization test, with different methods, and comparing the results with the values obtained experimentally. Ten samples of each cardboard selected for this study were tested in the paper fabrication direction and in its

  13. Cardboard Activity Is "Loaded" with Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an activity that uses simple paperboard from the back of a pad of paper to illustrate some basic construction principles as students experiment with conducting load tests. The author describes the steps in conducting a load test as well as adding a strut support system. The important lesson here is that…

  14. Otimização de uma estação de tratamento de efluentes de uma indústria de embalagens de papel Optimization of a cardboard paper factory wastewater treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lademir Luiz Beal

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho versa sobre a utilização de uma estratégia de otimização de uma estação de tratamento de efluentes de uma indústria de embalagens de papel, com problemas de "foaming". Os resultados do diagnóstico inicial mostraram que o tratamento primário alcançou uma eficiência superior a 70% na remoção de sólidos suspensos. As modificações operacionais realizadas foram limpezas das caixas de gordura, redução da geração de óleos e graxas nos pontos de geração. As modificações no processo na ETE foram à implementação da equalização da vazão de alimentação do tanque de aeração, adição de hipoclorito de sódio na entrada do sedimentador secundário, adição de ácido fosfórico para equilibrar a relação entre nutrientes e DBO5 e a manutenção de uma concentração e idade do lodo constante durante o processo.This paper describes the strategies used to optimize a cardboard paper factory wastewater treatment plant regarding operational problems caused by the occurrence of foaming and filamentous organisms. The operational modifications involved the use of an equalization tank, the reduction of oil and grease from the industrial process, the addition of sodium hypochlorite at the inlet of the secondary settler to control filamentous organisms and phosphoric acid to correct the nutrients balance and BOD. A correct value of biomass concentration and sludge age were maintained constant all the time. The first results showed that the TSS removal efficiency in the primary settler was higher than 70%, followed by an improved performance of the biological reactor due to the control of filamentous organisms and better performance of the secondary settler.

  15. 基于建构主义学习理论的幼儿科学活动分析--以中班科学活动《纸板顶顶乐》为例%Children's Scientific Activities Analysis Based on Constructivist Learning Theory--Take Intermediate Class Scientific Activity"Cardboard Dingding Music"as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田方

    2014-01-01

    According to the spirit of"guide", science education in kindergarten should be a guide and promote early child-hood learning activities and processes. Core value lies in early childhood science education so that children can"Love to learn"and"good at learning"constitutes science education goals should be to solve the problem of young children to explore the thinking process and the development process for clues. This article will be based in the field of science core"explore"and"Guide,"and with constructivist learning theory to analyze the case"cardboard Dingding music", to promote the organ-ization and implementation of the majority of kindergarten teachers reflect on self-inquiry-based science activities.%根据《指南》精神,幼儿园的科学教育应成为引导和促进幼儿学习的活动和过程。幼儿科学教育的核心价值在于使幼儿能够“乐学”和“会学”,科学教育目标的构成应以幼儿探究解决问题的思维过程和发展进程为线索。本文将立足《指南》中科学领域“探究”的核心,结合建构主义学习理论来分析案例《纸板顶顶乐》,促进广大教师反思幼儿园自主探究式科学活动的组织与实施。

  16. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    Background. On the basis of an increased focus on emissions of greenhouse gases in general, Waste Norway wanted to prepare a climate accounting for waste management in Norway. Oestfoldforskning was engaged to undertake the project. The aim of the project has been to develop a model for the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions from different waste types of waste glass containers, metal containers, paper, cardboard, plastic, wet organic waste, wood waste and residual waste. The model is based on life cycle methodology and is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions per kg of waste for the various waste management options and waste types, as well as to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management for including waste types and quantities of 2006. There is an emphasis on developing a model so that municipalities / waste companies or regions can develop their own climate accounting for waste management in their region, based on site-specific conditions associated with types and amounts of waste, transport distances, type of treatment, exploitation and use of waste generated energy etc. The model can also be used as the basis for the preparation of useful documentation as the basis for information about waste systems utility in general, and as a basis for strategic reviews for Waste Norway and the waste sector in particular. Conclusions: The main conclusions from the project can be summarized as follows: 1. The results of the study clearly shows that to consider only one environmental indicator is too narrow approach to form the basis for decision making for selection of waste management solutions. 2. Net greenhouse gas emissions for waste management varies greatly, both between the different types of waste and treatment methods which are reviewed. The main results of the ranking of management methods in relation to the net greenhouse effect associated with the waste types and treatment methods are as follows: Recycling of materials

  17. Nothing——Offce with Cardboard Matenais%纸塑空间Nothing办公空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vera

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nothing是荷兰阿姆斯特丹的一家创意广告公司的名字,它的老板Michael、Jansen和Bas Korsten是欧洲知名的广告设计师,两人于2005年创立了这家公司.之所以叫"Noth-ing",实际上是想表达公司能够为客户在白纸上描绘出蓝图,并具备从无到有的创意才能.

  18. Review of existing LCA studies on the recycling and disposal of paper and cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    of these studies often find no absolute justification for recommending any particular management option, when taking into account also financial variables of waste management and incorporating environmental costs and benefits in their analyses. Few studies make categorical conclusions about the issue, and most...... of system parameters and boundary assumptions, which not all LCAs include. These parameters and assumptions should cover all essential activities/processes in the technosphere affected by the choice, including secondary services such as generation of energy from wood residues and paper incineration...... in the environmental impacts from the paper systems studied, but rather to differences in the applied LCA methodology and especially the definition of the paper system and its boundaries. The differences observed in some of the studies, therefore, are not believed to be the result of conscious methodological choices...

  19. Joint environmental policy making and sustainable practices for the cardboard production: case study: Smurfit Kappa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpio-Aguilar, J.C.; Franco-Garcia, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper presents an analysis of the influence of “Joint Environmental Policy-making” (JEP) in the operation of the company Smurfit Kappa (SK) in The Netherlands, Austria and Denmark (NL&AD). The paper aims to answer the question: to what extend has different levels of jointness and volu

  20. 淀粉胶黏度与瓦楞纸板质量%Viscosity of starch glue and quality of corrugated cardboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩桂芬; 刘筱霞

    2005-01-01

    黏度是衡量淀粉胶质量的重要指标之一,直接影响着瓦楞纸板的质量.因此在生产中,相关人员应随时观察不同的生产情况,即时调节所需的黏度,使生产工艺达到最佳状态.

  1. Determination of lead in papers and cardboards for food packaging; La determinazione del piombo in carte e cartoni per alimenti. Giornata di studio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costantini, S.; Giordano, R. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1998-06-01

    The meaning of a legal limit of lead in papers for food packaging is based on the fact that a material having high amount of lead could potentially contain other contaminants. The sample preparation represents a very important step that must be carefully considered in order to have a correct final result. The atomic absorption graphite furnace resulted the most utilized technique, since it offers both good accuracy and sensitivity; nevertheless, numerous factors influencing the determination must be considered. Besides obtaining accurate values, the problem is to take correct decision in presence of a variability not eliminable; in this case, the statistics can give a valid help by means of a mathematical model. The suitability of the materials used in a Quality control programme must be considered a parameter of capital importance, since the performance of the laboratories could be heavily influenced by the quality of samples. During 1997, a collaborative trial has been carried out with the participation of 70 laboratories of the national service. [Italiano] Il significato della presenza di un limite di piombo nelle carte destinate al contatto con alimenti risiede nel fatto che un materiale che non rispetta tale parametro puo` contenere altri contaminanti non prevedibili. La preparazione del campione da sottoporre alla determinazione e` una fase molto delicata da non sottovalutare ai fini della correttezza del risultato analitico finale. La tecnica dell`assorbimento atomico a fornace di grafite e` risultata la piu` utlizzata, in funzione delle buone accuratezza e sensibilita` del metodo; tuttavia, numerosi fattori che possono influenzare negativamente questo tipo di analisi devono essere tenuti in considerazione. Datala presenza di un limite di legge, il problema non e` solo quello di ottenere valori precisi ed accurati, ma di prendere decisioni corrette in presenza di una variabilita` di fondo non eliminabile. La statistica decisionale, attraverso un modello matematico, puo` fornire in questo caso un valido aiuto. L`ideoneita` dei materiali utilizzati in un circuito di controllo di qualita` deveessere considerata come premessa esseniale alla valutazione dei risultati ottenuti, poiche` la performance dei laboratori e` influenzata dalla qualita` del materiale utilizzato. Il saggio collaborativo espletato nel 1997 e` stato articolato in quattro fasi mediante l`invio di campioni dicrescente difficolta` a 70 laboratori del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale.

  2. 胶黏物控制剂在涂布白面牛卡纸生产中的应用%Stickies control agent used in production of coated white-face craft cardboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡谦; 夏新兴; 王宏伟; 李珊

    2016-01-01

    Adding two kinds of stickies control agents Bandsurf 160 (herein referred to as A) and Bandisp119 (herein referred to as B) in both aspects of the process of waste paper pulp production line (long fiber heat dispersion outlet, short fiber multi-plate entrance) for a experimental research. After adding stickies control agents, detecting and analyzing the concentration of white water, retention rate, conductivity, cationic demand under the bottom wire. Statistics was made on the frequency and timing of breaks when adding stickies control agents before and after, the number of stickies and impurities in per unit area of paper. Analysis on production and cost shows that, when the optimum inputs of A and B is 1.1 kg/t and 0.6 kg/t oven dry pulp, the underlying in the slurry viscosity material has played a very good control effect.%以废纸制浆生产线的两个工艺环节(长纤热分散出口、短纤多盘入口)为试验点,添加两种胶黏物控制剂Bandsurf 160(本文简称A)和Bandisp 119(本文简称B)配合进行控制研究。添加胶黏物控制剂后,检测并分析了底层网下白水浓度、保留率、电导率、阳离子需求量。统计了添加胶黏物控制剂前后两个时间段内,断纸次数及断纸时间、成纸单位面积内胶黏物和杂质点个数等数据。综合纸机生产情况和成本分析可见,当胶黏物控制剂A和B的最佳投入量为1.1k g/t绝干浆和0.6k g/t绝干浆时,对底层浆料中的黏性物质起到了良好的控制效果。

  3. 对三基色纸板反射光色度的分析%Analysis on the chrominance of the reflective light from the three primary color cardboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳山; 鲍烈

    2007-01-01

    以1931CIE-XYZ系统为基础,对三基色及颜料混合纸板反射光的信号进行收集和分析.借助单片机积分球对实验数据进行积分并生成反射率曲线,验证了颜色相关原理,各波长谱线反射率随白色颜料增加均呈上升趋势.

  4. Efeito da acetilação das partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e da inclusão de partículas de polietileno e de embalagens cartonadas nas propriedades de chapas de aglomerado Effect of particle acetylation of Eucalyptus grandis wood and the inclusion of particles of polyethylene and cardboard packaging of properties in crowded plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vitor Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da acetilação das partículas de madeira de Eucalyptus grandis e da inclusão de partículas de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD e de alta densidade (PEAD e de embalagens cartonadas nas propriedades de chapas de aglomerado. As partículas de madeira foram produzidas em laboratório a partir de toras que foram desdobradas em tábuas, convertidas em baguetas, depois em flocos e, finalmente, transformadas em partículas. Embalagens cartonadas e de polietino de alta e baixa densidades foram coletadas em depósitos de material reciclável e processadas em moinho de martelo. A acetilação foi realizada em autoclave com controle de pressão e temperatura. A acetilação promoveu significativa estabilização dimensional dos painéis, entretanto diminuiu algumas propriedades mecânicas. A adição de polietileno reduziu as propriedades mecânicas, em especial a flexão estática (MOR e MOE, porém, de modo geral, melhorou a estabilidade dimensional dos painéis, independentemente do tipo de partícula. No entanto, a adição de embalagens cartonadas reduziu a resistência mecânica e promoveu maior adsorção de vapor de água, inchamento em espessura e expansão linear, tanto nas chapas contendo partículas acetiladas quanto naquelas que não as continham.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eucalyptus grandis particles acetylation and the addition of polyethylene of low (pebd and high density (pead and paperboard particles in the properties particleboard. Wood particles were produced in laboratory from logs that were split into plaks, baguettes and then converted into flakes and finally transformed into particles. Paperboard and polyethylene collected in recyclable material stores and processed in a hammer mil. Acetylation was performed in autoclave with pressure and temperature control. Wood particles acetylation promoted a significant stabilization of the particleboards but decrease some mechanical properties. The addition of paperboard reduced all the mechanical properties and promoted a greater adsorption of water vapor, thickness swelling and linear expansion, for boards containing acetylated or non acetylated wood particles. The addition of polyethylene reduced the mechanical properties, specially the static bending (mor and moe, however resulted in more stable boards.

  5. 77 FR 28353 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR, Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Shimadzu USA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ...; direct thermal paper; cleaning wipes; cardboard boxes; notebooks and binders; filter paper; technical... supplies; magnets; magnetic parts; lithium-ion batteries; column ovens; heaters and parts; recording...

  6. 76 FR 76974 - Notice of Receipt of, and Opportunity To Comment on, a Plan by Fiberight of Blairstown LLC for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... recyclable paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, textiles, metals, and glass wastes to the extent reasonably... recyclable paper, cardboard, plastics, rubber, textiles, metals, and glass wastes to the extent reasonably... goals of the local community, and the existing recycling programs and infrastructure in the...

  7. Paberist kaaviarini / Signe Abel, Anne Kivinukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Abel, Signe

    2014-01-01

    Inglismaal sotsiaalse projekti "Paberist kaaviarini" (From cardboard to caviar) raames käivitatud kala ja taimekasvatusega tegelevast ettevõttest. Artikkel on mõeldud vene keeles töötavatele õpetajatele õpetamisvahendiks

  8. 77 FR 2699 - Foreign-Trade Zone 267-Fargo, ND; Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing Authority, CNH...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... (HTSUS 4016.91); cork friction rings (HTSUS 4504.90); cardboard boxes and sheets (HTSUS 4819.10); manuals...); copper wire and cable (HTSUS 7413.00); metal latches and locks (HTSUS 8301.20); metal sign plates...

  9. Measuring Earth's Magnetic Field Simply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for measuring the earth's magnetic field using an empty toilet paper tube, copper wire, clear tape, a battery, a linear variable resistor, a small compass, cardboard, a protractor, and an ammeter. (WRM)

  10. Environmental Assessment of Installation Development at Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    program includes the collection of aluminum cans, paper, glass, plastic , scrap metal, cardboard, scrap wood, used batteries, and spent fluorescent...agencies that promotes environmental practices, including acquisition of biobased , environmentally preferable, energy-efficient, water-efficient, and

  11. 77 FR 40637 - Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Including On... to workers of Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, Containerboard Mill, Ontonagon, Michigan including... used in the production of corrugated containers (cardboard boxes). The company reports that...

  12. Kualitas Fiber Komposit Plastic Dari Kertas Kertas Kardus Dengan Matriks Polietilena (PE)

    OpenAIRE

    Cibro, Reymon Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The research utilizion use cardboard fiber and polyetilena recycle plastic as raw material for fiber plastic composite. That is useful to decreasing the waste of cardboard ang polyetilena plastic, as well as to accomplishes demand of wood. This research aims to evaluate the physical properties (density, moisture content, water absorbtion, thickness swelling) and mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture, internal bond, screw holding power) fiber plastic composite fo...

  13. How High Can You Jump?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕山鱼

    2005-01-01

    Flea trainers have observed a strange habit of fleas while training them. Fleas are trained by putting them in a cardboard box with a top on it. The fleas will jump up and hit the top of the cardboard box over and over and over again. As you watch them jump and hitthe lid, something very interesting becomes obvious.The fleas continue to jump, but they are no longer jumping high enough to hit the top.

  14. Help the planet by sorting your waste!

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Paper and cardboard waste comes in various forms, from newspapers to the toughest cardboard. Every year CERN dispatches about 200 tonnes of paper and cardboard to a recycling plant, but this is still too little when you take into consideration the tonnes of paper and cardboard that are still thrown out as part of ordinary rubbish or are incorrectly sorted into other rubbish skips.   Each office is equipped with a wastepaper bin, and a paper and cardboard container is available near every building. Cardboard boxes should be folded before they are placed in the containers in order to save space. Please note: Here are some sobering statistics: - 2 to 3 tonnes of wood pulp are required to manufacture 1 tonne of paper. - Each tonne of recycled paper means that we can save approximately 15 trees and substantial amounts of the water that is needed to extract cellulose (60 litres of water per kilo of paper). - A production of 100% recycled paper represents a 90% saving in water. - 5000 kWh of e...

  15. Relationship of coarse woody debris to arthropod Availability for Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers and other bark-foraging birds on loblolly pine boles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James, L.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract This study determined if short-term removal of coarse woody debris would reduce prey available to red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis Vieillot) and other bark-foraging birds at the Savannah River Site in Aiken and Barnwell counties, SC. All coarse woody debris was removed from four 9-ha plots of mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1997 and again in 1998. We sampled arthropods in coarse woody debris removal and control stands using crawl traps that captured arthropods crawling up tree boles, burlap bands wrapped around trees, and cardboard panels placed on the ground. We captured 27 orders and 172 families of arthropods in crawl traps whereas 20 arthropod orders were observed under burlap bands and cardboard panels. The most abundant insects collected from crawl traps were aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) and ants (Hymenoptera: Forrnicidae). The greatest biomass was in the wood cockroaches (Blattaria: Blattellidae), caterpillars (Lepidoptera) in the Family Noctuidae, and adult weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The most common group observed underneath cardboard panels was lsoptera (termites), and the most common taxon under burlap bands was wood cockroaches. Overall, arthropod abundance and biomass captured in crawl traps was similar in control and removal plots. In contrast, we observed more arthropods under burlap bands (mean & SE; 3,021.5 k 348.6, P= 0.03) and cardboard panels (3,537.25 k 432.4, P= 0.04) in plots with coarse woody debris compared with burlap bands (2325 + 171.3) and cardboard panels (2439.75 + 288.9) in plots where coarse woody debris was removed. Regression analyses showed that abundance beneath cardboard panels was positively correlated with abundance beneath burlap bands demonstrating the link between abundance on the ground with that on trees. Our results demonstrate that short-term removal of coarse woody debris from pine forests reduced overall arthropod availability to bark-foraging birds.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  17. 78 FR 31517 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Vestas Nacelles America, Inc.; Subzone 123E (Wind...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... and lubricants; assembly pastes; antifreeze/ coolants; fiberglass plates; plastic pipes/tubes/hoses/tapes/sheeting/ trays/cable supports/covers/bags/plugs/bottles/collectors; rubber profiles/strips/sealing lips/hoses/blocks; cardboard containers and frames; gloves; oil sampling kits, of glass;...

  18. The Jar Magic--Instructional Activities for Teaching Air Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bing-Hong; Chen, Chyong-Sun

    2013-01-01

    There are a variety of impressive activities designed for teaching the concept of air pressure to junior high school students. Water, glasses, balloons, plastic bottles, and suction cups are some of the items commonly used in these experiments. For example, if we take a glass of water, cover it with a piece of cardboard, and invert the glass,…

  19. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  20. Influence Learning Tour on Salted Fish Processing Behavior in Product Development in Karangantu Nusantara Fishing Port (NFP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Yaya

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to increase revenue, salted fish processors in Karangantu NFP should be able to change the behavior of production from quantity to quality orientation. The increase in revenue will be difficult to achieve if the salted fish products produced still monotonous and traditional and only sold in sacks or cardboard. Development of a quality…

  1. Enhanced terahertz emission from thin film semiconductor/metal interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramakrishnan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz light is electromagnetic radiation, similar to visible light. The photons that the terahertz light is comprised of carry a much smaller amount of energy compared to the visible light photons. Unlike visible light, terahertz light can pass through materials like plastic, cardboards, wood et

  2. Relative effects of plumage coloration and vegetation density on nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.W.

    1999-01-01

    Many passerine species are highly dichromatic with brightly-colored males and cryptically-colored females. Bright plumage in males is commonly thought to arise as a result of sexual selection by females such that males with bright coloration possess high fitness. However, bright plumage potentially could expose males to increased predation risk. Consistent with this idea, males of many highly dichromatic passerine species do not incubate. I tested whether brightly-colored males avoid incubation to reduce the probability of visual predators locating their nest. This hypothesis predicts greater hatching success for clutches incubated by cryptically-colored individuals than by brightly-colored individuals. The Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) is a common dichromatic species that breeds throughout the eastern U.S. I placed two button-quail (Turnix st).) eggs in each of 203 simulated cardinal nests. Dull brown cardboard, simulating a female cardinal, was placed over about half of all clutches. Bright red cardboard, simulating a male cardinal, was placed over the other clutches. Nest success was highest for well-concealed nests (87%) and lowest for nests in open habitat (54%). Nests containing red cardboard did not have significantly lower success than nests with brown cardboard, nor did I detect a significant color X vegetation-density interaction. My analysis may have had insufficient power to detect an effect of color on nest success; alternatively, brightly-colored males that do not incubate may achieve benefits unrelated to predation risk.

  3. Chirality and Pinwheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Fernandez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    By using cardboard models that resemble propellers, the students of inorganic courses can easily visualizing the distinct rotation of optical isomers. These propellers rotate clockwise or counterclockwise when they are dropped from a certain height or in the presence of wind. (Contains 1 figure.)

  4. Modelling and validation of robust partial thawing of frozen convenience foods during distribution in the cold chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens; Zammit, Gine Ørnholt

    2011-01-01

    In collaboration with two commercial distributors we have tested a new concept for distribution, where convenience products for the food service industry are prepared, frozen and packed in cardboard boxes, but distributed in the chill chain at +5°C instead of in the frost chain. This will lead...

  5. Recycling Today Makes for a Better Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raze, Robert E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Today's children must be educated about solid waste management and recycling to reduce the amount of waste that goes into landfills. The article describes what can be recycled (newspapers, corrugated cardboard, paper, glass, aluminum, textiles, motor oil, organic wastes, appliances, steel cans, and plastics). It also lists student environment…

  6. Evaluation of five sampling methods for Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) and L. decolor (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) in steel bins containing wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    An evaluation of five sampling methods for studying psocid population levels was conducted in two steel bins containing 32.6 metric tonnes of wheat in Manhattan, KS. Psocids were sampled using a 1.2-m open-ended trier, corrugated cardboard refuges placed on the underside of the bin hatch or the surf...

  7. Associative learning of visual and gustatory cues in the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, R.C.; Everaarts, T.C.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The landing response of the large cabbage white butterfly Pieris brassicae was studied under controlled optical and gustatory stimulus conditions. Experience-based changes in landing behaviour were examined by offering cardboard circles of two different shades of green, treated with either an ovipos

  8. Elephants and Their Young: Science and Math Activities for Young Children. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen

    This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…

  9. Shapes, space, and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Alan

    1991-01-01

    This book explains the structure of the nine regular solids, including the tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, and icosahedron, plus many semiregular solids. It demonstrates how they can be used to explain mathematics visually rather than by symbol systems, and includes instructions for constructing cardboard models. Over 300 illustrations. 1971 edition.

  10. Beyond An Inconvenient Truth: The Army’s March Toward Operationalizing Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    for:  Recovered Materials  Biobased products  Energy efficient products  Non Ozone-depleting substances  Environmentally preferred products...Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery (TGER) converts field waste (paper, plastic , cardboard and food slop – no glass or metal) into biofuel gas that

  11. Bluff package. Swiss scientists warn against mineral oil aromas from recycled cartonboard; Mogelpackung. Schweizer Wissenschaftler warnen vor Mineraloel-Aromaten aus Recyclingkarton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, Christa

    2010-10-15

    However, the German industry processes more than 15 million tons of waste paper and old pasteboard in the year. Investigations of Swiss chemists could bring this well lubricated cycle in stagnation. From recycling cardboard aroma containing mineral oils arrive into the food - more, than it is good.

  12. Environmental Assessment for Vandenberg Gate Complex Construction, Dorm Construction and Demolition at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Guard CH4 Methane MAANG Massachusetts Air National Guard CHP Central Heat...newspaper, cardboard, cans, glass and plastic containers, scrap metals, as well as significant Environmental Assessment Vandenberg Gate Complex...Revere was captured , as well as many sites where heavy fighting took place, is found along this route. The area of Parker’s Revenge/Ambush and

  13. Recovery methods in municipal refuse management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affholder, M.; Gony, J.N.; Colardeau, J.

    1977-10-01

    Various refuse screening tecniques and methods for organizing selective collection of paper, cardboard, and glass are described. Recovery of incinerated refuse developed by USBM and the French Bureau of Geological and Mining Research is detailed. The economics of municipal refuse recovery methods are examined. The sale of recovered material is explored.

  14. Returnable containers: an example of reverse logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G.M.C. Vrijens

    1996-01-01

    textabstractConsiders the application of returnable containers as an example of reverse logistics. A returnable container is a type of secondary packaging that can be used several times in the same form, in contrast with traditional cardboard boxes. For this equipment to be used, a system for the re

  15. Rethinking the Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, John; Hogan, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Spring is the season when thousands of creased cardboard pests can be found lodged under the armpits of students and teachers as they observe the educational rite of spring known as the school science fair. A recent visit to a local school's gymnasium to witness one of these events reminded the authors of why they so dislike science fairs. In this…

  16. Women's Street Theater as a Historical Teaching Tool: The Crankie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the use of a "crankie," a simple story device made from a cardboard box, in studying women's history in the high school classroom. Presents an example of a crankie story which focuses on Rosa Parks and the Montgomery (Alabama) bus boycott. Describes an evaluation process and assesses the activity's instructional value. (GEA)

  17. Quality effect of freeze-chilling in cod and rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo;

    -chilling on the quality of raw fish portions as an example of a meal element. The thawing of frozen products during transport was mimicked by placing cardboard boxes with frozen, vacuum packaged portions of fish in a chilling facility and allowing them to thaw slowly. To mimic possible subsequent chill storage...

  18. Tabletop Aurora Demonstrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffo, Peter Alfred

    1991-01-01

    A simple apparatus for studying various forms of the aurora borealis on a miniature scale can be constructed from a neon-storage flask, aluminum tape, a cardboard box, and a small piezoelectric ion gun of the type used to neutralize static charges on phonograph records. (PR)

  19. Food for Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KELLY; O’BRIEN

    2007-01-01

    Like most Americans, my expe-rience with stateside Chinese food was limited the stuff we get delivered in cleverly folded cardboard tubs. Although I enjoyed my weekly mu-shu fix, I did harbor suspicions that it was not, perhaps, the most authentic culina

  20. Sculpture: Creative Designs with Modern Materials (Tentative Course Outline).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubocq, Edward R.

    This document reports on a course in comprehension and application of various techniques of sculpture and collage, using a contemporary point of view. Students will work with contemporary materials such as wood, metals, plaster, plastics, styrofoam, and many other cardboard basic materials suitable for creative design products. This unit will…

  1. Optimal acid digestion for multi-element analysis of different waste matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    in the Paper & Cardboard matrix and for 10 elements in the Composite matrix. The ranking procedure points to different methods to be the most optimal digestion methods in the tested waste matrices. The recovery rates can vary by more than 90% among the tested digestion methods depending on the individual...

  2. DIY Fraction Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan; Graham, Louise

    2003-01-01

    Describes a very successful attempt to teach fractions to year 5 pupils based on pupils making their own fraction pack. Children decided for themselves how to make the fractional slices used in the activity using colored cardboard sheets and templates of a paper circle consisting of 24 equal slices. (Author/NB)

  3. Technical solutions for reducing indoor residential exposures to ultrafine particles from second-hand cigarette smoke infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    was carried out in the field in a multi-storey building and cardboard and plastic foil of polyethylene were used for sealing the entire wooden floor in the receiving flat. Another technical solution examined was a novel air circulating ductwork. The efficiency of the novel air circulating ductwork...

  4. Application of natural and synthetic polymers in a production of paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work gives the review of most frequently used natural and synthetic polymers in production of paper, board and cardboard. Physical and chemical interaction of natural and synthetic polymers with cellulose fibers, and thus the way these polymers influence the improvement of both production process and the paper characteristics, have been presented.

  5. The Music of the Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, Martin; Hughes, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a method for making a spectroscope from scrap materials, i.e. a fragment of compact disc, a cardboard box, a tube and a digital camera to record the spectrum. An image processing program such as ImageJ can be used to calculate the wavelength of emission and absorption lines from the digital photograph. Multiple images of a…

  6. Backyard Infrared Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    In this time of concern over climate change due to the atmospheric greenhouse effect, teachers often choose to extend relevant classroom work by the use of physical models to test statements. Here we describe an activity in which inexpensive backyard models made from cardboard boxes covered with various household transparent materials allow…

  7. A Simple Spectrophotometer Using Common Materials and a Digital Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmoko, Eko; Widayani; Budiman, Maman; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin; Khairurrijal

    2011-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometer was designed using cardboard, a DVD, a pocket digital camera, a tripod and a computer. The DVD was used as a diffraction grating and the camera as a light sensor. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using a reference light prior to use. The spectrophotometer was capable of measuring optical wavelengths with a…

  8. Migration of compounds from food contact materials and articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev

    2003-01-01

    This chapter presents the different types of food contact/packaging materials (plastics, paper and cardboard, metals, glass, rubbers, lacquers and coatings) and discusses the EU legislation concerning the safety of using these materials. Case studies on the migration of lead, bisphenol A, bisphen...

  9. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1947-01-01

    Flora Malesiana Bulletin No. 1 was issued in 150 copies, 112 of which were distributed to cooperating institutes, libraries, botanists and besides, to interested persons. A cardboard holder will be forwarded to libraries through the care of Dr Fr. Verdoorn, Waltham, Mass., U.S.A. In this number two

  10. “Brick-topia”, the thin-tile vaulted pavilion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David López López

    2014-12-01

    The whole process of designing, decision on the materials, structural analysis and construction is presented in the paper, including exploration on new form-finding methods to redesign a project in situ and research on a new formwork system using scaffolding, cardboard, wire and steel rods and having a cutter as main tool.

  11. 以常州住宅项目为例,比较集成建筑与传统混凝土建筑之间的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弗兰西斯·邓·克莱门特; 张宏

    2015-01-01

    A lightweight, thermally insulated block form for reinforced concrete construction, having voids extending between the top and bottom for the reception of concrete, is formed with a sheath of a non-combustible porous material, and a core of foamed plastic. The concrete receiving voids in the core are lined with circular cardboard tubes. In the finished construction the organically based plastic foam is enclosed in the inorganic non-combustible sheath and the surface of the sheath is sufficiently non-resilient so that when properly coated to seal and protect the surface it may act as a famished building surface. The cardboard tubes contain the concrete slurry so as to isolate the low tensile strength, The concrete receiving voids in the core are lined with circular cardboard tubes[1] .low modulus of elasticity block against forces which might crack or distort the block as the case of Light weight house as prepared off site construction presented by southeast university building science of Architecture department to it client in Changzhou city as inform of a modular house whereas the steel and concrete are mixed. The block is formed by joining four rectangular slabs of the sheath material at their ends to form an open-ended rectangular tube. This tube and the cardboard tubes are placed as inserts in a mold and the mold isfiled with self-foaming plastic which forms a core between the exterior walls of the circular cardboard tubes and the interior walls of the surrounding sheath, adhering to those surfaces, integrating the whole in residential homes.

  12. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...

  13. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling? A review of existing life cycle assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper.\\ Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...

  14. Environmental costs connected to various types of waste; Miljoekostander knyttet til ulike typer avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vennemo, Haakon

    1995-07-01

    The report estimates environmental costs (external impacts) from municipal waste through discharges into air, water and soil. We look at the wastes paper/cardboard, plastic, metal, wood and glass and give separate estimates for wastes at fillings with and without gaseous collection and combusted waste. The figure estimates are uncertain. Paper/cardboard at fillings without gas exhaust have the highest external impacts, about 2.5 pr. kg as the best estimate. The main reason is methane discharge. Plastic and wood at fillings also have high external impacts. These components ought to be combusted if the aim is low environmental costs. Metal and glass have external impacts beneath 0.01 pr. kg at the fillings. This is due to discharges from the fillings take long time and do not go into air. These components ought to be deposited if the aim is low environmental costs.

  15. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  16. Disposal and Reuse of Bergstrom Air Force Base, Texas. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    grass (Stipa leucotricha), dallis grass ( Paspalum dilatatum), brome grasses ( Bromus spp.), Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), and Bermuda grass (Cynodon...cardboard are recycled per day. Metal, textiles, and tires are recycled by the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO). Grass clippings are used... grasses . Most Houston Black soils are suitable for cultivation, native range grasses , hay, or improved pasture. Altoga soils are suited to crops, improved

  17. Providing Prisoners' Children a Home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    TEN years ago, Zhang Shuqin, a police inspector I in Shaanxi, visited a special family by chance. In this family, both the husband and wife were serving prison sentences, leaving five children and their 70-year-old granny at home. In their shabby cave dwelling, there was some cardboard on the bedframe instead of mattress and blankets. The old woman was coughing violently and the four-year-old girl was

  18. Avoidable Software Procurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    SET) Adobe Desktop and Server software at up to 60% off GSA TLP level 1 pricing. Autodesk Included in this award are over two dozen AutoCAD and...environmentally friendly; less CDs/DVSs, less plastic CD/DVD covers, less cardboard packaging, and less paper manuals . D. THREATS 1. Security a...pilot. There were 54 test cases which were manually executed multiple times in order to evaluate how the proposed check-in/check-out pilot system would

  19. JPRS Report, East Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    of Erich Hon- ecker’s until the previous day. If Krenz succeeds in getting the official church on his side, he will deal a harsh blow to the...adjustment to local needs hamper the consistent molding of customs of cultural participa- tion. JPRS-EER-89-124 14 November 1989 POLITICAL 15 Almost...metal, drawn bars, and a number of chemical industry products (e.g., chem- ical fiber, tires, fertilizer, PVC floor tiles), as well as cardboard

  20. Environmental impacts of waste management in the hospitality industry: Creating a waste management plan for Bergvik Kartano

    OpenAIRE

    Adigwe, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Many hospitality industries find it difficult to control or manage solid wastes, such as food, containers, paper, cardboard and scrap metals, which are waste generated on a daily basis depending on the industry. Most hospitality industries tend to lag behind when it comes to the collection of waste. Only a fraction of the¬¬ waste collected receives proper disposal. When waste is not collected sufficiently and the disposal is inappropriate the waste can accumulate and cause water, land and air...

  1. Towards Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Packaging: Screening Folded Boxes for Package Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, S.; Vieweg, N.; Gärtner, G.; Plew, P.; Deninger, A.

    2017-03-01

    We applied a recently developed, ultrafast terahertz measurement technique to screen folded cardboard boxes for package inserts. The presence or absence of an enclosed leaflet could be detected unambiguously in samples moving at velocities up to 21 m/s and, depending on the sample, up to an area overlap of 50-60%. The simple, robust measurement setup may pave the way to new applications of terahertz technology for quality control in pharmaceutical packaging.

  2. Oscillatory Response of a Beam to a Transverse Kick

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    When a circulating beam receives a transverse kick, it begins to perform coherent betatron oscillations. Their amplitude depends on strength, length and temporal shape of the kick, and on the Q-value (betatron tune) of the accelerator or storage ring. A calculation of a response function is shown in 3-dimensional presentation with the means of 1974: graph paper glued on cardboard stuck in a slotted base-plate.

  3. Towards Quality Control in Pharmaceutical Packaging: Screening Folded Boxes for Package Inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, S.; Vieweg, N.; Gärtner, G.; Plew, P.; Deninger, A.

    2016-11-01

    We applied a recently developed, ultrafast terahertz measurement technique to screen folded cardboard boxes for package inserts. The presence or absence of an enclosed leaflet could be detected unambiguously in samples moving at velocities up to 21 m/s and, depending on the sample, up to an area overlap of 50-60%. The simple, robust measurement setup may pave the way to new applications of terahertz technology for quality control in pharmaceutical packaging.

  4. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    bauxite and clay, paper and cardboard, different yarns , ferrosilicon and ferrochromium, non-alloyed raw aluminum, zinc and untreated alloys, and so on...better results in exports. Agreements between yarns and fabrics producers and producers of ready-made clothing have already been in existence for...noticeable increase of exports based on the higher production of domestic wool, cotton, hemp and silk. It is estimated that through the year 1990, with

  5. Paper Gains and Losses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADAMMINTER

    2004-01-01

    Wet piles of old cardboard are stacked on both sides of a loading platform, leaving just enough room for a truck to stop between them. Zhang Guanan, the stocky general manager of the Liudian General Paper Mill Factory, stands in the middle of the space. Behind him is the roar of a paper mill and a long flatbed truck leaving a warehouse loaded with twenty-eight giant rolls of carton board destined for a box

  6. Volumes of common industrial wastes: a study report; Dechets industriels banals: quel tonnage? rapport d`etude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The total common industrial waste volume production in France has been evaluated, taking into consideration all the industrial and commercial sectors and the following materials: glass, metals, plastics, rubber, textiles, papers, cardboard, wood, leather, organic matters, building wastes, mixtures. Results are presented for the various regions of France, as a function of enterprise size, waste type and destination; data are also given concerning packaging materials, and waste collection and processing. Comparisons are made with data from other information sources and calculations

  7. Development of Environmental Protection Wood–Based Activated Carbon Fibers Paperboard and its Application in Hygroscopic Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han Chien; Liou, Jyun-Fu; Lee, Wen-Ju; Wu, She–Ching; Duh, Ming–Hong; Fujimoto, Noboru

    2015-01-01

    To develop Wood–Based Activated Carbon Fibers Paperboard (WACFP) as a moisture–proof materialfor food use, Nadelholz/Laubholz Unbleached Kraft Pulp (NUKP/LUKP) and cardboard from recycled cartonswere used as precursors for the method of physical activation with steam to prepare activated carbonfibers (ACFs). The ACFs were evaluated by a preliminary safety evaluation (Ames Test) and reverse mutationassay (antimutagenic activity). The Survival (%) for Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100, with...

  8. Jour de fête!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoie Lachapelle, Arkadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jet printing ink on Epson Matte PaperLight maple frame Select (white lacquer finish, dry mounting on 4-ply cardboard Peterboro Museum without acid, clear acrylic sheet Tru Vue Premium basswood subframe 124.46 x 170.18 x 5.08 cm 35.4 lbs Photo credit: Isabelle Brabant Framing: Martin Schop Support for printing Mathieu Jacques Bioethicist collaborator bioéthicien: Jean-Frédéric Ménard

  9. Penurunan Jumlah Cacat Produksi Melalui Pendekatan Seven Tools Of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Gerry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PT Cipta Lestari Packindo is a manufacturing company engaging in the manufacture of cardboards. In its operational activities, the company experiences problems like defects or faults in the cardboard production process. Therefore, there’s a need for continuous improvements so that the company won’t suffer either from loss or cost of quality that will appear in the future. To achieve that, the seven tools of quality approach were used in an attempt to repair and reduce the level of errors and the defects in production. Results of this research found there are eight types of the cardboard defection occurred during the productions. By using pareto diagram, research found three major problems that took the biggest roles: pieces that are not aligned with the rotary engine, pieces that are not aligned with the coak engine, and missing in the printing process. In the analysis process of the reduction of defective productions within the three major problems, there are six factors causing the defections: men, machines, methods, measurements, materials, and environments—with men and machines as the biggest contributors. By doing continuous improvements, the level of the defective production will decrease eventually.

  10. Sorting waste - A question of good will

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department - FM Group

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimise waste-sorting costs, CERN provides two types of container at the entrance of buildings: a green plastic container for paper/cardboard and a metal container for household-type waste. We regret that recently there has been a significant decrease in the extent to which these types of waste are sorted, for example green containers have been found to hold assorted waste such as cardboard boxes filled with polystyrene, bubble-wrap or even plastic bottles, yoghurt pots, etc. Checks have shown that this 'non-compliant' waste does not come from the rubbish bins emptied by the cleaners but is deposited there directly by inconsiderate users. During the months of October and November alone, for example, only 15% of the waste from the paper/cardboard containers was recycled and the remaining 85% had to be incinerated, which entails a high cost for CERN. You should note that once an item of non-compliant waste is found in a green container its contents are immediately sent as waste to be incinerated ...

  11. Comparative studies of the static and dynamic headspace extraction of saturated short chain aldehydes from cellulose-based packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, T; Lankmayr, E P

    2002-03-01

    Aldehydes in cellulose-based materials such as cardboard are derived from lipid degradation. Depending on the production- and storage conditions of the cardboard, the aldehyde content changes. Owing to their sensorial properties, accurate control of their content is obligatory. The cardboard usually exhibits strong and even varying matrix effects and considerable inhomogeneity. The comparability of results of analysis after static and dynamic headspace extraction of short chained saturated aldehydes from cellulose-based matrices was studied. In the case of the static extraction technique, special attention was given to the establishment of the headspace equilibrium, which could be reached by the addition of water as a displacer. For dynamic headspace extraction, the volatiles were purged from the matrix by an inert gas and enriched on an adsorbent trap. In theory, the extraction yield should be 100%. Since there are no certified reference materials for verification of the extraction efficiency available, confirmation was achieved by determining the total amount of analytes in the sample by means of multiple headspace extraction.In comparison to the static operation mode, the major drawbacks of the dynamic technique were found to be based on a more complex parameter string and on limitations to the extractable sample quantities, which may result in enhanced uncertainty of the measurements. Nevertheless, the results of analysis pointed out that both headspace extraction techniques are suitable for the determination of volatile aldehydes from cellulose-based materials.

  12. The use of reverse logistics for waste management in a Brazilian grocery retailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karina T S; Braga Junior, Sergio S

    2016-01-01

    Retail growth is a result of the diversification of departments with the intention to look to consumer's needs and level of demand. Pressed by consumers and by the law, the adoption of environmental preservation practices is becoming stronger among grocery retailers. The objective of this research was to analyse the practices of reverse logistics performed by a retailer and measure the amount of waste generated by each department. To reach the proposed goal, a field research study was conducted to directly observe a grocery retailer in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, for a period of 6 months and monitor the amounts of cardboard and plastic discarded by each department. Using the Wuppertal method, the first result observed was that the retailer stopped its monthly production of approximately 20 tonne of biotic and abiotic material, which influence global warming and degradation of the ozone layer. Another result observed with the implementation of reverse logistics, was that the general grocery department mostly used cardboard and plastic. This sector includes products such as food cupboard, drinks, household, health and beauty, and pet articles. The fresh fruit and vegetable department and the meat, chicken and frozen department were increasingly using less plastic and cardboard packaging, increasing the use of returnable and durable packaging and thus promoting sustainability.

  13. Penurunan Jumlah Cacat Produksi melalui Pendekatan Seven Tools of Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available PT Cipta Lestari Packindo is a manufacturing company engaging in the manufacture of cardboards. In its operational activities, the company experiences problems like defects or faults in the cardboard production process. Therefore, there's a need for continuous improvements so that the company won't suffer either from loss or cost of quality that will appear in the future. To achieve that, the seven tools of quality approach were used in an attempt to repair and reduce the level of errors and the defects in production. Results of this research found there are eight types of the cardboard defection occurred during the productions. By using pareto diagram, research found three major problems that took the biggest roles: pieces that are not aligned with the rotary engine, pieces that are not aligned with the coak engine, and missing in the printing process. In the analysis process of the reduction of defective productions within the three major problems, there are six factors causing the defections: men, machines, methods, measurements, materials, and environments with men and machines as the biggest contributors. By doing continuous improvements, the level of the defective production will decrease eventually.

  14. Predictability and novelty in literal language comprehension: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

    2011-10-18

    Linguists have suggested that one mechanism for the creative extension of meaning in language involves mapping, or constructing correspondences between conceptual domains. For example, the sentence, "The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat," sets up a novel mapping between the concepts cardboard box and boat, while "His main method of transportation is a boat," relies on a more conventional mapping between method of transportation and boat. To examine the electrophysiological signature of this mapping process, electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from the scalp as healthy adults read three sorts of sentences: low-cloze (unpredictable) conventional ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), low-cloze novel mapp'ing ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"), and high-cloze (predictable) conventional ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat,"). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time-locked to sentence final words. The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. The high-cloze conventional control condition was included to compare the effects of mapping conventionality to those of predictability. The N400 component of the ERPs was affected by predictability but not by conventionality. By contrast, a late positivity was affected both by the predictability of sentence final words, being larger for words in low-cloze contexts that made target words difficult to predict, and by novelty, as words in the novel condition elicited a larger positivity 700-900ms than the same words in the (cloze-matched) conventional condition.

  15. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  16. Short communication: The effect of liquid storage on the flavor of whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Parker, Megan; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-06-01

    Unit operations in dried dairy ingredient manufacture significantly influence sensory properties and, consequently, their use and consumer acceptance in a variety of ingredient applications. In whey protein concentrate (WPC) manufacture, liquid can be stored as whey or WPC before spray drying. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of storage, composition, and bleaching on the flavor of spray-dried WPC80. Liquid whey was manufactured and subjected to the following treatments: bleached or unbleached and liquid whey or liquid WPC storage. The experiment was replicated 3 times and included a no-storage control. All liquid storage was performed at 4°C for 24h. Flavor of the final spray-dried WPC80 was evaluated by a trained panel and volatile compound analyses. Storage of liquids increased cardboard flavor, decreased sweet aromatic flavor, and resulted in increased volatile lipid oxidation products. Bleaching altered the effect of liquid storage. Storage of unbleached liquid whey decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and volatile lipid oxidation products compared with liquid WPC80 and no storage. In contrast, storage of bleached liquid WPC decreased sweet aromatic flavor and increased cardboard flavor and associated volatile lipid oxidation products compared with bleached liquid whey or no storage. These results confirm that liquid storage increases off-flavors in spray-dried protein but to a variable degree, depending on whether bleaching has been applied. If liquid storage is necessary, bleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid whey and unbleached WPC80 should be stored as liquid WPC to mitigate off-flavors.

  17. Public Territory | Territorio Público

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo, Regina José

    2007-01-01

    Three oil ra inbows swirl around the lukewarm waters of wells in Cobán. A shaft of 75 meters opens up in the neighborhood of San Antonio. The body of a woman is discovered in a hotel in Zone 1, her back bearing the death threat “to all sluts.” Two hundred and fifty families protest in front of Congress against being evicted from their land. In a presidential debate, the “firm hand” calls Colón a “limp wrist.” The legs of a woman, cut into 8 pieces, are left in a cardboard box in Zone 3. Ash r...

  18. Students build glovebox at Space Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Students in the Young Astronaut Program at the Coca-Cola Space Science Center in Columbus, GA, constructed gloveboxes using the new NASA Student Glovebox Education Guide. The young astronauts used cardboard copier paper boxes as the heart of the glovebox. The paper boxes transformed into gloveboxes when the students pasted poster-pictures of an actual NASA microgravity science glovebox inside and outside of the paper boxes. The young astronauts then added holes for gloves and removable transparent top covers, which completed the construction of the gloveboxes. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  19. Investigation into the Feasibility of Highly Enriched Uranium Detection by External Neutron Stimulation (Expanded Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    jar 493.1 40 Ragu spaghetti sauce in glass jar 668.5 36 Sanka in glass jar 277.0 37 Amore Cocoa mix in 5 foil packs 189.7 20 crackers in cardboard 153.1...20 microwave popcorn (2 bags) 228.4 15 chocolate coated almonds 201.2 20 Squigglies gummi worms candy 107.2 8 Sunglory raisins 5 packs in Ziploc...Vegetables 4.3 - 0.9 Meat & Fish 4.3-2.1 Thus containers on trucks containing such items as milk , bananas, etc., would pose a problem if the system threshold

  20. Solar system to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwig López, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    One of the most important successes in astronomical observations has been to determine the limit of the Solar System. It is said that the first man able to measure the distance Earth-Sun with only a very slight mistake, in the second century BC, was the wise Greek man Aristarco de Samos. Thanks to Newtońs law of universal gravitation, it was possible to measure, with a little margin of error, the distances between the Sun and the planets. Twelve-year old students are very interested in everything related to the universe. However, it seems too difficult to imagine and understand the real distances among the different celestial bodies. To learn the differences among the inner and outer planets and how far away the outer ones are, I have considered to make my pupils work on the sizes and the distances in our solar system constructing it to scale. The purpose is to reproduce our solar system to scale on a cardboard. The procedure is very easy and simple. Students of first year of ESO (12 year-old) receive the instructions in a sheet of paper (things they need: a black cardboard, a pair of scissors, colored pencils, a ruler, adhesive tape, glue, the photocopies of the planets and satellites, the measurements they have to use). In another photocopy they get the pictures of the edge of the sun, the planets, dwarf planets and some satellites, which they have to color, cut and stick on the cardboard. This activity is planned for both Spanish and bilingual learning students as a science project. Depending on the group, they will receive these instructions in Spanish or in English. When the time is over, the students bring their works on their cardboard to the class. They obtain a final mark: passing, good or excellent, depending on the accuracy of the measurements, the position of all the celestial bodies, the asteroids belts, personal contributions, etc. If any of the students has not followed the instructions they get the chance to remake it again properly, in order not

  1. Bates solar industrial process-steam application: preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-07

    The design is analyzed for a parabolic trough solar process heat system for a cardboard corrugation fabrication facility in Texas. The program is briefly reviewed, including an analysis of the plant and process. The performance modeling for the system is discussed, and the solar system structural design, collector subsystem, heat transport and distribution subsystem are analyzed. The selection of the heat transfer fluid, and ullage and fluid maintenance are discussed, and the master control system and data acquisition system are described. Testing of environmental degradation of materials is briefly discussed. A brief preliminary cost analysis is included. (LEW)

  2. Strategic Automated Command Control System-Data Transmission Subsystem (SACCS-DTS) Operation of Aircraft Wing Command Post/Modified User Terminal Element (AWCP/Mute), Base Communications Processor (BCP), Port Expansion Processor (PEP), and SACCS Desktop Terminal (SDT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    failure (KEY ERR) indicates a parity error exists between the KB and the VDU. It shows up as a blob (bright square). 2.3. Keyboard (KB). 2.3.1. The KB is...session security level if the "PRNT" key was pressed. Table 2.3. describes the controls/indicators and functions. 2.4.2. The error ( blob or battery...perform warm IPLs. Make two small cardboard signs with the words "CURRENT" and "SPARE" printed on them for mounting on the MSU doors. Swap the two signs

  3. Bio-engineering methods for the utilization and disposal of cellulytic and lignocellulytic wastes. Partial project 3: Development of methods for optimizing the decomposition of different materials including old waste by bio-engineering methods making use of different micro-organisms. Final report; Biotechnologische Verwertung und Entsorgung von cellulytischen und lignocellulytischen Abfaellen. Teilvorhaben 3: Entwicklung von Verfahren zur Optimierung des biotechnologischen Abbaus von unterschiedlichen Materialien einschliesslich Altabfaellen unter Einsatz verschiedener Mikroorganismen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, S.

