WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardan shafts

  1. Analytic solution of simplified Cardan's shaft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajíček M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsional oscillations and stability assessment of the homokinetic Cardan shaft with a small misalignment angle is described in this paper. The simplified mathematical model of this system leads to the linearized equation of the Mathieu's type. This equation with and without a stationary damping parameter is considered. The solution of the original differential equation is identical with those one of the Fredholm’s integral equation with degenerated kernel assembled by means of a periodic Green's function. The conditions of solvability of such problem enable the identification of the borders between stability and instability regions. These results are presented in the form of stability charts and they are verified using the Floquet theory. The correctness of oscillation results for the system with periodic stiffness is then validated by means of the Runge-Kutta integration method.

  2. Dynamic unbalance detection of cardan shaft in high-speed train based on EMD-SVD-NHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建明; 林建辉; 何刘; 赵洁

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the aliasing defect between the adjacent intrinsic model functions (IMFs) existing in empirical model decomposition (EMD), a new method of detecting dynamic unbalance with cardan shaft in high-speed train was proposed by applying the combination between EMD, Hankel matrix, singular value decomposition (SVD) and normalized Hilbert transform (NHT). The vibration signals of gimbal installed base were decomposed through EMD to get different IMFs. The Hankel matrix constructed through the single IMF was orthogonally executed through SVD. The critical singular values were selected to reconstruct vibration signs on the basis of the key stack of singular values. Instantaneous frequencys (IFs) of reconstructed vibration signs were applied to detect dynamic unbalance with shaft and eliminated clutter spectrum caused by the aliasing defect between the adjacent IMFs, which highlighted the failure characteristics. The method was verified by test data in the unbalance condition of dynamic cardan shaft. The results show that the method effectively detects the fault vibration characteristics caused by cardan shaft dynamic unbalance and extracts the nature vibration features. With comparison to the traditional EMD-NHT, clarity and failure characterization force are significantly improved.

  3. CALCULATION OF CONTACT TENSIONS IN CONJUGATE SURFACES IN SPHERE GLOBOIDAL RUSK SYNCHRONOUS CARDAN HINGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Saniotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents  a calculation of contact tensions between conjugate surfaces in sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge on the condition that there is power balance at the constant torque on the output shaft. The required torque effect on the intake shaft at the constant angular velocity  has been calculated with the help of the Hertz’s theory of contact deformations . The maximum contact pressure has been ascertained through the torque which determines strength of the cardan hinge, its durability, wear rate in  the conjugate friction pair. The paper investigates transmission dependence of the maximum torque while changing  material quality and according to various typical sizes of the cardan hinge. Dependences of the calculated maximum torque value on material strength have been demonstrated graphically  in the logarithmic coordinate system.  A formula for maximum contact pressure value has been derived and it determines  strength of the hinge mechanism, its durability and wear rate  in the conjugate friction pair.The effect of geometrical relationship between a spherical cam radius and a globoidal  surface radius of a hinge contact has been determined with the purpose to analyze optimal design parameters of the sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge. It has been established that permissible torque in the hinge mechanism grows with a quadratic dependence while increasing a cam radius and  the torque is proportionally growing while increasing an axis radius of globoidal rusk surface on which spherical cams are set. The maximum permissible torque value grows with a cubic dependence while using qualitative material with thermally treated surface and application of lubrication materials which tolerates significant (up to [σ] = 1000 MPa contact loads.  Two-fold increase of typical size of the sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge leads to an 8-fold increase of the permissible transmitted torque.

  4. Cardan gear mechanism versus slider-crank mechanism in pumps and engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, J.

    2008-07-01

    In machine design we always want to save space, save energy and produce as much power as possible. We can often reduce accelerations, inertial loads and energy consumption by changing construction. In this study the old cardan gear mechanism (hypocycloid mechanism) has been compared with the conventional slider-crank mechanism in air pumps and four-stroke engines. Comprehensive Newtonian dynamics has been derived for the both mechanisms. First the slidercrank and the cardan gear machines have been studied as lossless systems. Then the friction losses have been added to the calculations. The calculation results show that the cardan gear machines can be more efficient than the slider-crank machines. The smooth running, low mass inertia, high pressures and small frictional power losses make the cardan gear machines clearly better than the slider-crank machines. The dynamic tooth loads of the original cardan gear construction do not rise very high when the tooth clearances are kept tight. On the other hand the half-size crank length causes high bearing forces in the cardan gear machines. The friction losses of the cardan gear machines are generally quite small. The mechanical efficiencies are much higher in the cardan gear machines than in the slider-crank machines in normal use. Crankshaft torques and power needs are smaller in the cardan gear air pumps than in the equal slider-crank air pumps. The mean crankshaft torque and the mean output power are higher in the cardan gear four-stroke engines than in the slider-crank four-stroke engines in normal use. The cardan gear mechanism is at its best, when we want to build a pump or an engine with a long connecting rod (approx 5.crank length) and a thin piston (approx 1.5.crank length) rotating at high angular velocity and intermittently high angular acceleration. The cardan gear machines can be designed also as slide constructions without gears. Suitable applications of the cardan gear machines are three-cylinder half

  5. Drilled Shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyre, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This session will provide an overview of drilled shaft design and construction, including general design principles, construction methods, and construction quality assurance. Project examples will be used to illustrate the types of bridge structures and subsurface conditions where drilled shafts should be considered.

  6. Shaft conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This device for the conveyance along shafts of radioactive waste usually enclosed in metal barrels is based on a single mechanism which has proved successful in mining. The rope-hauled conveying vessel runs on 4 rollers above and below between guide rails on a vertical shaft and in its highest position is above ground in front of a loading device. A motor driven rolling table moves a standing barrel with the material being conveyed to in front of the loading opening of the conveying vessel, where a lever prevents further movement until the conveying vessel is in exactly the right position. After retraction of the interlocking lever, the rolling table moves the material being conveyed on the further rollers in a framework in the conveying vessel. This roller framework with its slightly transverse position leans the transport barrel against the vessel rear wall during transport. In the deep position of the conveying vessel the barrel moving downwards runs off the roller framework due to a slight tilting movement and falls into the cavern. Levers which can rotate around vertical axes grip the barrel in the conveying vessel and secure its position during transport. In the loading and unloading positions, i.e. in the highest and lowest position of the conveying vessel in the shaft, projecting rollers run on the back of the conveying basket on solid control curve paths. Rods connected to the rollers move the stop lever in the conveying vessel back against spring tensions. A barrel can be tipped out below or a new barrel can be loaded above. The tipping of he roller framework (at the lower end of the shaft) is controlled in the same way. The rolling table of the loading device automatically matches its height to the roller framework in the conveying vessel. A moving arm with contact shoe follows the standing barrel in the conveying vessel and checks its correct position. It takes over its task if the rolling table fails. (ER)

  7. Equipamento para ensaios estáticos de transmissões a cardan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Cláudio Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes das transmissões a cardan, utilizados intensivamente nas áreas automotiva e agrícola, estão sujeitos a cargas torcionais, axiais e de flexão, as quais podem ser estudadas em banco dinamométrico. Descreve-se neste trabalho o projeto de equipamento para ensaios estáticos, no qual torques relativamente altos, na árvore de saída, necessários nos ensaios em questão, são obtidos por meio de dois redutores de rosca-sem-fim, a partir de torques baixos, impressos na árvore de entrada por uma alavanca de acionamento manual. Uma célula de carga indica a força aplicada a um braço de alavanca, enquanto um goniômetro indica o ângulo de torção correspondente à deformação do espécime testado. O equipamento foi submetido a testes experimentais a fim de ajustar e comprovar sua resistência mecânica e detectar possíveis deformações na sua estrutura, alcançado-se torque máximo de 3.139 N*m (320 kgf*m. Analisaram-se, também, as magnitudes de erros prováveis.

  8. Medição do brand equity, no sector automóvel : estratégias para aumentar o brand equity da Cardan

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo, Ana Catarina Alves de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    O mercado do sector automóvel é bastante concorrencial e, por isso, a Cardan sentiu necessidade de sobressair da concorrência e aumentar a sua notoriedade junto do seu público-alvo, de forma a gerar novas oportunidades de negócio. Assim, o presente relatório de estágio surgiu com o objectivo de medir o brand equity actual da Cardan e, consequentemente desenvolver estratégias que permitam aumentar o seu brand equity. Neste sentido, foram definidas as seguintes questões de investigação: ...

  9. Reliability of agriculture universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in universal joint bearing assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandar Asonja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research into reliability calculations of agriculture double universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in cardan-type universal joint bearing assemblies. Special laboratory equipment was developed for this research which is presented in the paper. The objective of this research was to test the real life span of universal joint shafts in the laboratory and in field, to obtain the results which can be used to improve the reliability of universal joint shafts. If the presented research were used along with maintenance measures recommended in the paper and with proper use, the level of reliability of the shafts would be 2.1 times higher. The presented results of the research showed that needle bearings, i.e. bearing assemblies of the joints, are the most critical elements on universal joint shafts and are possible causes of their lower reliability. The second universal joint is the part with the lowest reliability in the observed technical system.

  10. Shaft Current Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rabuzin, Tin

    2015-01-01

    Shaft current protection in hydro and turbo generators is an important generatorprotection issue. Currents owing in the generator shaft might damagegenerator bearings which, in turn, could reduce operating time and cause largenancial losses. Therefore, it is important to prevent operation of the generatorunder conditions of high shaft currents.In this project, task was to develop measurement and protection system thatis able to operate under certain conditions. Measurement device has to be ab...

  11. High pressure shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  12. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  14. Isolating the shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes the environment contact preventing isolation of the shaft used to dispose off waste at the Dounreay site (Great Britain) and containing a mixture of radioactive and chemical waste. Well drilling, hydraulic testing, ability to work of isolation are phases of the working. Application of remote controlled transport facility for the waste removal from horizontal tunnel is discussed. Financial problems are treated

  15. Tibial shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter

    The overall purpose of the present PhD thesis was to provide up-to-date information of the epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures and to investigate the development in quality of life, pain and functional outcomes from surgery and onwards, following a tibial shaft fracture treated with...... intramedullary nailing. Study I reported an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year from a complete population. Study II reported the long-term patient-reported outcomes and showed that approximately 8 years after the fracture patients reported significantly worse outcome for 4 of the 5 KOOS subscales compared to the...... IV also showed a significant worse outcome in 3 of the 5 KOOS subscales compared to a reference population at 12-months follow-up. Moreover, this study showed that increasing difference in muscle strength for knee extension between legs was associated with a decreasing QOL. The results of this thesis...

  16. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  17. A sealing device for shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a sealing device for a rotary shaft submitted to variable forces able to bend said shaft. The shaft extends through an opening in a casing and carries a ring comprising radial sealing surfaces adapted to engage axially moving sealing members, the latter being in sealed engagement with the casing and defining a sealing chamber to which is fed a pressurized sealing fluid. In that device, the shaft can be submitted to an important bending without inducing any axial movement, or with a small axial movement of the sealing members. This can be applied to butterfly-valves used in nuclear power stations

  18. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  19. Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HOMIŠIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main effort of every design engineer is reduction of torsional oscillation in any mechanical system. At present this problem can be solved by means of a suitable modification of dynamic properties of flexible shaft couplings according to dynamics in the given systems. But the dynamic properties of nowadays-applied flexible couplings arenot unchangeable because of aging and fatigue processes occurring in flexible coupling elements. Result of this fact causes detuning of mechanical system. Taking into consideration the above-mentioned situation, we suggest for mechanical systems application of a newly developed pneumatic couplings that have constant characteristicfeatures during the whole current operation and thus they have a positive influence on the system running.

  20. Effect of Relative Marker Movement on the Calculation of the Foot Torsion Axis Using a Combined Cardan Angle and Helical Axis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Eveline S.; Wright, Ian C.; Stefanyshyn, Darren J.

    2012-01-01

    The two main movements occurring between the forefoot and rearfoot segment of a human foot are flexion at the metatarsophalangeal joints and torsion in the midfoot. The location of the torsion axis within the foot is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to develop a method based on Cardan angles and the finite helical axis approach to calculate the torsion axis without the effect of flexion. As the finite helical axis method is susceptible to error due to noise with small helical rotations, a minimal amount of rotation was defined in order to accurately determine the torsion axis location. Using simulation, the location of the axis based on data containing noise was compared to the axis location of data without noise with a one-sample t-test and Fisher's combined probability score. When using only data with helical rotation of seven degrees or more, the location of the torsion axis based on the data with noise was within 0.2 mm of the reference location. Therefore, the proposed method allowed an accurate calculation of the foot torsion axis location. PMID:22666303

  1. Exploratory Shaft test portholes configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portholes are required at strategic locations in the Exploratory Shaft liner to facilitate borehole drilling and testing of the surrounding rock formations. Borehole drilling and testing through portholes will assist in determining effective grout seal between casting and rock; obtaining grout and rock samples for visual and laboratory testing; performance of hydrologic, geologic, and geomechanical tests in situ; and determining water inflow prior to breakout at the selected shaft station horizon. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  3. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs

  4. Theoretical Analysis of the Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajneswar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the dynamic response of a steel shaft which is fixed at both ends by bearing. The shaft is subjected to both axial and bending loads. The behavior of the shaft in the presence of two transverse cracks subjected to the same angular position along longitudinal direction is observed by taking basic parameters such as nondimensional depth (bi/D, nondimensional length (Li/L, and three relative natural frequencies with their relative mode shapes. The compliance matrix is calculated from the stress intensity factor for two degrees of freedom. The dynamic nature of the cracked shaft at two cracked locations at a different depth is observed. The compliance matrix is a function of crack parameters such as depth and location of crack from any one of the bearings. The three relative natural frequencies and their mode shapes at a different location and depth obtained analytical and experimental method. Multiple adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (MANFIS methodology (an inverse technique is used for locating the cracks at any depth and location. The input of the MANFIS is provided with the first three natural frequencies and the first three mode shapes obtained from analytical method. The predicted result of the MANFIS (relative crack location and depth has been validated using the results from the developed experimental setup.

  5. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  6. Vibration Analysis of Hollow Tapered Shaft Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. G. Bashir Asdaque; Behera, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Shafts or circular cross-section beams are important parts of rotating systems and their geometries play important role in rotor dynamics. Hollow tapered shaft rotors with uniform thickness and uniform bore are considered. Critical speeds or whirling frequency conditions are computed using transfer matrix method and then the results were compared using finite element method. For particular shaft lengths and rotating speeds, response of the hollow tapered shaft-rotor system is determined for t...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall...

  9. Exploratory shaft readiness review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell), under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the suitability of siting a deep geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. Part of this investigation includes the drilling of two shafts through many layers of dense basalt to enable testing and obtaining in situ geologic, hydrologic, rock mechanics, chemistry, and constructibility data from geologic strata to a depth of approximately 3400 feet. The shafts and underground facilities make up the Exploratory Shaft (ES) facility. The ES facility must accommodate an array of geotechnical tests including the taking of data during the construction process. The DOE has requested that Rockwell develop and implement a Readiness Review Program to determine whether the more critical stages of the ES program are, in fact, ready to proceed. This presentation is an overview of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) Readiness Review process, which Rockwell is implementing to satisfy the requirements of the DOE. The ES Readiness Review process has been developed and is identified as the ES Construction/Operations Prerequisites Plan. Rockwell has explored new pathways in extending current operational readiness review procedures and is close to completing the initial planning and organization. The scope of the presentation includes a description of the ES Readiness Review process, what the constraints are, how the Startup Team and Readiness Review Board are structured and how they interrelate, how the Startup Team plans to function, and what conclusions can be based on the work already accomplished. The ES Readiness Review process shows that a readiness review task is the culmination of the Prerequisites Plan, which is a management oversight tool that covers design, construction, operations, testing, and potentially decommissioning activities

  10. The SSC access shafts calculational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSC generic shaft requirements and access spacing are considered elsewhere. The shafts connecting the ground surface with the underground accelerator tunnel deliver to the surface some portion of the radiation created in the tunnel. The radiation safety problem of access shafts consists of two major questions: Does the dose equivalent at the ground surface exceed permissible limits? If it exceeds those limits, what additional shielding measures are required? A few works deal with this problem for high energy machines. This work is an attempt to answer these questions for the basic types of shafts specific to the SSC magnet delivery, utility and personnel shafts using full-scale Monte-Carlo calculations of the entire process from hadronic cascades in the lattice elements to particles scattered in the tunnel, niches, alcoves, shafts and surface bunkers and buildings. 9 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab

  11. Major turbine generator shaft realignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering-1 turbine generator was found to have significant shaft misalignment. The cause of the misalignment was traced to uneven settling of the supporting foundation. The machine was completely realigned by lowering the high-pressure and the first low-pressure turbine and the accompanying bearings. Settlement of foundations was also discovered at other Pickering units, but the conditions of alignment did not warrant major turbine repositioning at the time. Monitoring of foundation movement and turbine generator alignment is continuing. A computer-aided laser alignment instrument has been developed, and will be used for all future turbine generator alignments at Pickering

  12. Wakes of idealized propeller shafts with sleeves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hally, D. [Defence R and D Canada - Atlantic, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: david.hally@drdc-rddc.gc.ca

    2005-07-01

    The rotation of a bare propeller shaft on a twin screw ship can have a significant effect on the flow into the propeller plane, with consequent effects on the propeller efficiency and cavitation characteristics. TRANSOM, the DRDC Atlantic flow solver, was used to determine whether covering the shaft with a nonrotating sleeve along part of its length would improve the propeller inflow. Two sets of calculations were performed. In the first a semi-infinite cylindrical shaft protruded from a flat plate. The shaft was covered along part of its length by a zero thickness stationary sleeve. To gain an understanding of the effects of the diameter of the sleeve relative to the shaft, a second set of calculations was performed in which the diameter of the sleeve was larger than that of the shaft. To avoid complications in gridding this configuration, the flat plate was removed; the shaft was infinite in both directions with a change in radius and a change from non-rotating to rotating in the middle. These calculations suggest that a sleeve will reduce the wake fraction in the propeller disk by delaying the formation of a vortex that entrains velocity deficit from the hull boundary layer. The sleeve also keeps the entrained velocity deficit closer to the shaft where it is less likely to induce cavitation. As the mismatch in radii of the sleeve and shaft increases, the entrained velocity deficit increases, so thinner sleeves should be preferred. (author)

  13. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, T. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H. [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  14. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  15. Repository shafts relocation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to reconfigure the sub-surface layout so as to move the shaft pillar out of the area of the probable maximum flood (PMF). The reconfiguration consisted of two major changes in the layout. First, two emplacement entries at the south end of the repository were moved into an area west of the shaft pillar. Secondly, the width of the shaft pillar was reduced from 1800 ft to 1200 ft. This change was based on more detailed scoping studies than had been conducted during SCP-CD. Finite element analysis and calculation of shaft pillar size by empirical methods, data evaluation from operating evaporite mines, thermomechanical analysis, and review of damaged mine shafts all went into this scoping study. It was assumed that there are tolerable vertical and horizontal displacements to shaft linings and surface facilities and that these structures can be designed and constructed to withstand these deformations. In a preliminary revised underground layout, the exploratory shafts (ESs) were 369 ft west of the locations identified in the Draft Environmental Assessment (DEA). However, there was a desire to keep them in the DEA, hence the final Environmental Assessment (EA, DOE, 1986), locations. This was accomplished by moving shaft A and its connecting entries 625 ft to the east and making certain other modifications to the layout. This change would require excavating an additional 40,000 tons of salt and a 1.2 month extension of pre-emplacement development activity. 12 ref., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and compl......Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large...... the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher...... frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. Conclusion: This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type...

  17. Exploratory Shaft Facility design basis study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Design Basis Study is a scoping/sizing study that evaluated the items concerning the Exploratory Shaft Facility Design including design basis values for water and methane inflow; flexibility of the design to support potential changes in program direction; cost and schedule impacts that could result if the design were changed to comply with gassy mine regulations; and cost, schedule, advantages and disadvantages of a larger second shaft. Recommendations are proposed concerning water and methane inflow values, facility layout, second shaft size, ventilation, and gassy mine requirements. 75 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  19. Stochastic stability of a rotating shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Ratko; Kozic, Predrag; Mitic, Snezana; Pavlovic, Ivan [University of Nis, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Nis (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The stochastic stability problem of an elastic, balanced rotating shaft subjected to action of axial forces at the ends is studied. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry. The effect of rotatory inertia of the shaft cross-section is included in the present formulation. Each force consists of a constant part and a time-dependent stochastic function. Closed form analytical solutions are obtained for simply supported boundary conditions. By using the direct Liapunov method almost sure asymptotic stability conditions are obtained as the function of stochastic process variance, damping coefficient, damping ratio, angular velocity, mode number and geometric and physical parameters of the shaft. Numerical calculations are performed for the Gaussian process with a zero mean and as well as an harmonic process with random phase. (orig.)

  20. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  1. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following sha...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and shafts shall be ventilated by mechanical ventilation equipment during development. Such equipment shall... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts....

  3. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  4. Inductive heating and quenching of planetary shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kosec

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: High mechanical and temperature cyclic loading of the final products for automotive, construction, transport and agriculture mechanization industry, demands sufficient mechanical properties of all of their components during its exploitation. Majority of the components is made from steel, by different cold forming processes. Their main demanded characteristics are surface wear resistance and fatigue strength under pulsating stress in combination with cyclic temperature loading, which could be achieved only by appropriate heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: In the experimental part of our work, the efficiency of the combined inductive heating and water quenching heat treatment and quality of the planetary shafts were analyzed, with the use of thermographic analysis, hardness measurements, and metallographic examination.Findings: Combination of inductive heating and water quenching is the most effective heat treatment process of carbon steel planetary shafts for the diesel engine starters.Research limitations/implications: Long life span of carbon steel planetary shafts it's essential for their economical production. The replacement of starter is expensive from both: money and working time point of view.Practical implications: Surface temperature measurements during the inductive heating process were realized in the industrial environment. The intensity and homogeneity of the planetary shaft surface temperature field was measured by thermographic camera.Originality/value: On the base of theoretical knowledge and measurements, a mathematical model for temperature conditions determination in the shaft during the entire process of heating and quenching was carried out. On the basis of developed mathematical model a computer program was worked out, and used for analyses and optimization of planetary shafts induction hardening process.

  5. Shaft Grouting HATS2A Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I have been following 5 grouting rounds at Cyberport shaft and 4 grouting rounds at Sandy Bay shaft.There were some communication problems between the grouting team and the geologists, resulting in missing water inflow measurements.The rock quality was very poor (Q-value 0.1 – 1), with coarse ash tuff as the most common rock mass in Cyberport, and rhyolitic tuff as the most common rock mass in Sandy Bay. The Q-values were below 1, with Cyberport just a bit higher than Sandy Bay...

  6. External fixation of complex femoral shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Zlowodzki, M; Prakash, J. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of temporary external fixation to an intramedullary nail within the first 2 weeks after a femoral shaft fracture is standard practice. However, due to financial constraints, in large parts of the world external fixation of femoral shaft fractures is often the definitive treatment. Out of 60 fractures, 47 were followed-up for a minimum period of 39 weeks. The average follow-up time was 75 weeks. Fourteen fractures were closed, and 33 open. Forty-four fractures united at an average o...

  7. FORMATION OF SHAFT SPLINES USING ROLLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sidorenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design of rolling heads used for cold rolling of straight-sided splines on shafts and presents theoretical principles of this process. These principles make it possible to calculate an effort which is required for pushing billet through rolling-on rolls with due account of metal hardening during deformation.

  8. Failure Analysis and Redesign of Shaft of Overhead Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit P. Raut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the failure analysis and redesign of shaft of overhead crane having capacity 25 tonne. There is problem of failure of the shaft in gear box which is mounted on the crane. The shaft breakage occurred due to dynamic, alternating low tensile– compressive stresses and simultaneous torsional load. An overhead crane is mechanical equipment for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism which is an integral part of the machine. To carry out the failure analysis of shaft it is necessary to model the shaft in any modelling software like PRO-E, CATIA etc. Then analysis of existing shaft is done analytically and with ANSYS11. The shaft is then redesigned with suitable material available in data book of machine design and then analysis of new design of shaft is done with the help of ANSYS-11 software.

  9. Performance of meta power rotor shaft torque meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2002-01-01

    The present report describes the novel experimental facility in detecting shaft torque in the transmission system (main rotor shaft, exit stage of gearbox) of a wind turbine, the results and the perspectives in using this concept. The measurements arecompared with measurements, based on existing...... strain gauges and transducers mounted on the main rotor shaft and controller....

  10. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  11. Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.

  12. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  13. Humeral shaft fracture with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Behera Prateek; Kumar Vishal; Aggarwal Sameer

    2014-01-01

    【Abstract】Although fracture of the humeral shaft or dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common injury, a simutaneous injury is rare. We present such a case combined with head injury which took precedence over the skeletal injuries. The postoperative rehabilitation was slowed down by the head injury. This case report makes us aware of some problems when managing the patient with this rare injury and helps us understand the management options better. Also the need for proper follow-up ...

  14. Filling and sealing of shafts in salt mines necessitated by an inrush of water or brine into a shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the investigations for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany also the possibilities of sealing a flooded shaft have been studied. If it seems not practical to safe the mine by pumping from the shaft sump or by closing the shaft with a large valve, the shaft has to be filled and sealed. For this purpose several layers of different materials are placed in the shaft. Tests have been started to find out the most suitable binder for plugs in rock salt strata. Some results of laboratory tests with three kinds of cement are published

  15. Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow regimes are observed: a “weir flow” for very low head values, where the flow profile is subject to the atmospheric pressure; a “full flow” for high head values, where water flows in a pressurized regime along the whole shaft; and a “transitional flow” for intermediate water head values. Weir flow and full flow can be experimentally investigated under steady-state conditions, whereas transitional flow is a pulsating condition, alternately switching from full flow to weir flow. Considering some significant geometric parameters, a head-discharge relation is sought both for the non-vented and for the vented configurations, by means of an energy balance equation, with specific assumptions about intake losses.

  16. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  17. Grouting of nuclear waste vault shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating ground water. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing materials its long-term durability and stability and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present grouting technology and grout material are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of shaft grouting. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  18. Humeral shaft fracture with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behera Prateek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Although fracture of the humeral shaft or dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common injury, a simutaneous injury is rare. We present such a case combined with head injury which took precedence over the skeletal injuries. The postoperative rehabilitation was slowed down by the head injury. This case report makes us aware of some problems when managing the patient with this rare injury and helps us understand the management options better. Also the need for proper follow-up and rehabilitation is emphasized.

  19. Humeral shaft fracture with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prateek Behera; Vishal Kumar; Sameer Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Although fracture of the humeral shaft or dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common injury,a simutaneous injury is rare.We present such a case combined with head injury which took precedence over the skeletal injuries.The postoperative rehabilitation was slowed down by the head injury.This case report makes us aware of some problems when managing the patient with this rare injury and helps us understand the management options better.Also the need for proper follow-up and rehabilitation is emphasized.

  20. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  1. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  2. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  3. Fractures of the shafts of the tibia and fibula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures of the shafts of the tibia and fibula are the most common long bone fractures. This chapter discusses tibial and fibular shaft fractures. Treatment of tibial and fibular fractures is similar and, therefore, reference is primarily made to the tibia. Diagnostic techniques are also evaluated

  4. The composite shaft management system at Rufford Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.J.; Wootton, A.P. (British Coal Corporation, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    This paper illustrates how British Coal at Rufford Colliery has replaced the existing multitude of shaft control systems with one rationalised shaft management system which provides an integrated shaft signals, shaft interlocks/push button winding and shaftside control system using a new intrinsically safe distributed plc. The colliery electrical engineer puts forward his practical reasons for updating the existing system in this particular manner, which has resulted in the first mine in the UK to achieve such a high level of integrated shaft control. Westinghouse Systems explains how this level of integration has been achieved and why it is both wise and necessary to pursue this course. The paper aims to highlight the problems facing management in monitoring safe, efficient, reliable shaft operations with limited manpower and minimum-downtime. It shows how this solution to modern day shaft controls provides constant health monitoring and the supply of management information to the colliery information system. In essence the shaft management system takes control from the winder to the extremities of the shaftside equipment. 1 fig.

  5. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  6. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  7. Hydrologic impact of exploratory shaft extension into nonwelded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Calico Hills nonwelded unit of volcanic tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada is considered a primary natural barrier to radionuclide migration between a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain and the regional water table. Numerical simulations using a verified and benchmarked code of unsaturated flow in nonwelded volcanic tuff were performed in support of a risk/benefit analysis to assess the hydrologic impact of extending exploratory shafts into the Calico Hills nonwelded unit for characterization purposes. Additional characterization of the Calico Hills nonwelded unit would improve the accuracy of model predictions of its performance as a natural barrier to radionuclide migration, while the presence of shaft(s) required to characterize the unit may reduce the effectiveness of the barrier. Numerical simulations were used to predict that the presence of a shaft and the surrounding modified permeability zone caused by shaft construction would reduce travel time for water in a radial zone with a diameter for approximately 40 m by at least 58% compared to undisturbed conditions. The results show that the choice of backfill materials used to seal the shaft will be the most important factor in design to exploratory shafts with respect to hydrologic impacts. Heterogeneities, in the form of layers of contrasting hydraulic properties, may also be important in the vicinity of a shaft where differences may result in preferential paths for water flow. (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs

  8. Safety Aspects Related to Vibrational Diagnostics of Deep Mine Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompała, Janusz; Motyka, Zbigniew; Passia, Henryk; Szade, Adam; Świder, Janusz

    2010-05-01

    Exploitation of deep mine shafts is connected with vitally important aspects of work and public safety. The latter becomes clear keeping in mind the fact that in many locations of the European coal and ore mining countries, the shafts can be found in close proximity of free access areas such as, for instance, public roads. On the other hand, proper operational capabilities of mine shaft installation determine the level of safety of hundreds underground miners, in a single underground mine, who use the shaft at least twice a day. Reliable operation of shaft installations is a derivative of many factors influencing the shaft frame as such, and its surroundings, e.g. changing of water conditions in the ground. Consequently, systematic control (including continuous monitoring if need be) of the vibration level of both the rotating machinery installed within the shaft structure, and frame supporting elements (including continuous monitoring) is compulsory. Currently, only in the Upper Silesia coal mining region, approximately 35 such structures are under extensive vibrational control. The paper presents sets of vibration parameters measurements obtained using conventional, and laser-based instrumentation, performed on some of those shaft structures. In relation to these results safety aspects have been discussed.

  9. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts' structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Shaft crack detection on centrifugal pumps by vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective method for detecting fatigue cracks in rotating shafts by vibration analysis is proposed as an alternative to presently used methods, which are ineffective. By normalizing the actual vibration levels with respect to one reference signature of the shaft system, the crack evolution may be revealed and a threshold alarm level can be established. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig

  11. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha; Ravi Shankar; Naveen; Roopa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to ...

  12. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG)

  13. Design Analysis of an Automotive Composite Drive Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Hossain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Automotive drive Shaft is a very important components of vehicle. The present paper focuses on the design of such an automotive drive shat by composite materials. Now a days two pieces steel shaft are used as drive shaft. However, the main advantages of the present design is;only one piece of composite drive shat is possible that fulfil allthe requirements of drive shaft. Two different designs are proposed, one is purely from Graphite/Epoxy lamina and other is using Aluminum with Graphite/Epoxy. The basic requirements considered here are torsional strength, torsional buckling and bending natural frequency. An optimum design of the draft shaft is done, which is cheapest and lightest but meets all of the above load requirements. Progressive failure analysis of the selected design is also done.

  14. Rock displacements measured during URL shaft sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During sinking of the Canadian Underground Research Laboratory (URL) shaft, borehole extensometers were used to obtain rock displacement measurements and a tape extensometer was used to measure total convergences. The instruments, instrument modifications, and methods used are described. The measurements are summarized and assessed, with particular emphasis on the influence of natural fractures on rock-mass response and the performance of the instrumentation. Displacements varied from 0.09 mm to 1.75 mm. The frequency of sub-vertical fractures in the rock appeared to be the main factor causing the variation in the measured displacements. Although the displacement instrumentation met certain operational requirement well, lack of precision was a problem. Displacement instrumentation used in future URL experiments should have more measuring points, greater sensitivity, and greater accuracy to better measure small displacements

  15. Shaft Inflation and the Planck satellite observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A new family of inflation models is introduced and studied. The models are characterised by a scalar potential which, far from the origin, approaches an inflationary plateau in a power-law manner, while near the origin becomes monomial, as in chaotic inflation. The models are obtained in the context of global supersymmetry starting with a superpotential, which interpolates from a generalised monomial to an O'Raifearteagh form for small to large values of the inflaton field respectively. It is demonstrated that the observables obtained, such as the scalar spectral index, its running and the tensor to scalar ratio, are in excellent agreement with the latest observations, without any fine-tuning. Moreover, by widening mildly the shaft in field space, it is shown that sizable tensors can be generated, which may well be observable in the near future.

  16. Exploratory Shaft Facility quality assurance impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the impact of the quality assurance practices used for the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design, and construction in licensing as part of the repository. Acceptance criteria used for evaluating the suitability of ESF QA practices are based on documents that had not been invoked for repository design or construction activities at the time of this evaluation. This report identifies the QA practices necessary for ESF design and construction licensability. A review and evaluation of QA practices for ESF design and construction resulted in the following conclusions. QA practices were found to be acceptable with a few exceptions. QA practices for construction activities were found to be insufficiently documented in implementing procedures to allow a full and effective evaluation for licensing purposes. Recommendations are provided for mitigating impacts to ensure compatibility of the QA practices with those considered necessary for repository licensing. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid seventies...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work, but the...

  18. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  19. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  20. Quaternary profiles of Gorleben 1 and 2 shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the Gorleben salt dome underground, work on the sinking of the Gorleben 1 and 2 shafts was begun on 17 March 1986 and 10 November 1986, respectively. The ground around the shafts was frozen to prevent entry of groundwater into the excavation. In the meantime, both shafts have reached the top of the salt dome. The Quaternary sequence is about 156 m thick in the 1 shaft and about 173 m thick in the 2 shaft. Additionally, Quaternary material was found in the cap rock. The shafts were mapped from top to bottom and a large number of samples were taken. Analysis of the sediment and paleontological samples has not yet been completed. First investigation results show that the sequence includes strata from the pre-Elsterian Quaternary to the early Holocene. Simplified profiles of shafts 1 and 2 show the stratigraphy of the Quaternary strata. Additionally, the base of the Quaternary and the surface of the Lauenburger Ton (Lauenburg clay) are represented separately. (orig.)

  1. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  2. Shaft potentials and currents in large turbo generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, S.P.; Girgis, R.S.

    1981-05-01

    Shaft potentials arise from a variety of sources and may produce damaging currents in machine components such as bearings, seals, gears, etc. These components are damaged by arcing, electrolysis or oxidation resulting in outages of generating units. A study was carried out to determine causes, mechanism of production, and nature of different types of shaft potential with the objective of determining the most satisfactory method of reducing damaging currents caused by shaft potentials. A brief literature review and important cases of failure due to shaft potential are presented. Measurements on turbogenerator units are provided and discussed with particular reference to machine size, design of generator and method of excitation. It was found that magnetic asymmetries such as rotor eccentricity and sagging, segmental punchings, shorted field turns and asymmetrical loadings give rise to shaft voltages across generator shafts. In steam turbines, electrostatic charges are generated by the steam striking the blades and nozzles of the turbine. Static exciters give rise to sharp spike voltages which are produced with alternating polarity at 360 Hz. The protection provided by bearing and seal insulation is governed by the capacitative reactance of the insulation rather than its insulation, which provides little protection for the bearings and seals especially against spike voltages. Location of grounding brushes and method of shaft grounding requires careful consideration. 15 refs., 77 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures

  4. Construction features of the Exploratory Shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1,480-foot-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 feet, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 feet from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2,300 feet from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1,480 feet and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1,200 feet consists of the equivalent of 1,150 feet of 15- by 15-foot drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Such techniques generally classified as ''smooth blasting'' are commonly used for excavation in the construction industry

  5. Gear-shaft linkage, especially for nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pump comprises: - inlet and outlet channels for the pumped fluid - a rotating shaft - a gear wheel mounted on the shaft by an axial locking nut which can support the axial hydraulic force - a thermal barrier above the gear wheel. A hydrostatic bearing fitted to the exterior surround of the gear wheel, the gear shaft linkage is made by at least a centering and locating device having a cylindrical span and an axial stop and another independent device which can take up the torque

  6. Investigation on collapse mechanism of super-deep vertical shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent interests in the development of deep underground facilities have been drawing significant attention for the importance of vertical shafts at great depth. However, due to shrinkage of domestic coal production, any deep shafts in the order of 1000m have not been constructed in more than 20 years. For the purposes of technical transfer and establishment of fundamentals for rational design method of vertical shafts, intensive literature review and interviews to engineers with relevant experiences were conducted. As the results, there are two distinctive modes of failure mechanism originated by the common cause, that is 'takanuke' collapse and lining failure due to unexpected earth pressure. (author)

  7. Mechanical Deformation of Ship Stern-Shaft Mechanical Face Seals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱汉华; 刘正林; 温诗铸; 严新平

    2004-01-01

    In ship propeller shaft systems, the shaft seal is a mechanical face seal, which includes a stationary metal seal ring and a rotating ring.The seal faces are deformed with different loads.The deformation of the seal faces affects the performance of mechanical face seals, which leads to water leakage, so the seal face deformation must be analyzed.A mechanics model with deformation equations was developed to describe ship stern-shaft seals.An example was given to verify the deformation equations.The solution of the deformation equations gives a theoretical basis for the analysis of seal leakage and improvements of seal structures.

