WorldWideScience

Sample records for cardan shafts

  1. Analytic solution of simplified Cardan's shaft model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajíček M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Torsional oscillations and stability assessment of the homokinetic Cardan shaft with a small misalignment angle is described in this paper. The simplified mathematical model of this system leads to the linearized equation of the Mathieu's type. This equation with and without a stationary damping parameter is considered. The solution of the original differential equation is identical with those one of the Fredholm’s integral equation with degenerated kernel assembled by means of a periodic Green's function. The conditions of solvability of such problem enable the identification of the borders between stability and instability regions. These results are presented in the form of stability charts and they are verified using the Floquet theory. The correctness of oscillation results for the system with periodic stiffness is then validated by means of the Runge-Kutta integration method.

  2. Dynamic unbalance detection of cardan shaft in high-speed train based on EMD-SVD-NHT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建明; 林建辉; 何刘; 赵洁

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the aliasing defect between the adjacent intrinsic model functions (IMFs) existing in empirical model decomposition (EMD), a new method of detecting dynamic unbalance with cardan shaft in high-speed train was proposed by applying the combination between EMD, Hankel matrix, singular value decomposition (SVD) and normalized Hilbert transform (NHT). The vibration signals of gimbal installed base were decomposed through EMD to get different IMFs. The Hankel matrix constructed through the single IMF was orthogonally executed through SVD. The critical singular values were selected to reconstruct vibration signs on the basis of the key stack of singular values. Instantaneous frequencys (IFs) of reconstructed vibration signs were applied to detect dynamic unbalance with shaft and eliminated clutter spectrum caused by the aliasing defect between the adjacent IMFs, which highlighted the failure characteristics. The method was verified by test data in the unbalance condition of dynamic cardan shaft. The results show that the method effectively detects the fault vibration characteristics caused by cardan shaft dynamic unbalance and extracts the nature vibration features. With comparison to the traditional EMD-NHT, clarity and failure characterization force are significantly improved.

  3. CALCULATION OF CONTACT TENSIONS IN CONJUGATE SURFACES IN SPHERE GLOBOIDAL RUSK SYNCHRONOUS CARDAN HINGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Saniotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents  a calculation of contact tensions between conjugate surfaces in sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge on the condition that there is power balance at the constant torque on the output shaft. The required torque effect on the intake shaft at the constant angular velocity  has been calculated with the help of the Hertz’s theory of contact deformations . The maximum contact pressure has been ascertained through the torque which determines strength of the cardan hinge, its durability, wear rate in  the conjugate friction pair. The paper investigates transmission dependence of the maximum torque while changing  material quality and according to various typical sizes of the cardan hinge. Dependences of the calculated maximum torque value on material strength have been demonstrated graphically  in the logarithmic coordinate system.  A formula for maximum contact pressure value has been derived and it determines  strength of the hinge mechanism, its durability and wear rate  in the conjugate friction pair.The effect of geometrical relationship between a spherical cam radius and a globoidal  surface radius of a hinge contact has been determined with the purpose to analyze optimal design parameters of the sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge. It has been established that permissible torque in the hinge mechanism grows with a quadratic dependence while increasing a cam radius and  the torque is proportionally growing while increasing an axis radius of globoidal rusk surface on which spherical cams are set. The maximum permissible torque value grows with a cubic dependence while using qualitative material with thermally treated surface and application of lubrication materials which tolerates significant (up to [σ] = 1000 MPa contact loads.  Two-fold increase of typical size of the sphere globoidal rusk synchronous cardan hinge leads to an 8-fold increase of the permissible transmitted torque.

  4. Cardan gear mechanism versus slider-crank mechanism in pumps and engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhula, J.