    1992-12-01

    The work had the objective to try to achieve an accelerating influence on rotting processes, especially during the composting of poorly degradable cellulose and lignocellulose containing wastes such as paper, cardboard, bark, paper napkins, sawdust, etc., with the aid of enzymatic and/or microbial biological agents. The application experiments, which began on the bench scale, confirmed for all investigated substrates like cardboard/paper, napkin dust, sawdust, etc. that cellulose degradation is accelerated by the addition of enzymes. The intensity of the degradation processes depends on the pretreatment of the substrate, enzyme specificity, enzyme dosage, and the duration of hydrolysis. Very fine distribution, as in the case of sawdust or cardboard, entailed slightly more rapid degradation. Whether heavy metals have an influence could not be established. The results of the investigations document that poorly degradable compost raw materials like cardboard and paper are enzymatically prehydrolysed, or rendered soluble, by addition of biological agents. In this way the time needed for rotting is shortened. The starting material for rotting may contain up to 50 or 60 per cent of such waste fractions. (orig./EF) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde versucht, mit Hilfe von enzymatischen und/oder mikrobiellen Biowirkstoffen, einen beschleunigenden Einfluss auf die Rotteprozesse, vor allem bei der Kompostierung von schwer abbaubaren cellulose- und lignocellulosehaltigen Abfaellen wie Papier, Pappe, Rinden, Windeln, Saegespaene etc., zu erreichen. Beginnend mit Applikationsuntersuchungen im Labormassstab, konnte bei allen untersuchten Substraten wie Pappe/Papier, Baumwolle, Windelstaub, Saegespaenen etc. ein beschleunigender Celluloseabbau infolge Enzymzusatz beobachtet werden. Die Intensitaet der Abbauvorgaenge ist dabei von der Substratvorbehandlung, Enzymspezifitaet, der Enzymdosierung und der Hydrolysedauer abhaengig. Eine Feinverteilung, wie z.B. bei

  4. Effectiveness of the GT200 Molecular Detector: A Double-Blind Test

    CERN Document Server

    Mochán, W Luis

    2013-01-01

    The GT200 is a device that has been extensively used by the Mexican armed forces to remotely detect and identify substances such as drugs and explosives. A double blind experiment has been performed to test its effectivity. In seventeen out of twenty attempts, the GT200 failed in the hands of certified operators to find more than 1600 amphetamine pills and four bullets hidden in a randomly chosen cardboard box out of eight identical boxes distributed within a 90m$\\times$20m ballroom. This result is compatible with the 1/8 probability expected for a completely ineffectual device, and is incompatible with even a moderately effective working one.

  5. TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF PACKAGING PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to customer driven economies, today’s world markets are characterized by high fluctuations in market demand and the frequent arrival of new technologies and new products. To stay competitive in such markets manufacturing companies require continuous improvements both in technical and organizational areas of their activity. The paper presents results of the diagnosis provided in the manufacturing area of the company producing cardboard packages and recommendations to make the production process more efficient. Especially, among the proposed technical and organizational recommendations the most important ones are: automation of certain elements of the production process and changes in production plant layout.

  6. Military Geodesy and Geospace Science. Unit Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    Description 3-56 Image Statistics 3-58 3.2.4 Non-Silver Imaging Materials 3-58 Non-Silver Inorganic Systems 3-60 Thermographic Systems 3-63 Photochromic ...Emulsions coated on thin sheets of glass are called photo- graphic plates. Specially whitened, high-quality paper or thin cardboard, sometimes treated...with a water-resistant sur- face coating to make it impervious to processing chemicals, is the base for photographic papers. Emulsions can also be

  7. Scenario-based table top simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Edwards, Kasper; Nielsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a scenario-based table top simulation method in a user-driven innovation setting. A team of researchers worked together with a user group of five medical staff members from the existing clinic. Table top simulations of a new clinic were carried out in a simple model...... including patient scenarios, LEGO figures, shoeboxes, and cardboard. The results indicated that table top simulations is a simple, cheap and powerful tool to generate and test innovative conceptual solutions in the early stages of a design process....

  8. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  9. The effects of beta acids from hops (Humulus lupulus) on mortality of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Probasco, Gene; Schantz, Lloyd

    2012-12-01

    Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) beta acids (HBA) were tested for miticidal effects on varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, a parasitic mite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). When varroa were placed on bees that had topical applications of 1 % HBA, there was 100 % mite mortality. Bee mortality was unaffected. Cardboard strips saturated with HBA and placed in colonies resulted in mite drop that was significantly greater than in untreated hives. HBA was detected on about 60 % of the bees in colonies during the first 48 h after application. Mite drop in colonies lasted for about 7 days with the highest drop occurring in the first 2-3 days after treatment. There was a reduction in the percentages of bees with HBA and in the amounts on their bodies after 7 days. Bee and queen mortality in the colonies were not affected by HBA treatments. When cardboard strips saturated with HBA were put in packages of bees, more than 90 % of the mites were killed without an increase in bee mortality. HBA might have potential to control varroa when establishing colonies from packages or during broodless periods.

  10. Influence of spider silk on refugia preferences of the recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.

  11. Selective sorting of waste

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Not much effort needed, just willpower In order to keep the cost of disposing of waste materials as low as possible, CERN provides two types of recipient at the entrance to each building: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metal one for general refuse. For some time now we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing negligence as far as selective sorting is concerned, with, for example, the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc. …We have been able to ascertain, after careful checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of the personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Non-sorted waste entails heavy costs for CERN. For information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned...

  12. Selective sorting of waste - not much effort needed, just willpower

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to keep as low as possible the cost of disposing of waste materials, CERN provides in the entrance to each building two types of recipient: a green plastic one for paper/cardboard and a metallic one for general refuse. For some time now, we have noticed, to our great regret, a growing neglect as far as the selective sorting is concerned, for example the green recipients being filled with a mixture of cardboard boxes full of polystyrene or of protective wrappers, plastic bottles, empty yogurts pots, etc …We have been able to ascertain, after carefully checking, that this haphazard mixing of waste cannot be attributed to the cleaning staff but rather to members of personnel who unscrupulously throw away their rubbish in a completely random manner. Waste non sorted entails heavy costs for CERN. For your information, once a non-compliant item is found in a green recipient, the entire contents are sent off for incineration rather than recycling… We are all concerned by selective sorting of waste mater...

  13. Quantitative and Qualitative Characterization of Solid Waste Generated in Chitrakoot (India) and Its Management: A Comparative Study of Karwi and Chitrakoot Nagar Panchayat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aparna; Gupta, Ganshyam; Singh, Amar

    2014-01-01

    Chitrakoot is a religious place in India and on a major festival day over 1,00,000-12, 00,000 people visit this place. Therefore, a study on solid waste generation was carried out. During the study, the MSW composition in Karwi was found as polythene (6.73%), plastic (5.14%), rubber (3.17%), metals (4.43%), glass (4.98%), wood (3.75%), cotton & cloths (6.37%), paper & cardboards (9.53%), vegetable wastes (13.52%), soil & constructional wastes (30.71%), garden waste (6.03%), rags (2.90%) and meat waste (2.72%) and in Chitrakoot the MSW composition was found as polythene (10.12%), plastic (4.78%), rubber (3.70%), metals (2.84%), glass (4.08%), wood (5.55%), cotton & cloths (4.29%), paper & cardboards (7.77%), vegetable wastes (11.66%), soil & constructional wastes (29.87%), garden waste (9.73%), rags (2.29%) and ash (3.32%). The waste management options provided by municipality are very poor and ineffective. No landfills, incineration and composting functions are performed. Chitrakoot municipality primarily has no function to reduce the size of waste including separation and recovery of valuable material. Community participation in solid waste management may be a better option.

  14. Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Tops, Mattie; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Koole, Sander L

    2016-03-23

    The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a negative event-related brain potential that peaks about 20-100 ms after people perform an incorrect response in choice reaction time tasks. Prior research has shown that the ERN may be enhanced by situational and dispositional factors that promote intrinsic motivation. Building on and extending this work the authors hypothesized that simulated interpersonal touch may increase task engagement and thereby increase ERN amplitude. To test this notion, 20 participants performed a Go/No-Go task while holding a teddy bear or a same-sized cardboard box. As expected, the ERN was significantly larger when participants held a teddy bear rather than a cardboard box. This effect was most pronounced for people high (rather than low) in trait intrinsic motivation, who may depend more on intrinsically motivating task cues to maintain task engagement. These findings highlight the potential benefits of simulated interpersonal touch in stimulating attention to errors, especially among people who are intrinsically motivated.

  15. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  16. Use of nitrogen cryogun for separating duct tape and recovery of latent fingerprints with a powder suspension method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James A; Crane, Jonathan Stuart

    2011-07-15

    Duct tape is sometimes recovered as physical evidence in crimes. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of latent prints on the adhesive and non-adhesive surfaces of duct tape samples that were separated using three methods. Three hundred donor fingerprint impressions were deposited on duct tape. Sections of duct tape were affixed to sections of cardboard and a fingerprint placed on the non-adhesive surface of the tape. A second layer of duct tape was prepared and a fingerprint placed on the adhesive side of the tape and then the tape was affixed to the piece of tape on the cardboard. After a 24-h period, the samples were separated using gradual force, liquid nitrogen applied with a cryogun and an adhesive neutralizer to separate the layers of tape. The recovered fingerprints were processed with a fingerprint powder suspension method. The recovered fingerprint images were evaluated and rated as +1, +2, or +3. The liquid nitrogen spray separation method yielded the highest number of +3 prints.

  17. Energy efficiency of material and energy recycling, sustainability of different recycling methods; Energieeffizienz der stofflichen und energetischen Verwertung ausgewaehlter Abfallfraktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friecke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Bidlingmaier, Werner [Bauhaus-Universitaet Weimar (Germany). Professur Abfallwirtschaft; Turk, Thomas [Poeyry Environment GmbH, Witzenhausen (Germany). Abt. IGW

    2010-02-15

    The approach for the sustainable usage of natural resources should lead to improved resource efficiency at the same time as a decrease of the negative ecological consequences of resource usage. Following this approach, the instruments of waste management particularly the material recycling and the energy recycling are also to be subject to a critical examination. The material recycling of paper and cardboard as well as plastics and biowaste has clear advantages over energy recycling processes in the aspect of energy efficiency. From the view of resource resp. energy efficiency also the recovering rate of metals is higher when they are collected from raw waste than when they are recovered from slag. This applies particularly for the nonferrous. This applies particularly for the nonferrous metals. Coupled with this as a rule, the climate change effects are also to be classified as lower. Which consequences can be drawn from these facts? Material recycling must be intensified. For paper/cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals its is apparent that material recycling can be massively increased through intensifying the separate collecting systems and making them more flexible, in conjunction with an intensive use of sorting technologies. Collection and sorting systems are to be coordinated with each other. The goal of the whole system must be the reaching of an optimum between covering rate which is as high as possible and a high quality of recyclable material. (orig.)

  18. Perancangan Kemasan Transportasi Buah Jambu Air (Syzygium aqueum cv Camplong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iswahyudi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jamboo cv Camplong was an exotic fruit from Sampang Indonesia which had high economic values. The quality of fresh Jamboo was greatly influenced by the types of packaging and ways of its transportation that affected its shelf life. The purpose of this research were designing a primary packaging and analyzing the quality of Jamboo cv Camplong after short transportation (from Sampang to Surabaya. Farmers used conventional packaging with capacity of 8.4 kg/box (dimension 478 mm x 146 mm x 354 mm. Based on theoretical packaging design showed that the flute BC cardboard (capacity 4.5 kg/box, dimension 357 mm x 217 mm x 216 mm with partition flute A cardboard. In fact, there was needed modification of the dimension (342 mm x 210 mm x 200 mm because of the fruits diameter (60-65 mm. This result did not change the efficiency usage of transportation space (91-95% and compression strength of box can support (7 boxes/ stack. The result showed that the mechanical damage after transportation were 20.87% for conventional packaging (as control and 7.70% for modification packaging design (packaging with partition.

  19. Diagnosis of solid waste management in the town of Campo Bom - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Luise dos Santos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the main items currently subject to recycling in Brazil to make a diagnosis on the management of domestic solid waste in the city of Campo Bom, in the catchment of the river valley of Sinos. The city of Campo Bom is neighboring the town of Novo Hamburgo. The survey is based on data supplied by the local administration COOLABORE (Cooperative Urban Cleaning and Construction. cooperative scavengers or environmental agents in the city and visits to Central treatment of household waste. We present all data related to waste management in the city both in its operational form for the results obtained. The results show large quantities of non-ferrous metals, ferrous metals, paper and cardboard and plastic and shows that paper and cardboard are more sensitive to seasonal generated by holiday periods, being mostly used in offices and businesses in relevant quantities. Since plastics are less sensitive and more for domestic use do not suffer sudden change in his generation during holiday periods. We analyzed the data from the first quarter of 2009.

  20. Impact dynamics of porcine drip bloodstains on fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elisabeth M P; Dodds, Margaret; Taylor, Michael C; Li, Jingyao; Michielsen, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    As a passive blood drop impacts a hard surface, it is observed to collapse and spread laterally, then retract and settle. During the spreading phase, the edge of the drop may rise forming a crown extending into spines and breaking up into secondary drops. When a similar drop falls onto a textile surface these same processes may occur, but the process of blood wicking into the fabric complicates stain formation. These processes are described within for passive drip stains collected under controlled conditions using anticoagulated porcine blood. Three stages of this impact process were identified and could be separated into distinct time zones: (1) spreading (time t≤2.5ms) and (2) retraction (2.5≤t≤12ms) on the surface with potential splashing at the periphery, and (3) wicking (30ms ≤t≤30min) of the blood into the fabric. Although wetting and wicking may also occur for tplain-woven>cardboard. Conversely, the size of the satellite stains correlates with the amount of wicking in the fabric with the satellite stain size for plain-woven>jersey knit>cardboard.

  1. System analysis of energy utilization from waste - evaluation of energy, environment and economy. Summary report; Systemanalys av energiutnyttjande fraan avfall - utvaerdering av energi, miljoe och ekonomi. Oeversiktsrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov; Granath, Jessica [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst. Ltd., Stockholm (Sweden); Frostell, Bjoern; Bjoerklund, Anna; Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology; Thyselius, Lennart; Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Carlsson, Marcus [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Economics

    1999-12-01

    Energy, environmental, and economic consequences of different management systems for municipal solid waste have been studied in a systems analysis. In the systems analysis, different combinations of incineration, materials recycling of separated plastic and cardboard containers, and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easily degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. In the study a computer model (ORWARE) based on LCA methodology was used. Case studies were performed for three different municipalities: Uppsala, Stockholm, and Aelvdalen. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, global warming potential, acidification, eutrophication, photo oxidant formation, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy, where welfare economy is the sum of financial economy and environmental economy. The study shows that reduced landfilling to the benefit of an increased use of energy and material from waste is positive from an environmental and energy as well as economic aspect. This is mainly due to the fact that the choice of waste management method affects processes outside the waste management system, such as production of district heating, electricity, vehicle fuel, plastic, cardboard, and fertiliser. This means that landfilling of energy-rich waste should be avoided as far as possible, both because of the the environmental impact, and because of the low recovery of resources. Incineration should constitute a basis in the waste management systems of the three municipalities studied, even if the waste has to be transported to a regional facility. Once the waste is collected, longer regional transports are of little significance, as long as the transports are carried out in an efficient manner. Comparing materials recycling and incineration, and biological treatment and incineration, no unambiguous conclusions can be drawn. There are

  2. Experimental Study on Inkjet-Printed Passive UHF RFID Tags on Versatile Paper-Based Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the possibilities and challenges of passive UHF RFID tag antennas manufactured by inkjet printing silver nanoparticle ink on versatile paper-based substrates. The most efficient manufacturing parameters, such as the pattern resolution, were determined and the optimal number of printed layers was evaluated for each substrate material. Next, inkjet-printed passive UHF RFID tags were fabricated on each substrate with the optimized parameters and number of layers. According to our measurements, the tags on different paper substrates showed peak read ranges of 4–6.5 meters and the tags on different cardboard substrates exhibited peak read ranges of 2–6 meters. Based on their wireless performance, these inkjet-printed paper-based passive UHF RFID tags are sufficient for many future wireless applications and comparable to tags fabricated on more traditional substrates, such as polyimide.

  3. Passive UHF RFID Tag with Multiple Sensing Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández-Salmerón

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a printed radio frequency identification tag in the ultra-high frequency band with multiple sensing capabilities. This passive tag is directly screen printed on a cardboard box with the aim of monitoring the packaging conditions during the different stages of the supply chain. This tag includes a commercial force sensor and a printed opening detector. Hence, the force applied to the package can be measured as well as the opening of the box can be detected. The architecture presented is a passive single-chip RFID tag. An electronic switch has been implemented to be able to measure both sensor magnitudes in the same access without including a microcontroller or battery. Moreover, the chip used here integrates a temperature sensor and, therefore, this tag provides three different parameters in every reading.

  4. High speed printing with polygon scan heads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  5. Citizens' attitude to reuse of municipal solid waste. A practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junquera, B. [Universidad de Oviedo, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Avda. del Cristo, s/n 33071 , Asturias Oviedo (Spain); Del Brio, J.A. [Universidad de Oviedo, Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial, Avda. Manuel Llaneza, 75 33208, Asturias Gijon (Spain); Muniz, M. [Ingeniero Tecnico Industrial, C/ Aguado, 277A, Asturias Gijon (Spain)

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the opinion of the citizens of Gijon who use the services of a cleaning firm (EMULSA) about the possible implementation of a more complex management of municipal solid waste in this city. We will study the citizens' views about environmental problems caused by municipal solid waste. We analyze different matters related to the functions of EMULSA and the citizens' attitudes to a separate collection of paper, cardboard, glass and batteries. A main goal of this article is to study if the knowledge about damage caused on the natural environment by municipal solid waste and the availability of special containers influences citizen's attitudes.

  6. Estimating evolution of δ13CH4 during methanization of cellulosic waste based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, microbial dynamics and stable carbon isotope fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A

    2012-04-01

    A change in δ(13)CH(4) during mesophilic methanization of cellulosic waste (paper and cardboard) was described using a mathematical model based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, microbial dynamics and the equation for the (13)C isotope accumulation in products including isotope fractionation. In this study, experimental data, previously obtained by Qu et al. (2009), was used to model metabolic pathways of cellulose transformation. A significant change in δ(13)CH(4) occurred in time during cellulosic waste methanization which was in accordance with the model. It was explained by the change in input of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as well as by fractionation of stable carbon isotopes (13)C and (12)C which was much higher for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis when compared to acetoclastic methanogenesis.

  7. A logistic model for the prediction of the influence of water on the solid waste methanization in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommier, S; Chenu, D; Quintard, M; Lefebvre, X

    2007-06-15

    This article deals with the impact of water content of solid waste on biogas production kinetics in landfills. This impact has been proved in the laboratory thanks to anaerobic biodegradation experiments on paper/cardboard waste samples. A strong dependence with the moisture level was observed for both kinetic rates and maximum methane production. In this article, a logistic model is proposed to simulate the biogas production rate. It is chosen as simple as possible in order to allow for a correct identification of the model parameters given the experimental data available. The moisture dependency is introduced through a linear weighing of the biomass specific growth rate and of the amount of accessible organic substrate. It is directly linked to physical properties of the waste: the holding capacity and the minimal moisture level allowing the presence of free water.

  8. Slowing the waste behemoth: Source reduction is overshadowed by recycling's success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishbein, B.; Saphire, D.

    1992-08-01

    The article describes the benefits from source reduction as the major and most cost effective way to solve the garbage issue that is overwhelming the United States. Recycling has emerged as the solution to the garbage crisis, however there is a growing recognition that it is not a panacea. Although source reduction is recognized as the best answer, there is a big information gap. Industry has been exploring opportunities for source reduction initiatives that will improve operating efficiency, cut costs and reduce the amount of waste. Several examples of source reduction in the business and industrial sector are cited, including substituting reusable blankets for shipping furniture rather than using cardboard containers; promotion of double-sided copying to reduce paper usage; and refilling beer bottles. Others, such as public composting programs and government source reduction programs that work are discussed.

  9. Identifying the key personnel in a nurse-initiated hospital waste reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Fazzini, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States generate more than 6600 tons of trash a day and approximately 85% of the waste is nonhazardous solid waste such as food, cardboard, and plastic. Treatment and management of hospital waste can lead to environmental problems for the communities that receive the waste. One health system's shared governance model provided the foundation to develop a nurse-led hospital waste reduction program that focused on point-of-care waste management. Waste reduction program development required working with a variety of departments within and external to the health system. The interdisciplinary approach informed the development of the waste reduction program. This article identifies the key departments that were necessary to include when developing a hospital waste reduction program.

  10. Robotic Telepresence: Perception, Performance, and User Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Laptop Telepresence N Mean N Mean 1 Soda Can bomb (diet pepsi ) 8 1.00 8 1.00 2 Soda Can bomb (diet coke) 8 1.00 8 1.00 3 Soda Can bomb (diet pepsi ...IDENTIFICATIONS) Laptop Telepresence N Mean N Mean 1 Soda Can bomb (diet pepsi ) 8 1.00 8 1.00 2 Soda Can bomb (diet coke) 8 1.00 8 1.00 3 Soda Can...bomb (diet pepsi ) 8 1.00 8 1.00 4 Land mine Grey 8 .75 8 .63 5 Land mine green and tan 8 .25 8 .75 6 Land mine tan 8 .63 8 .63 7 cardboard box 8

  11. Passive UHF RFID tag with multiple sensing capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Salmerón, José; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; Palma, Alberto J; Carvajal, Miguel A

    2015-10-22

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a printed radio frequency identification tag in the ultra-high frequency band with multiple sensing capabilities. This passive tag is directly screen printed on a cardboard box with the aim of monitoring the packaging conditions during the different stages of the supply chain. This tag includes a commercial force sensor and a printed opening detector. Hence, the force applied to the package can be measured as well as the opening of the box can be detected. The architecture presented is a passive single-chip RFID tag. An electronic switch has been implemented to be able to measure both sensor magnitudes in the same access without including a microcontroller or battery. Moreover, the chip used here integrates a temperature sensor and, therefore, this tag provides three different parameters in every reading.

  12. Fluidized bed gasification of the fuel fraction of municipal solid wastes; Gasificacion en lecho fluidizado de la fraccion combustible de los residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.; Baldasano, J. M.; Gasso, S. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    In this paper, the results obtained in the application of the fluidized-bed gasification to the treatment of solid waste with high heating value. These wastes could be valuable materials in thermo conversion processes such as gasification. The combustible fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) composed of paper, cardboard, plastics (PET,PVC), referred as refuse derived fuel (RDF), has been considered in this work. The experimental facility consists of an air-blown gasifier operating at atmospheric pressure with a capacity of 50 kg/h. The results obtained show that the gasification of RDF allows to produce a gas with a high heating value (HHV) of 7.8 Mj/Mn3 and recovering more than 80% of the initial HHV of the waste in the cold gas. Solid residue produced in the gasification process is lower than 10% of the initial waste. (Author)

  13. Characterization of urban solid wastes in Terrassa (Spain); Caracterizacion de los residuos solidos urbanos del municipio de Terrasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, R.; Alvarez, D.; Forme, C.; Puig, M. D. [Universidad Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the study we carried out is to establish the basis to develop an integral management plan or urban solid waste of Terrasa, Specifically, it wants to build up rational future plants of selection and treatment and to choose a more suitable selective collect. For this reason, we collected urban solid wastes samples directly from the rubbish skips, without warning the population. We could observe a good function of the White Point for the first year. However, the population did not take part highly in the selective collect of the paper-cardboard and glass, because we found a big quantity of these two materials in the domestic rubbish. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Non-destructive techniques used during the restoration of the relief "Madonna and Child" by Jacopo Sansovino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo; Colosso, Pietro Quarta; Miotto, Lidiana

    2015-08-01

    The characterization of the main pigments present in the papier-mâché relief depicting a " Madonna and Child" by Jacopo Sansovino, preserved at the National Museum of Fine Arts in Budapest, has been carried out using non-destructive techniques. In particular, an XRF portable instrument and an XRD apparatus were used in order to determine the elements and compounds of the pigments, respectively. The experimental results indicate that zinc and barium are present on the relief, and this demonstrates that the artwork has undergone restoration since zinc has been in use since 1840 AD. Moreover, radiographic and stereoradiographic analyses were performed several times in order to assess the condition of the work and, above all, the state of the boards that support the work, the cavity inside the cardboard, the surface and the presence of nails.

  15. Anionic surface binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž-Rožič Mateja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The MELAMIN Chemical Factory in Kočevje manufactures synthetic resins and binders for the paper industry. Binders based on AKD (alkyl ketene dimer are produced which are used for binding paper and cardboard in the range of neutral and partially basic pH. Cationic and, lately, anionic binders are mostly used for the bulk binding of paper and board. The possibility of using AKD binders on paper or board surfaces is presented. In this case partially cationic AKD binders may be applied. When optical whiteners are used, the application of AKD binders is recommended. In the case of paper it is possible to substitute acrylate binders by AKD binders. The best results are obtained when the paper is first partly treated in bulk and subsequently surface treated.

  16. Variability in physical contamination assessment of source segregated biodegradable municipal waste derived composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echavarri-Bravo, Virginia; Thygesen, Helene H; Aspray, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Physical contaminants (glass, metal, plastic and 'other') and stones were isolated and categorised from three finished commercial composts derived from source segregated biodegradable municipal waste (BMW). A subset of the identified physical contaminant fragments were subsequently reintroduced into the cleaned compost samples and sent to three commercial laboratories for testing in an inter-laboratory trial using the current PAS100:2011 method (AfOR MT PC&S). The trial showed that the 'other' category caused difficulty for all three laboratories with under reporting, particularly of the most common 'other' contaminants (paper and cardboard) and, over-reporting of non-man-made fragments. One laboratory underreported metal contaminant fragments (spiked as silver foil) in three samples. Glass, plastic and stones were variably underreported due to miss-classification or over reported due to contamination with compost (organic) fragments. The results are discussed in the context of global physical contaminant test methods and compost quality assurance schemes.

  17. Sensory Properties of Frozen Herring (Clupea harengus) from Different Catch Seasons and Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Jørgensen, Bo Munk; Undeland, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Freezing of herring (Clupea harengus) for human consumption is increasing in the Nordic herring industry, either onboard the fishing vessels or right after landing. The quality of frozen herring as a raw material does not only depend on the frozen storage conditions applied, but also...... on compositional features, something which in turn can vary with season and catching ground. To unravel the link between biological variations, basic muscle composition, and sensory properties of frozen herring, a unique herring raw material was caught by commercial fishing vessels at three locations: around...... Iceland, outside the Norwegian coast, and in Kattegat/Skagerrak. The samplings were done according to a specific scheme and conducted over several seasons and 2 years. The herring was converted into butterfly fillets, packed in cardboard boxes, frozen, and then stored at –20 °C or –80 °C for up to 18 mo...

  18. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  19. Exploring Textiles in Architecture through Tangible Three-Dimensional Sketching Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Lenau, Torben Anker; O'Mahony, Marie

    This paper argues that tangible three dimensional sketching with textiles makes it more likely that these materials will be used when creating architectural spaces. Our research contributes to the more general idea that innovation in architecture and design can be stimulated by the exploration...... of new materials. With tangible three dimensional sketching, we mean an iterative process of physical model making. In two experiments with architectural students, all textile novices, spaces were modelled using a three dimensional sketching tool consisting of textiles, cardboard support and tools...... for giving form to and joining these materials. The chosen architectural task was how textiles could be used to regulate daylight by applying them to an exterior building skin or to interior spaces. Findings were that three different strategies were used: the tool was used to materialize, illustrate...

  20. Simultaneous recovery of organic and inorganic content of paper deinking residue through low-temperature microwave-assisted pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanrong; Macquarrie, Duncan J; Aguiar, Pedro M; Clark, James H; Matharu, Avtar S

    2015-02-17

    Significant amounts of paper deinking residue (DIR) has been and is still being generated from paper deinking processes, representing both an economic and environmental burden for recycled paper mills. Our research on low-temperature (chromatography-mass spectrometry, liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray diffraction, solid-state cross-polarization/magic-angle spinning (13)C NMR, and Bloch-decay (13)C NMR). The results reveal that the process efficiently separates the inorganic minerals as microwave residue (mainly calcite and kaolinite) from organic matter, and hence the microwave residue could be reused to produce new paper/cardboard products. The organic fraction bio-oil generated is energy-densified and rich in carbohydrates and is a potential source for valuable aromatic compounds.

  1. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  2. Wet-Strengthening of Paper in Neutral pH Papermaking Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, M. T.; Riehle, Richard J.

    The ability to wet-strengthen paper is an important requirement of the paper industry because wet strength agents allow for the manufacture of a variety of paper grades and products. The most significant area of application is in the manufacture of hygiene grades of paper, including hand towels and facial tissues, kitchen towels and serviettes, and other tableware products. Another important area of application is in packaging grades, including liquid packaging board for fruit juice and milk cartons; carrier bags and paper sacks; and corrugated cardboard boxes for transportation of fruit, meat and other items. Speciality grades, such as tea bags and coffee filters, bottle labels and currency paper, and wallpaper and poster paper also use wet strength agents. In fact, any grade of paper that needs to maintain a degree of strength and integrity after becoming wet involves the application of a wet strength agent.

  3. Evaluation of life cycle inventory data for recycling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Damgaard, Anders; Jensen, Morten Bang;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews databases on material recycling (primary as well as secondary production) used in life cycle assessments (LCA) of waste management systems. A total of 366 datasets, from 1980 to 2010 and covering 14 materials, were collected from databases and reports. Totals for CO2-equivalent...... emissions were compared to illustrate variations in the data. It was hypothesised that emissions from material production and the recycling industry had decreased over time due to increasing regulation, energy costs and process optimisation, but the reported datasets did not reveal such a general trend...... the primary production of newsprint, HDPE and glass were 238%, 443% and 452%, respectively. For steel and aluminium the differences were 1761% and 235%, respectively. There is a severe lack of data for some recycled materials; for example, only one dataset existed for secondary cardboard. The study shows...

  4. The importance of recycling in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the greenhouse gas implications of material recovery and recycling is presented for a variety of materials, i.e. steel, aluminium, glass, plastics, wood, paper and cardboard, aggregates and wood. The benefits of recycling in terms of greenhouse gas reductions are quantified and set...... in perspective to other measures. It is shown that the present aluminium recycling alone in a country like Denmark saves greenhouse gas emission equivalent to heating of over half a million family houses. Assumptions and system boundaries are often discussed in the quantification of the benefits of recycling...... recycling. It is argued that biomass should be considered a constrained resource in a long term perspective, and that the marginal for the use of biomass is either a fossil resource or an arable land resource. In both cases, use of biomass draws on a marginal with high greenhouse gas implications...

  5. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further......Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery...... rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed...

  6. Report: Maximizing recycling participation to reduce waste to landfill: a study of small to medium-sized enterprises in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sam; Kriwoken, Lorne K

    2010-05-01

    Small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia face many barriers to recycling participation. This study first investigated the volumes and types of waste produced by SMEs. Significant barriers were then identified and key motivators to recycle examined. Using the Australia New Zealand Standard of Industrial Classification, stratified sampling of SMEs (n = 436) was undertaken. Inadequate storage space, paucity of readily available information on recycling services and the lack of staff allocated to sort and recycle were identified as major barriers. Cardboard, paper and plastic waste were produced in large volumes with only a small percentage being recycled and these were identified as target areas for local government. Recommendations include the appointment of a dedicated recycling officer to maximize recycling participation for the reduction of waste to landfill and to undertake further research on minimizing recycling costs.

  7. Effect of prill structure on detonation performance of ANFO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, Terry R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiyanda, Charles B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, John S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmerly, Tony [EMRTC NMT

    2010-01-01

    While the effects of charge diameter, fuel mix ratio, and temperature on ANFO detonation performance are substantial, the effects of prill type are considerable as well as tailorable. Engineered AN prills provide a means to improve overall performance, primarily by changing the material microstructure through the addition of features designed to enhance hot spot action. To examine the effects of prill type (along with fuel mix ratio and charge diameter) on detonation performance, a series of precision, large-scale, ANFO front-curvature rate-stick tests was performed. Each shot used standard No. 2 diesel for the fuel oil and was essentially unconfined with cardboard confinement. Detonation velocities and front curvatures were measured while actively maintaining consistent shot temperatures. Based on the experimental results, DSD calibrations were performed to model the detonation performance over a range of conditions, and the overall effects of prill microstructure were examined and correlated with detonation performance.

  8. The prospects for incineration of municipal solid waste in Russia in order to produce heat and electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskakov, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    The article presents the results of the low-temperature pyrolysis of the main components of municipal solid waste (MSW): wood, products of wood processing (paper, cardboard, fabrics, etc.), various plastics, rubber, as well as of a representative sample of MSW. A waste-to-energy plant is described, at which municipal solid waste is subjected to the pyrolysis, and then pyrolysis products are incinerated in a slagging-bottom furnace. The paper presents an analysis of the operation of a modern waste-to-energy plant equipped with a wet scrubber, with a high-degree recovery of the heat of exhaust gases by means of a heat pump, and with evaporation cooling of glowing slag in a tank filled with water. Chemical treatment of water circulating in the system makes it possible to convert heavy metals and other hazardous substances into the insoluble form and then to remove them.

  9. Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rebecca C.; Mcbrearty, Charles F.; Curran, Daniel J.

    1993-01-01

    The Active Hydrazine Vapor Sampler (AHVS) was developed to detect vapors of hydrazine (HZ) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air at parts-per-billion (ppb) concentration levels. The sampler consists of a commercial personal pump that draws ambient air through paper tape treated with vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde). The paper tape is sandwiched in a thin cardboard housing inserted in one of the two specially designed holders to facilitate sampling. Contaminated air reacts with vanillin to develop a yellow color. The density of the color is proportional to the concentration of HZ or MMH. The AHVS can detect 10 ppb in less than 5 minutes. The sampler is easy to use, low cost, and intrinsically safe and contains no toxic material. It is most beneficial for use in locations with no laboratory capabilities for instrumentation calibration. This paper reviews the development, laboratory test, and field test of the device.

  10. Decrease of aged beer aroma by the reducing activity of brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saison, Daan; De Schutter, David P; Vanbeneden, Nele; Daenen, Luk; Delvaux, Filip; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2010-03-10

    The flavor profile of beer is subject to changes during storage. Since, possibly, yeast has an influence on flavor stability, the aim of this study was to examine if there is a direct impact of brewing yeast on aged aroma. This was achieved by refermentation of aged beers. It was shown that several aged aroma notes, such as cardboard, ribes, Maillard and Madeira, were removed almost entirely by brewing yeast, independently of the yeast or the beer type. This was explained by the reduction of aldehydes, mainly (E)-2-nonenal, Strecker aldehydes, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and diacetyl, to their corresponding alcohols. Furthermore, it became evident that the reducing capacity of brewing yeast is high, but that yeast strain and compound specific residual concentrations remained in the refermented beer independently of the initial concentration. Finally, it appeared that aldehydes were not only reduced but also formed during refermentation.

  11. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix).

  12. Management of source-separated organic household waste intended for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina

    Driven by the Waste Management Directive and the Renewable Energy Directive, the biological treatment of organic household waste, such as food waste from kitchens, now needs to be undertaken by European Union member countries. Anaerobic digestion (AD), which allows for the utilisation of both...... performed. The material fractions covered were: animal food waste (AFW), vegetable food waste (VF), kitchen tissue (KT), vegetation waste (VW), moulded fibres (MF), animal straw (AS), dirty paper (DP) and dirty cardboard (DC). For the second objective, a thorough assessment of a new pre-treatment technology....... • In Denmark, food waste (both animal- and vegetable-derived) and kitchen tissue were the main material fractions allowing GWP mitigation with AD when it was compared to incineration, while the inclusion of other material fractions with SSOHW sorting guidelines was of less importance. • The new pre...

  13. Comparison of descriptive sensory analysis and chemical analysis for oxidative changes in milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, R V; Kristensen, D; Nielsen, Jacob Holm;

    2006-01-01

    products. The milk samples were evaluated in parallel by descriptive sensory analysis by a trained panel, and the correlation between the chemical analysis and the descriptive sensory analysis was evaluated. The fatty acid composition of the 3 types of milk was found to influence the oxidative...... and lipolytic changes occurring in the milk during chill storage for 4 d. Sensory analysis and chemical analysis showed high correlation between the typical descriptors for oxidation such as cardboard, metallic taste, and boiled milk and specific chemical markers for oxidation such as hexanal. Notably, primary...... oxidation products (i.e., lipid hydroperoxides) and even the tendency of formation of radicals as measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy were also highly correlated to the sensory descriptors for oxidation. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy should accordingly be further explored as a routine...

  14. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  15. [Biodegradation of Cellulose-Containing Substrates by Micromycetes Followed by Bioconversion into Biogas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokudina, L I; Osmolovskii, A A; Egorova, M A; Malakhova, D V; Netrusov, A I; Tsavkelova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The ability of micromycetes Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. Office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. The cellulolytic activity of T. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of A. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 U/mLwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. The micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucrose cosubstrate addition, seeding method) and the conditions of the fungus biomass treatment for its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by anaerobic microbial communities were optimized. It was shown that pretreatment improves the efficiency of biogas production from lignocellulosic materials under seeding with microbial community of bovine animal manure. After pretreatment of the Jerusalem artichoke phytomass (stems and leaves) and its subsequent bioconversion into biogas by methanogenic community, the biogas yield was increased by 1.5 times.

  16. [Biogas production from cellulose-containing substrates: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsavkelova, E A; Netrusov, A I

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial conversion of organic substrates to various biofuels is one of the alternative energy sources attracting the greatest attention of scientists. The advantages of biogas production over other technologies are the ability of methanogenic communities to degrade a broad range of substrates and concomitant benefits: neutralization of organic waste, reduction of greenhouse gas emission, and fertilizer production. Cellulose-containing materials are a good substrate, but their full-scale utilization encounters a number of problems, including improvement of the quality and amount ofbiogas produced and maintenance of the stability and high efficiency of microbial communities. We review data on microorganisms that form methanogenic cellulolytic communities, enzyme complexes of anaerobes essential for cellulose fiber degradation, and feedstock pretreatment, as biodegradation is hindered in the presence of lignin. Methods for improving biogas production by optimization of microbial growth conditions are considered on the examples of biogas formation from various types of plant and paper materials: writing paper and cardboard.

  17. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    . The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated......The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  18. New developing reagent for latent fingermark visualization: Fuller’s earth (Multani Mitti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Thakur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of methods have been reported in the literature for the development of latent fingermarks on different surfaces. This paper reports a new and simple powdering method which is non-toxic and has been employed on different substrates successfully for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks up to the time period of 6 days in varying temperature conditions. In this investigation a less expensive, simple and easily available fuller’s earth (Multani Mitti powder has been used to decipher the latent fingermarks on different substrates namely black cardboard box, clear glass, coverslip box, steel surface, laminated wooden sheet, clear plastic, colored plastic bag and surface of highlighter pen. It is observed that it gives very clear results on majority of substrates and can be successfully used for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks.

  19. Microorganisms detection on substrates using QCL spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Jiménez, Amira C.; Ortiz-Rivera, William; Castro-Suarez, John R.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Ayala, Iris; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2013-05-01

    Recent investigations have focused on the improvement of rapid and accurate methods to develop spectroscopic markers of compounds constituting microorganisms that are considered biological threats. Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) systems have revolutionized many areas of research and development in defense and security applications, including his area of research. Infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was employed to acquire mid infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Escherichia coli (Ec) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (Se), which were used as biological agent simulants of biothreats. The experiments were carried out in reflection mode on various substrates such as cardboard, glass, travel baggage, wood and stainless steel. Chemometrics statistical routines such as principal component analysis (PCA) regression and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were applied to the recorded MIR spectra. The results show that the infrared vibrational techniques investigated are useful for classification/detection of the target microorganisms on the types of substrates studied.

  20. Personalised product design using virtual interactive techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharia, Kurien; Varghese, Surekha Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Use of Virtual Interactive Techniques for personalized product design is described in this paper. Usually products are designed and built by considering general usage patterns and Prototyping is used to mimic the static or working behaviour of an actual product before manufacturing the product. The user does not have any control on the design of the product. Personalized design postpones design to a later stage. It allows for personalized selection of individual components by the user. This is implemented by displaying the individual components over a physical model constructed using Cardboard or Thermocol in the actual size and shape of the original product. The components of the equipment or product such as screen, buttons etc. are then projected using a projector connected to the computer into the physical model. Users can interact with the prototype like the original working equipment and they can select, shape, position the individual components displayed on the interaction panel using simple hand gestur...

  1. Energy efficiency of substance and energy recovery of selected waste fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Klaus; Bahr, Tobias; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Springer, Christian

    2011-04-01

    In order to reduce the ecological impact of resource exploitation, the EU calls for sustainable options to increase the efficiency and productivity of the utilization of natural resources. This target can only be achieved by considering resource recovery from waste comprehensively. However, waste management measures have to be investigated critically and all aspects of substance-related recycling and energy recovery have to be carefully balanced. This article compares recovery methods for selected waste fractions with regard to their energy efficiency. Whether material recycling or energy recovery is the most energy efficient solution, is a question of particular relevance with regard to the following waste fractions: paper and cardboard, plastics and biowaste and also indirectly metals. For the described material categories material recycling has advantages compared to energy recovery. In accordance with the improved energy efficiency of substance opposed to energy recovery, substance-related recycling causes lower emissions of green house gases. For the fractions paper and cardboard, plastics, biowaste and metals it becomes apparent, that intensification of the separate collection systems in combination with a more intensive use of sorting technologies can increase the extent of material recycling. Collection and sorting systems must be coordinated. The objective of the overall system must be to achieve an optimum of the highest possible recovery rates in combination with a high quality of recyclables. The energy efficiency of substance related recycling of biowaste can be increased by intensifying the use of anaerobic technologies. In order to increase the energy efficiency of the overall system, the energy efficiencies of energy recovery plants must be increased so that the waste unsuitable for substance recycling is recycled or treated with the highest possible energy yield.

  2. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  3. Herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species parasitizing Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Germano L D; de Paulo, Paula D; Zanuncio, José C; Tavares, Wagner De S; Alvarenga, Anarelly C; Dourado, Luan R; Bispo, Edilson P R; Soares, Marcus A

    2017-01-02

    Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs. Parasitism by these natural enemies was allowed for 48 h and the cardboards were sprayed with the herbicide nicosulfuron at 1.50 L.ha(-1), along with the control (only distilled water). Nicosulfuron reduced the emergence rate of Trichogramma bruni Nagaraja, 1983 females, but increased that of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, Trichogramma acacioi Brun, Moraes and Smith, 1984 and T. annulata females. Conversely, this herbicide increased the emergence rate of Trichogramma brasiliensis Ashmead, 1904, T. bruni, Trichogramma galloi Zucchi, 1988 and Trichogramma soaresi Nagaraja, 1983 males and decreased those of T. acacioi, Trichogramma atopovilia Oatman and Platner, 1983 and T. pretiosum males. In addition, nicosulfuron reduced the sex ratio of T. galloi, Trichogramma bennetti Nagaraja and Nagarkatti, 1973 and T. pretiosum and increased that of T. acacioi, T. bruni, T. annulata, Trichogramma demoraesi Nagaraja, 1983, T. soaresi and T. brasiliensis. The herbicide nicosulfuron was "harmless" (class 1, <30% reduction) for females and the sex ratio of all Trichogrammatidae species based on the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) classification. The possible hormesis effect of nicosulfuron on Trichogrammatidae species and on the bacterium Wolbachia sp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) was also discussed.

  4. Incidencia de los recuperadores en las subhuellas de RSU y papel y cartón. El caso de Mar del Plata, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gareis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La Huella Ecológica es un indicador de sustentabilidad urbana cuya estimación se compone de varias subhuellas, entre ellas las de residuos sólidos urbanos y papel y cartón. El enfoque teórico de la Economía Ecológica examina los flujos de energía y materia en el metabolismo de la ciudad siguiendo un análisis circular. En este sentido, los recuperadores cumplen la importante función de reinsertar elementos desechados al ciclo productivo. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la incidencia de los recuperadores de CURA Ltda. en las subhuellas asociadas al papel y cartón y a los residuos sólidos urbanos de la población del partido de General Pueyrredon. Los resultados muestran que los recuperadores inciden en ambas subhuellas aunque contribuyen muy poco en la disminución de éstas (1,27% subhuella de papel y cartón y 0,6% subhuella de residuos sólidos urbanos. ABSTRACT The Ecological Footprint is an urban sustainable indicator which estimates several subfootprints, including municipal solid waste and paper and cardboard. The theoretical approach of Ecological Economics examines the flows of energy and matter of the city metabolism in a circular analysis. In this context, wastepickers perform an important function reinserting the elements disposed into the production cycle. The study aims to analyze the incidence of the wastepickers (consolidated in CURA Ltda. within subfootprints associated with paper and cardboard and solid waste of the population of General Pueyrredon. The results show that both sub-footprints are affected by wastepikers although they do not contribute significantly reducing them (1.27 % paper and board footprint and 0.6 % MSW footprint.

  5. Solid and hazardous waste management practices onboard ocean going vessels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Yeddanapudi V R P P

    2012-01-01

    Shipping or carriage of goods play an important role in the development of human societies and international shipping industry, which carries 90% of the world trade, is the life blood of global economy. During ships operational activity a number of solid and hazardous wastes, also referred as garbage are produced from galleys, crew cabins and engine/deck departments stores. This review provides an overview of the current practices onboard and examines the evidence that links waste management plan regulations to shipping trade. With strict compliance to International Maritime Organization's MARPOL regulations, which prevents the pollution of sea from ships various discharges, well documented solid and hazardous waste management practices are being followed onboard ships. All ship board wastes are collected, segregated, stored and disposed of in appropriate locations, in accordance with shipping company's environmental protection policy and solid and hazardous waste management plan. For example, food residues are ground onboard and dropped into the sea as fish food. Cardboard and the like are burned onboard in incinerators. Glass is sorted into dark/light and deposited ashore, as are plastics, metal, tins, batteries, fluorescent tubes, etc. The residue from plastic incineration which is still considered as plastic is brought back to shore for disposal. New targets are being set up to reduce the volume of garbage generated and disposed of to shore facilities, and newer ships are using baling machines which compress cardboard etc into bales to be taken ashore. The garbage management and its control system work as a 'continual improvement' process to achieve new targets.

  6. The effect of feed solids concentration and inlet temperature on the flavor of spray dried whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that unit operations in whey protein manufacture promote off-flavor production in whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feed solids concentration in liquid retentate and spray drier inlet temperature on the flavor of dried whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 ppm hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain WPC80 retentate (25% solids, wt/wt). The liquid retentate was then diluted with deionized water to the following solids concentrations: 25%, 18%, and 10%. Each of the treatments was then spray dried at the following temperatures: 180 °C, 200 °C, and 220 °C. The experiment was replicated 3 times. Flavor of the WPC80 was evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Particle size and surface free fat were also analyzed. Both main effects (solids concentration and inlet temperature) and interactions were investigated. WPC80 spray dried at 10% feed solids concentration had increased surface free fat, increased intensities of overall aroma, cabbage and cardboard flavors and increased concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, heptanal, decanal, (E)2-decenal, DMTS, DMDS, and 2,4-decadienal (P < 0.05) compared to WPC80 spray dried at 25% feed solids. Product spray dried at lower inlet temperature also had increased surface free fat and increased intensity of cardboard flavor and increased concentrations of pentanal, (Z)4-heptenal, nonanal, decanal, 2,4-nonadienal, 2,4-decadienal, and 2- and 3-methyl butanal (P < 0.05) compared to product spray dried at higher inlet temperature. Particle size was higher for powders from increased feed solids concentration and increased inlet temperature (P < 0.05). An increase in feed solids concentration in the liquid retentate and inlet temperature within the parameters evaluated decreased off-flavor intensity in the resulting WPC80.