  8. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  9. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries

  10. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Bombara, David; Green, Kevin E.; Bird, Connic; Holowczak, John

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  11. Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James D.

    1996-01-01

    SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

  12. ESF [Exploratory Shaft Facility] flexibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report directs that uncertainty allowances be included within the ESF facilities. The recommendations herein developed are intended as input to Title II Design criteria. Flexibility is measured first by lineal ft of drift, and then by hoisting rate and capacity of supporting utilities and services. A defined probability of need shows an extra 10,000 ft of drift for the first level of flexibility responding to testing and operations, and over 60,000 ft of drift for the second level of flexibility which recognizes possible need for perimeter drifting to investigate geologic stratigraphy. Observing there will be time constraints, a single shaft muck hoisting rate up to 170 to 250 tons per hour is recommended. The potential hoisting rate recommended for flexibility should be satisfied by a hoist approximately equivalent to, or conveniently upgraded from those being considered for sinking and construction, or 1000 horsepower. The cost of flexibility is limited to engineering planning and design (mostly conceptual) which makes later expansion achievable, and to selected items for initial construction where later upgrading would be impractical, impossible, or very costly. The cost is fixed to the level of flexibility and does not vary with excavated footage. The incremental margin is only a small fraction of the additional footage made available. Flexibility presents a strategy and not a position of design or technology. Examples used in this report are intended to be illustrative only, and not to lead design or cost estimates. 7 tabs

  13. Gas Flow Distribution in Pelletizing Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; DONG Hui; WANG Guo-sheng; YANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Through thermal test, cold state experiment, analysis and simulation of thermal process, the gas flow distribution in pelletizing shaft furnace (PSF) was discussed. The results show that there are five flowing trends; among them, the downward roasting gas and the upward cooling gas are the most unsteady, which influence flow distribution greatly. Among the operating parameters, the ratio of inflow is a key factor affecting the flow distribution. The roasting and cooling gases will entirely flow into the roasting zone and internal vertical air channels (IVAC), respectively, if the ratio of inflow is critical. From such a critical operating condition increasing roasting gas flow or decreasing cooling gas flow, the roasting gas starts flowing downwards so as to enter the inside of IVAC; the greater the ratio of inflow, the larger the downward flowrate. Among constructional parameters, the width of roasting zone b1, width of IVAC b2 and width of cooling zone b3, and the height of roasting zone h1, height of soaking zone h2 and height of cooling zone h3 are the main factors affecting flow distribution. In case the ratio of b2/b1, or h3/h2, or h1/h2 is increased, the upward cooling gas tends to decrease while the downward roasting gas tends to increase with a gradual decrease in the ratio of inflow.

  14. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this method...... over the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund [5]published an approach to ¯nd the dynamic coe±cients of a journal bearing by a ¯rst order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coe±cients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid...... seventies Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coe±cients of the bearing could be used to ¯nd the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for ¯nding the damping coe±cients in this work, but the...

  15. Evaluation of the tibial shaft fractures in the adults

    OpenAIRE

    Unsaldi, Tansel; Bektas, Kemalettin

    2004-01-01

    The results of 88 adult fracture of the shaft of the tibia, treated Cumhuriyet University, Medical Faculty, Orthopaedics Department between 1979-1984, were reviewed and compared with the similar reports in the literature.

  16. Shaft Crack Identification Based on Vibration and AE Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft crack is one of the main serious malfunctions that often occur in rotating machinery. However, it is difficult to locate the crack and determine the depth of the crack. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE signal and vibration response are used to diagnose the crack. The wavelet transform is applied to AE signal to decompose into a series of time-domain signals, each of which covers a specific octave frequency band. Then an improved union method based on threshold and cross-correlation method is applied to detect the location of the shaft crack. The finite element method is used to build the model of the cracked rotor, and the crack depth is identified by comparing the vibration response of experiment and simulation. The experimental results show that the AE signal is effective and convenient to locate the shaft crack, and the vibration signal is feasible to determine the depth of shaft crack.

  17. Nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller/shaft assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pump is described comprising: (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet in fluid communication for circulating fluid coolant through the pump; (b) a shaft positioned in the casing; (c) an impeller nut connected to the shaft; (d) a lockbolt fixedly connecting the impeller nut relative to the shaft; (e) passageway means with first and second ends for directing fluid from the lockbolt to the shaft; (f) first conduit means formed in the impeller nut in fluid communication with the first end of the passageway means and the inlet of the casing; and (g) second conduit means formed in the impeller nut in fluid communication with the second end of the passageway means and the outlet of the casing. A portion of the fluid coolant circulating through the inlet of the casing is pumped through the first conduit means, through the passageway means, out the second conduit means and into the outlet of the casing

  18. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

  19. Nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller/shaft assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor coolant pump including an impeller and impeller mounting bolt with a plurality of passages formed in the impeller mounting bolt adjacent a portion of the shaft in such a manner that the coolant is effectively pumped through the passegeways to heat the shaft to a temperature approximately equal to that of the impeller, thus creating thermal balance of the pump's component parts and providing improved pump efficiency

  20. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Jinlong Liu; Luwang Chen; Jili Wang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement...

  1. Analysis of fatigue transverse cracks in turbine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a safety control of the low pressure turbines CP0/CP1 shafts, some transverse cracks have been identified. In a first step, the crack propagation has been studied by the following three actions: improvement of the control methods, material characterization to calculate the crack propagation threshold taking into account the operating conditions, a 3-D numerical analysis of the shaft solicitations with the calculation of KI KII KIII for the crack propagation estimation. (A.L.B.)

  2. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION DAMPING IN PROPELLER SHAFT USING VISCOELASTIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    J.Suresh Kumar*; G.V. Pradeep Varma

    2016-01-01

    This project work expresses the difference between the structures with and without damping material.  The effect of damping on the performance of isotropic (steel) and orthotropic (Carbon Epoxy) structures is to be analysed by using Finite Element Analysis.  The values of damping factor, fundamental natural frequency and the static deflection for Steel Shaft, Carbon Epoxy Shaft and are to be compared with and without viscoelastic polymer (Rubber).   A new composite damp...

  3. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M and O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M and O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction

  4. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs

  6. Exploratory shaft design for a high-level waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory shaft design for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt are described. The exploratory shaft facility in salt in one of three facilities-one each in basalt, tuff and salt-to be developed for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Design criteria for the shaft are discussed; the influence of the geotechnical conditions on shaft lining; the shaft construction process; the two types of shaft lining to be used; and determination of the loads on the shaft lining, are analysed. (author)

  7. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives. We studied patients ≥ 18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32 in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date. Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12% had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70% than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P  Conclusions Nonunions in TSF’s are associated with substantial healthcare resource use, common use of strong opioids, and high per-patient costs. Open fractures are associated with higher likelihood of nonunion than closed ones. Effective screening of nonunion risk may decrease this morbidity and subsequent healthcare resource use and costs.

  8. Exploratory Shaft Facility hoist recommendation: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report develops a project position and recommendation on the manner to provide hoisting capability at the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) site during development, test support and decommissioning. The hoist study shows a clear preference for purchasing hoists over any option involving lease or rental costs. Given the planned duration of site characterization, government purchase will yield significantly lower total costs for the project. A decision analysis ranked this option on a relative 0 to 10 scale as a 7.6 versus 605 for the next best option. Double drum-double clutch, 1000 HP hoists are clearly preferable to single drum configurations and somewhat better than double drum-single clutch. While the purchase cost for this option is somewhat higher than the others, the benefits from increased versatility, minimum project schedule impact, and improved productivity favor the double clutch. This choice is favored for both construction and operations phases of the project. On a 0 to 10 scale the double drum-double clutch ranked 9.4 overall versus 8.68 for the double drum-single clutch option. Newly fabricated or suitable unused available hoists are favored over used hoists based on the reduced risks of breakdown, easier maintenance, warranty and start-up assistance availability and quality assurance. While new hoists will cost more to purchase and will require longer to procure, new hoists ranked 8.5 versus 7.3 for used hoists on the same 0 to 10 scale. Current project milestones provide adequate time for procurement

  9. On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test

  10. Optimization Design of Cardan Universal Joint Driving of Automotive Steering System%汽车转向系统十字轴万向节传动优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国强; 岳红旭

    2011-01-01

    转向力是汽车操纵稳定性中一项重要的评价指标,其力矩波动直接影响驾驶感觉。文章对汽车转向轴的布置与力矩波动的关系进行了分析,并针对某车型转向系统的十字轴万向节结构进行优化设计。优化结果在matlab软件里仿真,得到较好的结果,波动力矩在允许的范围内。并得出最佳的中间轴相位角及轴系布置方案,对转向系统的优化设计有一定的参考价值,可作为实际车型开发中传动优化设计的技术依据。%Steering force is a very important evaluation index in vehicle controll stability;the torque fluctuation directly affects driving feeling.The relationship between the steering shaft arrangement and torque fluctuations is analyzed,and optimization design of cross axis universal structure in a car steering system is conducted.The optimization results are simulated in Matlab software and better results are achieved.The fluctuation torque is in permitted range.The best countershaft phase angle and shafting arrangement solution is gained.It provides reference for optimization design of steering system;and it can be used as technical basis of transmission optimization design in developing automobiles.

  11. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  12. Shaft Excavation in Frozen Ground at Point 5

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2000-01-01

    Construction work on the 112 MCHF civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. The two shafts are to be sunk through approximately 50 m of water-bearing moraine to the underlying molasse rock. From a number of possible construction methods, ground freezing of the moraine was considered to be most appropriate. The ground freezing is used to control the groundwater and to support temporarily the moraine during excavation and lining of the shafts. The aim of this paper is to present the ground-freezing technique and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the light of its first few months of running on the Point 5 site.

  13. Coupled exofixator for comminuted fracture of humeral shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红如; 马树林; 尹同珍

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To report and assess the efficacy of a coupled exofixator in the treatment of comminuted fracture of the humeral shaft.Methods: From June 1999 to September 2003, 24 patients with comminuted fracture of the humeral shaft were treated in our department, in whom 11 were involved in left humerus fractures and 13 in right humerus fractures. Closed reduction or open reduction with a small incision as well as a coupled exofixator was used to treat these patients. Results: All cases got anatomical reduction after 6-12 months follow-up. The time for fracture union averaged 5.8 months with a good functional recovery of the shoulder-elbow joints. Conclusions: The coupled exofixator is favorable to the treatment of comminuted humeral shaft fractures. It can shorten union time and avoid nonunion occurrence.

  14. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  15. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  16. Waste Handling Shaft concrete liner degradation conclusions and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary function of the Waste Handling Shaft (WHS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to permit the transfer of radioactive waste from the surface waste handling building to the underground storage area. It also serves as an intake shaft for small volumes of air during normal storage operations and as an emergency escape route. Part of the construction was the placement of a concrete liner and steel reinforced key in 1984. During a routine shaft inspection in May 1990, some degradation of the WHS concrete liner was observed between the depths of 800 and 900 feet below the ground surface. Detailed investigations of the liner had been carried out by Sandia National Laboratories and by Westinghouse Electric Corporation Waste Isolation Division (WID) through Lankard Materials Laboratory. Observations, reports, and data support the conclusion that the concrete degradation, resulting from attack by chemically aggressive brine, is a localized phenomena. It is the opinion of the WID that the degradation is not considered an immediate or near term concern; this is supported by technical experts. WID recommendations have been made which, when implemented, will ensure an extended liner life. Based on the current assessment of available data and the proposed shaft liner monitoring program described in this report, it is reasonable to assume that the operational life of the concrete shaft liner can safely support the 25-year life of the WIPP. Analysis of data indicates that degradation of the shaft's concrete liner is attributed to chemically aggressive brine seeping through construction joints and shrinkage cracks from behind the liner in and around the 834-foot depth. Chemical and mechanical components of concrete degradation have been identified. Chemical attack is comprised of several stages of concrete alteration. The other component, mechanical degradation, results from the expansive forces of crystals forming in the concrete pore space

  17. Assessment of shaft safety and management system of controlling engineering information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Rui-xin; Xu Yan-chun [Yanzhou Mining Group Ltd., Zoucheng (China)

    2008-02-15

    Evaluating shaft safety and establishing a system for controlling engineering information is very important because more than 90 shafts in thick alluvial areas suddenly have shaft wall fracturing or breaking problems and there are more than a few hundred shafts of similar geologic conditions. Taking shaft control in the Yangzhou Coal Mining Group as an example, an assessment and management system and related software were established. This system includes basic information of the mine, measurement results and analysis, and functions of empirical and theoretical forecasting and finite element analysis, which are confirmed to be very effective for guiding shaft well control engineering in practice. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, R; Wiebe, B

    1993-01-01

    A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis.......A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis....

  19. Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Previously announced in STAR as N82-11184

  20. Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlykken, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.

  1. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours

  2. Photogrammetric observation of deformation of the vertical mining shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mining works are often specific in their shape, dimension and localisation. Therefore also the alternative measuring processes are adapted for acquisition of the reliable information about object geometry, especially for the objects inaccessible and nonmeasurable using conventional even the high tech surveying equipment. Mentioned team of authors designed and realised the displacement measurement of selected signalised points within the vertical mining shaft with a diameter 5 m and up to the depth approx. 40 m. The aim of the measurements is to estimate the phase displacement of these points which represent the possible deformations of shaft walls and with the other observations they can predict the possible collapse of this mining work. (authors)

  3. Camera Based 3D Mine-Shaft Inspection System

    OpenAIRE

    Wohlfeil, Jürgen; Spreckels, Volker; Strackenbrock, Bernhard; Schlienkamp, Andreas; Choinowski, André

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an Optical 3D Shaft Inspection System needed for the survey and monitoring of Water Handling Shafts in the German Ruhrgebiet. The development is part of the RAG R&D project “ABSMon”. The end of the German hard coal mining at the end of 2018 has been determined with the Steinkohlefinanzierungsgesetz (SteinkohleFinG) from 2007-12-20. About three hundred years before now the near surface hard coal mining began in the southern Ruhr Area an...

  4. Crack propagation analysis of rotating shafts by vibration measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The valuation of rotor crack damage is done by shaft vibration monitoring followed by an interpretatioin of the results, which are frequently supported by calculations. The connection between crack depth, contour and shape of the crack surfaces of propagating transverse crack and the vibration response of a slender uniform shaft made of a material, which is tough to fracture, is experimentally found and is illustrated with the help of examples. Beach marks are set in the structural surface to mark the correct contour of the cracked cross section at selected points of time. Suggestions are made how cracked rotors can be modelled. (orig.)

  5. Automatic balancing of a rigid rotor with misaligned shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, DJ; Champneys, AR; Friswell, MI; Wilson, RE

    2006-01-01

    We present a nonlinear analysis of the dynamics of an automatic ball balancer (ABB) for rotors which are both eccentric and misaligned. The ABB consists of two or more ball bearings which are free to travel around a circular race at a fixed distance from the shaft. The balls, after a transient response, find a steady state which balances the rotor. Following the previous work of Green et al. at Bristol, we have included the effect of shaft misalignment which causes the rotor to precess. This ...

  6. Seismic fragility capacity of equipment--horizontal shaft pump test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump is 1.6 x 9.8 m/s2(1.6 g), which was decided from previous vibration tests and we believe that it must have sufficient margin. The purpose of fragility capacity test is to obtain realistic seismic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump by vibration tests. Reactor Building Closed Cooling Water (RCW) Pump was tested as a typical horizontal shaft pump, and then bearings and liner rings were tested as important parts to evaluate critical acceleration and dispersion. Regarding RCW pump test, no damage was found, though maximum input acceleration level was 6 x 9.8 m/s2 (6 g). Some kinds of bearings and liner rings were tested on the element test. Input load was based on seismic motion which was same with the RCW pump test, and maximum load was equivalent to over 20 times of design seismic acceleration. There was not significant damage that caused emergency stop of pump but degradation of surface roughness was found on some kinds of bearings. It would cause reduction of pump life, but such damage on bearings occurred under large seismic load condition that was equivalent to over 10 to 20 g force. Test results show that realistic fragility capacity of horizontal shaft pump would be at least four times as higher as current value which has been used for our seismic PSA. (authors)

  7. Analisa Distribusi Tegangan Eccentric Shaft Stone Crusher Dengan Software Ansys

    OpenAIRE

    Renreng, Ilyas

    2012-01-01

    Analysis ofstress distributionon thestonecrushereccentricshaftsaimedtodetermine the effect ofstresson theeccentricshaftmaterial failure. Onthis topic, the caseis afracture ofthe rockbreaking machineshaft(eccentric shaft) owned by PT. BumiKarsaMakassarprocessesthat resulted incessation ofengine work. Himthatthis research aimsto calculatethe magnitude and locationof criticalstressoccurring along theeccentricshaftsectionanalyzedthe causes offailureKem...

  8. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  9. Superconducting Super Collider construction of tunnels and shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SSCL conventional construction of the tunnels and shafts for the collider consists of approximately 113 km (70 mi.) of tunnel with a 4.24 m (14 ft.) finish diameter and over 40 shafts. The tunnel support system is tailored for the different ground conditions that are projected to be encountered during the tunnelling. In the Eagle Ford Shale and Taylor Marl Formations the supports are precast concrete liners and in the Austin Chalk Formation the support system is rock bolts with some shotcrete. The shafts range in size from 5.45 m (18 ft.) mined diameter to an 9.1 x 18.2 m (30 x 60 ft.) elliptical shape. This paper describes the details of the various construction contract packages and how the shafts and tunnels are being constructed. There are construction contracts underway for over 48 KM (30 miles) of tunnels. The major emphasis is an explanation of the problems encountered during the construction process and the methods utilized to overcome the problems. Potential problems and challenges are also discussed

  10. Nonlinear Normal Modes of a Rotating Shaft Based on the Invariant Manifold Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Legrand; Dongying Jiang; Christophe Pierre; Shaw, Steven W.

    2002-01-01

    International audience The nonlinear normal mode methodology is generalized to the study of a rotating shaft supported by two short journal bearings. For rotating shafts, nonlinearities are generated by forces arising from the supporting hydraulic bearings. In this study, the rotating shaft is represented by a linear beam, while a simplified bearing model is employed so that the nonlinear supporting forces can be expressed analytically. The equations of motion of the coupled shaft-bearings...

  11. LEAST INERTIA APPROACH TO LOW-SPEED MARINE DIESEL PROPULSION SHAFTING OPTIMUM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Magazinović, Gojko

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach to the low-speed marine diesel propulsion shafting design is proposed and examined. The proposed approach is based on the shafting least inertia principle, in which the design task is formulated and solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. The core of the approach is a cost function, which is defined as a weighted sum of the shafting, turning wheel, and tuning wheel inertias, because it is a suitable proxy of the propulsion shafting material and ...

  12. Magnetic shaft seals prevent hazardous leakage from wastewater agitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's laboratory in Miamisburg, OH, operated by Monsanto Research Corporation, processes approximately 45,000 gallons per week of low-level radioactive wastewater to meet Federal Environmental Protection Agency quality standards. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination throughout the operating area demands effective sealing of all process piping, valves, pumps, and agitators. Rotating shafts of pumps and agitators installed a the start of operations in 1947 were sealed by stuffing glands with graphite impregnated asbestos packing. These pumps proved to be unsatisfactory. In the mid-1970's, new process pumps with mechanical seals and some with magnetic drives were installed. Later, in January 1979, new agitator shaft drives with double tandem, spring-loaded mechanical seals were installed, maintenance of these pumps was costly. The agitator drive shafts were redesigned to accommodate magnetic seals of the type successfully used in blowers and vacuum/pressure pumps in other plant locations. One inherent advantage of the magnetic seal is that it operates with a face loading as much as 50% less than a conventional spring-loaded mechanical seal. The lower loading by a predetermined uniform magnetic force contributes to long face life. Other advantages include compactness, ease of assembly with only a few parts, and insensitivity to vibration. The magnetic shaft seals installed on the agitator shafts in February 1983 are still in service without any leakage or need for maintenance. Based on current operating data and a projected five-year meantime between failures, the estimated cost benefit of the magnetic seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals will be $640 vs $2400 respectively per seal, with 60% less downtime for maintenance

  13. Impeller-shaft connection, especially for a PWR primary coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pump has: - a rotation shaft - an impeller mounted on the shaft - a thermal barrier placed above the impeller. An hydrostatic bearing is mounted on the extension belt of the impeller the impeller-shaft connection is made by a fixation device, a centering device and a coupling transmission device

  14. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Shaft sealing issue in CO2 storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudonné, A.-C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is an innovating approach to tackle climate changes through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and unmineable coal seams are among the most studied reservoirs. However other types of reservoir, such as abandonned coal mines, could also be used for the storage of carbon dioxide. In this case, the problem of shaft sealing appears to be particularly critical regarding to the economic, ecologic and health aspects of geological storage. The purpose of the work is to study shaft sealing in the framework of CO2 storage projects in abandoned coal mines. The problem of gas transfers around a sealing system is studied numerically using the finite elements code LAGAMINE, which has been developped for 30 years at the University of Liege. A coupled hydro-mechanical model of unsaturated geomaterials is used for the analyses. The response of the two-phase flow model is first studied through a simple synthetic problem consisting in the injection of gas in a concrete-made column. It stands out of this first modeling that the advection of the gas phase represents the main transfer mechanism of CO2 in highly unsaturated materials. Furthermore the setting of a bentonite barrier seal limits considerably the gas influx into the biosphere. A 2D axisymetric hydromechanical modeling of the Anderlues natural gas storage site is then performed. The geological and hydrogeological contexts of the site are used to define the problem, for the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the material properties. In order to reproduce stress and water saturation states in the shale before CO2 injection in the mine, different phases corresponding to the shaft sinking, the mining and the set up of the sealing system are simulated. The system efficiency is then evaluated by simulating the CO2 injection with the imposed pressure at the shaft wall. According to the modeling, the low water saturation of concrete and

  16. Shaft Voltage and Life of Bearing electric-erosion for the Brushless DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes the life of noise of bearing electro-erosion in the shaft voltage of brushless DC motors. We confirmed that shaft voltage is suppressed to equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of bearing lubricant in the insulated rotor proposed for suppression of shaft voltage. However, since bearing electro-erosion appears over time along with the deterioration of noise performance, the threshold of the shaft voltage to secure noise performance over long periods of time is necessary. Therefore, the threshold of the shaft voltage that influences the life of noise was obtained in acceleration tests.

  17. Simulation on spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft for a high-rise building

    OpenAIRE

    Yunchun Xia

    2014-01-01

    Spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft of a high-rise building is influenced by many driving facts. We simulate smoke spreading in the elevator shaft, stair room, and pre-chamber with and without different supplied pressurized air. The simulation shows that smoke moves very fast in the elevator shaft. When a 12 floor high-rise building is in fire, smoke can fill up the elevator shaft in less than 1.5 min after a fire started, temperature in the elevator shaft can be higher than 187°C in 5...

  18. Failure Mode Analysis Of Torsion Shaft In Garrett-5 Engine Using Two Test Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Melvin Aro. T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with “Failure Analysis of Internal splines in Torsion Shaft” of “TPE 331-5-252D - GARRET ENGINE” which is used in Dornier aircraft. Garret Engine is a type of air breathing engine. It comes under the category of Turboprop engines of Gas turbine engine. As separate shafts are used for propeller and turbine, this aids them to rotate at different RPM. A torsion shaft is used to transmit the torque from main shaft to propeller shaft. Torsion shaft is used to give a deflection which is also used to measure the torque of the engine. This torsion shaft is internally connected with the main power transmission shaft and its other end is coupled to a coupler shaft with engagement of its internal splines to the external splines of coupler shaft. Further this coupler connects to the gearing system and transmits power to the propeller shaft. Due to Continues variable load over internal splines, it is subjected to high rate of wear and tear. This problem can be rectified by Failure Mode Analysis Method, in which heat treatment process of torsion shaft is being carried out. Two test pieces are heat treated separately at different temperatures of 5800C and 5400C at variable time durations. Tuffriding which is a Liquid nitriding process is done with this two test pieces and results are analyzed. The hardness of the material is increased to desired values and its life time is also increased which overcomes the problem.

  19. Design of a Composite Drive Shaft and its Coupling for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Khoshravan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design method and a vibration analysis of a carbon/epoxy composite drive shaft. The designof the composite drive shaft is divided into two main sections: First, the design of the composite shaft and second, thedesign of its coupling. Some parameters such as critical speed, static torque, fiber orientation and adhesive jointswere studied. Tsai-Hill failure criterion was implemented to control the rupture resistance of the composite shaft andthen its critical speed analysis and modal analysis were carried out using ANSYS. The behavior of materials isconsidered nonlinear isotropic for adhesive, linear isotropic for metal and orthotropic for composite shaft. The resultsshowed significant points about the appropriate design of composite drive shafts. The substitution of composite driveshaft has resulted in considerable weight reduction about 72% compared to conventional steel shaft. Furthermore,results revealed that the orientation of fibers had great influence on the dynamic characteristics of the compositeshaft.

  20. Crack Growth Prediction of the Steam Turbine Generator Shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power network in China is encountering great changes and large-scale network is increasingly implemented for long distance power transmission as well as various kinds of power electronic devices, which bring in the risk of the torsional vibration of the turbine generator shafts, may cause the fatigue damage and cracks in the product life cycle. The paper analyzed the failed coupling of some 600MW steam turbine generator and calculated the local stress of the assembly under torsional load caused by the network disturbance. Then the crack propagation was analyzed with the predicted crack initiation position and crack propagation routine. The assembled coupling contains shaft, coupling and keys with interferences between the parts. Therefore the contact analysis was included. Extended Finite Element Method (X-FEM) is used to calculate the crack propagation and that the mesh needs not to be regenerated with the crack propagation, which is beneficial for engineering applications.

  1. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  2. CURRENT TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONS IN FREEZE SHAFT SINKING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 翁家杰; 夏正明

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of the development of shaft sinking by artificial ground freezing since 1949 when new China was founded. Several shaft freezing schemes which have been successfully applied from the economic and safe viewpoints are presented. Current technology and some innovative techniques,especially the shah lining which have experienced major improvements over the last four decades,are briefly reviewed. The technique of the in-situ pour concrete incorporating ailica fume with higher early strength under low temperature curing conditions is described. The temperature field in shah freezing and its finite difference solution are given in this paper. A recently developed method combining freeze wall model test with back analysis technique based on numerical simulation is also described.

  3. Severity estimation of cracked shaft vibrations within fluid film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, B. S.; Sekhar, A. S.

    1995-07-01

    The equations of motion, with four degrees of freedom, taking into consideration the flexibility, damping and cross coupling of the fluid film bearings are derived for a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on fluid film bearings. Dimensionless equations are developed for dynamic radial load, dynamic pressure developed in the fluid film bearings and coefficient of dissipation considering the journal vibrations in two harmonics; bearing fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients. These are applied to a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on different types of bearings, i.e., cylindrical journal bearings, offset cylindrical bearings, tilting pad journal bearings and three-lobe bearings. Based on the allowable dynamic pressure developed in the fluid bearings, the severity of cracked shaft and allowable crack depths are estimated in this study. Measurement of dynamic pressure and dissipation for monitoring the crack growth is suggested. However, 2x vibration is the best indicator of cracks in the shafts.

  4. Elementary calculation of clip connections with incomplete sweep of shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Shatsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes promising structures of clip (screw and friction connections with incomplete sweep of shaft used in machines and mechanisms for the oil and gas industry. The contact problems of interaction between semi-hubs and shaft for the symmetric and asymmetric connections are formulated. For structures that are asymmetric relatively the joint bolt two types of interaction are investigated: with and without lateral displacement. Based on a priori assumption about the distribution laws of contact pressure accepted in traditional courses of “Machine Details” an engineering method for calculating of clip connections is developed. Herewith different types of details coupling (with a gap, matched, with tension correspond to concentrated, cosine and sustainable (linear distributions of contact stresses. There are determined an analytical dependences of boundary points and breakloose force on spanning angles, bolt tightening force and tribological properties of joined parts of subassembly.

  5. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  6. Vibration analysis of parallel misaligned shaft with ball bearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PSS.Srinivasan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Misalignment is the most common cause of machine vibration. In this paper, experimental studies were performed ona rotor dynamic test apparatus to predict the vibration spectrum for shaft misalignment. A self-designed simplified 3–pin typeflexible coupling was used in the experiments. Vibration accelerations were measured using dual channel vibration analyzerfor baseline and the misalignment condition. The experimental and numerical frequency spectra were obtained. The experimentalpredictions are in good agreement with the numerical results. Both the vibration spectra show that misalignment canbe characterized primarily by 2X shaft running speed. However, misalignment is not close enough to one of the systemnatural frequency to excite the system appreciably. Therefore, in some case the misalignment response is hidden and doesnot show up in the vibration spectrum. The misalignment effect can be amplified, and a high acceleration level at 2X shaftsrunning speed is pronounced in the frequency spectrum.

  7. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Penile Shaft : An Unusual Location For Skin Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thami Gurvinder P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin tags or acrochordons, commonly observed in the flexural surfaces and various folds of skin, are more frequently encountered in presence of obesity, diagetes and old age. Although lesions are quite characteristic clinically, at times these need to be differentiated from warts, fibromas and other benign tumors of skin and their appendages. A rare case with presence of skin tags over the shaft of penis is described.

  9. Recirculation pump shaft cracking experience at Chin-Shan station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the experience of the Chin-Shan Nuclear Power Station with recirculation pump shaft cracking experience. The topics of the paper include a description of the Chin-Shan boiling water reactor plant, a summary of the disassembly and inspection of the recirculation pump, a description of the provisions for pump inspection, the pump vibration monitoring system, and the location of accelerometers, proximity probes, keyphasor and velocity transducers

  10. Digital shaft encoders for nuclear and conventional industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric incremental shaft encoder giving 100 pulses per revolution developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is described. Some of its applications for position measurement in reactors and industry are discussed. They are for : (1) control rod position display in PURNIMA reactor, (2) X-ray diffractometer in CIRUS, (3) level measurement of liquid in PURNIMA II, (4) digital display of ram B in fuelling machine (5) position feedback device in numerically controlled drilling machine and (6) a tachometer. (M.G.B.)

  11. Vibration analysis of parallel misaligned shaft with ball bearing system

    OpenAIRE

    PSS.Srinivasan; Vaggeeram Hariharan

    2011-01-01

    Misalignment is the most common cause of machine vibration. In this paper, experimental studies were performed ona rotor dynamic test apparatus to predict the vibration spectrum for shaft misalignment. A self-designed simplified 3–pin typeflexible coupling was used in the experiments. Vibration accelerations were measured using dual channel vibration analyzerfor baseline and the misalignment condition. The experimental and numerical frequency spectra were obtained. The experimentalpredictions...

  12. A review of drilled shaft sealing for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Questions have been raised concerning the ability of the drillers of the exploratory shaft for the Basalt Waste Isolation program to develop an effective seal against water inflow down the annular space between the shaft casing and shaft wall into the mined chambers. We understand the need for shaft integrity and the concern of those responsible for the shaft planning. The purpose of this report is to give documentation to allay the fears of those who may have questions remaining in their minds concerning the prospects for a dry shaft. Included in this report are discussions of five projects where shaft sealing was effective in drilled shafts and one project where the material which is recommended for the exploratory shaft was used effectively in a conventional shaft. Also discussed is the recommended multitier approach toward shaft sealing which will, if adopted, use all of the current state of the art techniques to assure the watertightness of the shaft. It should be pointed out that none of the projects described here used all of the safeguards which are recommended in this program. If any of the materials and procedures recommended here are omitted, then of course the possibility increases for water migration through the casing-borehole annulus. It is our considered opinion that if the program recommended is adopted there will be no water inflow into the shaft, but if we are wrong or if, through human error, the program is not executed correctly, that we have devices and procedures available to us which will facilitate remedial work to perfect seal in the shaft. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Correlation of operating parameters on turbine shaft vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar; Rajora, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics system plays an important role in efficient functioning of power plants. In most of the rotating machine, defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situation occurs. It allows the efficient use of stationary on-line continuous monitoring system for condition monitoring and diagnostics as well. Condition monitoring of turbine shaft can not only reduce expenses of maintenance of turbo generator of power plants but also prevents likely shutdown of plant, thereby increases plant load factor. Turbo visionary parameters are essential part of health diagnosis system of turbo generator. Particularly steam pressure, steam temperature and lube oil temperature are important parameters to monitor because they are having much influence on turbine shaft vibration and also governing systems are available for change values of those parameters. This paper includes influence of turbo visionary parameters i.e., steam temperature, steam pressure, lube oil temperature, turbine speed and load on turbine shaft vibration at turbo generator at 195 MW unit-6,Kota Super Thermal Power Station by measuring vibration amplitude and analyze them in MATLAB.

  14. Operating reliability of the shaft seal system of ANDRITZ RCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next generation of nuclear power stations will have to fulfil new expectations in terms of safety, operating behaviour and costs. This applies also and especially to reactor coolant pumps for the primary circuit of pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plants (RCP). For 4 decades, ANDRITZ AG has developed and built RCPs and has attached great importance to the design of the complete pump rotor and of its essential surrounding elements, such as e. g. the shaft seal. Many questions concerning design and configuration of the shaft seal system cannot be answered purely theoretically, or they can only be answered partly. Therefore, comprehensive development work and testing was necessary to increase the operating reliability of the seal. Apart from all relevant questions connected with design and functioning of the pump there is one question of top priority: the operating reliability of the shaft seal system. Therefore it is intended to describe the current status of design and development of ANDRITZ RCP for future Korean NPPs, to present the most important design features and to give an introduction concerning experiences for a 3-stage-hydrodynamic seal as well as for a 2-stage-hydrodynamic seal

  15. Detection of cracks in shafts with the Approximated Entropy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Diego Luchesi; Nicoletti, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    The Approximate Entropy is a statistical calculus used primarily in the fields of Medicine, Biology, and Telecommunication for classifying and identifying complex signal data. In this work, an Approximate Entropy algorithm is used to detect cracks in a rotating shaft. The signals of the cracked shaft are obtained from numerical simulations of a de Laval rotor with breathing cracks modelled by the Fracture Mechanics. In this case, one analysed the vertical displacements of the rotor during run-up transients. The results show the feasibility of detecting cracks from 5% depth, irrespective of the unbalance of the rotating system and crack orientation in the shaft. The results also show that the algorithm can differentiate the occurrence of crack only, misalignment only, and crack + misalignment in the system. However, the algorithm is sensitive to intrinsic parameters p (number of data points in a sample vector) and f (fraction of the standard deviation that defines the minimum distance between two sample vectors), and good results are only obtained by appropriately choosing their values according to the sampling rate of the signal.

  16. Buoyancy and Pressure Induced Flow of Hot Gases in Vertical Shafts with Natural and Forced Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Tamm, Gunnar Olavi

    2014-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study buoyancy and pressure induced flow of hot gases in vertical shafts to model smoke propagation in elevator and ventilation shafts of high rise building fires. Various configurations were tested with regard to natural and forced ventilation imposed at the upper and lower surfaces of the vertical shaft. The aspect ratio was taken at a typical value of 6. From a lower vent, the inlet conditions for smoke and hot gases were varied in terms of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers. The forced ventilation at the upper or lower boundary was of the same order as the bulk shaft flow. Measurements were taken within the shaft to allow a detailed study of the steady state flow and thermal fields established for various shaft configurations and inlet conditions, from which optimal means for smoke alleviation in high rise building fires may be developed. Results indicated a wall plume as the primary transport mechanism for smoke propagating from the inlet towards the exhaust region. Recirculation and entrainment dominated at high inlet Grashof number flows, while increased inlet Reynolds numbers allowed greater mixing in the shaft. The development and stability of these flow patterns and their effects on the smoke behavior were assessed for several shaft configurations with different inlet conditions. The comparisons indicated that the fastest smoke removal and lowest overall shaft temperatures occur for a configuration with natural ventilation at the top surface and forced ventilation up from the shaft bottom.

  17. Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 μm are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

  18. Shafting Alignment Computing Method of New Multibearing Rotor System under Specific Installation Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shafting of large steam turbine generator set is composed of several rotors which are connected by couplings. The computing method of shafting with different structure under specific installation requirement is studied in this paper. Based on three-moment equation, shafting alignment mathematical model is established. The computing method of bearing elevations and loads under corresponding installation requirements, where bending moment of each coupling is zero and there exist preset sag and gap in some couplings, is proposed, respectively. Bearing elevations and loads of shafting with different structure under specific installation requirement are calculated; calculation results are compared with installation data measured on site which verifies the validity and accuracy of the proposed shafting alignment computing method. The above work provides a reliable approach to analyze shafting alignment and could guide installation on site.

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Rotating Shaft Subjects to Slant Crack with Experimentation and ANSYS Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushikesh V. Dhokate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contents the dynamic study of rotating shaft with slant crack on surface of shaft. Slant cracks are prepared artificially on surface of shaft with material EN8. In this study, crack location taken on shaft 150 mm from motor side and also for effective study healthy shaft of EN8 material is taken. Experimental results are taken with the help of FFT analyzer. Analysis is carried out from these results and finally these results are validated in FEA software i. e. ANSYS14 software. These validated results with graphs are explained in this paper. The experimentation is also done on healthy shaft of EN8 material for analysis. This paper mainly focused on validation of experimental results with ANSYS software.