    2008-07-01

    In machine design we always want to save space, save energy and produce as much power as possible. We can often reduce accelerations, inertial loads and energy consumption by changing construction. In this study the old cardan gear mechanism (hypocycloid mechanism) has been compared with the conventional slider-crank mechanism in air pumps and four-stroke engines. Comprehensive Newtonian dynamics has been derived for the both mechanisms. First the slidercrank and the cardan gear machines have been studied as lossless systems. Then the friction losses have been added to the calculations. The calculation results show that the cardan gear machines can be more efficient than the slider-crank machines. The smooth running, low mass inertia, high pressures and small frictional power losses make the cardan gear machines clearly better than the slider-crank machines. The dynamic tooth loads of the original cardan gear construction do not rise very high when the tooth clearances are kept tight. On the other hand the half-size crank length causes high bearing forces in the cardan gear machines. The friction losses of the cardan gear machines are generally quite small. The mechanical efficiencies are much higher in the cardan gear machines than in the slider-crank machines in normal use. Crankshaft torques and power needs are smaller in the cardan gear air pumps than in the equal slider-crank air pumps. The mean crankshaft torque and the mean output power are higher in the cardan gear four-stroke engines than in the slider-crank four-stroke engines in normal use. The cardan gear mechanism is at its best, when we want to build a pump or an engine with a long connecting rod (approx 5.crank length) and a thin piston (approx 1.5.crank length) rotating at high angular velocity and intermittently high angular acceleration. The cardan gear machines can be designed also as slide constructions without gears. Suitable applications of the cardan gear machines are three-cylinder half

  5. THE GROUNDING OF THE STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF THE AREAHLOBOYID RUSK SYNCHRONOUS CARDAN HINGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Saniotskyi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of calculation of structural parameters of the areahloboyid rusk synchronous cardan hinge with consideration of contact tensions in the mating surfaces is determined, the required torque in the input wave with a contact by using the Hertz’s theory of contact deformations is determined. The dependence of the maximum torque for different hyposizes of the cardan hinge is investigated. The dependences of the calculated maximum torque to the resistance of the material are demonstrated graphically in the logarithmic coordinate system.

  6. Drilled Shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyre, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This session will provide an overview of drilled shaft design and construction, including general design principles, construction methods, and construction quality assurance. Project examples will be used to illustrate the types of bridge structures and subsurface conditions where drilled shafts should be considered.

  7. Equipamento para ensaios estáticos de transmissões a cardan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Cláudio Alves

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes das transmissões a cardan, utilizados intensivamente nas áreas automotiva e agrícola, estão sujeitos a cargas torcionais, axiais e de flexão, as quais podem ser estudadas em banco dinamométrico. Descreve-se neste trabalho o projeto de equipamento para ensaios estáticos, no qual torques relativamente altos, na árvore de saída, necessários nos ensaios em questão, são obtidos por meio de dois redutores de rosca-sem-fim, a partir de torques baixos, impressos na árvore de entrada por uma alavanca de acionamento manual. Uma célula de carga indica a força aplicada a um braço de alavanca, enquanto um goniômetro indica o ângulo de torção correspondente à deformação do espécime testado. O equipamento foi submetido a testes experimentais a fim de ajustar e comprovar sua resistência mecânica e detectar possíveis deformações na sua estrutura, alcançado-se torque máximo de 3.139 N*m (320 kgf*m. Analisaram-se, também, as magnitudes de erros prováveis.

  8. Shaft conveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This device for the conveyance along shafts of radioactive waste usually enclosed in metal barrels is based on a single mechanism which has proved successful in mining. The rope-hauled conveying vessel runs on 4 rollers above and below between guide rails on a vertical shaft and in its highest position is above ground in front of a loading device. A motor driven rolling table moves a standing barrel with the material being conveyed to in front of the loading opening of the conveying vessel, where a lever prevents further movement until the conveying vessel is in exactly the right position. After retraction of the interlocking lever, the rolling table moves the material being conveyed on the further rollers in a framework in the conveying vessel. This roller framework with its slightly transverse position leans the transport barrel against the vessel rear wall during transport. In the deep position of the conveying vessel the barrel moving downwards runs off the roller framework due to a slight tilting movement and falls into the cavern. Levers which can rotate around vertical axes grip the barrel in the conveying vessel and secure its position during transport. In the loading and unloading positions, i.e. in the highest and lowest position of the conveying vessel in the shaft, projecting rollers run on the back of the conveying basket on solid control curve paths. Rods connected to the rollers move the stop lever in the conveying vessel back against spring tensions. A barrel can be tipped out below or a new barrel can be loaded above. The tipping of he roller framework (at the lower end of the shaft) is controlled in the same way. The rolling table of the loading device automatically matches its height to the roller framework in the conveying vessel. A moving arm with contact shoe follows the standing barrel in the conveying vessel and checks its correct position. It takes over its task if the rolling table fails. (ER)