  7. Effect of pH, Temperature, and Chemicals on the Endoglucanases and β-Glucosidases from the Thermophilic Fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica F.2.1.4. Obtained by Solid-State and Submerged Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Cássia Teixeira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports endoglucanase and beta-glucosidase production by the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica in solid-state (SSC and submerged (SmC cultivation. Wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were used for SSC and cardboard for SmC. Highest endoglucanase production in SSC occurred after 192 hours: 1,170.6 ± 0.8 U/g, and in SmC after 168 hours: 2,642 ± 561 U/g. The endoglucanases and beta-glucosidases produced by both cultivation systems showed slight differences concerning their optimal pH and temperature. The number of endoglucanases was also different: six isoforms in SSC and ten in SmC. Endoglucanase activity remained above 50% after incubation between pH 3.0 and 9.0 for 24 h for both cultivation systems. The effect of several chemicals displayed variation between SSC and SmC isoenzymes. Manganese activated the enzymes from SmC but inhibited those from SSC. For β-glucosidases, maximum production on SmC was 244 ± 48 U/g after 168 hours using cardboard as carbon source. In SSC maximum production reached 10.9 ± 0.3 U/g after 240 h with 1 : 1 wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse. Manganese exerted a significant activation on SSC β-glucosidases, and glucose inhibited the enzymes from both cultivation systems. FeCl3 exerted the strongest inhibition for endoglucanases and β-glucosidases.

  8. Controlled-release panel traps for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, B A; Cunningham, R T; Chambers, D L; Avery, J W; Harte, E M

    1994-10-01

    Solid, controlled-release dispensers containing 2 g of the synthetic attractant trimedlure now are used in Jackson traps to detect the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Panel traps consisting of trimedlure mixed in a sticky substance and spread on the surfaces of a plastic panel are used to delineate the limits of discovered insect infestations in California. We describe the development of controlled-release, polymeric panels that prolong release of trimedlure and a highly attractive analog, ceralure. Attractants were incorporated in a polyethylene matrix to form panels and in a polymer coating on cardboard panels that then were evaluated by biological and chemical assay. In addition, commercial polymer matrix panels were evaluated. Field bioassay tests conducted in Hilo, HI, using released flies and in Guatemala in a natural population showed that the polyethylene matrix panel became brittle and cracked during field exposure and that release rates of the attractants were relatively low. The coated cardboard panels were stable under field conditions and yielded high fly captures for up to 6 wk. Farma Tech commercial panels containing 12.3 and 23.4 g of trimedlure remained highly attractive throughout a 134-d test in Hawaii and appear to be a long-lasting alternative to panels coated with trimedlure in Stikem. The cost of the relatively high dose of trimedlure is offset by the prolonged active life of the panel. Commercial panels from AgriSense (10 g trimedlure and 10 g ceralure) released the attractants at a slower rate and were less attractive.

  9. Influencia de la Separación de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos para Reciclaje en el Proceso de Incineración con Generación de Energía Influence of the Separation of Municipal Solid Wastes to Recycling in the Incineration Process with Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Poletto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la recuperación de la energía de residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU a través del proceso de incineración. Se tiene en cuenta la tendencia actual de separación de plásticos, papel y cartón, vidrio y metales, y su influencia en los flujos másicos y de energía en el sistema de la incineración de RSU. Para su desarrollo se utilizó la información relacionada con la generación de RSU de la ciudad de Bauru en Brasil, junto con el software COMBUST. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron estimar el poder calorífico teórico de los RSU típicos y también cuando se considera los residuos de papel, cartón y plásticos.This work analyses the recuperation of the energy of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW through the incineration process. It considers the up to date tendency of segregation (separation of plastic, paper and cardboard, glass and metals and their influence in the fluxes of mass and energy in the incineration system of MSW. For its development was used information related to the generation of MSW in Bauru city and the Combust software. The results so obtained allowed the estimation of the Caloric power of the typical MSW and also of this residue when one considers the separations of paper/cardboard and plastic for recycling.

  10. Evaluation of whey, milk, and delactosed permeates as salt substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S T; Metzger, L; Drake, M A

    2016-11-01

    Whey and milk permeates are by-products of high-protein dairy powder manufacture. Previous work has shown that these permeates contribute to salty taste without contributing significantly to sodium content. The objective of this study was to explore the sensory characteristics and compositional analysis of permeates from different milk and whey streams and a low-sodium product application made from them. Skim milk, Cheddar, cottage, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were manufactured in triplicate, and delactosed whey permeate was obtained in triplicate. Composition (protein, fat, solids, minerals) was conducted on permeates. Organic acid composition was determined using HPLC. Volatile compounds were extracted from permeates by solid phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A trained sensory panel documented sensory attributes of permeates and cream of broccoli soups with and without salt or permeates followed by consumer acceptance testing (n=105) on the soups. Cottage cheese whey permeate contained a higher lactic acid content than other permeates, which has been shown to contribute to a higher salty taste. Cottage cheese whey permeate also contained potato or brothy and caramel flavors and sour and salty tastes, whereas delactosed whey permeate had high intensities of cardboard and beefy or brothy flavors and salty taste. Milk, Cheddar, and Mozzarella cheese whey permeates were characterized by sweet taste and cooked milky flavor. Permeates with higher cardboard flavor had higher levels of aldehydes. All permeates contributed to salty taste and to salty taste perception in soups; although the control soup with added salt was perceived as saltier and was preferred by consumers over permeate soups. Soup with permeate from cottage cheese was the least liked of all soups, likely due to its sour taste. All other permeate soups scored at parity for liking. These results demonstrate the potential for milk, whey, and delactosed permeates from

  11. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard.

  12. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  13. How should the household waste be handled? Evaluation of different treatment methods; Hur skall hushaallsavfallet tas om hand? Utvaerdering av olika behandlingsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundqvist, J.O.; Carlsson Reich, M.; Granath, J. [The Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Baky, Andras [Swedish Inst. of Agriculatural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Eriksson, Ola [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology

    2002-02-01

    Energy turnover, and environmental and economic consequences of different municipal solid waste management systems have been studied in a systems analysis. Different combinations of incineration, recycling of separated plastic and cardboard packages and biological treatment (anaerobic digestion and composting) of easy degradable organic waste, were studied and also compared to landfilling. A simulation model (ORWARE), based on LCA methodology, was used. The following parameters were used for evaluating the different waste management options: consumption of energy resources, emissions of greenhouse gases, emissions of acidifying substances, emissions of eutrophicating substances, emissions of photo oxidant formers, heavy metal flows, financial economy and welfare economy. The analysis was based on a model municipality. In a sensitivity analysis different technical, geographic and demographic parameters have been varied, making the result to cover several different types of municipalities and regions. The conclusions from the study are as follows. The most obvious conclusion is that landfilling should be avoided. Wastes that can be incinerated (combusted), material recycled, anaerobically digested or composted should not be landfilled. This is valid even if landfill gas is extracted and utilised, and the leachate is collected and treated. This is due to that the resources in the waste are inefficiently utilised when landfilled, making it necessary to produce materials, fuels and nutrients from virgin resources. It is impossible to draw unambiguous conclusions of which of the other treatment options that is is most preferable. There are advantages and disadvantages with all options. In a systems perspective there are small differences between incineration and aerobic digestion of easy degradable organic material, and between incineration and material recycling of e.g. plastics and cardboard. Material recycling, anaerobic digestion and incineration should not be seen

  14. Influência da embalagem no desenvolvimento de injúrias mecânicas em tomates Packaging influence on the development of mechanical injuries in tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues de CASTRO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se cinco tipos de embalagens (duas plásticas, duas de papelão ondulado e a caixa K de madeira quanto à proteção fornecida ao tomate variedade Santa Clara durante seu transporte e manuseio. Os tomates acondicionados em tais embalagens foram comparados com frutos controle, isto é, aqueles que não sofreram qualquer tipo de vibração, impacto ou choque, de acordo com a porcentagem daqueles contendo injúrias mecânicas e segundo também sua intensidade. Os tomates foram armazenados à temperatura ambiente por 7 dias, até atingirem 100% de coloração vermelha, e avaliados quanto à incidência de deterioração, perda de peso e sabor (analiticamente através da relação Brix/acidez titulável e por análise sensorial. Os resultados mostraram que os tomates localizados na parte inferior das caixas foram os mais prejudicados e que as ripas de madeira, ásperas e distantes entre si, assim como os pregos da caixa K, foram responsáveis pelos danos mais significativos. As avaliações apontaram a embalagem de papelão ondulado de menor tamanho como a de maior proteção contra injúrias mecânicas nos tomates.Five different packages (2 made of plastic, 2 of cardboard, and 1 made of wood were evaluated with respect to the protection of tomatoes (Santa Clara variety during their transportation and handling. These tomatoes were compared to control samples, as related to fruits with no physical impact or vibration, considering the percentage of those fruits with mechanical injuries and their severity. The fruits were stored at ambient temperature for 7 days until they reached full-color and then evaluated regarding the incidence of decay, weight loss, and flavor by Brix/acidity ratio and sensory analysis. The results have shown that the tomatoes on the bottom of the boxes had worse bruises and that the separated clapboards and the clues of wooden boxes caused the most severe injuries. The results also permitted the conclusion that there

  15. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 1: SRF produced from commercial and industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. Here mass balance describes the overall mass flow of input waste material in the various output streams, whereas material balance describes the mass flow of components of input waste stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. A commercial scale experimental campaign was conducted on an MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&IW. All the process streams (input and output) produced in this MT plant were sampled and treated according to the CEN standard methods for SRF: EN 15442 and EN 15443. The results from the mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&IW material to MT waste sorting plant, 62% was recovered in the form of SRF, 4% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal and 21% was sorted out as reject material, 11.6% as fine fraction, and 0.4% as heavy fraction. The energy flow balance in various process streams of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&IW to MT plant, 75% energy was recovered in the form of SRF, 20% belonged to the reject material stream and rest 5% belonged with the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. In the material balances, mass fractions of plastic (soft), plastic (hard), paper and cardboard and wood recovered in the SRF stream were 88%, 70%, 72% and 60% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC), rubber material and non

  16. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 2: SRF produced from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (input and output) produced in MT waste sorting plant to produce SRF from C&D waste are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for SRF. Proximate and ultimate analysis of these streams is performed and their composition is determined. Based on this analysis and composition of process streams their mass, energy and material balances are established for SRF production process. By mass balance means the overall mass flow of input waste material stream in the various output streams and material balances mean the mass flow of components of input waste material stream (such as paper and cardboard, wood, plastic (soft), plastic (hard), textile and rubber) in the various output streams of SRF production process. The results from mass balance of SRF production process showed that of the total input C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 44% was recovered in the form of SRF, 5% as ferrous metal, 1% as non-ferrous metal, and 28% was sorted out as fine fraction, 18% as reject material and 4% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of this SRF production process showed that of the total input energy content of C&D waste material to MT waste sorting plant, 74% was recovered in the form of SRF, 16% belonged to the reject material and rest 10% belonged to the streams of fine fraction and heavy fraction. From the material balances of this process, mass fractions of plastic (soft), paper and cardboard, wood and plastic (hard) recovered in the SRF stream were 84%, 82%, 72% and 68% respectively of their input masses to MT plant. A high mass fraction of plastic (PVC) and rubber material was found in the reject material

  17. Microbes on building materials - Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenauer, Joerg D., E-mail: joerg.ettenauer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Pinar, Guadalupe, E-mail: Guadalupe.Pinar@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Lopandic, Ksenija, E-mail: Ksenija.Lopandic@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Spangl, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.Spangl@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Science, Institute of Applied Statistics and Computing (IASC), Gregor Mendel-Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ellersdorfer, Guenther, E-mail: Guenther.Ellersdorfer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Voitl, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Voitl@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Sterflinger, Katja, E-mail: Katja.Sterflinger@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials - common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three

  18. Effect of temperature and concentration on benzoyl peroxide bleaching efficacy and benzoic acid levels in whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2015-11-01

    Much of the fluid whey produced in the United States is a by-product of Cheddar cheese manufacture and must be bleached. Benzoyl peroxide (BP) is currently 1 of only 2 legal chemical bleaching agents for fluid whey in the United States, but benzoic acid is an unavoidable by-product of BP bleaching. Benzoyl peroxide is typically a powder, but new liquid BP dispersions are available. A greater understanding of the bleaching characteristics of BP is necessary. The objective of the study was to compare norbixin destruction, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences between liquid whey and 80% whey protein concentrates (WPC80) bleached at different temperatures with 2 different benzoyl peroxides (soluble and insoluble). Two experiments were conducted in this study. For experiment 1, 3 factors (temperature, bleach type, bleach concentration) were evaluated for norbixin destruction using a response surface model-central composite design in liquid whey. For experiment 2, norbixin concentration, residual benzoic acid, and flavor differences were explored in WPC80 from whey bleached by the 2 commercially available BP (soluble and insoluble) at 5 mg/kg. In liquid whey, soluble BP bleached more norbixin than insoluble BP, especially at lower concentrations (5 and 10 mg/kg) at both cold (4°C) and hot (50°C) temperatures. The WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 50°C had lower norbixin concentration, benzoic acid levels, cardboard flavor, and aldehyde levels than WPC80 from liquid whey bleached with BP at 4°C. Regardless of temperature, soluble BP destroyed more norbixin at lower concentrations than insoluble BP. The WPC80 from soluble-BP-bleached wheys had lower cardboard flavor and lower aldehyde levels than WPC80 from insoluble-BP-bleached whey. This study suggests that new, soluble (liquid) BP can be used at lower concentrations than insoluble BP to achieve equivalent bleaching and that less residual benzoic acid remains in WPC80 powder from liquid whey

  19. Thermal Oxidation of Polyolefins by Mild Pro-Oxidant Additives Based on Iron Carboxylates and Lipophilic Amines: Degradability in the Absence of Light and Effect on the Adhesion to Paperboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Anh Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine and inland pollution by non-degradable plastic bags and other plastic articles is a topic of great concern. Natural degradation processes based on oxidation of plastic pollutants could possibly contribute to limit the extent of pollution. Thermal degradation of polyolefins in the absence of light by non-polluting pro-oxidants has not been presented before. In this study, we show that two amines, stearyl amine and [(3-(11-aminoundecanoyl amino propane-1-] silsesquioxane (amino-POSS in combination with ferric stearate (FeSt3 tremendously accelerate the thermal oxidation of polyolefins compared with reference samples. Both amines and FeSt3 are to a large extent based on renewable resources. Polyethylene and polypropylene samples containing less than 100 ppm of iron and 1% of amine were extremely brittle after 10 days in a circulation oven in the absence of light. No significant degradation could be seen with samples containing iron but no amine. In a different application, the initial oxidation of polyethylene can be used in order to increase its adhesion to cardboard. Excellent adhesion between polyethylene and cardboard is important for liquid packaging based on renewable resources. Amino-POSS has been chosen for food packaging applications due to its expected lower leakage from polyethylene (PE compared with stearyl amine. Film samples of PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were partly oxidized in a circulation oven. The oxidation was documented by increased carbonyl index (CI and melt flow index (MFI. The limited extent of oxidation has been proved by unchanged tensile strength and only moderate changes in elongation at break when compared to reference polyethylene films containing no FeSt3 or amino-POSS. The PE/amino-POSS/FeSt3 blends were compression moulded to paperboard. The adhesion of non-aged blends to paperboard decreased with increasing amino-POSS content which is in good compliance with an earlier reported lubricant effect of high

  20. Surface Sizing Properties of Emulsions of Paraffin Wax and Cardanol Formaldehyde Resin%石蜡/腰果酚醛树脂乳液的表面施胶性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄远杰; 陈少平; 邓佩春; 吴宗华

    2012-01-01

    The anionic emulsions of paraffin wax and method. Surface sizing performance of the mixtures of showed that the mixtures of paraffin wax and paraffin cardanol formaldehyde resin were prepared by phase inversion oxidized starch and those emulsions was investigated. The results wax/cardanol formaldehyde resin with mass ratio of 8 : 2-6 : 4 could form stable emulsions under the emulsification conditions studied, in which the size of colloids was from 400 nm to 630 nm. With surface sizing by the mixtures of oxidized starch and paraffin wax/cardanol formaldehyde resin emulsion, hydrophobic property and ring crush strength of cardboard was improved significantly. The greater the mass ratio of the resin in the emulsion, the greater the surface sizing effect of the mixtures. But the improvement of cardboard tensile strength by the mixtures was less than that by the oxidized starch.%采用转相法制备了系列阴离子型石蜡/腰果酚醛树脂乳液,并考察了其与氧化淀粉共混液的表面施胶性能。结果表明,在该研究的乳化条件下,m(石蜡)∶m(石蜡/腰果酚醛树脂)=8∶2~6∶4的混合物能形成稳定的乳液,其胶粒粒径为400~630 nm;氧化淀粉与石蜡/腰果酚醛树脂乳液共混液的表面施胶大幅提高了箱板纸的疏水性和环压强度,乳液中腰果酚醛树脂的质量分数越大,乳液的表面施胶作用效果越大,但共混液提高纸页拉伸强度的作用效果不及氧化淀粉。

  1. Characterization of medical waste from hospitals in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad

    2009-02-15

    Medical waste has not received enough attention in recent decades in Iran, as is the case in most economically developing countries. Medical waste is still handled and disposed of together with domestic waste, creating great health risks to health-care stuff, municipal workers, the public, and the environment. A fundamental prerequisite for the successful implementation of any medical waste management plan is the availability of sufficient and accurate information about the quantities and composition of the waste generated. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity, generation rate, quality, and composition of medial waste generated in the major city northwest of Iran in Tabriz. Among the 25 active hospitals in the city, 10 hospitals of different size, specializations, and categories (i.e., governmental, educational, university, private, non-governmental organization (NGO), and military) were selected to participate in the survey. Each hospital was analyzed for a week to capture the daily variations of quantity and quality. The results indicated that the average (weighted mean) of total medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste generation rates in Tabriz city is 3.48, 1.039 and, 2.439 kg/bed-day, respectively. In the hospital waste studied, 70.11% consisted of general waste, 29.44% of hazardous-infectious waste, and 0.45% of sharps waste (total hazardous-infectious waste 29.89%). Of the maximum average daily medical waste, hazardous-infectious waste, and general waste were associated with N.G.O and private hospitals, respectively. The average composition of hazardous-infectious waste was determined to be 35.72% plastics, 20.84% textiles, 16.70% liquids, 11.36% paper/cardboard, 7.17% glass, 1.35% sharps, and 6.86% others. The average composition of general waste was determined to be 46.87% food waste, 16.40% plastics, 13.33% paper/cardboard, 7.65% liquids, 6.05% textiles, 2.60% glass, 0.92% metals, and 6.18% others. The average

  2. High diversity and low specificity of chaetothyrialean fungi in carton galleries in a neotropical ant-plant association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Nepel

    Full Text Available New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the - usually undescribed - fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes. Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae, the ant Azteca brevis (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae and various chaetothyrialean fungi. Azteca brevis builds extensive runway galleries along branches of T. macrophyllum. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant-fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in Azteca brevis.

  3. Volume reduction philosophy and techniques in use or planned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Row, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    Siting and development of nuclear waste disposal facilities is an expensive task. In the private sector, such developments face siting and licensing issues, public intervention, and technology challenges. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) faces similar challenges in the management of waste generated by the research and production facilities. Volume reduction can be used to lengthen the service life of existing facilities. A wide variety of volume reduction techniques are applied to different waste forms. Compressible waste is compacted into drums, cardboard and metal boxes, and the loaded drums are supercompacted into smaller units. Large metallic items are size-reduced and melted for recycle or sent to shallow land burial. Anaerobic digestion is a process that can reduce cellulosic and animal wastes by 80%. Incinerators of all types have been investigated for application to nuclear wastes and a number of installations operate or are constructing units for low-level and transuranic solid and liquid combustibles. Technology may help solve many of the problems in volume reduction, but the human element also has an important part in solving the puzzle. Aggressive educational campaigns at two sites have proved very successful in reducing waste generation. This overview of volume reduction is intended to transfer the current information from many DOE facilities. 44 references, 85 figures, 5 tables.

  4. Biological studies on Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virgala, Maria B. Riquelme, E-mail: mbriquelme@cnia.inta.gov.a [Universidade Nacional de Lujan, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. de Zoologia Agricola; Botto, Eduardo N., E-mail: enbotto@cnia.inta.gov.a [Instituto de Microbiologia y Zoologia Agricola (IMYZA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-15

    The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta Meyrick, is one of the most important tomato pests in South America. In Argentina, management strategies include only chemical control. In this work, the parasitoid wasp Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja was evaluated as a potential natural enemy against this pest. Biological and population parameters were estimated by developing a life table under laboratory conditions at 25 {+-} 1 degree C, 14:10 photo period and 60 {+-} 10% RH. Three cohorts of 26-30 T. bactrae females each were placed with one of the three following treatments: 1 - Sitotroga cerealella (Olivier) eggs on a piece of cardboard; 2 - S. cerealella eggs on a piece of tomato leaf, and 3- T. absoluta eggs on a piece on tomato leaf. The following parameters were estimated for each cohort: survival (egg to adult), longevity, fecundity and oviposition period of females, sex proportion of the F1, net rate of reproduction (Ro), mean generation time (T) and intrinsic rate of population increase (rm). Survival of the T. bactrae immature was higher than 90% on both, S. cerealella and T. absoluta eggs. The female survival curves corresponded to type III and showed no significant differences among treatments. The three cohorts did not show significant differences between sex ratio, female longevity, oviposition period, fecundity and the population parameters studied. These results indicate that T. bactrae would be a potential biological control agent of T. absoluta. (author)

  5. The application of prepared porous carbon materials: Effect of different components on the heavy metal adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Wei, Yuexing; Yu, Lei; Tang, Xinhong

    2016-06-01

    In this study, five typical municipal solid waste (MSW) components (tyres, cardboard, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic textile, toilet paper) were used as raw materials to prepare four kinds of MSW-based carbon materials (paperboard-based carbon materials (AC1); the tyres and paperboard-based carbon materials (AC2); the tyres, paperboard and PVC-based carbon materials (AC3); the tyres, paperboard, toilet paper, PVC and acrylic textile-based carbon materials (AC4)) by the KOH activation method. The characteristic results illustrate that the prepared carbon adsorbents exhibited a large pore volume, high surface area and sufficient oxygen functional groups. Furthermore, the application of AC1, AC2, AC3, AC4 on different heavy metal (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Pb(2+), Cr(3+)) removals was explored to investigate their adsorption properties. The effects of reaction time, pH, temperature and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption capability of heavy metals were investigated. Comparisons of heavy metal adsorption on carbon of different components were carried out. Among the four samples, AC1 exhibits the highest adsorption capacity for Cu(2+); the highest adsorption capacities of Pb(2+) and Zn(2+) are obtained for AC2; that of Cr(3+) are obtained for AC4. In addition, the carbon materials exhibit better adsorption capability of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) than the other two kind of metal ions (Zn(2+) and Cr(3+)).

  6. RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report with Baseline Risk Assessment for the Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit (631-6G), Volume 1 Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The Burning/Rubble Pits at the Savannah River Site were usually shallow excavations approximately 3 to 4 meters in depth. Operations at the pits consisted of collecting waste on a continuous basis and burning on a monthly basis. The Central Shops Burning/Rubble Pit 631- 6G (BRP6G) was constructed in 1951 as an unlined earthen pit in surficial sediments for disposal of paper, lumber, cans and empty galvanized steel drums. The unit may have received other materials such as plastics, rubber, rags, cardboard, oil, degreasers, or drummed solvents. The BRP6G was operated from 1951 until 1955. After disposal activities ceased, the area was covered with soil. Hazardous substances, if present, may have migrated into the surrounding soil and/or groundwater. Because of this possibility, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has designated the BRP6G as a Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) subject to the Resource Conservation Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) process.

  7. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  8. Bird predation affects diurnal and nocturnal web-building spiders in a Mediterranean citrus grove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, L.; Garcia, N.; Barrientos, J. A.; Espadaler, X.; Piñol, J.

    2013-02-01

    Spiders and birds can greatly decrease insect populations, but birds also limit spider densities in some habitats. Bird predation is thought to be one of the causes behind nocturnal activity in spiders, so night-active spiders that hide in retreats during the day should be less affected by bird foraging than day-active spiders. However, this hypothesis has not yet been tested. We investigated the importance of bird predation on the spider community of a Mediterranean organic citrus grove. We excluded birds by placing net cages over the trees and we conducted visual searches in the canopies to sample web-building spiders. As there are many nocturnal species in the family Araneidae, we conducted searches both by day and by night to compare the abundance of active araneids in these two time periods. We sampled the tree trunks with cardboard bands to collect hunting spiders. In bird-excluded canopies there were more spiders of the families Araneidae and Theridiidae. There were higher numbers of active Araneidae at night, but these were just as negatively affected by bird predation as day-active Araneidae, so there was no evidence of nocturnal activity serving as an anti-predator strategy. We did not find any negative impact of birds on hunting spiders. Our results contrast with other studies reporting a negative effect of birds on hunting but not on web-building spiders.

  9. Estimating evolution of δ(13)CH(4) during methanization of municipal solid waste based on chemical reactions, isotope accumulation in products and microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, V A

    2012-01-01

    Natural isotopic composition in substrate may be used to reveal the metabolic pathways of substrate transformation by microbial community. In this paper, a change in δ(13)CH(4) during methanization of reconstituted municipal solid waste was described using a mathematical model based on stoichiometric chemical reactions, equation for the (13)C isotope accumulation in products at the low natural C(13)/C(12) ratio and microbial ecology. A set of experimental data used in the model was taken from Qu et al. (2009a). According to the model, during mesophilic municipal solid waste methanization initially hydrogenotrophic and further aceticlastic methanogenesis dominated. At the final stage hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis followed by acetate oxidation dominated again. In spite of rather high measured values of δ(13)C for CO(2) above -21‰, a sharp decrease in δ(13)CH(4) from -20‰ to -60‰ at the final stage was explained by a larger fractionation against (13)C during methanogenesis from H(2)/H(2)CO(3) due to a kinetic isotope effect when hydrogenotrophic methanogens preferentially take down light (12)C. The model also confirmed that in thermophilic conditions a comparatively stable value of δ(13)CH(4) about -60‰ measured earlier (Qu et al. 2009b) was due to a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis during all methanization process of cardboard waste.

  10. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Wilkie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard, and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils. Metal and glass comprised the smallest fraction of the waste stream. Average total waste generation ranged from 50.5 to 137.6 g·student−1·day−1. The mean generation rates for food waste ranged from 24.7 to 64.9 g·student−1·day−1. The overall average for cafeteria waste generation among all three schools was 102.3 g·student−1·day−1, with food waste alone contributing 52.2 g·student−1·day−1. There are two primary approaches to diverting school food waste from landfills: reduction and recycling. Food waste can be reduced through educating students and staff in order to change behaviors that cause food waste. Food waste can be collected and recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion in order to generate beneficial end products, including soil amendments and bioenergy. Over 75% of the cafeteria waste measured in this study could be recycled in this manner.

  11. Preparation of graphite conductive paint and its application to the construction of RC circuits on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisales, C.; Herrera, N.; Fajardo, F.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a simple procedure for the preparation of graphite-based conductive paint and determine its basic transport properties when applied, comparing them to those of pencil strokes. Ohm’s law was fulfilled on the applied paint, which makes it an ideal strategy to teach the relations between a resistor’s length, width and resistance. The conductive paint was used in the construction of RC circuits on paper in a simple and didactic format. Using only the paint and a piece of cardboard, a completely functional parallel plate capacitor can be constructed with different plate geometries; in particular, we painted circular and rectangular plates. The charge and discharge cycles of the two RC circuits painted were observed in the oscilloscope. We obtained characteristic times and estimated the value of the dielectric constant of paper, which serves as a dielectric between the plates of the capacitors. We found conductive paint to be a useful and easy method to teach basic electricity and circuit concepts in fundamental courses and lab practices because it allows one to visualise properties such as the dependence of resistance and capacitance with geometric factors using a specific material.

  12. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container. type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3). nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.). building concerned. details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting o...

  13. Waste disposal

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    We should like to remind you that you can have all commonplace, conventional waste (combustible, inert, wood, etc.) disposed of by the TS-FM Group. Requests for the removal of such waste should be made by contacting FM Support on tel. 77777 or by e-mail (Fm.Support@cern.ch). For requests to be acted upon, the following information must be communicated to FM Support: budget code to be debited for the provision and removal of the skip / container; type of skip required (1m3, 4 m3, 7 m3, 15 m3, 20 m3, 30 m3); nature of the waste to be disposed of (bulky objects, cardboard boxes, etc.); building concerned; details of requestor (name, phone number, department, group, etc.). We should also like to inform you that the TS-FM Group can arrange for waste to be removed from work-sites for firms under contract to CERN, provided that the prior authorisation of the CERN Staff Member in charge of the contract is obtained and the relevant disposal/handling charges are paid. You are reminded that the selective sorting...

  14. Cells on foam and fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clyde, R. [Clyde Engineering, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cells grow on high area foam and, when a screen is put around the foam, it is made heavier so it can be fluidized. When foam is rotated in a half full RBC (rotary biological contactor), drops are formed and mass transfer of oxygen to drops is much faster. Most fungi and some mammalian cells need oxygen. Corrugated fibers with holes in the valleys also produce drops. White rot fungus needs oxygen and it degrades many chlorine compounds, azo dyes, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and TNT. Old cardboard boxes are readily available and when buried in soil, oxygen is entrapped. In a lake, the boxes expose high area. Celite entrapped in fibers provides even more area. Fibers have high surface area for immobilizing cells and, when the fibers are rotated, fast reactions occur, converting one chemical to another. Sugar has been fermented to alcohol in 10--15 minutes. Ethanol has high octane and does not need lead. Old cars and trucks still use lead, and high levels have been found in the drinking water of several large cities. Bacteria on fibers can remove lead in a few seconds. When an RBC of plain fiber discs is rotated and a light shone in the tope, the light hits a thin moving film to degrade chlorine compounds and sterilize water. Titania can be fused to the fiberglass discs. Microbes and light remove sulfur from oil. Calcium magnesium acetate is a non-corrosive road deicer. Salt on roads causes millions of dollars damage to bridges and cars.

  15. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  16. Building a Low Cost Solar Oven: An Opportunity to Teach Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Ana

    2014-03-01

    We suggested building a solar oven using cardboard boxes, glass wool and metal plate as part of a school project permeated by the discussion of physical concepts. The main topics addressed are from the heat and thermodynamics areas, and for these themes we followed the standard books used in high school. We can work in a practical manner with the thermometer, along with the concept of temperature, measuring the temperature of the oven when cooking. To discuss how the oven works, we introduce the concept of heat as an energy flow of a body with a higher temperature to one with lower temperature. Threads as heat capacity and specific heat of a substance are introduced, also discussing the use of glass wool, which function is to prevent heat exchange from the oven's interior with the environment. It is possible to demonstrate the three forms of heat transfer using the solar oven, and how the greenhouse effect is harnessed. One can discuss topics such as electromagnetic radiation, black-body radiation and the Stefan-Boltzmann law. We surveyed the response curve of our oven and an estimate of its total solar energy absorption efficiency. The development of this project allows a good understanding of the operation principles of a solar oven. UNIMONTES.

  17. High frequency of pauses during intermittent locomotion of small South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Höfling

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the locomotor behavior of two closely-related species of Gymnophthalmini lizards, Vanzosaura rubricauda and Procellosaurinus tetradactylus, that was imaged under laboratory conditions at a rate of 250 frames/s with a high-speed video camera (MotionScope PCI 1000 on four different substrates with increasing degrees of roughness (smooth perspex, cardboard, glued sand, and glued gravel. Vanzosaura rubricauda and P. tetradactylus are both characterized by intermittent locomotion, with pauses occurring with high frequency and having a short duration (from 1/10 to 1/3 s, and taking place in rhythmic locomotion in an organized fashion during all types ofgaits and on different substrates. The observed variations in duration and frequency of pauses suggest that in V. rubricauda mean pause duration is shorter and pause frequency is higher than in P. tetradactylus. The intermittent locomotion observed in V.rubricauda and P. tetradactylus imaging at 250 frames/s is probably of interest for neurobiologists. In the review of possible determinants, the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the tribe Gymnophthalmini are focused. Keywords: .

  18. Industrial defect discrimination applying infrared imaging spectroscopy and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Conde, Olga M.; Madruga, Francisco J.; Cubillas, Ana M.; Lopez-Higuera, Jose M.

    2008-03-01

    A non-intrusive infrared sensor for the detection of spurious elements in an industrial raw material chain has been developed. The system is an extension to the whole near infrared range of the spectrum of a previously designed system based on the Vis-NIR range (400 - 1000 nm). It incorporates a hyperspectral imaging spectrograph able to register simultaneously the NIR reflected spectrum of the material under study along all the points of an image line. The working material has been different tobacco leaf blends mixed with typical spurious elements of this field such as plastics, cardboards, etc. Spurious elements are discriminated automatically by an artificial neural network able to perform the classification with a high degree of accuracy. Due to the high amount of information involved in the process, Principal Component Analysis is first applied to perform data redundancy removal. By means of the extension to the whole NIR range of the spectrum, from 1000 to 2400 nm, the characterization of the material under test is highly improved. The developed technique could be applied to the classification and discrimination of other materials, and, as a consequence of its non-contact operation it is particularly suitable for food quality control.

  19. Optimizing the performance of microbial fuel cells fed a combination of different synthetic organic fractions in municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendyala, Brahmaiah; Chaganti, Subba Rao; Lalman, Jerald A; Heath, Daniel D

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of different steam exploded organic fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW) on electricity production using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In particular, the influence of individual steam exploded liquefied waste components (food waste (FW), paper-cardboard waste (PCW) and garden waste (GW)) and their blends on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, columbic efficiency (CE) and microbial diversity was examined using a mixture design. Maximum power densities from 0.56 to 0.83 W m(-2) were observed for MFCs fed with different feedstocks. The maximum COD removed and minimum CE were observed for a GW feed. However, a reverse trend (minimum COD removed and maximum CE) was observed for the FW feed. A maximum COD removal (78%) accompanied with a maximum CE (24%) was observed for a combined feed of FW, PCW plus GW in a 1:1:1 ratio. Lactate, the major byproduct detected, was unutilized by the anodic biofilm community. The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) could serve as a potential feedstock for electricity generation in MFCs; however, elevated protein levels will lead to reduced COD removal. The microbial communities in cultures fed FW and PCW was highly diversified; however, the communities in cultures fed FW or a feed mixture containing high FW levels were similar and dominated by Bacteroidetes and β-proteobacteria.

  20. Inferring 3D Articulated Models for Box Packaging Robot

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Heran; Cong, Matthew; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2011-01-01

    Given a point cloud, we consider inferring kinematic models of 3D articulated objects such as boxes for the purpose of manipulating them. While previous work has shown how to extract a planar kinematic model (often represented as a linear chain), such planar models do not apply to 3D objects that are composed of segments often linked to the other segments in cyclic configurations. We present an approach for building a model that captures the relation between the input point cloud features and the object segment as well as the relation between the neighboring object segments. We use a conditional random field that allows us to model the dependencies between different segments of the object. We test our approach on inferring the kinematic structure from partial and noisy point cloud data for a wide variety of boxes including cake boxes, pizza boxes, and cardboard cartons of several sizes. The inferred structure enables our robot to successfully close these boxes by manipulating the flaps.

  1. Los códices prehispánicos y novohispanos en Mesoamérica como objetos de la escritura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C.Celso Martínez Musiño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research we propose the following objectives: identify research on writing objects, in particular, the codex in the Mesoamerican region; to describe the materials with which these codex were manufactured; to describe how this research benefit the development of information science. Method. Descriptive study whose procedure was documentary research and informal interview with experts, selection and analysis of documents and information, description of findings and conclusions. Results. 64 codex were analyzed, 18 are pre-Hispanic and 46 new-Spanish. The materials used were bark paper, maguey paper, cloth, European paper, and cardboard, combining it with paper, and paper as we know it today. Conclusions. There is a shortage of Mesoamerican codices in the pre-Hispanic period; there is current interest in the post-Cortesian period by indigenous themes; on observe a wider range of raw materials for the production of codex in the colonial period; at present, projects for the digitization and wider dissemination of Mesoamerican codices are implemented

  2. for zeolite coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Rambo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotemplating is the processing of microcellular ceramics by reproduction of natural morphologies, where the microstructural features of the biotemplate are maintained in the biomorphic ceramic. Different biotemplates with distinct pore anatomies were used to produce biomorphic supports for the zeolite coating: wood, cardboard, sea-sponge and sisal. The biomorphic ceramics were produced by distinguished processing routes: Al-gas infiltration-reaction, liquid-metal infiltration, dip-coating and sol-gel synthesis, in order to produce nitrides, carbides and oxides, depending on the processing conditions. The zeolite coating was performed by hydrothermal growth of MFI-type (Silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 zeolite crystals onto the internal pore walls of the biomorphic templates. The final biomorphic ceramic-zeolite composites were physically characterized, evaluated in terms of their gas adsorption capabilities and correlated to their microstructure and specific pore anatomy. The combination of the properties of the biomorphic ceramics with the adsorption properties of zeolites results in materials with distinct properties as potential candidates for adsorption and catalytic applications due to their characteristic porosity, molecular sieving capabilities and high thermo-mechanical strength.

  3. The Impact of Pay-As-You-Throw Schemes on Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Exemplar Case of the County of Aschaffenburg, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Morlok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The “pay-as-you-throw” (PAYT scheme is an economic instrument for waste management that applies the “polluter pays” principle by charging the inhabitants of municipalities according to the amount of residual, organic, and bulky waste they send for third-party waste management. When combined with well-developed infrastructure to collect the different waste fractions (residual waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, bio waste, green cuttings, and many recyclables as well as with a good level of citizens’ awareness, its performance has frequently been linked to an increase in the collection rates of recyclables. However, the establishment and operation of PAYT systems can require significant resource inputs from municipalities. In this paper, PAYT is analysed through a case study from the German County of Aschaffenburg, covering nearly 20 years of implementation across 32 municipalities with 173,000 inhabitants. Key performance indicators include temporal trends in the county’s recyclables collection rate, waste treatment fees for residents, and municipal waste management costs, benchmarked against German municipalities not implementing PAYT. We conclude that PAYT could make an important contribution towards material reuse and recycling objectives for the new circular economy.

  4. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  5. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  6. The composition, heating value and renewable share of the energy content of mixed municipal solid waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horttanainen, M; Teirasvuo, N; Kapustina, V; Hupponen, M; Luoranen, M

    2013-12-01

    For the estimation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste incineration it is essential to know the share of the renewable energy content of the combusted waste. The composition and heating value information is generally available, but the renewable energy share or heating values of different fractions of waste have rarely been determined. In this study, data from Finnish studies concerning the composition and energy content of mixed MSW were collected, new experimental data on the compositions, heating values and renewable share of energy were presented and the results were compared to the estimations concluded from earlier international studies. In the town of Lappeenranta in south-eastern Finland, the share of renewable energy ranged between 25% and 34% in the energy content tests implemented for two sample trucks. The heating values of the waste and fractions of plastic waste were high in the samples compared to the earlier studies in Finland. These high values were caused by good source separation and led to a low share of renewable energy content in the waste. The results showed that in mixed municipal solid waste the renewable share of the energy content can be significantly lower than the general assumptions (50-60%) when the source separation of organic waste, paper and cardboard is carried out successfully. The number of samples was however small for making extensive conclusions on the results concerning the heating values and renewable share of energy and additional research is needed for this purpose.

  7. Investigation of Latent Traces Using Infrared Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Till; Wenzel, Susanne; Roscher, Ribana; Stachniss, Cyrill

    2016-06-01

    The detection of traces is a main task of forensics. Hyperspectral imaging is a potential method from which we expect to capture more fluorescence effects than with common forensic light sources. This paper shows that the use of hyperspectral imaging is suited for the analysis of latent traces and extends the classical concept to the conservation of the crime scene for retrospective laboratory analysis. We examine specimen of blood, semen and saliva traces in several dilution steps, prepared on cardboard substrate. As our key result we successfully make latent traces visible up to dilution factor of 1:8000. We can attribute most of the detectability to interference of electromagnetic light with the water content of the traces in the shortwave infrared region of the spectrum. In a classification task we use several dimensionality reduction methods (PCA and LDA) in combination with a Maximum Likelihood classifier, assuming normally distributed data. Further, we use Random Forest as a competitive approach. The classifiers retrieve the exact positions of labelled trace preparation up to highest dilution and determine posterior probabilities. By modelling the classification task with a Markov Random Field we are able to integrate prior information about the spatial relation of neighboured pixel labels.

  8. KUALITAS AIR LIMBAH PABRIK KERTAS PT. BALI KERTAS MITRA JEMBRANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    l KETUT SUNDRA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available PT. Bali Paper Mitra Jembrana is a business unit engaged in manufacturing or recycling (recycle waste paper (cardboard into a thin paper which is known as rice paper wrap. This business has been operational since 2004 the paper every day to process anaverage of 13 tonnes of waste paper and produces an average of 10 tons/ day. The production requires 90 m3/day of ground water: 50 m3 for the cleaning cloth (shower system and 40 m3 for cooling boiler. Heating using coal with a volume of one ton/ day. Steam heat from the boiler used for drying paper. From this process, the 90 m3 of ground water pruducted 60 m3/ day wastewater into lagoon. Waste treatment system of PT. Paper Jembr ana is still a semi-permanent using 5 lagoon with a capacit y of 651 m3. The purpose of this study was to determine the factual quality of water in physical and chemical wastewater produced PT. Bali Paper Mitra Jembrana which will be used as a data base for monitoring and management for stake holder and government. The results show, at the end of the treatment there are 5 parameters which exceeds Waste Water Quality St and ard Class II (LH Decree No. 5 of 1995 such as BODS, COD, phenols, sulfide (H2S and lead (Pb, so it is not feasible discarded to the outside environment.

  9. Eco-Estate in Melchrueti - The 'Balance' housing estate in Wallisellen, Switzerland; Projekt Oeko-Siedlung Melchrueti Wohnpark Balance Wallisellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naef, R.; Reber, C.; Huber, A.

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a detailed look at a housing estate in Wallisellen, Switzerland, that is built to the 'Minergie' low-energy consumption standard and features several innovative technologies. These include a high level of thermal insulation, air-based heating that includes air pre-warming in buried conduits, spent-air heat recovery and a heat-pump for domestic hot water preparation. The layout of the apartments is flexible and can be freely defined around a fixed core which houses sanitary installations. The construction of the apartment blocks is discussed and the on-site manufacture of the building elements is described. The facades of the building feature a cardboard and glass honeycomb structure that stores solar heat. Data and curves of various energy-relevant features are presented and construction details are discussed. Thermographic photos illustrate the thermal efficiency of the building's construction. The building's technical services are looked at and the results of measurements made are presented and discussed in detail.

  10. Seasonal analysis of the generation and composition of solid waste: potential use--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Ojeda-Benítez, Sara

    2013-06-01

    Ensenada health officials lack pertinent information on the sustainable management of solid waste, as do health officials from other developing countries. The aims of this research are: (a) to quantify and analyze the household solid wastes generated in the city of Ensenada, Mexico, and (b) to project biogas production and estimate generation of electrical energy. The characterization study was conducted by socioeconomic stratification in two seasonal periods, and the biogas and electrical energy projections were performed using the version 2.0 Mexico Biogas Model. Per capita solid waste generation was 0.779 ± 0.019 kg per person per day within a 98 % confidence interval. Waste composition is composed mainly of food scraps at 36.25 %, followed by paper and cardboard at 21.85 %, plastic at 12.30 %, disposable diapers at 6.26 %, and textiles at 6.28 %. The maximum capacity for power generation is projected to be 1.90 MW in 2019. Waste generated could be used as an intermediate in different processes such as recycling (41.04 %) and energy recovery (46.63 %). The electrical energy that could be obtained using the biogas generated at the Ensenada sanitary landfill would provide roughly 60 % of the energy needed for street lighting.

  11. Using Virtual Reality For Outreach Purposes in Planetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civet, François; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Le Menn, Erwan; Beaunay, Stéphanie

    2016-10-01

    2016 has been a year marked by a technological breakthrough : the availability for the first time to the general public of technologically mature virtual reality devices. Virtual Reality consists in visually immerging a user in a 3D environment reproduced either from real and/or imaginary data, with the possibility to move and eventually interact with the different elements. In planetology, most of the places will remain inaccessible to the public for a while, but a fleet of dedicated spacecraft's such as orbiters, landers and rovers allow the possibility to virtually reconstruct the environments, using image processing, cartography and photogrammetry. Virtual reality can then bridge the gap to virtually "send" any user into the place and enjoy the exploration.We are investigating several type of devices to render orbital or ground based data of planetological interest, mostly from Mars. The most simple system consists of a "cardboard" headset, on which the user can simply use his cellphone as the screen. A more comfortable experience is obtained with more complex systems such as the HTC vive or Oculus Rift headsets, which include a tracking system important to minimize motion sickness. The third environment that we have developed is based on the CAVE concept, were four 3D video projectors are used to project on three 2x3m walls plus the ground. These systems can be used for scientific data analysis, but also prove to be perfectly suited for outreach and education purposes.

  12. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  13. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikoń, Krzysztof; Gaska, Krzysztof

    2010-07-01

    Standard methods for assessing the environmental impact of waste management systems are needed to underpin the development and implementation of sustainable waste management practice. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for comprehensively ensuring such assessment and covers all impacts associated with waste management. LCA is often called "from cradle to grave" analysis. This paper integrates information on the greenhouse gas (GHG) implications of various management options for some of the most common materials in municipal solid waste (MSW). Different waste treatment options for MSW were studied in a system analysis. Different combinations of recycling (cardboard, plastics, glass, metals), biological treatment (composting), and incineration as well as land-filling were studied. The index of environmental burden in the global warming impact category was calculated. The calculations are based on LCA methodology. All emissions taking place in the whole life cycle system were taken into account. The analysis included "own emissions," or emissions from the system at all stages of the life cycle, and "linked emissions," or emissions from other sources linked with the system in an indirect way. Avoided emissions caused by recycling and energy recovery were included in the analysis. Displaced emissions of GHGs originate from the substitution of energy or materials derived from waste for alternative sources. The complex analysis of the environmental impact of municipal waste management systems before and after application of changes in MSW systems according to European Union regulations is presented in this paper. The evaluation is made for MSW systems in Poland.

  14. Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setúbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard).

  15. Fully electric waste collection

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region!   Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...

  16. temples XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People have always built temples. Their diversity is infinite. Majestic cathedrals and mosques made of eternal stones neighbor a cardboard cathedral built by Pritzker laureate Shigeru Ban after the earthquake in New Zealand. Avantgarde experiments of new religions emerging in front of our eyes and no less surprising experiences of Catholic temples are side by side with an age-long strong tradition of Orthodox churches.After seventy years of gap thousands of temples of different confessions have been built and restored in the post-Soviet area. This issue includes projects of new religious buildings in Buryatia and Zabaikalie, Irkutsk and Angarsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuzbass and Altai.The rise of construction of temples raises a lot of questions. Debates on a new appearance of churches develop simultaneously with discussions on the necessity of a new translation of the Bible into the modern language. The Union of Architects of Russia with the support of the Moscow Patriarchate of the Russian Orthodox Church launched a competition inviting ideas for a modern image of an Orthodox temple. The dogmata are unchanged, but the canons can be changed in time, as clergy members say. But how deep can such changes be? In what direction should the temple architecture develop? What is the best way for it to meet the challenges of our time, the changing lifestyle, the new rhythms and means of world perception?Again we fill our journal with questions to think them over together with our clever and nonindifferent reader.

  17. The direct environmental impact of hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: a surgical waste audit of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sa, Darren; Stephens, Kellee; Kuang, Michelle; Simunovic, Nicole; Karlsson, Jon; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2016-07-01

    Health care facilities produce significant waste (2200 kg/bed/year) creating 2% of greenhouse gas emissions and 1% total solid waste nationwide, with 20-70% of waste coming from operating rooms. We performed a waste audit of hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) to understand its environmental impact and identify areas for greening practices. A waste audit of five hip arthroscopy procedures for FAI was performed. All waste was collected and separated into six waste streams in real time: (i) normal/landfill waste; (ii) recyclable cardboards and plastics; (iii) biohazard waste; (iv) sharp items; (v) linens and (vi) sterile wrapping. The surgical waste (except laundered linens) from five FAI surgeries totaled 47.4 kg, including 21.7 kg (45.7%) of biohazard waste, 11.7 kg (24.6%) of sterile wrap, 6.4 kg (13.5%) of normal/landfill waste, 6.4 kg (13.5%) of recyclable plastics and 1.2 kg (2.6%) of sharp items. An average of 9.4 kg (excluding laundered linens) of waste was produced per procedure. Given the considerable biohazard waste produced by FAI procedures, additional recycling programs, continued adherence to proper waste segregation and an emphasis on 'green outcomes' is encouraged to demonstrate environmental responsibility and effectively manage and allocate finite resources.

  18. Fluorescence-based knife-edge beam diameter measurement to characterize X-ray beam profiles in reflection geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, Léna; Tauzin, Xavier; Queffelec, Alain; Ferrier, Catherine; Lacanette, Delphine; Chapoulie, Rémy; Bousquet, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The diameter of an X-ray beam was determined, using the knife-edge technique, widely applied for beam profiling, by taking advantage of the fluorescence emission generated by the X-ray beam. The knife-edge has to be appropriate to the configuration of the device, in our case a double-material target made of plastic and cardboard was scanned in a transversal plane compared to the beam propagation direction. Along the scanning axis, for each position, the intensity of the Kα line of chlorine was recorded. The first derivative of the intensity evolution as a function of the edge position, fitted by a Gaussian function, makes it possible to obtain the beam diameter along the scan direction. We measured a slightly elliptic diameter close to 3 mm. In this note we underline the significance of the knife-edge technique which represents a useful tool, easy to be set up, to control X-ray beam dimensions in portable devices often routinely used by non-specialists.