  20. Stiffness Characteristics of Fibre-reinforced Composite Shaft Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gupta

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Frequent coast up/coast down operations of rotating shafts in the power and aerospace industry expose the flexible rotors to the risk of fatigue failures. Resonant vibrations during passage through critical speeds induce large stresses that may lead to failures. In this paper, the use of nitinol [shape memory alloy (SMA] wires in the fibre-reinforced composite shaft, for the purpose ofmodifying shaft stiffness properties to avoid such failures, is discussed. A setup has been developed to fabricate the composite shaft (made of fibre glass and epoxy resin embedded with pre-stressed SMA wires. Experiments have been carried out on the shaft to estimate the changes in the natural frequency of the composite shaft due to activation and deactivation ofSMA wires. The comparisonofthe experimental results with the established analytical results indicates feasibility ofvibration control using the special properties of SMA wires.

  1. Application of modern calculation and design methods for bucket wheel sleeve shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeser, H. (VEB Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk, Lauchhammer-Ost (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-01-01

    Explains design of the bucket wheel sleeve shaft for the large SRs 6,300 bucket wheel excavator, built by TAKRAF, GDR. The excavator has a production capacity of 14,500 m{sup 3}/h and a bucket wheel diameter of 17 m. The bucket wheel shaft is 7 m long and weighs 33 t. A scheme of the shaft is provided. The design was developed by computer calculations with the ROSCHA program system of the Dresden Technical University. Shaft groove geometry was determined with the ALPHA program. The shaft was welded from segments that fulfilled requirements of the TGL 19 340 industrial standard. Measurements of load on this bucket wheel shaft and assessment of service life have been made during excavator operations in brown coal surface mines. 5 refs.

  2. Pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated by flexible intramedullary nailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C.Kapil Mani; R.C.Dirgha Raj; Acharya Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background:Nowadays pediatric femoral fractures are more commonly managed with operative treatment rather than conservative treatment because of more rapid recovery and avoidance of prolonged immobilization.Children between the ages of 5-13 years are treated either by traction plus hip spica and flexible/elastic stable retrograde intramedullary nail,or external fixators in the case of open fractures.The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated by stainless steel flexible intramedullary nail in children between 5 and 13 years of age.Methods:There were 32 cases of femoral shaft fractures which were all fixed with stainless steel flexible intramedullary nail under fluoroscopy.Long leg cast was applied at the time of fixation.Partial weight bearing was started 2 weeks after surgery.Patients were evaluated in follow-up study to observe the alignment of fracture,infection,delayed union,nonunion,limb length discrepancy,motion of knee joint,and time to unite the fracture.Results:We were able to follow up 28 out of 32 patients.The patients were 8.14 years of age on average.The mean hospital stay after operation was 4 days and fracture union time was 9.57 weeks.There were 3 cases of varus angulation,2 cases of anterior angulation,and 4 cases of limb lengthening.Conclusion:Patients aged between 5 and 13 years treated with flexible intramedullary nail for closed femoral shaft fracture have rapid union and recovery,short rehabilitation period,less immobilization and psychological impact,and cost-effective.

  3. Optical Shaft-Angle Encoder For Helicopter Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Robert A.; Fitzpatrick, Fred; Dennis, Dale V.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    1993-01-01

    Angular position of helicopter rotor blade determined precisely. Accomplished by use of optical shaft-angle encoder called "256 Ring" on rotor swashplate. Each 360 degree rotation of helicopter main rotor broken down into 256 reflective segments. As rotor rotates, beam of light reflected in turn from each segment into optoelectronic system. One of 256 segments reflects larger pulse than others do. Position of rotor determined by counting number of pulses after this reference pulse. While swashplate mounting requirements unique to each type of helicopter, concept applicable to all types of rotorcraft.

  4. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Development of a winder for a long inclined shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, H. [Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan). Mechanical and Electrical Department

    1997-09-01

    The introduction and use of an inclined shaft winder at the Kushiro Colliery, where mining is conducted offshore below the seabed, is described. The winder operates a personnel train, automatically and rapidly, over a distance of 6,625 m. The system allows the establishment of an accurate personnel train schedule with reduction in the time required to enter and return to the mining site. The results, after two years of use, include increased productivity at the working face, reduced maintenance requirements, and greater safety. 5 figs., 9 photos.

  6. Experimental study on a magnetofluid sealing liquid for propeller shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-fa; SUN Rong-hua; ZHENG Jin-xing

    2003-01-01

    The selecting and preparing method of the basic material of magnetic fluid was introduced. By using a chemical method, the magnetic micropowder Fe3O4 was successfully yielded, and an oil-base as a working carrier and dispersing agent was determined. The preparation process of the magnetic fluid and prescription of the oil-base magnetic fluid were discussed. The simulation experimental rig of magnetic fluid sealing for propeller shaft was designed. The sealing ability experiment was conducted and results were analyzed. The pressure of sealing is up to 2 Mpa.

  7. Metal deformation in skew rolling step-shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Kang; Jinping Liu; Cuiping Yang; Zhenghuan Hu

    2003-01-01

    The process of rolling step-shaft was simulated with the help of the FEM (Finite-Element Model) software-DEFORMTM 3D. The characteristics of metal flow in different periods were analyzed, and the curve of variety in non-round area at different crosssections of the rolled piece, the curve of variety in bulge volume and the curve of variety in non-column volume were obtained. On this base the method of tool design is worked out and validated by experiment.

  8. Experimental study of torsion of guyed mast shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ondřej

    Vol. 617. Pfaffikon: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kotrasova, K.; Melcer, J.), s. 175-180 ISBN 978-3-03835-197-9. ISSN 1660-9336. [International scientific conference on dynamic of civil engineering and transport structures and wind engineering /6./. Donovaly (SK), 25.05.2014-29.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI3/654 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : dynamics of guyed masts * dynamic response * swivelling of the shaft * wind tunnel * aerodynamic model Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://www.scientific.net/AMM.617.175

  9. Experimental study of torsion of guyed mast shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ondřej

    Žilina: EDIS publishing house University of Zilina, 2014 - (Melcer, J.), s. 320-326 ISBN 978-80-554-0844-6. [Dynamics of Civil Engineering and Transport Structures and Wind Engineering DYN-WIND'2014 /6./. Donovaly (SK), 26.05.2014-29.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI3/654 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : torsion * mast shaft * wind-excited vibration Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering http://www.itam.cas.cz/?pid=5

  10. Influence of rotatory inertia on stochastic stability of a viscoelastic rotating shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Ratko; Kozić P.; Janevski G.

    2008-01-01

    The stochastic stability problem of a viscoelastic Voigt-Kelvin balanced rotating shaft subjected to action of axial forces at the ends is studied. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry. The effect of rotatory inertia of the shaft cross-section and external viscous damping are included into account. The force consists of a constant part and a time-dependent stochastic function. Closed form analytical solutions are obtaine...

  11. Study on Surgical management of fracture shaft of Humerus by interlocking nail

    OpenAIRE

    N, Arun K; Paladugu, Kirthi; Reddy, Praveen Kumar P

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: Operative management of fracture shaft of humerus can be with plate osteosynthesis or with intramedullary nailing. In this study we have tried to analyze the outcome in terms of time for consolidation, union rates, functional results and complications of humeral shaft fractures managed with closed antegrade interlocking nailing. Study was conducted Navodaya Medical college Hospital and Research Centre, RaichurMethods: A series of 25 patients with acute fractures of shaft of humer...

  12. Bubble Hair and Other Acquired Hair Shaft Anomalies due to Hot Ironing on Wet Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Savitha, AS; Sacchidanand, S; Revathy, TN

    2011-01-01

    Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality characterized by multiple airfilled spaces within the hair shaft. It is a result of thermal injury. We report a classic case of 22-year-old female who complained of dry brittle hair of two-week duration. Patient had used hot iron on wet hair twice to straighten hair. Hair microscopy was diagnostic and showed multiple air-filled spaces within the hair shaft.

  13. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of Gearbox Motion and High-Speed-Shaft Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    This paper extends a model-to-test validation effort to examine the effect of different constant rotor torque and moment conditions and intentional generator misalignment on the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads. Fully validating gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads across a range of test conditions is a critical precursor to examining the bearing loads, as the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads are the drivers of these bearing loads.

  14. Cracked shaft diagnosis and detection on reactor recirculation pumps at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By utilizing state-of-the-art analysis techniques, instrumentation and vibration information, a cracked shaft was hypothesized and confirmed for one of two Reactor Recirculation Pumps at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station (GGNS). This experience confirmed many previous observations and expected behavior patterns for cracked shafts and, not unexpectedly, provided another unique set of data which can be added to the data base being developed for cracked shaft occurrences

  15. Numerical Analysis and Demonstration: Transmission Shaft Influence on Meshing Vibration in Driving and Driven Gears

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jinli; Su Xingyi; Peng Bo

    2015-01-01

    The variable axial transmission system composed of universal joint transmission shafts and a gear pair has been applied in many engineering fields. In the design of a drive system, the dynamics of the gear pair have been studied in detail. However few have paid attention to the effect on the system modal characteristics of the gear pair, arising from the universal joint transmission shafts. This work establishes a torsional vibration mathematical model of the transmission shaft, driving gear,...

  16. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  17. Approaches to Suppressing Shaft Voltage in Brushless DC Motor Driven by PWM Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Kenichi; Shinohara, Katsuji; Yamamoto, Kichiro; Morigami, Atsushi

    This paper describes the approaches to suppressing the shaft voltage and bearing current by electrostatic shielding the stator end windings of the brushless DC motor driven by PWM inverter. At first, measured shaft voltage and bearing current are compared with those calculated waveforms to verify the common mode equivalent circuit of the brushless DC motor. Next, relationship between shaft voltage and stator winding to rotor capacitance is calculated using the common mode equivalent circuit. Finally, the electrostatic shielding of the stator end windings is evaluated to reduce the shaft voltage by experiments and calculations.

  18. Research and development on cutting scale machine in the coalmine shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bao-cai(任保才)

    2004-01-01

    The deposit scale in the coal mine shaft usually causes serious accidents, such as making rope broken, cage seized or dropped. To solve this kind of problems, the research of the cutting scale mechanism was made, and a new type of removal scale equipment was made with using imported hard alloy material. The cutting experiment and actual cutting show that it can adapt to abominable condition in the shaft, such as narrow space, wet and excessive shaft crevice water and so on, and can work safely and reliably, and has high cutting scale efficiency. It can also cut out the deposit scale in the circular section of shaft.

  19. Cost-Effective Shaft Torque Observer for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Pedersen, Bo Juul

    2015-01-01

    failure mechanisms as well as provide a method for detecting mass imbalance and aerodynamic asymmetry. The major obstacle preventing the industrial application of CM based on the shaft torque signal is the costly measurement equipment which is impractical for long-term use on operating WTs. This paper...... practical implementation of the shaft torque estimator. Its performance is validated for a scenario where there are frequent changes of operating points. The proposed cost-effective shaft torque estimator overcomes all major problems, which prevent the industrial application of CM systems based on shaft...

  20. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs

  1. THE MODEL TEST RESEARCH OF HORIZONTAL FORCE ON RIGID SHAFT FURNITURE IN DEEP MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 史天生; 郭晋蒲; 王东权

    1998-01-01

    The state of deep mine rigid shaft furniture horizontal force calculation in China isintroduced and the calculating model of horizontal force is determined. Based on the interactionbetween hoisting vessel and shaft furniture, the vertical model test device is built and a largenumber of model tests and analyses are carried out. At last, the relationship between horizontalforce and hoisting end load, hoisting speed or bunton level interval is gained. The threeparameters horizontal force calculating equation of deep mine rigid shaft furniture is given and itcan guide the design and calculation of shaft engineering.

  2. Building up a Mathematical Model of Shaftes System and CAD for Linked Tetra-Shaft and Double-Cantilever Flat Flap Gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Linked tetra-shaft and double-cantilever flat flap gate is a new type of structure in water conservancy projects ,but the traditional method is now adopted in its design. In order to the application and dissemination of the type of sluice ,this paper researches the difficult points of design advance ,through researching the mo- tion locus & stress coundition of linked tetra-shaft system. The writer will build up the mathmatical model and handle it with the computer. Thus, we can achieve the modern desing on the basis of the software of linked tetra-shaft system development.

  3. A novel shaft-less double suction mini pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NISHI; Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    A novel double suction shaft-less mini pump was developed for heat control of small energy systems in this study.The mini pump impeller with an exit diameter of 40 mm was combined with the motor rotor supported by the hybrid dynamic bearing.The specific speed of the pump was 125 min-1 m3 min-1 m.The hydraulic performance of the pump was investigated experimen-tally under four rotational speeds.From the test results,it was recognized that the pump could provide a flow discharge of 5 L/min and head of 1.5 m,which are applicable for the heat control system of a 3 kW fuel cell.A three-dimensional turbulent flow simulation in the pump was also conducted near the design point.The numerical results showed that the average hydraulic performance of the mini pump was predicted reasonably.From the internal flow simulation,it was revealed that the favorable inflow condition upstream of impeller inlet could be attained by applying the double suction shaft-less design for the mini pump.

  4. Vibration monitoring of turbosets - a way of recognising shaft cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report, a revised version brought up to date to November 1987, covers the 13 individual papers and the subsequent discussions at two 2-day conferences. These conferences dealt with the vibration monitoring of turbosets from the point of view of damage prevention by the recognition of shaft cracks. The report is supplemented by a comprehensive list of references. The earliest possible recognition of shaft cracks in turbosets is of great importance for preventing damage; and vibration monitoring is an essential tool for this purpose. Using various examples from recent practice, several papers indicate that inadequate or even erroneous interpretations of vibration measurements can still occur - with possibly disastrous consequences. If correctly assessed, measuring systems to the present state of technology completely satisfy the demands made on them, even if development to produce improved systems has still not been completed. A feature which should not be underestimated, however, is the exchange of ideas among specialists, particularly since the level of knowledge of a team is normally greater than that of the individual. This discussion conference, with well over 100 participants, re-emphasised this point. (orig.) With 154 figs., 9 tabs

  5. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  6. How Does The Bone Shaft Geometry Affect its Bending Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh P. Saffar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, ten fresh specimens of sheep tibiae were provided from slaughtered animals. Whole bone specimens were loaded in three-point bending according to standard wet bone test protocols. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with the results which were obtained from two dry bone tests. The results showed that fracture bending moment and bone extrinsic stiffness had significant relations with fracture cross-section dependent parameters (i.e., cross-section area and area moment of inertia. Where, fracture energy and ultimate strength did not have such a relation with these parameters. Finite element modeling of bone shaft was made with simplified geometry (neglecting cross-section variations along bone shaft in two steps: First, by elliptical cross-section and second, by circular cross-section, assuming linear elastic and isotropic properties for the specimens. Elastic (Young’s modulus and fracture load, evaluated from curves obtained from tests, were applied to the finite element model and close results of maximum stress in both test specimen and first (elliptical cross-section model showed up. There was an average difference of about 2% between ultimate strength of wet bone specimens and maximum (tensile stress occurred in the elliptical models. However, this value for circular models was about 16%.

  7. Predicted Fracture Behavior of Shaft Steels with Improved Corrosion Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukelic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial steps in the shaft design process is the optimal selection of the material. Two types of shaft steels with improved corrosion resistances, 1.4305 and 1.7225, were investigated experimentally and numerically in this paper in order to determine some of the material characteristics important for material selection in the engineering design process. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength have been experimentally obtained, proving that steel 1.4305 has higher values of both. In addition, J-integral is numerically determined as a measure of crack driving force for finite element models of standardized fracture specimens (single-edge notched bend and disc compact tension. Obtained J values are plotted versus specimen crack growth size (Δa for different specimen geometries (a/W. Higher resulting values of J-integral for steel 1.4305 as opposed to 1.7225 can be noted. Results can be useful as a fracture parameter in fracture toughness assessment, although this procedure differs from experimental analysis.

  8. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citak, Musa; Jagodzinski, Michael; Krettek, Christian; Huefner, Tobias [Hannover Medical School, Trauma Department, Hannover (Germany); Citak, Mustafa [BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Surgery, Bochum (Germany); Kendoff, Daniel; O' Loughlin, Padhraig F. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Orthopaedic Department, New York, NY (United States); Tavassol, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  10. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tuck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric, symptomatic vertebral (91, and distal forearm (67 fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately, nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P=0.001, but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P=0.01. Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  11. Geochemical factors in borehole-shaft plug longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical investigations that address factors controlling the longevity of repository sealing materials in a geochemical environment are discussed. Studies are being made of cement-based materials as major candidates for seals for borehole plugging, and shaft and tunnel sealing in certain potential repository environments. Factors controlling the extent of attainment of equilibrium of the plug components with time and the rate of approach to a state of stable equilibrium of the plug component chemical subsystem within the total system are discussed. The effect of these factors on changes in physical, mechanical and thermal properties of a seal system, and the consequent effectiveness of the seal in preventing transport of radioactive waste species are the dominant features to be determined. Laboratory experiments on the effects of anticipated temperature, pressure, and environmental factors (including chemical composition and specific rock type) are described. Thermodynamic studies are used to determine the potentially stable reaction products under conditions similar to those anticipated for the repository boreholes, shafts, and tunnels during and after the operating stage. Multitemperature reaction series are studied, and reaction kinetics are investigated for the purpose of predicting the course of likely reactions. Detailed studies of permeability, diffusion, and interfacial properties and chemical and microphase characterization of the products of experiments are carried out. Characterization studies of old and ancient cements, mortars, and concretes and prototype man-made seal materials are performed to further assess the factors associated with longevity

  12. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  13. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  14. Experiences with the operation of a shaft-helix in connection with a special steel ring lining in the shafts Gorleben 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sinking the Gorleben 1 shaft good reasons prevented the method of drilling and blasting to create the excavation. Considering the special conditions and after a successful test, the application of a modified helix was given preference to an impact-ripper, tested on an other freeze shaft project. A report is given on the experiences gained with respect to the following criteria: Assembly, dismantling and transport of the machine in the shaft - conveyance of electric energy - dust problems when cutting the concrete plug and the means engaged to overcome those problems - performance in the different types of rock formation - cutting the circular shape of the excavation with sufficient accuracy - matters of safety in connection with cutting, loading and lining the excavation - consumption and costs of cutters - total costs. A final assessment of the excavation system is made with respect to its possible application with for shaft-sinking projects. (orig.)

  15. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991

  16. A CLINICAL STUDY ON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF TIBIA SHAFT FRACTURES BY INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwara Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess and study tibial shaft fractures presented to Orthopaedic department at Government General Hospital, Kurnool and to evaluate the final outcome of patients with tibial shaft fracture operated with intramedullary interlocking nailing. The procedure is safe with no morbidity, relatively few complications and helpful in early recovery after surgery

  17. Global Dynamics of Shaft Lines Rotating in Surrounding Fluids Application to Thin Fluid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lornage

    2004-01-01

    a disc and a thin-walled shaft mounted on a hydrodynamic bearing. The second is intended for studying a more realistic structure composed of a shaft and a wheel coupled with a fluid film between the wheel and a casing. These applications make it possible to identify trends related to fluid effects and couplings between the flexible structural parts.

  18. Initiation of crevice corrosion by stray current on stainless steel propeller shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenard, D.R.; Moores, J.G. (Defense Research Establishment Pacific FMO, Victoria (Canada). Metals Group)

    1993-09-01

    Propeller shafts of AISI type 316 stainless steel (UNS S31600) on server ships suffered severe pitting within 12 days of launching. The corrosion occurred within the water-lubricated stern tubes in a pattern that outlined the bearing staves and the shaft packing seals. This suggested some form of crevice corrosion was involved. Rapid onset of pitting indicated the corrosion process was accelerated by stray current. Laboratory simulations of the environment reproduced corrosion observed on the shafts within the same time frame. A second set of experiments, in which the stray current flowing through a simulated shaft was measured, confirmed that crevice corrosion could be initiated within 3 days. A prototype instrument was designed and built to allow automatic measurement and storage of current flow and potential difference data from four experimental configurations. Experiments conducted with this instrument provided further evidence that corrosion on the propeller shafts had been initiated and promoted by stray current passing through the shafts. Existence of a crevice was not, by itself, sufficient to produce the observed attack within the same time frame. Experiments indicated an appropriate shaft grounding system would eliminate corrosion of the shafts on these ships.

  19. Response to Comment on "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Marcus Thomas Pius; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2008-01-01

    Debruyne et al. challenge the findings of our study and imply that we argue that hair shafts are an overall superior source of ancient DNA than bone. However, the authors are misreading and misinterpreting the conclusions of our study; we claim nothing further than that hair shaft represents an...

  20. Long-term functional outcome following intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moumni, Mostafa; Voogd, Emma Heather; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Background: The management of femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing is a popular method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome after antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing of traumatic femoral shaft fractures. We further determined predicto

  1. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  2. Yucca Mountain Project: Preliminary shaft liner design criteria and methodology guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shaft Liner Design Criteria and Methodology Guide outlines a methodology for designing concrete shaft liners for the Yucca Mountain Project repository in tuff, the use of which will ensure that all shafts meet the requirements for repository service. These requirements are identified in the guide; then, unlined shaft behavior is examined to establish rock behavior modes and to investigate the development of convergence during construction. Ground pressure and induced thermal and seismic loads imposed on the shaft liner are evaluated. The modes of deformation resulting from loading, which include bending, shear, hoop deformation, and axial strain, are analyzed following a working stress approach that uses closed-form interaction models. Predicted liner stresses are then evaluated using allowable stress criteria. The methodology is illustrated with examples appropriate to the repository site at Yucca Mountain. 43 refs., 35 figs., 25 tabs

  3. Theoretical Vibration Analysis Regarding Excitation due to Elliptical Shaft Journals in Sleeve Bearings of Electrical Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Werner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a theoretical vibration analysis regarding excitation due to elliptical shaft journals in sleeve bearings of electrical motors, based on a simplified rotordynamic model. It is shown that elliptical shaft journals lead to kinematic constraints regarding the movement of the shaft journals on the oil film of the sleeve bearings and therefore to an excitation of the rotordynamic system. The solution of the linear differential equation system leads to the mathematical description of the movement of the rotor mass, the shaft journals, and the sleeve bearing housings. Additionally the relative movements between the shaft journals and the bearing housings are deduced, as well as the bearing housing vibration velocities. The presented simplified rotordynamic model can also be applied to rotating machines, other than electrical machines. In this case, only the electromagnetic spring value cm has to be put to zero.

  4. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety

  5. Project management plan for exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Project Management Plan (PMP) provides the basic guidance and describes the organizational structure and procedures for the design, construction, and testing of a large-diameter Exploratory Shaft (ES) in tuffaceous media as a major element within the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, which is a part of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program, US Department of Energy (DOE). The PMP encompasses activities identified as construction phase and in situ phase testing to be conducted from the ES through September 30, 1986. Specific topics addressed are the ES project objectives, the management organization and responsibilities, functional support requirements, work plan (including quality assurance aspects), work breakdown structure, milestone schedule, logic diagram, performance criteria, cost estimates, management control systems, procurement plan, test plan, and environmental, health and safety plans

  6. Borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing of rock repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precompacted blocks of Na bentonite powder absorb water and swell to several times their original size when exposed to low- and moderately saline water under unconfined conditions. On application in boreholes, shafts or tunnels, they can only undergo moderate swelling, which yields a homogeneous seal with high density and very low hydraulic conductivity. The swelling pressure exerted on the confining rock creates an intimate clay/rock contact and an effective mechanical rock support. By this, flow through the plugs and along the rock/bentonite interface is negligible and flow through the rock adjacent to the plugs is also diminished by self-sealing through penetration of clay into wider fractures and by the fracture-closing effect of the swelling pressure

  7. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  8. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal behavior during station blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A testing program designed to provide fundamental information pertaining to the behavior of reactor coolant pump (RCP) shaft seals during a postulated nuclear power plant station blackout has been completed. One seal assembly, utilizing both hydrodynamic and hydrostatic types of seals, was modeled and tested. Extrusion tests were conducted to determine if seal materials could withstand predicted temperatures and pressures. A taper-face seal model was tested for seal stability under conditions when leaking water flashes to steam across the seal face. Test information was then used as the basis for a station blackout analysis. Test results indicate a potential problem with an elastomer material used for O-rings by a pump vendor; that vendor is considering a change in material specification. Test results also indicate a need for further research on the generic issue of RCP seal integrity and its possible consideration for designation as an unresolved safety issue

  9. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  10. Shaft centre orbit for dynamically loaded radial bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 Booker1 and described further in 1972 Booker2. Several authors have refined...... this method over the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold´s equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In...... the mid seventies Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in...

  11. Survey and analytical studies on a 'TAKANUKE' collapse mechanism for greatly deeper shafts (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizunami underground research laboratory (MIU) is planned to be excavated to the depth of 1000m below the ground surface and is now under construction. One of the most serious problems in a greatly deeper shaft is 'TAKANUKE' collapse caused by slip movement of large discontinuities, as we have reported in the report of 'Study on Collapse Mechanism of Junction between Greatly Deeper Shaft and Horizontal Drifts [JAEA-Research 2008-248 (2008)]'. TAKANUKE collapse has been well known among mining engineers in JAPAN. However, an occurring mechanism of the collapse has not yet been revealed and a design code for it also has not been established. In this report, we have conducted numerical studies using finite difference method in order to throw an objective light on a mechanism of TAKANUKE collapse. These studies show two different stress states in upper and lower side of a large discontinuities. In lower side, a minimum principal stress at shaft wall region drastically reduces due to shaft sinking. This might make shaft wall stability difficult in poor geological condition. Such a TAKANUKE collapse can be found in ventilation shaft projects of the ENASAN tunnel. In the another side of discontinuity, a slip movement along discontinuities takes place due to shaft sinking. This slip movement induces a typical TAKANUKE collapse, as we have reported in 2007. In order to evaluate a possibility of TAKANUKE collapse during MIU main shaft sinking, we have conducted a particle body analysis, which can estimate a brittle failure of hard rock, such as MIU construction site. A fault with a steeply dipping over 79 degree to the main shaft, discovered in a survey boring at MIU site, has a low potential of TAKANUKE collapse during shaft sinking. Beside, a fault with dip of 60 degree may easily slip in a form of TAKANUKE collapse. One CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  12. STUDY OF TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING FOR FRACTURE SHAFT FEMUR IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 13 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Displaced diaphyseal femoral shaft fracture in children between 3 to 13 years is controversial. Various methods are available for treatment. Titanium elastic nailing is one of the methods for treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. In our study we have assessed the outcome of titanium elastic nailing for fracture shaft femur in children. We have found that titanium elastic nailing has excellent results in treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. Also it is less time consuming

  13. Study of the turbocharger shaft motion by means of infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J. R.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2015-05-01

    This work describes a technique for measuring the precession movement of the shaft of small automotive turbochargers. The main novelty is that the technique is based on infrared light diode sensors. With presented technique it is possible to perform secure mounting of electronics and also to measure, with good accuracy, far enough from the turbocharger shaft. Both advantages allow applying it even in critical lubrication conditions and when blade contact occurs. The technique's main difficulties arise from the small size of the turbocharger shaft and the high precession movement in critical conditions. In order to generate the optimum albedo reflection for infrared measurement, a special cylindrical nut with larger diameter than the original one is assembled at the shaft tip in the compressor side. Following, shaft balancing, the calibration of the sensors and the compensation of errors from different sources are needed steps before the method is able to identify the main frequencies of shaft motion. Once synchronous and sub-synchronous frequencies have been obtained it is possible to reconstruct the instantaneous position of the shaft to determine its precession movement.

  14. Countermeasures planned for reducing water inflow into deep shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. The MIU design consists of two 1,000 m-deep shafts with several research galleries. The goals of the MIU project are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of deep geological environments, and to develop a range of engineering expertise for application in deep underground excavations in crystalline rocks such as granite. The diameter of the Main and the Ventilation Shafts are 6.5 m and 4.5 m, respectively. Horizontal tunnels to connect the shafts will be excavated at 100 m depth intervals. The Middle Stage, at about 500 m in depth, and the Main Stage, at about 1,000 m in depth, will be the main locations for scientific investigations. The Main and the Ventilation Shafts were 180 m and 191 m deep, respectively, in November 2006. During construction, water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre- and post-excavation grouting has been planned. A post-excavation grouting test has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes an outline of the MIU project, its work plan and the results of the post-excavation grouting test. (author)

  15. A proposed concrete shaft liner design method for an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General requirements and performance objectives for nuclear waste repository shafts (operational safety and waste retrievability) are defined in 10 CFR 60.133 (NRC, 1988). The Generic Requirements Document (DOE, 1986) interprets and expands these requirements into more specific functional requirements for liners of these shafts, including structural integrity, provisions for attaching shaft fittings, and water control. These requirements also apply to the exploratory shafts used for site characterization because they may later be used in the repository. Cast-in-place concrete liners are excellent for vertical shafts, providing security from rockfalls, convenient attachment of shaft equipment, low resistance to ventilation airflow, and protection of the wall rock from weathering. Concrete-lined shafts are planned for the proposed waste repository in Nevada. To meet repository licensing requirements, a design methodology for liners must be developed that considers the effects of induced thermal and seismic loads on the liner in the context of repository performance requirements. The major steps of a proposed methodology are outlined in this paper. 8 refs., 2 figs

  16. The influence of golf club shaft stiffness on clubhead kinematics at ball impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobets, Jay; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2012-06-01

    The role of shaft stiffness on the golf swing is not well understood. Studies in which golfers hit balls with clubs of varying shaft flex have reported changes in ball distance. The results of mathematical models suggest that shaft stiffness affects only the orientation of the clubhead at impact, not the speed of the clubhead, but there are no experimental results validating these findings. The purpose of this study was therefore to experimentally examine the influence of shaft stiffness on clubhead kinematics at ball impact. Forty golfers hit 10 balls with each of five drivers varying in shaft stiffness from 'Ladies' to 'Extra-Stiff', in a double-blind study design. The motions of three reflective markers attached to the clubhead were captured with a high-speed motion analysis system. At ball impact, shaft stiffness had a statistically significant influence on clubhead speed for 27 subjects, on loft angle for 11 subjects, and on lie angle for all 40 subjects. No effect was observed on face angle, in to out path angle, or attack angle. These results show that shaft stiffness can affect ball launch conditions by altering clubhead speed and/or loft angle. PMID:22900404

  17. Countermeasures Planned for Reducing Water Inflow into Deep Shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuji, Masayoshi; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Hara, Nasato; Minamide, Masashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. The MIU design consists of two 1,000 m-deep shafts with several research galleries. The goals of the MIU project are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of deep geological environments, and to develop a range of engineering expertise for application in deep underground excavations in crystalline rocks such as granite. The diameter of the Main and the Ventilation Shafts are 6.5 m and 4.5 m, respectively. Horizontal tunnels to connect the shafts will be excavated at 100 m depth intervals. The Middle Stage, at about 500 m in depth, and the Main Stage, at about 1,000 m in depth, will be the main locations for scientific investigations. The Main and the Ventilation Shafts were 180 m and 191 m deep, respectively, in November 2006. During construction, water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre- and post-excavation grouting has been planned. A post-excavation grouting test has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes an outline of the MIU project, its work plan and the results of the post-excavation grouting test.

  18. Concrete strain gage in concrete shaft lining: Installation and monitoring procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cast-in-place concrete or concrete block preliminary lining component and a cast-in-place final concrete lining form part of the shaft lining system. Strain measurements within the cast-in-place concrete linings will be obtained using a concrete strain gage (CSG). This gage consists of a vibrating wire sensor and anchors embedded in the concrete during casting CSGs will be installed in both exploratory shafts. The primary objective of the overall monitoring program, of which these gages constitute one part, is to define the stress-deformation behavior of the shaft lining, seals, and foundations during and after construction. For this purpose it is necessary to consider the CSG embedded in the concrete as one element of an integrated program of monitoring the mechanical and thermomechanical response of the shaft. Other instruments that form part of this program include concrete stress meters, steel strain gages on the steel shaft liner, convergence gages, piezometers, joint meters, bitumen pressure gages, temperature detectors, and extensometers. For a justification and basis for design of the instrument arrays which form part of the Shaft Mechanical and Thermal Response Monitoring, refer to the Draft Shaft Study Plan. 8 figs

  19. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the binder consisting of sodium silicate and cement. Through BOTDR-based deformation detection, the real-time deformation of the shaft lining caused by grouting was immediately spotted. By comparing the respective strain of shaft lining deformation and concrete deformation, the risk range of shaft lining grouting was identified. With the additional strain increment of the shaft lining triggered by each process of grouting, the saturated condition of grouting volume in strata was analyzed, providing an important technical insight into the field construction and the safety of the shaft lining.

  20. Development of a Wear Map for the Sliding and Rotational Wear behavior of Shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-mahasne M. Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was an attempt to study the wear calculation method for rotating shaft in the friction couple type shaft-cuff in conditions of oiling in high dusty environment. The size and quantity of abrasive particles that go into the clearance between friction surfaces, definition of the pressure including the load in conjugate that is given by the cuff spring as the radial force, and the effected contact area including the micro hardness of the shaft surface (taking into account the influence of the finishing treatment as a diamond pressing have been calculated by utilization of above mentioned method. Furthermore, the volume wear has been calculated by the energy of friction including both the factor of energy transition to heat and the latent melting heat of shaft material. In this study the experimental scheme for wear testing of steel shaft in the friction couple type “shaft-cuff” and the theoretical and experimental results have been given, Fig. 4. It has proved that this method permits to choose the effective materials for parts making and the use of effective finishing treatment. Morethan, it permits to choose optimum properties of the parts surface layer. This may be attained on the stage of designing- to prognosis shaft and couple friction conjugates wear. Therefore, this method provides a maximum wear resistance and the ability to calculate parts life before damage.

  1. Unstable Pelvic Fractures Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both pelvic fractures and femoral shaft fractures are caused by high-energy injuries. When unstable pelvic fractures and femoral shaft fractures occur concomitantly, the optimal treatment method is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish a reasonable principle for treating such complicated injuries. Methods: Forty patients sustaining unstable pelvic fractures and concomitant femoral shaft fractures were treated in a 7-year period. The initial management of the fractures was started at the emergency service according to the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. Unstable pelvic fractures were wrapped by cloth sheets and femoral shaft fractures were immobilized with a splint. Angiography was performed on patients with unstable hemodynamic status. The definitive treatment for combined fractures was performed after stabilizing the hemodynamics. Closed nailing was used for femoral shaft fractures, and pelvic fractures were treated with various techniques. Results: The mortality rate was 12.5% (5/40 during admission. Thirty-three patients were followed up for an average of 32 months (range, 12-76 months. There were 33 cases of unstable pelvic fractures and 36 instances of femoral shaft fractures. The union rate for pelvic fractures was 100% (33/33, while femoral shaft fractures had a 94.4% (34/36 union rate. The average healing time was 3.3 months (range, 1.6-8.1 months and 4.1 months (range, 2.5-18.2 months for pelvic and femoral shaft fractures, respectively. After fracture, 34 hips (94% achieved a satisfactory result in the Harris hip score and 30 knees (83% achieved a satisfactory result in the Mize knee score. Conclusions: Stabilization of the hemodynamics in patients with combined fractures should be the first aim. Angiography to stop arterial bleeding in the pelvis is often life-saving. The definitive treatment for combined fractures, such as pelvic fractures and femoral shaft fractures, should wait until hemodynamics

  2. Pre-excavation grouting for reduction of water inflow into a deep shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. During its construction, water inflow into the shafts of the MIU has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre-excavation grouting has been planned. A pre-excavation grouting has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes the plan and results of the pre-excavation grouting, and evaluate the effectiveness of the planning process. (author)

  3. Mechanical analysis of photo-electricity measure equipment shafting in mobile-platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Hu, Hongyi; Tan, Yi; Liu, Ruzhen

    2015-02-01

    Along with the development of technology, photo-electricity measure equipment has been from ground-fixed to mobile-platform borne, So it is need to mechanical analysis of shafting for adapt movement environment of mobile-platform. First listed three kinds of shafting form, then analysis mechanical station of the foremost component bearing in vertical load, radial load, swing load station, last work out the formulas, which was the theory for the shafting design in mobile-platforms photo-electricity equipment.

  4. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A SPATIAL COUPLED TIMOSHENKO ROTATING SHAFT WITH LARGE DISPLACEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怀亮

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic simulation is presented for an axial moving flexible rotating shafts,which have large rigid motions and small elastic deformation. The effects of the axial inertia,shear deformation, rotating inertia, gyroscopic moment, and dynamic unbalance areconsidered based on the Timoshenko rotating shaft theory. The equations of motion andboundary conditions are derived by Hamilton principle, and the solution is obtained by usingthe perturbation approach and cssuming mode method. This study confirms that the influenceof the axial rigid motion, shear deformation, slenderness ratio and rotating speed on thedynamic behavior of Timoshenko rotating shaft is evident, especially to a high-angularvelocity rotor.