  9. [Hair shaft anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H

    1997-06-01

    Hair shaft disorders lead to brittle and uncombable hair. As a rule the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may present as localized of generalized alterations. Genetic predisposition and exogenous factors are able to produce hair shaft abnormalities. The most important examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Treatment of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important.

  10. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  11. Shaft Current Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rabuzin, Tin

    2015-01-01

    Shaft current protection in hydro and turbo generators is an important generatorprotection issue. Currents owing in the generator shaft might damagegenerator bearings which, in turn, could reduce operating time and cause largenancial losses. Therefore, it is important to prevent operation of the generatorunder conditions of high shaft currents.In this project, task was to develop measurement and protection system thatis able to operate under certain conditions. Measurement device has to be ab...

  12. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  14. Femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The femur is the longest, largest, and strongest bone in the body. Because of its length, width, and role as primary weight-bearing bone, it must tolerate the extremes of axial loading and angulatory stresses. Massive musculature envelopes the femur. This masculature provides abundant blood supply to the bone, which also allows great potential for healing. Thus, the most significant problem relating to femoral shaft fractures is not healing, but restoration of bone length and alignment so that the femoral shaft will tolerate the functional stresses demanded of it

  15. Tibial shaft fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter

    The overall purpose of the present PhD thesis was to provide up-to-date information of the epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures and to investigate the development in quality of life, pain and functional outcomes from surgery and onwards, following a tibial shaft fracture treated with...... intramedullary nailing. Study I reported an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year from a complete population. Study II reported the long-term patient-reported outcomes and showed that approximately 8 years after the fracture patients reported significantly worse outcome for 4 of the 5 KOOS subscales compared to the...... IV also showed a significant worse outcome in 3 of the 5 KOOS subscales compared to a reference population at 12-months follow-up. Moreover, this study showed that increasing difference in muscle strength for knee extension between legs was associated with a decreasing QOL. The results of this thesis...

  16. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical...

  17. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  18. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  19. Exploratory Shaft test portholes configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portholes are required at strategic locations in the Exploratory Shaft liner to facilitate borehole drilling and testing of the surrounding rock formations. Borehole drilling and testing through portholes will assist in determining effective grout seal between casting and rock; obtaining grout and rock samples for visual and laboratory testing; performance of hydrologic, geologic, and geomechanical tests in situ; and determining water inflow prior to breakout at the selected shaft station horizon. 3 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  1. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs

  2. Contact problems for needle bearing of cardan shaft in high speed EMUs%高速动车组万向轴滚针轴承接触问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春平; 常锦昕; 唐斌

    2009-01-01

    鉴于经典Hertz接触理论的局限性,基于有限元方法,应用ANSYS建立十字轴万向节传动轴滚针轴承的非线性接触模型,求解了滚针轴承的接触穿透值及接触应力.结果表明:应用ANSYS计算分析滚针轴承的接触问题是可行的,其结果较符合滚针轴承受力变形后的实际情况.求得的滚针轴承的接触穿透值及接触应力的分布情况为滚针轴承设计及轴承失效形式分析提供了一定的理论依据.

  3. Theoretical Analysis of the Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajneswar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the dynamic response of a steel shaft which is fixed at both ends by bearing. The shaft is subjected to both axial and bending loads. The behavior of the shaft in the presence of two transverse cracks subjected to the same angular position along longitudinal direction is observed by taking basic parameters such as nondimensional depth (bi/D, nondimensional length (Li/L, and three relative natural frequencies with their relative mode shapes. The compliance matrix is calculated from the stress intensity factor for two degrees of freedom. The dynamic nature of the cracked shaft at two cracked locations at a different depth is observed. The compliance matrix is a function of crack parameters such as depth and location of crack from any one of the bearings. The three relative natural frequencies and their mode shapes at a different location and depth obtained analytical and experimental method. Multiple adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (MANFIS methodology (an inverse technique is used for locating the cracks at any depth and location. The input of the MANFIS is provided with the first three natural frequencies and the first three mode shapes obtained from analytical method. The predicted result of the MANFIS (relative crack location and depth has been validated using the results from the developed experimental setup.