  19. Longevity of Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences influenced by the storage temperature and ethylene inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Simone dos Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work had the goal to evaluate the influence of temperature and dry storage on the postharvest longevity of Epidendrum ibaguense flowers previously treated with silver thiosulfate (STS. The flowers were harvested and pulsed for 30 minutes with 2 mM STS. Then both, the STS treated and untreated flowers were packed in perforated low density polyethylene bags, packed in cardboard boxes and stored at 5 and 10°C, where they remained for four and eight days. After this period, the flowers were kept in vase with distilled water at 25ºC, and analyzed at every 24 h. The experiment was arranged in a complete random design 2 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme, with four replicates, containing four inflorescences each, except for the determination of transpiration and water rates uptake, composed by sixteen replicates of one stem. The vase life of the flowers of the E. ibaguense was increased to 6.5 days when pulsed with 2 mM STS for 30 minutes, followed by storage at 10ºC for a maximum period of four days. The STS applied before the cold storage reduced the rate of flower abscission and improved the ratio between the transpiration and water uptake.

  20. Solid waste as renewable source of energy: current and future possibility in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek A. Hamad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste holds the greatest potential as biomass source in Libya. The rapid expansion of industry has led to increased urbanization and growing population. These factors have dramatically increased the amount of MSW (municipal solid waste generated in Libya. However, issues related to environmentally sound MSW management—including waste decrease and clearance—have not been addressed sufficiently. This study presents an overview on solid waste that can be used as a source of bioenergy in Libya including MSW, ISW (industrial solid waste, and HSW (health care wastes as biomass sources. The management of solid waste and valorization is based on an understanding of MSW׳s composition and physicochemical characteristics. The results show that organic matter represents 59% of waste, followed by paper–cardboard 12%, plastic 8%, miscellaneous 8%, metals 7%, glass 4%, and wood 2%. The technology of WTE (waste-to-energy incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in Libya. This paper provides an overview of this technology, including both its conversion options and its useful products (e.g., electricity, heat, greenhouse gas emissions. The WTE benefits and the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in Libya are discussed. It also demonstrates that Libya could become an exporter of hydrogen in lieu of oil and natural gas.

  1. Simultaneous chromatographic analysis of photoinitiators and amine synergists in food contact materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, M A; Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, A; Sendón, R; Bustos, J; Santillana, M I; Paseiro, P

    2014-07-01

    Photoinitiators (PIs) are components of UV-cured inks widely used in printing of food packaging. These substances can migrate into food and may be a hazard to human health. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) has been used for analysis of PIs and amine synergists in food packaging. Analysis was performed with a Kromasil C18 column (250 mm × 3.2 mm i.d., 5 μm particle size) with a binary mobile phase gradient prepared from acetonitrile and Milli-Q water. The flow rate was 0.5 mL min(-1). The method enables separation of fourteen PIs and amine synergists in a single run. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, and limits of detection and quantification. Excellent sensitivity (LODs ≤ 1.56 μg dm(2)) and appropriate repeatability (RSD (n = 10) <0.9%) were achieved. Different types of food packaging material including plastic films, cardboard, and cans were analyzed and PIs were detected in 47% of the samples tested (n = 17). Positive samples were confirmed by use of LC-MS-MS in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode.

  2. Determination of Metal Ion Concentrations in Components of Household Solid Waste in the Akwapim South Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ackah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The potential of household solid waste to supply micro-nutrients is studied. The study aimed at finding the levels of metal ion concentrations in domestic refuse typically the organic, paper and plastic waste stream components which constituted the highest waste stream fractions generated by residents in the Nsawam- Adoadjiri townships. INAA was used to determine metal ions concentrations in household solid organic, paper and plastic components of wastes generated by sampled households of Nsawam and Adoagyiri townships of the Akwapim South Municipality of Ghana. The analysis covered (Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Mn, Al, Cl, and V. Standard reference materials were also analysed in the same manner as the waste samples to ensure good quality control/quality assurance procedures. Higher mean concentrations of 5.59 μg/g and 13.27 mg/g were recorded for Mn and Cl, respectively in organic waste stream component as compared to 1.13 μg/g and 0.19 mg/g in paper/cardboard waste stream and 2.67 μg/g and 13.27 mg/g in rubber/plastic waste stream components respectively. These values are comparable to literature values.

  3. Traps containing carvacrol, a biological approach for the control of Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, Alireza; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to conventional synthetic pesticides has been widely reported in Dermanyssus gallinae in different aviary systems. Cardboard traps containing acaricides had been introduced as a successive device for collection and control of the poultry red mite. The present study assessed field efficacy of traps containing carvacrol in the control and reduction of D. gallinae in laying poultry farm. Two different carvacrol-based formulations were tested for their toxicity and possible repellent activity on D. gallinae to determine the most appropriate formulation and concentration to be used in the field study. In vitro tests confirmed that 1 % carvacrol formulation with ethoxylated castor oil as emulsifier was significantly toxic to D. gallinae without any dissuading effect in comparison to ethanol and higher concentrations of carvacrol (p gallinae and led to over 92 % reduction in mite's population after 2 week of application. Toxic effects of carvacrol maintained through 2 weeks after the last application of traps. Results of the present study suggested that effective control of the poultry red mite can be achieved by traps containing carvacrol. These traps can be used safely in poultry facilities without any concern about residues in eggs, meat, and environment.

  4. Field bioassay of Metarhizium anisopliae strains to control the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, M; Allymehr, M; Pourseyed, S H; Ownag, A; Bernousi, I; Mardani, K; Ghorbanzadegan, M; Shokrpoor, S

    2011-06-10

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically deleterious ectoparasite of laying hens worldwide. To evaluate the efficacy of three strains (V245, 3247 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae with potential as acaricides against D. gallinae, this investigation was carried out in a commercial caged laying poultry farm in Naghedeh, West Azarbaijan of Iran. The parasite infestation already existed in the farm. Sunflower oil suspension of all fungal strains, each in two concentrations (1×10(7) and 1×10(9) conidia/ml) were used separately as spray on hens and cages, and in the control group the cages were only sprayed with sunflower oil and sterile distilled water. For estimating the population rate of mites before and after treatment, special cardboard traps were fixed to cages during a 1-month period. The traps were placed on weeks -1, 0, 1, 2 and 3 and always removed after 1 w. The results showed that the population rates post fungal treatment with the lower concentration were not significantly different compared to the control group. However, the reduction in mite numbers induced by all three strains at the concentration of 1×10(9) conidia/ml was significantly higher than the control (Pgallinae.

  5. Monitoring of Dermanyssus gallinae in free-range poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenner, L; Bon, G; Chauve, C; Nemoz, C; Lubac, S

    2009-06-01

    Various methods for monitoring Dermanyssus gallinae infestations within free-range egg production units were compared. The study was carried out in five egg-producing free-range poultry buildings infested with D. gallinae. Each farm was divided into six zones (each zone including nest boxes, perches and duckboard) for placing two types of traps (corrugated cardboard and thick card traps) or examining dried droppings for presence of mites. Traps were removed 24 h later, placed into bags and mites were counted at the laboratory using binocular magnification. Droppings were also inspected by eye and mite numbers were estimated. All the methods used allowed us to detect mites although their efficacy differed. The number of mites collected was independent of the type of trap used. Examination of the droppings did not differentiate between buildings with differing mite populations. Placing traps in the nest boxes is a less reliable indicator than placing them on the perches. It appears that the most coherent method for evaluating the D. gallinae population within a free-range flock is to place thick card traps throughout the building, on perches favoured by birds.

  6. In vitro and field studies on the contact and fumigant toxicity of a neem-product (Mite-Stop) against the developmental stages of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Nina; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2010-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of the neem product MiteStop was investigated for its potential use as a botanical acaricide for the control of the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae. This neem product is a special formulation of an extract of the seeds of the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss. The efficacy was tested under laboratory conditions as well as in poultry houses. Four different methods of application were used in a filter paper bioassay to evaluate contact and vapour phase toxicity tests. The neem product proved to be already active in very small doses. In order to investigate the efficacy under field conditions, a poultry house was sprayed twice within a 7-day period using 1:33 and 1:50 diluted MiteStop. Cardboard traps were used to assess the mite population before, during and after the treatment. The mite population could be reduced by 89%. In a second poultry house, the spraying of defined areas with a 1:30, 1:33 or 1:50 dilution of the acaricide proved to be highly efficacious against all mite stages. Three other field trials proved that MiteStop is highly active against the red poultry mite. The most efficient dilution is 1:33 with tap water and spraying two or three times at intervals of 7 days.

  7. New Ideas in Orreries and Planetary System Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A.; Koch, D.; Devore, E.; Harman, P.

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Kepler EPO team has created models and simulations of planetary systems (orreries) to use in demonstrating the transit technique of finding exoplanets. The first successful orrery, consisting of a three-planet orrery with an electric lamp (model star) at the center, and a Vernier light sensor system connected to a laptop computer with real-time graphing software, was first on display at the Kepler booth at the 2006 AAS conference. That system was extended to a four-planet model (one planet with a moon as well) and has been on display at many astronomy and teacher education conferences in the past few years. Construction of duplicate models costs about 60 for LEGO parts, plus 100 or so for light sensor hardware and software. The LEGO orrery effort stemmed from successful work in creating a large museum-grade orrery that was used in the Planet-Finding portion of the ``Alien Earths'' exhibit, a collaboration of Space Science Institute, NSF, NASA Kepler mission EPO and other NASA EPO groups. Replication of that model would cost in the neighborhood of $25,000. In recent months, Kepler EPO has worked on design of a more rudimentary, inexpensive orrery made of cardboard, paper plates, wine corks, and rubber bands. Work is also underway on a new plastic-geared orrery for use in classrooms with a Full Option Science System (FOSS) Planetary Science Unit for middle school. This presentation relays results and status of these new developments in planetary model systems.

  8. Visualization of the structural changes in plywood and gypsum board during the growth of Chaetomium globosum and Stachybotrys chartarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinska, Anna M; Hoof, Jakob B; Peuhkuri, Ruut H; Rode, Carsten; Lilje, Osu; Foley, Matthew; Trimby, Patrick; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-10-01

    Fungal growth in indoor environments is associated with many negative health effects. Many studies focus on brown- and white-rot fungi and their effect on wood, but there is none that reveals the influence of soft-rot fungi, such as Stachybotrys spp. and Chaetomium spp., on the structure of building materials such as plywood and gypsum wallboard. This study focuses on using micro-computed tomography (microCT) to investigate changes of the structure of plywood and gypsum wallboard during fungal degradation by S. chartarum and C. globosum. Changes in the materials as a result of dampness and fungal growth were determined by measuring porosity and pore shape via microCT. The results show that the composition of the building material influenced the level of penetration by fungi as shown by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Plywood appeared to be the most affected, with the penetration of moisture and fungi throughout the whole thickness of the sample. Conversely, fungi grew only on the top cardboard in the gypsum wallboard and they did not have significant influence on the gypsum wallboard structure. The majority of the observed changes in gypsum wallboard occurred due to moisture. This paper suggests that the mycelium distribution within building materials and the structural changes, caused by dampness and fungal growth, depend on the type of the material.

  9. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  10. Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton-Brehm, Scott [ORNL; Elkins, James G [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Keller, Martin [ORNL; Carroll, Sue L [ORNL; Allman, Steve L [ORNL; Podar, Mircea [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A novel, obligately anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, cellulolytic bacterium, designated OB47T, was isolated from Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA. The isolate was a non-motile, non-spore forming, Gram-positive rod approximately 2 m long by 0.2 m wide and grew at temperatures between 55-85oC with the optimum at 78oC. The pH range for growth was 6.0-8.0 with values of near 7.0 being optimal. Growth on cellobiose produced the fastest specific growth rates at 0.75 hr-1. The organism also displayed fermentative growth on glucose, maltose, arabinose, fructose, starch, lactose, mannose, sucrose, galactose, xylose, arabinogalactan, Avicel, xylan, filter paper, processed cardboard, pectin, dilute acid-pretreated switchgrass and Populus. OB47T was unable to grow on mannitol, fucose, lignin, Gelrite, acetate, glycerol, ribose, sorbital, carboxymethylcellulose and casein. Yeast extract stimulated growth and thiosulfate, sulfate, nitrate, and sulfur were not reduced. Fermentation end products were mainly acetate, H2, and CO2 although lactate and ethanol were produced in 5 l batch fermentations. The G+C content of the DNA was 35 mol% and sequence analysis of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene placed OB47T within the genus Caldicellulosiruptor. Based on its phylogenetic and phenotypic properties, the isolate is proposed to be designated Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis sp. nov. and OB47T is the type stain (ATCC = ____, JCM = ____).

  11. Application of dual-energy x-ray techniques for automated food container inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashishekhar, N.; Veselitza, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing for plastic food containers often results in small metal particles getting into the containers during the production process. Metal detectors are usually not sensitive enough to detect these metal particles (0.5 mm or lesser), especially when the containers are stacked in large sealed shipping packages; X-ray inspection of these packages provides a viable alternative. This paper presents the results of an investigation into dual-energy X-ray techniques for automated detection of small metal particles in plastic food container packages. The sample packages consist of sealed cardboard boxes containing stacks of food containers: plastic cups for food, and Styrofoam cups for noodles. The primary goal of the investigation was to automatically identify small metal particles down to 0.5 mm diameter in size or less, randomly located within the containers. The multiple container stacks in each box make it virtually impossible to reliably detect the particles with single-energy X-ray techniques either visually or with image processing. The stacks get overlaid in the X-ray image and create many indications almost identical in contrast and size to real metal particles. Dual-energy X-ray techniques were investigated and found to result in a clear separation of the metal particles from the food container stack-ups. Automated image analysis of the resulting images provides reliable detection of the small metal particles.

  12. A comparison of two methods of measuring static coefficient of friction at low normal forces: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Na Jin; Armstrong, Thomas J; Drinkaus, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This study compares two methods for estimating static friction coefficients for skin. In the first method, referred to as the 'tilt method', a hand supporting a flat object is tilted until the object slides. The friction coefficient is estimated as the tangent of the angle of the object at the slip. The second method estimates the friction coefficient as the pull force required to begin moving a flat object over the surface of the hand, divided by object weight. Both methods were used to estimate friction coefficients for 12 subjects and three materials (cardboard, aluminium, rubber) against a flat hand and against fingertips. No differences in static friction coefficients were found between the two methods, except for that of rubber, where friction coefficient was 11% greater for the tilt method. As with previous studies, the friction coefficients varied with contact force and contact area. Static friction coefficient data are needed for analysis and design of objects that are grasped or manipulated with the hand. The tilt method described in this study can easily be used by ergonomic practitioners to estimate static friction coefficients in the field in a timely manner.

  13. Design of an innovative, ecological portable waste compressor for in-house recycling of paper, plastic and metal packaging waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xevgenos, D; Athanasopoulos, N; Kostazos, P K; Manolakos, D E; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Loizidou, M

    2015-05-01

    Waste management in Greece relies heavily on unsustainable waste practices (mainly landfills and in certain cases uncontrolled dumping of untreated waste). Even though major improvements have been achieved in the recycling of municipal solid waste during recent years, there are some barriers that hinder the achievement of high recycling rates. Source separation of municipal solid waste has been recognised as a promising solution to produce high-quality recycled materials that can be easily directed to secondary materials markets. This article presents an innovative miniature waste separator/compressor that has been designed and developed for the source separation of municipal solid waste at a household level. The design of the system is in line with the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/EC), since it allows for the separate collection (and compression) of municipal solid waste, namely: plastic (polyethylene terephthalate and high-density polyethylene), paper (cardboard and Tetrapak) and metal (aluminium and tin cans). It has been designed through the use of suitable software tools (LS-DYNA, INVENTROR and COMSOL). The results from the simulations, as well as the whole design process and philosophy, are discussed in this article.

  14. Young children’s learning of relational categories:multiple comparisons and their cognitive constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre eThibaut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Relational categories are notoriously difficult to learn because they are not defined by intrinsic stable properties. We studied the impact of comparisons on relational concept learning with a novel word learning task in 42-month-old children. Capitalizing on Gentner et al. (2011, two, three or four pairs of stimuli were introduced with a novel relational word. In a given trial, the set of pairs was composed of either close or far pairs (e.g., close pair: knife1-watermelon, knife2-orange, knife3-slice of bread and knife4-meat; far pair: ax-evergreen tree, saw-log, cutter-cardboard and knife-slice of bread, for the cutter for relation. Close pairs (2 vs. 3 vs. 4 pairs led to random generalizations whereas comparisons with far pairs gave the expected relational generalization. The 3 pair case gave the best results. It is argued that far pairs promote deeper comparisons than close pairs. As shown by a control experiment, this was the case only when far pairs display well known associations.

  15. Toxicologically relevant phthalates in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappenstein, Oliver; Vieth, Bärbel; Luch, Andreas; Pfaff, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Various phthalates have been detected in a wide range of food products such as milk, dietary products, fat-enriched food, meat, fish, sea food, beverages, grains, and vegetables as well as in breast milk. Here we present an overview on toxicologically considerable phthalate levels in food reported in the literature. The most common phthalates detected are di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP). Milk analyses demonstrate that background levels in unprocessed milk are usually low. However, during processing the phthalate contents may significantly increase due to migration from plastic materials in contact with food. Among dietary products fat-enriched food such as cheese and cream were identified with highest levels of DEHP. Plasticized PVC from tubes, conveyor belts, or disposable gloves used in food processing is an important source for contamination of food, especially of fatty food. Paper and cardboard packaging made from recycled fibers are another important source of contamination. In addition, gaskets used in metal lids for glass jars have been identified as possible source for the contamination of foodstuffs with phthalates. The highest concentrations of DEHP reported (>900 mg kg(-1)) were detected in food of high fat content stored in such glass jars. Beyond classical food, DEHP and DnBP were identified in human breast milk samples as the main phthalate contaminants. Phthalate monoesters and some oxidative metabolites were also quantified in breast milk.

  16. 瓦楞纸箱的“爆线”及局部PVA涂覆处理技术%Cracking of Corrugated Board and Local PVA-coated Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴晓宇; 严家驹; 张新昌

    2012-01-01

    The pressed line of corrugated board was locally coated with PVA coating, and the folding endurance and bursting strength of PVA-coated and non-coated corrugated board was tested in environmental humidity of 25%, 35%, and 50% respectively. The influence of local coating on corrugated board cracking phenomenon was analyzed. The results showed that under the relative humidity of 25%, PVA-coated board does not show obvious improvement on the "Burst line" phenomenon; under relative humidity of 35% and 50%, PVA-coated can effectively change the corrugated cardboard "burst line" phenomenon.%对瓦楞纸板压线进行PVA局部涂覆前后,在相对湿度为25%,35%,50%环境下测定了其耐折性能和耐破度,分析了PVA局部涂覆对“爆线”现象的影响。结果表明:在相对湿度为25%的条件下,PVA局部涂覆对“爆线”现象改善不明显,在相对湿度为35%和50%时,PVA局部涂覆可有效改善瓦楞纸板“爆线”现象。

  17. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P whey sources could be used in new applications due to distinct functional and flavor characteristics.

  18. Radical abundance how a revolution in nanotechnology will change civilization

    CERN Document Server

    Drexler, K Eric

    2013-01-01

    K. Eric Drexler is the founding father of nanotechnology--the science of engineering on a molecular level. In Radical Abundance, he shows how rapid scientific progress is about to change our world. Thanks to atomically precise manufacturing, we will soon have the power to produce radically more of what people want, and at a lower cost. The result will shake the very foundations of our economy and environment. Already, scientists have constructed prototypes for circuit boards built of millions of precisely arranged atoms. The advent of this kind of atomic precision promises to change the way we make things--cleanly, inexpensively, and on a global scale. It allows us to imagine a world where solar arrays cost no more than cardboard and aluminum foil, and laptops cost about the same. A provocative tour of cutting edge science and its implications by the field's founder and master, Radical Abundance offers a mind-expanding vision of a world hurtling toward an unexpected future.

  19. An 'In the Wild' Experiment on Presence and Embodiment using Consumer Virtual Reality Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, Anthony; Frlston, Sebastian; López, María Murcia; Drummond, Jason; Pan, Ye; Swapp, David

    2016-04-01

    Consumer virtual reality systems are now becoming widely available. We report on a study on presence and embodiment within virtual reality that was conducted 'in the wild', in that data was collected from devices owned by consumers in uncontrolled settings, not in a traditional laboratory setting. Users of Samsung Gear VR and Google Cardboard devices were invited by web pages and email invitation to download and run an app that presented a scenario where the participant would sit in a bar watching a singer. Each participant saw one of eight variations of the scenario: with or without a self-avatar; singer inviting the participant to tap along or not; singer looking at the participant or not. Despite the uncontrolled situation of the experiment, results from an in-app questionnaire showed tentative evidence that a self-avatar had a positive effect on self-report of presence and embodiment, and that the singer inviting the participant to tap along had a negative effect on self-report of embodiment. We discuss the limitations of the study and the platforms, and the potential for future open virtual reality experiments.

  20. Investigating pyrolysis/incineration as a method of resource recovery from solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bobby J.; Lemay, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrolysis/incineration (P/I) is a physicochemical method for the generation of recoverable resources from solid waste materials such as inedible plant biomass (IPB), paper, plastics, cardboard, etc. P/I permits the collection of numerous gases with a minimal amount of solid residue. Pyrolysis, also known as starved air incineration, is usually conducted at relatively high temperatures (greater than 500 deg C) in the absence of oxygen. Incineration is conducted at lower temperatures in the presence of oxygen. The primary purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a model P/I. The system design includes safety requirements for temperature and pressure. The objectives of this study were: (1) to design and construct a P/I system for incorporation with the Hybrid Regenerative Water Recovery System; (2) to initiate testing of the P/I system; (3) to collect and analyze P/I system data; (4) to consider test variables; and (5) to determine the feasibility of P/I as an effective method of resource recovery. A P/I system for the recovery of reuseable resources from solid waste materials was designed, constructed, and tested. Since a large amount of inedible plant biomass (IPB) will be generated in a space-based habitat on the lunar surface and Mars, IPB was the primary waste material tested in the system. Analysis of the effluent gases was performed to determine which gases could be used in a life support system.

  1. Assessing recycling versus incineration of key materials in municipal waste: The importance of efficient energy recovery and transport distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Hanna; Larsen, Anna W; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Recycling of materials from municipal solid waste is commonly considered to be superior to any other waste treatment alternative. For the material fractions with a significant energy content this might not be the case if the treatment alternative is a waste-to-energy plant with high energy recovery rates. The environmental impacts from recycling and from incineration of six material fractions in household waste have been compared through life cycle assessment assuming high-performance technologies for material recycling as well as for waste incineration. The results showed that there are environmental benefits when recycling paper, glass, steel and aluminium instead of incinerating it. For cardboard and plastic the results were more unclear, depending on the level of energy recovery at the incineration plant, the system boundaries chosen and which impact category was in focus. Further, the environmental impact potentials from collection, pre-treatment and transport was compared to the environmental benefit from recycling and this showed that with the right means of transport, recyclables can in most cases be transported long distances. However, the results also showed that recycling of some of the material fractions can only contribute marginally in improving the overall waste management system taking into consideration their limited content in average Danish household waste.

  2. Freezing and thawing of processed meat in an industrial freezing tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio Antonio Marini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is a commonly used preservation method in the meat industry. The understanding of the product behavior during the freezing process can assist in a better process management and quality control. This work reports the study of freezing and thawing of three types of processed meat in order to determine process parameters in an industrial forced‑air freezing tunnel at ‑30oC. Chicken sausages (frankfurter type, mortadela (bologna type and mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM were studied. Products were placed in several layers in corrugated cardboard boxes (CCB for sausages and mortadela. MDCM was placed in a nylon box. Temperature sensors were inserted in the products and the freezing and thawing curves were obtained. Freezing curves were used to determine the freezing time (tf, initial freezing point (Tf and final freezing point (T’m. Products placed in different layers in the CCB had significantly different freezing times, being the higher rates for products placed in more external layers than internal ones. The external layers of product were subjected to heat transfer by convection showing its importance to decrease freezing time. The results strongly suggest that products placed in different layers could have distinct quality properties and also play a key role in the freezing process efficiency.

  3. Evaluation of Kinect 3D Sensor for Healthcare Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlmann, Stefanie T L; Harkness, Elaine F; Taylor, Christopher J; Astley, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Microsoft Kinect is a three-dimensional (3D) sensor originally designed for gaming that has received growing interest as a cost-effective and safe device for healthcare imaging. Recent applications of Kinect in health monitoring, screening, rehabilitation, assistance systems, and intervention support are reviewed here. The suitability of available technologies for healthcare imaging applications is assessed. The performance of Kinect I, based on structured light technology, is compared with that of the more recent Kinect II, which uses time-of-flight measurement, under conditions relevant to healthcare applications. The accuracy, precision, and resolution of 3D images generated with Kinect I and Kinect II are evaluated using flat cardboard models representing different skin colors (pale, medium, and dark) at distances ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 m and measurement angles of up to 75°. Both sensors demonstrated high accuracy (majority of measurements Kinect I is capable of imaging at shorter measurement distances, but Kinect II enables structures angled at over 60° to be evaluated. Kinect II showed significantly higher precision and Kinect I showed significantly higher resolution (both p Kinect is not a medical imaging device, both sensor generations show performance adequate for a range of healthcare imaging applications. Kinect I is more appropriate for short-range imaging and Kinect II is more appropriate for imaging highly curved surfaces such as the face or breast.

  4. Microfungal contamination of damp buildings--examples of risk constructions and risk materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, S; Nielsen, P A; Iversen, R; Nielsen, K F

    1999-06-01

    To elucidate problems with microfungal infestation in indoor environments, a multidisciplinary collaborative pilot study, supported by a grant from the Danish Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, was performed on 72 mold-infected building materials from 23 buildings. Water leakage through roofs, rising damp, and defective plumbing installations were the main reasons for water damage with subsequent infestation of molds. From a score system assessing the bioavailability of the building materials, products most vulnerable to mold attacks were water damaged, aged organic materials containing cellulose, such as wooden materials, jute, wallpaper, and cardboard. The microfungal genera most frequently encountered were Penicillium (68%), Aspergillus (56%), Chaetomium (22%), Ulocladium, (21%), Stachybotrys (19%) and Cladosporium (15%). Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Stachybotrys chartarum were the most frequently occurring species. Under field conditions, several trichothecenes were detected in each of three commonly used building materials, heavily contaminated with S. chartarum. Under experimental conditions, four out of five isolates of S. chartarum produced satratoxin H and G when growing on new and old, very humid gypsum boards. A. versicolor produced the carcinogenic mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and 5-methoxysterigmatocystin under the same conditions.

  5. Municipal solid waste management on the south coastline of the Caspian Sea (Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan Provinces of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan

    2007-12-01

    The Caspian region (including the Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan provinces of Iran) occupies 58,678 square kilometers (22,651 square miles) and has a population of 6,270,192, according to the census of 1996. This part of Iran is attractive to tourists because of its proximity to the Caspian Sea. In addition, the region boasts invaluable forests and grasslands, and is the exclusive producer in the country of key agricultural crops like rice and tea. The lack of systematic solid waste management has put this region on the edge of irreparable environmental damage. The large number and dispersion of open-dumping landfills, as well as the faded role of functional elements like waste minimization and processing, have sped up the environmental deterioration. This article evaluates the current status of solid waste management in the Caspian region and suggests practical alternatives. As a result of a field and desk study, the authors offer some instructions for separation of putrescibles, paper and cardboard, plastics, and so forth. Finally, after considering all aspects of the environmental impact assessments for different alternatives, the authors recommend the construction of two compost-producing facilities in Golestan province with a combined capacity of 500 metric tons per day and a total cost of $60,000, and four incineration sites in southern and southwestern parts of the region (Mazandaran and Guilan provinces) with a total capacity of 2,000 metric tons per day and total cost of $75 million.

  6. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinobe, J R; Gebresenbet, G; Niwagaba, C B; Vinnerås, B

    2015-08-01

    The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  7. Structural characterization of mineral with rutile inclusions (TiO2) and manganocolumbite (MnNb2O6) by means of X-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcila, J. F.; Hincapié, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    A sample of mineral obtained in the department of Vichada was characterized by the technique of X-ray diffraction in powder samples, in order to determine the crystallographic phases present. After analyzing diffraction patterns, as a result, the mineral had inclusions of Rutile (86.3%) and Manganocolumbita (13.7%). Next, a simulation of the crystal structure of these minerals from the data entered in the databases was carried on. Later, the Rietveld method was used, from this refinement, the new diffraction pattern and the new network parameters were obtained. For the Rutile it was obtained a tetragonal structure, and for the Manganocolumbita an orthorhombic structure was obtained. The characterization is justified among other aspects due to the important applications of these materials in industry and technology, such as Rutile is used in welding rod coatings, in Industries cardboard paper and ink impression among many other uses, the Manganocolumbita is used in special alloys resistant to high temperatures, it also is directly related to the tantalite in coltan formation.

  8. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste.

  9. Antioxidant effect of poleo and oregano essential oil on roasted sunflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Patricia R; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2013-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the stability of sensory and chemical parameters in roasted sunflower seeds supplemented with oregano and poleo essential oils; and the consumer acceptability of this product. Four samples were prepared: plain roasted sunflower seeds (Control = RS-C), and sunflower seeds added with oregano (RS-O) or poleo (RS-P) essential oils or BHT (RS-BHT). Consumer acceptance was determined on fresh samples. The overall acceptance averages were 6.13 for RS-C, 5.62 for RS-P, and 5.50 for RS-O (9-point hedonic scale). The addition of BHT showed greater protection against the oxidation process in the roasted sunflower seeds. Oregano essential oil exhibited a greater antioxidant effect during storage than poleo essential oil. Both essential oils (oregano and poleo) provided protection to the product, inhibiting the formation of undesirable flavors (oxidized and cardboard). The antioxidant activity that presents essential oils of oregano and poleo could be used to preserve roasted sunflower seeds.

  10. Adsorption of methylene blue on biochar microparticles derived from different waste materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonappan, Linson; Rouissi, Tarek; Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder K; Ramirez, Antonio Avalos; Verma, Mausam; Surampalli, Rao Y; Valero, José R

    2016-03-01

    Biochar microparticles were prepared from three different types of biochar, derived from waste materials, such as pine wood (BC-PW), pig manure (BC-PM) and cardboard (BC-PD) under various pyrolysis conditions. The microparticles were prepared by dry grinding and sequential sieving through various ASTM sieves. Particle size and specific surface area were analyzed using laser particle size analyzer. The particles were further characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption capacity of each class of adsorbent was determined by methylene blue adsorption tests in comparison with commercially available activated carbon. Experimental results showed that dye adsorption increased with initial concentration of the adsorbate and biochar dosage. Biochar microparticles prepared from different sources exhibited improvement in adsorption capacity (7.8±0.5 mg g(-1) to 25±1.3 mg g(-1)) in comparison with raw biochar and commercially available activated carbon. The adsorption capacity varied with source material and method of production of biochar. The maximum adsorption capacity was 25 mg g(-1) for BC-PM microparticles at 25°C for an adsorbate concentration of 500 mg L(-1) in comparison with 48.30±3.6 mg g(-1) for activated carbon. The equilibrium adsorption data were best described by Langmuir model for BC-PM and BC-PD and Freundlich model for BC-PW.

  11. Una combinación de un algoritmo voraz con algoritmos genéticos para optimizar la producción de cartón ondulado || A Combination of a Greedy Algorithm and Genetics Algorithms to Optimize the Production of Corrugated Board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornadijo Rodríguez, Tomás F.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone la utilización de un algoritmo genético para la optimización del corte continuo de planchas de cartón, un problema habitual en la industria cartonera, donde la minimización de mermas de materia prima y el cumplimiento de los plazos de fabricación son dos objetivos prioritarios de la planificación de la producción. Las soluciones aportadas por un algoritmo voraz se utilizan como semillas para el algoritmo genético. Se utiliza el operador de recombinación de cruce en un punto. || In this paper, we suggest a genetic algorithm for optimizing the continuous cutting of cardboard plates, a common problem in the corrugated industry,where minimizing wastage of raw materials and meeting production deadlines are two priority objectives of production planning.The solutions provided by a greedy algorithm are used as seeds for thegenetic algorithm. It uses the one-point crossover operator.

  12. First roman pot tested by TOTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    TOTEM, one of the smaller experiments of the LHC, successfully tested its first 'roman pot' detectors on 3 November. A total of eight will be installed in the LHC near the CMS cavern. Marco Oriunno, project engineer of TOTEM (right), with Jean-Michel Lacroix from TS/MME (Mechanical and Materials Engineering) (left), standing behind one of the roman pot detectors. There is a small tribe in the land of CERN. Among its artefacts you may find colourfully painted rocks, a totem made of cardboard boxes, and a few roman pots. Known by the name of TOTEM, or 'TOTal, Elastic and diffractive cross-section Measurement' (not a tribe motto), they are a relatively small collaborative group in comparison to the main LHC experiments, with approximately 50 'tribe members'. Unlike the four larger experiments that will analyse new particles produced as a result of the collisions, TOTEM will investigate the ones that almost missed each other. When two beams of protons travelling in opposite di...

  13. Optimizing the collection of used paper from small businesses through GIS techniques: the Leganés case (Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alvarez, J V; Aguilar Larrucea, M; Fernández-Carrión Quero, S; Jiménez del Valle, A

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with a methodology for the design of routes for the "bin to bin" (BTB) collection of paper and cardboard waste (PCB) from small businesses, as well as with the new location and calculation of the number of containers needed in the streets for both commercial and non-commercial use due to the large amount of PCB deposited in them. This study was carried out in five shopping areas of the city of Leganés (Community of Madrid, Spain). One of the characteristics of the area is a high density of population and urban traffic. The tool used is the Geographical Information System (GIS-Arc-View). With it we can generate PCB points of high population density in commercial streets based on territorial analysis. We placed the special routes and the new container locations within a distance of 60 m of these collection points (CPT). The system calculates and optimizes six routes according to different urban restrictions. Finally, we provided service to 59% of the shops, which generate almost 82% of the PCB waste, using 160 min per day to collect 1027 kg of high quality PCB. If we compare the system with the system in place previously, we can conclude that the "bin to bin" (BTB) system improves the quality of the PCB in the containers, avoiding overflow and reducing the percentage of rejected material.

  14. Search for a new economic optimum in the management of household waste in Tiaret city (western Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnoune, M; Abdelmalek, F; Djelloul, A; Mesghouni, K; Addou, A

    2016-11-01

    In household waste matters, the objective is always to conceive an optimal integrated system of management, where the terms 'optimal' and 'integrated' refer generally to a combination between the waste and the techniques of treatment, valorization and elimination, which often aim at the lowest possible cost. The management optimization of household waste using operational methodologies has not yet been applied in any Algerian district. We proposed an optimization of the valorization of household waste in Tiaret city in order to lower the total management cost. The methodology is modelled by non-linear mathematical equations using 28 variables of decision and aims to assign optimally the seven components of household waste (i.e. plastic, cardboard paper, glass, metals, textiles, organic matter and others) among four centres of treatment [i.e. waste to energy (WTE) or incineration, composting (CM), anaerobic digestion (ANB) or methanization and landfilling (LF)]. The analysis of the obtained results shows that the variation of total cost is mainly due to the assignment of waste among the treatment centres and that certain treatment cannot be applied to household waste in Tiaret city. On the other hand, certain techniques of valorization have been favoured by the optimization. In this work, four scenarios have been proposed to optimize the system cost, where the modelling shows that the mixed scenario (the three treatment centres CM, ANB, LF) suggests a better combination of technologies of waste treatment, with an optimal solution for the system (cost and profit).

  15. Analisis Pengaruh Penggunaan Game Edukasi pada Penguasaan Kosakata Bahasa Asing dengan Studi Kasus Game Edukasi Bahasa Arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shulhan Khairy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan game saat ini telah merambah ke ranah edukasi, ditambah dengan berkembangnya teknologi saat ini, maka hal tersebut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk kepentingan edukasi. Pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan analisis pengaruh game edukasi pada kemampuan dalam menguasai kosakata bahasa asing, dengan studi kasus bahasa Arab. Game edukasi tersebut menggunakan perangkat bergerak dan salah satunya menggunakan teknologi realitas virtual dengan kakas Google Cardboard. Game edukasi diujikan pada pengguna berusia 10-15 tahun dan dibagi menjadi dua kelompok, berdasarkan teknologi yang digunakan dan genre game. Pengguna melakukan pre-test dan post-test  untuk mengukur kemampuan mereka sebelum dan sesudah mengujikan game. Hasil pengujian tersebut dianalisis dengan metode uji hipotesis ANOVA. Dari kedua kelompok tersebut didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa perbedaan teknologi tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap kemampuan pengguna. Begitu pula pada kelompok kedua, didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa faktor jenis game, faktor jenis kelamin pengguna, dan hubungan kedua faktor tersebut tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan terhadap perubahan kemampuan pengguna dalam menguasai perbendaharaan kosakata bahasa Arab.

  16. 新型纸箱包装机PLC控制系统设计%Design of PLC Control System of New Type Carton Packaging Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵汉雨; 姬少龙; 刘存祥; 罗飞

    2011-01-01

    Based on the designed mechanical, pneumatic system,the paper selected CP1H-X40DT-D PLC to study control system of the carton packaging machine. The paper assigned I / 0 addresses value, designed PLC exterior circuit and program control flow chart thus realized the automatic control functions of the cardboard feeding and pre-packaging product conveying, carton packaging forming, glue spraying, packaging sealing and shaping. This control system has realized high reliability and cost-effective. [ Ch, 5 fig. 1 tab. 10 ref. ]%基于已设计的机械及气动系统,选择欧姆龙公司CP1H-X40DT-D PLC研制纸箱包装机控制系统.并进行了L/O点分配、PLC外部接线图及程序控制流程图设计,实现了纸板供送、待装箱产品输送、纸箱装箱成形、喷胶封箱整形等工作过程的自动控制.具有很高的可靠性和性价比.图5表1参10

  17. Demonstrating the Elliptical Orbit of Mars using Naked Eye Data

    CERN Document Server

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of eleven months we determined the position of Mars on 45 occasions using a handheld cross staff and two to five bright reference stars of known right ascension and declination on each occasion. On average the observed positions are within 12 arc minutes of the true positions. Given that we took data prior to the start of retrograde motion and well past the end of retrograde motion, we can easily derive the date of opposition to the Sun. We were able to derive the date of perihelion, the orbital eccentricity, and the semi-major axis size of Mars' orbit. We obtain a value of the eccentricity of 0.086 +/- 0.010, which is to be compared to the modern value of 0.0934. Values as low as 0.053 or as high as 0.123 can be rejected at a high confidence level. A simple dataset can be obtained with cardboard and a ruler that demonstrates the elliptical shape of Mars' orbit.

  18. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  19. Production and efficiency of organic compost generated by millipede activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Sousa Antunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The putrefactive activity of organisms such as diplopods in the edaphic macrof auna can be leveraged to promote the transformation of agricultural and urban waste into a low-cost substrate for the production of vegetable seedlings. This research aimed to evaluate: (1 the quantity of Gervais millipedes ( Trigoniulus corallinus needed to produce an acceptable quantity of organic compost; (2 the main physical and chemical characteristics of different compost types; and (3 compost efficiency in the production of lettuce seedlings. The first experiment lasted 90 days and was conducted using 6.5L of Gliricidia, 6.5L of Flemingia, 13.5L of grass cuttings, 4.5L of cardboard, 4.5L of coconut husk, and 4.5L of corncob. Treatments consisting of 0, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50, and 0.90L of millipedes were applied. This experiment compared millicompost and vermicompost, using four repetitions. After 23 days, the heights of grown lettuce plants and the weights of the fresh and dry mass of above ground lettuce and of the roots were assessed. A millipede volume of 0.1L proved to be sufficient for the production of an acceptable volume of organic compost. However, the addition of greater volumes leads to increased calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content. Millicompost has similar physicochemical characteristics those of vermicompost, and both are equally efficient as a substrate for the production of lettuce seedlings.

  20. Impact of Environmental Microbes on the Composition of the Gut Microbiota of Adult BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhimao; Zhang, Honglin; Li, Na; Bai, Zhiyu; Zhang, Liling; Xue, Zhencheng; Jiang, Haitao; Song, Yuan; Zhou, Dongrui

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of microbes within the living environment on the gut microbiota of adults, we raised three groups of BALB/c mice from 3-4 weeks age in the same specific-pathogen-free animal room for 8 weeks. The control group lived in cages with sterilized bedding (pelletized cardboard), the probiotics group had three probiotics added to the sterilized bedding, and the intestinal microbes (IM) group had the intestinal microbes of a healthy goat added to the bedding. All other variables such as diet, age, genetic background, physiological status, original gut microbiota, and living room were controlled. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we observed that the control and probiotics groups had similar diversity and richness of gut microbiota. The two groups had significantly lower diversity than the IM group. We also observed that the IM group had a specific structure of gut microbial community compared with the control and probiotics groups. However, the dominate bacteria changed slightly upon exposure to intestinal microbes, and the abundance of the non-dominate species changed significantly. In addition, exposure to intestinal microbes inhibited DNFB-induced elevation of serum IgE levels. Our results provide new evidence in support of the microflora and hygiene hypotheses.

  1. Market analysis: renewable fuels; Marktanalyse - Nachwachsende Rohstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This new publication of Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) e.V. presents an analysis of markets and potentials. The Meo Consulting Team of Cologne analyzed the importance of various products in Germany, as well as electric power, heat, and fuels. The ''Marktanalyse Nachwachsende Rohstoffe'' is available for free at FNR. It contains a detailed survey, with many figures and graphs. It is shown that oils, fats, sugar, starch and fibres of renewable materials have become established products in the market. Political boundary conditions have great importance, as is shown in the data for bioenergy, where dynamic growth is expected both for electric power from biogas and for biofuels. The study is in two parts. The first part analyzes electrical and thermal energy as well as biofuels. The second part goes into lubricants, chemical feedstocks, varnishes and lacquers, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There are also sections on paper, cardboard and carton, packaging products, fibre-reinforced materials and formed parts, textiles, construction materials, insulating materials and furniture. (orig.)

  2. Study of degradation processes of metals used in some artworks from the cultural heritage of Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran, A.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the alteration processes of metals, such as lead, bronze, iron and tin-mercury alloys, used in some of the most important chosen artefacts of Andalusian Cultural Heritage is the main objective of this paper. Hydrocerussite and cerussite were detected in lead seals stored in a hole of cardboard. Bronze is altered to atacamite by environmental contamination, which is also responsible for the formation of rust from iron. Corrosion of the tin-mercury surface of amalgam mirrors produces tin monoxide and tin dioxide and releases liquid mercury from the solid phase.

    El estudio de los procesos de alteración de metales como plomo, bronce, hierro y aleaciones de estaño-mercurio empleados en algunas de las más importantes ornamentaciones elegidas del patrimonio cultural de Andalucía es el principal objetivo de este trabajo. Hidrocerusita y cerusita se detectaron en sellos de plomo almacenados en compartimentos de cartón. El bronce se altera a atacamita debido a la contaminación ambiental, factor que es también responsable de la formación de compuestos polvorientos a partir del hierro. La corrosión de la amalgama de estaño-mercurio de espejos antiguos produce óxidos de estaño y restos de mercurio líquido procedentes de la fase sólida.

  3. Embodied terror management: interpersonal touch alleviates existential concerns among individuals with low self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Sander L; Tjew A Sin, Mandy; Schneider, Iris K

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with low (rather than high) self-esteem often struggle with existential concerns. In the present research, we examined whether these existential concerns may be alleviated by seemingly trivial experiences of both real and simulated interpersonal touch. A brief touch on the shoulder by a female experimenter led individuals with low self-esteem to experience less death anxiety (Study 1) and more social connectedness after a death reminder (Study 2). Reminding individuals with low self-esteem of death increased their desire for touch, as indicated by higher value estimates of a teddy bear, a toy animal that simulates interpersonal touch (Study 3). Finally, holding a teddy bear (vs. a cardboard box) led individuals with low self-esteem to respond to a death reminder with less defensive ethnocentrism (Study 4). Individuals with high self-esteem were unaffected by touch (Studies 1-4). These findings highlight the existential significance of embodied touch experiences, particularly for individuals with low self-esteem.

  4. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  5. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Lund Andersen

    Full Text Available Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47-0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose, volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2-2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90-99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion.

  6. Continuous Ethanol Fermentation of Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomasses, Waste Biomasses, Molasses and Syrup Using the Anaerobic, Thermophilic Bacterium Thermoanaerobacter italicus Pentocrobe 411.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Karen Møller; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2015-01-01

    Lignocellosic ethanol production is now at a stage where commercial or semi-commercial plants are coming online and, provided cost effective production can be achieved, lignocellulosic ethanol will become an important part of the world bio economy. However, challenges are still to be overcome throughout the process and particularly for the fermentation of the complex sugar mixtures resulting from the hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Here we describe the continuous fermentation of glucose, xylose and arabinose from non-detoxified pretreated wheat straw, birch, corn cob, sugar cane bagasse, cardboard, mixed bio waste, oil palm empty fruit bunch and frond, sugar cane syrup and sugar cane molasses using the anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter Pentocrobe 411. All fermentations resulted in close to maximum theoretical ethanol yields of 0.47-0.49 g/g (based on glucose, xylose, and arabinose), volumetric ethanol productivities of 1.2-2.7 g/L/h and a total sugar conversion of 90-99% including glucose, xylose and arabinose. The results solidify the potential of Thermoanaerobacter strains as candidates for lignocellulose bioconversion.

  7. Safety evaluation of the leaching of metals from the printed graphic product wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savka Adamović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the technological development of the graphic production, the environment is being faced with a large amount of printed graphic product wastes, especially packaging materials (paper, cardboard, paper and plastic bags, films, etc, but it is also being faced with the problem of their disposal. Many printing inks and coatings used in the production of the printed graphic product contain metals which, after the disposal of graphic waste, can migrate to different systems and have a negative influence on the environment. Because of that, the concentration levels of metals (zinc, copper, chromium, cadmium, lead, and nickel in the printed graphic product wastes have firstly been determined, and then the impact of those metals, through their migration from the printed graphic product wastes to the simulated environmental mediums with different pH values (acidic and neutral, has been estimated. Based on the experimentally obtained concentrations of metals that have migrated from the printed graphic product wastes to the neutral solution and based on the theoretical distribution coefficient, the concentration of metals in the soil of illegal and municipal landfills, which represents the contribution to the overall metal concentration in the soil due to the migration from the waste printed graphic materials, has been calculated. Also, a comparison between the experimentally obtained metal concentrations and the literature values has been conducted, and an evaluation of their influence on the quality of soil has been given.

  8. Regional aspects of the electric power rationing; Aspectos regionais do racionamento de eletricidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, Andre Garcez [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Economicas]. E-mail: ghirardi@ufba.br

    2002-07-01

    The June 2001 electric power rationing have been successful in preventing a major collapse in the energy supply. However, the supply crisis is not out of question for the year 2002. Some urgent decisions must be taken for the guarantee the long term system expansion. This work calls the attention for the disparity revealed by the regional behaviour during the rationing period, emphasizing the relative difficulty exhibited by the Northeast area in reducing the consumption. The work examines some structure characteristics responsible by the capacity of power consumption reduction. In the residential sector, the income is considered as a factor determinant of the consumers behaviour. In the industrial sector, the great difficulty can be charged to the nature of the northeast production, mainly in the state of Bahia where large energy consumption goods are produced, particularly petrochemicals, basic metallurgy, paper and cardboard. Considerations are presented on the limitations for the electric power generation expansion in the region imposed by a non existence of a natural resources abundant basis.

  9. The valorization of packings in France; La valorisation des emballages en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    With the reinforcement of environmental policies, programs for the prevention and the valorization of packing wastes were developed in France and Europe. The 94/62/CE European directive relative to packings and packing wastes was established in order to incite the member states to valorize their packing wastes and to harmonize the initiatives within the European Communities. This documents presents the French solution retained to optimize the management of packing wastes according to the existing facilities and know-how. The French regulation makes a distinction between the domestic and industrial wastes: the producer, importer or distributor of domestic packings must contribute to their elimination, while the industrialists are responsible for the valorization of their packing wastes. After a presentation of the 1997 key results of the production, recycling and valorization of domestic and industrial packing wastes in France, the different processing files are analyzed: accounting of wastes according to the materials, particular case of composite packings, calculation of recycling and valorization ratios, the case of metal, paper-cardboard, plastic, glass, and wood packings. A list of the main information sources used in this inquiry is given. (J.S.)

  10. Multi-Variety Code-Switching in Conversation 903 of the Køge Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Normann Jørgensen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article documents some of the ways in which the languages, or varieties, are taken into possession by the young speakers and made their own. It is illustrated how they play with language, in particular switches between codes, both as contributions to social negotiations and as pure performance. The material comes from a group conversation between four male bilingual students in the last grade of the Danish public school system. The young people have Turkish as their mother tongue, and Danish is their L2. By grade 9, they have had several years of experience with English, and almost all of the students have had two years of German. The conversation is a part of the Køge material (see Turan 1999. The four boys were asked to create a collage or a picture series with free post cards and glue them on a large piece of cardboard. The theme of the collage was to be “My worst nightmare”. The conversation lasts about half an hour, and all four boys participate actively in the conversation. The conversation has been transcribed according to the CHILDES conventions (MacWhinney 1995, but have been simplified slightly for the excerpts given in the article. In the excerpts, Turkish is italicized. The lines beginning with %eng give translations into English. Lines beginning with %com give background information or comments to the transcript.