  5. Numerical analysis on the action of centrifuge force in magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic fluid seal is suitable for high-speed rotating shaft seal applications. Centrifuge force will have evident influence on magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals. The seal capacity of the rotating shaft seal can be improved or increased by some measures. Through hydrodynamic analysis the moving status of the magnetic fluid is worked out. By numerical method, the magnetic field and the isobars in the magnetic fluid of a seal device are computed. Then the influence of the centrifuge force on the magnetic fluid seal is calculated quantitatively

  6. Experimental and numerical analyses of micro rotary shaft pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents experimental and numerical results obtained with micro rotary shaft pumps (RSP). Impellers with a diameter of 2.5 mm, different outlet widths and blade number were coupled with semicircular volutes with different eccentricities. Experimental data for every impeller–volute couple were reported and include the flow rate, head and overall efficiency. Different rotational speeds were tested up to 24 000 rpm, obtaining pressure increases up to 5.7 kPa and flow rates up to 80 ml min−1. The non-dimensional performance was also computed obtaining the maximum head coefficient of 0.49 and the maximum flow coefficient of 0.138. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with 3D time-dependent CFD simulations. The focus of the simulation was to study the flow field structure inside the impeller and in the volute. Moreover, CFD data allowed for the calculation of the hydraulic efficiency of the pump and for the impeller to highlight the stator rotor interference influence on the pump characteristics, as well as to show the distribution of losses inside the volute

  7. Strontium-85 profile counting in fractures of the tibial shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 203 profile countings were performed on 68 fractures of the tibial shaft, which included 25 normally healing cases, 37 cases of delayed union, and six cases of non-union. The measurements were performed on the 1st and the 7th day after the injection of strontium. In 27 cases the fracture received 2-3 strontium injections with associated profile counting at different stages of the healing process. The cases of normally healing fractures and delayed union showed differences in the average strontium uptake. However, these differences were not distinct enough to enable classification of individual fractures into groups. In cases requiring bone grafting, the transplant was found to accelerate metabolism and increase the accretion of strontium at the site of the fracture. The investigation shows that the real value of strontium profile counting lies in its ability to give information about the osteogenetic activity of the bone, which is a necessary prerequisite for the healing of the fracture. (author)

  8. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  9. Shaft shock absorber for a spent fuel canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel will be transferred by a lift to the repository which is 500 m deep in the bedrock. Model tests were carried out with an objective to estimate weather feasible shock absorber can be developed against the design accident case where the canister should survive a free fall to the lift shaft. If the velocity of the canister is not controlled by air drag or by any other deceleration means, the impact velocity may reach ultimate speed of 100 m/s. The canister would retain its integrity in impact on water when the bottom pit of the lift well is filled with groundwater. However, the canister would hit the pit bottom with high velocity since the water hardly slows down the canister. The impact to the bottom of the pit should be dampened mechanically. The tests demonstrated that 20 m high filling to the bottom pit of the lift well by Light Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA), gives fair impact absorption to protect the fuel canister. Presence of ground water is not harmful for impact absorption system provided that the ceramic gravel is not floating too high from the pit bottom. Almost ideal impact absorption conditions are met if the water high level does not exceed two thirds of the height of the gravel. Shaping of the bottom head of the cylindrical canister does not give meaningful advantages to the impact absorption system. The flat nose bottom head of the fuel canister gives adequate deceleration properties. (author)

  10. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  11. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system

  12. Influence of rotatory inertia on stochastic stability of a viscoelastic rotating shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ratko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stochastic stability problem of a viscoelastic Voigt-Kelvin balanced rotating shaft subjected to action of axial forces at the ends is studied. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry. The effect of rotatory inertia of the shaft cross-section and external viscous damping are included into account. The force consists of a constant part and a time-dependent stochastic function. Closed form analytical solutions are obtained for simply supported boundary conditions. By using the direct Liapunov method almost sure asymptotic stability conditions are obtained as the function of stochastic process variance, external damping coefficient, retardation time, angular velocity, and geometric and physical parameters of the shaft. Numerical calculations are performed for the Gaussian process with a zero mean and variance σ2 as well as for harmonic process with amplitude H.

  13. Risk of femoral shaft and subtrochanteric fractures among users of bisphosphonates and raloxifene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, P; Schwartz, F; Rejnmark, L; Mosekilde, L

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested an association between bisphosphonate use and subtrochanteric fractures. This cohort study showed an increased risk of subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures both before and after the start of drugs against osteoporosis including bisphosphonates. This may suggest...

  14. Follow-On Shaft Seal Evaluation for Future OMS Engine Series Valve Derivations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evidence of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellant vapor leakage across the primary and secondary shafts seals of the four OMS-E series...

  15. Multistep Optimization of Composite Drive Shaft Subject to Strength, Buckling, Vibration and Manufacturing Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Komarov, Valeriy

    2015-10-01

    Composite drive shafts are extensively used in automotive and aeronautical applications due to lightweight combined with exceptional strength and stiffness. Complexity of the drive shaft design problem associated with the need to determine rational values for multiple parameters characterizing composite material (fiber orientation angles, stacking sequence and ply thicknesses), as well as with the fact that multiple conflicting design constraints should be considered simultaneously. In this paper we approach this problem considering carbon/epoxy drive shaft design as a multistep optimization process. It includes the following steps: 1) determination of fiber orientation angles and laminate stacking sequence based on analysis of loading conditions and analytical expressions predicting buckling load and minimal natural frequency of idealized drive shaft; 2) finding rational ply thicknesses using formal optimization procedure utilizing response surface approximations and gradient-based optimization algorithm; and 3) verification analysis of the optimized configuration with the use of nonlinear buckling analysis to ensure satisfaction of stability constraint.

  16. Skill Analysis of the Wrist Release in the Golf Swings Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Hoshino, Yohei; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    This study analyzes the skill component of the wrist release in the golf swing by employing a three-dimensional dynamic model considering vibration of the club shaft. It is observed that professional and expert golfers relax their wrists in the swing motion as a "natural" or "late" release. Thus, the relationship between the timing of the wrist release and the shaft vibration is examined in this study. First, it is demonstrated that "natural release" at the zero-crossing point of the bending vibration of the shaft efficiently increases the head speed at impact. In the next step, the "late hitting" condition is imposed upon the model. It is demonstrated that "late hitting" could further improve the efficiency of the swing motion. Finally, the skill component in the wrist release for the long drive is experimentally verified by measuring the movement of the wrist and the dynamic deformation of the shaft during the downswing.

  17. Development of a rotordynamic analysis model for rotor shaft of SMART MCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotordynamic analysis model for rotor shaft assembly of SMART MCP was developed. The rotor shaft assembly consists of vertical spinning shaft, impeller, water lubricated bearing and canned motor. The analysis model includes journal bearing model, gap model between the motor stator and rotor, motor dynamic model, and impeller dynamic model. Reynolds' equation is applied to predict the stiffness and damping of the axially grooved journal bearings. Its solution is obtained by finite different method. Black's equation is used to calculate the stiffness, damping, and added mass for the small gap filled with water between the stator and rotor of motor. Dynamic parameters of impeller are calculated using Childs' equation which depicts the hydraulic imbalance forces. Electromagnetic force of canned motor is calculated using Iwata's model. The developed analysis model was applied to investigate the critical speeds, vibration mode shapes, and damped responses at bearings of the conceptually designed MCP rotor shaft

  18. Persistent knee complaints after retrograde unreamed nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa; Schraven, Pim; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde nailing is an attractive method for stabilisation of femoral shaft fractures in cases of polytrauma, ipsilateral pelvic, acetabular, tibial and femoral neck fractures, bilateral femoral fractures, obese and pregnant patients. However, retrograde nailing may result in complaints about the

  19. Shaft seals for final high-level radioactive waste repositories. ELSA. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of the art in science and technology fir shaft seals with long-term stability is summarized regarding their applicability for high-level waste repository in Germany. The concepts and drafts for the shaft sealing systems ERAM, Asse, Konrad, the WIPP side, the RESEAL concept, the NAGRA concept and the project LASA are reviewed. The methodology of applying partial factors in a safety analysis is summarized and the applicability of this method for geotechnical sealing structures is confirmed. To establish geomechanical boundary conditions of the host rocks and clay stone the stress-strain behavior of the rock mass adjoining the shaft has to be identified including time-dependent thermo-mechanical processes. The general and special requirements for the design of shaft sealing systems, especially in salt rock and clay formations are described, derived from the safety requirements (BMU 2010). Finally general information needs were identified.

  20. Effects of wire rope in a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste shaft accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the empirical test program conducted on a 1/22-scale model of the WIPP facility. The model was designed to study the actions and effects of the wire rope used in the Koepe or friction-type hoist planned for use in the WIPP waste shaft during various accident scenarios. It is assumed that the hoist cable breaks and the cab (or shaft conveyance) falls to the bottom of the shaft during such an accident. The report gives the results of the study and makes recommendations for a continuing program of testing and redesign of the shaft to mitigate the effects of such an accident. The wire rope is shown to act as a good shock-absorbing material

  1. RESEARCH AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF DRILLING AND BLASTING TECHNOLOGY PENETRATIONS OF VERTICAL SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Rubleva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of destruction of rocks by explosion in vertical shafts is presented. On its basis the most important parameters of technical-and-economical indices of the drilling-and-blasting technology are calculated.

  2. Analysis of the flexural vibration of ship's tail shaft by transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-jun; FAN Shi-dong

    2008-01-01

    A ship's tail shaft has serious flexural vibration due to the cantilevered nature of the propeller's blades. Analysis of the nature frequency of flexural vibration is vital to be able to provide effective shock absorption for a ship's tail shaft. A mathematic model of tail shaft flexural vibrations was built using the transfer matrix method. The nature frequency of flexural vibration for an electrically propelled ship's tail shaft was then analyzed, and an effective method for calculating it was proposed: a genetic algorithm (GA), which calculates the nature frequency of vibration of a system. Sample calculations, with comparisons by the Prohl method under conditions bearing isotropic support, showed this method to be practical. It should have significant impact on engineering design theory.

  3. Predictive analysis of shaft station radon concentrations in underground uranium mine: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoyan; Hong, Changshou; Li, Xiangyang; Lin, Chunping; Hu, Penghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented a method for predicting shaft station radon concentrations in a uranium mine of China through theoretical analysis, mathematical derivation and Monte-Carlo simulation. Based upon the queuing model for tramcars, the average waiting time of tramcars and average number of waiting tramcars were determined, which were further used in developing the predictive model for calculating shaft station radon concentrations. The results exhibit that the extent of variation of shaft station radon concentration in the case study mine is not significantly affected by the queuing process of tramcars, and is always within the allowable limit of 200 Bq m(-3). Thus, the empirical limit of 100,000 T annual ore-hoisting yields has no value in ensuring radiation safety for this mine. Moreover, the developed model has been validated and proved useful in assessing shaft station radon levels for any uranium mine with similar situations. PMID:27100335

  4. Low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration of lightweight elastic metamaterial shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Cai, Anjiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration is investigated for a kind of light elastic metamaterial (EM) shafts architecture comprised of a radial double-period element periodically as locally resonant oscillators with low frequency property. The dispersion relations are calculated by a method combining the transfer matrix and a lumped-mass method. The theoretical results agree well with finite method simulations, independent of the density of the hard material ring. The effects of the material parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Our results show that in contrast to the traditional EM shaft, the weight of our proposed EM shaft can be reduced by 27% in the same band gap range while the vibration attenuation is kept unchanged, which is very convenient to instruct the potential engineering applications. Finally, the band edge frequencies of the lower band gaps for this light EM shaft are expressed analytically using physical heuristic models.

  5. Parallel Construction Technology of Mine Shaft Sinking and Mine Shaft Headframe in 1 000m Depth Mine Shaft%千米立井井筒与井塔平行施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明祥; 龙志阳; 杨永军

    2014-01-01

    In Sanxin Gold and Copper Mine ,a new mine shaft has a depth of 1 091m and a net diameter of 4.5m.A hydraulic umbrella drilling frame for rock drilling ,a central rotary grab for rock loading , 3.8m height integrated metal formwork for the shaft liner and other large mechanized matched opera-tion line were applied to the construction of the mine shaft .The new headframe of the mine main shaft is a cast-in-site reinforced concrete frame and a shear wall structure and was constructed with sliding formwork technology.The mine shaft and headframe were constructed in parallel .The total construc-tion period of the mine shaft and headframe could be reduced by seven months as predicted.Obvious economic benefit would be obtained.The technology successfully applied to the construction of the 1 000m depth mine shaft could promote the technology innovation of the mine construction sector in China ,would drive the upgrading of the integrated technology level in China mine industry and would promote the industrial technology progress.%三鑫金铜矿新主井深1091m ,净直径4.5m ,采用液压伞形钻架凿岩,中心回转式抓岩机装岩,3.8m高的整体金属大模板砌壁等大型机械化配套作业线施工。新主井井塔为现浇钢筋混凝土框架剪力墙结构,采用滑模施工工艺。井筒与井塔平行施工,预计将缩短井筒、井塔施工总工期7个月,并取得明显的经济效益。该项技术在千米立井施工中的成功应用,将促进我国建井行业技术革新,带动我国矿山产业整体技术水平的提升,推动行业技术进步。

  6. Empirical mode decomposition, an adaptive approach for interpreting shaft vibratory signals of large rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) has been the most popular method for analyzing large rotating machine shaft vibration problems, but it assumes that these vibration signals are linear and stationary. However, in reality this is not always true. Nonlinear and non-stationary shaft vibration signals are often encountered during the start-up and shut-down processes of the machines. Additionally, mechanical faults, for example rotor-to-stator rubbing, fluid excitation, part-loosening, and shaft cracking, are nonlinear. Owing to these reasons, an accurate analysis of shaft vibration cannot always be achieved by using the FT. An alternative tool, the wavelet transform (WT), is now being used to improve the situation. But the efficiency is a problem especially when applying the WT to the accurate analysis of a large-scale, lengthy data. In view of the powerful capability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process nonlinear/non-stationary signals, its algorithm efficiency and its satisfactory performance in minimizing energy leakage, the EMD is used in this paper to analyze the problem, the signals investigated are adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The principal IMFs, identified using an energy-distribution threshold, dominate the signals' oscillation. So, 'purified' shaft vibration signals can be reconstructed from these principal IMFs. To remove interference present in principal IMFs, an adaptive band-pass filter is designed, whose central frequency is automatically set to the frequency dominating the IMF being investigated. To facilitate the observation of transient shaft vibration, a transient shaft orbit (TSO) is constructed by introducing timescale into the orbit drawing process. Nine mathematical criteria are also proposed to evaluate the shaft vibrations exhibited in the IMFs and TSOs. The novelty of this approach is that the EMD provides an adaptive, effective, and efficient way to obtain 'purified' shaft vibration

  7. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 2. Operational guidelines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria for improving main coolant pump shaft seal operational reliability. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies. Usage procedures/practices and operational environment influence on seal life and reliability from the most recent such survey are summarized. The shaft seal and its auxiliary supporting systems are discussed both from technical and operational related viewpoints

  8. Vibration and Instability of Rotating Composite Thin-Walled Shafts with Internal Damping

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yongsheng; Zhang Xingqi; Liu Yanghang; Chen Xiulong

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical analysis of a rotating thin-walled composite shaft with internal damping is carried out analytically. The equations of motion are derived using the thin-walled composite beam theory and the principle of virtual work. The internal damping of shafts is introduced by adopting the multiscale damping analysis method. Galerkin’s method is used to discretize and solve the governing equations. Numerical study shows the effect of design parameters on the natural frequencies, critical rot...

  9. Evaluation of variations of neck to shaft of femur in amputations above knee

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi M; Hedayatpoor A

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we investigated variations of the angle between neck and shaft of femur after amputation of tigh above the knee. In amputated tigh the angle between neck and shaft of the femur is decreased than normal (nearly 90° degrees) (coax vara). The angle of the normal femur usually increases due to weight bearing (coax valga). In the patients that both tighs have been amputated the changes of the angle are equal.

  10. Evaluation of variations of neck to shaft of femur in amputations above knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraghi M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated variations of the angle between neck and shaft of femur after amputation of tigh above the knee. In amputated tigh the angle between neck and shaft of the femur is decreased than normal (nearly 90° degrees (coax vara. The angle of the normal femur usually increases due to weight bearing (coax valga. In the patients that both tighs have been amputated the changes of the angle are equal.

  11. Correlation of Trochanter-Shaft Angle in Selection of Entry Site in Antegrade Intramedullary Femoral Nail

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhwani, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Selection of entry point for nail insertion is controversial and lack firm anatomical basis. The study is done to analyze the proximal anthropometry of femur and measure the Trochanter-Shaft Angle to find its relation and significance in selection of entry point for antegrade uniplanar femoral nail. Materials and Methods. Study involves the measurement of trochanter-shaft angle and other anthropometric measurements on 50 dry femora and on digital radiogram. Results. Trochanter-Sha...

  12. Numerical and experimantal analysis of a shaft bow influence on a rotor to stator contact dynamics:

    OpenAIRE

    Braut, Sanjin; Butković, Mirko; Žigulić, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The shaft bow problem presents a real situation especially in case of slender rotors. This paper investigates the shaft bow influence on the rotor-stator contact dynamics. For this purpose the rotor is described as a simple Jeffcott model and the stator as an elastically suspended rigid ring. To test the numerical model, except a usual run down analysis, an emergency shut down after the sudden rotor unbalance increase is also analyzed. Numerical integration is carried out by the fourth-order ...

  13. Uncoiling of reamer during intramedullary nailing for fracture shaft of femur

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Trikha, Vivek; Singh, Vivek; Mittal, Samarth; Kishanpuria, Tanmay S.

    2013-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing is considered the standard of care for closed femoral shaft fractures. Several studies have shown that reamed intramedullary nailing is a safe procedure in fracture shaft femur with lower nonunion rates than unreamed nailing. Reamed intramedullary nailing provides better stability because of increased contact between the nail and medullary canal. However, careful attention to reaming techniques as well good instrumentation is necessary while undertaking such a procedure...

  14. Determination of Material for Shaft Design Using on Grey Correlation Analysis and TOPSIS Method

    OpenAIRE

    B. Siva Kumar; J.Sushma

    2015-01-01

    Machines, automobiles, aircrafts and many other applications have shaft as major mechanical component which must have a proper design, in-order to have the efficient transmission of power from one element to another. For the design of shaft an appropriate range of evaluation, general product form and processing methods for material must be made. The selection of material should be done by using multiple attribute decision methods (MADM). In this paper, Grey Correlation Analysis an...

  15. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 3. Specification guidelines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria to aid in the generation of procurement specifications for Main Coolant Pump Shaft Seals. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies, a review of pump and shaft seal literature and discussions with pump and seal designers. This report is preliminary in nature and could be expanded and finalized subsequent to completion of further design, test and evaluation efforts

  16. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 1. Maintenance-manual guidelines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of guidelines and a listing of information and data which should be included in maintenance manuals and procedures for Main Coolant Pump Shaft Seals. The noted guidelines and data listing are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear plant seal operating experience studies. The maintenance oriented results of the most recent such study is summarized. The shaft seal and its auxiliary supporting systems are discussed from both technical and maintenance related viewpoints

  17. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for humeral shaft fractures: are results reproducible?

    OpenAIRE

    Concha, Juan M.; Sandoval, Alejandro; Philipp N Streubel

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has been advocated as a safe approach to humeral shaft fracture management. We evaluated the reproducibility of this technique in a regional hospital. Thirty-five patients underwent MIPO of humerus shaft fractures. Fifteen patients had an open fracture, six a preoperative radial nerve palsy, and nine a concomitant thoracic, musculoskeletal or vascular injury. At an average 12-month follow-up, 91% of fractures healed after a mean of 12 weeks (rang...

  18. A CLINICAL STUDY OF FIXATION O FRACTURE OF SHAFT OF HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandra Reddy; Athmaram; Santhi Swaroop

    2015-01-01

    the aim of the present study is to evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nail in the management of fractures of shaft humerus.20 humeral shaft fractures were treated by closed reduction and intramedullary interlocking nailing in the department of orthopaedics , government medical college , government general hospital , anantapuramu from November 2010 to A ug 2012. The cause of fracture was RTA in 17 cases and fall in 3 cas es. Age...

  19. High efficiency genetic modification of hair follicles and growing hair shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Norimitsu; ZHAO Ming; Li, Lingna; Baranov, Eugene; Yang, Meng; Ohta, Yukinori; Katsuoka, Kensei; Penman, Sheldon; Robert M. Hoffman

    2002-01-01

    A technique for genetic modification of hair follicles was developed which results in efficient alteration of the hair shaft phenotype. High-level in vivo transgene expression was maintained in hair follicles such that growing hair shafts were phenotypically altered. Mouse anagen skin fragments, maintained in histoculture, were genetically modified at high efficiency with adenoviral-GFP. The histocultured skin fragments were treated with collagenase which made hair follicles accessible to the...

  20. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Chunde Piao; Jun Yuan; Bin Shi; Haijun Lu; Guangqing Wei; Chunsheng Gu

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the b...

  1. Parametric stability of continuous shafts, connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, O.; Koser, K.

    2004-10-01

    Stability of the parametrically excited torsional vibrations of shafts connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia is studied via a version of Bolotin's method. The shafts are considered to be torsionally elastic, distributed parameter systems and discretized through a finite element scheme. The mechanisms are modelled by a linearized Eksergian equation of motion. A general method of analysis is described and applied to examples with slider-crank and Scotch-yoke mechanisms.

  2. A Case of Posterior Shoulder Dislocation with Ipsilateral Humeral Shaft Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P.; Meena, S.; Rastogi, D; Chowdhury, B

    2014-01-01

    Posterior shoulder dislocations are rare and represent 2–5% of all traumatic shoulder dislocation. A combination of this injury with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture is extremely rare event. We here report a case of posterior shoulder dislocation with ipsilateral fracture shaft of humerus following road traffic accident. Through this report, we highlight the rarity of the condition and review the available literature on the subject. We also emphasize the importance of complete physical and ...

  3. Optimum Design and Analysis of a Composite Drive Shaft for an Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Gummadi, Sanjay; Kumar, Akula Jagdeesh

    2007-01-01

    Substituting composite structures for conventional metallic structures has many advantages because of higher specific stiffness and strength of composite materials. This work deals with the replacement of conventional two-piece steel drive shafts with a single-piece e-glass/ epoxy, high strength carbon/epoxy and high modulus carbon/epoxy composite drive shaft for an automotive application. The design parameters were optimized with the objective of minimizing the weight of composite drive shaf...

  4. OPTIMUM CONTROL TO A PARTIALLY CONTROLLED TURBOGENERATOR SHAFT TORSIONAL VIBRATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The optimal control to a partially controlled turbogenerator shaft torsional vibration system is investigated. The principle of input feedforward control is presented to achieve the minimum of the average vibration energy in a system,and the optimal control matrix of the system is derived. A turbogenerator shaft system is taken as an example to simulate the optimal control process of the torsional vibration. Results from this simulation indicate that the vibration can be effectively controlled by a partial control strategy.

  5. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Modification of rock mass permeability in the zone surrounding a shaft in fractured, welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excavation of a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires access through shafts and ramps from the ground surface to the repository horizon. To evaluate the need and performance of the sealing subsystem, it is necessary to predict the modifications in the rock immediately surrounding the shaft. The purpose of this study is to develop a model of permeability changes as a function of radial distance from a shaft. The model is based upon analyses which consider modification in rock mass permeability resulting from stress redistribution and blast damage due to excavation around a shaft. Elastic and elastoplastic stress analyses are performed to estimate the stress distribution for a wide range of rock properties and in situ stress conditions. Changes in stress are related to changes in rock mass permeability using stress-permeability relations for fractures obtained from laboratory and field testing. The effects of blast damage are estimated from case histories. The analyses indicate that rock mass permeability is expected to decline rapidly to the undisturbed value with greater permeability changes occurring at or near the shaft wall. For several conditions evaluated, the equivalent permeability of the modified permeability zone, averaged over an annulus one radius wide around the shaft, ranges from 15 to 80 times the undisturbed rock mass permeability. 61 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shaft is the shortest way to access the deep underground. In shaft sinking through large-scale faults or under low competence factor, spalling of shaft walls is likely to occur. Although earlier studies indicated that rock spalling is an undesirable phenomenon that threatens safety in excavation work and causes delay in construction schedule, there have been few studies which discussed damage to concrete lining induced by spalling. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one for ventilation and the others for access) to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack developed in the concrete lining installed just above the location of the rock spalling. In this study, the geometry of the shaft wall was measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Numerical analysis was also conducted to estimate changes in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced a vertical tensile stress in the concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete lining when it developed more than 100 cm into the wall rock. (author)

  8. Torsional Vibrations of a Conic Shaft with Opposite Tapers Carrying Arbitrary Concentrated Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the exact solution for free torsional vibrations of a linearly tapered circular shaft carrying a number of concentrated elements. First of all, the equation of motion for free torsional vibration of a conic shaft is transformed into a Bessel equation, and, based on which, the exact displacement function in terms of Bessel functions is obtained. Next, the equations for compatibility of deformations and equilibrium of torsional moments at each attaching point (including the shaft ends between the concentrated elements and the conic shaft with positive and negative tapers are derived. From the last equations, a characteristic equation of the form is obtained. Then, the natural frequencies of the torsional shaft are determined from the determinant equation , and, corresponding to each natural frequency, the column vector for the integration constants, , is obtained from the equation . Substitution of the last integration constants into the associated displacement functions gives the corresponding mode shape of the entire conic shaft. To confirm the reliability of the presented theory, all numerical results obtained from the exact method are compared with those obtained from the conventional finite element method (FEM and good agreement is achieved.

  9. Viscoelastic Characterization of Long-Eared Owl Flight Feather Shaft and the Damping Ability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight feather shaft of long-eared owl is characterized by a three-parameter model for linear viscoelastic solids to reveal its damping ability. Uniaxial tensile tests of the long-eared owl, pigeon, and golden eagle flight feather shaft specimens were carried out based on Instron 3345 single column material testing system, respectively, and viscoelastic response of their stress and strain was described by the standard linear solid model. Parameter fitting result obtained from the tensile tests shows that there is no significant difference in instantaneous elastic modulus for the three birds’ feather shafts, but the owl shaft has the highest viscosity, implying more obvious viscoelastic performance. Dynamic mechanical property was characterized based on the tensile testing results. Loss factor (tanδ of the owl flight feather shaft was calculated to be 1.609 ± 0.238, far greater than those of the pigeon (0.896 ± 0.082 and golden eagle (1.087 ± 0.074. It is concluded that the long-eared owl flight feather has more outstanding damping ability compared to the pigeon and golden eagle flight feather shaft. Consequently, the long-eared owl flight feathers can dissipate the vibration energy more effectively during the flying process based on the principle of damping mechanism, for the purpose of vibration attenuation and structure radiated noise reduction.

  10. Understanding Radionuclide Migration from the D1225 Shaft, Dounreay, Caithness, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, D.; Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Bond, A.; Jones, W.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, A.; Munro, C.; Penfold, J.; Watson, S.

    2009-04-01

    A vertical shaft was sunk at Dounreay in the 1950s to build a tunnel for the discharge of radioactive effluent from the various nuclear facilities then under construction. The Shaft has an average diameter of 4.6 m and a total height of 65.4 m, with the lower 52 m being unlined and in direct contact with micaceous flagstones of the Devonian Dounreay Shore Formation. In 1959, the Shaft was licensed as a disposal facility for radioactive wastes and was routinely used for the disposal of unconditioned intermediate level waste (ILW) until 1970. All material consignments to the Shaft ceased in 1977 following an explosion in the head-space above the waste column. In 1998, it was decided to retrieve the waste for treatment and surface storage. The first phase of decommissioning is hydraulic isolation, creating a containment barrier between the waste in the Shaft and the groundwater that flows through the surrounding rock. This has involved drilling approximately 400 boreholes and injecting very fine cement grout under pressure in a 10 m wide band of rock around the Shaft. This process was completed in Spring 2008. Despite the operation of a hydraulic containment scheme around the Shaft, some radioactivity from the wastes disposed to the Shaft is known to have leaked into the surrounding rocks. Detailed logging, together with mineralogical and radiochemical analysis of drillcore from the dense network of boreholes around the Shaft has revealed four distinct bedding-parallel zones of contamination. The most extensive zones of contamination are associated with hydraulically transmissive layers and while most of the contamination is located around the Shaft itself, it is clear that a small amount of contamination has travelled approximately 100 m from the Shaft. The data show that Sr-90 dominates the bulk beta/gamma contamination signal, whereas other radionuclides such as Cs-137 and Pu-248/249 are found only to be weakly mobile in the geosphere, leading to very low

  11. Selected analyses to evaluate the effect of the exploratory shafts on repository performance at Yucca Mountain: Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a number of analyses to determine whether the construction of two shafts associated with the exploratory shaft facility can significantly influence the long-term isolation capabilities of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site. Both shafts are planned to be located predominantly in fractured, welded tuff within the unsaturated zone. The calculational effort, using analytical solutions, focuses primarily on the potential influence of the shaft liner and the zone of increased rock damage around the shaft (termed in this paper the modified permeability zone, MPZ). Two mechanisms are considered in determining whether the MPZ can significantly enhance radionuclide releases. These mechanisms include water flow entering the exploratory shafts from both realistic and improbable scenarios and airflow exiting the shaft as a result of convective and barometric forces. The influence of the liner on the performance of the repository is determined by evaluating the potential chemical interaction between ground water and the concrete liner and the subsequent potential for precipitates to deposit within the MPZ and the shaft fill. It is concluded from these calculations and the current knowledge of the hydrology of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain that the presence of the shafts and the associated MPZ and shaft liner do not significantly impact the long-term isolation capability of the repository. 68 refs., 54 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  14. Inspection of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station reactor coolant pump shaft using the cylindrically guided wave technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the inspection of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station reactor coolant pump shaft using the cylindrically guided wave technique. The topics of the paper include a description of the pump shaft problem, metallurgical testing results, nondestructive examination (NDE) requirements, NDE work conducted, conventional inspection technology, cylindrically guided wave technique (CGWT), and the results of CGWT inspection on boiling water reactor pump shaft. The paper consists of overheads from the presentation

  15. Interlocking nailing of humeral shaft fractures a retrospective study of 114 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirel M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are relatively common injuries. Literature suggests that humeral shaft fractures represent approximately 3 % of all fractures. There are several modalities for the management of diaphyseal humeral fractures. The latest investigations emphasize the concept of minimal exposure and rigid fixation. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of antegrade intramedullary nailing in humeral shaft fractures. Design: A retrospective review Settings: Patients were treated in private hospital settings by 3 orthopaedics surgeon Material and Methods: Between 1995 and 2003, the technique of antegrade locked intramedullary nailing with UHN in humeral shaft fractures was performed on 114 patients. Forty-two (36% patients sustained multiple traumas, and 22 (19% fractures were open. The outcomes were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 41 months. Statistical analysis used: Ranges of results given Results:0 In 109 fractures primary union observed. In the other five patients union achieved after removal of the nail and fixation with DCP and bone grafting. The average time for union was 13 weeks (range, 10-36 weeks. One hundred-five patients had excellent or satisfactory recovery of shoulder and elbow function. Complications included impingement due to proximal locking screws in two patients and prominent nail in three patients, transient postoperative radial nerve palsy in four patients. Conclusions: This study shows that antegrade locked nailing in humeral shaft fractures are reliable and also effective in multiply injured patients.

  16. Functional design criteria for an exploratory shaft facility in salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Functional Criteria for Design is to provide technical direction for the development of detailed design criteria for the exploratory shaft facility. This will assure that the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with the current Mission Plan as well as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and 10 CFR Part 60, which will facilitate the licensing process. The functional criteria for design are not intended to limit or constrain the designer's flexibility. The following philosophies will be incorporated in the designs: (1) The exploratory shaft will be designed to fulfill its intended purpose which is to characterize the salt site by subsurface testing; (2) the design will minimize any adverse impact which the facility may cause to the environment and any damage to the site if it should be found suitable for a repository; (3) the health and safety of the public and of the workers will be an essential factor in the design; (4) sound engineering principles and practices will be consistently employed in the design process; (5) the exploratory shaft and related surface and subsurface facilities will be designed to be economical and reliable in construction, operation, and maintenance; and (6) the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, as well as all applicable national consensus codes and standards

  17. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via β-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and β-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/β-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b

  18. Identification of the Shaft Orbit for Rotating Machines Using Wavelet Modulus Maxima

    Science.gov (United States)

    PENG, Z.; HE, Y.; CHEN, Z.; CHU, F.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for the identification of the shaft centre orbits is proposed, which is based on wavelet modulus maxima. For this approach, continuous wavelet transform is utilised upon the Θ-S diagram of the shaft centre orbits, and then, maxima lines are extracted and Lipschitz exponents α of every maxima line are calculated by non-linear least-squares method. The number of maxima lines with positive α, the mean of the positive α, the number of maxima lines with negative α and the mean of the negative α are used as features of the shaft orbits. In succession, the four features are used as the inputs of the back-propagation network to classify the shaft orbits for the fault diagnosis for the rotating machines. The experimental data of four classes of faults (rub-impact, oil whirl, coupling misalignment and unbalance) are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The test result indicates that the proposed method is very effective with the advantages of fewer features used and faster training of the network, and can fulfil classification of the shaft centre orbit with satisfactory accuracy.

  19. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  20. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  1. Hoffa fracture associated with ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: clinical feature and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-bao; LI Qing-song; YANG Chen; LI Shu-qiang; LIU Jian-guo; QI Xin

    2011-01-01

    Hoffa fracture associated with ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture is very rare.Three cases of this rare type of injury were retrospectively reviewed.The sites of femoral shaft fractures and Hoffa fractures were documented.All femoral shaft fractures were managed with internal fixation.The rate of misdiagnosis for the Hoffa fractures was documented.Functions of the affected knees were evaluated according to the modified Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores at two years follow-up.Femoral fractures were either transverse or composite in all three cases.Ipsilateral Hoffa fractures occurred at medial condyle in two cases,and lateral condyle in one case.Only one Hoffa fracture was identified preoperatively.All the femoral shaft fractures healed uneventfully.In the patient whose Hoffa fracture was correctly diagnosed,the modified HSS score was 94.In another patient,whose Hoffa fracture was treated by a second operation,the modified HSS score was 93.And in the third case,who refused additional operation for the Hoffa fracture,the modified HSS score was only 70.Conclusively femoral shaft fracture can be associated with ipsilateral Hoffa fracture,especially in motorcycle accident.This type of injury is very rare and misdiagnosis is common.

  2. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NOVEL ACTIVE ACTUATOR TO CONTROL LOW FREQUENCY VIBRATIONS OF SHAFT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at providing with high-load capability in active vibration control of large-scale rotor system, a new type of active actuator to simultaneously reduce the dangers of low frequency flexural and torsional vibrations is designed. The actuator employs electro-hydraulic system and can provide a high and circumferential load. To initialize new research, the characteristics of various kinds of active actuators to control rotor shaft vibration are briefly introduced. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the preliminary results via presenting the structure, functions and operating principles, in particular, the working process of the electro-hydraulic system of the new actuator which includes a set of high speed electromagnetic valves and a series of sloping cone-shaped openings, and presenting the transmission relationships among the control parameters from control signals into the valves to active load onto shaft. The course of the work is dynamic, and a series of spatial forces and moments are put on the shaft to get an external resultant force to reduce excitations that induce vibration of shafts. By checking states of vibration, the actuator can control the impulse width and the interval of injection time for applying different control force to a vibration shaft in two circumference directions through the regulating action of a set of combination directional control valves. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show evidence of that this design can satisfy the case of active process of decreasing of flexural and torsional vibrations.

  3. Computer Simulation Usage For Verification Of Deepened Shaft Artificial Bottom Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design verification methodology for so called artificial bottom of the mining shaft using computer simulation. Artificial bottom serves as the protection of the lower part of the shaft, in which works related to shaft deepening are carried out, against falling to the bottom of the shaft elements transported in its upper, active part. Model describing the phenomenon of artificial bottom stress is complex. In presented case it is a process of collision between object with a mass of 18 Mg model, falling into the shaft from a height of 800 m, and artificial bottom construction and inducted phenomenon of stress and strain wave propagation in various elements of construction. In this case load receiving elements are heavily deformed and many of them has to be destroyed. Therefore for construction verification computer simulation method has been chosen, conducted on the basis of subsequent crash tests, using the LS-DYNA program. The object of the research was an innovative solution of artificial bottom, developed by Central Mining Institute. A series of falling mass impact tests were performed, which had to prove the usefulness of applied solutions, as well as determine the influence of selected construction geometric parameters to effectiveness of transferring the impact load. This way, using the successive approximations method, the assumptions about the number of artificial bottom platforms and plate thickness used for additional coverage of one of the platforms were verified.

  4. Minimization of shaft oscillations by fuzzy controlled SMES considering time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohd Hasan; Dougal, Roger A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 301 South Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Wu, Bin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, George Vari Engineering and Computing Center, 245 Church Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1Z2 (Canada); Tamura, Junji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of fuzzy logic-controlled superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) on minimizing shaft torsional oscillations of synchronous generators in a multi-machine power system. The proposed fuzzy logic controller has been designed in a very simple way considering only one input variable and one output variable. The time derivative of the total kinetic energy deviation (TKED) of the synchronous generators is used as the global input to the fuzzy controller for SMES switching. The influence of time delay associated with the global input calculation of the fuzzy controller on minimizing shaft torsional oscillations is investigated. Global positioning system (GPS) is proposed for the practical implementation of the calculation of the global input to the fuzzy controller. Simulation results of a balanced fault at different points in a multi-machine power system show that the proposed SMES can minimize the shaft torsional oscillations of synchronous generators well. Moreover, the time delay has an influence on the performance of fuzzy controlled SMES to minimize shaft torsional oscillations. However, even though the performance of fuzzy controlled SMES is somewhat effected by the communication delay, it is clear from the simulation responses that the fuzzy logic-controlled SMES considering typical communication delays can minimize the shaft torsional oscillations of synchronous generators well. (author)

  5. Propeller Excitation of Longitudinal Vibration Characteristics of Marine Propulsion Shafting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganbo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The submarine experiences longitudinal vibration in the propulsion shafting system throughout most of run. A transfer matrix model of the propulsion shafting system, in which the dynamic characteristics of oil film within thrust bearing are considered, is established to describe the dynamic behavior. Using hydrodynamic lubrication theory and small perturbation method, the axial stiffness and damping of oil film are deduced in great detail, followed by numerical estimation of the foundation stiffness with finite element method. Based upon these values of dynamic parameters, the Campbell diagram describing natural frequencies in terms of shafting rotating speeds is available, and the effect on the 1st natural frequency of considerable variations in thrust bearing stiffness is next investigated. The results indicate that the amplitude of variation of the 1st natural frequency in range of low rotating speeds is great. To reduce off-resonance response without drastic changes in propulsion shafting system architecture, the measure of moving thrust bearing backward is examined. The longitudinal vibration transmission through propulsion shafting system results in subsequent axial excitation of hull; the thrust load acting on hull is particularly concerned. It is observed that the measures of structural modification are of little benefit to minimize thrust load transmitted to hull.