  4. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts

  5. Vibration Analysis of Hollow Tapered Shaft Rotor

    OpenAIRE

    P. M. G. Bashir Asdaque; Behera, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    Shafts or circular cross-section beams are important parts of rotating systems and their geometries play important role in rotor dynamics. Hollow tapered shaft rotors with uniform thickness and uniform bore are considered. Critical speeds or whirling frequency conditions are computed using transfer matrix method and then the results were compared using finite element method. For particular shaft lengths and rotating speeds, response of the hollow tapered shaft-rotor system is determined for t...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be...

  7. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19102 Shaft guides. A means shall...

  8. Wakes of idealized propeller shafts with sleeves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hally, D. [Defence R and D Canada - Atlantic, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia (Canada)]. E-mail: david.hally@drdc-rddc.gc.ca

    2005-07-01

    The rotation of a bare propeller shaft on a twin screw ship can have a significant effect on the flow into the propeller plane, with consequent effects on the propeller efficiency and cavitation characteristics. TRANSOM, the DRDC Atlantic flow solver, was used to determine whether covering the shaft with a nonrotating sleeve along part of its length would improve the propeller inflow. Two sets of calculations were performed. In the first a semi-infinite cylindrical shaft protruded from a flat plate. The shaft was covered along part of its length by a zero thickness stationary sleeve. To gain an understanding of the effects of the diameter of the sleeve relative to the shaft, a second set of calculations was performed in which the diameter of the sleeve was larger than that of the shaft. To avoid complications in gridding this configuration, the flat plate was removed; the shaft was infinite in both directions with a change in radius and a change from non-rotating to rotating in the middle. These calculations suggest that a sleeve will reduce the wake fraction in the propeller disk by delaying the formation of a vortex that entrains velocity deficit from the hull boundary layer. The sleeve also keeps the entrained velocity deficit closer to the shaft where it is less likely to induce cavitation. As the mismatch in radii of the sleeve and shaft increases, the entrained velocity deficit increases, so thinner sleeves should be preferred. (author)

  9. Ultrasonic test of highly stressed gear shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiner, T. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Muelheim (Germany); Heinrich, W. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, KWU, Berlin (Germany); Achtzehn, J. [Siemens AG, Power Generation, ICVW, Erlangen (Germany); Hensley, H. [Siemens Power Generation (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In the power plant industry, gears are used for increasingly higher turbine capacities. Efficiency enhancements, particularly for the combined gas and steam turbine process, lead to an increase in stresses, even for high-performance gears. Consequently, the requirements for non-destructive material testing are on the increase as well. At Siemens KWU, high-performance gears are used so far only for gas turbines with lower rating (65 MW) to adapt the gas turbine speed (5413 rpm) to the generator speed (3000 rpm/ 50 Hz or 3600 rpm/60 Hz). The gear train consists of a forged and case-hardened wheel shaft and pinion shaft made of material 17 CrNiMo 6, where the wheel shaft can be either a solid or a hollow shaft. Dimensions are typically 2.3 m length and 1 m diameter. As a rule, pinion shafts are solid. The gear design, calling for an additional torsion shaft turning inside the hollow wheel shaft, can absorb more torsional load surges and is more tolerant of deviations during gear train alignment. This design requires two additional forgings (torsion shaft and hub) and an additional bearing 2 refs.