  11. Combination of enzymatic, mechanical and ultrasonic treatments for improvement of the properties of secondary pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the property recovery capability of handsheets formed from secondary fibers by combining different techniques. To attain that, pulps derived from post-consumer cardboard scrap were subjected to various refining intensities respectively in a PFI mill (0, 400, 800 and 1200revolutions and ultrasound (0, 10, 20 and 30minutes, followed by enzymatic treatments with enzymes Cellulase, Hemicellulase, Mixture 1 and Mixture 2 (both mixtures composed of cellulase and hemicellulase. The papermaking potential of the pulps was evaluated by means of physical and mechanical tests on the resulting paper after the relevant treatments. It was found that both the combination of PFI mill refining with enzymatic treatments and the combination of ultrasound with enzymatic treatments were effective in improving paper properties. It was also found that interfiber bonding properties such as tensile index and ring crush strength had greater increases, in relation to the initial pulp, in pulps derived from the combined PFI mill refining with enzymatic treatments. As for intrinsic fiber strength properties, such as tear resistance, had greater increases in pulps derived from the combined ultrasound with enzymatic treatments.

  12. PREFACE: 17th International Conference on Microscopy of Semiconducting Materials 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, T.; Midgley, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    where necessary. In the end, 61 manuscripts were accepted for publication. The Editors are very grateful to the following colleagues for their rapid and careful reviewing of manuscripts: M Albrecht, J S Barnard, R Beanland, G A Botton, D Cooper, L Clement, A J Craven, A G Cullis, N Daneu, V Grillo, E Grünbaum, A Gustafsson, P-H Jouneau, O L Krivanek, D Larson, M Luysberg, S I Molina, F A Ponce, A Rosenauer, F M Ross, I M Ross, J-L Rouviere, and Z L Wang. Prizes for student presentations at the conference were awarded to Mr Alberto Eljarrat, Universitat de Barcelona, and Mr Thibaud Denneulin, CEA-LETI Grenoble, both of whom are presenting their results also as contributions to this proceedings volume. Entertainment during the conference dinner was provided by the college's string quartet, and after the meal we held the now traditional friendly competition between teams of microscopists; this year teams were asked to construct models of scientific instruments using only cardboard, paper, sticky tape and glue. By unanimous vote, the team who presented the 'Atomic Food Microscope (AFM)' prototype won first prize - the deft 'dipping mode' of the cardboard cantilever (see photo) was a highlight! Figure 2 Figure 2. The prize winning 'Atomic Food Microscope (AFM)' in action! The organisers are very grateful to the following companies who contributed to the success of the meeting by presenting trade stands during an exhibition on the evening of 5 April: Agar Scientific, Bruker, CamScan, FEI, Gatan, Hitachi High Technologies, HREM Research, IOP Publishing, JEOL, Leica Microsystems and MICOS. Finally, we would like to thank the staff of the Institute of Physics for their expert assistance in planning and organising this conference and in particular Claire Garland for her dedicated professional support and her always joyful approach to any issues that arose. October 2011 T Walther P A Midgley

  13. Qualidade pós-colheita de banana Prata Anã armazenada sob diferentes condições Quality evaluation of post harvest banana 'Prata Anã'associated to packing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Viviani

    2007-01-01

    C and maintenance of the products at natural environment with no temperature control. The fruits of banana during the experiments were packed in three different packing ( wood box type "torito" with capacity for 18kg and cardboard wrapper, wood box type "½ caixa", with capacity for 13kg and cardboard box with capacity for 18kg. Physical or mechanical damages were, also, evaluated during the transport of the fruits from the packing house to the distribution center, and after acclimatization. Keeping the fruits at refrigerated environment increased the life storage in five days. The packing used did not promote difference in the conservation of the fruits, neither in the indicatives attributes of maturation and also in the increase of physical damages.

  14. 快干耐水型氧化改性淀粉胶黏剂的研制%Study on Quick Dry Water Resistant Type Oxidation Modification Starch Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彭; 王小华

    2012-01-01

    针对目前企业纸板生产线用淀粉胶黏剂在雨季潮湿气候普遍存在的纸板偏软、干燥速度慢、黏合不良现象增多等问题,以木薯淀粉为原料、过硫酸氢钾为氧化剂,并添加复合填料和三聚氰胺甲醛树脂,采用冷制法制备了一种快干耐水型的氧化改性淀粉胶黏剂。通过改性试验,得出在淀粉中添加相当于其质量的0.3%的过硫酸氢钾,5%的复合填料,4%的三聚氰胺甲醛树脂时,所制得的淀粉胶黏剂的性能较好。研究发现:选用过硫酸氢钾为氧化剂,不仅能弥补常用氧化剂的不足之处,而且能缩短胶黏剂的生产周期;通过复合填料和三聚氰胺甲醛树脂的改性,不仅能提高瓦楞纸板的黏合强度和边压强度,改善淀粉胶黏剂的干燥速度和胶黏抗水性,而且能降低胶黏剂的生产成本。%There existing some problems in corrugated cardboard producing enterprises, such as the softening, slow drying and poor cohesion in rainy season and humid climate. Cassava starch was prepared as the raw material, while potassium monopersulfate was used as oxidant, with composite fillers and melamine formaldehyde resin added into it. A quick-drying, water resistant oxidized starch adhesive was prepared via cold method. Through the modification test, when the added material in starch is equivalent to the quality of 0.3% of potassium monopersulfate, 5% of the composite fillers, 4% of melamine formaldehyde resin, the performance of the starch adhesive proved better. And the result showed that with the potassium monopersulfate as oxidiant, it could not only make up for the normal oxidant deficiencies, but also shorten the adhesive production cycle. After the modification of composite fillers and melamine formaldehyde resin, the bonding strength, edgewise crush resistance, drying rate of starch adhesive and adhesive water resistance of the corrugated cardboard were improved, with the production cost of adhesive reduced as

  15. Tipos e intensidade de danos mecânicos em bananas 'prata-anã' ao longo da cadeia de comercialização Types and intensity of mechanical damages on 'prata anã' bananas along the commercialization chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Martins Maia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, a maior parte da produção brasileira de banana é destinada ao mercado interno e, geralmente, é colhida, manuseada e transportada de forma deficiente e inadequada, contribuindo para perdas substanciais na fase pós-colheita. Objetivou-se identificar os tipos e a intensidade de danos mecânicos após a colheita da banana 'Prata-Anã', produzida no Município de Verdelândia (MG e embalada em caixas de papelão, madeira e plástico. Foram amostradas quatro caixas de banana 'Prata-Anã' em cada etapa da cadeia de comercialização, a saber: antes da colheita, após a primeira lavagem e pré-seleção (1ª piscina da casa de embalagem, após embalagem, após transporte e após distribuição ao mercado varejista em Montes Claros (MG, onde os frutos permaneceram em exposição para vendas por 8 horas. A porcentagem de frutos, área da casca e porcentagem da área da casca danificados aumentou ao longo da cadeia de comercialização. O uso da caixa de papelão proporcionou redução na incidência e intensidade de dano mecânico em relação aos demais tipos de embalagem. Houve alta incidência do dano por abrasão em todas as etapas da cadeia de comercialização. O dano por compressão apresentou grande importância relativa no varejo.Currently, most of the Brazilian production of banana is destined for domestic market and, generally, it is harvested, handled and carried in a deficient and inadequate form, contributing to substantial post harvest losses. This work had the objective of identifying the types and the intensity of mechanical damages after the harvest of 'Prata Anã' banana grown in Verdelândia, MG and put in cardboard, wood and plastic boxes. So, four boxes of banana were evaluated in each stage of the commercialization chain: before harvest, after the first washing and pre-selection (1st swimming pool of the packing house, after packing, after transport and distribution to the retail market in Montes Claros, MG, where

  16. 典型城市固体废物热解及热解油的GC-MS分析%GC-MS analysis of pyrolysis and pyrolysis oil from typical municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余露露; 仲兆平; 丁宽; 刘志超

    2012-01-01

    针对城市固体废弃物(MSW)高效能源化及产物高值化利用的发展需求,利用管式炉实验及色质联用(GC-MS)分析仪对典型MSW进行热解特性研究,探索了热解产物产率和组分特性的变化规律.实验结果表明:热解温度对热解过程有较大的影响,废纸板、废轮胎和PVC的产油率分别在热解温度为550,650和700℃时达到最大值31.27%,22.9%和19.73%;催化剂HY的加入对废纸板热解油品质的提高效果不佳,但对废轮胎和PVC热解油品质的提高效果较好.与单组分热解油相比,混合热解油更复杂,酸类、酚类等化合物的质量分数减少,酯类、杂环类等化合物的质量分数增加,使混合热解油稳定性增强、腐蚀性减弱,品质得到明显提升,为其在化工和能源方面的综合利用提供了基础.%According to the development requirement of high-efficient energy and high-value utilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) , a tubular furnace reactor and the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) are used to research the pyrolysis characteristics of the typical MSW. The yields, compositional properties of the pyrolysis products are investigated. The experimental results show that the pyrolysis temperature significantly influences the pyrolysis process. When the pyrolysis temperatures are 550, 650 and 700 ℃, the maximized oil yields of the cardboard, waste tyre and PVC are about 31. 27% ,22. 9% and 19. 73% , respectively. The catalytic effect of the catalyst HY on the quality improvement of cardboard pyrolysis oil is not obvious, while it is effective for the quality of rubber and PVC pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oils from the mixed MSW are more complex than those from the single MSW. In the former, the mass percentage of the acids and phenols are reduced ; the mass percentage of the ester and heterocyclic are increased; the oil stability is improved and corrosivity is weakened. The quality of the mixed MSW is obviously

  17. A preliminary discourse on adhesion of nanofibers derived from electrospun polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei

    To bio-mimic gecko's foot hair, which possess high adhesion strength and can be re- usable for lifetime, fibrous membranes are fabricated by electrospinning to provide sufficient adhesion energy. Shaft-loaded blister test (SLBT) is firstly used to measure the work of adhesion between electrospun membrane and rigid substrate. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were electrospun with an average fiber diameter of 333+/-59 nm. Commercial cardboard with inorganic coating was used to provide a model substrate for adhesion tests. In SLBT, the elastic response PVDF was analyzed and its adhesion energy measured. FEA model with cohesive layer is developed to evaluate the experiment results. The results show SLBT presented a viable methodology for evaluating the adhesion energy of electrospun polymer fabrics. Electrospun membranes with different fiber diameter are tested for their distinctive adhesion property. Five sets of PVDF membranes with different fiber diameters (from 201 +/- 86 nm to 2724 +/- 587 nm) are electrospun for size effect evaluation. Obtaining testing results from SLBT adhesion test, adhesion energy ranges from 258.83 +/- 43.54 mJ/m2 to 8.06 +/- 0.71 mJ/m2. Significant size effect is observed, and electrospun membrane composing from finer fibers possesses greater adhesion energy. Thickness effect is also evaluated. By stacking multiple layers of electrospun membrane together, membrane samples with different thickness are produced. Test results illustrate thick membrane trends to debond easier than thin membrane. After considering the characteristic of electrospun membrane, the effect of substrate is also evaluated. One approach is made by substituting SiC substrates with different roughness for cardboard substrate. The grit size of the SiC substrates varies from 5 mum to 68 mum. A correlation between adhesion energy and mean peak and valley roughness (Rz) is established from mechanical interlocking theory. The other approach is comparing adhesion energies if

  18. Life Cycle Assessment and Optimization-Based Decision Analysis of Construction Waste Recycling for a LEED-Certified University Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kucukvar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current waste management literature lacks a comprehensive LCA of the recycling of construction materials that considers both process and supply chain-related impacts as a whole. Furthermore, an optimization-based decision support framework has not been also addressed in any work, which provides a quantifiable understanding about the potential savings and implications associated with recycling of construction materials from a life cycle perspective. The aim of this research is to present a multi-criteria optimization model, which is developed to propose economically-sound and environmentally-benign construction waste management strategies for a LEED-certified university building. First, an economic input-output-based hybrid life cycle assessment model is built to quantify the total environmental impacts of various waste management options: recycling, conventional landfilling and incineration. After quantifying the net environmental pressures associated with these waste treatment alternatives, a compromise programming model is utilized to determine the optimal recycling strategy considering environmental and economic impacts, simultaneously. The analysis results show that recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals significantly contributed to reductions in the total carbon footprint of waste management. On the other hand, recycling of asphalt and concrete increased the overall carbon footprint due to high fuel consumption and emissions during the crushing process. Based on the multi-criteria optimization results, 100% recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, cardboard, plastic and glass is suggested to maximize the environmental and economic savings, simultaneously. We believe that the results of this research will facilitate better decision making in treating construction and debris waste for LEED-certified green buildings by combining the results of environmental LCA with multi-objective optimization modeling.

  19. 论儿童绘本的材质与形态%On Material and Shape of Children's Picture Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏平; 马欢; 姚俊

    2013-01-01

    从视觉传达设计的角度对儿童绘本书籍的装帧材质和设计形态进行了分析探讨。采用实证研究的方法,以国内外数部经典绘本为例,提出了儿童绘本依据制作材质的不同,可以分为纸书、布书、木板书、塑料书、胶片书、触摸发声书和玩具书等,其中纸书根据造型、设计和制作工艺的不同又可以分为纸板书、折叠书、挖孔书、翻翻书和立体书等,并给予了研究,以期为绘本的创意表现提供更多的设计思路。%This article analyzes the binding material and design patterns of children's picture books from the visual communication design perspective. Based on empirical study of classical picture books it proposes that children's picture books can be divided into paper books, cloth books, board books, plastic books, iflm books, touch sound books and toy books according to the differences of production materials. The paper books can be divided into cardboard books, folding books, digging holes books, lfip books and pop-up books according to the modeling, design and production process. Through analysis on the books, it aims to provide more ideas for the creative expression on picture books.

  20. Chemical and Sensory Quality Preservation in Coated Almonds with the Addition of Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrauri, Mariana; Demaría, María Gimena; Ryan, Liliana C; Asensio, Claudia M; Grosso, Nelson R; Nepote, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Almonds provide many benefits such as preventing heart disease due to their high content of oleic fatty acid-rich oil and other important nutrients. However, they are susceptible to oxidation reactions causing rancidity during storage. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality preservation of almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose and with the addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants during storage. Four samples were prepared: almonds without coating (C), almonds coated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), almonds coated with CMC supplemented with peanut skins extract (E), and almonds coated with CMC and supplemented with butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate composition and fatty acid profile were determined on raw almonds. Almond samples (C, CMC, E and BHT) were stored at 40 °C for 126 d. Lipid oxidation indicators: peroxide value (PV), conjugated dienes (CD), volatile compounds (hexanal and nonanal), and sensory attributes were determined for the stored samples. Samples showed small but significant increases in PV, CD, hexanal and nonanal contents, and intensity ratings of negative sensory attributes (oxidized and cardboard). C had the highest tendency to deterioration during storage. At the end of storage (126 d), C had the highest PV (3.90 meqO2 /kg), and BHT had the lowest PV (2.00 meqO2 /kg). CMC and E samples had similar intermediate PV values (2.69 and 2.57 meqO2 /kg, respectively). CMC coating and the addition of natural (peanut skin extract) and synthetic (BHT) antioxidants provide protection to the roasted almond product.

  1. Humber-in-a-Box : Gamification to Communicate Coastal Flood Risk in the Face of Rising Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. J.; van Rij, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Humber-in-a-Box is an immersive visualisation of the Humber Estuary (on the east coast of the UK), designed to communicate coastal flood risk in the face of rising seas. It is designed for use in a busy festival-like setting. The user views the environment via an Oculus Rift Virtual Reality (VR) headset and is able to explore using an XBOX controller. A live simulation of tidal flows on a modelled version of the estuary can be viewed on a box in the centre of a virtual room. Using the controller, the user is able to raise sea levels and see what happens as the tide levels adjust. Humber-in-a-Box uses a numerical model built with data used for published research. The hydraulic component of the CAESAR-Lisflood model code was incorporated into the UNITY-3D gaming engine, and the model uses recorded tidal stage data, bathymetry and elevations to build the virtual environment and drive the simulation. Present day flood defences are incorporated into the model, and in conjunction with modelling tidal flows, this provides a better representation of future flood risk than simpler linear models. The user is able to raise and lower sea levels between -10 m and 100 m, in 1m increments, and can reset the simulation to present day levels with one button click. Humber-in-a-Box has been showcased at several outreach events and has proven to be very popular and effective in an environment where time with each user is pressured, and information needs to exchange quickly. It has also been used in teaching at Undergraduate level, although the full potential of this is yet to be explored. A non-interactive version of the application is available on YouTube which is designed for use with Google Cardboard and similar kit.

  2. Cells on foam and fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clyde, R. [Clyde Engineering, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Cells growing on high area foam and when a screen is put around the foam, it is made heavier so it can be fluidized. When foam is rotated in a half full RBC, drops are formed and mass transfer of oxygen to drops in much faster. Most fungi and some mammalian cells need oxygen. Corrugated fibers with holes in the valleys also produce drops. White rot fungus needs oxygen and it degrades many chlorine compounds, azo dyes, and TNT. Old cardboard boxes are readily available and when buried in soil, oxygen is entrapped. In a lake, the boxes expose high area. Fibers have high surface area for immobilizing cells and when the fibers are rotated, fast reactions occur, converting one chemical to another. Sugar has been fermented to alcohol in 10-15 minutes. Ethanol has high octane and does not need lead. Old cars and trucks still use lead and high levels have been found in the drinking water of several large cities. Bacteria on fibers can remove lead in a few seconds. When an RBC of plain fiber discs is rotated and a light shone in the top the light hits a thin moving film to degrade chlorine compounds. Microbes and light remove sulfur from oil. Calcium magnesium acetate is a non corrosive road deicer. Salt on roads causes millions of dollars damage to bridges and cars. An inexpensive reactor has been made for organization studies of mammalian and plant cells. A magnet is near the bottom but not touching and oxygen is put on the top where there is no seal that can leak.

  3. Relating sensory and chemical properties of sour cream to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L; Miracle, R E; Leksrisompong, P; Drake, M A

    2013-09-01

    Sour cream is a widely popular acidified dairy product. Volatile compounds and organic acids and their specific contributions to flavor or acceptance have not been established, nor has a comprehensive study been conducted to characterize drivers of liking for sour cream. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical and sensory properties of sour cream and to determine the drivers of liking for sour cream. Descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses followed by consumer testing were conducted. Flavor and texture attributes of 32 (22 full-fat, 6 reduced-fat, and 4 fat-free) commercial sour creams were evaluated by a trained descriptive sensory panel. Percent solids, percent fat, pH, titratable acidity, and colorimetric measurements were conducted to characterize physical properties of sour creams. Organic acids were evaluated by HPLC and volatile aroma active compounds were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with gas chromatography-olfactometry. Consumer acceptance testing (n=201) was conducted on selected sour creams, followed by external preference mapping. Full-fat sour creams were characterized by the lack of surface gloss and chalky textural attributes, whereas reduced-fat and fat-free samples displayed high intensities of these attributes. Full-fat sour creams were higher in cooked/milky and milk fat flavors than the reduced-fat and fat-free samples. Reduced-fat and fat-free sour creams were characterized by cardboard, acetaldehyde/green, and potato flavors, bitter taste, and astringency. Lactic acid was the prominent organic acid in all sour creams, followed by acetic and citric acids. High aroma-impact volatile compounds in sour creams were 2,3-butanedione, acetic acid, butyric acid, octanal, 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 1-octene-3-one, and acetaldehyde. Positive drivers of liking for sour cream were milk fat, cooked/milky and sweet aromatic flavors, opacity, color intensity, and adhesiveness. This comprehensive study established

  4. A miniature research vessel: A small-scale ocean-exploration demonstration of geophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Boston, B.; Sleeper, J. D.; Cameron, M. E.; Togia, H.; Anderson, A.; Sigurdardottir, T. D.; Tree, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Graduate student members of the University of Hawaii Geophysical Society have designed a small-scale model research vessel (R/V) that uses sonar to create 3D maps of a model seafloor in real-time. A pilot project was presented to the public at the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology's (SOEST) Biennial Open House weekend in 2013 and, with financial support from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists and National Science Foundation, was developed into a full exhibit for the same event in 2015. Nearly 8,000 people attended the two-day event, including children and teachers from Hawaii's schools, home school students, community groups, families, and science enthusiasts. Our exhibit demonstrates real-time sonar mapping of a cardboard volcano using a toy size research vessel on a programmable 2-dimensional model ship track suspended above a model seafloor. Ship waypoints were wirelessly sent from a Windows Surface tablet to a large-touchscreen PC that controlled the exhibit. Sound wave travel times were recorded using an ultrasonic emitter/receiver attached to an Arduino microcontroller platform and streamed through a USB connection to the control PC running MatLab, where a 3D model was updated as the ship collected data. Our exhibit demonstrates the practical use of complicated concepts, like wave physics, survey design, and data processing in a way that the youngest elementary students are able to understand. It provides an accessible avenue to learn about sonar mapping, and could easily be adapted to talk about bat and marine mammal echolocation by replacing the model ship and volcano. The exhibit received an overwhelmingly positive response from attendees and incited discussions that covered a broad range of earth science topics.

  5. Enabling Field Experiences in Introductory Geoscience Classes through the Use of Immersive Virtual Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysey, S. M.; Smith, E.; Sellers, V.; Wyant, P.; Boyer, D. M.; Mobley, C.; Brame, S.

    2015-12-01

    Although field experiences are an important aspect of geoscience education, the opportunity to provide physical world experiences to large groups of introductory students is often limited by access, logistical, and financial constraints. Our project (NSF IUSE 1504619) is investigating the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) technologies as a surrogate for real field experiences in introductory geosciences classes. We are developing a toolbox that leverages innovations in the field of VR, including the Oculus Rift and Google Cardboard, to enable every student in an introductory geology classroom the opportunity to have a first-person virtual field experience in the Grand Canyon. We have opted to structure our VR experience as an interactive game where students must explore the Canyon to accomplish a series of tasks designed to emphasize key aspects of geoscience learning. So far we have produced two demo products for the virtual field trip. The first is a standalone "Rock Box" app developed for the iPhone, which allows students to select different rock samples, examine them in 3D, and obtain basic information about the properties of each sample. The app can act as a supplement to the traditional rock box used in physical geology labs. The second product is a fully functioning VR environment for the Grand Canyon developed using satellite-based topographic and imagery data to retain real geologic features within the experience. Players can freely navigate to explore anywhere they desire within the Canyon, but are guided to points of interest where they are able to complete exercises that will be aligned with specific learning goals. To this point we have integrated elements of the "Rock Box" app within the VR environment, allowing players to examine 3D details of rock samples they encounter within the Grand Canyon. We plan to provide demos of both products and obtain user feedback during our presentation.

  6. Reflexiones sobre algunos materiales de construcción y la industrialización de la edificación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, Georges

    1977-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the advantages are analyzed of replacing some traditional materials by other mass prefabricated modern ones, in order to achieve greater industrialization in building construction. The advantages are stressed of using: artificial plaster, due to its good fireresistant properties; glassfiber, which combines its light weight to its noninflammability; plastics (polystyrene, polyurethane, etc., widely applied as thermal insulants; reinforced cardboard, which answers the problem of earthquake resisting construction most efficiently; new ceramic products with almost all the foregoing properties; etc. Finally, we are made to see that the use of these materials should not be to the detriment of the esthetics of buildings.En este artículo se analizan las ventajas que tiene la sustitución de algunos materiales tradicionales por otros modernos prefabricados en serie, a fin de conseguir una mayor industrialización en la construcción de edificaciones. Se destacan las ventajas de la utilización de: yeso artificial, por sus buenas propiedades ignífugas; lana de vidrio, que une a su ligereza de peso su ininflamabilidad; los plásticos (poliestireno, poliuretano, etc., de gran aplicación como aislantes térmicos; cartón reforzado, que responde al problema de la construcción antisísmica con verdadera eficacia; los nuevos productos cerámicos, con casi todas las propiedades anteriores; etc. Por último, se hace ver que el empleo de estos materiales no debe ir en detrimento de la estética de los edificios.

  7. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Global warming potential of material fractions occurring in source-separated organic household waste treated by anaerobic digestion or incineration under different framework conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the environmental profiles of anaerobic digestion (AD) and incineration, in relation to global warming potential (GWP), for treating individual material fractions that may occur in source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). Different framework conditions representative for the European Union member countries were considered. For AD, biogas utilisation with a biogas engine was considered and two potential situations investigated - biogas combustion with (1) combined heat and power production (CHP) and (2) electricity production only. For incineration, four technology options currently available in Europe were covered: (1) an average incinerator with CHP production, (2) an average incinerator with mainly electricity production, (3) an average incinerator with mainly heat production and (4) a state-of-the art incinerator with CHP working at high energy recovery efficiencies. The study was performed using a life cycle assessment in its consequential approach. Furthermore, the role of waste-sorting guidelines (defined by the material fractions allowed for SSOHW) in relation to GWP of treating overall SSOHW with AD was investigated. A case-study of treating 1tonne of SSOHW under framework conditions in Denmark was conducted. Under the given assumptions, vegetable food waste was the only material fraction which was always better for AD compared to incineration. For animal food waste, kitchen tissue, vegetation waste and dirty paper, AD utilisation was better unless it was compared to a highly efficient incinerator. Material fractions such as moulded fibres and dirty cardboard were attractive for AD, albeit only when AD with CHP and incineration with mainly heat production were compared. Animal straw, in contrast, was always better to incinerate. Considering the total amounts of individual material fractions in waste generated within households in Denmark, food waste (both animal and vegetable derived) and kitchen tissue are the main material

  9. Biologia da nidificação de Megachile (Moureapis benigna Mitchell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. This paper describes the biology, ecology and nest architecture of Megachile (Moureapis benigna Mitchell in trap nests (NA. The NA were installed in five forest fragments of 2.1 to 920ha, and two disturbed areas (pasture and plantation. We used bamboo canes (NB and black cardboard tubes placed on wooden boards (NC to attract nesting females. Bees occupied 17 NA (12 NB - 9 to 21mm in diameter - and 5 NC - 8 to 10mm in four forest fragments forming 26 nests (one to six nests per NB. No nest was founded in disturbed areas. There was no difference between NB and NC related to the size of formed nests (t= 0.31, p= 0.763, df= 25. The number of cells ranged from 1 to 13 per nest, being larger in NB than in NC (t= 2.26, p= 0.033, df= 25. The construction activity occurred during the rainy season (October to March, with no correlation to climate parameters. Emergence (1 to 12 per nest was correlated with humidity (t= 3.013, p= 0.006. Time to adult emergence varied from 1 to 141 days. The sex ratio was 1.8:1 male/female, differing from 1:1 (Χ2= 9.39, p<0.002. The parasites were Coelioxys otomita Cresson and two other species of Coelioxys. The species demonstrates plasticity in nesting substrate, and preference for cavities with diameters larger than 9mm. There is a possible dependence of the species to forest environments, since the higher occurrence of nesting was in forest areas in advanced stages of regeneration.

  10. Evaluation of a barrier to inhibit lesser mealworm (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and dermestidae movement in high-rise, caged-layer poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Phillip E; Reasor, Colleen; Murray, Kathleen D; Waldron, J Keith; Rutz, Donald A

    2005-10-01

    An evaluation of a mechanical barrier to prevent movement of adult and larval lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer); larder beetle, Dermestes lardarius L.; and hide beetle, Dermestes maculatus De Geer was conducted in caged-layer poultry facilities in New York and Maine. The barrier, a plastic collar wrapped around building support posts, proved highly effective at preventing movement of adult lesser mealworms. Significantly more lesser mealworm larvae were recovered from cardboard collar beetle traps placed below both washed and unwashed barriers than from traps placed above washed and unwashed barriers. Similarly, significantly more adult Dermestes were recovered from traps placed below washed barriers than from above both washed and unwashed barriers. The level of fly specking on the barrier was found to have no significant impact on the numbers of adult lesser mealworms and adult and larval Dermestes recovered either above or below barriers. Fly specking level did significantly impact the numbers of lesser mealworm larvae recovered above the barrier. Although washed barriers provided the greatest deterrent to adult lesser mealworms, the presence of the barrier, regardless of the level of fly specking, provided a significant deterrent to beetle climbing success. Washed barriers further reduced climbing success by lesser mealworm larvae by 17%, Dermestes adults by 7-28%, and Dermestes larvae by 33-38%. The high level of climbing observed by adult lesser mealworms suggests that the impact of adult beetle movement toward birds should be considered in its importance in building damage, disease transmission, feed infestation, and bird productivity and health. Observations on cost and maintenance of the barrier are discussed.

  11. Studies on Zinc and Copper Ion in Relation to Wound Healing in Male and Female West African Dwarf Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaifa, A K; Fadason, S T

    2017-03-06

    Wound healing remains a challenging clinical problem for which precise and efficient management is essential in order to curtail morbidity and mortality. Wound healing has been shown to depend upon the availability of appropriate trace elements like copper and zinc which serve as enzyme cofactors and structural components in tissue repair. This study aims at evaluating the distribution of zinc and copper found in the hair as well as skin during epidermal wound healing. Adult and healthy West African dwarf (WAD) goats of both sexes fed with concentrate, grass, cassava peel and water ad libitum were used. The animals were housed for three weeks before commencement of the experiments. Epidermal wounds were created on the trunks of all the goats using cardboard template of 1cm². Progressive changes in wound contraction were monitored grossly by placing clean and sterile venier calliper on the wound margin. Hair and skin elemental (copper and zinc) analyses were done using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Significant increases in Cu level were observed in the female hair compared with that of males. There were significant increases in the Zn levels of the females' hair compared with the males. The wound healed faster in female goat compared with the males. The ratio of copper to zinc is clinically more important than the concentration of either of these trace metals. The pattern of distribution between zinc and copper concentration in the skin and hair of the male and female goats observed in this study could be added factor responsible for early wound healing in female. Therefore, our findings suggest that the distribution in the Cu and Zinc level in skin and hair of both male and female goats could also be a factor for wound healing in the animals.

  12. Mass, energy and material balances of SRF production process. Part 3: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Kärki, Janne

    2015-02-01

    This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipal solid waste used here as an input waste material to produce solid recovered fuel is energy waste collected from households of municipality. This article presents the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process. These balances are based on the proximate as well as the ultimate analysis and the composition determination of various streams of material produced in a solid recovered fuel production plant. All the process streams are sampled and treated according to CEN standard methods for solid recovered fuel. The results of the mass balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 72% of the input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel; 2.6% as ferrous metal, 0.4% as non-ferrous metal, 11% was sorted as rejects material, 12% as fine faction and 2% as heavy fraction. The energy balance of the solid recovered fuel production process showed that 86% of the total input energy content of input waste material was recovered in the form of solid recovered fuel. The remaining percentage (14%) of the input energy was split into the streams of reject material, fine fraction and heavy fraction. The material balances of this process showed that mass fraction of paper and cardboard, plastic (soft) and wood recovered in the solid recovered fuel stream was 88%, 85% and 90%, respectively, of their input mass. A high mass fraction of rubber material, plastic (PVC-plastic) and inert (stone/rock and glass particles) was found in the reject material stream.

  13. Determining the Eccentricity of the Moon's Orbit without a Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Ancient Greek astronomers knew that Moon's distance from the Earth was not constant. Ptolemy's model of the Moon's motion implied that the Moon ranged in distance from 33 to 64 Earth radii. This implied that its angular size ranged nearly a factor of two. Tycho Brahe's model of the Moon's motion implied a smaller distance range, some ±3 percent at syzygy. However, the ancient and Renaissance astronomers are notably silent on the subject of measuring the angular size of the Moon as a check on the implied range of distance from their models of the position of the Moon. Using a quarter-inch hole in a piece of cardboard that slides along a yardstick, we show that pre-telescopic astronomers could have measured an accurate mean value of the angular size of the Moon, and that they could have determined a reasonably accurate value of the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. The principal calibration for each observer is to measure the apparent angular diameter of a 91 mm disk viewed at a distance of 10 meters, giving a true angular size of 31.3 arcmin (the Moon's mean angular size). Because the sighting hole is not much bigger than the size of one's pupil, each observer obtains a personal correction factor with which to scale the raw measures. If one takes data over the course of 7 lunations (7.5 anomalistic months), any systematic errors which are a function of phase should even out over the course of the observations. We find that the random error of an individual observation of ±0.8 arcmin can be achieved.

  14. ‘Real Photos’: Transforming Tindale and the Postcolonial Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Lydon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When the Transforming Tindale exhibition opened at the State Library of Queensland in September 2012, there was much excitement and goodwill. This landmark exhibition was curated by Michael Aird and featured Ah Kee’s drawings and enlarged prints of anthropologist Norman Tindale’s photographs of 1938-1940, as well as extensive archival information and stories from the subjects themselves and their relatives. The transformations of the exhibition’s title refer to the way Tindale’s ‘data’ was given both new physical form, as well as engendering and renewing social meanings. Scholars such as Elizabeth Edwards have argued that we should explore the materiality of images and the diverse forms they assume, attending to the ways their form and vitality shape us as much as we imbue them with meaning. Digitisation constitutes a major transformation of photographs’ historical accumulation of materiality. It also enables the return of historical archives from European museums to Indigenous relatives in Australia. In this article I explore the relations and narratives that emerge from this process, focusing on their Indigenous significance, and using the example of an enigmatic cardboard panel held by the Pitt Rivers Museum in Oxford on which are mounted thirteen photographs from South Australia. For Indigenous descendants of the people recorded in these photographs, their physical form is less important than the way they embody missing relatives, lost through invasion and assimilation. This process is slow and often awkward, but the rewards are great, in challenging foundational national histories, re-connecting family networks, and telling the truth of Indigenous experience.

  15. From the Tunnels into the Treetops: New Lineages of Black Yeasts from Biofilm in the Stockholm Metro System and Their Relatives among Ant-Associated Fungi in the Chaetothyriales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Thureborn, Olle; Lundberg, Johannes; Sallstedt, Therese; Wedin, Mats; Ivarsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota). They are described as a new genus Bacillicladium with the type species B. lobatum, and a new species Bradymyces graniticola. Bacillicladium is distantly related to the known five chaetothyrialean families and is unique in the Chaetothyriales by variable morphology showing hyphal, meristematic and yeast-like growth in vitro. The nearest relatives of Bacillicladium are recruited among fungi isolated from cardboard-like construction material produced by arboricolous non-attine ants. Their sister relationship is weakly supported by the Maximum likelihood analysis, but strongly supported by Bayesian inference. The genus Bradymyces is placed amidst members of the Trichomeriaceae and is ecologically undefined; it includes an opportunistic animal pathogen while two other species inhabit rock surfaces. ITS rDNA sequences of three species accepted in Bradymyces and other undescribed species and environmental samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and in-depth comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures in order to study their intraspecific variability. Compensatory base change criterion in the ITS2 secondary structure supported delimitation of species in Bradymyces, which manifest a limited number of phenotypic features useful for species recognition. The role of fungi in the

  16. Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrem, John F; Potter, Murray A; Barrett, D Paul; Candy, E Jane

    2008-03-01

    Birds respond to capture, handling and restraint with increased secretion of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone that helps birds adjust to stressful situations. Hoods are reported to calm birds, but possible effects of hoods on corticosterone responses have not been reported for any bird. Corticosterone responses to restraint in Adelie penguins held by their legs with their head covered by a hood were markedly lower than responses of penguins restrained in a mesh bag inside a cardboard box (corticosterone at 30 min 15.69+/-1.72 cf. 28.32+/-2.75 ng/ml). The birds restrained by the two methods were sampled at the same location but in different years, so the differences in corticosterone responses cannot unequivocally be ascribed to an effect of hoods to reduce corticosterone responses. Corticosterone responses have been measured in some penguins, but not in the largest, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). The relationship between body mass and corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in penguins was examined in emperor penguins captured on sea ice in McMurdo Sound and Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) captured at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica. Total integrated corticosterone responses were higher in the emperor than the Adelie penguins, but corrected integrated corticosterone responses, which represent the increase in corticosterone from initial concentrations and hence the corticosterone response to restraint, were the same. The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins.

  17. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  18. CONSTRUCTION OF DIDACTIC MODEL OF MEMBRANE AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX TO FACILITATE THE TEACHING/LEARNING BY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES STUDENTS AT UFRN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V.S. Medeiros et al

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed in the course of MOLECULAR DIVERSITY, required curricular component for the courses of Biological Sciences at UFRN. This course intends to encourage the study of the chemical structure and function of biomolecules using lectures and practical classes. Looking at the evaluations from previous semesters, it became evident that the subjects of the membrane and extracellular matrix were not being learned in a meaningful way. We also noticed lack of motivation from students due to difficulties in understanding molecules, weakening the teaching/learning process. Given this situation, our work aimed to encourage students to construct the constituent molecules of the membrane and extracellular matrix and assemble these structures, in order to understand molecular interactions, improve understanding of the subject and facilitate the learning process. This was accomplished through a monitoring project with the help of monitors. The proposed methodology consisted of separating the class into groups, where each would be responsible for making and exposing the other students to one of the molecules (Membrane Lipids, integrins, fibronectin, collagen, elastin, laminin, hyaluronic acid, and then discussing these molecules’ structural characteristics and interactions. The students could use various types of materials like cardboard, colored pens and polystyrene. The molecules were presented to the class, and the groups had set up the membrane and the matrix indicating the location of molecules and their possible interactions. All groups created their molecules according to given specifications. They created didactic and colorful molecules and positively interacted with all other groups during the assembly of the membrane and extracellular matrix; they also discussed molecules functions and interactions. We noticed during presentations and evaluation a strong performance in the subjects in question, as well as the construction of a

  19. Hemispheric asymmetry in interpreting novel literal language: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Tristan; Coulson, Seana

    2013-04-01

    Conceptual mapping, or making connections between conceptual structure in different domains, is a key mechanism of creative language use whose neural underpinnings are not well understood. The present study involved the combination of event-related potentials (ERPs) with the divided visual field presentation technique to explore the relative contributions of the left and right hemispheres (LH and RH) to the construction of novel meanings in fully literal language. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded as healthy adults read sentences that supported either a conventional literal reading of the sentence final word ("His main method of transportation is a boat,"), or a novel literal meaning derived from conceptual mapping ("The clever boys used a cardboard box as a boat,"). The novel and conventional conditions were matched for cloze probability (a measure of predictability based on the sentence context), lexical association between the sentence frame and the final word (using latent semantic analysis), and other factors known to influence ERPs to language stimuli. To compare effects of novelty to previously reported effects of predictability, a high-cloze conventional condition ("The only way to get around Venice is to navigate the canals in a boat.") was included. ERPs were time-locked to sentence final words ("boat") presented in either the left visual field, to preferentially stimulate the RH (lvf/RH), or in the right visual field, targeting the LH (rvf/LH). The N400 component of the ERP was affected by predictability in both presentation sides, but by novelty only in rvf/LH. Two distinct late frontal positive effects were observed. Word predictability modulated a frontal positivity with a LH focus, but semantic novelty modulated a frontal positivity focused in RH. This is the first demonstration that the frontal positivity may be composed of multiple overlapping components with distinct functional and anatomical characteristics. Extending contemporary accounts

  20. STUDIES ON GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF DL—LACTIDE ON CORN STARCH AND BIODEGRADABILITY OF THE COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOUYingcai; ZHUChangying; 等

    2000-01-01

    The starch/D,L-lactide graft copolymers were synthesized by reacting D,L-lactide with corn starch in N,N-dimethylacetamide(DMAM)in the presence of triethylamine(NEt3)and anhydrous lithium chloride.The effect of reaction time and the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural unit of starch on monomer conversion(C%),graft(G%)and graft efficiency(GE%)were studied,The C%,G%and GE% could approach 37.3% 179.7%and 68.0%,respectively when the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structuralunit of starch is 10:1 and the graft copolymerization was carried out at 80-85℃ for 4hr under nitrogen atmosphere.The Fourier transforms infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy.differential scanning calorimetry(DSC)and X_ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used in order to characterize the graft copolymers.FTIR spectra show that absorption band at 1740cm-1 confirmed the formation of ester bond,indicating the starch /D,L-lactide graft copolymers were produced,the DSC characteristic results show the melting temperature of the graft copolymer were elevated slightly as the molar ratio of D,L-lactide to glucose structural units of starch increased and the X-ray diffraction spectra show the synthesized graft copolymers were amorphous.The degradability of graft copolymer was tested with the aid of acid,alkali and microbe such as bacillus subtilis and staphylococcus aureus.The results of water rsistance show the graft copolymer produced can be used as a component of impermeable coating for cardboard.

  1. Determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds in food-contact recycled-paper materials by focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, David; Fernández-Recio, Miguel Ángel; Moreta, Cristina; Tena, María Teresa

    2012-09-15

    Focused ultrasonic solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) and reverse-phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF-MS) was applied to the determination of bisphenol-type endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food-contact recycled-paper materials. Recycled paper is a potential source of EDCs. Bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F (BPF) and their derivatives bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) and bisphenol F diglycidyl ether (BFDGE) are used for the production of epoxy resins employed in the formulation of printing inks. The FUSLE of bisphenol-type EDCs from packaging is reported for the first time. First, different extraction solvents were studied and methanol was selected. Then, the main FUSLE factors affecting the extraction efficiency (solvent volume, extraction time and ultrasonic irradiation power) were studied by means of a central composite design. The FUSLE conditions selected for further experiments were 20 ml of methanol at ultrasonic amplitude of 100% for 5s. Finally, the number of extraction cycles necessary for complete extraction was established in two. The analysis of the FUSLE extracts was carried out by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with electrospray ionization and the determination of the four analytes took place in only 4 min. The FUSLE and UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS method was validated and applied to the analysis of different food-contact recycled-paper-based materials and packaging. The proposed method provided recoveries from 72% to 97%, repeatability and intermediate precision under 9% and 14%, respectively, and detection limits of 0.33, 0.16, 0.65 and 0.40 μg/g for BPA, BPF, BADGE and BFDGE, respectively. The analysis of paper and cardboard samples confirmed the presence of EDCs in these packaging.

  2. Choice of optimal biocide combination to control flies (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Kavran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Flies – by feeding on decaying matter, human waste and food – have been implicated in the spread of numerous animal and human diseases. Excessive fly populations are generally associated with livestock units and domestic waste due to decaying organic matter. A large number of flies cause extreme disturbance in the behavior of the host, resulting in skin irritation, lesions, wounds, and secondary infections are likely to appear. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of combined applications of larvicide (cyromazine and adulticides (acetamiprid in formulation with pheromone and thiamethoxam on the suppression of fly populations. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on a pig farm. The piglet farms are one of the most favorable places for fly breeding. Three units were used for biocide applications and a fourth unit as the control where biocides were not applied. The monitoring of pre- and post-treatment of adult fly populations was carried out by glued cardboards. The cards were hung on metal rods above piglet’s cage. This monitoring method served as a parameter for the estimation of biological effectiveness. Results. The highest degree of fly control (88.4% mortality 8 days after treatment was achieved when a combination of cyromazine and thiamethoxam was used. A biocide based on sex pheromone (Z-9-tricosene + acetamiprid was the most effective on flies 3 days after biocide application, with a mortality rate of 69.1 %. Thiamethoxam achieved the highest reduction of flies 6 days after treatment, with 78.19% obtained mortality. Conclusion. Biological efficacy of the applied biocides in combination ciromazine + thiamethoxam and thiamethoxam alone was justified.

  3. Optimal Non-Invasive Fault Classification Model for Packaged Ceramic Tile Quality Monitoring Using MMW Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Smriti; Singh, Dharmendra

    2016-04-01

    Millimeter wave (MMW) frequency has emerged as an efficient tool for different stand-off imaging applications. In this paper, we have dealt with a novel MMW imaging application, i.e., non-invasive packaged goods quality estimation for industrial quality monitoring applications. An active MMW imaging radar operating at 60 GHz has been ingeniously designed for concealed fault estimation. Ceramic tiles covered with commonly used packaging cardboard were used as concealed targets for undercover fault classification. A comparison of computer vision-based state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques, viz, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), wavelet transform (WT), principal component analysis (PCA), gray level co-occurrence texture (GLCM), and histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) has been done with respect to their efficient and differentiable feature vector generation capability for undercover target fault classification. An extensive number of experiments were performed with different ceramic tile fault configurations, viz., vertical crack, horizontal crack, random crack, diagonal crack along with the non-faulty tiles. Further, an independent algorithm validation was done demonstrating classification accuracy: 80, 86.67, 73.33, and 93.33 % for DFT, WT, PCA, GLCM, and HOG feature-based artificial neural network (ANN) classifier models, respectively. Classification results show good capability for HOG feature extraction technique towards non-destructive quality inspection with appreciably low false alarm as compared to other techniques. Thereby, a robust and optimal image feature-based neural network classification model has been proposed for non-invasive, automatic fault monitoring for a financially and commercially competent industrial growth.

  4. Drywall plates evaluation as protection barriers in dental X-rays and mammography facilities; Evaluacion de placas de drywall como barreras de proteccion en instalaciones de rayos X dental y mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara R, V. Y.; Romero C, N. [Empresa QC DOSE S. A. C., Av. Tomas Marsano 1915, Surquillo, Lima 34 (Peru); Berrocal T, M., E-mail: vguevara@qcdose.com [Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, C. German Amezaga 375, Edif. Jorge Basadre, Ciudad Universitaria, Lima 1 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    In the dental X-rays and mammography facilities, usually lead shielded walls as protective barriers are used. Lead is a good attenuator for X-rays, but has toxic properties and its cost is high. Mammography equipment s emit low-energy photons in the range of 25 keV to 35 keV, on current computers; the primary radiation beam is intercepted by the image receptor. Peri apical dental equipment s emit photons in the range of 50 to 90 keV, their filtration is fixed. These devices emit a collimated beam whose diameter is slightly larger than the diagonal dimension of a standard film of dental X-rays. When a dental x-ray is performed, the radiation beam is partially attenuated by the patient. Drywall is a material consisting of plasterboard between two cardboard layers, being its components gypsum and cellulose generally. It is used in construction for execution of interior walls, ceilings and wall coverings, could also serve as a replacement for lead as well as other materials. In this paper three drywall prototypes (Giplac), formed with 02, 04 and 06 drywall layers (13, 16 and 20 cm of thickness respectively) were tested as barriers against primary and secondary X-ray radiation that come from dental and mammography equipment s. The results show that the drywall prototype, 02 layers, efficiently attenuates the secondary radiation beam produced by conventional mammography equipment. And the prototype 04 and 06 layers, efficiently attenuates the primary radiation beam produced by peri apical dental equipment. (author)

  5. Oficinas sobre el frigorífico de Coalsa, en el Puerto de La Coruña/España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Favre, Elisa

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available This project grew out of the need on COALSA's part to enlarge the offices situated up to now in the basement of a building in the port of La Coruna. The infrastructure of the new offices was made with concrete lintels, with a 50 cm edge. In the interior of the refrigerating chambers the pillars were reinforced with profiles in which mortar without refraction was injected thus forming a kind of metal capital. With this system of capital and lintel it was possible to ensure both insulation and carrying capacity. Communication with the outside is made by two lift shafts with aluminium plate and a staircase the nucleus of which has a concrete screen base. The rest of the structure is yellow coloured galvanized metal, except for the decorations which are of cardboard-plastercardboard.

    Este proyecto surgió de la necesidad por parte de COALSA de ampliar las oficinas existentes hasta ahora en el sótano de un edificio del puerto de La Coruña. La infraestructura de las nuevas oficinas se realizó mediante zapatas de hormigón, con un canto de 50 cm. En el interior de las cámaras frigoríficas se reforzaron los pilares por medio de unos perfiles en los que se inyectó mortero sin retracción formando así una especie de capitel metálico. Con este sistema de capitel y zapata se consiguió asegurar tanto el aislamiento como la capacidad portante. La comunicación por el exterior se realiza a través de dos cajas de ascensores de chapa de aluminio y una escalera cuyo núcleo es a base de pantalla de hormigón. El resto de la estructura es metálica galvanizada de color amarillo, excepto los paramentos que son de cartón-yeso-cartón.

  6. Field efficacy of phoxim 50% (ByeMite) against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae in battery cages stocked with laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Kühling, Borris; Pfister, Kurt; Müller-Lindloff, Jürgen; Heine, Josef

    2007-07-20

    Infestations with the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae represent a major ectoparasite problem in poultry and can affect egg layers worldwide. There is presently a lack of an ectoparasiticide in Europe for poultry which can assure a 0-day withholding period for eggs. In this study, ByeMite (phoxim 50%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health Division) was administered to treat a D. gallinae infestation in a poultry house stocked with egg-laying hens kept in a cage system. A layer house was sprayed twice within a 7-day interval using a solution containing 2000 ppm phoxim and a similar layer house was used as an untreated control unit. Specially developed D. gallinae traps made of cardboard were used to assess the mite density in both layer houses during a 49-day period after the treatment. In order to collect mites, the traps were placed on days--1, 2, 6, 9, 13, 20, 34 and 48 and always removed after 24 h. The collected mites were counted and differentiated according to their developmental stage (mite eggs, larvae, nymphs, adults). Three days after the first spray treatment, the efficacy against all mite stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) was 96.1%, and from day 7 post-treatment until the end of the trial (day 49) the efficacy exceeded 99%. In contrast, in the untreated layer house (negative control group) the mite population showed a 400% increase. No treatment-related side effects in chickens were detectable. It is concluded that two administrations of ByeMite within a 7-day interval are highly effective against D. gallinae infestations in a stocked poultry house.