  6. Non-destructive techniques for measuring random loading signals and their analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method described in this paper deals with the forces and torsional moments distribution in cardan shaft. Two major difficulties occur in performing this method: Since the values of forces and moments cannot be directly measured, they are inferred from strain measuring of the cardan shaft, foil strain gauges are used. However, they are only the pure data in a research laboratory, and it would be very interesting to compare them with the data obtained on actual mobile machine wheel-type tractor. (orig.)

  7. Femoral shaft fractures in children: elastic stable intramedullary nailing in 31 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Gøthgen, Charlotte Buch; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech;

    2004-01-01

    We report our experience with elastic stable intramedullary titanium nailing (ESIN) of femoral shaft fractures in children. From 1998 to 2001, we treated 31 children (20 boys), median age 6 (4-11) years, with ESIN for 29 closed and 2 grade I open femoral shaft fractures. We reviewed 30 children...... in 6 children and 10 degrees of internal rotational deformity in 1 child. No angular deformity had occurred. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing seems to be a safe method for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children between 4 and 11 years of age....... clinically after median 1.5 (1-3) years. Their median hospital stay was 6 (2-20) days. All fractures were radiographically united at a median of 7 (5-9) weeks. The nails were removed in 29 children after a median of 22 (6-38) weeks postoperatively. At follow-up, we found a leg-length discrepancy up to 1 cm...

  8. Shaft flexibility effects on the forced response of a bladed-disk assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, N.; Loewy, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A model analysis approach is used to study the forced response of an actual flexible bladed-disk-shaft system. Both in-plane and out-of-plane flexible deformations of the bladed-disk assembly are considered, in addition to its rigid-body translations and rotations, resulting from the bending of the supporting flexible shaft in two orthogonal planes. The effects of Coriolis forces and structural coupling between flexible and rigid disk motions on the system's response are investigated. Aerodynamic loads acting on the rotating and vibrating bladed-disk assembly are accounted for through a simple quasi-steady representation, to evaluate their influence, combined with shaft flexibility and Coriolis effects.

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF PLY STACKING SEQUENCE OF COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT USING PARTICLE SWARM ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHANNAKESHAVA K. R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt has been made to optimize ply stacking sequence of single piece E-Glass/Epoxy and Boron /Epoxy composite drive shafts using Particle swarm algorithm (PSA. PSA is a population based evolutionary stochastic optimization technique which is a resent heuristic search method, where mechanics are inspired by swarming or collaborative behavior of biological population. PSA programme is developed to optimize the ply stacking sequence with an objective of weight minimization by considering design constraints as torque transmission capacity, fundamental natural frequency, lateral vibration and torsional buckling strength having number of laminates, ply thickness and stacking sequence as design variables. The weight savings of the E-Glass/epoxy and Boron /Epoxy shaft from PAS were 51% and 85 % of the steel shaft respectively. The optimum results of PSA obtained are compared with results of genetic algorithm (GA results and found that PSA yields better results than GA.

  10. Calculating Model of Interference Amount for Miniaturized Gear and Shaft Shrink Fit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xin; ZHANG Zhi-jing; YE Xin; LI Zhong-xin

    2006-01-01

    Based on miniaturized components' characteristics, the method of assembling miniaturized gear and shaft together with corresponding calculating model of the interference amount are proposed. On the basis of main effecting factors analysis on the gear and shaft assembling interference amount, calculating formula including all factors effective on the interference amount necessary for reliable system running was built up. The methods of reverse calculating theoretical model was used to build up the equivalent simulation model of the theoretical one, together with simulation verification and case study for calculating formula. The results show that the cold assembling method is applicable for miniaturized gear and shaft, but in the assembling process,the interference amount compensating the shape error of contacting surfaces takes a large proportion, which is the main cause of stress variance on contacting surfaces.

  11. ESF [Exploratory Shaft Facility] Title II 60% interim design review findings report:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Interim Design Review Findings Report contains the results of the review, the Design Review Board (DRB) conclusions and recommended future actions, the technical checklist, and required supporting documentation. Brief descriptions of the major issues raised during the 60% design review are: a definite need for greater ICWG participation and active direction in the design process; approval and issuance of the ESF Vulnerability Study; inclusion of an alternative to concrete blocks in the design of the preliminary liner in salt; development of achievable excavation specifications and criteria to be used during shaft sinking; development of ground support plan that is flexible to the needs of the testing requirements; decision to either retain or eliminate shaft liner ''D'' in the lower salt section of the shafts and decision to either retain or eliminate mechanical cooling of the ESF underground ventilation air

  12. MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATE AND SCREWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Rao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of humerus shaft encountered by orthoopaedic surgeon accounting for approximately 3% of all fractures . Treatment of these injuries continues to evolve as advanced in both non - operative and operative management . It has been generally agreed that must fractured of humeral shaft are treated non - operatively , although occasionally there are indications for primary or secondary operative treatment. Isolated fracture caused by low energy impact are best treated by non - operative treatment , while fracture caused by high – energy trauma require operative management . We treated 50 cases of humerus shaft fractures with open reduction and internal fixation by using Dynamic Compression Plates and screws at Government General Hospital, Vijayawada from May 2012 to April 2015. In our study excellent results were obtained in 30 cases, good results in 16 cases and fair results in 4 cases.

  13. Nonunion of the Humeral Shaft Treated by Intramedullary Impaction. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosvani Sánchez Pérez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nonunion of the humeral shaft is one of the most challenging orthopedic complications. The case of a 39-year-old female patient who suffered a trauma resulting in a comminuted fracture of the proximal third of the right humeral shaft is presented; she received conservative treatment with a cast brace for six months without showing signs of bone consolidation. A year and six months after the fracture, the patient underwent an intramedullary impaction for repairing the nonunion with satisfactory results. This case is presented in order to show the validity of this option for the management of nonunions of the humeral shaft due to its easy application and favorable results.

  14. A STUDY OF CLOSED INTERLOCKING NAILING FOR FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF FEMUR IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:-This study is to determine the clinical course and results after interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fractures , merits and demerits of interlocking nailing, achieving the final goals of femoral shaft fracture management with special references to time for radiological union, knee stiffness, limb length discrepancy, ambulation and return to work. Femur is the strongest and heaviest bone in the human skeleton. It is also the longest bone contributing 26% to height of an individual. Fractures of the shaft of the femur are among the most common fractures encountered in orthopaedic practice, can cause prolong morbidity and extensive disability unless treatment is appropriate. Many treatment modalities were described; with many surgeons advocating different methods of treatment .At present Interlocking nailing of the femur seems to be the ideal method of treatment for complex femoral fractures.

  15. 1/2 SUBHARMONIC RESONANCE OF A SHAFT WITH UNSYMMETRICAL STIFFNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The 1/2 subharmonic resonance of a shaft with unsymmetrical stiffness is studied. By means of the Hamilton's principle the nonlinear differential equations of motion of the rotating shaft are derived in the rotating rectangular coordinate system. Transforming the equations of motion from rotating coordinate system into stationary coordinate system and introducing a complex variable, the equation of motion in complex variable form is obtained, in which the stiffness coefficient varies periodically with time. It presents a nonlinear oscillation system under parametric excitation. By applying the method of multiple scales (MMS) the averaged equation, the bifurcating response equations and local bifurcating set are obtained. Via the theory of singularity, the stability of constant solutions is analyzed and bifurcating response curves are obtained. This study shows that the rotating shaft has rich bifurcation phenomena.

  16. Analysis of a 115MW, 3 shaft, helium Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research theme is originated from a development project that is going on in South Africa, for the design and construction of a closed cycle gas turbine plant using gas-cooled reactor as the heat source to generate 115 MW of electricity. South African Power utility company, Eskorn, promotes this developmental work through its subsidiary called PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular Reactor). Some of the attractive features of this plant are the inherent and passive safety features, modular geometry, small evacuation area, small infrastructure requirements for the installation and running of the plant, small construction time, quick starting and stopping and also low operational cost. This exercise is looking at the operational aspects of a closed cycle gas turbine, the finding of which will have a direct input towards the successful development and commissioning of the plant. A thorough understanding of the fluid dynamics in this three-shaft system and its transient performance analysis were the two main objectives of this research work. A computer programme called GTSI, developed by a previous Cranfield University research student, has been used in this as a base programme for the performance analysis. Some modifications were done on this programme to improve its control abilities. The areas covered in the performance analysis are Start-up, Shutdown and Load ramping. A detailed literature survey has been conducted to learn from the helium Turbo machinery experiences, though it is very limited. A critical analysis on the design philosophy of the PBMR is also carried out as part of this research work. The performance analysis has shown the advantage, disadvantage and impact of various power modulation methods suggested for the PBMR. It has tracked the effect of the operations of the various valves included in the PBMR design. The start-up using a hot gas injection has been analysed in detail and a successful start region has been mapped. A start-up procedure is also written

  17. Radon dispersion modeling and dose assessment for uranium mine ventilation shaft exhausts under neutral atmospheric stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, the roles of atmospheric wind profiles in the neutral atmosphere and surface roughness parameters in a complex terrain were examined to determine their impacts on radon (222Rn) dispersion from an actual uranium mine ventilation shaft. Simulations were completed on 222Rn dispersion extending from the shaft to a vulnerable distance, near the location of an occupied farmhouse. The eight dispersion scenarios for the ventilation shaft source included four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 m s−1) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m and 1.0 m). 222Rn distributions and elevated pollution regions were identified. Effective dose estimation methods involving a historical weighting of wind speeds in the direction of interest coupled to the complex dispersion model were proposed. Using this approach, the radiation effects on the residents assumed to be outside at the location of the farm house 250 m downwind from the ventilation shaft outlet were computed. The maximum effective dose rate calculated for the residents at the outside of the farm house was 2.2 mSv y−1, which is less than the low limit action level of 3–10 mSv y−1 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) occupational exposure action level for radon. - Highlights: • Modeling of radon dispersion from uranium mine shafts. • Rn modeling methods include complex meteorology and geography. • Dose computation methods involving historical wind speeds weighting are proposed. • Rn dose rate for the residents near uranium mine shafts are calculated and assessed

  18. APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER FOR PREAND POST-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY OF ELEVATOR SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterionok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floor-by-floor survey of installed elements of an elevator shaft using coordinate method and tacheometer is also inhibited by the necessity to determine device installation points for floors of every mounting horizon that leads to additional measurements due to conditions of the completed building framework and presence of a great number of situational disturbances and then it entails significant time expenditure and diminution of accuracy in the obtained results. Technical capabilities of the modern electronic tacheometer substantially simplify an accomplishment of the mission because the device can be applied not only in function of vertical projection but it can be used for preand post-construction survey of the elevator shaft with the help of advanced radiation method. While using the given method the electronic tacheometer equipped with diagonal ocular is installed over a bearing sign in the elevator pit and control points of the elevator shaft are determined with the help of specially developed portable beam deflector in the form of disc with radius r, which is fixed to a handle rod and orientated perpendicularly to a laser beam. An innovation diagram for preand post-construction survey of elevator shaft has been developed while applying this type of deflector. The diagram is characterized by high efficiency due to the fact that one tacheometer installation makes it possible to execute highly accurate, complete plane and high-level surveying of the whole elevator shaft including doorways, door sills and jambs.The paper proposes a new method for pre and post construction survey of the elevator shaft using the electronic tacheometer while applying specially developed beam deflector that ensures a geometric fixing of one or simultaneously two surveying points to spatial coordinate system where the preand post-construction survey is carried out. The method is characterized by high geometric accuracy and technological efficiency.

  19. A correlation between femoral neck shaft angle to femoral neck length

    OpenAIRE

    gujar, subhash moolchand; Vikani, Sanjay; Parmar, Jigna; Bondre, K V

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of proximal end of femur is a prerequisite for a complete understanding of the mechanics of the hip joint and serves as a basis for the treatment of pathological condition of the hip and femur. A total of 250 adult femora were used to  measure femoral neck shaft angle, femoral neck length & femoral total length at S.B.K.S Medical institute, Vadodara. The neck shaft angle range from 116o to 150o with means of 136.3o & no significant side difference. The neck le...

  20. A RANDOMIZED STUDY OF THE VARIATIONS IN FEMORAL NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND ANTEVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION From Jan 2013 to Jan 2015, one hundred and fifty human femora of known gender were collected from the department of anatomy, Rangaraya medical college, Kakinada from various sources and were methodically measured and analyzed for variations in neck shaft angle and anteversion of femoral neck in both genders. Fifteen roentgenograms were collected from the department of orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada and were analyzed for neck shaft angle. The results were grouped. Femoral bones were allocated serial numbers and measurements were categorized and a random number of 150 were selected for statistical purpose.

  1. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND NECK LENGTH WITH INTEREPICONDYLAR DISTANCE IN FEMUR

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Ghosh; Gairik Sengupta; Pallab Basu; Alpana De

    2015-01-01

    Background: Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It transmits body weight from hip bone to tibia in standing position. Femoral neck is a constricted part connecting head with shaft at an angle of about 125°-known as angle of inclination or neck shaft angle (NSA); this facilitates the movement of hip joint enabling the limb to swing clear of pelvis. Abnormal femoral neck angle (FNA) may be associated with various clinical problems ranging from harmless in toeing gait in childho...

  2. The Shaft Excavation Effect Experiment: Development of hydrogeological model in Tono research field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Shaft Excavation Effect (SEE) experiment has been carried out by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (PNC). Corresponding to this experiment, an evaluation system of the excavation effect on groundwater flow has been developed. PNC has been performing a comprehensive hydrogeological study programme in Tono research field. This paper presents the evaluation system and some results that were obtained on the way of the experiment. The system has a comprehensive hydrological investigation subsystems and some pre-excavation data. Prediction of hydraulic behavior is carried out. In the prediction, the remarkable affected area, profile of outflow into the shaft, and piezometric head transition in four monitoring boreholes were estimated

  3. Calculation Of The Brushless DC Motor Shaft Speed With Allowances For Incorrect Alignment Of Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolano Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats of correcting calculation errors of the BLDC motor speed, based on the time elapsed between successive changes in the shaft position sensor signal. The developed method enables correction of errors of the deployment of sensors as well as rotating elements of the observation system of the motor shaft position. The correction algorithm performance was analysed with the aid of a model implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. After confirming usefulness of the developed method through simulation, its usefulness was verified in real closed-loop feedback systems with a BLDC motor. The results of measurements carried out at the developed laboratory station are presented.

  4. Shaft torsional oscillation interactions between turbo-generators in parallel in series compensated transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, F.P. de

    1994-12-31

    Several investigators have raised the possibility of interaction between shaft systems of parallel units, particularly among identical units. The question addressed in this paper is the significance of this interaction between shaft systems of units coupled through the electrical system. A time domain model of two parallels units connected to an infinite bus trough a series compensated transmission is used to evaluate the phenomena. The same model is used to extract pertinent frequency response functions by Fourier processing of pulse response tests from which a frequency response analysis is performed to lend additional insight into the phenomena. (author) 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bearings to work three-bearing shafts, including elasticity and resilience three-bearing shafts.

  6. Torsional Oscillation Characteristics of Rotary Shafts Based on Torsion and Bending Coupled Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The torsional oscillation characteristics on the bending and torsion coupled vibration of rotary shaft system were investigated using the elasto-dynamic theory and other mathematic methods, such as difference approach, Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It is concluded that mass eccentricity and other exciting modalities affect the bending and torsion coupled vibration of rotary shafts. Torsional vibration caused by bending vibration features linearity along with the change of amplitude of bending vibration. Meanwhile, energy spectrum concentrates on high frequency area with the wavelet analysis.

  7. Stability and transient dynamics of a propeller-shaft system as induced by nonlinear friction acting on bearing-shaft contact interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Zhiyi; Huang, Xiuchang; Hua, Hongxing

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the friction-induced instability and the resulting self-excited vibration of a propeller-shaft system supported by water-lubricated rubber bearing. The system under consideration is modeled with an analytical approach by involving the nonlinear interaction among torsional vibrations of the continuous shaft, tangential vibrations of the rubber bearing and the nonlinear friction acting on the bearing-shaft contact interface. A degenerative two-degree-of-freedom analytical model is also reasonably developed to characterize system dynamics. The stability and vibrational characteristics are then determined by the complex eigenvalues analysis together with the quantitative analysis based on the method of multiple scales. A parametric study is conducted to clarify the roles of friction parameters and different vibration modes on instabilities; both the graphic and analytical expressions of instability boundaries are obtained. To capture the nature of self-excited vibrations and validate the stability analysis, the nonlinear formulations are numerically solved to calculate the transient dynamics in time and frequency domains. Analytical and numerical results reveal that the nonlinear coupling significantly affects the system responses and the bearing vibration plays a dominant role in the dynamic behavior of the present system.

  8. Research on Stress and Strength of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Drilling Shaft Lining in Thick Top Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhi-shu; CHANG Hua; RONG Chuan-xin

    2007-01-01

    High strength reinforced concrete drilling shaft linings have been adopted to solve the difficult problem of supporting coal drilling shafts penetrating through thick top soils. Through model experiments the stress and strength of such shaft linings are studied. The test results indicate that the load bearing capacity of the shaft lining is very high and that the main factors affecting the load bearing capacity are the concrete strength, the ratio of lining thickness to inner radius and the reinforcement ratio. Based on the limit equilibrium conditions and the strength theory of concrete under multi-axial compressive stressed state, a formula for calculating the load-bearing capacity of a high strength reinforced concrete shaft lining was obtained. Because the concrete in a shaft lining is in a multi-axial compressive stress state the compressive strength increases to a great extent compared to uni-axial loading. Based on experiment a formula for the gain factor in compressive strength was obtained: it can be used in the structural design of the shaft lining. These results have provided a basis for sound engineering practice when designing this kind of shaft lining structure.

  9. Theoretical modelling, analysis and validation of the shaft motion and dynamic forces during rotor–stator contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical study of a horizontal shaft, partially levitated by a passive magnetic bearing, impacting its stator. Rigid body dynamics are utilised in order to describe the governing nonlinear equations of motion of the shaft interacting with a passive magnetic bearing and...

  10. Simulation and long-term observation of groundwater flow around the shaft. Case study in Tono mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive study was carried out to estimate the characteristics of groundwater flow in the Tono region. As a part of this program, a simulation of groundwater flow around the shaft of Tono mine was conducted. By using a precise hydrogeological model, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a saturated-unsaturated porous medium was calculated by means of the finite element method. The following results were obtained: 1) The results of the simulation agreed well with pore water pressure observed around the shaft during and after the shaft excavation. The hydraulic conductivity of the Tsukiyoshi fault (1 meter thick in the model) was estimated to be 1.0x10-10 m/sec. 2) The area where pore water pressure was changed by the excavation of the No. 2 shaft was withins 100 meter from the Tono No. 2 shaft on the upthrown side of the Tsukiyoshi fault, and above 150 meter in the downthrown side. (author)

  11. Control of the low-frequency vibrations of elastic metamaterial shafts with discretized arc-rubber layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixia, Li; Anjiang, Cai

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new kind of elastic metamaterial (EM) shaft with discretized arc-shaped rubber layers, which shows excellent low-frequency vibration properties. The band gaps of the shaft structure were analyzed by employing the finite element method. The proposed EM shaft exhibits much lower band gaps than the corresponding structures with the whole rubber ring. Furthermore, the band gaps can be modulated by tuning the arc angle and the number of the arc-shaped rubbers. Additionally, we observed that the first complete band gap tends to disappear when the arc angle of each arc-shaped rubber section is decreased but the arc number remains fixed because the arc angle more strongly affects the rotational stiffness than the transverse stiffness of the rubber layers. This new type of EM shafts could find potential application as a means to control the low-frequency vibrations of rotor shafts in mechanical engineering.

  12. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  13. Drive shaft for a stirrer, especially for a mixer settler equipping a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The drive shaft of a stirrer is made of two parts connected by a magnetic coupling, a leakproof box is placed between the two parts and supports the stirrer through a plain bearing lubricated with the liquid mixture to stir. Remote dismantling is easy and resistance to radiation and corrosion is improved

  14. Variable Reluctance Rotating Shaft Sensor for DC Brushless Vernier Reluctance Motor

    OpenAIRE

    Multon, Bernard; Geoffroy, Marc; Desesquelles, Pierre-François

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a variable Reluctance Rotating Shaft Sensor made with a stack of magnetic sheet a Switched Reluctance Motor is studied. The magnetic coupling are taken into eaccount and an 3D FE modelization is used. Synchronous demodulation is used to obtain position signals.

  15. A study on the turbine efficiency through the shaft packing improvement of new fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main reason for applying positive pressure variable clearance packing in fossil power plant is high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to analyze the turbine efficiency through the shaft packing improvement in thermal power plant and makes its comparison to that of the used packing

  16. Direct disposal of spent fuel. Simulation of shaft transport. Phase III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these demonstration tests was to verify the technical feasibility of a shaft hoisting equipment with a payload of 85 t as well as the safe transport of POLLUX-casks. In phase III of the project the components and the test stand were built, their proper functioning and reliability were tested to demonstrate that they are state-of-the-art. The following additional investigations were carried out: - Tests to fix operational disturbances and simulation tests for the new components to demonstrate their licensibility -Selection and lifetime tests of ropes and investigation of the present state-of-the-art of rope slighting under the conditions of the conceptual design of the shaft hoisting facility - Execution of a probabilistic safety analysis e.g. the determination of the release of radioactive material (result: probability <10E-6). With the confirmation that the conceptual design of the shaft hoisting facility including the developed components now has become state-of-the-art the contractor and the Reactor Safety Commission has the opinion that the licensibility nuclear safety conditions is now reached. On this base it is possible to construct the real shaft hoisting equipment for a payload of 85 metric tons. (orig.)

  17. Information on the shaft facility Asse II. That much is sure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following issues are discussed in the brochure on Asse II: collapse hazard, knowledge on the inventory, cancer incidence in the vicinity of Asse II, fact finding and waste retrieval delay, possibility of new shaft excavation, emergency preparedness - retrieval delay, retrieval only if intermediate storage facility is found, consequences in case of Asse flooding, salt caverns for final repository.

  18. Control of Rotor-Blade Coupled Vibrations Using Shaft-Based Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene H.; Santos, Ilmar

    When implementing active control into bladed rotating machines aiming at reducing blade vibrations, it can be shown that blade as well as rotor vibrations can in fact be controlled by the use of only shaft-based actuation. Thus the blades have to be deliberately mistuned. This paper investigates......-based actuation in practice....

  19. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Ashoori, Keyqobad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods: In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients) or MIPO (32 patients). Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results: The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months). The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture. PMID:26543844

  20. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration. PMID:26837377

  1. Influence of design parameters of discharge passage on the performance of shaft tubular pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaft tubular pumping systems with straight discharge passage are more widely adopted because they possesses many advantages such as easier installation of pump sets, better ventilation for motor and transmission devices, open access to inspect pump sets and lower cost for maintenance. The design parameters of a straight discharge passage will directly affect hydraulic loss and energy performance of the shaft pumping system. The optimal hydraulic design of discharge passages is carried out under the guideline of Pump Station Design Code to satisfy optimal design objectives. Computational fluid dynamics is applied to simulate the internal flow of a shaft pumping system the influence of its design parameter on the system performance is investigated. Keeping the shaft and suction box unchanged, six discharge passage design schemes with different length and outlet width are compared based on CFD to analyze the internal flow fields and their energy performances are predicted. The computed results indicate that when the outlet width of discharge passage is fixed, the longer the discharge passage, the better the internal flow fields with smaller backflow and vortex zone inside the passage. When the length of discharge passage is determined, the axial velocity distribution uniformity and bias angle in the outlet section will vary with the value of the outlet width. Optimal hydraulic design of discharge passages can achieve better internal flow and higher pumping efficiency

  2. Isolated ulnar shaft fractures. Comparison of treatment by a functional brace and long-arm cast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Hölmich, P; Orsnes, T; Soelberg, M; Krasheninnikoff, Michael; Kjersgaard, A G

    1992-01-01

    In a prospective study, we randomly allocated 39 patients with isolated fractures of the lower two-thirds of the ulnar shaft to treatment either by a prefabricated functional brace or a long-arm cast. Significantly better wrist function and a higher percentage of satisfied patients were found in...

  3. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Tomsho, Lynn P; Rendulic, Snjezana;

    2007-01-01

    Although the application of sequencing-by-synthesis techniques to DNA extracted from bones has revolutionized the study of ancient DNA, it has been plagued by large fractions of contaminating environmental DNA. The genetic analyses of hair shafts could be a solution: We present 10 previously unex...

  4. Radon dispersion modeling and dose assessment for uranium mine ventilation shaft exhausts under neutral atmospheric stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, Hanqing; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Liu, Zehua; Mo, Shunquan

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the roles of atmospheric wind profiles in the neutral atmosphere and surface roughness parameters in a complex terrain were examined to determine their impacts on radon ((222)Rn) dispersion from an actual uranium mine ventilation shaft. Simulations were completed on (222)Rn dispersion extending from the shaft to a vulnerable distance, near the location of an occupied farmhouse. The eight dispersion scenarios for the ventilation shaft source included four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 m s(-1)) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m and 1.0 m). (222)Rn distributions and elevated pollution regions were identified. Effective dose estimation methods involving a historical weighting of wind speeds in the direction of interest coupled to the complex dispersion model were proposed. Using this approach, the radiation effects on the residents assumed to be outside at the location of the farm house 250 m downwind from the ventilation shaft outlet were computed. The maximum effective dose rate calculated for the residents at the outside of the farm house was 2.2 mSv y(-1), which is less than the low limit action level of 3-10 mSv y(-1) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) occupational exposure action level for radon. PMID:24378730

  5. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process. PMID:25084404

  6. Magnetic Actuation Connector Between Extension Shaft and Armature for Bottom Mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The electromagnet and armature inside the guide tube interact and produce magnetism, thus making the armature, connecting extension shaft and control rod move up and down to control the power of reactor. During the overhaul, the control absorber rod (CAR), extension shaft, and armature of BMCRDM are lifted together for closing a seal valve. But total length of CAR assembly is so long that it cannot be lifted due to exposure above the water level of pool which is strictly controlled. In addition to this, it is difficult to calibrate a position indicator and lifting force of electromagnet without armature assembly as a seal valve is closed. For this reason, it is necessary to install a disconnecting system between armature and extension shaft. Therefore, KAERI has developed magnetic actuation connector using plunger between armature and extension shaft for the bottom mounted control rod drive mechanism in research reactor. The results of a FEM and the experiments in this work lead to the following conclusions: The FEM result for the design of the magnetic actuation connector is compared with the measured lifting force of prototype production. As a result, it is shown that the lifting force of the prototype connector has a good agreement with the result of the FEM. A newly developed technique of prototype magnetic actuation connector which is designed by FEM analysis result is proposed.

  7. Investigations of deteriorated concrete from the liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During inspections of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Shaft in May 1990, patchy areas of apparently degraded concrete were observed on the inner surface of the shaft liner between approximately 810 feet and 900 feet below the surface. The apparent cause of this degradation is chemical reaction of the concrete with magnesium-bearing brine in the annulus between the concrete liner and the host rock. The greater thickness of the degraded layer below the joint may be related to the different chemical compositions that were determined by analyses of the paste portions of concrete samples from above and below the joint. The analytical results support a complex mechanistic explanation of concrete degradation observed behind the liner and in the joint: chemical weakening of the concrete paste; cracking by precipitation of solids in pores; and increased permeability due to calcium chloroaluminate formation. Additional sampling, analyses, and regular monitoring are worth considering to bound the vertical extent of Waste Shaft liner degradation, detect concrete liner degradation in other shafts, and measure any ongoing degradation that may be occurring

  8. Development of the remediation strategy for the Dounreay intermediate level waste shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of Fast Reactor Technology within the United Kingdom began in the mid 1950's and continued until 1994. It was concentrated at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority site at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland. During the construction of the site's low level liquid effluent discharge facility, a vertical access shaft was constructed which, when the discharge facility was completed, was sealed at the seaward end and allowed to fill naturally with water. It was then licensed by the Scottish Office Environmental Department as a disposal facility for what is now categorized as Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). Waste was disposed of to this facility from 1959 until 1977 when a hydrogen explosion in the air space above the shaft took place causing damage to the head works. Since that time UKAEA has maintained the shaft in a state of care and maintenance pending a decision on its long term future. During 1996 and 1997 detailed option studies were carried out which demonstrated that retrieval of the waste from the shaft and its subsequent above ground repackaging, conditioning and storage, represented the Best Practicable Environmental Option and UKAEA made this recommendation to the UK Government in November 1997. This recommendation was accepted by Government and, as a result, the present project to retrieve material has now begun. This paper describes the history of the facility, the options explored and the decision process by which the final strategy was determined. (author)

  9. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar,; Mahendranath Reddy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : Conservative treatment of fracture humerus has resulted in malunion , nonunion , and ultimately poor functional outcome. Internal fixation of fracture shaft of humerus allows ready access for nursing care in patients with multiple injuries and associated co morbid conditions. And also restrictive bandages and splints are avoided , early mobilization o f the patients and his limbs helps to prevent fracture disease....

  10. Treatment of ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures with reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立东; 吴琼华; 严世贵; 潘志军

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail in the treatment of ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures. Methods: From August 1997 to November 2001, 13 patients were treated with the reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail. Nine patients were associated with ipsilateral femoral neck fractures, three with ipsilateral intertrochanteric fractures, and one with subtrochanteric fracture. Results: The follow-up time was from 6 to 38 months with an average of 14 months. All the femoral shaft and hip fractures healed up well. There was no nonunion of the femoral neck, and only one varus malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The average healing time for femoral neck fracture was 4.6 months and for shaft fracture 5.8 months. The joint movement and other functions were fairly resumed. Conclusions: The reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail, with less trauma, reliable fixation, and high rate of fracture healing, is an ideal method of choice in the treatment of ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures.

  11. Femoral shaft fractures in children, treaties with elastic nails of titanium - TENs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral shaft fractures are a common and temporarily disabling injury in children. Recent advances in orthopedic traumatology have led us at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, in Cali, Colombia, to perform a case series observational study with the use of a more aggressive approach with the new endomedullar titanium nails (TENs) in children suffering femur shaft fractures, in a closed procedure performed under image intensification. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of 30 children treated with these nails. Pediatric femoral shaft fractures are more common in males with approximately a 2.75:1 male to female ratio. The age distribution is bimodal, with peaks in the younger than 5 years and mid-teenage groups (10-14 years) because of the increased incidence of high-energy trauma in teenage children (mean age: 9 years). Overall, TENs allowed rapid mobilization with few complications. The results were excellent or satisfactory in our cases. No child lost rotational alignment in the postoperative period. Irritation of the soft tissue near the knee by the nail tip occurred in one patient. As indications, implantation technique, and aftercare are refined, TENs may prove to be the ideal implant to stabilize most pediatric femur shaft fractures, avoiding the prolonged immobilization and complications of traction and spica cast

  12. Numerical modelling of heat transfer in plasma shaft electric furnace at utilization of anthropogenic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferov, A. I.; Anshakov, A. S.; Sinitsyn, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The mathematical model of heat transfer between the counter flows of gas and porous batch of anthropogenic wastes in the working area of a shaft furnace is presented. This model considers chemical transformations in separate batch components and radiation heat transfer between the gas and solid phases. Results of calculations are presented.

  13. Subspace identification of wind turbine shaft vibrations measured with a piezoelectric sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kujawa

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new approach to the parameter identification of a wind turbine shaft vibrations measured with piezoelectric sensor. The system order and unknown processes matrices are determined using the wind force as the model input and wind turbin ...

  14. Diagnosis of power generator sets by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the diagnosis of a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine which runs a generator set in a nuclear plant. The objective is to make a diagnosis by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed variations. Only combustion related faults are investigated. As the engine is very large, the first crank shaft natural modes are in the low frequencies. Torsional vibrations of the flexible crank shaft strongly complicate the analysis of the angular speed variations. Little attention has been paid to such large engines in the literature. First, a dynamical model with the assumption of a flexible crank shaft is established. The parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an original automated diagnosis based on pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms is proposed. Indeed, any faulty cylinder in combustion stroke will distort the angular speed waveform in a specific way which depends on its location with respect to nodes and anti-nodes of the modes. Reference patterns, representative of the engine conditions, are computed with the model constituting the main originality of this work. Promising results are obtained in operational phase. An experimental fuel leakage fault was correctly diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder and an indication of the severity of the fault. (author)

  15. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmailiejah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients or MIPO (32 patients. Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months. The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture.

  16. Determination of Cu recovery degree from slags in shaft process by means of radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiotracer method has been used for determining the recovery degree of copper from slags after converter and flash furnace processing. Re-processing of slags was carried out in a commercial shaft furnace. The tracer used was 64Cu in forms of pure metal, sulphide or oxide. The method applied has been described and the results of experiments presented. (author)

  17. Simulation of Frozen Slag Inside Brickless Reaction Shaft of Flash Smelting Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Wang, Houqing; Tong, Changren; Zhang, Wenhai; Zhang, Chuanfu

    2013-12-01

    Based on the principle of heat transfer, a three-dimensional model of frozen slag in the brickless reaction shaft of a flash smelting furnace was established by computing the temperature field and judging the moving boundary. In the modeling process, a cylindrical coordinate system was adopted to specify the point positions according to the geometry of the brickless reaction shaft, and an improved method was proposed to discretize the three-dimensional control equations. The model was then applied to investigate the influence of the operational [gas temperature (GT), cooling water temperature (CWT), and melting temperature of frozen slag (MTFS)] and structural (steel shell thickness, steel nail thickness, steel nail length, and distance between nails) parameters on the thickness of the frozen slag. The results showed that the GT, CWT, and MTFS have a marked impact on the thickness of frozen slag, which decreases at high temperature and increases when cooled; the structural parameters have little effect on the thickness of frozen slag in terms of heat transfer. Consequently, to form a layer of frozen slag with a desired thickness inside a brickless reaction shaft, it is important to avoid localized ultra-high temperatures in the inner chamber and to cool the steel shell using a strong flow of low-temperature water; mechanical (and not thermal) factors should take precedence when designing the steel nails of a brickless reaction shaft.

  18. Magnetic Actuation Connector Between Extension Shaft and Armature for Bottom Mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnet and armature inside the guide tube interact and produce magnetism, thus making the armature, connecting extension shaft and control rod move up and down to control the power of reactor. During the overhaul, the control absorber rod (CAR), extension shaft, and armature of BMCRDM are lifted together for closing a seal valve. But total length of CAR assembly is so long that it cannot be lifted due to exposure above the water level of pool which is strictly controlled. In addition to this, it is difficult to calibrate a position indicator and lifting force of electromagnet without armature assembly as a seal valve is closed. For this reason, it is necessary to install a disconnecting system between armature and extension shaft. Therefore, KAERI has developed magnetic actuation connector using plunger between armature and extension shaft for the bottom mounted control rod drive mechanism in research reactor. The results of a FEM and the experiments in this work lead to the following conclusions: The FEM result for the design of the magnetic actuation connector is compared with the measured lifting force of prototype production. As a result, it is shown that the lifting force of the prototype connector has a good agreement with the result of the FEM. A newly developed technique of prototype magnetic actuation connector which is designed by FEM analysis result is proposed

  19. Theoretical and experimental study of coupled rocking-swivelling model of guyed mast shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ondřej

    Dübendorf: EMPA, 2015. s. 27-27 ISBN N. [International Conference on Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures. 19.10.2015-21.10.2015, Dübendorf] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : guyed mast shaft * swivelling * wind-excited vibration Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  20. A Method For Producing Hollow Shafts By Rotary Compression Using A Specially Designed Forging Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for manufacturing hollow shafts, where tubes are used as billet. First, the design of a specially designed forging machine for rotary compression is described. The machine is then numerically tested with regard to its strength, and the effect of elastic strains of the roll system on the quality of produced parts is determined. The machine’s strength is calculated by the finite element method using the NX Nastran program. Technological capabilities of the machine are determined, too. Next, the results of the modeling of the rotary compression process for a hollow stepped shafts by the finite element method are given. The process for manufacturing hollow shafts was modeled using the Simufact.Forming simulation program. The FEM results are then verified experimentally in the designed forging machine for rotary compression. The experimental results confirm that axisymmetric hollow shafts can be produced by the rotary compression method. It is also confirmed that numerical methods are suitable for investigating both machine design and metal forming processes.

  1. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong Xing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can’t be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  2. Ultrasonic turbine shaft inspection using the synthetic aperture focussing technique (SAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic imaging techniques developed for turbine shaft inspection result in a two-dimensional image of the defect distribution inside the specimen. It is shown, how the effect of reflectors outside of the image plane lead to misinterpretation of the reflector positions. The expansion of the two-dimensional imaging technique to three-dimensions will help to overcome these problems. (orig.)

  3. On the Eigenfrequencies of a Flexible Arm Driven by a Flexible Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOPMAZ, O.; ANDERSON, K. S.

    2001-03-01

    The simulations of multibody dynamic systems with flexible components are generally based on solving the equations of motion by using approximate methods. This approach is taken because these systems' closed-form solutions are often not directly available. These methods often assume a solution as a finite series in terms of modal functions with time-varying coefficients. The eigenmodes of the system under study are preferable as the set of the basis functions used in these series because such expansions provide greater accuracy with fewer terms. As a consequence, accurate estimation of system eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes is extremely useful (potentially necessary) in the effective modelling and simulation of these systems. In this paper, a new general model consisting of rotor, shaft, hub, beam, and payload, as might be encountered in certain industrial robots, is presented and investigated. This model is similar in nature to those studied previously by a number of researchers, but it is more general in form. The authors believe that this model contains a more realistic (and higher fidelity) representation of the rotor-shaft-hub assembly of this system and its interaction with a flexible beam (arm) and associated payload. Through this model the relative influence of seven key dimensionless mass, stiffness and geometric parameters (ratios) on system eigenfrequencies and modes may be qualitatively and quantitatively investigated. These investigations may include many special cases such as flexible shaft+rigid beam, rigid shaft+flexible beam, cantilever-free beam, pinned-free beam, fixed-free shaft, etc. Given the volume of numerical studies which may be performed to this end, this paper concentrates on the effect of the two parameters representing the mass and stiffness ratios of the system manipulator on its driveline.

  4. STUDY ON NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND FEMORAL LENGTH OF SOUTH INDIAN FEMURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Mohamad Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Femoral nek anteversion describes the angle subtended by the femoral neck with reference to the transcondylar plane of the distal end of the femur and is usually 15° to 45°. This along with the neck shaft angle, hip axis length, femoral neck width influence the risk of femoral neck fracture. Femoral neck anteversion angle has to be taken into consideration when reduction and fixation is selected as a method of treatment. Objectives: The objectives of present study to find out the measurements of Neck shaft angle, Femoral Length and Neck Length of femur. Materials and Methods: In present study have used 250 femurs from different colleges in south India. The following measurements were conducted Neck shaft angle, Femoral Length and Neck Length of femur. Results: The results of present study are the length of femur was 446.2+26.39mm, right femur was 446.6+26.66mm and left femur was 445.8+26.12mm, the Neck Length femur was 36.3+4.2mm, right femur was 36.1+4.1mm and left femur was 36.4+4.3m. the neck shaft angle of femur was 137.10 , right femur was 137.30 and left femur was 136.90. Conclusion: There is no significance difference between right and left femur measurements. Orthopaedists and Radiologists use the normal range and means of the neck shaft angle in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease of the hip. The angle is increased in congenital subluxation and dislocation of the hip, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy and idiopathic scoliosis and decreased in the congenital coxavara , post traumatic coxa vara due to malunited femoral neck and inter trochanteric fractures.

  5. Outcome of non-operative management of femoral shaft fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyoola A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries in childhood. There is paucity of information on their presentation and outcome of the available treatment methods in the African population. This study evaluated the outcome of non-operative methods of treatment of femoral shaft fractures in our centre. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of the database of children aged 14 years and below with femoral shaft fractures treated non-operatively over a 10-year period. Results: A total of 134 patients with 138 fractures met the study criteria. This consisted of 71 boys (mean age = 6.1 years ± SD and 63 girls (mean age = 6.5 years ± SD. Pedestrian vehicular accident was the most common cause of femoral shaft fractures in the study population. The midshaft was the most common site of fractures. There were associated injuries to other parts of the body (especially head injury in 34.3% of the patients. The commonest mode of treatment was skin traction only (87.7%. The mean time to fracture union was 4.9 weeks ± SD (range = 3-15 weeks. The mean length of hospitalisation was 6.7 weeks ± SD (range = 5 days-11 weeks. There was a fairly strong positive correlation between the length of hospitalisation and the presence of associated injuries, especially head injury, upper limb fractures and bilaterality of the fractures. The mean total cost of treatment was #7685 (Naira or $51.2 (range = $14.2-$190. At the last follow up, 97.8% of the fractures united without significant angulation or shortening. Conclusion: The outcome of non-operative treatment of femoral shaft fractures in our setting is comparable to the results of other workers. Methods of treatment that shorten the length of hospitalisation without unduly increasing cost should be encouraged.

  6. Study of Ender’s Nailing in Shaft Femur Fractures of Older Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladani HG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures in shaft femur in children are relatively common. Various methods of treating these fractures starting from non operative to methods like closed intramedullary nailing are at our disposal. Traditionally non operative methods are acceptable and find wide acceptance even today in very young children. However in older children certain problems are encountered like failure to control angulation and shortening, prolonged immobilization which causes very much discomfort & the overgrowth phenomenon. In view of above difficulties, closed intramedullary nailing was attempted in older children and adolescents. I have tried to study 23 cases of shaft femur fractures in older children treated by Ender’s nails. Methodology: 22 pts., out of which one having bilateral # shaft femur (total 23 #s with age ranging from 7 to 16 yrs. were studied. 3 pts. having polio limbs studied separately. Fracture was in upper third shaft femur in 5 pts., middle third in 13 pts., lower third in 3pts. & involving more than one region in 2 pts. Fracture was transverse in 6 pts., spiral in 3 pts., oblique in 12 pts.& comminuted in 2 pts.. Results: Average union time was 10 weeks except in polio pts. where it was delayed. No nonunion, no infection. Excellent hip & knee movements in almost all pts. Out of 20 pts. ( except polio pts. limb length was equal in 17 pts., one pt. was having 1 cm. lengthening & 2 pts. were having shortening ( 1cm. & 2 cm.. Conclusion: Results of this study strongly favor the use of Ender’s nailing in shaft femur fractures in older children. Second surgery of implant removal is mandatory. Closed reduction can usually be achieved if surgery is performed earlier.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF HUMERUS WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATES: ARE LCPS THE IDEAL IMPLANTS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Murugappa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The recent development of LCP has revolutionized the surgical treatment of fractures by overcoming the few drawbacks of older internal fixators. The fractures of the shaft of humerus are one of the commonest fractures found and the accepted management for fractures shaft of humerus is open reduction and internal fixation using compression plating. Our present study is aimed at the assessment of results of plate osteosynthesis of diaphyseal fractures of humerus using locking compression plate and to assess the functional recovery with this procedure. MATERIALS & METHODS: In the study period of two years, 20 cases of fracture shaft of the humerus were treated by open reduction and internal fixation using Locking Compression Plate. RESULTS: In our series, majority of the patients were males, middle aged, with road traffic accidents being the commonest mode of injury, involving middle third of shaft of humerus. Follow up ranged from 6 weeks to 24 weeks. There was significant improvement in DASH scores (P=0.001 in all the 20 cases indicating the functional recovery. According to Rommen’s et al grading, 17 cases had excellent results while 3 cases had good results. CONCLUSIONS: The age incidence varied from 21-40 years (65% with male predominance (70%, with type A3 as the commonest fracture (50% involving the mid shaft (70% of humerus, underwent open reduction and internal fixation using locking compression plate. The results were assessed using DASH score and the significant functional recovery was achieved in all the cases, with Rommen’s grading, excellent and good results were achieved

  8. Placement of pre-compacted and in situ compacted dense backfill materials in shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In 2003, a decision was made to discontinue operation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) and ultimately to decommission and permanently close the underground portion of this facility. As part of the Nuclear Legacy Liability Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), an ongoing program of work is being undertaken to decommission and deal with facilities that are no longer part of AECL's mandate or operations. The URL is included in these facilities. Part of this work is the installation of seals at the intersection of the access and ventilation shafts and an ancient thrust fault, Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2), approximately 275 m below surface. These seals are being installed in order to limit the potential for mixing of deeper saline and shallower, less saline groundwater. The seal design in each shaft is similar with a heavily reinforced lower concrete component, a central bentonite clay-sand component and an upper un-reinforced concrete component. The main shaft at the URL at the location of the seal is circular (∼5-m diameter), and was excavated using careful drill and blast techniques. The seal itself consists of two keyed, conical sectioned, 3-m-thick by 5 to 6-m diameter concrete segments that confine a 6-m-thick swelling clay section. The ventilation shaft at the URL is 1.8 m in diameter and was excavated using raise-boring. The ventilation shaft will consist of two keyed, conical sectioned, 2-m-thick concrete by 1.8 to 2.8 m diameter concrete segments confining a 5-m-thick assembly of pre-compacted clay-sand blocks. The concrete is a low pH concrete designed for repository use, which can develop a 70 MPa unconfined compressive strength after 28 days. It has a pH of less than 11 achieved by substitution of 75% of the cement powder with silica fume and ground silica so the likelihood of free calcium and an alkaline plume is

  9. Investigation of helix-shaped and transverse crack propagation in rotor shafts based on disk shrunk technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrier, B. [EDF/GDL, 2 Rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex (France); Garbay, E. [EDF/GDL, 2 Rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex (France); Hasnaoui, F. [EDF/DRD, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Massin, P. [CNRS-EDF, UMR 2832, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)]. E-mail: patrick.massin@edf.fr; Verrier, P. [EDF/DRD, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2006-02-15

    It is known from international feedback that the rotor shafts of the turbo-generators with disk shrunk technology may have transverse cracks located near the keys which maintain the bond between the core of the shaft and the surrounding disks in case of over speed. It was understood that the cracks were initiated by fretting between the keys and the shaft and that they propagated due to a fatigue mechanism generated by the rotational flexion of the shafts under gravity. The destructive observation now correlated to the service history of the shaft shows different mixed modes propagation phases and a stopped circumferential crack evolution during the last months of service of the shaft. Mechanical studies based on the determination of the stress intensity factors provide the evolution of the stress intensity factors during the crack propagation. They give access to information not available otherwise to explain the observed crack profiles. Finally, experimental investigations are needed to obtain the kinetics as a function of the stress intensity factors. The information provided is helpful in determining the possible crack profiles to be detected by the most suitable vibratory surveillance systems before failure in service of the shaft line.

  10. Investigation of helix-shaped and transverse crack propagation in rotor shafts based on disk shrunk technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known from international feedback that the rotor shafts of the turbo-generators with disk shrunk technology may have transverse cracks located near the keys which maintain the bond between the core of the shaft and the surrounding disks in case of over speed. It was understood that the cracks were initiated by fretting between the keys and the shaft and that they propagated due to a fatigue mechanism generated by the rotational flexion of the shafts under gravity. The destructive observation now correlated to the service history of the shaft shows different mixed modes propagation phases and a stopped circumferential crack evolution during the last months of service of the shaft. Mechanical studies based on the determination of the stress intensity factors provide the evolution of the stress intensity factors during the crack propagation. They give access to information not available otherwise to explain the observed crack profiles. Finally, experimental investigations are needed to obtain the kinetics as a function of the stress intensity factors. The information provided is helpful in determining the possible crack profiles to be detected by the most suitable vibratory surveillance systems before failure in service of the shaft line

  11. Optimal hydraulic design of new-type shaft tubular pumping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the characteristics of large flow rate, low-head, short annual operation time and high reliability of city flood-control pumping stations, a new-type shaft tubular pumping system featuring shaft suction box, siphon-type discharge passage with vacuum breaker as cutoff device was put forward, which possesses such advantages as simpler structure, reliable cutoff and higher energy performance. According to the design parameters of a city flood control pumping station, a numerical computation model was set up including shaft-type suction box, siphon-type discharge passage, pump impeller and guide vanes. By using commercial CFD software Fluent, RNG κ-ε turbulence model was adopted to close the three-dimensional time-averaged incompressible N-S equations. After completing optimal hydraulic design of shaft-type suction box, and keeping the parameters of total length, maximum width and outlet section unchanged, siphon-type discharge passages of three hump locations and three hump heights were designed and numerical analysis on the 9 hydraulic design schemes of pumping system were proceeded. The computational results show that the changing of hump locations and hump heights directly affects the internal flow patterns of discharge passages and hydraulic performances of the system, and when hump is located 3.66D from the inlet section and hump height is about 0.65D (D is the diameter of pump impeller), the new-type shaft tubular pumping system achieves better energy performances. A pumping system model test of the optimal designed scheme was carried out. The result shows that the highest pumping system efficiency reaches 75.96%, and when at design head of 1.15m the flow rate and system efficiency were 0.304m3/s and 63.10%, respectively. Thus, the validity of optimal design method was verified by the model test, and a solid foundation was laid for the application and extension of the new-type shaft tubular pumping system.

  12. Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper treats the experimental study on a shaft impacting its stator for different cases. The paper focuses mainly on the measured contact forces and the shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings. As such, the measured contact forces are thoroughly studied. These measured contact...... forces enable the hysteresis loops to be computed and analyzed. Consequently, the contact forces are plotted against the local deformation in order to assess the contact force loss during the impacts. The shaft motion during contact with the backup bearing is verified with a two-sided spectrum analyses...

  13. Towards the determination of a Nonlinear Campbell diagram of a spinning shaft with non-constant rotating speed

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiades, Fotios

    2015-01-01

    In the literature it is reported only the studies for the steady states of spinning shafts without any information of the shaft’s dynamics during spin-up, spin-down operation. The derivation of the system’s discrete equations of motion is required for the analysis of the behavior of spinning shafts during this type of operation. The equations describing the motion of a spinning shaft with nonconstant rotating speed forms a system of nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) coupled with...

  14. A random walk simulation of effects of downcast shafts on atmospheric dispersion in environmental quality assessment for uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the environmental quality assessment of uranium mines of nuclear industries, the downcast shafts affect the local flow field and dispersion of contaminants because of the large amount of ventilation, which was not considered in the past assessments. A random walk simulation is applied to simulate the releases of radioactive contaminants from air vent in uranium mines in order to assess the effects of the downwind downcast shaft on dispersion of contaminants. The results show that so long as any downcast shaft exits downwind, the effects of it on dispersion of contaminants are not ignored, especially for low environmental wind speed

  15. Treatment Outcome of Intramedullary Fixation with a Locked Rigid Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mardani-Kivi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of humeral shaft fractures with a locked rigid intramedullary nail in patients indicated for surgical treatment. Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all patients were followed up for one, six, and 18 months post operatively. The Short Form Questionnaire (SF-36 and Constant Shoulder Score were applied. Results: Of 78 included patients (mean age: 35, one patient had a soft tissue infection, one had secondary radial nerve palsy, eight had non-union, one had elbow limited range of motion in extension, and three patients had decreased shoulder range of motion. The Constant Shoulder Score and Short Form Questionnaire Score (SF-36 increased in all patients, although aged women showed lower improvement. Conclusion: Intramedullary nail fixation in the humeral shaft fracture may be associated with high rates of non-union.

  16. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  17. Development of manufacturing technology for larger low pressure turbine rotor shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing the unit capacity of nuclear power plants in recent years, the low-pressure (LP) turbine rotors become larger. Therefore, in order to satisfy the requirement, Japan Casting and Forging Corporation (JCFC) has developed a 650 ton ingot as those materials and manufactured two 650 ton test ingots. The investigation into the ingot quality was carried out with the first test ingot and it was found that the 650 ton ingot can be used as a material of a LP rotor shaft. The trial rotor of a larger LP rotor shaft was produced from the second one and it was found that the trial rotor met the product specifications requested by customers. (author)

  18. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-06-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of the Shaft System in Water Turbine Generator Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhenyue; SONG Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    A 3D finite element vibration model of water turbine generator set is constructed considering the coupling with hydropower house foundation. The method of determining guide bearing dynamic characteristic coefficients according to the swing of the shaft is proposed, which can be used for studying the self-vibration characteristic and stability of the water turbine generator set. The method fully considers the complex supporting boundary and loading conditions; especially the nonlinear variation of guide bearing dynamic characteristic coefficients and the coupling effect of the whole power-house foundation. The swing and critical rotating speed of an actual generator set shaft system are calculated. The simulated results of the generator set indicate that the coupling vibration model and calculation method presented in this paper are suitable for stability analysis of the water turbine generator set.

  20. Simulation Analysis of Spherical Mechanical Seal Property of Marine Stern Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element model of spherical mechanical seal wasestablished with ANSYS, and the influence of seawater pressure, shaft speed and other factors on the sealing performance was discussed. The study results show that local contact situation of the spherical mechanical seal is in the outside of the seal rings, and both maximum contact pressure and temperature appearat the same position. As sea water pressure and stern shaft rotary speed are increased, the contact pressure and temperature of the spherical seal surface are raised, and when the contact pressure of seal surface is 0, the spherical seal surface forms two zones including contact one and clearance zone. The former is near the outside of the seal ring, the lateris close to the inside of one. These research results are of important theoretical significance and engineering application value for the development of new kinds of mechanical seals, and improvement of both safety and survivability of underwater vehicles.

  1. A study on the characterization of smoke movement in shafts with different fire source positions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jie; Yang Tianyou; Wu Jianbo; Du Lulu

    2013-01-01

    In this study,experimental and numerical simulation methods were combined to simulate the changing course of the temperature and velocity fields in nine different fire scenes. The characteristics of smoke movement in shafts with different fire source position factors (h/H) were quantitatively investigated,and the non-dimensional fitting function between the fire source position factors and the maximum temperature was deduced. The results showed that the location of the neutral plane moved upward as the fire source rose,and all the generated smoke spread to the upper areas;however,there was barely any smoke in the lower areas. The maximum temperature was inversely proportional to the fire source position factor;the higher the source position is,i.e. the higher the ra-tio factor is,the lower the maximum temperature is in the shaft. The experimental verification of the fire dynamics simulator (FDS) showed good results.

  2. Assessment of environmental corrosion effects on Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP), two Exploratory Shafts, called ES I and ES II, will be sunk to a depth of 3400 ft by the blind boring method. The shafts' steel liners will have a design life of ∼100 years. The carbon steel and the high-strength low-alloy steel (ASTM A588) materials to be used are expected to be exposed to a moist air atmosphere on the interior liner surface that will result in a zone continuous wetting. The exterior surface of the liners will be exposed to a layer of grout and possibly groundwater, should there be a discontinuity in the grout. A set of environmental conditions were selected and corrosion rate studies were performed on carbon steel and high-strength low-alloy steel, to evaluate possible corrosion effects. 21 refs., 5 figs

  3. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Hydrodynamic Performance of Propeller with Varying Shaft Depths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春雨; 赵大刚; 孙瑜

    2014-01-01

    In order to study hydrodynamic performance of a propeller in the free surface, the numerical simulation and open-water experiments are carried out with varying shaft depths of propeller. The influences of shaft depths of a propeller on thrust and torque coefficient in calm water are mainly studied. Meanwhile, this paper also studies the propeller air-ingestion under special working conditions by experiment and theoretical calculation method, and compares the calculation results and experimental results. The results prove that the theoretical calculation model used in this paper can imitate the propeller air-ingestion successfully. The successful phenomenon simulation provides an essential theoretical basis to understand the physical essence of the propeller air-ingestion.

  4. Characteristics of the excavation response zone as applied to shaft sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective sealing of an underground repository requires high quality seals. Clay-based backfills in combination with cement plugs are the possible candidates. An important component of the shaft sealing program is the development of techniques to predict and monitor the flow in the excavation response zone (ERZ) and at the seal-rock interface. The mechanical and hydraulic performance of the seal and backfill and the flow characteristics of the ERZ under in situ conditions will be tested in three experimental shafts to be excavated in the URL. The use of the vacuum permeability technique for characterization of the hydraulic properties and of the permeability distribution in the ERZ under various geomechanical conditions is discussed

  5. Diagnosis of the Thermal Bow of a Shaft in a Three Stage Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In practice many turbo-machines driven by motors are started up to operational speed within a very short time, i.e. in less than 20 seconds. For this type of machines the compatibility of thermal deformation of the rotor structure must be taken into account in the machine design, or the thermal deformation will be constrained and a huge resultant force can cause the shaft bending and consequently resulting in violent vibrations. In this paper, detection of thermal bow of a shaft in a three stage centrifugal compressor in a petrochemical plant is presented. The diagnostic results show that the thermal bow was induced by the incompatibility of axial thermal deformation of the rotor structure. A remedial action allowing free axial thermal expansion of the outer parts of the rotor is suggested.

  6. Final report of the borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing test. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaft sealing by use of highly compacted bentonite was investigated in a 14 m long shaft in which two plugs were constructed with a central sand-filled central space for injecting water. A first reference test with concrete plugs was followed by a main test in which the plug material consisted of blocks of highly compacted sodium bentonite powder. In the latter test, the outflow from the injection chamber was only a few percent of that with the concrete plugs, which demonstrates the excellent sealing properties of the clay. The main effect was that practically no water flow took place along the rock/clay interface. The longevity of smectite clay in crystalline rock is sufficient to make bentonite plugs operative for several thousand years. (authors)

  7. Cannula has lip seal movingly coupled to proximal section, to facilitate relative movement of instrument shaft between seal and proximal section and to maintain sealing engagement between shaft and proximal portion

    OpenAIRE

    Bonadio, Frank; Vaugh, Trevor

    2007-01-01

    The cannula (1) has an instrument insertion section (3) and a tube (2) with an access channel (7) for extension of an instrument. A lip seal (4) movingly couples to a proximal section to engage with an instrument shaft (5). The seal facilitates a lateral movement of the instrument, and maintains the sealing engagement between the seal and the instrument shaft. A coupling portion made of gelatinous elastomeric material with plasticizer consisting of naturally derived oils, synthetic oils and l...

  8. Management of open fractures of the tibial shaft in multiple trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Boltuc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The work presents the assessment of the results of treatment of open tibial shaft fractures in polytrauma patients. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 28 patients who underwent surgical treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft with locked intramedullary nailing. The mean age of the patients was 43 years (range from 19 to 64 years. The criterion for including the patients in the study was concomitant multiple trauma. For the assessment of open tibial fractures, Gustilo classification was used. The most common concomitant multiple trauma included craniocerebral injuries, which were diagnosed in 12 patients. In 14 patients, the surgery was performed within 24 h after the injury. In 14 patients, the surgery was delayed and was performed 8-10 days after the trauma. Results: The assessment of the results at 12 months after the surgery included the following features: time span between the trauma and the surgery and complications in the form of osteomyelitis and delayed union. The efficacy of gait, muscular atrophy, edema of the operated limb and possible disturbances of its axis were also taken under consideration. In patients operated emergently within 24 h after the injury, infected nonunion was observed in three (10.8% males. These patients had grade III open fractures of the tibial shaft according to Gustilo classification. No infectious complications were observed in patients who underwent a delayed operation. Conclusion: Evaluation of patients with open fractures of the tibial shaft in multiple trauma showed that delayed intramedullary nailing performed 8-10 days after the trauma, resulted in good outcome and avoided development of delayed union and infected nonunion. This approach gives time for stabilization of general condition of the patient and identification of pathogens from wound culture.

  9. INTERNAL FRICTION OF 51CrV4 SHAFT INFLUENCED BY THERMO-MECHANICAL COUPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G(o)ken; M. Maikranz-Valentin; K. Steinhoff; T.S. Pavlova; T.V. Ivleva; I.S. Golovin

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous influence of thermal and mechanical treatment was applied to produce a geometrically complex shaft from 51CrV4 steel leading to the formation of microstructures which were significantly different from each other. These microstructural differences were accompanied by a local change of mechanical properties in terms of hardness, electrical resistivity and especially internal friction. The Snoek-Koster peak was recognized and analyzed in the structure of this steel.

  10. Biomechanical effects of hardware configuration after union of proximal femoral and shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Swinteck, B. J.; Phan, D. L.; Jani, J.; Owen, J R; Wayne, J. S.; Mounasamy, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The use of two implants to manage concomitant ipsilateral femoral shaft and proximal femoral fractures has been indicated, but no studies address the relationship of dynamic hip screw (DHS) side plate screws and the intramedullary nail where failure might occur after union. This study compares different implant configurations in order to investigate bridging the gap between the distal DHS and tip of the intramedullary nail. Methods A total of 29 left synthetic femora were tested in...

  11. Wind tunnel experimental study of coupled rocking-swivelling model of guyed mast shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ondřej

    Vol. 821. Zürich: Trans Tech Publications Inc, 2016 - (Fischer, C.), s. 303-308. (Engineering Mechanics. 821). ISBN 978-3-03835-700-1. ISSN 1660-9336. [Engineering mechanics 2015 /21./. Svratka (CZ), 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : dynamics of guyed masts * dynamic response * swivelling of the shaft * wind tunnel * aerodynamic model Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  12. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of High-Speed-Shaft Bearing Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The loads and contact stresses in the bearings of the high speed shaft section of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox are examined in this paper. The loads were measured though strain gauges installed on the bearing outer races during dynamometer testing of the gearbox. Loads and stresses were also predicted with a simple analytical model and higher-fidelity commercial models. The experimental data compared favorably to each model, and bearing stresses were below thresholds for contact fatigue and axial cracking.

  13. Linear force and moment equations for an annular smooth shaft seal perturbed both angularly and laterally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, J.; Dijulio, R.; Ek, M. C.; Ehrgott, R.

    1982-01-01

    Coefficients are derived for equations expressing the lateral force and pitching moments associated with both planar translation and angular perturbations from a nominally centered rotating shaft with respect to a stationary seal. The coefficients for the lowest order and first derivative terms emerge as being significant and are of approximately the same order of magnitude as the fundamental coefficients derived by means of Black's equations. Second derivative, shear perturbation, and entrance coefficient variation effects are adjudged to be small.

  14. Methodology of determination the influence of corrosion pit on decrease of hydro turbine shaft fatigue life

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Radivoje; Atanasovska, Ivana; MOMČILOVIĆ, Dejan; Vuherer, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of corrosion on stress concentration factor and crack initiation at shaftflange transition section. The case study of hydraulic turbine shaft failure is used as the basis for this research. The quantification of the stress concentrators was accomplished by the usage of Theory of critical distances (TCD) in the prediction of high-cycle fatigue behavior in machine parts and systems. The stresses obtained by Finite Element Analysis, was used as an entry values ...

  15. Machine Directional Register System Modeling for Shaft-Less Drive Gravure Printing Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Li'e; Jian Li,; Shanhui Liu; Xuesong Mei

    2013-01-01

    In the latest type of gravure printing machines referred to as the shaft-less drive system, each gravure printing roller is driven by an individual servo motor, and all motors are electrically synchronized. The register error is regulated by a speed difference between the adjacent printing rollers. In order to improve the control accuracy of register system, an accurate mathematical model of the register system should be investigated for the latest machines. Therefore, the mathematical model ...

  16. Turbo-generators CP0/CP1 - transverse cracking of shafts with disk shrunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international experience feedback showed that the shafts of the turbo-generators with disk shrunk on technology are likely to present a risk of transverse cracking at the right of the central spacer, which also is shrunk on the shaft, in particular during barring phases. For the EDF NPPs, the low pressure (LP) rotors of 24 PWR 900 MWe units, known as 'CP0/CP1', are concerned with this disk shrunk on technology. The perception of the risk, identified well with the design, resulted in engaging operating precautions to limit the range of it. These cracks can be propagated under the effects of the rotational flexion during barring phases, mode more penalizing. and then, at nominal speed starting from a certain crack size, called as maximum crack limit m operation In October 1998, the ultrasonic inspection of a LP shaft highlighted the presence of 2 indications at the level of two positioning keys of the central spacer. This phenomenon is generic with the whole et the 72 rotors of the 'CP0/CP1' 900 MWe units. Among the actions engaged by EDF following this finding, it was undertaken, on the one hand, b mechanical study and tests which made it possible to define a first estimate of the operational limiting size of the defects affecting the lines of shafts while taking into account the parameters of influence, and on the other hand, the removal, for metallurgical investigations, of the most affected rotor. The access to the damaged zone for metallurgical investigations required to take each rotor disk off. Non destructive examinations were carried out at various stages of this operation to characterize the contour of the crack. The exploitation of the fracture topography is based on the lesson resulting from the study and the quantitative analysis of the fatigue tests of threshold of not-propagation realized in laboratories. (authors)

  17. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Zhang; Xuerui Ma; Chengliang Yin; Shifei Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG) sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT) can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Aut...

  18. Modelling a DR shaft operated with pure hydrogen using a physical-chemical and CFD approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzani Da Costa, Andrea; Wagner, D.; Patisson, F.; Ablitzer, D.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The hydrogen-based route could be a valuable way to produce steel considering its low carbon dioxide emissions. In ULCOS, it is regarded as a long-term option, largely dependent on the emergence of a hydrogen economy. To anticipate its possible development, it was decided to check the feasibility of using 100% H2 in a Direct Reduction shaft furnace and to determine the best operating conditions, through appropriate experimental and modelling work. We developed from s...

  19. Femoral shaft fracture osteosynthesis in a critically ill patient under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Cristobal; Salineros Matias; Diaz Rodrigo; Carvajal Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is an invasive procedure used in critically ill patients with catastrophic pulmonary failure or cardiogenic shock in which conventional management has failed. These patients are managed with permanent anticoagulation, with increased bleeding risk. Hemorrhage is the main reported complication. Case: A 25-year-old polytraumatized woman, both lower limbs amputated and a left femoral shaft fracture with catastrophic pulmonar...

  20. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chelsea N. Laatsch; Blythe P Durbin-Johnson; Rocke, David M.; Sophie Mukwana; Abby B. Newland; Flagler, Michael J.; Michael G. Davis; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S.; Rice, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African-American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences bet...

  1. Back Analysis for effective design of bolt reinforcement – A case study for design of shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef; Kolcun, Alexej; Prasad, V.V.R.; Mohnot, J. K.

    New Delhi: Central Board of Irrigation and Power, 2008 - (Kanjlia, V.), s. 305-312 ISBN N. [World Tunnel Congress - 2008, Underground Facilities for Better Environment and Safety - India. Agra (IN), 22.09.2008-24.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/08/1700; GA AV ČR 1ET400300415 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : back analysis * concrete lining of shaft Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  2. Comparison of the results of treatment of humeral shaft fractures by different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić Vladimir; Maljanović Mirsad; Arsić Miroslav; Matijević Radmila; Milankov Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional results of non-operative and different operative techniques of managing humeral shaft fractures. The average follow-up was one year after the trauma in 61 patients with united fracture, where the initial method of treatment was the definitive one. The patients were divided into four groups: 22 were treated with hanging cast, 20 with intramedullary nails, 10 with dynamic-compressive plates and screws and 9 with external fixators. We est...

  3. An Efficiency Optimizing Shaft Speed Control for Ships in Moderate Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Pivano, Luca; Johansen, Tor Arne

    2007-01-01

    Ships in moderate sea experience time-varying thrust and torque load on the shaft of their prime mover. The reason is the varying inflow velocity to the propeller during the passage of a wave. This variation has been considered a nuisance to the main engine control where the induced fluctuations in...... is shown to theoretically enhance the propulsion efficiency. Model tests determine dynamic characteristics of propellers in waves and a simulation is employed to validate the novel control scheme....

  4. COMPARISON OF PNEUMATIC FLEXIBLE SHAFT COUPLING STATIC LOAD CHARACTERISTICS OBTAINED EXPERIMENTALLY AND BY CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter KAŠŠAY

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic flexible shaft couplings allow the change of their stiffness by the pressure change of gaseous medium in their pneumatic flexible elements, allowing their use as a device for continuous tuning of torsional oscillating mechanical systems directly during operation. The aim of this paper is to verify the accuracy of compression volume modeling method on existing pneumatic flexible coupling, by comparison of static load characteristics obtained experimentally with characteristics calculated from mathematical and physical model.

  5. Modelling and Stability of a Single-Shaft Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Vournas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the development of a dynamic model for a single-shaft combined cycle plant and the analysis of its response to electrical load and frequency transients. In particular the stability of the frequency control, as well as the implications of overheat control are investigated. The model is developed in the Simulink environment of Matlab as part of an educational and research simulation package for autonomous and interconnected systems.

  6. Analysis of electrodynamic brake for utilization in systems with rotating shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Georgii

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of an opportunity to apply eddy current brakes in dynamical systems containing rotating shafts. While conducting the research the general principles of deceleration, eddy currents’ origin, basics of magnetism and currently existing types of brakes were clarified and gathered briefly, but informatively. The theory which is explained in this thesis was taken from reliable secondary sources. The concepts of physics were investigated from sever...

  7. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal reliability investigation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a survey of reactor coolant pump shaft seal reliability. The survey sample is representatively large (approx. = 27% of total US commercial plant population) and includes the three industry seal suppliers (Bingham-Williamette, Byron Jackson, and Westinghouse). Operationally incurred/induced problems and seal redesign parameters are identified. Failure hypotheses in the form of fault trees have been developed to describe the failure mechanisms. Recommendations are made for seal reliability improvement

  8. Treatment of a femoral shaft fracture in a patient with congenital hip disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsostathis Stefanos D; Tsakotos George A; Macheras George A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We present a rare case of two concomitant morbidities treated in one operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature. Case presentation A 57-year-old Greek woman was admitted to the emergency department having sustained a spiral mid-shaft femoral fracture. She also suffered from an ipsilateral hip congenital dysplasia with ankylosed hip joint due to severe arthritis. She was treated with a total hip arthroplasty using a long stem perfo...

  9. Temporary protection of construction pit for pump station and service shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Šubic, Andrej

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with geostatic analysis of temporary excavation pit for installation of pump station and service shaft. They are part of the project named Renewal of public sewerage, waterwork and road reconstruction in Savska cesta in Kranj. Nearby buildings, local road, Kokra river and design depth of pump station dictate realization of temporary protection of construction pit under phreatic level. Analysis are executed analytically and numericaly using computer program Plaxis. Analyticall...

  10. Pressure Pulsations of the Blade Region in S-Shaped Shaft-Extension Tubular Pumping System

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Yang; Chao Liu

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional unsteady numerical method is applied to investigate the pressure fluctuation of the S-shaft extension pumping system. Some monitor pointers are set at the key positions of blade region to capture the changing rules of the pressure pulsations, from which the data are collected through time-domain and spectrum analysis. The predicted head and efficiency were validated by the comparison with the tested results, and the comparison result shows that the unsteady flow characte...

  11. Minimally Invasive Helical Plating for Shaft of Humerus Fractures: Technique and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, James Chung Hui; Kagda, Fareed Husain Yusuf; Murphy, Diarmuid; Thambiah, Joseph S; Khong, Kok Sun

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The humerus is subjected to substantial amount of torsional stress. Conventional plating may not address this sufficiently and may lead to fixation failure or non-union. A helical plate may offer the solution. We present the surgical technique and functional outcome of 5 cases of humeral shaft fractures treated with this technique in a minimally invasive way. Materials and Methods: The operations were performed between 2004 and 2010, by three surgeons. All the patients had close...

  12. Simultaneous anterior dislocation of the shoulder and fracture of the ipsilateral humeral shaft : Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.-H.; Lai, P.-L.; Niu, C.-C.; Chen, W.-J.; Shih, C.-H.

    1998-01-01

    Two patients with anterior dislocation of the shoulder and ipsilateral fracture of the shaft of the humerus have been studied and the mechanism of their injuries has been documented. Closed reduction of the dislocations was performed under anaesthesia during surgery for humeral fixation with a dynamic compression plate. The fractures and dislocations healed without any problems at 6 to 9 months postoperatively. At recent follow-up, one patient had returned to work and ...

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF PLY STACKING SEQUENCE OF COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT USING PARTICLE SWARM ALGORITHM

    OpenAIRE

    CHANNAKESHAVA K. R.; Mohan Kumar, S.; K Manjunath

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to optimize ply stacking sequence of single piece E-Glass/Epoxy and Boron /Epoxy composite drive shafts using Particle swarm algorithm (PSA). PSA is a population based evolutionary stochastic optimization technique which is a resent heuristic search method, where mechanics are inspired by swarming or collaborative behavior of biological population. PSA programme is developed to optimize the ply stacking sequence with an objective of weight minimization b...

  14. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Julian Matthew; Vakili Abouzar; Jakubowski Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM), which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located...

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HELICAL SAVONIUS ROTOR WITHOUT SHAFT AT 45° TWIST ANGLE USING CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Bachu Deb; Rajat Gupta; R.D. Misra

    2013-01-01

    Helical Savonius rotor exhibits better performance characteristics at all the rotor angles compared to conventional Savonius rotor. However studies related to the performance measurement and flow physics of such rotor are very scarce. Keeping this in view, in this paper, a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis using commercial Fluent 6.2 software was done to predict the performance of a two-bucket helical Savonius rotor without shaft and with end plates in a complete cycle o...

  16. Update on reactor recirculation shaft crack monitoring on Peach Bottom Units 2 and 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the on line diagnostic monitoring system in service at Peach Bottom Station on the Reactor Recirculation Pumps. The data collected and analyzed during the past year will be discussed. Finite Element modeling was performed. Strain gages have been installed to record torsional stress and frequency of the pump shaft to confirm the model results. The results of the analysis of the torsional data will be discussed

  17. Identification of Critical Speeds of Rotating Machines Using On-Shaft Wireless Vibration Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On-shaft vibration (OSV) together with the wireless router has been used for the vibration based condition monitoring (VCM) and the method has been applied to a small experimental rig. The observations made on the measured OSV data during the rig run-up operation, in particular the identification of the rig critical speeds from the OSV run-up data are presented in this paper.