  7. Environmental assessment of alternative municipal solid waste management strategies. A Spanish case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Ibáñez-Forés, V; Gallardo, A; Colomer-Mendoza, F J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the management of municipal solid waste generated in the town of Castellón de la Plana (Spain). This town currently produces 207 ton of waste per day and the waste management system employed today involves the collection of paper/cardboard, glass and light packaging from materials banks and of rest waste at street-side containers. The proposed alternative scenarios were based on a combination of the following elements: selective collection targets to be accomplished by the year 2015 as specified in the Spanish National Waste Plan (assuming they are reached to an extent of 50% and 100%), different collection models implemented nationally, and diverse treatments of both the separated biodegradable fraction and the rest waste to be disposed of on landfills. This resulted in 24 scenarios, whose environmental behaviour was studied by applying the life cycle assessment methodology. In accordance with the ISO 14040-44 (2006) standard, an inventory model was developed for the following stages of the waste management life cycle: pre-collection (bags and containers), collection, transport, pre-treatment (waste separation) and treatment/disposal (recycling, composting, biogasification+composting, landfill with/without energy recovery). Environmental indicators were obtained for different impact categories, which made it possible to identify the key variables in the waste management system and the scenario that offers the best environmental behaviour. Finally, a sensitivity analysis was used to test some of the assumptions made in the initial life cycle inventory model.

  8. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  9. Determination of storage conditions for new biscuits using their sorption isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diukareva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction For the formation of biscuits quality natural carrier of iodine and sweetener from stevia leaves were used. Desorption of moisture is the dominant process, which will determine the guaranteed shelf life of biscuits. The conditions for the developed biscuits storage was determined by investigating of sorption isotherms and kinetics of reaching the equilibrium moisture content. Materials and Methods. The objects of study arenewly developed biscuits: "Health" (rich in iodine and with the replacement of 50 % sugar by stevioside, "Light" (with the replacement of 75% of sugar by stevioside and enriched with wheat bran, "Fortified" (containselamine, which is a natural source of iodine. Control – the biscuit prepared according to traditional recipes. Tenzometric method was used to study the sorption equilibrium moisture content. Differential function of pore radius distribution was determined using sorption isotherms and then have been subjected to approximation. Results. New biscuits samples are in the area of polymolecular and monomolecular sorption in the range of the relative air humidity (RAH from 10 to 75 ... 80%. The control sample has less distinct plot of monomolecular sorption (10 to 20% and short- moisture range wich is corresponding with polymolecularsorption (from 20 to 65 ... 70%. There is a moisture absorbtion ofmicrocapillary and swelling of samples when RAHincreases to 75 ... 80% for all the samples. The ratio of average pore radius tothe most likely of the test samples are differentthat wasshown by the investigation of differential function of pore distribution. So this ratio for biscuit "Health" is 5.73, for biscuit "Light" − 2.98,forbiscuit "Fortified"− 4.91 and for the control − 3.88. Conclusions. There’s the sense to store developed biscuits in a cardboard packaging with polymeric covering, if RAH is not more than 75%, and vapor-proof if RAH is above that.

  10. CONCENTRATION OF WORLD EXPORTS OF FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812353This study analyzed the degree of concentration in worldwide exports of forest products in the period rangingfrom 1961 to 2008. The data used are available at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO. The concentration was determined by the concentration ratio [HR (k], the Herfindahl-HirschmanIndex (HHI, Theil Entropy Index (E and the Gini index (G. The main conclusions were: The aggregateBrazilian share in the world exports of forest products is increasing over time; the most important sectors inthe aggregate world exports of forest products, in decreasing order, were pulp, lumber, paper and cardboard,wooden panels, saw and fire wood. According to Bain, the concentration ratio of the four and eight largestexporters of forest products is moderately low; the HHI and Theil Entropy (E show a reduction in theconcentration of world exports of forest products and greater competition among the countries that sell suchproducts; the Gini index indicates that despite the increase in export of forest products over the period ofanalysis, a smaller number of competitors concentrate increasingly larger shares of international exports of these products; summary indices (HHI, E and G indicated that increased competition has not led to a moreequitable distribution of forest products so as to bring down inequalities and concentration of profits in thesector; despite the downward trend in CR (4 and CR (8, there is an increase in G, probably because theeconomies of scale in the international trade have been held by few competitors; caution is recommendedin the analysis of summary indices (HHI, E and G which had better be checked jointly with the partialindices [CR (k] in order to avoid wrong conclusions; countries with a significant share in total exports, suchas Brazil, should seek business strategies to retain competitive advantages, especially those arising fromeconomies of scale.

  11. CONCENTRAÇÃO DAS EXPORTAÇÕES MUNDIAIS DE PRODUTOS FLORESTAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Moreira Coelho Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the degree of concentration in worldwide exports of forest products in the period ranging from 1961 to 2008. The data used are available at the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The concentration was determined by the concentration ratio [HR (k], the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI, Theil Entropy Index (E and the Gini index (G. The main conclusions were: The aggregate Brazilian share in the world exports of forest products is increasing over time; the most important sectors in the aggregate world exports of forest products, in decreasing order, were pulp, lumber, paper and cardboard, wooden panels, saw and fire wood. According to Bain, the concentration ratio of the four and eight largest exporters of forest products is moderately low; the HHI and Theil Entropy (E show a reduction in the concentration of world exports of forest products and greater competition among the countries that sell such products; the Gini index indicates that despite the increase in export of forest products over the period of analysis, a smaller number of competitors concentrate increasingly larger shares of international exports of these products; summary indices (HHI, E and G indicated that increased competition has not led to a more equitable distribution of forest products so as to bring down inequalities and concentration of profits in the sector; despite the downward trend in CR (4 and CR (8, there is an increase in G, probably because the economies of scale in the international trade have been held by few competitors; caution is recommended in the analysis of summary indices (HHI, E and G which had better be checked jointly with the partial indices [CR (k] in order to avoid wrong conclusions; countries with a significant share in total exports, such as Brazil, should seek business strategies to retain competitive advantages, especially those arising from economies of scale.

  12. Impact on carbon footprint: a life cycle assessment of disposable versus reusable sharps containers in a large US hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmond, Terry; Reiner, Sandra

    2012-06-01

    Hospitals are striving to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Targeting supply chain points and replacing disposable with reusable items are among recommendations to achieve this. Annually, US hospitals use 35 million disposable (DSC) or reusable sharps containers (RSC) generating GHG in their manufacture, use, and disposal. Using a life cycle assessment we assessed the global warming potential (GWP) of both systems at a large US hospital which replaced DSC with RSC. GHG emissions (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O) were calculated in metric tons of CO(2) equivalents (MTCO(2)eq). Primary energy input data was used wherever possible and region-specific conversions used to calculate the GWP of each activity. Unit process GHGs were collated into manufacture, transport, washing, and treatment and disposal. The DSC were not recycled nor had recycled content. Chemotherapy DSC were used in both systems. Emission totals were workload-normalized per 100 occupied beds-yr and rate ratio analyzed using Fisher's test with P ≤0.05 and 95% confidence level. With RSC, the hospital reduced its annual GWP by 127 MTCO(2)eq (-83.5%) and diverted 30.9 tons of plastic and 5.0 tons of cardboard from landfill. Using RSC reduced the number of containers manufactured from 34,396 DSC annually to 1844 RSC in year one only. The study indicates sharps containment GWP in US hospitals totals 100,000 MTCO(2)eq and if RSC were used nationally the figure could fall by 64,000 MTCO(2)eq which, whilst only a fraction of total hospital GWP, is a positive, sustainable step.

  13. Explaining away the body: experiences of supernaturally caused touch and touch on non-hand objects within the rubber hand illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hohwy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically

  14. Printing Has a Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Georg Wenke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Printing will also be done in the future. Printed items meet basic needs and are deeply anchored in people’s habits. Being able to handle and collect printed matter is highly attractive. And paper is now more alive than ever. It is therefore too shortsighted to disclaim the importance of one of the still large economic sectors just because of a few looming-recession instigated market shifts.The exciting aspect of drupa 2004 is: printing will be reinvented, so to speak. Much more printing will be done in the future than at present. On the one hand, people are concentrating on process optimization and automation to ensure this. Measuring and testing, process control and optimization, and linking up "office software" with printing technology will be very central topics at drupa 2004. Electronics and print are not rivals; a symbiosis exists. And printing is high-tech: hardly any other multifaceted sector which has been so successful for centuries is as computerized as the printing industry.A series of "new chapters" in the variety of printing possibilities will be opened at drupa. Talk will be generated by further technical developments, often the connection between paper/cardboard and electronics, the link between the office world and graphics industry, text databases and their link-up to graphic page production tools, and "on the fly" dynamic printing over networks.All of this and more belongs to future potentialities, which are so substantial overall, the outlook is by no means black for the "black art". Like its predecessors, drupa 2004 is also a product trade fair. However, more than ever before in its history, it is also an "information village". The exhibits are useful, because they occasionally make what this means visible.

  15. Ceramic Fiber as a New Material%新型纤维材料——陶瓷纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小雅; 曹云峰

    2012-01-01

    陶瓷纤维以其质轻,耐火,耐腐蚀等性能,目前已经在机械、冶金、石油和化工等行业得到了广泛的应用,随着各种其他技术的应用,各种陶瓷纤维基复合材料得到了快速的发展。根据使用功能,陶瓷纤维可以分为高温陶瓷纤维和功能陶瓷纤维,用作绝热材料,过滤材料,高温超导材料等,此外陶瓷纤维还被用于生产耐高温陶瓷纤维纸和箱板纸。文章简述了陶瓷纤维的发展,列举了陶瓷纤维的种类、制备方法、应用及发展趋势。%Ceramic fiber as a new material was widely used in all fields,because of its light weight and fire-resistant,now ceramic fiber was widely used in machinery,metallurgy,petroleum,chemical industry.With a variety of other technology,all kinds of ceramic fiber composite has been developed rapidly.According to the function,ceramic fibers can be divided into high-temperature ceramic fibers and functional ceramic fibers.It can be used as insulation materials,filter materials,high-temperature superconducting materials,etc.In addition,ceramic fiber was also used in the production of high-temperature paper and cardboard paper.This paper is a brief overview of the development of ceramic fiber,the types of ceramic fiber,the preparation methods,applications and its developing trends.

  16. The High-value Utilization of Pyrolysis Oil from Combustible Solid Waste Under Reducing Atmosphere%还原性气氛下可燃固体废弃物热解油高值利用途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲兆平

    2016-01-01

    The main components of solid waste as waste cardboard, waste tire and waste PVC were chosen for the experiment in a tube reactor to produce pyrolysis oil. The yield and components data of each pyrolysis oil were obtained. Principal component alalysis was used to analyze the influence of NaOH, HY-51, original attapulgite (OA) and purified attapulgite (PA) on the pyrolysis oil of waste tire. It can be concluded that PA has great potential on catalyzing the pyrolysis of waste tire to produce aromatic hydrocarbons. Study on mixed pyrolysis of the three components shows that the optimized temperature of pyrolysis oil yield is the same as single component, and that when the blending rate of three mixed components is mean, their influence to each other is minimised. Column chromatography and catalytic esterification were chosen for upgrade research of pyrolysis oil of solid waste. The column chromatography experiment result shows that dichloromethane and acetone have good separation efficiency for hydrocarbons, which reaches 37.63%. The catalytic pyrolysis mechanism research of waste cardboard was carried out on a PY-GC/MS platform. The results show that HZSM-5 (HZ) has a good ability for cracking the oligomers, increasing the hydrocarbons and lowering the aldehydes and scids, which is being proved to be a good- performance catalyst. HY-51 would decrease the content of aldehydes and increase the yield of hydrocarbons, while do not promote the crack of oligomers, increase the content of acids, and get coking leading to inactivation. It indicates that HY-51 needs further modification for the using in the catalytic pyrolysis of waste cardboard despite its high catalytic activity. ReY shows a limited catalytic effect for the pyrolysis of waste cardboard, while PA performances an ignorable effect. Various active metal ions were loaded on catalyst HZSM-5 for modification. The catalytic pyrolysis mechanism research of waste tire was carried out on a PY-GC/MS platform. The

  17. Susceptibility of Triatoma sordida Stal, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to alpha-cypermethrin under natural climatic conditions

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    Grasielle Caldas DÁvila Pessoa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:INTRODUCTION:Despite the recommendations by interpretation of resistance ratios obtained in laboratory bioassays, little is known about the actual impact of these results in the effectiveness of vector control activities in the field. In this context, our objective was to determine the mean value of different resistance ratios obtained by laboratory bioassays performed as part of the chemical control strategies of Triatoma sordida in the field.METHODS:Field bioassays were developed in Monte Azul and Coração de Jesus (Southeast, Brazil. In each location, samples were formed with three domestic units treated with alpha-cypermethrin 20.0% (Alfatek (r 200 SC. One day after spraying, 10 fifth-instar nymphs remained in contact with the surfaces treated (adobe with plaster, adobe without plaster, or wood with insecticide in plastic cones for 72h. Three cones were exposed inside the intradomicile and the peridomicile. The insects in the control group were exposed to an insecticide-free piece of cardboard. Mortality was measured 72h after removal of the insects from the treated surfaces. The tests were realized in triplicate.RESULTS:Mortality was 100.0% in all locations, except for Monte Azul; Landinho (96.6% and Coração de Jesus; Barriguda (96.6%.CONCLUSIONS:Although the resistant populations in laboratory tests proved to be susceptible in the field, this observation is not sufficient to suggest that the cut-off points used to justify the resistance ratio should be changed. In this sense, we recommend that laboratory and field bioassays are carried out with a greater number of Triatominae populations to allow more in-depth consideration of the subject.

  18. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland.

  19. Estimates of inhalation doses resulting from the possible use of phospho-gypsum plaster-board in Australian homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, R S; Peggie, J R; Leith, I S

    1995-04-01

    Current materials used as internal lining in Australian buildings are based on natural gypsum of low radium content. A study was carried out to estimate the contribution to the annual effective dose due to airborne contamination from chemical by-product gypsum plaster-board of higher radium content if it were used as an internal lining. The 226Ra content and 222Rn exhalation rate were measured for several samples of the plaster-board, and the behavior of 222Rn and its progeny (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi, and 214Po) in a typical building was modeled numerically, using the results of the exhalation rate measurements as input. For building ventilation rates greater than approximately 0.5 air changes per hour, the contribution to the total annual effective dose from inhalation of 222Rn and its progeny exhaled from the phospho-gypsum plaster-board is estimated to be below 1 mSv. This contribution is reduced if the surface of the plaster-board is coated with paint or cardboard, or if the very fine particles are removed from the phospho-gypsum during manufacture of the plaster-board. The effective doses arising from dust generation during the installation of the plaster-board are also estimated to be below 1 mSv. The recommended action level of 200 Bq m-3 for radon in air in Australia corresponds to an annual effective dose of approximately 6 mSv. The study indicates that the suggested acceptable level of 185 Bq kg-1 for the 226Ra concentration in the plaster-board may be too restrictive under Australian conditions.

  20. Anthropogenic litter in urban freshwater ecosystems: distribution and microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellein, Timothy; Rojas, Miguel; Pink, Adam; Gasior, Joseph; Kelly, John

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem

  1. Reverse logistics system and recycling potential at a landfill: A case study from Kampala City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinobe, J.R., E-mail: joel.kinobe@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Gebresenbet, G. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Niwagaba, C.B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Makerere University College of Engineering, Design, Art and Technology (CEDAT), P.O. Box 7062, Kampala (Uganda); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Quantifies the different waste streams delivered at the landfill. • Evaluates the amount of potential waste products that enters into the reverse cycle. • Drawing out the reverse logistics activities from Kampala City to Kiteezi landfill. • Identify the storage, collection and transportation mechanisms of products to the various destinations; and finally. • The study suggests efficient measures to improve reverse logistics system. - Abstract: The rapid growing population and high urbanisation rates in Sub-Saharan Africa has caused enormous pressure on collection services of the generated waste in the urban areas. This has put a burden on landfilling, which is the major waste disposal method. Waste reduction, re-use and recycling opportunities exist but are not fully utilized. The common items that are re-used and re-cycled are plastics, paper, aluminum, glass, steel, cardboard, and yard waste. This paper develops an overview of reverse logistics at Kiteezi landfill, the only officially recognised waste disposal facility for Kampala City. The paper analyses, in details the collection, re-processing, re-distribution and final markets of these products into a reversed supply chain network. Only 14% of the products at Kiteezi landfill are channeled into the reverse chain while 63% could be included in the distribution chain but are left out and disposed of while the remaining 23% is buried. This is because of the low processing power available, lack of market value, lack of knowledge and limited value addition activities to the products. This paper proposes possible strategies of efficient and effective reverse logistics development, applicable to Kampala City and other similar cities.

  2. Facilitating Sustainable Waste Management Behaviors Within the Health Sector: A Case Study of the National Health Service (NHS in Southwest England, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Richardson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste costs the National Health Service (NHS £71.2 million in 2007/2008; recycling all papers, newspapers and cardboard produced by the NHS in England and Wales could save up to 42,000 tonnes of CO2. As the largest employer in the UK, the NHS is in a prime position to both lead the way towards a sustainable future, but also act as a test bed for organizational change and provide evidence of what works at an individual level to change attitudes and behavior. However these require changes in mindset, including values, attitudes, norms and behaviors which are required along with clear definitions of the problems faced in terms of economics, society and culture. Initial investigations of the literature indicate that behavior change theory may provide a feasible means of achieving constructive changes in clinical waste management; such approaches require further investigation. This paper describes a feasibility study designed to examine issues that might affect the introduction of a behavior change strategy and improve waste management in a healthcare setting. Guided by the evidence gained from our systematic review, 20 interviews were carried out with senior managers, clinicians and support staff involved in the management of healthcare waste from a broad range of agencies in South West England. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. Thematic content analysis was conducted in order to identify key issues and actions. Data extraction, coding and analysis were cross checked independently by the four members of the research team. Initial findings suggest tensions, between Government and local policies, between packaging and storage space at ward level and, and between the operational requirements of infection control and maintaining appropriate and ethical patient care. These tensions increase pressures on staff already trying to maintain high quality care in a resource restricted and changing environment.

  3. Origami-inspired active structures: a synthesis and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Hernandez, Edwin A.; Hartl, Darren J.; Malak, Richard J., Jr.; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2014-09-01

    Origami, the ancient art of paper folding, has inspired the design of engineering devices and structures for decades. The underlying principles of origami are very general, which has led to applications ranging from cardboard containers to deployable space structures. More recently, researchers have become interested in the use of active materials (i.e., those that convert various forms of energy into mechanical work) to effect the desired folding behavior. When used in a suitable geometry, active materials allow engineers to create self-folding structures. Such structures are capable of performing folding and/or unfolding operations without being kinematically manipulated by external forces or moments. This is advantageous for many applications including space systems, underwater robotics, small scale devices, and self-assembling systems. This article is a survey and analysis of prior work on active self-folding structures as well as methods and tools available for the design of folding structures in general and self-folding structures in particular. The goal is to provide researchers and practitioners with a systematic view of the state-of-the-art in this important and evolving area. Unifying structural principles for active self-folding structures are identified and used as a basis for a quantitative and qualitative comparison of numerous classes of active materials. Design considerations specific to folded structures are examined, including the issues of crease pattern identification and fold kinematics. Although few tools have been created with active materials in mind, many of them are useful in the overall design process for active self-folding structures. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of open questions for the field of origami-inspired engineering.

  4. Comparison of the flavor chemistry and flavor stability of mozzarella and cheddar wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, I W; Evan Miracle, R; Jervis, S M; Listiyani, M A D; Drake, M A

    2011-10-01

    The flavor and flavor stability of fresh and stored liquid Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were compared. Pasteurized, fat separated, and unseparated Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were manufactured in triplicate and evaluated immediately or stored for 72 h at 3 °C. Flavor profiles were documented by descriptive sensory analysis, and volatile components were extracted and characterized by solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis. Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys were distinct by sensory and volatile analysis (P flavors and higher cardboard flavor intensities following storage compared to Mozzarella whey. High aroma impact compounds (FD(log3) > 8) in fresh Cheddar whey included diacetyl, 1-octen-3-one, 2-phenethanol, butyric acid, and (E)-2-nonenal, while those in Mozzarella whey included diacetyl, octanal, (E)-2-nonenal, and 2-phenethanol. Fresh Cheddar whey had higher concentrations of diacetyl, 2/3-methyl butanal, (E)-2-nonenal, 2-phenethanol, and 1-octen-3-one compared to fresh Mozzarella whey. Lipid oxidation products increased in both whey types during storage but increases were more pronounced in Cheddar whey than Mozzarella whey. Increases in lipid oxidation products were also more pronounced in wheys without fat separation compared to those with fat separation. Results suggest that similar compounds in different concentrations comprise the flavor of these 2 whey sources and that steps should be taken to minimize lipid oxidation during fluid whey processing. Practical Application:  Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys are the primary sources of dried whey ingredients in the United States. An enhanced understanding of the flavor of these 2 raw product streams will enable manufacturers to identify methods to optimize quality.

  5. Short communication: The influence of solids concentration and bleaching agent on bleaching efficacy and flavor of sweet whey powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, M G; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the effect of bleaching conditions and bleaching agent on flavor and functional properties of whey protein ingredients. Solids concentration at bleaching significantly affected bleaching efficacy and flavor effects of different bleaching agents. It is not known if these parameters influence quality of sweet whey powder (SWP). The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of solids concentration and bleaching agent on the flavor and bleaching efficacy of SWP. Colored cheddar whey was manufactured, fat separated, and pasteurized. Subsequently, the whey (6.7% solids) was bleached, concentrated using reverse osmosis (RO) to 14% solids, and then spray dried, or whey was concentrated before bleaching and then spray dried. Bleaching treatments included a control (no bleaching, 50 °C, 60 min), hydrogen peroxide (HP; 250 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), benzoyl peroxide (50 mg/kg, 50 °C, 60 min), lactoperoxidase (20 mg/kg of HP, 50 °C, 30 min), and external peroxidase (MaxiBright, DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands; 2 dairy bleaching units/mL, 50 °C, 30 min). The experiment was repeated in triplicate. Sensory properties and volatile compounds of SWP were evaluated by a trained panel and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Bleaching efficacy (norbixin destruction) and benzoic acid were measured by HPLC. Differences in bleaching efficacy, sensory and volatile compound profiles, and benzoic acid were observed with different bleaching agents, consistent with previous studies. Solids concentration affected bleaching efficacy of HP, but not other bleaching agents. The SWP from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase following RO had increased cardboard and fatty flavors and higher concentrations of lipid oxidation compounds compared with SWP from whey bleached before RO. The SWP bleached with benzoyl peroxide after RO contained less benzoic acid than SWP from whey bleached before RO. These results indicate that

  6. Characterisation of the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in Danish source-separated organic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    This study is dedicated to characterising the chemical composition and biochemical methane potential (BMP) of individual material fractions in untreated Danish source-separated organic household waste (SSOHW). First, data on SSOHW in different countries, available in the literature, were evaluated and then, secondly, laboratory analyses for eight organic material fractions comprising Danish SSOHW were conducted. No data were found in the literature that fully covered the objectives of the present study. Based on laboratory analyses, all fractions were assigned according to their specific properties in relation to BMP, protein content, lipids, lignocellulose biofibres and easily degradable carbohydrates (carbohydrates other than lignocellulose biofibres). The three components in lignocellulose biofibres, i.e. lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, were differentiated, and theoretical BMP (TBMP) and material degradability (BMP from laboratory incubation tests divided by TBMP) were expressed. Moreover, the degradability of lignocellulose biofibres (the share of volatile lignocellulose biofibre solids degraded in laboratory incubation tests) was calculated. Finally, BMP for average SSOHW composition in Denmark (untreated) was calculated, and the BMP contribution of the individual material fractions was then evaluated. Material fractions of the two general waste types, defined as "food waste" and "fibre-rich waste," were found to be anaerobically degradable with considerable BMP. Material degradability of material fractions such as vegetation waste, moulded fibres, animal straw, dirty paper and dirty cardboard, however, was constrained by lignin content. BMP for overall SSOHW (untreated) was 404 mL CH4 per g VS, which might increase if the relative content of material fractions, such as animal and vegetable food waste, kitchen tissue and dirty paper in the waste, becomes larger.

  7. Testing the Framework Species Method for Forest Restoration in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit WANGPAKAPATTANAWONG

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The framework species method of reforestation, developed by FORRU (Forest Restoration Research Unit has been used successfully to restore evergreen forest on degraded former agricultural sites in Doi Suthep-Pui National Park, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. This paper reports 3 year results of an attempt to duplicate the FORRU reforestation techniques at Ban Toong Yah, Mae Chaem district, at a similar elevation as FORRU’s original plots at Ban Mae Sa Mai, Mae Rim district. Twenty species of framework tree seedlings were planted in June 2002. The 2 year results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. Height growth, root collar diameter, and crown width were also lower. Some seedlings died because they were trampled by cows, which also ate some of the seedlings. However, several sapling species, such as Ficus fistulosa and Phyllanthus emblica, were able to produce new shoots from their axillary buds, after having been browsed by cows. In 2004, 5 well-performed species: Castanopsis tribuloides, Ficus fistulosa, Hovenia dulcis, Ostodes paniculata and Prunus cerasoides, were selected along with 12 never-planted species to be planted in June. The results indicate that the seedlings achieved lower survival rates than at the FORRU’s original site. The seedlings achieved an average survival rate of about 50 % after the first growing season. The exposed, windy environment of the planting site might also account for lower than expected growth and survival rates. The FORRU’s recommended methods of site preparation using herbicide and weed suppression using cardboard mulch may be employed to improve seedling survival and growth on this site.

  8. STUDY ON SOLID WASTE COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL IN HOSPITALS AND HEALTA CARE CENTERS OF TEHRAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omrani

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this investigation was to achieve a clear pattern of solid waste collection and disposal in selected hospital and health care establishments in certain cities of Tehran province. This study was done in more than 82 percent of all hospitals with 3017 beds during the year 1996. Solid waste produced per bed was evaluated to be 2.87 kg per day which was 8670 kg per day, for all beds, comprising less than 1% of the total solid waste generated in the same cities during the same period. According to the information gathered in the 84.2% hospitals and health care centres, solid wastes were collected manually by labourers from various sections. Detention time of the waste in 89.5% of the cases was nearly 24 h. Densities of this type of waste were estimated to be 193.18kg/m3 with plastic bag and 247.72 kg/m3 without bag. Physical analysis of the wastes indicated 15.1% plastic and rubbery, 9.6% linen, 12.45% paper and cardboard, 8.5% various types of metals, 1.7% glass and 52.4% other different materials. In Iran, hospital administrations are directly responsible for collection transport and ultimate disposal of hospital wastes. Incinerators installed in 21.1% of the clinical centres, were not operating at all. Overall conclusion is that, solid wastes collection transportation and disposal in Tehran district is not satisfactory, according to the health and management criteria.

  9. The challenge of teaching astronomy with 0 dollars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa Maria; García, Beatriz

    2015-08-01

    The training courses on Astronomy are necessary for teachers in all the countries. Normally they are more necessary in developing countries that in other ones. The challenge is to do this work without expenses. NASE, Network for Astronomy School Education, organizes courses for teachers in service and future teachers practically free of charge. The host country only pays accommodation and meals of NASE visitors. But the most interesting aspect of NASE is that presents a lot of activities to carry out in the classroom by 0 dollars using “learning by doing” methodology. After more than 60 courses in about 20 countries we can show several examples of materials generated by participants themselves during the course. With this materials they can make observations and reasoning about their observations in order to understand the astronomy concepts which appear in the curricula of different levels of formal education.Waste materials, cardboard or paper, pieces of string or wire, a stick or a CD, some milk or a drop of oil can be very useful to produce a spectrograph, a photometer, a sundial, a goniometer or a quadrant. The imagination and creativity can replace funding which are difficult to achieve in secondary and primary schools in small towns or villages. NASE is a solution for teachers. which discover that they can explain, in a simple way, complex concepts using models and observations that do not need any money!Participants in NASE courses receive instructions in order to work with NASE materials and after the courses they can find (and create) complementary materials at the NASE website, in order to continue working in the same way. We receive some contributions from some of them that we publish at our web.http:www.naseprogram.org

  10. Effect of the californian red worm (Eisenia foetida during the composteo and vermicomposteo in properties of the Experimental Station of the Academic Rural Unit Carmen Pampa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paco Gabriel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the biotransformación of the organic residuals, of kitchen (Rc remains, pulp of coffee (Pc and cardboard (C by means of compostaje methods and vermicompostaje. The investigation was taken I end up in the Experimental Station, module of lombricultura of the Career of Agronomic Engineering of Carmen Pampa Unit Academic Campesina, located in the community of Carmen Pampa of the Municipality of Coroico Department of La Paz, Bolivia. The used design was totally at random with 3 treatments and 3 repetitions, to compare among obtaining methods in quality it used the test of fixed effects and it stops quantity the test "t" of Student. The quantity of initial sustrato studied in compostaje was of 1m3 and 0,02m3 vermicompostaje ending up culminating the investigation in 120 days. The results in decomposition are obtained in smaller time by means of the method vermicompostaje in Pc in advance of three months of 98.33% continued by C and Rc; while in compostaje it was the treatment with Rc of 3 months with 3 weeks with 90.40% of decomposition, continued by Pc and C. In quantity, starting from 1m3 of initial sustrato bigger bioabono was obtained with Pc 271.62 kg, 465.83 kg, Rc 249.71 kg, 446.00 kg and C 212.48 kg, 404.00 kg, in compost and vermicompost respectively. The chemical composition of the bioabonos of Rc, Pc, C in N and P is tipificados like first floor, high K, Ca in low compost and half vermicompost, half Mg, MO under and lightly alkaline pH to neuter in the two obtaining methods.

  11. Waste recovery by plasma : an up and coming process; La valorisation des dechets par plasma : un procede d'avenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carabin, P. [PyroGenesis, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    Montreal-based PyroGenesis has developed a plasma-based waste treatment system. This patented technology uses the intense energy found in plasma, an ionized gas reaching 5,000 to 10,000 degrees C, to convert waste into energy and useful materials such as construction material. The Plasma Resource Recovery System (PRRS) offers a solution for the increasing volume of waste that is generated at a time when landfills are becoming increasingly rare. It combines gasification and vitrification in the same system. Gasification converts the organic portion of paper, cardboard and plastic into a soot-free synthesis gas containing mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This gaseous fuel is then refined and used to produce electricity to operate the system. Any excess electricity can be sold back to the grid. In the vitrification process, any mineral matter such as glass or ceramic is melted at very high temperature and converted into an inert slag that can be used as a construction material or as an aggregate for concrete. High power plasma torches supply the energy for gasification and vitrification of the waste material. The power of plasma can break down wastes ranging from industrial, clinical and municipal wastes. The advantages of the PRRS technology include minimal atmospheric emissions, possibility of producing electricity, and absence of secondary residue. PyroGenesis is also working with the United States Navy to treat waste streams onboard ships and will soon begin construction on the next generation of American aircraft carriers. A PRRS system is already in operation on a commercial cruise ship for waste management only. The first prototype PRRS is expected to be in operation within one year, with a capability of producing electricity while treating 10 tones of household waste per day. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    Waste management is something that affects most people. The waste amounts are still increasing, but the waste treatment is changing towards recycling and integrated solutions. In Sweden producers' responsibility for different products, a tax and bans on deposition of waste at landfills implicates a reorganisation of the municipal solid waste management. Plans are made for new incineration plants, which leads to that waste combustion comes to play a role in the reorganisation of the Swedish energy system as well. The energy system is supposed to adapt to governmental decisions on decommission of nuclear plants and decreased use of fossil fuels. Waste from private households consists of hazardous waste, scrap waste, waste electronics and wastes that to a large extent are generated in the kitchen. The latter type has been studied in this thesis, except for newsprint, glass- and metal packages that by source separation haven't ended up in the waste bin. Besides the remaining amount of the above mentioned fractions, the waste consists of food waste, paper, cardboard- and plastic packages and inert material. About 80-90 % of this mixed household waste is combustible, and the major part of that is also possible to recycle. Several systems analyses of municipal solid waste management have been performed. Deposition at landfill has been compared to energy recovery, recycling of material (plastic and cardboard) and recycling of nutrients (in food waste). Environmental impact, fuel consumption and costs are calculated for the entire lifecycle from the households, until the waste is treated and the by-products have been taken care of. To stop deposition at landfills is the most important measure to take as to decrease the environmental impact from landfills, and instead use the waste as a resource, thereby substituting production from virgin resources (avoiding resource extraction and emissions). The best alternative to landfilling is incineration, but also material

  13. Characterization of hospital waste in Lahore, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sobia Munir; Syeda Adila Batool; Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry

    2014-01-01

    Background It is a common practice in developing countries that medical/infectious waste openly dumped with municipal solid waste.This paper presented a generation and characterization study of hospital waste.Determination of the waste composition is a basic step for selecting the most efficient treatment method of hospital waste.Methods Stratified random sampling was used to collect the samples of general as well as medical wastes for seven days.Medical waste was sorted into 10 categories whereas general waste was classified into 11 categories.Incineration was observed thoroughly for observing flaws in the incineration process.Data was analyzed by using SPSS software version 16.0.Results The studied hospital produced an average 297 kilograms of medical waste daily and it comprises plastics (71.0%),glass (13.9%),papers etc.(3.8%),cotton/dressings (5.7%),masks/gloves/sheets (0.3%) diapers (0.4%),wasted machines used in operation theaters (2.0%) and blades (0.1%).Laboratories,cancer ward,nursery ward,OPD and emergency ward are the largest infectious waste producing departments in the hospital.The hospital produced an average 3 511 kilograms of general waste daily in which organics constitute (44.3%),diapers etc.(42.8%),demolition materials (3.7%),plastic waste mixing medical plastic waste (2.5%),miscellaneous (2.14%),cloth/clothes (1.6%),cardboard (1.3%),papers (0.8%),cotton dressings (0.28%),glass (0.27%) and iron materials (0.18%).Other alarming facts are:medical waste is recycled in study area,after incineration of hospital waste,ash simply dumped in the premises of the hospital without any liner system.Conclusions The studied hospital produces 10% of infectious waste and 90% of general waste.The largest components of the infectious waste are plastic and glass.Organics and diapers are major components of the general waste coming from different sites of the hospital.Lack of training,inadequate knowledge regarding to the

  14. Determination of acceleration and stabilization indicators for buried municipal wastes. Study of leachates recirculation impact on waste columns; Determination d'indicateurs d'acceleration et de stabilisation de dechets menagers enfouis. Etude de l'impact de la recirculation de lixiviats sur colonnes de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, V.

    2004-05-15

    The main goal of this research work was to study the stabilisation processes of municipal solid waste (MSW). Representative parameters, which are required to evaluate the stabilization state of wastes, were applied to study the acceleration of the degradation processes in lab-scale landfill anaerobic bioreactors operated with leachate recirculation. The characterisation of the wastes solid phase (i.e., volatile solids, organic carbon, fines, paper-cardboard and degraded component contents) is necessary to assess its degradation state. However, additional parameters are required such as the characterisation of water extracted from the waste (i.e., Chemical Oxygen Content (COD), Dissolved Oxygen Content (DOC) and ions content) and biogas composition (methane potential). Those parameters are nevertheless complementary to conclude on its polluting feature. The analysis of more specific indicators such as the organic macromolecules content in leachates and the evaluation of the metal contamination level in solid waste and its potential remobilization was showed to be consistent for the evaluation of waste stabilisation state. The composition of leachates used during recirculation influences greatly the waste leaching behaviour. For instance, the recirculation of a stabilised leachate containing organic macromolecules can increase the release of pollutants (organics and minerals) if contacted with young waste or on the other hand the release of pollutant is reduced when the leachate composition is similar to the organic species, which are expected to be released by the wastes. Due to the experimental limits of the leaching tests, several lab-scale landfill anaerobic bioreactors containing different wastes types (height of 1 m and mass of waste varying from 28 kg to 65 kg) were operated to study the effects of recirculation on the waste degradation at flow rate of 540 mL per day. The speed-up of waste degradation was clearly established from global parameters measured on

  15. A colecção fotográfica "Inventário da Azulejaria Portuguesa" de João Miguel Santos Simões (1960-1968: objecto artístico, documento e memória The Photography Collection "Inventário da Azulejaria Portuguesa", by João Miguel Santos Simões (1960-1968: artistic object, document and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Trindade Gago da Câmara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O "Inventário da Azulejaria Portuguesa" é um conjunto de espécies fotográficas coladas em cartão. Composta por 5028 documentos fotográficos ( a p& b e a cores, esta colecção faz parte de um projecto mais abrangente e ambicioso proposto pelo estudioso da Azulejaria Portuguesa João Miguel Santos Simões (1907-1972 à Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian em Lisboa no ano de 1958, de que resultaram a criação da Brigada de Estudos da Azulejaria e o Corpus da Azulejaria Portuguesa que a Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian editou entre 1963 e 1970. Cobrindo um vastíssimo território geográfico continental e atlântico, este espólio fotográfico - desde 2005 digitalizado e disponível online a partir da pesquisa do catálogo da Biblioteca de Arte da FGC - reverte-se de um importante interesse como documento histórico no estudo e levantamento do Património em Azulejo ainda existente e parte desaparecido. O propósito deste texto é apresentar e validar a importância enquanto memória documental desta mesma colecção, no âmbito de uma estrutura de organização mais vasta, como foi o rastreio sistemático e a recolha de elementos informativos e actualizados no tempo sobre a azulejaria portuguesa."Inventário da Azulejaria Portuguesa" is a collection of photographs pasted onto cardboard. Comprising 5028 photographic documents (in colour and black and white, the collection is part of a broader, more ambitious project proposed by Portuguese tile researcher João Miguel Santos Simões (1807-1972 to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation in 1958, a project that resulted in the publication of Brigada de Estudos da Azulejaria and Corpus da Azulejaria Portuguesa by the Foundation between 1963 and 1970. Covering a vast continental and Atlantic geographic territory, these photographic spoils - digitalized in 2005 and available online through the catalogue of the CGF's Art Library - constitute an important historical document for the study and inventorying of

  16. Potencial de recuperación de residuos sólidos domésticos dispuestos en un relleno sanitario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conocer las cantidades y tipos de residuos sólidos domésticos (RSD que son depositados en el relleno sanitario, brinda la posibilidad de proponer opciones sustentables para su aprovechamiento. Los residuos de cualquier localidad manejados de forma apropiada se pueden convertir en insumos de algún otro proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar los componentes de los RSD susceptibles de ser reciclados, depositados en el relleno sanitario de la ciudad de Ensenada (Baja California, México, para ser valorizados en el mercado de los reciclables. En promedio se podrían comercializar semanalmente 643.67 toneladas de residuos alimenticios para composta, 389.45 toneladas de papel y cartón, 217.55 toneladas de plástico, 78.81 toneladas de vidrio, 37.20 toneladas de metales y 8.11 toneladas de aluminio. Se obtendría en total un aproximado de MXP $911,224.18 (USD $ 71,693.48 por la comercialización de los principales reciclables./ Knowing the amount and type of Domestic Solid Waste (DSW that is deposited in the landfill gives us the possibility to consider options in how to make sustainable use of it. Waste from any location, if properly handled, can be turned into the raw material for other processes. The aim of this study was to quantify the components of the DSW likely to be recycled, deposited in the landfill in the city of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, so that they could be valued on the market as recyclables. The average weekly market could be 643.67 tons of food waste for composting, 389.45 tons of paper and cardboard, 217.55 tons of plastic, 78.81 tons of glass, 32.20 tons of metal and 8.11 tons of aluminum. This should result in a total of approximately MXP $ 911,224.18 (USD $ 71693.48 for the marketing of major recyclables.

  17. Influence of bleaching on flavor of 34% whey protein concentrate and residual benzoic acid concentration in dried whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listiyani, M A D; Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Dean, L O; Drake, M A

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that bleaching negatively affects the flavor of 70% whey protein concentrate (WPC70), but bleaching effects on lower-protein products have not been established. Benzoyl peroxide (BP), a whey bleaching agent, degrades to benzoic acid (BA) and may elevate BA concentrations in dried whey products. No legal limit exists in the United States for BP use in whey, but international concerns exist. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide (HP) or BP bleaching on the flavor of 34% WPC (WPC34) and to evaluate residual BA in commercial and experimental WPC bleached with and without BP. Cheddar whey was manufactured in duplicate. Pasteurized fat-separated whey was subjected to hot bleaching with either HP at 500 mg/kg, BP at 50 or 100 mg/kg, or no bleach. Whey was ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC34. Color [L*(lightness), a* (red-green), and b* (yellow-blue)] measurements and norbixin extractions were conducted to compare bleaching efficacy. Descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analyses were used to evaluate bleaching effects on flavor. Benzoic acid was extracted from experimental and commercial WPC34 and 80% WPC (WPC80) and quantified by HPLC. The b* value and norbixin concentration of BP-bleached WPC34 were lower than HP-bleached and control WPC34. Hydrogen peroxide-bleached WPC34 displayed higher cardboard flavor and had higher volatile lipid oxidation products than BP-bleached or control WPC34. Benzoyl peroxide-bleached WPC34 had higher BA concentrations than unbleached and HP-bleached WPC34 and BA concentrations were also higher in BP-bleached WPC80 compared with unbleached and HP-bleached WPC80, with smaller differences than those observed in WPC34. Benzoic acid extraction from permeate showed that WPC80 permeate contained more BA than did WPC34 permeate. Benzoyl peroxide is more effective in color removal of whey and results in fewer flavor side effects compared with HP and residual BA is

  18. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  19. The effect of microfiltration on color, flavor, and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Y; Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2015-09-01

    The residual annatto colorant in fluid Cheddar cheese whey is bleached to provide a neutral-colored final product. Currently, hydrogen peroxide (HP) and benzoyl peroxide are used for bleaching liquid whey. However, previous studies have shown that chemical bleaching causes off-flavor formation, mainly due to lipid oxidation and protein degradation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of microfiltration (MF) on norbixin removal and to compare flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80) from MF whey to WPC80 from whey bleached with HP or lactoperoxidase (LP). Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured from colored, pasteurized milk. The fluid whey was pasteurized and fat separated. Liquid whey was subjected to 4 different treatments: control (no bleaching; 50°C, 1 h), HP (250 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), and LP (20 mg of HP/kg; 50°C, 1 h), or MF (microfiltration; 50°C, 1 h). The treated whey was then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried to 80% concentrate. The entire experiment was replicated 3 times. Proximate analyses, color, functionality, descriptive sensory and instrumental volatile analysis were conducted on WPC80. The MF and HP- and LP-bleached WPC80 displayed a 39.5, 40.9, and 92.8% norbixin decrease, respectively. The HP and LP WPC80 had higher cardboard flavors and distinct cabbage flavor compared with the unbleached and MF WPC80. Volatile compound results were consistent with sensory results. The HP and LP WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (especially heptanal, hexanal, pentanal, 1-hexen-3-one, 2-pentylfuran, and octanal) compared with unbleached and MF WPC80. All WPC80 had >85% solubility across the pH range of 3 to 7. The microstructure of MF gels determined by confocal laser scanning showed an increased protein particle size in the gel network. MF WPC80 also had larger storage modulus values, indicating higher gel firmness. Based on bleaching efficacy comparable to chemical bleaching with HP

  20. Nesting biology of four Tetrapedia species in trap-nests (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Tetrapediini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camillo, Evandro

    2005-01-01

    The nests used in this study were obtained from trap-nests (tubes of cardboard and cut bamboo stems) placed on Santa Carlota Farm (Itaoca Section-IS, Santana Section-SS and Cerrado-Ce), Cajuru, SP, Brazil. The number of nests and corresponding species obtained were as follows: 516 nests of T. curvitarsis, 104 of T. rugulosa, 399 of T. diversipes and 98 of T. gamfaloi. The most abundant species from SS and Ce was T. curvitarsis, and from IS it was T. diversipes. In general, most nests were collected during the hot and wet season (September to April). The nests were constructed with sand and an oily substance, and a single female established them. The cells were constructed in a linear series, sometimes followed by a vestibular cell. The number of brood cells ranged from 1 to 10 in T. curvitarsis (n=200), and in T. garofaloi (n-51), from 1 to 8 (n-30) in T. rugulosa, and from 1 to 6 (n=37) in T. diversipes. The pollen mass (pollen + oily substance) contained a hollow, sometimes divided by a transverse ridge, on the exposed face of the pollen mass. The egg was vertically positioned in the lower part of the hollow. At times, the closing of a cell was initiated before provisioning was completed, with a construction of a collar at the cell limit. In some nests the final cellular partition also acted as a closure plug. Females began activities at 6:18 a.m. and ended between 3:31 and 6:26 p.m. Some females (T. curvitarsis, T. rugiulosa and T. ganrfaloi) did not spend the nights at their nests, returning to them only the following morning with additional material. In general, the development period (for males and females) was greater in nests collected near the end of the hot and wet season than it was for nests collected in other months. Sex ratios for each species were as follows: T. curvitarsis. 1:1: T. rugulosa, 1.6:1 female; T. diversipes, 1.9:1: T. garofaloi, 2.8:1. Males and females of T. diversipes exhibited statistically similar sizes and in the other three species

  1. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  2. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE NIOSH BOILER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James T. Cobb Jr.

    2005-02-10

    gasification project at its site. Throughout much of this total project the Principal Investigator has counseled two small businesses in developing a waxed cardboard pellet business. A recent test burn of this biofuel appears successful and a purchase contract is anticipated soon. During the past two months a major tree-trimming firm has shown an active interest in entering the wood-chip fuel market in the Pittsburgh area and has contacted the NBP, among others, as potential customers. The NBP superintendent is currently in discussion with the facilities management of the Bruceton Research Center about resuming their interest in cofiring this renewable fuel to the stoker there.

  3. Challenges in the training of new teachers of Geography. Knowledge and experience exchanges with fishermen from Batoque, Aquiraz-Ceará. Oficina de GPS para pescadores na Reserva Extrativista do Batoque – Aquiraz /CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Bezerra Rocha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An account on a teaching experiment carried out on the Extractive Reserve of Batoque-Ceará, involving fourteen fishermen whose great majority was unable to read or write. This reflection focuses on how a Geography licensed teacher can act in face of a community need to learn how to use a GPS device. The methodology consisted in the setting up of a 20-hour workshop using cardboard signs (drawings and numbers, followed by the individual handling of a GPS device, this way increasing the value of the fishermen’s knowledge. The exercises drilled gave the group the opportunity to learn about the importance of using technology in its fish-catching activity (marking and entering a position, wind direction, distances in metres, quilometres, course, degrees, compass and route. It was observed that the incorporation of technology means a change in tradition, in the “secret of doing the thing.” There was an exchange of ideas and information between university scholarship and the fishermen’s everyday knowledge.Relato sobre experiência de ensinar realizada na Reserva Extrativista do Batoque – Ceará, com 14 pescadores, que a grande maioria não sabia ler e nem escrever. Em foco refletir sobre como pode se dar a atuação do professor licenciado em Geografia diante de uma demanda comunitária de ensinar a usar um instrumento de posicionamento global - GPS. A metodologia consistiu na realização de uma oficina de 20 horas com a utilização de cartazes em papel madeira (desenhos e números, e, em seguida o manejo individual do aparelho de GPS, valorizando o saber dos pescadores. Os exercícios trabalhados proporcionaram ao grupo apreender o significado do uso da tecnologia na atividade pesqueira (marcar a localização/posição, inserir uma posição, direção dos ventos, distância em metros, quilômetros, rumo, grau, bússola e rotas. Constatou-se que a incorporação da tecnologia implica a possibilidade da mudança de uma tradição (

  4. Sensory and chemical stability in coated peanuts with the addition of essential oils and synthetic antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedo, R. H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant effect of essential oils on the oxidative stability of coated peanuts. Untreated coated peanuts (CP and treated coated peanuts with the addition of rosemary (CP-R, oregano (CP-O and laurel (CP-L essential oils and BHT (CPBHT were prepared. Peroxide values (PV and p-anisidine values (AV and the intensity ratings of sensory attributes by descriptive analysis were measured during 112 days of storage at room temperature (23°C. CP-BHT exhibited the lowest PV and AV increase. CP-R, CP-O and CP-L showed lower rates of increase in PV and AV than CP. The oxidized and cardboard flavor intensity ratings increased much more in CP during storage than the other studied products. CPBHT also showed the lowest increase in the intensity ratings of these sensory attributes. Three essential oils, namely, laurel, oregano and rosemary showed antioxidant activity and increased the shelf life of coated peanuts.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto antioxidante de aceites esenciales sobre la estabilidad oxidativa en maní recubiertos. Se prepararon maníes recubiertos sin agregados (CP, y con el agregado de aceites esenciales de romero (CP-R, orégano (CP-O y laurel (CP-L y BHT (CPBHT. Se midieron, durante 112 días de almacenamiento, los valores de peróxidos (PV y p-anisidina (AV, y las intensidades de atributos sensoriales mediante análisis descriptivo. CP-BHT presentó el menor valor de PV y AV. CP-R, CP-O y CP-L tuvieron mayor PV y AV respecto a CP. Los valores de intensidad del sabor oxidado y cartón tuvieron un mayor incremento en CP durante el almacenamiento con respecto a los otros productos estudiados. La muestra CP-BHT también mostró los menores valores de intensidad de estos atributos sensoriales. Los aceites esenciales de laurel, orégano y romero presentaron actividad antioxidante e incrementaron la vida útil del maní recubierto.

  5. OPERATING THE WAND AND HERCULES PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. GRUETZMACHER; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    shielded detectors which screen low-density waste in two cubic foot cardboard boxes or in bags sitting on a turntable. Waste that does not pass the verification process can be examined within the facility to determine the type and quantity of the contamination and its origin within a waste container. The paper discusses lessons learned that have helped generators improve their AK segregation.

  6. Adapting to an innovation: Solar cooking in the urban households of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Hilde M.