  18. Use of liquid nitrogen to freeze rocks in shaft collar construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyal' tsev, M.M.; Agishev, V.V.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes the process by which loam was frozen to protect the collar of an air shaft in a Donbass mine in 1982. The shaft, 6 m internal diameter, was excavated to about 15 m, but influxes of watery loam could not be prevented by either reinforced concrete or metal tubbing sections. Boreholes for local freezing were drilled with an SBA-500 unit fanwise into the shaft walls. The freezing boreholes were 11 m long. A description of the distribution of the 9 freezing sections is given, in each of which were a 108 mm gas pipe and 89 mm liquid and vapor/liquid pipes. The liquid nitrogen was pumped in from tankers at the surface via a 53 mm pipe. Four monitoring boreholes with remote control sensors were used to check the rock temperature. The freezing process (to a thickness of 55 cm) took 9 days and 250 t of nitrogen, and represented a savings of 150 man days. The strength of the frozen rocks was 3.5-4 times greater than for brine freezing, so that the thickness of the frozen layer could be halved. (In Russian)

  19. A Two-Disk Extended Jeffcott Rotor Model Distinguishing a Shaft Crack from Other Rotating Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cracked rotor and an asymmetric rotor with two disks representing a turbine and a generator is utilized to study the vibrations due to imbalance and side load. Nonlinearities typically related with a “breathing” crack are included using a Mayes steering function. Numerical simulations demonstrate how the variations of rotor parameters affect the vibration response and the effect of coupling between torsional and lateral modes. Bode, spectrum, and orbit plots are used to show the differences between the vibration signatures associated with cracked shafts versus asymmetric shafts. Results show how nonlinear lateral-torsional coupling shifts the resonance peaks in the torsional vibration response for cracked shafts and asymmetric rotors. The resonance peaks shift depending on the ratio of the lateral-to-torsional natural frequencies with the peak responses occurring at noninteger values of the lateral natural frequency. When the general nonlinear models used in this study are constrained to reduce to linear torsional vibration, the peak responses occur at commonly reported integer ratios. Full spectrum analyses of the X and Y vibrations reveal distinct vibration characteristics of both cracked and asymmetric rotors including reverse vibration components. Critical speeds and vibration orders predicted using the models presented herein include and extend diagnostic indicators commonly reported.

  20. An adaptive turbo-shaft engine modeling method based on PS and MRR-LSSVR algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiankang; Zhang Haibo; Yan Changkai; Duan Shujing; Huang Xianghua

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish an adaptive turbo-shaft engine model with high accuracy,a new modeling method based on parameter selection (PS) algorithm and multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least square support vector regression (MRR-LSSVR) machine is proposed.Firstly,the PS algorithm is designed to choose the most reasonable inputs of the adaptive module.During this process,a wrapper criterion based on least square support vector regression (LSSVR) machine is adopted,which can not only reduce computational complexity but also enhance generalization performance.Secondly,with the input variables determined by the PS algorithm,a mapping model of engine parameter estimation is trained off-line using MRR-LSSVR,which has a satisfying accuracy within 5‰.Finally,based on a numerical simulation platform of an integrated helicopter/turbo-shaft engine system,an adaptive turbo-shaft engine model is developed and tested in a certain flight envelope.Under the condition of single or multiple engine components being degraded,many simulation experiments are carried out,and the simulation results show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed adaptive modeling method.

  1. Balancing of highly flexible shaft lines on their critical bending speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The balancing of EDF shaft lines has been performed for a decade with the help of the multiplane balancing method, using coefficients of influence at nominal speed. The method makes it possible to seek the minimum level of vibrations with the smallest possible corrective weights, using the least squares pseudo-inverse optimization technique. Due to the flexibility of the large shaft lines placed into service in the last few years, it is necessary to balance not only at nominal speed but also at critical bending speeds. Accordingly, we have developed a new method which combines the efficiency of modal balancing with the simplicity of balancing with coefficients of influence and which finds an optimum balancing for nominal and critical speeds thanks to its weightings option (for machines with low modal damping). The data analysis and balancing programs can run on of desk computers such as the HP 200, 300 and 500 series and allow the corrective weights to be determined immediately, on-site, from the data provided by EDF line shaft monitoring systems

  2. Movement of shaft and drift construction water in Yucca Mountain, Nevada: An extended study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is studying Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada as a potential site for a high-level nuclear waste repository. Site characterization includes surface-based and underground testing. Analyses have been performed to design site characterization activities with minimal impact on the ability of the site to isolate waste, and on tests performed as part of the characterization process. One activity of site characterization is the construction of an Exploratory Studies Facility, for which many design options are being considered, including shafts, drifts, and ramps. The information in this report pertains to: (1) engineering calculations of the potential distribution of residual water from constructing the shafts and drifts; (2) numerical calculations predicting the movement of residual construction water from the shaft and drift walls into the rock; and (3) numerical calculations of the movement of residual water and how the movement is affected by ventilation. This document contains information that has been used in preparing Appendix 1 of the Exploratory Studies Facility Design Requirements document for the Yucca Mountain Project

  3. Water flow in bedrock; estimation of influence of transmissive shaft and borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bedrock, a system of large and small fractures that permit water transport through the rock mass. The water content of the bedrock can, under varying hydrostatic pressure conditions, give rise to different flow patterns via boreholes or shafts drilled through the rock. A case is dealt with where a borehole connects a low point in the terrain with a point in the repository where the hydrostatic pressure is higher than at the mouth of the borehole. The situation may be conceived as having arisen when the area was investigated and a hole was drilled at an angle down from the valley to a point below the high point in the area. If the borehole is not sealed, an artesian well may be created. The conductivity used, 2 times 10-9 m/s, presumes that the repository has been emplaced in average quality rock at this depth. In reality, the repository site will be selected where the rock is better than average. In reality, a shaft - even if it is imperfectly backfilled - or a borehole exerts a flow resistance that reduces the available pressure difference at a depth of 500 m. Taken together, these factors indicate that approx. 5 m3/(year, 5 m) is the water flow that can be expected to emerge from the repository through a shaft or a borehole. Only this flow can have been contaminated with escaping substances from the repository area. Water that flows in from other parts of the hole dilutes this flow considerably. (G.B.)

  4. Influence of pre-load coefficient of TPJBs with even number pads on shaft lateral vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For a rotating machine with one or more tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs), it is acommon state that pad-to-journal assembling clearances are uneven in one bearing, or inconsis-tent relationship of assembling clearances are encountered among all the bearings. Consideringthe structural characteristics of a TPJB, a concept named as "pad pair pre-load coefficient" corre-sponding to bearing pre-load coefficient is proposed. Firstly, the influence of bearing pre-load coef-ficient and pad pair pre-load coefficient on shaft vibration in a Jeffcot rotor is analyzed. Then takingNo.1 unit with two TPJBs in Guangzhou pumped storage power plant (GPSP) as an example, theinfluence of inconsistent relationship of the two bearing pre-load coefficients on shaft vibration isanalyzed. The results show that variety of one bearing pre-load coefficient will only influence vibra-tion amplitude, not involving the shape of shaft center orbit. But variety of one or more "pad pairpre-load coefficient" will influence not only vibration amplitude, but also the shape of orbit-whichwill be turned from a circle to an ellipse. By investigating variation characteristics of shape andvibration amplitude of orbits at the TPJBs, some theoretical bases will be supplied for diagnosingthe condition of the unit bearings.

  5. Mounting of localization shaft by enlarged structures at the NPP with WWER-440

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique of mounting of a localization system at the WWER-440 NPP is described. The localization system consists of air-lift devices located in pressurized building (shaft) 12.6 thousand m3 volume. Air-lift devices are placed in 12 bayers with 3.37 m spacing over the height of localization shaft. Every layer of air-lift devices consists of 18 supporting H-beams number 60 of 8.5 m in length. The total host of air-lift devices and metal works of servicing platforms is equal to 725 t. The air-lift device consists of the large number of details (660 pieces of 500-2500 kg mass and above 2500 pieces of 500 kg mass), which causes the necessity of accomplishing a large volume of assembling and welding works. To reduce the labour content in the mounting zone and volume of work accomplished at the height the method of large-structure mounting of air-lift devices was suggested. The method lies in ground assembly of air-lift structures on the basis of several supporting beams and their following lifting to the corresponding layer. The large-structure mounting of localization shaft enables to reduce by 25-30% the length of joint welds made during the mounting as well as the volume of transport and cordage works; to reduce the time of building crane usage and 1.5-1.7 times the total periods of works

  6. The Case for Distributed Engine Control in Turbo-Shaft Engine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Paluszewski, Paul J.; Storey, William; Smith, Bert J.

    2009-01-01

    The turbo-shaft engine is an important propulsion system used to power vehicles on land, sea, and in the air. As the power plant for many high performance helicopters, the characteristics of the engine and control are critical to proper vehicle operation as well as being the main determinant to overall vehicle performance. When applied to vertical flight, important distinctions exist in the turbo-shaft engine control system due to the high degree of dynamic coupling between the engine and airframe and the affect on vehicle handling characteristics. In this study, the impact of engine control system architecture is explored relative to engine performance, weight, reliability, safety, and overall cost. Comparison of the impact of architecture on these metrics is investigated as the control system is modified from a legacy centralized structure to a more distributed configuration. A composite strawman system which is typical of turbo-shaft engines in the 1000 to 2000 hp class is described and used for comparison. The overall benefits of these changes to control system architecture are assessed. The availability of supporting technologies to achieve this evolution is also discussed.

  7. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N. Laatsch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3, accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals.

  8. Generalized solution of design optimization and failure analysis of composite drive shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollipalli, K.; Shivaramakrishna, K.V.S.; Prabhakaran, R.T.D. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Goa (India)

    2012-07-01

    Composites have an edge over conventional metals like steel and aluminum due to higher stiffness-to-weight ratio and strength-to-weight ratio. Due to these advantages, composites can bring out a revolutionary change in materials used in automotive engineering, as weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In this paper, the drive line system of an automotive system is targeted for use of composites by keeping constraints in view such as such as torque transmission, torsional buckling load and fundamental natural frequency. Composite drive shafts made of three different composites ('HM Carbon/HS Carbon/E-glass'-epoxy) was modeled using Catia V5R16 CPD workbench and a finite element analysis with boundary conditions, fiber orientation and stacking sequence was performed using ANSYS Composite module. Results obtained were compared to theoretical results and were found to be accurate and in the limits. This paper also speaks on drive shaft modeling and analysis generalization i.e., changes in stacking sequence in the future can be incorporated directly into ANSYS model without modeling it again in Catia. Hence the base model and analysis method made up in this analysis generalization facilitated by CAD/CAE can be used to carry out any composite shaft design optimization process. (Author)

  9. Interlocking versus kuntscher nails in the management of femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the outcome of Femoral shaft fractures managed with Interlocking and Kuntscher intramedullary nails, in terms of healing time, full weight bearing and post-operative complications. A total of 200 cases of Femoral shaft fractures. Half (100) the cases of Femoral shaft fractures were treated with Kuntscher intramedullary nails and the other half (100) with Interlocking nails, the cases being assigned randomly. The detailed data of the patients was recorded, computed and analyzed using Chi-square test and Students t-test. The main parameters compared included fracture healing time, full weight bearing time and post-operative complications. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data, fracture type and associated co-morbidities. The average operating time was 110+-25 minutes for the Interlocking nail and 80+-15.8 mins for the K-nail. All patients of K-nail group needed blood transfusion, while only 17 patients of interlocking group needed blood transfusion. The full weight bearing time was significantly shorter (p<0.005) in cases of Inter- locking nail. Out of 200 fractures 182 (91%) healed with in six months while 18 (9%) did not. The latter included 6 (3%) cases treated with Interlocking nails and 12 (6%) with Kuntscher nails, p<0.005. Interlocking intramedullary nailing is better than Kuntscher nailing in every respect. (author)

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF FIXATION O FRACTURE OF SHAFT OF HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandra Reddy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the aim of the present study is to evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nail in the management of fractures of shaft humerus.20 humeral shaft fractures were treated by closed reduction and intramedullary interlocking nailing in the department of orthopaedics , government medical college , government general hospital , anantapuramu from November 2010 to A ug 2012. The cause of fracture was RTA in 17 cases and fall in 3 cas es. Age incidence varied from 20 years to 60 years , 14 were male 6 female. Out of 20 cases in 18 cases fracture united by 3 to 4 months. 2 non - unions occurred after 6 months. , Excellent results were obtained in 40% of the cases , good results in 20%of the cases , fair results in 25% and Poor results in 15% of the cases. M ost common complication was shoulder stiffness occurring in 5 cases. W e conclude that interlocking nailing for humerus shaft fractures is an effective means of fixation. T he most common complication is shoulder stiffness which can be minimized by preventing proximal protrusion of nail , proper repair of rotator cuff and early rehabilitation.

  11. A new thermodynamic model for shaft work targeting on total sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the paper is to introduce a targeting model based on a new thermodynamic insight on cogeneration in general and Rankine cycle in particular. The insight permits to express the ideal shaft work of a cogeneration unit through the outlet heat load and the difference in Carnot factors between the heat source and heat sink for the given inlet temperature of the heat source. The deviation from the ideal shaft work to the real one is assessed by using the traditionally turbine isentropic efficiency. Finally the new model allows targeting fuel consumption, cooling requirement and shaft work production with high accuracy and visualizing them directly as special segments on the T-H diagram. A modified Site Utility Grand Composite Curve (Succ) diagram is proposed and compared to the original Succ. The shape of the right hand side of the diagram above site pinch is the same, however, below site pinch it is shifted to the left by an amount equal to shaftwork production below site pinch. Above site pinch Vp consumption is also corrected to account for shaftwork production above site pinch that is represented by segments rather than areas on the left hand side of the T-H diagram

  12. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, C G; Zhang, Y Z; Chen, W

    2016-07-01

    Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures are rare injuries, which are often caused by high-energy trauma and combined with multiple injuries, such as thoracic and abdominal injury, head injuries, and fractures of other sites.Delayed or missed diagnosis of the ipsilateral femoral neck fracture often occurs.When patients with femoral shaft fractures caused by high-energy trauma are admitted into hospital, physical examination should be conducted carefully.In addition to femoral shaft fractures, radiographs of the ipsilater hip and knee joints should been taken, simultaneously taking into consideration the potential effect of anteversion angle on the demonstration of femoral neck fracture.Computed tomograph and magnetic resonance imaging are advised to perform if necessary to facilitate early and accurate diagnosis of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture.Comprehensive evaluation should be done based on age, physical condition, associated injuries as well as fracture site, classification and injury severity.Accordingly, proper and reasonable surgical plan is made.During the operation, anatomical reduction of the fractures, especially femoral neck fractures, should be achieved, and then fixed with appropriate internal implants.Besides, attention should also be paid to the treatment of associated injuries as well as the prevention and management of complications. PMID:27373484

  13. Numerical Study on Pressure Drop Factor in the Vent-Cap of CDQ Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Song; Yanhui Feng; Xinxin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) shaft, the vent-cap with complex structure is installed in the cone-shaped funnel under the cooling chamber. It acts to introduce cooling gas and support the descending coke in the chamber. The designing and installation of vent-cap aim to get relatively uniform gas distribution, to reduce the temperature fluctuation of cokes at outlet and realize stable operation of CDQ apparatus. In this paper, the turbulent flow of gas in vent-cap of 1:7 scale CDQ experimental shaft is numerically simulated by using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software, CFX. The velocity field, the outlet flux distribution and the pressure drop factor of each outlet under three kinds of vent-cap (called high vent-cap, low vent-cap and elliptic vent-cap) are analysed and compared. The results turn out that the pressure drop factor of elliptic vent-cap is larger than the other two vent-caps, and that the pressure drop factors of high vent-cap and low vent-cap almost have the same value.While for a specified vent-cap, the pressure drop factor with pressing brick is larger than that without pressing brick. The work in this paper is valuable for the designing of vent-cap for large-acale CDQ shaft.

  14. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): evolution of a full-sized concrete and bentonite shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A full-scale shaft seal was designed and installed in the 5-m-diameter access shaft at Atomic Energy of Canada's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the point where he shaft intersects an ancient water-bearing, low-angle thrust fault in granitic rock. The seal, part of the permanent closure of the URL, consists of a 6-m-thick bentonite-based component sandwiched between 3-m-thick upper and lower, 3-m-thick concrete components. The bentonite-based component spans the fracture zone and extends approximately 1 m beyond the maximum identified extent of the fracture. This design was adopted in order to limit water from the deeper, saline regions mixing with the fresher, near-surface groundwater regime. The concrete components provide the mechanical confinement and an in situ compacted 40/60 mixture of bentonite clay and quartz sand provides the sealing component. Construction of the shaft seal was done as part of Canada's Nuclear Legacies Liability Program. However, monitoring the seal evolution was not part of the decommissioning program's mandate. In addition to accomplishing the permanent closure of the URL, this seal's construction provides a unique opportunity to instrument and monitor the evolution of a full-scale shaft seal as well as the recovery of the regional groundwater regime as the facility passively floods above the seal. A jointly funded monitoring project was developed by NWMO (Canada), SKB (Sweden), Posiva (Finland) and ANDRA (France) and since mid 2009 the thermal, hydraulic and mechanical evolution of the seal has been constantly monitored. The evolution of the type of seal being monitored in the ESP is of relevance to repository closure planning, gaining confidence in the functionality of shaft seals. Although constructed in a crystalline rock medium, the results of the ESP are expected to be relevant to the performance of seals in a variety of host rock types. The shaft seal has been

  15. Design considerations for borehole and shaft seals for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste proposes that the waste be emplaced in a vault at a depth of between 500 and 1000 m in plutonic rock. A number of shafts, for waste haulage, access and ventilation will connect the vault level directly to the ground surface. In addition, deep boreholes, drilled to characterize the region in which the vault is sited, will penetrate the vault horizon. After the period of vault operations, the shafts and boreholes, which provide the shortest flowpaths from the vault level to the biosphere or near-surface groundwater regime, must be sealed. A simplified flow chart for the seal design process is shown. The process is one of engineering design and involves an evaluation of appropriate materials and methods that will lead to design concepts that can be examined for performance. This paper describes a performance criterion for shaft and borehole seals for a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault, and discusses the progress made in the design of seals for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP)

  16. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  17. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  18. ABOUT THE MAINTENANCE OF THE RADIAL AND AXIAL SHAFT BEARINGS FROM PROPULSION PLANT WITH GAS AND STEAM TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION ADRIAN GIRBA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main rules imposed by classification societies for design the shaft for propulsion plant with gas and steam turbines. It also analyzes the main maintenance activities to ensure their safe operation.

  19. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeł, Piotr; Wałach, Daniel; Jaskowska-Lemańska, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  20. Damping Torsional Torques in Turbine-Generator Shaft by Novel PSS Based on Genetic Algorithm and Fuzzy Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Shoulaie; Mohammad Bayati-Poudeh; Ghazanfar Shahgholian

    2010-01-01

    Torsional torques on turbine-generator shaft which are yields of disturbances in power systems, can reduce the useful lifetime of shaft. In this paper, these oscillations will be damped and controlled by novel Power System Stabilizers (PSSs). Complex PSS which is used in this paper will act on the excitation system in generator set and also on the controller of in High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) system. This PSS uses three terms (generator angle deviation, frequency oscillation and capacit...

  1. Studies of the quality and cost-effectiveness of a novel conceptof open-die forged powerplant main shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skubisz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An innovatory concept of open-die forging of windmill main shaft is described. Comparative study of the new technology based on the concept of cogging hollow shaft on mandrel featuring material savings and higher quality of a finished part versus traditional production chain of this component is presented, indicating benefits and technological setbacks of industrial implementation. Results of industrial sampling aided with numerical simulation form guidelines for technological realization.

  2. Geophysical and intrusive site investigations to detect an abandoned coal-mine access shaft, Apedale, Staffordshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, SG; Pringle, JK

    2011-01-01

    Derelict coal mine workings at Apedale in Staffordshire, United Kingdom were the focus for a multi-disciplinary geophysical and intrusive site investigation. Objectives were to: 1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, 2) determine the inclined shaft’s changing depth below present ground level, 3) determine if it was open, partly or fully filled, 4) locate it beneath a known shaft if (1) was unsuccessful and finally 5) compare geophysical mineshaft detection techniques in d...

  3. A New Method for Investigation of the Hair Shaft: Hard X-Ray Microscopy with a 90-nm Spatial Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Soo-Young; Goo, Ja Woong; Hong, Seung Phil; Oh, Tak Heon; Youn, Hwa Shik; Lee, Won-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Various methods have been used to investigate the hair shaft. In the ultrastructural hair field, scanning and transmission electron microscopies are widely used investigative methods, but they have some technical limitations. Recently, X-ray microscopes with sub-micron spatial resolution have emerged as useful instruments because they offer a unique opportunity to observe the interior of an undamaged sample in greater detail. In this report, we examined damaged hair shaft tips using hard X-ra...

  4. Analysis of fatigue transverse cracks in turbine shafts; Analyse des fissures transverses de fatigue dans les arbres de turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, P. [Alstom Power, service client, 93 - Stains (France); Cailleaux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Pole Industrie Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    During a safety control of the low pressure turbines CP0/CP1 shafts, some transverse cracks have been identified. In a first step, the crack propagation has been studied by the following three actions: improvement of the control methods, material characterization to calculate the crack propagation threshold taking into account the operating conditions, a 3-D numerical analysis of the shaft solicitations with the calculation of KI KII KIII for the crack propagation estimation. (A.L.B.)

  5. Exchanging reamed nailing versus augmentative compression plating with autogenous bone grafting for aseptic femoral shaft nonunion: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-ying, Ru; Yun-fei, Niu; Yu, Cong; Wen-bo, Kang; Hai-bin, Cang; Jian-ning, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of exchanging reamed nailing (ERN) and augmentative compression plating (ACP) with autogenous bone grafting (BG) for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to the treatment of intramedullary nailing (IMN).Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed for 178 patients (180 cases) of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to first treatment of IMN. All cases were fixed with either ERN (n=87) or ACP ...

  6. Two-dimensional modeling of unilateral contact-induced shaft precessional motions in bladed-disk/casing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Nicolas; Batailly, Alain; Legrand, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The present work targets shaft whirling motions induced by direct blade/casing unilateral contact occurrences in aircraft engine bladed-disk assemblies. These contact events are favored by increasingly reduced blade-tip clearances and potentially lead to harmful interactions that may threaten the engine structural integrity.A simplified 2D in-plane finite element model representative of the engine fan stage is built, accounting for the flexibility of the shaft through two linear springs attac...

  7. DIAGNOSTICS OF FATIGUE CRACK IN ULTERIOR PLACES OF LARGERSCALE OVERLOADED SUPPORTING SHAFT BASED ON TIME SERIES AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuejun; BIN Guangfu; CHU Fulei

    2007-01-01

    To improve the diagnosis accuracy and self-adaptability of fatigue crack in ulterior place of the supporting shaft, time series and neural network are attempted to be applied in research on diagnosing the fatigue crack's degree based on analyzing the vibration characteristics of the supporting shaft. By analyzing the characteristic parameter which is easy to be detected from the supporting shaft's exterior, the time series model parameter which is hypersensitive to the situation of fatigue crack in ulterior place of the supporting shaft is the target input of neural network, and the fatigue crack's degree value of supporting shaft is the output. The BP network model can be built and network can be trained after the structural parameters of network are selected. Furthermore, choosing the other two different group data can test the network. The test result will verify the validity of the BP network model. The result of experiment shows that the method of time series and neural network are effective to diagnose the occurrence and the development of the fatigue crack's degree in ulterior place of the supporting shaft.

  8. Enhanced sealing project (ESP): design, construction and monitoring of a full-scale shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Enhanced Sealing Project (ESP) consists of instrumenting and monitoring a full-scale shaft seal installed to permanently close the access shaft for Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at the intersection of an ancient low dipping thrust fault. The URL was built to provide a facility where concepts for long-term management of Canada's nuclear fuel waste in a deep geological repository could be studied. Operated since the early 1980's, this facility provided much of the technical information used in developing the deep geological repository concept submitted by AECL to the Government of Canada in 1994 and continued to provide valuable technical data after that submission. In 2003, a decision was made to discontinue operation of the URL and ultimately decommission and permanently close the underground portion of this facility. As part of the Nuclear Legacy Liability Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), facilities including the URL that are no longer part of AECL's mandate or operations are being decommissioned. Included in this work is the installation of seals at the intersection of the access shaft and ventilation raise with a deep fracture zone in order to limit the potential for mixing of deeper saline and shallower less saline groundwater. The funding available from NRCan was limited to the seal installation, with no mandate to provide any more than basic hydrological monitoring of the rock mass at a considerable distance from these seals, and so the opportunity to monitor a full-scale shaft seal similar to one for a deep geological repository would have been lost. The ESP arose from the recognition by a number of organizations that the URL closure presented a unique opportunity to monitor the evolution of a full-scale repository-type shaft seal in a very well-characterized and otherwise undisturbed rock mass. As

  9. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel. Simulation of shaft transport. Probabilistic safety analysis of a shaft hoisting equipment for a max. payload of 85 t (TA 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reported PSA examined transport processes involved in the direct disposal of POLLUX containers in a radwaste repository. The processes analysed are loading of the hoisting cage above ground, shaft transport to the underground storage place, and discharge from the hoisting cage and emplacement of the container. The PSA results yield data defining the rate of occurrence of events described in the following, for an overall operating time of 10.000 transport processes, average duration of 30 minutes each. The events considered are: Class (1), (elevated radiation doses), probabilistic occurrence rate of 5.2 events per calendar year; Class (2), (release of radioactive materials), probabilistic occurrence rate of 1.33 x 10-6 per calender year. These results are also applicable to the emplacement of other waste forms which are planned to be disposed of in the same radwaste site as the POLLUX containers. (orig./HP)

  10. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Science design for two shafts in phase 1a of the proposed rock characterisation facility at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, United Kingdom Nirex planned to begin construction of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Sellafield as part of it's ongoing assessment of the suitability of the site as a host for a deep radioactive waste repository. The RCF was to have addressed issues relating to the geology, hydrogeology and geomechanical behaviour of the site by collecting data for testing predictive models and acquiring information only available from an underground situation. In March 1997, the UK Government refused permission for Nirex to begin construction and work at Sellafield was wound down. However, the science design for Phase 1a of the RCF, two vertical access shafts, was completed to provide a set of conceptual designs which address the issues identified by Nirex. By using Sellafield as an example, the designs contribute to a series of reports which demonstrate an approach to validation using an underground facility. This paper describes the Science Design for data collection during shaft construction, which began with the information requirements specified by Nirex on the basis of it's conceptual models and predictive work. It describes the scientific measurements designed to acquire this information and the process of combining the individual measurements into test plans for each shaft. Measurements were planned in the shafts themselves and in boreholes drilled from the shafts. They were designed to provide data on formation porosity and permeability, the geochemistry of formation water and the nature of the fresh-water salt-water interface, shaft inflow, the influence of geological structures on performance, and geomechanical responses to shaft excavation. A key element of the design process was the development of test plans, requiring the co-ordination and integration of the construction and science activities so that both could be carried out in a timely and cost-effective manner

  13. Shaft inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of inflation models is introduced and studied. The models are characterised by a scalar potential which, far from the origin, approximates an inflationary plateau, while near the origin becomes monomial, as in chaotic inflation. The models are obtained in the context of global supersymmetry starting with a superpotential, which interpolates from a generalised monomial to an O'Raifearteagh form for small to large values of the inflaton field respectively. It is demonstrated that the observables obtained, such as the scalar spectral index and the tensor to scalar ratio, are in excellent agreement with the latest observations. Some discussion of initial conditions and eternal inflation is included

  14. Modeling of shaft tombs in western Mexico by mean of resistive tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Gutierrez-Peña, Q. J.; Gomez-Gomez, G.; Rosas-Elguera, J.

    2013-05-01

    The archaeological affluence of Mexico is huge. However, the western part of the country is viewed as lacking of important prehispanic constructions. Discoveries since 1970 have exposed an ancient culture that has been termed as Teuchitlan Tradition. This culture is characterized by ceremonial centers formed with circular pyramids and several rectangular platforms surrounding them, and tombs below any of these structures. The tombs in turn are typically composed of a vertical shaft and one to three horizontal chambers, where bodies were placed. Due to this character is also referred to as Shaft Tombs Culture. The tombs are located mainly in low cohesion pumice, welded tephras and volcanic ash deposits. The vertical shafts were usually filled, and there was always the camera. Two major centers developed by this culture are found in Teuchitlan and El Arenal, in the western state of Jalisco. The former has been rebuilt and is currently open to tourism, while the latter is not restored yet. The latter apparently has two ceremonial centers located at two different altitudes. We conducted a survey in both sites with resistive tomography. The first study was conducted in Teuchitlan, on a circular platform. In this structure there are already located three shaft tombs. The results obtained using the Wenner alpha array with equidistance of 0.5 and 1 meter, are successful. The data have been modeled using the program RES2DINV, and models obtained show the presence of a boot-shaped tomb and other like bottle. The graves are identified with higher resistivity values, while values lower than 30 ohm-m indicate moisture leaks at the ends of the structure. Theoretical modeling of the tombs and the building was carried out, which is compared with the actual sections and their inversion models. Coincidences are appreciable. With this results, were conducted two lines in ceremonial centers of El Arenal, to identify the occurrence of shaft tombs. The two centers are separated by

  15. Vibration instability of laser base and atmospheric refraction in the process of aligning and operational control of underground mine shafts: effects and methods of mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passia, Henryk; Szade, Adam; Motyka, Zbigniew; Bochenek, Wojciech; Lipowczan, Adam

    2004-06-01

    Reliable operation of underground mine shafts is strongly conditioned by the proper position of the shaft frame and the installations inside the shaft tube in relation to the vertical direction. For operational reasons and safety, they are subject to periodical control and emergency control in the case when the permissible values of the operational parameters are likely to be exceeded. These can be, for instance, the values of tilt of the shaft frame or of the irregularity of the bars which guide the conveyance (i.e. cage or skip) in the shaft. One of the reasons of such a situation to occur can be the movement of the ground in the closer or farther proximity of the shaft, as a consequence of the effects of mining, hydro-geological changes in the ground, etc.

  16. Open tibial shaft fractures. Treatment with intramedullary nailing after provisional stabilization with non penetrating external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Octavio Soares Hungri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of union, nonunion, deep infection and factors influencing the time of bone healing in the treatment of open tibial shaft fractures Gustilo and Anderson types I and II initially treated with a non penetrating external fixator (Pinless(r followed by an unreamed intramedullary locked nail (UTN(r. Methods: It is a prospective study of 39 open tibial shaft fractures. According to the AO classification, 16 patients (41.0% were type A, 17 (43.6% were type B and six (15.4% were type C. According to the Gustilo and Anderson classification, 14 patients (35.9% were type I and 25 (64.1% were type II. For the definitive stabilization of the fracture were used an unreamed intramedulary locked nail (UTN(r. Results: Bone healing was achieved in 97.4% of the cases, with a mean time of 21.2 weeks, ranging from 12 to 104 weeks. Deep infection was seen in 2.6% patients and malunion were seen in 5.1%. Only the presence of complications were statistically significant to the time of bone healing, with a risk of faster healing in patients without complications of 4.29 times (CI 95%: 1.25 -14.71 comparing to patients with complications. Conclusion: The treatment of open tibial shaft fractures with unreamed intramedullary locked nail allows high rates of bone healing, low rates of nonunion and deep infection, and only the presence of complications is statistically significant to the time of bone healing.

  17. Lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in soils from Tudor Shaft mine environs, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Njinga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate the soil radionuclides' activity concentrations and environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Tudor Shaft mine environs, South Africa. The excess lifetime cancer risks are also calculated. Outdoor gamma dose rates were determined in 45 soil samples taken from 9 locations. The maximum and minimum average outdoor gamma dose rate taken 1 m above ground was 202.74 ± 14.18 and 131.09 ± 5.43 nGy/h, respectively. Also, the maximum and minimum mean annual effective gamma dose of Tudor Shaft mine environs was 2.49 × 10−1 and 1.61 × 10−1 mSv/y, respectively and the excess lifetime cancer risk from the average values of the outdoor gamma dose from nine areas of 1.03 × 10−3 was observed. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectroscopy and the average 238U, 232Th, and 40K activities were 271.96 ± 3.59 Bq/kg, 47.65 ± 3.69 Bq/kg and 87.17 ± 5.19 Bq/kg, respectively. The average soil radionuclides' concentrations of Tudor Shaft mine environs were above the worldwide range and some extreme values had been determined. Annual effective gamma doses and the excess lifetime risks of cancer were higher than the world's average.

  18. Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacksin, M.F.; Zurlo, J.V. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States); Levy, A.S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, University Hospital, Newark, NJ 07103-2426 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES: STUDY OF 200 CASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; da Silva, Luciano Lucindo; Ferreira, Fábio Vieira; Ferro, Ademar Martins; da Rocha, Valney Luís; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate epidemiological and radiological characteristics of the femoral shaft fractures, surgically treated from 1990 to 2005 at Hospital de Acidentados – Clínica Santa Isabel – in Goiânia, Goiás, aiming to contribute to better preventive and therapeutic measures planning to adopt on those fractures. Methods: 200 patients' files and x-rays with femoral shaft fractures have been retrospectively evaluated. Patients below the age of 10 years were not included because the treatment for this group was conservative. 25 files have been discarded for not supplying all the necessary data to the study. The patients were assessed for sex, age, side of the fracture, bone exposure, mechanisms of trauma, classification of the fractures, associated trauma, time for bone healing and types of surgical devices. Statistic analyses were made by chi-squared, Fisher and Student's-t tests, adopting as a significance level pTrampling accidents were prevalent among youngsters between 10 and 19 years old. Car accidents showed all the types of fractures, mostly associated to other traumas, reaching its peak incidence in the age group of 20-30 years. The treatment with Küntscher Nail resulted in a longer mean consolidation time, as well as fractures with unstable traces (B3,C1,C2,C3). Conclusion: we found a bi-modal characteristic the femoral shaft fractures, consistently to literature data, where the high energy mechanisms (traffic accidents, high falls and wounds from firearms), have been more frequent in young adults, men, generating unstable traces of fractures, with more serious associated trauma, while the other group with low energy trauma (simple falls), was more frequently seen in elderly female individuals with less unstable fracture traces, without associated trauma. PMID:27004172

  20. Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.)

  1. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  2. Mechanism of ad5 vaccine immunity and toxicity: fiber shaft targeting of dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviral (rAd vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines.

  3. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  4. CFD modeling of multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft with layered burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-current chemical reactor which includes the ascending gas flow and the counter-current descending porous bed (burden). A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft. The gas flow dynamics, burden movement, chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer between the gas phase and burden phase are included in the CFD model. The blast furnace burden consists of alternative layers of iron ore and coke. A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the effects of alternative burden layer structure on gas flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and chemical reactions. Different reactions and heat transfer characteristics are applied for difference types of layer. In addition, the layered CFD model accurately predicts the Cohesive Zone (CZ) shape where the melting of solid burden taking place. The shape and location of the CZ are determined by an iterative method based on the ore temperature distribution. The theoretical formation and the methodology of the CFD model are presented and the model is applied to simulate industry blast furnaces. The proposed method can be applied to investigate the blast furnace shaft process and other moving bed system with periodic burden structure configuration. - Highlights: •A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the blast furnace shaft with layered burden. •The effects of layered burden on flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions are considered in the model. •The shape and location of the cohesive zone is determined by an iterative method

  5. Wind tunnel experimental study of coupled rocking-swivelling model of guyed mast shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ondřej

    Prague: Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., 2015 - (Náprstek, J.; Fischer, C.). s. 334-335 ISBN 978-80-86246-42-0. ISSN 1805-8248. [Engineering mechanics 2015 /21./. 11.05.2015-14.05.2015, Svratka] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : dynamics of guyed masts * dynamic response * swivelling of the shaft * wind tunnel * aerodynamic model Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  6. STUDY ON NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND FEMORAL LENGTH OF SOUTH INDIAN FEMURS

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Mohamad Khan; Shaik Hussain Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: Femoral nek anteversion describes the angle subtended by the femoral neck with reference to the transcondylar plane of the distal end of the femur and is usually 15° to 45°. This along with the neck shaft angle, hip axis length, femoral neck width influence the risk of femoral neck fracture. Femoral neck anteversion angle has to be taken into consideration when reduction and fixation is selected as a method of treatment. Objectives: The objectives of present study to find out ...

  7. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: exploratory shaft. Phase I. Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that an Exploratory Shaft (ES) be constructed in Yucca Mountain on or near the southwest portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This document describes a conceptual design for an ES and a cost estimate based on a set of construction assumptions. Included in this document are appendixes consisting of supporting studies done at NTS by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. and Holmes and Narver, Inc. These appendixes constitute a history of the development of the design and are included as part of the record

  8. Torsional Vibrations at Guide-Vane Shaft of Pump–Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Predin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the problem of guide-vane vibrations of reversible pump–turbines, especially, in the pump mode. These vibrations are transmitted to the guide-vane shaft torque. The guide-vane vibrations are caused by the impeller exit flow, which has a turbulent and partly nondeterministic property. Experimentally determined flow velocities at the impeller exit are given. The mathematical models for theoretical torsional vibration prediction formulated using linear and nonlinear differential equations are presented. The results of theoretical calculations are compared with measurement results. The possibility of transferring the parameters from the model to the prototype is discussed.

  9. Ipsilateral Fracture Shaft Femur with Neglected Dislocation of Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantu Jain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neglected hip dislocation is rare in today’s world and after prosthesis replacement even rarer finding. However such patients may not report to surgeons until they develop secondary complications. Management of such patient’s is a challenge to the treating surgeon and need to be tailored suiting to patient’s demands, expectations and constraints of financial resources. We did not find a similar case in the electronic and print media and therefore report this case which was innovatively managed. Case Report: A 60 year farmer presented with fracture shaft femur and ipsilateral dislocation prosthesis of right hip. He had a hemiarthroplasty done for fracture neck of femur in the past but used to walk with a lurch since he started to ambulate after discharge. However he was satisfied despite “some problems” which had caused shortening of his limb. The patient was informed of the various treatment options and their possible complications. He expressed his inability to afford a Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA at any stage and consented for other options discussed with him. The patient was positioned supine and adductor tenotomy done. Next he was positioned laterally and the fracture was fixed with heavy duty broad dynamic compression plate and screws. The wound was temporarily closed. Now through the previous scar via posterior approach the hip was exposed. The prosthesis was found to be firmly fixed to the proximal femur. The acetabulum was cleared with fibrous tissue. All attempts the prosthesis to relocate the prosthesis failed after several attempts and it was best decided to leave alone. Post operatively period was uneventful. At follow up he refused for any further manoeuvre in future inform of heavy traction and attempts to reduce the same. At one year when he was walking unaided and his X-rays showed that fracture had well united his SF-36 score was PCS – 49.6 and MCS – 51.9. Conclusion: Ipsilateral shaft femur fracture

  10. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: exploratory shaft. Phase I. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.C.; Merson, T.J.; McGuire, P.L.; Sibbitt, W.L.

    1982-06-01

    It is proposed that an Exploratory Shaft (ES) be constructed in Yucca Mountain on or near the southwest portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This document describes a conceptual design for an ES and a cost estimate based on a set of construction assumptions. Included in this document are appendixes consisting of supporting studies done at NTS by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. and Holmes and Narver, Inc. These appendixes constitute a history of the development of the design and are included as part of the record.

  11. Development of the world largest 650 ton ingot for rotor shaft application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mono block low pressure steam turbine rotor shaft forging and flange integrated nozzle shells for nuclear power plants have been produced from up to 600 metric ton ingots. With increasing generator unit capacity, there are calls for ingots larger than 600 tons. However, segregation, non-metallic inclusions, and micro porosities inevitably increase with the rise in ingot size. Making such massive ingots with high soundness is a quite difficult challenge. The Japan Steel Works has been carrying out the development of 650-ton class ingot production. The first 650-ton ingot was dissected and investigated in order to verify its internal quality. (author)

  12. Cephalomedullary fixation for femoral neck/intertrochanteric and ipsilateral shaft fractures: surgical tips and pitfalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Bali; Nitesh Gahlot; Sameer Aggarwal; Vijay Goni

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Surgical management options for femoral shaft fracture and ipsilateral proximal femur fracture vary from single-implant to double-implant fixation.Cephalomedullary fixation in such fractures has relative advantages over other techniques especially because of less soft tissue dissection and immediate postoperative weight beating with accelerated rehabilitation.However,the surgery is technically demanding and there is a paucity of literature describing the surgical techniques for this fixation.The aim of the study was to describe the surgical technique of cephalomedullary fixation for femoral shaft fracture and ipsilateral proximal femur fracture.Methods:Sixteen cases (10 males and 6 females with a mean age of 41.8 years) ofipsilateral proximal femur and shaft fractures were treated by single-stage cephalomedullary fixation at tertiary level trauma center in northern India.The fractures were classified according to AO classification.An intraoperative record of duration of surgery as well as technical challenges unique to each fracture pattern was kept for all the patients.ResuRs:The most common proximal femoral pattern was AO B2.1 observed in 9 of our patients.The AO B2.3 fractures were seen in 4 patients while the AO A1.2 fractures in 3 patients.Four of the AO B2.1 and 2 of the AO B2.3 fractures required open reduction with Watson-Jones approach.The mean operative time was around 78 minutes,which tended to decrease as the surgical experience increased.There was only one case of malreduction,which required revision surgery.Conclusion:Combination of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture and neck/intertrochanteric fracture is a difficult fracture pattern for trauma surgeons.Cephalomedullary nail is an excellent implant for such fractures but it requires careful insertion to avoid complications.Surgery is technically demanding with a definite learning curve.Nevertheless,a majority of these fractures can be surgically managed by singleimplant cephaiomedullary

  13. Utilization of deep shaft for bore-hole disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novi Han Repository is the only existing repository in Bulgaria for the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. The disposal vault for spent sealed sources is not designed for disposal of powerful 137Cs and 60Co sources. Long-lived waste from nuclear applications is also not allowed for disposal at the Novi Han Repository. As an operator of the Novi Han Repository, the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) initiated a programme for assessment of the possible utilization of deep shaft Gabra for disposal of such waste. Results of the preliminary study are discussed. (author)

  14. Treatment of a femoral shaft fracture in a patient with congenital hip disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsostathis Stefanos D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a rare case of two concomitant morbidities treated in one operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature. Case presentation A 57-year-old Greek woman was admitted to the emergency department having sustained a spiral mid-shaft femoral fracture. She also suffered from an ipsilateral hip congenital dysplasia with ankylosed hip joint due to severe arthritis. She was treated with a total hip arthroplasty using a long stem performing as an intramedullary nail. Conclusion We undertook a complex operative treatment of both co-morbidities in a one stage procedure with a satisfactory clinical result.

  15. Staff technical position on regulatory considerations in the design and construction of the exploratory shaft facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The staff of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has prepared this staff technical position for the purpose of compiling and further clarifying previous staff positions on regulatory considerations in the design and construction of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF). (The US Department of Energy (DOE) now refers to the ESF as the ''exploratory studies facility.'' DOE's change in terminology does not affect the positions taken in this guidance.) This document lists the key regulations in 10 CFR Part 60 that should be considered in the design and construction of the ESF and presents the staff position statements and corresponding discussions. 13 refs., 1 fig

  16. Study on dynamic behavior of a shaft excavation through a faulted crystalline rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory' has been studying and developing engineering technology for deep underground applications. These applications are multifaceted and are categorized as development of design and construction planning technology, development construction technology, development of countermeasure technology, and development of technology for construction and operation security. In this report, the dynamic behavior of shaft and the surrounding rock mass has been studied with respect to rock mass displacement and stress, the effect of using a concrete liner and excavating through faulted crystalline rock. (author)

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of coupled rocking-swivelling model of guyed mast shaft

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urushadze, Shota; Pirner, Miroš; Fischer, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, October (2015), s. 09006. ISSN 2261-236X. [International Conference on Experimental Vibration Analysis for Civil Engineering Structures EVACES’15, /6./. Dübendorf, 19.10.2015-21.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : guyed mast shaft * swivelling * wind-excited vibration Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://www.matec-conferences.org/articles/matecconf/abs/2015/05/matecconf_evaces2015_09006/matecconf_evaces2015_09006.html

  18. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  19. Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures - minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Fabio T; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; dos Santos, João B G; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João C

    2013-01-01

    Background Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally i...

  20. Study of Effect of Quenching Deformation Influenced by 17CrNiMo6 Gear Shaft of Carburization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zirui; Yu, Shenjun; Xu, Jinwu

    The 17CrNiMo6 steel is mainly used for the gear shaft of large modulus in many fields of heavy industry such as mining, transit, hoist, forging and so on[1]. The size of addendum circle and common normal line is changed a lot beyond the tolerance because of the long time of carburizing process and the out-of-step structural stress and thermal stress during the quenching process. And thus the posterior grinding efficiency and quality are influenced. In the paper comparison and analysis of the deformation affected by solid and hollow gear shafts were done and the methods of simulation and practice were both used. The results are as follows: the deformation of gear shaft was small before and after carburizing while that of gear shaft was large before and after quenching because of different cooling velocity, structure and hardness of each position. And the deformation of hollow was much smaller than that of solid. Therefore, if the hollow gear shaft is used, the waste of material will be decreased, and finishing cost will be reduced, and thus the technology of heat treatment will be optimized.

  1. Strength Analysis of Rotary Flying Shear Shaft%回转式飞剪机刀轴强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增磊

    2014-01-01

    Stress analysis of rotary flying shear shaft during the shearing process was performed in this pa-per. Fatigue strength and static strength of the improved shaft was checked by respectively using bending-tor-sion composition calculation and safety factor method. The theoretical calculation results showed that the shear shaft bending stress on the dangerous sections is less than the allowable bending stress of the cutter shaft mate-rial, and the shaft had enough fatigue strength and static strength. The actual production proved that the im-proved design flying shear satisfied the requirements of production line.%分析了回转式飞剪机上刀轴在剪切过程中的受力状况,分别利用弯扭合成强度计算方法和安全系数法校核了改进设计的回转式飞剪机上刀轴疲劳强度和静强度。理论计算结果表明,上刀轴危险截面的弯曲应力均小于刀轴材质的许用弯曲应力,并具有足够的静强度安全系数。通过实际生产的检验,证明了改进设计的飞剪机能够满足生产线的使用要求。

  2. FE-simulation of the Presta joining process for assembled camshafts - local widening of shafts through rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, R.; Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Considerable weight benefits and the option to combine various steel alloys of the single parts are the major advantages of assembled over conventional camshafts. The Presta joining process is the leading manufacturing method of assembled camshafts in the global market. The process is divided into two substeps. At first, the outer diameter of the shaft is widened with a profile oriented orthogonal to the shaft axis at the intended cam seat. At this position the shaft is subsequently joined with a cam with an internal profile oriented parallel to the shaft axis. As a result, these perpendicular profiles form a tight fit due to plastic deformations. Consequently the simulation of the manufacturing process has to start with the simulation of the rolling of the shaft. The resulting profile requested in this step is axisymmetric, but the arrangement of tools is not. Thus a three-dimensional model is required, which is presented in this work. Furthermore, the infeed of the rolling tool is unknown and controlled by the stiffness of the holders of the rolling tool. This work shows the modeling of this behavior. To predict realistic results for the underlying process, the use of precise material models is essential in order to take several hardening mechanisms into account. However, the use of complex material models implies additional effort, which is shown in this work.

  3. Extension of the 7{sup th} level south shaft-landing, 10 shaft, RAG Prosper Haniel colliery; Auffahrung des suedlichen Fuellorts Schacht 10, 7. Sohle auf dem Bergwerk Prosper-Haniel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Hartmut [RAG Steinkohle AG, Bottrop (Germany). Bereich Sonderprojekte auf dem Bergwerk Prosper-Haniel; Luettig, Frank [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste; Barth, Ulrich [Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    During the further sinking of shaft 10 the landing on the 7{sup th} level was bilaterally discontinued for approx. 10 m. In September 2008, with the drifting of the lateral C467 the interconnection was effected at the northern landing. Based on a further detail investigation of the rock mechanics and the experience gathered in the establishment of the northern landing the recommendation for the southern landing was to perform the further drifting by starting from shaft 10 and not to head for the shaft once more. Owing to the large cross section of the southern landing the planning of the drifting required solutions that are not normally applied in ordinary roadheading business. (orig.)

  4. MR imaging in tibial shaft fractures. A potential method for early visualization of delayed union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between MR findings at the fracture site during the healing process and the outcome of patients with tibial shaft fracture. Material and methods: Twelve consecutive patients with an uncomplicated tibial fracture treated conservatively were imaged by MR 1 to 3 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks after the trauma. MR imaging consisted of sagittal/coronal T1-weighted, T2-weighted, proton density, short-tau inversion recovery, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo images. The images were analysed for the extent of signal pathology in the bone marrow adjacent to the fracture, the extent of soft tissue oedema, and the intensity and homogeneity of the contrast enhancement of the callus. Results: The differences between normal (n=7) and delayed union (n=5) were observed within 3 to 6 weeks after the trauma, mainly in the homogeneity of the callus in T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced images. Conclusion: MR imaging is a potentially valuable method for early visualization of delayed union in tibial shaft fractures. (orig.)

  5. MR imaging in tibial shaft fractures. A potential method for early visualization of delayed union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, O.; Ojala, R. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Junila, J. [Oulu Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Surgery

    1999-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between MR findings at the fracture site during the healing process and the outcome of patients with tibial shaft fracture. Material and methods: Twelve consecutive patients with an uncomplicated tibial fracture treated conservatively were imaged by MR 1 to 3 days, 1 week, 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks after the trauma. MR imaging consisted of sagittal/coronal T1-weighted, T2-weighted, proton density, short-tau inversion recovery, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted spin-echo images. The images were analysed for the extent of signal pathology in the bone marrow adjacent to the fracture, the extent of soft tissue oedema, and the intensity and homogeneity of the contrast enhancement of the callus. Results: The differences between normal (n=7) and delayed union (n=5) were observed within 3 to 6 weeks after the trauma, mainly in the homogeneity of the callus in T2-weighted and contrast-enhanced images. Conclusion: MR imaging is a potentially valuable method for early visualization of delayed union in tibial shaft fractures. (orig.)

  6. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  7. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain.

  8. In situ geochemical measurements in the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two tests have been proposed by Los Alamos for the Exploratory Shaft at Yucca Mountain to determine, under in situ conditions, the values of geochemical parameters that will be used to assess the performance of a possible nuclear waste repository in the vadose zone. One test will measure diffusion of nonsorbing tracers into the water-filled pores of tuffs at the repository level and below. The diffusivity coefficients derived from the data will be incorporated into transport code calculations that determine the effects of diffusion in retarding the movement of TcO4- and I- under aqueous flow conditions. The second test will measure 36Cl in tuff samples collected as the Exploratory Shaft is mined. The radioactive decay of 36Cl will be used to measure the rate of water movement through the vadose zone over longer times than could be measured by the conventional 14C method. Measurements of 36Cl in soil samples from Yucca Mountain already have helped trace infiltrating precipitation

  9. A preliminary investigation of trunk and wrist kinematics when using drivers with different shaft properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Reyes, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether skilled golfers will modify their kinematics when using drivers of different shaft properties. This study aimed to firstly determine if golf swing kinematics and swing parameters and related launch conditions differed when using modified drivers, then secondly, determine which kinematics were associated with clubhead speed. Twenty high level amateur male golfers (M ± SD: handicap = 1.9 ± 1.9 score) had their three-dimensional (3D) trunk and wrist kinematics collected for two driver trials. Swing parameters and related launch conditions were collected using a launch monitor. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant (p ≤ 0.003) between driver differences; specifically, faster trunk axial rotation velocity and an early wrist release for the low kick point driver. Launch angle was shown to be 2° lower for the high kick point driver. Regression models for both drivers explained a significant amount of variance (60-67%) in clubhead speed. Wrist kinematics were most associated with clubhead speed, indicating the importance of the wrists in producing clubhead speed regardless of driver shaft properties. PMID:27075379

  10. Femoral shaft fracture osteosynthesis in a critically ill patient under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Cristobal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO is an invasive procedure used in critically ill patients with catastrophic pulmonary failure or cardiogenic shock in which conventional management has failed. These patients are managed with permanent anticoagulation, with increased bleeding risk. Hemorrhage is the main reported complication. Case: A 25-year-old polytraumatized woman, both lower limbs amputated and a left femoral shaft fracture with catastrophic pulmonary failure (Murray score 4 that required intensive management care with ECMO. During her evolution definitive femoral shaft osteosynthesis with a nail as required and the medical team decided to operate on the patient under ECMO. She recovered with fluctuations in her hematocrit, but was hemodynamically stable. The patient recovered satisfactorily, was weaned from ECMO and commenced her rehabilitation program. At 16 months, she was almost autovalent, and full consolidation was achieved, with no complication of the implants. Discussion: ECMO is a life-saving support, but requires permanent anticoagulation, which implies a high risk of hemorrhages, specially for surgical treatment. This patient underwent an osteosynthesis surgery satisfactorily. Hematoma was the only complication of her intramedullary femoral nail, without compromising hemodynamics. This case shows that patients on ECMO can undergo a major orthopedic surgery in selected cases.

  11. Portable mixed abrasive water jet equipment for rescue in high gas mine shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rui; DU Chang-long; XU Rui; ZHAO Jing

    2011-01-01

    In order to rescue a trapped miner and clean out roadways quickly in a high gas mine shaft after a mining mishap, a special portable cold-cutting equipment is needed, the main technology parameters were calculated according to the advanced cold-cutting technology of high pressure abrasive water jet and the portable mixed abrasive water jet equipment (PAWE) was designed to meet the needs of emergency rescue in high gas mine shafts. Tested the PAWE in a high gas environment, and the result shows that the maximum cutting depth of solid iron pipe is 18 mm and the recoilforce of the sprayer is 28.9 N under the conditions that actual cutting pressure is 29 MPa, starting target distance is 10 mm, cutting speed is 180 mm/min and concentration of abrasive is 32%. The course of the experiment in the high gas environment was smooth and continuous, without any explosion. The PAWE is easy to move and operate, but the nozzle which was worn badly in the sprayer should be changed every 8 minutes.

  12. Blasting in the lower shaft station of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has the responsibility for research, and development of technologies, for the safe and permanent disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes. As part of this comprehensive program, AECL is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to evaluate aspects of the concepts of waste disposal deep in stable geological formations. No nuclear wastes will be used in the URL program. The lower shaft station of the URL was excavated between 1984 December and 1985 February. Substantial effort went into producing good results from the blasting to minimize the blast damage to the rock surrounding the excavation. All headings of the lower shaft station were excavated by the pilot heading and slash method. The blasts for the pilot headings were designed using a combination of Swedish and Canadian blast design methods, with the detailed layout of the blast holes being finalized at the excavation face. By experimenting with the perimeter of the pilot headings, it was possible to finalize the perimeter blast design before starting on the final walls

  13. Steel strain gage on steel shaft liner: Installation and monitoring procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangential and axial strains will be measured in the steel shaft liner component using steel strain gages (SSGs). These gages are vibrating wire strain gages welded directly to the steel liner. The primary objective of the overall monitoring program of which these gages constitute one part, is to define the stress-deformation behavior of the linings, seals, and foundations during and after construction. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider the SSGs welded to the liners as one element of an integrated program of monitoring the mechanical and thermomechanical response of the shaft. Other instruments which form part of this program include extensometers, concrete strain gages, convergence gages, concrete stress gages, piezometers, joint meters, and temperature detectors. The selection of these instrument types and their locations is based on a unified concept of behavior of the lining/rock structure and on how such a model of behavior will be deduced from the results of all instrumentation at an array. 9 refs., 5 figs

  14. Impact of Shaft Stiffness on Inertial Response of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Future power' system faces several challenges, one of them is the high penetration level of intermittent wind power generation, providing small or even no inertial response and being not contributing to the frequency stability. The effect of shaft stiffness on inertial response of fixed speed wind turbines is presented. Four different drive-train models based on the multi-body system are developed. The small-signal analysis demonstrates no significant differences between models in terms of electro-mechanical eigen-values for increasing shaft stiffness. The natural resonance frequency of drive-train torsion modes shows slightly different values between damped and undamped models, but no significant differences are found in the number-mass models. Time-domain simulations show the changes in the active power contribution of a wind farm based on a fixed speed wind turbine during the system frequency disturbance. The changes in the kinetic energy during the dynamic process are calculated and their contribution to the inertia constant is small and effective. The largest contribution of the kinetic energy is provided at the beginning of the system frequency disturbance to reduce the rate of the frequency change, it is positive for the frequency stability.

  15. Comparison of the results of treatment of humeral shaft fractures by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the functional results of non-operative and different operative techniques of managing humeral shaft fractures. The average follow-up was one year after the trauma in 61 patients with united fracture, where the initial method of treatment was the definitive one. The patients were divided into four groups: 22 were treated with hanging cast, 20 with intramedullary nails, 10 with dynamic-compressive plates and screws and 9 with external fixators. We estimated the presence of bone union by radiographic and clinical evaluation and compared the results with Constant and Mayo scores. The etiology of injuries was falls and traffic accidents in 87% of cases. The hanging cast group had the most of elbow contractures and insufficient results of functional scales. The plating group had lower average values of scores than nails, especially considering the elbow function. Among subgroups, the locked intramedullary nails had better results than Ender nails. The most complicated cases treated with Ilizarov and Mitković’s external fixators had good results, especially in the treatment of open humeral shaft fractures; however, the rehabilitation period was longer. The best average functional results were recorded in the nailing group because of rigid fixation, solid callus formation and return to everyday activities in the shortest time.

  16. Analysis of shaft torsional oscillation in a power system using a Lure Lyapunov function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cheng, S.; Cao, Y. [Zhejiang University (China). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A method based on a Lure Lyapunov function is developed to analyse subsynchronous resonance (SSR) phenomena in power systems. An improved Lure Lyapunov function used to analyse the stability of a power system including the turbine-generator (T-G) shaft is presented first. Then, a standard Lure control model for a power system with a T-G shaft is obtained. The stability of such nonlinear systems at the equilibrium points is discussed in detail. The stable operation region of the system is discussed with the proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a case study. This study has shown potential benefits and the validity of the Lyapunov direct method in the subsynchronous resonance analysis. Compared with the conventional analysis method, such as eigenvalue and frequency scanning techniques, the proposed method is based on the original nonlinear system. Error, that may be introduced by linearisation, is avoided completely. Moreover, the stable operation region of power systems can be obtained by the proposed method. (author)

  17. Repair of Kaplan turbine shaft sealing based on evaluation of hydraulic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has been written to call attention to a potential danger what may occur in Kaplan turbine refurbishments. In Tiszalök hydropower plant, Hungary, the shaft sealing of the refurbished turbine was damaged. In searching for the reasons it was assumed that due to increased internal velocities in the turbine, the pressure at the hub clearance became lower than the atmospheric pressure, and therefore the sealing, which always operated satisfactorily before the refurbishment, had uncertain water supply, dry-running occurred, and after some time the sealing was burnt. First the flow conditions in the turbine and the pressure at the hub clearance were calculated by a one-dimensional flow model. Later this was refined by a two-dimensional approach. The above conclusion was also justified by the data acquisition system and by observing the operation of the small dewatering pump. When the turbine operated at a larger discharge than a certain limit value, then the dewatering pump remained standstill, indicating that no water passed through the shaft sealing. External water supply was then applied, and after this the turbine operated all right.

  18. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  19. LCP metaphyseal plate fixation for fractures of the distal third humeral shaft using brachialis splitting approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Ki; Yang, Dae Suk; Chang, Shann Haw; Choy, Won Sik

    2016-03-01

    The authors retrospectively studied the clinical and radiographic outcomes of locking compressive plate (LCP) metaphyseal plate fixation through the anterolateral approach in patients treated surgically for unstable distal third humeral shaft fractures. Twenty seven patients were treated surgically with LCP metaphyseal plate using brachialis splitting methods through the anterolateral approach. The mean arc of elbow motion was 132.4° with a mean flexion of 133.5° and mean flexion contracture of 1.1°. Three patients had a slight elbow flexion contracture with loss of 5° (n=1), 10° (n=1), and 15° (n=1) of extension. The mean American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score was 92.6 points, which corresponded to excellent results in 26 shoulders and a good result in one. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 90.7 points, which corresponded to excellent results in 24 elbows, a good result in 2, and a fair result in 1. Treatment of distal third humeral shaft fracture using LCP metaphyseal plate through the anterolateral approach is an acceptable and alternative method that can provide good results. PMID:26984659

  20. Outlook on shafting and propeller in future; Jikukei ni okeru kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes the technology trend of propulsion systems for ships, i.e., shafting and propeller. Contra-rotating propeller has been put into practice for energy saving, and new type stern tube sealing (non-leakage type) for marine pollution protection. Water jet propulsion machinery has been developed for high speed ships. Integrated control system for take-off and landing piers has been also developed. CAD and CAM were introduced for design methods. For the future trend of shafting and propeller, various considerations for needs, such as high speed of ships, reduction of noise discharge under water, and comfortableness, are to be problems. Gas turbines and water jet propulsion machineries are to be increasingly employed as main engines for high speed. Heavy-duty resistant vibration isolation rubbers and high torque resistant elastic couplings are desired to be developed as vibration isolation supports of main engines from the viewpoint of comfortableness. It is important for high reliability to accumulate the analyses of causes of accidents. It will be significant to exert effort for improvement of each part. This paper also describes propellers, stern tube bearings, and water jet propulsion machineries, respectively. It is forecasted that demand of price and reliability will increase furthermore.

  1. Modelling of rotor speed transient with shaft-to-stator contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis first reports the development of a one-dimensional model of a rotor where variables to be computed are the displacements of a beam in a three-dimensional space, and the rotor angular position. After a description of the industrial context (the turbo-alternator group which transforms the thermal energy into electrical energy within the secondary circuit of a nuclear plant), and starting with an energy formulation, the rotor movement equations are established for a speed transient. The second part deals with the contact mechanics and the time resolution of a rotor-stator interaction problem. Contactless speed transients on rotor simple models are then presented, where the equation enables the calculation of the shaft rotational speed. The author then explores interaction cases. The reliability of results is assessed by studying their evolution with respect to the time step. The convergence of different interesting quantities such as the rotor rotational speed, shaft line displacements, and stresses (bearings and contact) is shown

  2. Synchronous dynamics of a coupled shaft/bearing/housing system with auxiliary support from a clearance bearing: Analysis and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawen, James L., Jr.; Flowers, George T.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the response of a flexible rotor supported by load sharing between linear bearings and an auxiliary clearance bearing. The objective is to develop a better understanding of the dynamical behavior of a magnetic bearing supported rotor system interacting with auxiliary bearings during a critical operating condition. Of particular interest is the effect of coupling between the bearing/housing and shaft vibration on the rotordynamical responses. A simulation model is developed and a number of studies are performed for various parametric configurations. An experimental investigation is also conducted to compare and verify the rotordynamic behavior predicted by the simulation studies. A strategy for reducing synchronous shaft vibration through appropriate design of coupled shaft/bearing/housing vibration modes is identified.

  3. Technical correspondence in support of an evaluation of the hydrologic effects of exploratory shaft facility construction at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document comprises four letter reports containing information that has been used in preparing the plan to characterize the site of the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain. The Yucca Mountain Project is studying the feasibility of constructing a high-level nuclear waste repository in the Topopah Spring Unit of the Paintbrush Tuff. One activity of site characterization is the construction of two exploratory shafts. The information in this report pertains to (1) engineering calculations of the potential distribution of residual water from constructing the exploratory shafts and drifts, (2) numerical calculations predicting the movement of the residual construction water from the shaft walls into the rock, (3) numerical calculations of the movement of the residual water and how the movement is affected by ventilation, and (4) measurement of the movement of water into a welded tuff core when a pulse of water pressure is applied to a laboratory test sample for a short time (100 min)

  4. Mechanism of Shaft End-To-End Voltage Generation by Asymmetry in an Inverter-Driven Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yusuke; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper deals with the shaft end-to-end voltage resulting from asymmetric stray capacitances in an inverter-driven motor. The origin of the voltage can be any of the following: a ground leakage current, dielectric breakdown in bearings, and asymmetric stray capacitances on stator windings. The third origin seems to be related to the differential-mode current, but the details of the relationship have not been clarified. In this study, differential-mode tests are carried out on an ungrounded motor rated at 400V and 15kW, and the shaft end-to-end voltage generation by the asymmetric stray capacitances is theoretically discussed. Finaly, a winding model is presented for the purpose of understanding the mechanism responsible for the shaft end-to-end voltage.

  5. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than...... for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure.From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm2 and 159 nodules permm2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat.This is verified from nodule counts performed on...... the real cast main shafts. Residual stressevaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting,which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of thechill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen....

  7. Computed distributions of residual shaft drilling and construction water in the exploratory facilities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain Project is studying the feasibility of constructing a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada. One activity of site characterization is the construction of two exploratory shafts. This paper contains the results of engineering analytical calculations of the potential distribution of residual construction water in the exploratory shafts and drifts and numerical calculations of the movement of the residual water and how the movement is affected by drift ventilation. In all cases the increase in rock saturation resulting from the construction water was extremely small. 11 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab

  8. Preliminary simulation of degassing of natural gases dissolved in groundwater during shaft excavation in Horonobe underground research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins, natural gases such as methane are often dissolved in groundwater significantly. In this paper, two-phase flow simulations incorporating the degassing of methane, and carbon dioxide, were performed for the shaft excavation in Horonobe underground research project. The results drawn from the simulations are summarized as follows. 1) As depth increases, degassing and gas inflow occurs significantly. 2) Degassing increases the compressibility of pore fluids, resulting in slow changes in groundwater pressures. 3) Although the occurrence of gas phase decreases water mobility, the influence of the dissolved gas on the groundwater inflow rate to the shaft was small. (author)

  9. Repacking practice for G-3 engineering driller power unit with drive shaft of dual channel reverse circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong ZHU; Kun YIN; Qingyan WANG; Yong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to satisfy operating requirements for constant core drilling technology in reverse circulation with hollow-through DTH,the power unit of G-3 engineering driller was ameliorated. The new one with dual channel drive shaft, achieved the perfect assemble with transmission structure of the original power unit. It could interconvert according to need by using two sets of drive shafts with direct and reverse circulation. The repacked G-3 engineering driller carried on experiment in the field test in Luanchuan molybdenum mine of Henan, whose effect was very good.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND NECK LENGTH WITH INTEREPICONDYLAR DISTANCE IN FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It transmits body weight from hip bone to tibia in standing position. Femoral neck is a constricted part connecting head with shaft at an angle of about 125°-known as angle of inclination or neck shaft angle (NSA; this facilitates the movement of hip joint enabling the limb to swing clear of pelvis. Abnormal femoral neck angle (FNA may be associated with various clinical problems ranging from harmless in toeing gait in childhood to disabling osteoarthritis in adults. The current study attempted to find out if a co-relation exists between those parameters and other clinically measurable variables like inter-epicondylar distance or distance between greater trochanter to lateral epicondyle. This may help to predict the risk of fracture neck femur without any risk of radiation exposure and proper prophylactic measures can be undertaken (Vit-D, calcium to decrease risk of fracture. Results: Measurements were taken in dry femora mostly in East Indian population. Variables that were measured in 158 dry femora (85 femora from left side and 73 from the right side are: - a Neck shaft angle of femur, b Neck length of femur, c Neck circumference of femur, d Inter-epicondylar distance of femur, e Distance between lateral epicondyle and greater trochanter of femur. No significant difference was found between the right and left sided femoral groups regarding any of the study variables. From the analysis it was revealed that no positive or negative correlation exists between the study variables. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the value of one or more of them from the magnitude of the other variable(s. Conclusions: Our study attempted to find out if it was possible to predict the risk of fracture neck femur by simple clinical procedure without exposing the subjects to radiation hazards associated with a radiological imaging. A screening test and subsequent prophylactic measures could

  11. Study of turbocharger shaft motion by means of non-invasive optical techniques: Application to the behaviour analysis in turbocharger lubrication failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.

  12. In-service fatigue cracking of the propeller shafts joined by a spline-pinned construction to the engines of AN-24, AN-26, and IL-18 aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shanyavskiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper delivers a critical review of the research data on the crack initiation and crack growth patterns characteristic of the components of the spline-bolted joints between the propeller shaft and reducer shaft at An-24, An-26, and Il-18 aircrafts. Cracks in the shafts nucleated because of reduced bolt-fastening force. Actually, the bolt (bolts failed first (also by fatigue and then fatigue cracks nucleated and grew in the shafts, the spline surface fretting zones and/or sharp edges of the attachment (bolt-conducting holes making the crack origin sites. The crack growth history shows itself through the regular Macro-Beach Marks, each mark sequentially pointing to the next loading event of the propeller shaft, i.e., to each next flight. The cracks cease growing for some while in the airscrews and their shafts just replaced to another aircraft. For the airscrew shafts, the critically assessed data show the crack growth period Np ranging as five to ten percent of a total running period Nf . We recommend performing nondestructive inspection of the airscrew shafts on every 250- hour running period to ensure the safety flights.

  13. Tests of Shaft Seal Systems of Circulation Pumps during Station Blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AREVA GmbH operates a unique Thermal-hydraulic plat form in Germany, France and USA. It is recognised as a test body according to ISO 17025. The Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS - German Society for Accreditation) has also certified the Thermal-hydraulic platform as an independent inspection body Type C according to ISO 17020. A part of this platform is the Component Laboratory located in Karlstein, Germany which is in operation since more than 50 years. The testing activities cover a wide range as: Critical Heat Flux Tests, Valve Testing and Environmental Qualification for safety related components. Since 2011 the Component Qualification Karlstein extended their testing scope for different types of Shaft Seal Systems. (Author)

  14. OUTCOME STUDY OF TITANIUM AND STAINLESS STEEL ELASTIC NAIL FIXATION OF PAEDIATRIC FRACTURE SHAFT OF FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saubhik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Femoral shaft fractures are common fractures in paediatric age group. There are various methods to treat them. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is one of them and an established and reliable method for treating these fractures. Ideal treatment of femoral shaft fractures in the age group of 5 to 14 years is still a matter of debate as no consensus has been achieved till now. We have done a study to know whether elastic stable intramedullary nails can be used reliably in this age group. So, purpose of the present study is to evaluate the outcome of titanium and stainless steel elastic nail in paediatric femoral fractures in 5-14 years of age group. METHODS: A group of forty two children with femoral fractures that were treated with elastic nails (which includes both titanium and stainless steel nails- both nail types were of similar design and outcome was evaluated. Twenty children (16 boys, four girls in the age group of 5-14 years (average 9.3 years with femoral shaft fractures (16 closed, two Grade- I and two Grade- II compound were stabilized with Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN, while twenty-two (16 boys, six girls in the age group of 5-14 years (average 9.1 years with femoral shaft fractures (18 closed, two Grade- I and two Grade- II compound were stabilized with Stainless Steel Elastic Nail (SSEN between June 2009 and October 2011. A familiar retrograde insertion technique was used. Major complications were defined as malunion with sagittal angulation of >15° and coronal angulation of >10°, nail irritation requiring revision surgery, infection, delayed union, and rod breakage. Minor complications were defined as nail irritation or superficial infection not requiring surgery. RESULTS: Radiological union was achieved in all cases in a mean time of 7.7 weeks (6-12 weeks in TEN groups while that took 7.9 weeks in SSEN group. Full weight bearing was possible in a mean time of 7.7 weeks (6-12 weeks in TEN groups and a mean of 7

  15. A Two-step Design Method for Shaft Work Targeting on Low-temperature Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 冯胜科; 孙长江; 袁希钢

    2014-01-01

    In low-temperature processes, there are interactions between heat exchanger network (HEN) and refrig-eration system. The modification on HEN of the chilling train for increasing energy recovery does not always coor-dinate with the minimum shaft work consumption of the corresponding refrigeration system. In this paper, a sys-tematic approach for optimizing low-temperature system is presented through mathematical method and exergy analysis. The possibility of“pockets”, which appears as right nose section in the grand composite curve (EGCC) of the process, is first optimized. The EGCC with the pockets cutting down is designed as a separate part. A case study is used to illustrate the application of the approach for a HEN of a chilling train with propylene and ethylene refrig-erant system in an ethylene production process.

  16. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle

  17. Control of Rotor-Blade Coupled Vibrations Using Shaft-Based Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene H.; Santos, Ilmar

    When implementing active control into bladed rotating machines aiming at reducing blade vibrations, it can be shown that blade as well as rotor vibrations can in fact be controlled by the use of only shaft-based actuation. Thus the blades have to be deliberately mistuned. This paper investigates....... The dependency of the controllability and observability on varying rotational speed and mode shape interaction phenomena between parametric and basis mode shape components are also analysed. Numerical results reveal a limitation of the achievable controllability and observability, once quantitative...... the dynamical characteristics of a mistuned bladed rotor and shows how, why and when a bladed rotor becomes controllable and observable if properly mistuned. As part of such investigation modal controllability and observability of a tuned as well as a mistuned coupled rotor-blade system are analysed...

  18. Machine Directional Register System Modeling for Shaft-Less Drive Gravure Printing Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanhui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the latest type of gravure printing machines referred to as the shaft-less drive system, each gravure printing roller is driven by an individual servo motor, and all motors are electrically synchronized. The register error is regulated by a speed difference between the adjacent printing rollers. In order to improve the control accuracy of register system, an accurate mathematical model of the register system should be investigated for the latest machines. Therefore, the mathematical model of the machine directional register (MDR system is studied for the multicolor gravure printing machines in this paper. According to the definition of the MDR error, the model is derived, and then it is validated by the numerical simulation and experiments carried out in the experimental setup of the four-color gravure printing machines. The results show that the established MDR system model is accurate and reliable.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  20. The occurrence of gas in preliminary shaft bores Go 5001 and Go 5002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gases/condensates occuring in the Gorleben salt deposits were formed from organic substances. (Reference oil structure of Werra anhydrite A1, Zechstein chalk (Ca 1) and the main dolomite foetid shale (Ca 2)). During the variegated rise of the salt deposit, according to previous exploration, the condensates reached the orange salt and have been stored there since. They are stored limited to certain localities, if one takes the gas and condensate-free orange salt deposits found in deep bores and the preliminary shaft bore Go 5001 into account. Because of the core formation, the condensate can only be bound in hairline cracks and strata boundaries and not in the crystal grid. (orig./HP)