    Most households in Sub-Saharan Africa rely on wood as primary energy source. The availability of wood is decreasing and deforestation is a major ecological problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. The scarcity of wood is demanding for a sustainable solution. The sun seems to provide a good alternative. Solar energy is free, without unhealthy smoke or chances to burns. The idea of using solar energy for cooking is not new: many different techniques have already been tested. Most variants are expensive, and therefore not available for most families in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cheap solar cooking device is the CooKit, a cardboard panel cooker covered with aluminium foil. In the adaptation to the CooKit, as to all innovations, it is important that the users are convinced of the advantages. An important step in the adaptation process is learning how to use the cooking device; the best way to do this is by home practice. Monitoring and evaluating the real use is needed, for it is interesting to know if the CooKit is actually used, and also to find out how women have implemented the new technique in their kitchens. In 2005, the SUPO foundation started a project in Burkina Faso: Programme Energie Solaire Grand-Ouaga (PESGO). The aim of PESGO is to introduce the CooKit in the urban households in Ouagadougou by providing training sessions and home assistance. In this paper, a mid-term review on this small-scale cooking project is presented. The possibilities and challenges of solar cooking are outlined, taking the urban context of Ouagadougou in account. In PESGO, dependence on weather conditions is found to be one of the challenges: if sunrays are blocked by clouds or dust in the air, the cooking will be slowed down. The CooKit cannot replace firewood entirely, and a complementary element has to be found. SUPO is exploring the use of Jatropha oil as a complement to the CooKit. The Jatropha plant is drought tolerant and its fruits contain oil which can be used as fuel substitute. Further

  7. DETERMINATON OF ORGANIC MATTER PRESENT IN URBAN WASTE RESIDUE FROM A SANITARY LANDFILL USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CURVES: THE CASE OF SÃO CARLOS = DETERMINAÇÃO POR TERMOGRAVIMETRIA (TG DA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA PRESENTE EM AMOSTRA DE RESÍDUO SÓLIDO URBANO DE ATERRO SANITÁRIO: O CASO DE SÃO CARLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Schalch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of household waste produced by the population is generally deposited in sanitary landfills. Most of this waste is composed of organic matter, followed by paper and cardboard, plastic, metal and others. After the waste is covered with soil in the landfill, the organic matter begins to decompose, producing several organic compounds, among them the organic acids and acetates. Thermal analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, which are Analytic Chemistry resources, as well as the dust x-rays method of analysis, were used in this study to identify the amount of organic matter, the kind of residue, and the metals present in a sample from a sanitary landfill. The results of the Thermogravimetric (TG analysis curves generated information about dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition, and the amount of organic matter present in urban solid waste that had been deposited in the landfill for four years. = A quantidade excessiva de resíduo sólido domiciliar gerado pela população é em geral disposta em aterros sanitários. A maior parte desse resíduo é constituída de matéria orgânica seguido de papel e papelão, plástico, metal e outros. Após a cobertura do lixo com terra nos aterros, a matéria orgânica começa a se decompor gerando diversos compostos entre eles os ácidos orgânicos e acetatos. A Análise Térmica e a Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica, que são recursos da Química Analítica, bem como a análise de raios X método de pó foram usadas neste trabalho, visando identificar a quantidade de matéria orgânica, o tipo de resíduo final e a presença de metais em amostra retirada de aterro sanitário. O resultado da análise Termogravimétrica (TG forneceu informações sobre a desidratação, estabilidade térmica, decomposição térmica e a quantidade de matéria orgânica presente no resíduo sólido urbano (RSU, após quatro anos de disposição no aterro sanitário de São Carlos, SP.

  8. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  9. Del pergamino al bit. La influencia del soporte en el contenido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistal, Ana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The printed book has been one of the most revolutionary developments in European history; the coming of the book was possible tanks to the development of the printing industry. The evolution of the new technology around the book industry caused profound changes affecting authors, producers and readers. New medium favoured new ways to create contents. Digital technology is pushing another revolution that threatens to change the world of the book, not only in terms of physical media, but also the concept of isolated book, closed by cardboard covers, with delimited beginning and end. The big change is not the transition from printed characters to bits; the change will be the transition from isolated books to connected books, which can be accessed trough multiples ways (or “links”, open books against to the closed books of the Gutenberg age.El libro moderno de papel ha sido, sin duda, uno de los instrumentos más revolucionarios en la historia europea; su aparición fue posible gracias a las nuevas tecnologías de impresión y edición en papel. El cambio que supuso el desarrollo industrial de los libros cambió totalmente la concepción de los creadores, distribuidores y lectores. Los nuevos y modernos soportes propiciaron nuevas formas para crear contenidos antes imposibles. La tecnología digital está propiciando otra gran revolución que amenaza con cambiar el mundo del libro, no sólo en cuanto al soporte físico, sino a su concepto como libro aislado, delimitado por unas tapas de cartón, con un principio y un fin concretos. El gran cambio no es el paso de letras impresas a bits, sino el paso de libros aislados a libros “conectados”, a los que se puede acceder mediante infinitas fórmulas (o “conexiones” en oposición a los libros cerrados de la era Gutenberg.

  10. Biodegradabilidad de Artículos Desechables en un Sistema de Composta con Lombriz Biodegradability of disposable products in a vermicomposting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ruiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar de manera preliminar si materiales denominados "verdes" o "biodegradables" son degradados satisfactoriamente en sistemas de composta con lombriz a pequeña escala. La mayoría de dichos materiales se elaboran con derivados del papel o con biopolímeros naturales, de los cuales el más común es el ácido poliláctico (PLA. Para el estudio se sometieron a distintas pruebas cuatro artículos desechables etiquetados como biodegradables hechos de los siguientes materiales: bagazo de caña de azúcar, PLA, papel recubierto por PLA y polímero de maíz. Los resultados mostraron que el PLA, el papel recubierto por PLA y el polímero de maíz no presentan una degradación adecuada en estos sistemas. Esto se atribuye a que no se tienen las condiciones necesarias para iniciar la hidrólisis que el biopolímero requiere para disminuir su masa molecular y hacerlo susceptible al ataque microbiológico y/o a la digestión por lombriz. En cambio el material de bagazo de caña de azúcar mostró un desempeño positivo en la prueba.The objective of this study is to conduct an initial test of whether green disposable products satisfactorily degrade in small-scale vermicomposting systems. Most of these materials are made of paper/cardboard or natural biopolymers, being the polylactic acid (PLA the most commonly employed. Four disposable green products, made of sugar cane fiber, PLA, paper covered with PLA and corn polymer, respectively, were tested. Results showed that disposable items made of PLA, paper covered with PLA, and corn polymer do not satisfactorily degrade in this kind of systems. This is mainly due to not having the ideal conditions for biopolymer hydrolysis, molecular weight reduction, and subsequent microbiological attack and/or worm digestion. However, the sugar cane fiber material had a positive performance in the test.

  11. Analysis of the importance of drug packaging quality for end users and pharmaceutical industry as a part of the quality management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončar Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we collected and analyzed information on the importance of drug packaging quality to end users and pharmaceutical industry, as an indicator of the process of traceability and originality of drugs. Two surveys were conducted: one among the end users of drugs (252 patients and the other among professionals working in seven pharmaceutical companies in Serbia. For most end users (82.5% quality on the packaging of drugs was important, but only 41.8% of them thought that the appearance of the packaging could be an indicator of genuinity of drugs. The existence of the control marks (KM on drug packaging was not of great importance, since most of them (86.9% know, its function, but majority (60.2% would nevertheless decide to buy the drug without KM. Regarding the experts from the pharmaceutical industry, more then two-thirds of them (68.4% believed that the existence of KM did not contribute to efficient operations. Although a great number of pharmaceutical industry professionals (84.2% answered that the introduction of GS1 DataMatrix system would allow for complete traceability of the drug from the manufacturer to the end user, only 22.2% of them introduced this system to their products. This study also showed that domestic producers did not have a great interest for additional protection (special inks, holograms, special graphics, smart multicolor design, watermark, chemically labeled paper and cardboard etc.. on their products, given that only 15.8 % of them had some kind of additional protection against counterfeiting. Monitoring drug traceability from a manufacturer to end user is achieved by many complex activities regulated by law. A high percentage of responders said they were satisfied with the functionality of traceability systems used in their companies. As a way to increase the quality of drug packaging and business performance most responders saw in the continuous improvement of the system of traceability within the company

  12. Analysis of International Commodity Shipping Data and the Shipment of NORM to the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Ely, James H.; Schweppe, John E.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Robinson, Sean M.

    2011-10-01

    tiles) tend to be shipped in 20 ft containers. Consumer products made from ceramic materials (e.g., tableware, sinks, and toilets) are generally shipped in 40 ft containers. This distinct discrepancy is due in large part to the packaging of the commodity. Consumer products are generally shipped packed in a box loaded with Styrofoam or other packing material to protect the product from breakage. Construction ceramic materials are generally shipped in less packing material, many times consisting of only a cardboard or wooden box. Granite is almost always shipped in a 20 ft container, given its very high density.

  13. An Intensive Insulinotherapy Mobile Phone Application Built on Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Kevin; Nichols, Eric; Xie, Ermai; Harper, Roy

    2010-01-01

    Background Software to help control diabetes is currently an embryonic market with the main activity to date focused mainly on the development of noncomputerized solutions, such as cardboard calculators or computerized solutions that use “flat” computer models, which are applied to each person without taking into account their individual lifestyles. The development of true, mobile device-driven health applications has been hindered by the lack of tools available in the past and the sheer lack of mobile devices on the market. This has now changed, however, with the availability of pocket personal computer handsets. Method This article describes a solution in the form of an intelligent neural network running on mobile devices, allowing people with diabetes access to it regardless of their location. Utilizing an easy to learn and use multipanel user interface, people with diabetes can run the software in real time via an easy to use graphical user interface. The neural network consists of four neurons. The first is glucose. If the user's current glucose level is within the target range, the glucose weight is then multiplied by zero. If the glucose level is high, then there will be a positive value multiplied to the weight, resulting in a positive amount of insulin to be injected. If the user's glucose level is low, then the weights will be multiplied by a negative value, resulting in a decrease in the overall insulin dose. Results A minifeasibility trial was carried out at a local hospital under a consultant endocrinologist in Belfast. The short study ran for 2 weeks with six patients. The main objectives were to investigate the user interface, test the remote sending of data over a 3G network to a centralized server at the university, and record patient data for further proofing of the neural network. We also received useful feedback regarding the user interface and the feasibility of handing real-world patients a new mobile phone. Results of this short trial

  14. Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling Potential for University Technology PETRONAS Academic Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad

    2010-01-01

    .8-2.4 kg day-1 in term-time and semester break, respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: These results showed providing suitable and enough number of recycling bins would encourage more people to participate in recycling activities. This will lead to more efficient waste segregation and reduction of waste load to the landfills. Therefore, a small or medium size three-compartment container system is suggested to be used in academic building of the campus which collects all paper and cardboard in first container, all plastic, glass, tin cans, aluminum and any other metals in second container and food waste in the third container.

  15. Effect of bleaching whey on sensory and functional properties of 80% whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, S; Campbell, R; Wojciechowski, K L; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A; Barbano, D M

    2012-06-01

    Whey is a highly functional food that has found widespread use in a variety of food and beverage applications. A large amount of the whey proteins produced in the United States is derived from annatto-colored Cheddar cheese. Color from annatto is undesirable in whey and must be bleached. The objective of this study was to compare 2 commercially approved bleaching agents, benzoyl peroxide (BP) and hydrogen peroxide (HP), and their effects on the flavor and functionality of 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Colored and uncolored liquid wheys were bleached with BP or HP, and then ultrafiltered, diafiltered, and spray-dried; WPC80 from unbleached colored and uncolored Cheddar whey were manufactured as controls. All treatments were manufactured in triplicate. The WPC80 were then assessed by sensory, instrumental, functionality, color, and proximate analysis techniques. The HP-bleached WPC80 were higher in lipid oxidation compounds (specifically hexanal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-octen-3-one) and had higher fatty and cardboard flavors compared with the other unbleached and BP-bleached WPC80. The WPC80 bleached with BP had lower norbixin concentrations compared with WPC80 bleached with HP. The WPC powders differed in Hunter color values (L, a, b), with bleached powders being more white, less red, and less yellow than unbleached powders. Bleaching with BP under the conditions used in this study resulted in larger reductions in yellowness of the powders made from whey with annatto color than did bleaching with HP. Functionality testing demonstrated that whey bleached with HP treatments had more soluble protein after 10 min of heating at 90°C at pH 4.6 and pH 7 than the no-bleach and BP treatments, regardless of additional color. Overall, HP bleaching caused more lipid oxidation products and subsequent off-flavors compared with BP bleaching. However, heat stability of WPC80 was enhanced by HP bleaching compared with control or BP

  16. Influence of heating and acidification on the flavor of whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S S; Fox, K M; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have established that whey protein manufacture unit operations influence the flavor of dried whey proteins. Additionally, manufacturers generally instantize whey protein isolate (WPI; ≥ 90% protein) by agglomeration with lecithin to increase solubility and wettability. Whey protein isolate is often subjected to additional postprocessing steps in beverage manufacturing, including acidification and heat treatment. These postprocessing treatments may further influence formation or release of flavors. The objective of the first study was to characterize the effect of 2 processing steps inherent to manufacturing of acidic protein beverages (acidification and heat treatment) on the flavor of non-instant WPI. The second study sought to determine the effect of lecithin agglomeration, a common form of instantized (INST) WPI used in beverage manufacturing, on the flavor of WPI after acidification and heat treatment. In the first experiment, commercial non-instantized (NI) WPI were rehydrated and evaluated as is (control); acidified to pH 3.2; heated to 85°C for 5 min in a benchtop high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurizer; or acidified to 3.2 and heated to 85°C for 30s (AH-HTST). In the second experiment, INST and NI commercial WPI were subsequently evaluated as control, acidified, heated, or AH-HTST. All samples were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acidification of NI WPI produced higher concentrations of dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and sensory detection of potato/brothy flavors, whereas heating increased cooked/sulfur flavors. Acidification and heating increased cardboard, potato/brothy, and malty flavors and produced higher concentrations of aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds. Differences between INST and NI WPI existed before treatment; INST WPI displayed cucumber flavors not present in NI WPI. After acidification, INST WPI were distinguished by higher

  17. Metallic aluminum in combustion; Metalliskt aluminium i foerbraenningen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, Rainer; Berg, Magnus; Bostroem, Dan; Hirota, Catherine; Oehman, Marcus; Oehrstroem, Anna

    2007-06-15

    Although aluminum is easily oxidized and melts at temperatures lower than those common in combustion, it can pass through the combustion chamber almost unscathed. If one performs calculations of thermodynamic equilibriums, conditions under which this could happen are extreme in comparison to those generally found in a furnace. Metallic aluminum may yet be found in rather large concentrations in fly ashes. There are also indications that metallic aluminum is present in deposits inside the furnaces. The objectives for the present investigation are better understanding of the behavior of the metallic aluminum in the fuel when it passes through an incinerator and to suggest counter/measures that deal with the problems associated with it. The target group is primary incineration plants using fuel that contains aluminum foil, for example municipal waste, industrial refuse or plastic reject from cardboard recycling. Combustion experiments were performed in a bench scale reactor using plastic reject obtained from the Fiskeby Board mill. First the gas velocity at which a fraction of the reject hovers was determined for the different fuel fractions, yielding a measure for their propensity to be carried over by the combustion gases. Second fractions rich in aluminum foils were combusted with time, temperature and gas composition as parameters. The partially combusted samples were analyzed using SEM/EDS. The degree of oxidation was determined using TGA/DTA. Reference material from full scale incinerators was obtained by collecting fly ash samples from five plants and analyzing them using XRD and SEM/EDS. The results show that thin aluminum foils may easily be carried over from the furnace. Furthermore, it was very difficult to fully oxidize the metallic flakes. The oxide layer on the surface prevents further diffusion of oxygen to the molten core of the flake. The contribution of these flakes to the build of deposits in a furnace is confirmed by earlier investigations in pilot

  18. Differences in granular materials for analogue modelling: Insights from repeated compression tests analyzed with X-ray Computed Tomography and image analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkmueller, M.; Schreurs, G.

    2009-12-01

    Six different granular materials for analogue modelling have been investigated using a sandbox with a compressional set-up and X-ray computed tomography (XRCT). The evolving structures were evaluated with image analysis software. The sandbox has one movable sidewall that is driven by a computer-controlled servomotor at 20 cm/h. A 12 cm wide and 20 cm long sheet of hard cardboard was placed on the base of the sandbox and attached to the moving sidewall creating a velocity discontinuity. The whole sandbox was covered on the inside with Alkor foil to reduce sidewall friction. Computed Tomography was used to scan the whole volume in 3 mm increments of shortening until 15 mm maximum deformation was reached. The second approach was a scanning procedure to a maximum deformation of 80 mm in 2 mm increments of shortening for the first 10 mm and in 5 mm increments for the last 70 mm. The short deformation scans were repeated three times to investigate reproducibility. The long deformation scans were performed twice. The physical properties of the materials (table 1) have been described in a previous material benchmark. Four natural quartz sands and two artificial granular materials, corundum brown sand and glass beads, have been used. The two artificial materials were used for this experimental series as examples for very angular and very rounded sands in contrast to the sub-rounded to angular natural quartz sands. The short deformation experiments show partly large differences in thrust angles of both front and back-thrust, in timing of thrust initiation, and in the degree of undulation of thrusts. The coarse-grained sands show smooth and low undulating thrusts that are only affected by the sidewall friction whereas the thrusts in fine-grained sands undulate significantly and partly divide and merge in an anastomosing fashion. The coarse-grained sand thrusts are clearer visualized by XRCT, which indicates a wider shear zone where the material dilates. Furthermore, the

  19. Numerical and experimental study of the influence of the operational parameters on the formation mechanisms of oxides of nitrogen during the combustion of mixtures of cellulosic and plastic materials; Etude experimentale et numerique de l'influence des parametres operatoires sur les mecanismes de formation des oxydes d'azote lors de la combustion de melanges de materiaux cellulosiques et plastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andzi Barhe, T.

    2004-10-15

    The current thesis was performed within a collaboration between the Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique (LCD of the University of Poitiers) and the Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie d'Environnement (LPCE) of the University of Ouagadougou. It was financed by Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME). The principle object of this study is the optimisation of the combustion process during the incineration of waste. This optimisation is aimed at the reduction of the polluting emissions, principally CO and NO, during the incineration of cellulosic and plastic materials. It involves the analysis of the influence of the operational parameters on the polluting emissions and the control of reaction mechanisms of formation and reduction of these pollutants during the combustion process. Consequently, the study was performed in two parts: an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental part was realised using a fixed bed counterflow reactor. This setup simulates the combustion within an industrial waste incinerator. The reactor allows the combustion of a vertical layer of waste mixture (wood, cardboard, PET, polyamide) to be followed. Three model mixtures representative of the makeup of household waste were studied in order to determine the influence of the composition of the waste on the emission of pollutants (CO and NO). The obtained results show that this parameter has a practically negligible influence within the tested parameter range. Consequently the formation of pollutants depends on the operating parameters - the equivalence ratio and the temperature. A numerical study of the influence of these parameters in order to show their impact on the mechanisms of pollutant formation and to determine the chemical mechanisms involved in the formation of oxides of nitrogen. The numerical study was performed with software developed at the LCD. This programme based on a detailed chemical model coupled to a simple physical model. It uses the

  20. AS PRÁTICAS DE MICROCRÉDITO PRODUTIVO EM UMA EMPRESA DE RECICLAGEM DE PAPEL DO PÓLO INDUSTRIAL DE MANAUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Araújo de Souza Júnior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo   Em um ambiente caracterizado por significativas diferenças e desigualdades sócio-econômicas, no qual uma parcela da população de baixa renda dificilmente tem acesso ao sistema financeiro tradicional, fortalece-se o sistema de microfinanças que tem por finalidade prover os cidadãos de diversos serviços financeiros. O presente trabalho, de cunho teórico-empírico, tem o objetivo de descrever, através da metodologia qualitativa, as práticas de microcrédito produtivo implantadas por uma empresa do subsetor de papel, papelão e celulose, localizada no Pólo Industrial de Manaus. O levantamento de dados legitimou-se através de um estudo de caso de natureza qualitativa, com uma abordagem descritiva. O estudo pôde concluir que houve uma iniciativa inédita no PIM através da oferta de microcrédito produtivo. Os resultados demonstram que a empresa conseguiu alavancar as suas atividades produtivas, gerou emprego, renda e estimula, de forma sustentável, a atividade dos catadores de papel da cidade de Manaus.   Palavras-Chave: Microfinanças. Microcrédito Produtivo. Reciclagem de Papel. Catadores de Papel. Sustentabilidade.   Abstract   In an environment characterized by significant differences and socio-economic inequalities, in which a portion of low-income people rarely have access to traditional financial system, strengthen the microfinance system which aims to provide the citizens of various financial services. This work, theoretical and empirical, is intended to describe, using qualitative methods, practices productive microcredit implemented by a company of the sub sector of paper, cardboard and cellulose, located in the Industrial Pole of Manaus. The survey data is legitimized through a case study of a qualitative nature, with a descriptive approach. The study concludes that there was an unprecedented initiative in PIM by offering productive microcredit. The results show that the company could leverage its productive

  1. Calorimeter-Based Triggers at the ATLAS Detector for Searches for Supersymmetry in Zero-Lepton Final States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Alexander

    Electrospinning is now recognized as an efficient technique to produce polymer fibers with diameters ranging from tens of nanometers to tens of microns from polymer solutions or melts using an applied electric field. A conventional electrospinning setup can only produce randomized fibrous mats. Researchers have developed modified electrospinning setups so as to collect macroscopically aligned fibers and have shown that aligned fibers are also oriented at the molecular level. However, the mechanism of molecular orientation is still under investigation. This dissertation is focused on understanding the driving forces for molecular orientation in electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) fibers. PVDF was chosen for this study because a large beta phase content can be formed by electrospinning and this beta phase of PVDF is very sensitive to an electric field. A customized collector is first developed here consisting of an Al foil covered cardboard with a rectangular air gap in the center. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images show that fibers in the gap are macroscopically aligned and those off the gap are randomly oriented. Polarized Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra demonstrate that fibers in the gap are aligned at the molecular level with the polymer backbones oriented along the fiber axis. However, quantitative analysis of molecular orientation from polarized FTIR data is only reasonable when the effect of fibrous mat thickness is also considered. Single fiber selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns not only confirm polarized FTIR results but also indicate that the molecular orientation is initially formed after the polymer jet is emitted from the Taylor cone and elongated by the whipping process while travelling towards the collector, and is then enhanced by the air gap. To further determine the mechanism of molecular orientation in the two steps (initial fiber formation followed by deposition on the gap), the effects of applied voltage

  2. SUEÑO DE PIBE… DE OFICIOS, CLASIFICACIONES Y DISTINCIONES EN VILLA SANGRE Y SOL (CÓRDOBA, ARGENTINA / Sueño de pibe… Crafts, classifications and distinctions in Villa Sangre y Sol (Córdoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Verónica Bermúdez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de las transformaciones del mercado laboral cuya impronta fue profundizada en Argentina en la década del noventa, junto a los elevados índices de desocupación y a la suba en el precio de ciertos materiales como el cartón, gran cantidad de individuos se volcaron hacia el “cartoneo” y la recolección de basura en las calles. Estos procesos provocaron una serie de disputas de sentidos por las formas de clasificación de los oficios y de las personas.En este artículo se analizan las perspectivas de los carreros de Sangre y Sol en torno a su oficio y las maneras en que el mismo regula, en diferentes contextos, las relaciones sociales dividiendo espacial y simbólicamente a la villa en al menos dos sectores.Desde una mirada etnográfica se pretende complejizar entonces los presupuestos de sentido común asociados a los sectores empobrecidos econonómicamente, en particular, aquellos referidos al trabajo. Asimismo, se desnaturaliza el supuesto de que esta problemática ha sido instaurada recientemente en nuestra sociedad, puesto que las categorías que designan las actividades de los carreros tradicionales, nuevos carreros, cartoneros y cirujas fluctúan poniendo en tensión problemas coyunturales tanto como entramados socio-históricos.Palabras claves: Oficios, carreros, distinciones, trabajo, relaciones sociales.AbstractIn the context of labor market transformations whose imprint was deepened in Argentina in the nineties, with high rates of unemployment and the rise in the price of materials such as cardboard, large number of individuals turned to the “cartoneo” and collecting garbage in the streets. These processes led to a series of disputes of meaning by forms of classification of crafts and persons.This article analyzes the prospects of the “carreros” from “Villa Sangre y Sol” around his occupation and the ways in which it regulates, in different contexts, social relations and symbolic space, dividing the village

  3. A research of the quality of the dot copy in the CTP plate%CTP 版网点复制的质量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷彩凤; 赵骁; 王兴

    2014-01-01

    In this article ,we use precise parameters to make the CTP plate .Then print the measure paper on 157 g/m2 duplex coated paper and 300 g/m2 gray background w hite card-board paer using exclusive imported offser printer R700 .With the help of magnifier and in-struments ,we can observe and record the changes through the dot copy .From these chan-ges ,the conclusion is that the definition and sharpness of dot are not ideal w hen making the CT P plate .But the dot can be exported linearly .And the spred of dot is greater ,the curve isn′t smooth .Also ,where the spread of dot is greatst has relationship to color .Showing the quality of dot reproduce ,this experiment is benificial to both tht development and application of CTP engraving .%选用精细制版参数制作C T P版,然后使用进口高档胶印机R700在157 g/m2双面铜版纸及300 g/m 2灰底白卡纸上印刷测控条,通过放大镜观察、仪器测试记录了网点复制过程的变化。从网点变化情况得知CTP版在制作时网点清晰度、锐利度不理想,但可以呈线性输出,而印刷过程中网点扩大偏大,且扩大曲线不够光滑,网点扩大最大处与色别有关。实验过程呈现出的网点复制质量对推动CTP版材的发展及应用提供了研究基础。

  4. 3D didactic model and useful guide of the semicircular conducts Modelo didático 3D e guia útil dos canais semicirculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo D'Albora Rivas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the semicircular canals and their central pathways is essential for the diagnosis of vestibular pathology. This 3 dimensional (3D scheme of the Semicircular Canals (SSCC is a teaching tool and a useful reference guide for rapid consultation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicolored cardboard model is accompanied by a user manual which provides a thorough description of the tool for the most common vestibular diseases. RESULTS: Although results cannot be quantitatively assessed, the model has been well received at several Latin American scientific conferences. The model is often understood with verbal instruction only; nevertheless, a printed user manual is included. CONCLUSIONS: This 3 dimensional (3D model of the Semicircular Canals (SSCC is a practical, low cost tool for use in private and academic settings.A identificação de determinadas afecções vestibulares exige conhecimento prévio sobre anatomia e fisiologia dos canais semicirculares (CSC e de suas conexões centrais, que apresentam complexidade anatômica tridimensional e funcional. OBJETIVO: Propor um modelo anatômico e funcional dos CSC, em 3 dimensões (3D, para servir como uma ferramenta didática e um guia útil de consulta rápida. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O modelo é projetado em cartão, com impressão em cores diferentes, acompanhados de um texto explicativo de 22 folhas, que detalha sua descrição topográfica, descritiva e sua utilização com base em exemplos das doenças vestibulares mais frequentes. RESULTADOS: Embora os resultados não possam ser avaliados numericamente, este modelo já foi compreendido por diversos especialistas e tem sido bastante utilizado por eles. Além disso, o produto deste trabalho já foi apresentado em diferentes eventos científicos latino-americanos com excelente aceitação. CONCLUSÃO: Trata-se de ferramenta útil e de baixo custo para o ensino, a prática clínica diária em otoneurologia.

  5. Observing of tree trunks and other cylindrical objects using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, Jana; Lambot, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Trees are a part of our everyday life, hence it is important to prevent their collapse to protect people and urban infrastructures. It is also important to characterize tree wood properties for usages in construction. In order to investigate internal parts of tree trunks non-invasively, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), or in this case, ultra-wideband microwave radar as a general tool, appears to be a very promising technology. Nevertheless, tree trunk tomography using microwave radar is a complicated task due to the circular shape of the trunk and the very complex (heterogeneous and anisotropic) internal structures of the trunk. Microwave sensing of tree trunks is also complicated due to the electromagnetic properties of living wood, which strongly depend on water content, density and temperature of wood. The objective of this study is to describe tree trunk radar cross sections including specific features originating from the particular circumferential data acquisition geometry. In that respect, three experiments were performed: (1) numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain software, namely, gprMax 2D, (2) measurements on a simplified laboratory trunk model including plastic and cardboard pipes, sand and air, and (3) measurements over a real tree trunk. The analysis was further deepened by considering: (1) common zero-offset reflection imaging, (2) imaging with a planar perfect electrical conductor (PEC) at the opposite side of the trunk, and (3) imaging with a PEC arc at the opposite side of the trunk. Furthermore, the shape of the reflection curve of a cylindrical target was analytically derived based on the straight-ray propagation approximation. Subsequently, the total internal reflection (TIR) phenomenon occurring in cylindrical objects was observed and analytically described. Both the straight-ray reflection curve and TIR were well observed on the simulated and laboratory radar data. A comparison between all experiments and radar

  6. Implementing Inclusive Design for Learning in an introductory geology laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, G.; Merriman, J. D.; Ceylan, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    As an expansion of universal design for learning, IDL provides a framework for opening up and adapting classroom interaction systems, minimizing barriers through promoting perception, engagement, expression, and accommodation for diverse learners. We implemented an introductory-level laboratory for communicating the concept of magma viscosity using the guidelines and principles of IDL. We developed the lab as a mini-implementation project for an IDL course offered by the University of Missouri (MU) Graduate School. The laboratory was subsequently taught during the summer session of Principles of Geology in our Department of Geological Sciences. Traditional geology laboratories rely heavily on visual aids, either physical (rocks and minerals) or representative (idealized cartoons of processes, videos), with very few alternative representations and descriptions made available to the students. Our main focus for this new lab was to diversify the means of representation available to the students (and instructor) to make the lab as equitable and flexible as possible. We considered potential barriers to learning arising from the physical lab environment, from the means of representation, engagement and expression, and tried to minimize them upfront. We centred the laboratory on the link between volcano shape and viscosity as an applied way to convey that viscosity is the resistance to flow. The learning goal was to have the students observe that more viscous eruptives resulted in steeper-sided volcanoes through experimentation. Students built their own volcanoes by erupting lava (foods of various viscosities) onto the Earth's surface (a piece of sturdy cardboard with a hole for the 'vent') through a conduit (pastry bag). Such a hands on lab exercise allows students to gain a tactile and visual, i.e., physical representation of an abstract concept. This specific exercise was supported by other, more traditional, means of representation (e.g., lecture, videos, cartoons, 3D

  7. Irradiation dose control of chicken meat processing with alanine/ESR dosimetric system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagusku, L. [Centro de Tecnologia de Carnes, Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos. Av. Brasil, 2880 13074-001 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Chen, F. [Departmento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP - Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Kuaye, A. [Departamento de Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade de Campinas, Campinas - SP (Brazil); Castilho, C.J.C. [Departamento de Agroindustria, ESALQ, Piracicaba - SP (Brazil); Baffa, O. [Departmento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP - Universidade de Sao Paulo, 14040-901, Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil)], E-mail: baffa@ffclrp.usp.br

    2007-07-15

    Irradiation of foodstuff is a well-known food preservation technique. In Brazil spices are already irradiated for sanitary and preservation reasons. Chicken meat is an important commodity; Brazil is the second largest world producer and the largest world exporter. The shelf-life of chicken meat is limited by the presence of micro-organisms and enzyme activity and together with other preservation techniques irradiation seems to be an attractive option. In this study the dose delivered to frozen chicken cuts was measured and compared with the prescribed value. Chicken breast cuts were analyzed for 39 days for their microbiological activity, chemical and organoleptic properties. Cylindrical dosimeters were prepared using the weight composition of 80% of DL-alanine (Sigma Co), used without any further treatment except drying, and 20% of paraffin. The dosimeters having 4.7 mm diameter and 12 mm length were inserted in a build-up cap. Dosimeters were placed inside cardboard boxes containing frozen chicken breast cuts, packed in styrofoam trays wrapped with plastic film. The boxes were irradiated in an industrial {sup 60}Co irradiator (Nordion JS 7500) with a dose rate of 4 kGy/h. First derivative ESR signals were obtained in a VARIAN E-4 spectrometer operating at X-band ({nu}{approx}9GHz) and equipped with a rectangular cavity (TE-102, model E-231). The cavity was constantly purged with dry nitrogen and modulated at 100 KHz with 0.5 mT peak to peak. A calibration curve was made for a few dosimeters from the same batch and used to obtain the dose from the ESR signal intensity. A batch of six boxes was irradiated at each experiment with prescribed doses of 1.5, 3.0 and 7.0 kGy. Considering that the larger the radiation dose the greater is the probability of finding a product with its sensorial characteristics altered (odor of burned meat), we conclude that a dose of 3 kGy would be more adequate, taking into account the microbiological and sensorial aspects.

  8. Short communication: Flavor and flavor stability of cheese, rennet, and acid wheys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Smith, T J; Drake, M A

    2016-05-01

    Dried whey ingredients are valuable food ingredients but potential whey sources are underutilized. Previous work has established flavor and flavor stability differences in Cheddar and Mozzarella wheys, but little work has compared these whey sources to acid or rennet wheys. The objective of this study was to characterize and compare flavor and flavor stability among cheese, rennet, and acid wheys. Full-fat and fat-free Cheddar, rennet and acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt fluid wheys were manufactured in triplicate. Wheys were fat separated and pasteurized followed by compositional analyses and storage at 4°C for 48 h. Volatile compound analysis and descriptive sensory analysis were evaluated on all liquid wheys initially and after 24 and 48 h. Greek yogurt whey contained almost no true protein nitrogen (0.02% wt/vol) whereas other wheys contained 0.58%±0.4% (wt/vol) true protein nitrogen. Solids and fat content were not different between wheys, with the exception of Greek yogurt whey, which was also lower in solids content than the other wheys (5.6 vs. 6.5% wt/vol, respectively). Fresh wheys displayed sweet aromatic and cooked milk flavors. Cheddar wheys were distinguished by diacetyl/buttery flavors, and acid wheys (acid casein, cottage cheese, and Greek yogurt) by sour aromatic flavor. Acid casein whey had a distinct soapy flavor, and acid and Greek yogurt wheys had distinct potato flavor. Both cultured acid wheys contained acetaldehyde flavor. Cardboard flavor increased and sweet aromatic and buttery flavors decreased with storage in all wheys. Volatile compound profiles were also distinct among wheys and changed with storage, consistent with sensory results. Lipid oxidation aldehydes increased in all wheys with storage time. Fat-free Cheddar was more stable than full-fat Cheddar over 48h of storage. Uncultured rennet casein whey was the most stable whey, as exhibited by the lowest increase in lipid oxidation products over time. These results

  9. El sistema de la bolsa es útil como espaciador para la administración de los aerosoles presurizados A plastic bag is useful as spacer device for pressurized aerosol delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mendoza I

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha demostrado que el depósito y efecto de los medicamentos administrados a través de los inhaladores presurizados mejora con el uso de espaciadores, pero la adherencia a estos accesorios no es buena por su costo y por su tamaño incómodo. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar si un sistema artesanal tipo reservorio, armado con una bolsa plástica unida a una boquilla de cartón, es efectivo como espaciador. Para esto, seleccionamos a 17 sujetos mayores de 16 años con espirometría con limitación ventilatoria obstructiva y respuesta espirométrica significativa a 200 µg de salbutamol en aerosol presurizado. Se les asignó aleatoriamente a dos grupos: uno con aerocámara y otro con bolsa. Con esta última se obtuvo aumento del VEF1 y de la CVF post broncodilatador de mayor magnitud que con la aerocámara, con diferencia estadística significativa. Nos parece que estos resultados validan al sistema de la bolsa como espaciador de aerosoles presurizados para el uso de los pacientesIt has been demostrated that the effect of inhaled medications is enhanced by spacer devices, but their sizes make them unpractical to carry around and they have additional cost. In order to test if a homemade cheap spacer is as effective as the commercial spacers, we tested a small plastic bag with a cardboard mouth piece. We recluted 17 patients over 16 years of age with an obstructive ventilatory limitation in spirometry with a significative response with 200 µg of albuterol. We randomized patients into two groups: one received the bronchodilator through a commercial spacer and the other through the homemade device. We observed that with the latter we obtained similar or better FEV1 and FVC increases. We conclude that the use of this cheap device can be used in patients with advantage over commercial ones

  10. Taking centre stage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the

  11. A kidney from hell? A nephrological view of the Whitechapel murders in 1888.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gunter

    2008-10-01

    In the poor Whitechapel district of the East End of London in the fall of 1888, at least five prostitutes were brutally murdered, and in all but one case, also mutilated. The murderer was never caught and became known by his nickname 'Jack the Ripper'. The left kidney and the uterus were cut out and taken away from one of the victims named Catherine Eddowes. A kidney was also cut out of the body from another victim, but not taken away. Two weeks later, George Lusk, president of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee, received a small cardboard box with half of a longitudinally divided kidney and a letter entitled 'From hell' claiming that the kidney inside the box was taken from the victim. The kidney was brought to Dr Thomas Horrocks Openshaw, the Curator of the London Pathological Museum, where the kidney could be microscopically examined. The press jumped on the topic and made a circumstantial case that this kidney had been indeed torn from the body of Catherine Eddowes. According to the later memoirs of Major Henry Smith of the City Police published more than 20 years after the incident, the kidney left in the corpse of Catherine Eddowes was in an advanced stage of Bright's disease and the kidney sent to George Lusk was in exactly a similar stage. Today, the majority of criminologists believe that the kidney sent to Mr Lusk was a hoax as were other letters signed with Jack the Ripper. However, the murderer took organs from his victims, and in the case of Catherine Eddowes, the kidney. Serial killers often mutilate their victims and abscond with the removed body parts as trophies. By removing the kidney from Catherine Eddowes, Jack the Ripper may have tried to take possession of the conscience, emotions and desires of one of his victims, attributes residing in the kidney as described in the Bible. Jack the Ripper was never caught; many suspects have been suggested, and the murder series ended as suddenly as it had begun. We will never know who this mentally

  12. Comportamento pós-colheita de mamões Formosa 'Tainung 01' acondicionados em diferentes embalagens para o transporte Post harvest behavior of Papaya Formosa 'Tainung 01' conditioned in different packings for transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Magalhães dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    in the stages 1 (up to 10% of the colored yellow skin superficial area and 3 (25 to 40% of the colored yellow skin superficial area, packed in different ways: in bulk, in wooden boxes, in wavy cardboard boxes and in plastic boxes covered internally with bubble-wrap (control, and then transported to Viçosa/MG, 750 km away from the production, where the fruits were evaluated. After selection and new packaging, the fruits were stored for 24,5 ± 2ºC for eight days with samplings every two days, to evaluate the skin color index, fresh mass loss, respiration rate, pulp firmness and the mechanical injuries index. The results showed the depreciative effects of the mechanical injuries on the final quality of the papaya, as the transportation of fruits in bulk, in regard to control, caused alterations on the fruit post harvest quality, with increase of skin color index, decrease of pulp firmness, high fresh mass loss and respiratory rate, and the higher percentages of injured skin area in both color stages studied (1,14 and 1,21%, respectively. The wavy cardboard boxes and the plastic boxes covered internally with bubble-wrap maintained a small percentage of injured skin in regard to the transportation of fruits in bulk, proving to be a promising way to maintain the post harvest quality of Formosa papaya that goes to the internal market.

  13. Treatment of complex maxillary sinus disease through the frontal recess of tears operation under endoscope%鼻内镜下泪前隐窝入路手术治疗复杂上颌窦病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡煜; 孙敬武

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility, efficacy and complications of the frontal recess of tears operation to completely remove maxillary sinus lesions under endoscope in the complex maxillary sinus disease. Methods From June 2008 to June 2010, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 26 cases getting different types of the complex maxillary sinus disease which were treated by the frontal recess of tears operation. Among 26 cases: 17 cases got inverted papilloma: 4 cases got hemorrhagic and necrotic polyps: 3 cases got recurrent maxillary sinusitis with cysts: 1 case got recurrent nasal polyps: 1 case got maxillary sinus osteoma. All patients underwent CT examination. The cases with inverted papillomaline underwent MR examination. Nasal and other sinus lesions were firstly removed and the natural maxillary sinus ostium were opened and expanded. Then the maxillary sinus lesions were removed by the frontal recess of tears operation. Following this operation , the inferior meatus after fenestration were performed. The complications and postoperative effect were observed. Results In all patients, every maxillary sinus walls were well exposed. The lesions were completely removed. The operations have done well without nasolacrimal duct injury, turbinate atrophy and necrosis, complications such as the facial numbness. All the cases had 12-36 months follow-up. Two cases with inverted papillomaline showed recurrence. One of them got a recurrence in the junction of top of the mouth of the maxillary sinus and the bottom of the orbital after surgery for 3 months. After the surgical removal of the lesions and next 1 year follow-up, no recurrence was found. Another case of them got a local recurrence in the ethmoid sinus involving the orbital ethmoid cardboard after surgery for 7 months. After the surgical removal of the lesions and local orbital cardboard and next 8 months follow-up, no recurrence was observed. The recurrence was not found in all other cases. All

  14. Projeto de caixa de madeira para manga (Mangifera Indica L. Project of wooden boxes for mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Janet Teruel

    2009-06-01

    is proposed, based on computer simulations, optimization and experimental validation, trying to minimize the amount of wood associated with structural and ergonomic aspects and the effective area of the openings. Three box prototypes were designed and built using straight laths with different configurations and areas of openings (54% and 36%. The cooling efficiency of Tommy Atkins mango (Mangifera Indica L. was evaluated by determining the cooling time for fruit packed in the wood models and packed in the commercially used cardboard boxes, submitted to cooling in a forced-air system, at a temperature of 6ºC and average relative humidity of 85.4±2.1%. The Finite Element Method was applied, for the dimensioning and structural optimization of the model with the best behavior in relation to cooling. All wooden boxes with fruit underwent vibration testing for two hours (20 Hz. There was no significant difference in average cooling time in the wooden boxes (36.08±1.44 min; however, the difference was significant in comparison to the cardboard boxes (82.63±29.64 min. In the model chosen for structural optimization (36% effective area of openings and two side laths, the reduction in total volume of material was 60% and 83% in the cross section of the columns. There was no indication of mechanical damage in the fruit after undergoing the vibration test. Computer simulations and structural study may be used as a support tool for developing projects for boxes, with geometric, ergonomic and thermal criteria.

  15. Rice straw recycling problems Проблемы рациональной утилизации рисовой соломы

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a fairly extensive analysis of the state of the cereal crop industry in the Republic of Tajikistan and other regions of East and South-East Asia. Problems of generation of a huge amount of waste in the course of processing of cereals, in particular, rice straw processing by-products, are raised by the authors. The authors propose their original solution to the problems in question. Besides, traditional and original methods of application of rice straw in low-rise construction and production of building materials are presented in the article. The major part of the article covers traditional methods of disposal of rice straw as a raw material used in the production of cellulose, lignin biodegradable plastic, paper, cardboard, wicker products, thermal energy, etc. Another important issue, covered in the article, is the study of the straw/husk burning process, as well as the possibility of generating ash that contains various forms of silica. The fact that the ash content of the straw, according to various sources, varies within the range of16–20 %, and its silica content may be up to 89–91 % make it possible for the authors to state that straw and husk ash can be used as an active mineral additive in the production of effective building materials. It is noteworthy that the problems raised in the article are relevant, and their practical solutions are feasible.Рассмотрены проблемы текущей утилизации и дальнейшего применения рисовой соломы и шелухи. Приведен анализ состояния решений указанных проблем в отрасли, рассмотрены существующие технологии утилизации и повторного использования рисовой соломы и шелухи. По результатам анализа сформулированы предпо

  16. Armazenamento refrigerado de banana 'Prata Anã' proveniente de cachos com 16, 18 e 20 semanas Refrigerated storage of 'Prata Anã' banana originating from 16, 18 e 20 week-old bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramilo Nogueira Martins

    2007-10-01

    and 20th weeks after the floral emission. From the clusters picked, the second bunches was used, separated in clusters with 5 fruits, washed and weighed (18 kg. Soon after, the fruits were wrapped with polyethylene packing of low density with 50mm of thickness under partial vacuum, conditioned in cardboard boxes and distributed on palets. After being wrapped and put on paletes, the fruits were transported to EPAMIG/CTNM, where they were stored in refrigeration chambers at 10 and 12ºC with a relative humidity of 95% for a period of 35 days, being analyzed before and after the refrigeration. The storage of 'Prata Anã' bananas, coming from 16, 18 and 20 week-old bunches, for 35 days at temperatures of 10 and 12ºC of did not promote "chilling injury" in the fruits. The 10ºC temperature was more effective in preventing the evolution of the coloration of the peel of bananas coming from 18 week-old bunches than the 12ºC temperature, while temperatures of 10 and 12ºC were equally efficient in the contention of the change of color of bananas coming from 16 week-old bunches. Fruits coming from 20 week-old bunches matured non-uniformly during refrigerated storage.

  17. Caracterização da comercialização de tomate de mesa na CEAGESP: perfil dos atacadistas Characterization and commercialization of fresh tomatoes at CEASA: profile of wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Andreuccetti

    2005-06-01

    pointed out that wholesalers had more than one type of buyer, and the main ones were street fair and supermarkets. Most of the tomato is commercialized in boxes (box K, followed by 20.8% of plastic boxes and 16.7% of cardboard packages. CEAGESP wholesalers adopt tomato classification, either done manually (58.4%, or by machines (8.3% or using both systems (33.3%. The standardization index was not satisfactory, with color and sizes in different degrees, and therefore 45.8% has to be reclassified.

  18. Testing limits to airflow perturbation device (APD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Shaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Airflow Perturbation Device (APD is a lightweight, portable device that can be used to measure total respiratory resistance as well as inhalation and exhalation resistances. There is a need to determine limits to the accuracy of APD measurements for different conditions likely to occur: leaks around the mouthpiece, use of an oronasal mask, and the addition of resistance in the respiratory system. Also, there is a need for resistance measurements in patients who are ventilated. Method Ten subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 were tested for each station in the experiment. The first station involved testing the effects of leaks of known sizes on APD measurements. The second station tested the use of an oronasal mask used in conjunction with the APD during nose and mouth breathing. The third station tested the effects of two different resistances added in series with the APD mouthpiece. The fourth station tested the usage of a flexible ventilator tube in conjunction with the APD. Results All leaks reduced APD resistance measurement values. Leaks represented by two 3.2 mm diameter tubes reduced measured resistance by about 10% (4.2 cmH2O·sec/L for control and 3.9 cm H2O·sec/L for the leak. This was not statistically significant. Larger leaks given by 4.8 and 6.4 mm tubes reduced measurements significantly (3.4 and 3.0 cm cmH2O·sec/L, respectively. Mouth resistance measured with a cardboard mouthpiece gave an APD measurement of 4.2 cm H2O·sec/L and mouth resistance measured with an oronasal mask was 4.5 cm H2O·sec/L; the two were not significantly different. Nose resistance measured with the oronasal mask was 7.6 cm H2O·sec/L. Adding airflow resistances of 1.12 and 2.10 cm H2O·sec/L to the breathing circuit between the mouth and APD yielded respiratory resistance values higher than the control by 0.7 and 2.0 cm H2O·sec/L. Although breathing through a 52 cm length of flexible ventilator tubing reduced the APD

  19. Demonstration of the greenhouse effect for elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Jelena

    2014-05-01

    The school where I work is part of the "Step by step towards the sustainable development school" project. Project activities are partly directed towards the popularization of science. As a physics teacher, I have had the opportunity to engage in designing interactive workshops, aiming to introduce younger students to simple experiments which illustrate different natural phenomena, and also in organization, preparation and implementation of school and city science festival (in 2012 and 2013). Numerous displays, workshops and experiments served to introduce a large number of visitors to different topics in the area of science and technology. One of the subjects of forthcoming science festival, planned for May of 2014, is the climate change. To that effect, eight grade students will hold a demonstration and explanation of the greenhouse effect. Although the terms greenhouse effect and global warming are widely used in media, most of the elementary school students in Serbia have poor understanding of the underlying scientific concepts. The experiment with analysis and discussion will first be implemented in one eight-grade class (14 years of age). After that, a group of students from this class will present their newly-acquired knowledge to their peers and younger students at the science fair. Activity objectives: • Explain how atmosphere affects the surface temperature of Earth • Conduct an experiment to demonstrate the greenhouse effect • Analyze the consequences of climate changes Experiment description: Take two empty, transparent containers and add a layer of garden soil. Use cardboard or similar material to make housings for the thermometers. Hang them in the containers, so that they don't touch the soil. Cover one container with a glass panel, and leave the other one open. Place identical incandescent light bulbs at the same distance above each container. Turn the light bulbs on. The students should mark the thermometer readings every 2 minutes, for 20

  20. Nesting biology of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini

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    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Nests of Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 were obtained from trap-nests in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest (Baixa Grande and caatinga (Ipirá, in the State of Bahia. Nesting occurred in bamboo canes and in tubes of black cardboard with 5.8 cm (= small tube and 10.5 cm (= large tube in length and 0.6 and 0.8 cm in diameter, respectively. In both areas C. tarsata nested during the wet season producing four generations in Baixa Grande and three generations in Ipirá. The immatures of one generation underwent diapause at both sites. The bees constructed their nests with a mixture of sand and oil. In general, the cells were elongated and arranged in linear series with its opening pointing towards the nest entrance. Completed nests had two to three cells in small tubes, one to seven cells in large tubes, and two to 13 cells in bamboo canes. The nest plug resembled an uncompleted cell and was externally covered with oil. The cells were provisioned with pollen, oil, and nectar. Nests were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae and other not identify bee species.Ninhos de Centris tarsata Smith, 1874 foram obtidos através da utilização de ninhos-armadilha, em áreas de floresta estacional semi-decídua (Baixa Grande e de caatinga (Ipirá, no Estado da Bahia. A nidificação ocorreu em gomos de bambus e em tubos de cartolina preta, estes com comprimentos de 5,8 cm (= tubos pequenos e 10,5 cm (= tubos grandes, e diâmetro de 0,6 e 0,8 cm, respectivamente. Em ambas as áreas C. tarsata nidificou durante a estação úmida, produzindo quatro gerações anuais em Baixa Grande e três em Ipirá. Os imaturos de uma das gerações passaram por diapausa em ambos os locais. As abelhas construíram seus ninhos com uma mistura de areia e óleo. Em geral, as células foram alongadas e arranjadas em série linear, com sua abertura dirigida para a entrada do ninho. Os ninhos completados tinham de duas a três células nos tubos pequenos

  1. Trap-nesting bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea in areas of dry semideciduous forest and caatinga, Bahia, Brazil Abelhas (Hymenoptera, Apoidea que nidificam em ninhos-armadilha em áreas de floresta semi-decídua e caatinga, Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida M. L. Aguiar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study were examined the species richness and seasonal abundance of cavity-nesting bees in areas of dry semi-deciduous forest and caatinga in the State of Bahia, Brazil. Sampling was done employing two types of trap-nests: bamboo canes and tubes made of black cardboard with dimensions of either 58 x 6 mm or 105 x 8 mm. The traps were inspected once a month. One hundred and forty-six nests of 11 bee species were collected in the forest, and 121 nests of seven species were collected in the caatinga. Five species of cleptoparasitic bees were also reared from these nests. The highest nesting frequencies occurred in the wet season in both areas. Nests parasitism was important only for Centris tarsata Smith, 1874, and was higher at the caatinga site than in the forest. The mortality of pre-emergent adults was high, especially in C. tarsata,Tetrapedia diversipes Klug, 1810 and Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758. Information on the number of cells per nest, the size, shape, and arrangement of brood cells in the nests, as well as the number of adults produced and the number of generations per year are also presented. Species richness, temporal patterns of nesting, and percentage of parasitism were compared with other habitats.Neste estudo foram investigadas a riqueza de espécies e a abundância sazonal de abelhas que nidificam em cavidades em áreas de Floresta estacional semi-decídua e Caatinga na Bahia. A amostragem foi realizada com dois tipos de ninhos-armadilha (= N.A.: gomos de bambu e tubos de cartolina preta (58 x 6 mm e 105 x 8 mm. Os N.A. foram inspecionados uma vez por mês. Foram coletados 146 ninhos de 11 espécies de abelhas na floresta e 121 ninhos de sete espécies na caatinga. Além disso, cinco espécies de abelhas cleptoparasitas foram criadas a partir destes ninhos. As freqüências de nidificação mais altas ocorreram na estação úmida em ambas as áreas. Parasitismo de ninhos foi importante apenas para Centris tarsata

  2. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology--a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  3. Atmosfera modificada e refrigeração para conservação pós-colheita de uva 'Niagara Rosada' Modified atmosphere and cold storage for postharvest conservation of 'Niagara Rosada' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da atmosfera modificada na conservação pós-colheita da uva 'Niagara Rosada' armazenada sob refrigeração, em dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento avaliou-se o acondicionamento de cachos nas seguintes embalagens: papelão ondulado (testemunha; tereftalato de polietileno (PET; cloreto de polivinila (PVC 17 μm; polietileno linear de baixa densidade (PELBD 25 μm; e PELBD 50 μm. Em outro experimento, avaliaram-se os sistemas de acondicionamento: sacolas de plástico abertas (testemunha; polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD 25 μm; PEBD 25 μm, com injeção de mistura gasosa (21% O2/5% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/10% CO2; PEBD 25 μm (21% O2/20% CO2. Os cachos foram armazenados a 1±1°C e 90±5% de umidade relativa (UR por 28 dias, seguido de armazenamento em condições do ambiente (25±2°C e 80±5% UR. Os cachos foram avaliados quanto à perda de massa de matéria fresca, firmeza, cor das bagas, esbagoamento, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez titulável (AT, relação SST/AT e incidência de podridões. O filme PELBD 50 μm, a partir do 14º dia a 1°C, seguido por mais três dias a 25°C, causou a fermentação dos cachos. As embalagens PELBD 25 μm, com ou sem injeção de mistura gasosa, e PVC 17 μm reduzem a perda de massa de matéria fresca dos cachos, mas não reduzem o esbagoamento e a incidência de podridões.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the modified atmosphere, on the storage life of 'Niagara Rosada' Table grape kept under refrigeration in two experiments. In the first one, grape clusters stored in different package materials were evaluated: corrugated cardboard boxes, polyethylene tereftalate (PET; 17-μm polyvinyl chloride (PVC; 25-μm low density linear polyethylene film (PELDB; and 50-μm PELDB. On a second assay, different packaging systems were evaluated: opened plastic bags; 25-μm low density polyethylene film (PEBD; 25-μm PEBD, with

  4. Influence of secondary packing on the freezing time of chiken meat in air blast freezing tunnels Influência da embalagem secundária sobre o tempo de congelamento de carne de frango em túneis de circulação de ar forçada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice de Ávila Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Freezing of poultry cuts in continuous convective air blast tunnels is normally performed with the products protected by Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE as a primary packaging and using Corrugated Cardboard Boxes (CCB as secondary packaging. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of these secondary packaging on the freezing of poultry cuts in continuous convective air blast tunnels. The study was performed by replacing CCB with Perforated Metal Boxes (PMB in order to remove the packaging thermal resistance. The assays, performed in a industrial plant, demonstrated that CCB used commercially for meat freezing have a high heat transfer resistance. Their replacement with PMB can lead to shorter freezing times and spatially homogeneous freezing. Reductions of up to 45% in the freezing times were observed using PMB. The plateau of the temperature curve, related to the freezing time of free water, was significantly reduced using PMB, which is accepted to lead to better product quality after thawing. As the products were protected by the LDPE films as primary packaging, their appearance were not affected. The results presented in this work indicate that replacing CBB with PMB can be an excellent alternative to reduce freezing time and improve freezing homogeneity in industrial air blast tunnels, which could also be applied to other products.O congelamento de cortes de frango em túneis convectivos é normalmente realizado com o produto envolto por filmes de polietileno de baixa densidade (PEBD, embalagem primária e acondicionado em caixas de papelão (CP, embalagem secundária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da embalagem secundária no congelamento dos cortes de frango. Para isso, compararam-se as curvas de congelamento do produto processado acondicionado em caixas metálicas perfuradas (CMP, que praticamente eliminam a resistência térmica da embalagem secundária, com as curvas de congelamento do produto nas CP

  5. Does the source of carbon influence the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ functional genes in laboratory denitrification bioreactors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Maria; Fenton, Owen; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Healey, Mark G.

    2014-05-01

    Biological denitrification in soil is the main producer of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrifying soil microbes are capable of reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) to N2O and di-nitrogen gas (N2). One third of these denitrifers possess a truncated functional gene pathway, which may lack the nosZ gene and emit N2O as a final emission product instead of the more benign N2. A carbon rich environment, specific to certain types of carbon sources, has been shown to foster an anaerobic environment, which positively impacts microbial denitrification rates. The present study examined the effect of varying carbon sources in laboratory-scale denitrification bioreactors on NO3- removal and also correlated performance with the abundance of the denitrifying microbial consortia possessing the denitrifying functional genes nirK, nirS and nosZ in each bioreactor. The bioreactors comprised either lodgepole pine woodchips (LPW), lodgepole pine needles (LPN), barley straw (BBS), or cardboard (CCB), each mixed with soil in a 1:1 ratio (by volume) and subject to sequentially increasing hydraulic loading rates of 3, 5 and 10 cm d-1 for a total operation period of up to 744 days. A reactor containing soil only (CSO) was used as the study control. The abundance of denitrifers was determined by targeting nirK, nirS, nosZ functional genes and the overall microbial population was determined by targeting bacterial and archaeal 16sRNA genes. Nitrate removal from all bioreactors was > 99.7%, but when pollution swapping was considered, this ranged from 67% for LPW to 95% for the CCB ; this was also mirrored in the average nirk/nirS/nosZ gene abundance (CCB, c. 94% (c. 108); LPN, 75% (c. 107); BBS, c. 74% (c. 106/107); LPW, 70% (c. 105). Bacterial 16sRNA gene abundance was similar in all reactors including the control (P=0.0362). The abundance of nosZ genes and the genetic potential for N2 emissions varied in all reactors in comparison to the control CSO, BBS (P=0.0051); CCB (P=0

  6. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    waste management organisations and disposal sites were conducted in various cities in the three case study countries. A resource-oriented manual sorting using the resource-recovery scavenging approach (RESA) simulating integration of scavenger's activities in waste sorting was conducted at BTU and Lagos. Major results obtained include: Characterization, quantification and classification of a dry sample of commingled MSW at Cottbus gave major waste fractions in order of decreasing abundance as 23.15% of residue waste, 19.75% of paper and cardboards, 17.80% of plastics, 14.63% of textiles and diapers, 10.06% of food waste and 9.55% of glass. An overall 33.21% of waste sample is compostable for manure, 52.2% usable as feedstock in the PG technology and 99.81% of total sample having a material or energy recovery potential. In Lagos, Nigeria main fractions were 29% of plastics, 36% of residue waste, 17% of soil/sand, 7% of paper with overall 41% usable as feedstock in PG technology, 39% compostable, 3% of recyclable (metal and glass). Sand can be recovered from the soil/sand fraction for construction. Excluding the sand/soil mixture, 83% of the total waste sample has potential for material and energy value. An appropriate technology that applies principles of pyrolysis and gasification to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy was designed, constructed, tested and optimized with respect to: (i) Successful functioning with conversion of averagely 98.51% of input constituting of 82.78-98.21% of charcoal and 96.72-99.27% of plastic to heat energy (ii) Evaluation of socioeconomic and environmental impacts based on pyrolysis and exhaust gas and ash residue analysis showed absence of VOCs, heavy metals and pollutant organic and inorganic compounds; (iii) Safety and risk assessment to indoor pollution is very low; (iv) Assessment of the WTA and WTP indicated that 94% of respondents in Lagos, Nigeria and Porto Novo, Benin were willing to accept and pay for this technology

  7. Side Effects of Fungicides Used in Cucurbitaceous Crop on Trichogrammaatopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae Efectos Secundarios sobre Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner (Hymenoptera: Trichogramatidae de Fungicidas usados en Cucurbitáceas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae can control Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. On the other hand, pesticides may reduce the efficiency of natural enemies. The objective was to evaluate the side-effects of fungicides used in the production of cucurbitaceous crops on Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner parasitizing D. hyalinata eggs. The fungicides used in bioassays were: azoxystrobin (0.08 g active ingredient [ai] L-1, chlorothalonil (2.00 g ai L-1, mancozeb (1.60 g ai L-1, tebuconazole (0.25 g ai L-1 and thiophanate-methyl (0.49 g ai L-1. Cardboards with 30 D. hyalinata eggs previously immersedin fungicide solutions and distilled water (control were offered separately to 20 newly emerged T. atopovirilia females in glass tubes. Parasitism, parasitism reduction, emergence, sex ratio, and number of individuals per egg were evaluated. The fungicides chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced parasitism of T. atopovirilia by 43.37, 27.64 and 18.51%, respectively. However, parasitism with azoxystrobin (79.21% was higher than the control (67.37% (P ≤ 0.05. Chlorothalonil, thiophanate-methyl and tebuconazole reduced emergence by 73.77, 75.62 and 79.35% (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Azoxystrobin and thiophanate-methyl reduced the sex ratio by 0.77 and 0.76 (P ≤ 0.05, respectively. Fungicides did not reduce the number of individuals per egg. The fungicides azoxystrobin and mancozeb were selective for T. atopovirilia for most studied parameters suggesting that these products must have the priority in crop disease management to allow efficient biological control of T. atopovirilia against D. hyalinata.Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae pueden controlar Diaphania hyalinata Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. Sin embargo, los plaguicidas pueden reducir la eficiencia de los enemigos naturales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la influencia de los fungicidas utilizados en la

  8. Taking health promotion on to the streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, A

    1992-06-01

    system. Little by little we made progress. One day a doctor would make the appointment timetable more flexible, and the next a nurse would come to help develop counselling sessions. This support has helped to change the attitude of other health professionals towards these young people. Now a child on the streets can be told: "Go to this hospital, and you will be well treated." Our street educators try to give the children themselves an awareness of their right to use public health care facilities. The educators work every night on the streets, giving advice and counselling and assessing the children's health problems. In the mornings and afternoons the educators go with them to the clinics or follow up with other types of referrals. SOS Crianca also has an ongoing prenatal care program for girls and an STD diagnosis, counselling and treatment program, which includes HIV/AIDS. How many young people does SOS Crianca reach? The answer is not only to do with the numbers seeking health care, but also how many clinic doors are open to them. More and more young people, not just those living on the streets where SOS Crianca works, but others in poor communities, are using the service. It is called "Health Maloca," because the children call their makeshift homes--shelters made of cardboard and newspaper--"malocas." The name also symbolizes that these young people need to find their own ways of taking more control over their bodies and lives.

  9. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    With the arising of global climate change and resource shortage, in recent years, increased attention has been paid to environmentally friendly materials. Trees are sustainable and renewable materials, which give us shelter and oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Trees are a primary resource that human society depends upon every day, for example, homes, heating, furniture, and aircraft. Wood from trees gives us paper, cardboard, and medical supplies, thus impacting our homes, school, work, and play. All of the above-mentioned applications have been well developed over the past thousands of years. However, trees and wood have much more to offer us as advanced materials, impacting emerging high-tech fields, such as bioengineering, flexible electronics, and clean energy. Wood naturally has a hierarchical structure, composed of well-oriented microfibers and tracheids for water, ion, and oxygen transportation during metabolism. At higher magnification, the walls of fiber cells have an interesting morphology-a distinctly mesoporous structure. Moreover, the walls of fiber cells are composed of thousands of fibers (or macrofibrils) oriented in a similar angle. Nanofibrils and nanocrystals can be further liberated from macrofibrils by mechanical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The obtained nanocellulose has unique optical, mechanical, and barrier properties and is an excellent candidate for chemical modification and reconfiguration. Wood is naturally a composite material, comprised of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Wood is sustainable, earth abundant, strong, biodegradable, biocompatible, and chemically accessible for modification; more importantly, multiscale natural fibers from wood have unique optical properties applicable to different kinds of optoelectronics and photonic devices. Today, the materials derived from wood are ready to be explored for applications in new technology areas, such as electronics, biomedical devices, and energy. The

  10. Body of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Michon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Friday 16 July 1852. Sunrise. The end of the night. It rained. It isn’t raining anymore. Large slate clouds run across the sky. Flaubert hasn’t slept. He goes out into the garden at Croisset: lime trees, then poplars, then the Seine. An outbuilding on a bank beside some water. He’s finished Part One of Madame Bovary.That Sunday, he would write Louise Colet how at dawn on Friday he’d felt strong, serene, blest in sense and in purpose. The dawn wind does him good. He has a tired fat handsome face, a calm fat handsome face. He loves writing. He loves the world.“Deprived of a party, country, house, personal life, etc., he made writing his only reason to live, and it grips one’s heart how seriously he takes the written world.” These words of Pasolini’s pertain to Gombrowicz. But they might just as well be applied to Flaubert, and one’s heart would not be gripped any less, maybe more. For, if Flaubert had a personal life (as Gombrowicz did after all, but then Pasolini always goes very fast, he pretended not to have one; just as he pretended to have no house, country, freedom, mother named Caroline, orphaned niece also named Caroline, Seine at the end of the path, rolling on before his eyes, sharecroppers’ hillside groves, heaps of disciples and flatterers, well-meaning interns hard at work on his behalf in the corridors of Paris journals and salons: all things Gombrowicz truly did not have, that he, Flaubert, had. Flaubert pretended to have none of all that, that which he had, and for him this pretension became real; he patched together a mask which comprised his skin, and with which he wrote his books; skin and mask had been so well glued that when he wished to retire it, he found nothing more in his hand than an indissoluble mixture of flesh and cardboard under the thick clown moustache. Perhaps it wasn’t truly the clown that he played so much as the monk, and not just to the stands, but in his own eyes and to himself: he was

  11. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    Off-flavors in whey protein negatively influence consumer acceptance of whey protein ingredient applications. Clear acidic beverages are a common application of whey protein, and recent studies have demonstrated that beverage processing steps, including acidification, enhance off-flavor production from whey protein. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of preacidification of liquid ultrafiltered whey protein concentrate (WPC) before spray drying on flavor of dried WPC. Two experiments were performed to achieve the objective. In both experiments, Cheddar cheese whey was manufactured, fat-separated, pasteurized, bleached (250 mg/kg of hydrogen peroxide), and ultrafiltered (UF) to obtain liquid WPC that was 13% solids (wt/wt) and 80% protein on a solids basis. In experiment 1, the liquid retentate was then acidified using a blend of phosphoric and citric acids to the following pH values: no acidification (control; pH 6.5), pH 5.5, or pH 3.5. The UF permeate was used to normalize the protein concentration of each treatment. The retentates were then spray dried. In experiment 2, 150 μg/kg of deuterated hexanal (D₁₂-hexanal) was added to each treatment, followed by acidification and spray drying. Both experiments were replicated 3 times. Flavor properties of the spray-dried WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental analyses in experiment 1 and by instrumental analysis in experiment 2. Preacidification to pH 3.5 resulted in decreased cardboard flavor and aroma intensities and an increase in soapy flavor, with decreased concentrations of hexanal, heptanal, nonanal, decanal, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide compared with spray drying at pH 6.5 or 5.5. Adjustment to pH 5.5 before spray drying increased cabbage flavor and increased concentrations of nonanal at evaluation pH values of 3.5 and 5.5 and dimethyl trisulfide at all evaluation pH values. In general, the flavor effects of preacidification were consistent regardless of the pH to

  12. 城市固体废弃物混合热解特性及动力学%Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetic study of mixed pyrolysis of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁宽; 仲兆平; 余露露; 刘志超

    2013-01-01

    在研究城市固体废弃物(MSW)典型成分单组分失重规律的基础上,对两两组分混合热解相互影响进行了实验研究.结果表明:白菜、纸板和棉布热解主要分为3个阶段,而聚氯乙烯(PVC)和废轮胎的热解规律较复杂,但其热解过程可等效地看作2个和3个阶段,二者在前2个阶段失重率已经分别达到了100%和88%;两两组分混合后,对应阶段热解温度范围与单组分相比变化不大,而混合后热解速率则受到较大影响,说明所选组分两两混合对各单组分热解温度影响不明显,而热解产物或残留物可能会促进或抑制混合物的分解.根据单组分和混合组分原料的失重规律采用Coats-Redfern法分阶段进行动力学计算,结果表明:拟合曲线线性度很好,说明各单组分和混合组分热解过程分阶段处理是合理的;对于PVC和废轮胎单独热解和两两混合热解,将失重曲线上一些联系紧密的失重峰看作同一个失重阶段进行处理可获得更好的拟合线性度.%The interactions of pyrolysis in every two components were investigated by experiments based on the study of weight loss of single typical component of municipal solid waste (MSW). The results show that the pyrolysis of celery cabbage, cardboard and cotton cloth consist of three main stages. The pyrolysis characteristic of poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and waste tyre are relatively sophisticated, however they can be equiralently regarded as two and three stages, respectively. Their weight losses in the first two stages reach 100% and 88% , respectively. The corresponding pyrolysis temperature is slightly influenced by the blend of different components, while the rates are affected apparently. It can be concluded that the interactions of mixtures have little impact on the pyrolysis temperature. Moreover, the products or residues may promote or suppress the decomposition. The kinetic parameters of both single and mixed components were

  13. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  14. Narrativas infantis: um estudo de caso em uma instituição infantil Children's narratives: a case study at an institution of early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto

    2007-12-01

    the children during the construction of a cardboard witch. The case study focuses on narratives containing verbal expressions of a binary nature, typical of the child's process of categorization as researched by Bruner, and similar to those of the thinking of the savages as analyzed by Lévi-Strauss. The study was carried out within the physical space of a classroom refurbished in 2003 according to the precepts of the High/Scope curriculum model and enhanced by the Project-based Approach. The research, of a qualitative nature, configures an instrumental, collaborative case study in which a teacher from a municipal school for early childhood education in the city of São Paulo develops the practice of telling stories with 4-year-old children, within an environment that stimulates cooperation, ludic behavior and narratives. Results indicate that, according to Brunerian conceptions, the children's binary narratives, such as the good witch and bad witch, living near or living far, large box or small box, reveal structures typical of the infantile thinking that help in the process of categorizing the daily life situations. The practice of telling stories, of listening to the children, and making room for the re-creation of narratives is consistent with pedagogies that respect the children's forms of representation of the world, such as the project-based approach.

  15. Cultivo do mangostão no Brasil Growing mangosteen in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célio Kersul do Sacramento

    2007-04-01

    to climatic conditions and, in the state of Pará, the principal harvesting season is usually from January to May and a small second crop in August and September. In the state of Bahia the main harvest season is usually from March to April and a second harvesting occurs in August. Few pests have been observed in brazilian mangosteen orchards and the related problems are caused by mite, triphs and trigona bees (Trigona spinipes which damage the fruit rind difficulting the harvest. The mangosteen tree wilt, disease not yet observed in orchards of mangosteen in other countries, has been the main problem in adult's mangosteen trees in South of Bahia region. Gamboge disorder, a physical damage in the fruit pericarp, and the translucent pulp also area commons in mangosteen fruits in brazilian orchards. The fruits are harvested manually, cleaned, graded and packed into a 21 x 21.5, 6.5 cm cardboard box containing from 9 to 20 fruits. The fruits are sold mainly in big urban centers. The mangosteen presents average of 32.5% of pulp, 18.17 ºBrix and 1% of acidity. The rind has a group of substances known as xanthonas which are utilized by pharmaceutics industries.

  16. The Acquisition, Perception Geometric Model and the Comfortable Viewing Zone in Stereoscopic Video System:A Review%视差式立体信息采集、感知几何模型及舒适观看区研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯春萍; 袁万鑫; 沈丽丽

    2013-01-01

    With the prosperity of stereoscopic industry, the disparity-based stereoscopic technology becomes more and more popular. But this technology may bring viewing discomfort and various image distortions such as depth plane curvature, depth non-linearity and so on.To analyze the origins, characteristics and relations of these perceptual issues, we investigated the stereoscopic distortion model and the comfortable viewing zone. This paper first summarized and compared three different configurations of the disparity-based stereoscopic video capturing systems, and focused on the parallel configuration system.The geometry of stereoscopic camera and display systems was presented. The mapping relationship,known as the distortion model, between the camera space and the viewing space was discussed in the parallel-shifting stereoscopic video systems.This distortion model is the basis of the stereoscopic information processing.The shape distortion factor and the depth factor were employed to explain the puppet theater effect and the cardboard effect. The comfortable viewing zone was considered to reduce the problem of visual discomfort and visual fatigue. Its three different representations were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. At last, the distortion model and the comfortable viewing zone were combined to draw a conclusion of the stereoscopic shooting rules.%近年来,立体影视产业蓬勃发展,基于视差的立体成像技术成为市场主流.但是,基于视差的立体成像技术存在深度畸变、视觉不舒适等问题.针对这些问题,本文研究了立体视频系统几何模型与舒适观看区.首先,总结并比较了立体采集系统的各种配置模式;接着讨论了平移式立体系统中拍摄空间到感知空间的映射关系,即畸变模型,并用形状、深度畸变因子解释了木偶剧效应和纸板效应;然后分析了舒适观看区,对其三种定义做了比较,并基于国际上普遍采用的1°视差计算得

  17. Documentation et conservation-restauration d’un autel bouddhique en bois laqué et doré, provenant du Japon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violaine Brard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Un petit autel bouddhique en bois laqué et doré était conservé dans un carton d’emballage au sein du musée Georges-Labit à Toulouse. Tout l’enjeu de ce travail fut de collecter les informations relatives au pays d’origine de la pièce, à son époque de création ainsi que son rôle dans son pays d’origine. La recherche visait ensuite à comprendre la manière dont cet objet est passé d’une culture japonaise à une collection française, élaborée par un voyageur et collectionneur de la fin du XIXe siècle, Georges Labit. L’autel est le fruit d’un support et d’une polychromie japonaise initiale et de surpeints européens appliqués au cours du XIXe siècle. Ces surpeints témoignent de son passage laborieux d’un pays à un autre. Les nouveaux acquéreurs de l’objet ont très certainement voulu, par leur intervention, réparer les altérations, causées par le voyage de la pièce, et l’adapter à une esthétique occidentale. Dans le cadre de mon étude, je me suis contentée d’intervenir sur la stricte conservation curative de la pièce. Elle vise, de manière générale, à retrouver une lisibilité cohérente et à redonner à la structure une unité.A small gilded and lacquered wooden Buddhist altar has been  kept for years in a cardboard box in the storage rooms of the Georges Labit museum in Toulouse. The challenge of this project  was to collect information on the origins of the altar, its time of creation and its specific function  in the  country of origin. The research focused on raising understanding  how this object has been transferred from  the Japanese culture  into a French collection that has been developed by Georges Labit a traveller and collector of the late nineteenth century. Examinations  showed that the altar with its original Japanese wooden support and polychromy showes over paints that have been applied in Europe  during the nineteenth century. These over paints demonstrate its

  18. Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, Dan

    2011-01-31

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2010. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. In 2010, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local regulations and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2010. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2010. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2010. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, miscellaneous electronic office equipment, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling and corrugated cardboard recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, foamed polystyrene peanuts, batteries, fluorescent lamps and telephone books. Ames Laboratory reported to DOE-Ames Site Office (AMSO), through the Laboratory's Performance Evaluation Measurement Plan, on its

  19. Conservação refrigerada de cherimóia embalada em filme plástico com zeolite Cold storage of cherimoya packed with zeolit film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rosa Melo

    2002-04-01

    film with incorporation of a mineral called zeolit; b control (without plastic film. The fruits were packed in cardboard boxes and cold-stored at 12 ± 1 ºC; 90%-95% of RH for four weeks in Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Brazil. Mass loss of the fruits, external color, appearance, firmness, total soluble solids, total titrable acidity and ratio were evaluated during four weeks. It was noticed that control fruits start to show physical and chemical changes from the 2nd until the 3rd week. In the third week the control fruits were rather depreciated, while the zeolite treatment maintained almost unchanged the physical and chemical characteristics evaluated. It was concluded that fruits could be maintained under cold storage for two weeks, while the fruits packed with zeolite films could be stored for four weeks at 12±1 ºC and 90%-95% RH.

  20. Biología de Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae en la Costa Pacifica de Colombia: IV - Estructura etárea y transmisión de malaria Biologia do Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae na Costa do Pacífico Colombiano: IV - Estrutura etária e transmissão da malária Biology of Anopheles (Kerteszia neivai H., D. & K., 1913 (Diptera: Culicidae on the Pacific Coast of Colombia: IV - Age structure and malaria transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Murillo B.

    1989-10-01

    segundo como os "potencialmente infectantes" foi muito significativa (X² = 10,68; P = 0,001. Dos A. neivai estudados, 1,5% apresentavam vestígios correspondentes a 10 oviposturas, mostrando uma acentuada longevidade e múltiplos repastos sangüíneos. Os resultados obtidos sugeriram a existência de alto risco de contrair malária em Charambirá durante o crepúsculo vespertino.With the aim of determining the dynamics of malaria transmission in the village of Charambirá (Chocó, Colombia, studies on the age structure of Anopheles neivai (a known vector on the Pacific Coast were undertaken, based on its gonadotrophic status. Mosquitoes were captured indoors at sunset using human bait and bucal aspirators and then maintained in cylindrical cardboard boxes, with damp paper and feeding dispensaries, until dissection on the following day. Of the 200 specimens dissected during September-October 1986, 68 (34% showed traces of less than two ovipositions, while the rest (66% evidenced at least three ovipositions. The difference between the first group considered as "non-infective" and the second group considered as "potentially infective" was highly significant (X² = 10.68; P = 0.001. The study showed that 1.5% of the dissected A. neivai had traces of ten ovipositions demonstrating high longevity and multiple bloodfeedings. The results suggest that there is a considerable risk of contracting malaria in Charambirá at dusk.

  1. Conservação de uvas "Crimson Seedless" e "Itália", submetidas a diferentes tipos de embalagens e dióxido de enxofre (SO2 Conservation of grapes "Crimson Seedless" and "Italia", submitted to different types of packings and sulfur dioxide (SO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2008-03-01

    diferenças nos teores de SS entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. (Apoio: Roraima Agrofrutas.It was studied the effect of different types of packages and, the action of sulfur dioxide (SO2, in post harvest of fine grapes var. Crimson Seedless and Italia. The fruits, harvested in a farm located in Boa Vista, State of Roraima (Lat. 2° 50' 06'' N and Long. 60° 40'28''W, showed, soluble solids (SS medium of 16.50 and 14.80°Brix, for the varieties Crimson Seedless and Italia, respectively. Prior to treatment, bunches were cleaned in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl solution at 100 mg.L-1, previously acidulated, for 10 minutes. For the modified passive atmosphere were used bags of low density polyethylene (LDPE, not perforated, with 0.010, 0.015 and 0.020mm of thickness and, arranged in corrugated cardboard (4kg and wood (7.5kg boxes. To produce SO2 it was used Kraft papers of quickly liberation, with 3 and 8g of sodium metabysulfite (Na2S2O5. After the treatment, the fruits were storage in cold chamber at 4 ± lºC and 95 ± 3% of relative humidity (R.H. The evaluation were carried out in the moment of harvest and, at 7, 21, 35, 42 and 56 days of cold chamber, for cluster weight loss, percentage of detached and deteriorated berries, quality of stem and, content of SS of fruits. After eight weeks it was carried out a sensorial analysis for the two varieties. It was identified in both varieties, that grapes submitted to generate SO2, containing 3g of sodium metabysulfite and, wrapped in packages of LDPE of 0.020mm of thickness, regardless type of secondary package showed smaller weight loss, smaller percentage of detached and deteriorated berries and, best quality of stem. The results in the sensorial analysis had agreed to the physical-chemical results. There is no significant difference in the contents of SS between the treatments, in both varieties.

  2. Qualidade pós-colheita de mangas, não-refrigeradas, e submetidas ao controle da ação do etileno Postharvest quality of mangoes, uncooled, and submitted to the ethylene's control action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Camargo Neves

    2008-03-01

    nature green stage, had been packed in low density polyethylene films (LDPE of 0,006 mm of thickness, with or without and ethylene's absorption system, conditioned in cardboard packing (0,65 x 0,52 m, without the control of the temperature and the relative humidity (30 ± 3 ºC and 70 ± 5 % of R. H.. The treatments had been constituted in this way: T1 - mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins, with ethylene's absorption system; T2 - mangoes cv. Tommy Atkins, without ethylene's absorption system; T3 - mangoes cv. Haden, with ethylene's absorption system e, T4 - mangoes cv. Haden, without ethylene's absorption system The analysis of pulp firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH, ascorbic acid and ethylene's concentration in the packing were made in the installation of the experiment (day 0 and to the 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days and, to the 35 days, it was carried out a preference test. In the end, it was observed, in both cultivars, the lesser concentration of ethylene in the packing, the biggest pulp firmness, the biggest containment in the advance and the reduction of SS and TA, respectively, as well as the best maintenance of ascorbic acid contents, had been detected in the fruits conditioned packed contending the ethylene's adsorption system. Significant variations in the values of pH had not been detected. Also, in the preference test, the fruits conditioned under the action of the ethylene's adsorption system had been the preferred ones on the part of the judges.

  3. Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, Dan

    2011-01-31

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 2010. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring activities. In 2010, the Laboratory accumulated and disposed of waste under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued generator numbers. All waste is handled according to all applicable EPA, State, Local regulations and DOE Orders. In 2006 the Laboratory reduced its generator status from a Large Quantity Generator (LQG) to a Small Quantity Generator (SQG). EPA Region VII was notified of this change. The Laboratory's RCRA hazardous waste management program was inspected by EPA Region VII in April 2006. There were no notices of violations. The inspector was impressed with the improvements of the Laboratory's waste management program over the past ten years. The Laboratory was in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and DOE regulations and orders in 2010. There were no radiological air emissions or exposures to the general public due to Laboratory activities in 2010. See U.S. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report in Appendix B. As indicated in prior SERs, pollution awareness, waste minimization and recycling programs have been in practice since 1990, with improvements implemented most recently in 2010. Included in these efforts were battery and CRT recycling, miscellaneous electronic office equipment, waste white paper and green computer paper-recycling and corrugated cardboard recycling. Ames Laboratory also recycles/reuses salvageable metal, used oil, foamed polystyrene peanuts, batteries, fluorescent lamps and telephone books. Ames Laboratory reported to DOE-Ames Site Office (AMSO), through the Laboratory's Performance Evaluation Measurement Plan, on its

  4. Obituary: Frank J. Low (1933-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Don

    2011-12-01

    through the process. Like a good coach, Frank had a knack for finding flaws or weak points in my performance so, even when we disagreed, he was motivating me to improve my thinking and arguments for another round of discussion. He provided first-author opportunities when many professors might not. We swam and hiked together, mixed concrete and laid bricks, cut cardboard baffles for the 61-inch telescope, appeared live from the KPNO 4-meter telescope on "Good Morning America" after VB-8b, ate lunches at Eric's, and so on. I am honored to have worked with Frank, who in my mind has the stature of Galileo. The level of his accomplishments, combined with his deep enjoyment of life with a wonderful family, are amazing to me. I am happy to have opportunities to share his pioneering and insightful approach to life with new generations of students who need this perspective badly. I am proud to have been one of his students.

  5. Efeito da aplicação pré-colheita de cálcio na qualidade e no teor de nutrientes de manga 'Tommy Atkins' Quality and nutrient level of mango cv. 'Tommy Atkins' as affected by calcium application before harves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi José Silva

    2008-03-01

    applied prior to harvest on a ten-year old orchard, in Petrolina, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Three levels of two commercial calcium sources (5.8; 11.6 and 17.3 mmol L-1 of Ca as chelate Ca and 45.0; 90.0 and 135.0 mmol L-1 of Ca as the soluble salt CaCl2.2H2O, and a control treatment were evaluated, in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Calcium was applied every two weeks, starting at the fruit set stage (fruits 5 to 10 mm long up to two weeks before harvest. Six sprayings of solutions containing the calcium treatments were applied providing 12.5 L of the solution/plant in each application. The fruits were harvested in the ripening stage 2. Forty fruits were grouped in four lots of ten, placed into cardboard boxes with capacity for 6 kg and stored for 0, 20, 30 and 40 days under refrigeration (10.5±1.0°C and 90±5% RH. After removed from the cold chamber, the fruits were kept for five days in a ripening room at 21±1°C and 60±5% RH. N, K, Ca and Mg contents in the flesh and skin were determined in the lot equivalent to the shortest time of storage and the incidence of internal breakdown was evaluated in all four lots. Calcium application in both chelate and soluble salt forms increased the nutrient contents in the skin. Applications of chelate Ca showed to be efficient in increasing the calcium contents in the fruit flesh, contributing to prevent the occurrence of internal breakdown in short storage periods.

  6. Thermal recycling of plastic waste using pyrolysis-gasification process for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbit, George Teke

    2012-04-04

    waste management organisations and disposal sites were conducted in various cities in the three case study countries. A resource-oriented manual sorting using the resource-recovery scavenging approach (RESA) simulating integration of scavenger's activities in waste sorting was conducted at BTU and Lagos. Major results obtained include: Characterization, quantification and classification of a dry sample of commingled MSW at Cottbus gave major waste fractions in order of decreasing abundance as 23.15% of residue waste, 19.75% of paper and cardboards, 17.80% of plastics, 14.63% of textiles and diapers, 10.06% of food waste and 9.55% of glass. An overall 33.21% of waste sample is compostable for manure, 52.2% usable as feedstock in the PG technology and 99.81% of total sample having a material or energy recovery potential. In Lagos, Nigeria main fractions were 29% of plastics, 36% of residue waste, 17% of soil/sand, 7% of paper with overall 41% usable as feedstock in PG technology, 39% compostable, 3% of recyclable (metal and glass). Sand can be recovered from the soil/sand fraction for construction. Excluding the sand/soil mixture, 83% of the total waste sample has potential for material and energy value. An appropriate technology that applies principles of pyrolysis and gasification to convert non-PVC plastic waste to energy was designed, constructed, tested and optimized with respect to: (i) Successful functioning with conversion of averagely 98.51% of input constituting of 82.78-98.21% of charcoal and 96.72-99.27% of plastic to heat energy (ii) Evaluation of socioeconomic and environmental impacts based on pyrolysis and exhaust gas and ash residue analysis showed absence of VOCs, heavy metals and pollutant organic and inorganic compounds; (iii) Safety and risk assessment to indoor pollution is very low; (iv) Assessment of the WTA and WTP indicated that 94% of respondents in Lagos, Nigeria and Porto Novo, Benin were willing to accept and pay for this technology

  7. Efeito da lâmina de irrigação na conservação pós-colheita de melão Pele de Sapo Irrigation effect in the postharvest conservation of Piel de Sapo melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francismar de Medeiros

    2012-09-01

    conservation of Piel de Sapo melon. An experiment was carried out in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, from September to December 2004 in which three irrigation levels tested: L1= 281 mm, L2= 349 mm and L3= 423 mm, the soil being fertilized according to the crop needs. The fruits were harvested at physiological maturity (60 days after transplantation. After the harvest, the fruits were transported to the laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semiárido, where the fruits were washed and selected. A sampe was evaluated previously and the other fruits were identified and placed in cardboard boxes. They were stored in a cooler with temperature at 10+1ºC and 85+2% RH where they remained for 35 days. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3x2 factorial, representing respectively three irrigation levels (L1, L2 and L3 and two fruits storage periods (0 and 35 days, with five replications. Significant differences were detected between the irrigation levels and storage time to vitamin C. There occurred an increase on the pH value and a decrease on vitamin C content and on fruits pulp firmness with higher irrigation levels. The pulp firmness, acidity and soluble solids of fruits decreased after storage time.

  8. Low Temperature Surface Carburization of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Sunniva R; Heuer, Arthur H; Sikka, Vinod K

    2007-12-07

    Al-4V and Hastelloy C22. Cavitation tests showed significant increases in cavitation resistance for treated materials as compared to the non-treated materials. Standard ASTM pin-on-disk sliding friction and reciprocating friction wear tests also indicate significant enhancement in wear properties. Fatigue testing showed an order of magnitude improvement for treated versus non-treated Type 316 at the same maximum stress level (R = -1). The maximum stress at 107 cycles and the endurance stress for infinite life, improved by approximately 50%, from 30 to 45 ksi. The energy savings from this project is estimated at 21.8 trillion Btu/year by 2020. This energy savings will be associated with a CO2 reduction of 1.3 million ton/year. One application of this technology in a sludge pump of a cardboard recycling plant during the course of this project has resulted in an energy savings of 84. 106 Btu and cost savings of $900.

  9. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    required to answer this question. We recommend construction of a full scale mockup of the top half of the SME with a shallow basin of water at the bottom and a simulated condenser at the top. It could be made from simple materials such as PVC pipe, cardboard and clear plastic and tested with dry frit. Depending on results, this may need to be coupled with the proposed pneumatic transfer system.

  10. Metamorfosis laboral y reciclaje Metamorfose laboral e reciclagem Labor metamorphosis and recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Mariatti

    2009-06-01

    referido neste artigo, o que permitiu ter um conhecimento mais real da situação que se descreve de forma teórica. Como conclusões preliminares, pode-se dizer que um desemprego estrutural, motor do pauperismo atual - singularizado dentre outros pelos classificadores de resíduos ou "catadores de papelão" - apresenta caracterísiticas que o tornam funcional para a redução de custos que o gerou, fechando assim um circuito onde o capital transforma em precárias as relações laborais e as preserva na mendida em que permitem sustentar e aumentar a taxa de lucro.This article is the product of a study about the "world of labor" and its transformations at the global level in the past 30 years, with an emphasis on the significant changes underway in Uruguay. The study was conducted in 2003 & 2004, as a final project in the school of Social Service at the University of the Republic, Uruguay. The purpose was to understand, through a bibliographic and theoretical perspective, the situation of employment in Uruguay and the maintenance of precarious conditions as a form of sustaining the rate of profit of capital. The methodology used was basically that of theoretical analysis. The author worked for three years as a social assistant in a settlement, which allowed her to gain a more realistic understanding of the situation that is described in a theoretical manner. As a preliminary conclusion, it can be said that structural unemployment, the key cause of current poverty - strongly symbolized by the "cardboard pickers" - has characteristics that let it serve to reduce production costs, thus completing a circuit in which capital makes labor relations precarious and maintains them at a level that allows sustaining and increasing the rate of profit.

  11. Laser imaging method for fast detecting white foreign fibers in cotton%棉花中白色异性纤维的激光成像快速检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翔; 何相呈; 苏真伟; 刘锋; 王冬; 顾其彪

    2014-01-01

    detection rate was not high and the speed of the detection was slow. Because the method was based on the calculation of the target size and distribution, or in the image acquisition, the laser light must project from some special angles of the sample surface for the camera can obtain the reflected light from the white foreign fibers. In this study, the image contrast of the white foreign fibers and the cotton background was first quantized by the calculation of the average pixel value in a frame of the laser image. Then, under the illumination of a line laser at a fixed power and wavelength, the images of 12 kinds of typical white foreign fibers on the cotton surface were obtained by a camera with a fixed aperture with different lengths of exposure time. Finally, the relationship between the lengths of different imaging exposure time and the image contrast was analyzed. It was found that there was a shared wave crest in all of the relationship curves and imaging in the exposure time of the wave crest in the same frame image. The gray level of the white foreign fibers had reached a saturated status, but the gray level of cotton was still unsaturated. Thus, using an optimized exposure time, the difference of the gray level of the laser images can be used for the detection of the white foreign fibers in cotton, including white paper, white plastic film, white semitransparent plastic mulch, white cloth, white density foam plastic, white nylon cord, white cotton string, white plastic cord, white plastic cardboard, white semitransparent polypropylene bags, white polyethylene foamed sheets, and white feathers. The experimental results indicated that, by a simple binary segmentation algorithm, using the images obtained under the illumination of the line laser at the wavelength of 650 nm, a power of 0.8 W, and by the camera aperture of 8C with an exposure time of 1.6 ms, the 12 kinds of white foreign fibers can be easily distinguished from cotton. In Matlab, the processing time of a

  12. BOOK REVIEW: A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Michel

    2013-12-01

    just 26 pages (not counting six pages of notes and references) covers everything from Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton to Maxwell and Lorentz to Einstein's early biography to a cardboard version of Popper versus Kuhn, is too superficial to be useful for such a course. To a lesser extent, this is also true for chapter 6, which compresses the development of quantum theory after Einstein's 1905 paper into 20 pages (plus seven pages of notes and references) and for chapter 7, a brief epilogue. However, this is not my main worry. One could easily supplement or even replace the bookends of the volume with other richer sources and use this volume mainly for its excellent detailed commentaries on some Einstein classics in the four chapters in between. My more serious reservation about the use of the volume as a whole in a history of physics course, ironically, comes from the exact same feature that made me whole-heartedly recommend its core chapters for physics courses. This is especially true for the chapters on special and general relativity. How useful is it for a student to go through, in as much detail as this volume provides, the Lorentz transformation of Maxwell's equations in vector form? I can see how a student in an E&M class (with a section on special relativity) might benefit from this exercise. The clumsiness of the calculations in vector form by Lorentz and Einstein could help a student encountering Maxwell's equations in tensor form for the first time appreciate the advantages of the latter formalism. Similarly, it would be useful for a student in a GR class to go through the basics of tensor calculus in the old-fashioned but not inelegant mathematical introduction of Einstein's 1916 review article on general relativity. This could reinforce mastery of material that a student in a GR class will have to learn anyway (though Einstein's presentation of the mathematics of both special and general relativity in The Meaning of Relativity would seem to be more

  13. Book Review: Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5 (Acta Historica Astronomiae Vol. 15)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Dick, W. R.; Hamel, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 15th volume of the Acta Historica Astronomiae is at the same time the fifth collection of essays on the history of astronomy (Beitraege zur Astronomiegeschichte, Band 5), edited by the historians of astronomy W.R. Dick (Potsdam) and J. Hamel (Berlin). Besides a few short notices and book reviews, the book contains 11 major articles, which deal with astronomical topics covering the time from the 16th to the 20th centuries. The first article, on the analysis and interpretation of historical horoscopes as a source of the history of science, is based on the inaugural lecture of its author, Guenther Oestmann. After a general introduction, which deals with the principles of horoscope making, the author discusses the horoscope of Count Heinrich Ranzau (1526-1598), the Danish governor of Schleswig-Holstein, who was a friend of Tycho Brahe. Oestmann shows that the astronomical-mathematical basis of such a horoscope can be reconstructed and interpreted. However, it is hardly possible to gain an insight in the process how the interpretation of a horoscope was done in detail. The second and third articles, by Franz Daxecker, deal with Athanasius Kircher and Christoph Scheiner, two catholic astronomers of the 17th century. Kircher's Organum Mathematicum is a calculating device that can be used in the fields of arithmetic, geometry, chronology, astronomy, astrology and others. The author provides extracts of the description of the Organum taken from a book by Caspar Schott, which deal with chronology and astronomy. A photograph of the Organum indicates that this tool consists of a set of tables glued on wooden or cardboard, but details of its contents and applications remain pretty obscure for the reader - a few elaborated examples would have been helpful. The second paper deals with the life of Christoph Scheiner SJ, the co-discoverer of sunspots (next to Galileo), after leaving Rome in 1633 - the year of the Galileo trial. Scheiner spent his later years in the Austrian and

  14. News & Announcements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    . Works well. Activity:CD Light: An Introduction to Spectroscopy. J. Chem. Educ. 1998, 75, 1568A (December 1998). Workshop?yes Booth?yes, with colored plastic onlynot solutions Notes:Can be difficult to measure and cut cardboard for spectroscope. Pre-made spectroscopes and partially constructed ones to show method could be provided. Needs good light source to work well. Activity:Cleaning Up with Chemistry: Investigating the Action of Zeolite in Laundry Detergent. J. Chem. Educ. 1999, 76, 1461A (October 1999). Workshop?yes Booth?could demonstrate tubes of soapy water with and without zeolite Notes:Need access to water. Quick and easy. More information about JCE Classroom Activities is available on JCE Online at: http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/AboutJCE/Features/JCE_CA/. Here you will find the notes described above and a list of all published Classroom Activities. The site is updated regularly. Awards Announced United Nations Environment Program The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) has selected Mario J. Molina, professor of earth, atmosphere, and planetary sciences at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, as the winner of the 1999 UNEP Sasakawa Environment Prize. The prize, worth $200,000, is for his outstanding global contributions in the field of atmospheric chemistry. ACS Northeastern Section The Northeastern Section of the American Chemical Society has awarded the Henry A. Hill Award to Morton Z. Hoffman, professor of chemistry at Boston University. The award is given annually to a member of the section for outstanding service. Award Deadlines Mettler-Toledo Thermal Analysis Education Grant Mettler-Toledo has established a grant to honor Edith A. Turi of the Polymer Research Institute, Polytechnic University, Brooklyn, NY, for her lifelong contribution to the cause of thermal analysis education. The grant will be awarded on an annual basis to not-for-profit organizations in North America that confer degrees up to the Ph. D. level and provide or intend to provide

  15. HISTORICAL MEMOIR: The play of light in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenya, Boris Petrovitch

    2008-11-01

    important for modern microelectronics. Here I will mention just one: the discovery of trions, where a hole interacts with not one but two electrons. It is on the existence of trions that the hopes of creating quantum computers depend. I cannot count myself among the ardent followers of this idea, but who knows? Exciton spectra have been observed not only in semiconductors but also in ionic crystals (e.g. rock-salt, NaCl), molecular crystals, rare-earth and actinoid salt crystals, and in polymers (biological ones included). Nevertheless, it was only after the works of Gross and his colleagues that experimentalists became aware that those are the spectra of the quasiparticle exciton. That is strange, since the theory of such excitons was developed at the end of the 1940s by A Davydov who had been working in Kiev alongside experimentalists who were struggling to comprehend his ideas. Concluding my brief account of excitons, I would like to recall Gross once more. He taught me to love not only science, but music and art as well. Most of all, in painting he valued innovation and quest. He was attracted by avant-gardism as was Don Quixote by windmills. When I happen to visit New York, I always go to the Museum of Modern Art and often appreciate, as if with Gross' eyes, the unlooked-for 'moves' and 'tricks' of the avant-gardists. I've always been amazed that, sometime no later than 1920, our Alexander Rodchenko created a composition entitled Planes reflecting light. This is a three-dimensional piece made of copper and cardboard strips rendering our notion of the planetary model of the atom from which quanta of light fly out like Nabokov's butterflies. Bohr and Sommerfeld had suggested the planetary atomic model only in 1916, so how could the artist perceive the structure of microcosm before the majority of physicists did? As Shakespeare knew long ago, the world of human knowledge is full of wonders.