  10. Repository shafts relocation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to reconfigure the sub-surface layout so as to move the shaft pillar out of the area of the probable maximum flood (PMF). The reconfiguration consisted of two major changes in the layout. First, two emplacement entries at the south end of the repository were moved into an area west of the shaft pillar. Secondly, the width of the shaft pillar was reduced from 1800 ft to 1200 ft. This change was based on more detailed scoping studies than had been conducted during SCP-CD. Finite element analysis and calculation of shaft pillar size by empirical methods, data evaluation from operating evaporite mines, thermomechanical analysis, and review of damaged mine shafts all went into this scoping study. It was assumed that there are tolerable vertical and horizontal displacements to shaft linings and surface facilities and that these structures can be designed and constructed to withstand these deformations. In a preliminary revised underground layout, the exploratory shafts (ESs) were 369 ft west of the locations identified in the Draft Environmental Assessment (DEA). However, there was a desire to keep them in the DEA, hence the final Environmental Assessment (EA, DOE, 1986), locations. This was accomplished by moving shaft A and its connecting entries 625 ft to the east and making certain other modifications to the layout. This change would require excavating an additional 40,000 tons of salt and a 1.2 month extension of pre-emplacement development activity. 12 ref., 19 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  12. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and compl......Introduction: The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large...... the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher...... frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. Conclusion: This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type...

  13. Epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco Marco Aurélio Sertório

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work an epidemiological analysis on tibial shaft fractures was performed. During four years, our service treated 179 fractures, 132 in male, 47 in female, aged 14 to 83 years. The 21 to 30-year-old patiens were the more injured. Of these, 120 were open and 59 close fractures of which prevailing cause was road traffic accident. The study based on patients promptuaries analyses and radiographs. The fractures occurred 97 times in the middle third (54.18%; 102 times (56.98% presented simple fragments, and 57 (31.38% oblique lines. We treated close and open fractures, respectively, 48 and 38 cases with plaster cast immobilization; 3 and 67 with external fixation after plaster cast immobilization; 5 and 12 with osteosynthesis by means of plate and screws, and 2 and 3 with external fixation only. In both close and open fractures, respectively, 7 and 20 cases of pseudarthrosis and 1 and 11 of infections have occurred. With the data obtained we verified an actual validity of the epidemiological studies as a contribution for better identifying lesions features and their treatment and complications. This allows proceedings and apprenticeship refinement.

  14. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  15. Stochastic stability of a rotating shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, Ratko; Kozic, Predrag; Mitic, Snezana; Pavlovic, Ivan [University of Nis, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Nis (RS)

    2009-12-15

    The stochastic stability problem of an elastic, balanced rotating shaft subjected to action of axial forces at the ends is studied. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry. The effect of rotatory inertia of the shaft cross-section is included in the present formulation. Each force consists of a constant part and a time-dependent stochastic function. Closed form analytical solutions are obtained for simply supported boundary conditions. By using the direct Liapunov method almost sure asymptotic stability conditions are obtained as the function of stochastic process variance, damping coefficient, damping ratio, angular velocity, mode number and geometric and physical parameters of the shaft. Numerical calculations are performed for the Gaussian process with a zero mean and as well as an harmonic process with random phase. (orig.)

  16. 30 CFR 57.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 57.19109 Section 57.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 57.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  17. 30 CFR 56.19109 - Shaft inspection and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft inspection and repair. 56.19109 Section 56.19109 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Shafts § 56.19109 Shaft inspection and repair. Shaft inspection and repair work in vertical...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1911 Ventilation of slopes and shafts. (a) All slopes and... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by...

  19. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following sha...

  20. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND SHAFT SEALING MEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A description is given of sealing means between a hollow rotatable shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft which defines therewith a sealing space of annular cross-section, comprising a plurality of axially spaced rings held against seats by ring springs which serve to subdivide the sealing space- into a plurality of zones. Process gas introduced into the hollow shaft through a port communicating with a centrally located zone which iu turn communicates with a bore in the sleeve, is removed from the shaft through a second port communicating with an adjacent central zone and discharged through a second bore. A sealant gas is supplied to an end zone under a pressure sufficient to cause it to flow axially into adjacent zones and then maintained at a lower pressure than either the sealant gas source or the process gas inlet zone, preventing the sealant gas from entering the shaft and allowing gases leaking into the sealant gas to be withdrawn and led to a separator.

  1. Instability of asymmetric continuous shaft system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinath, R.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sekhar, A. S.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the governing equation of asymmetric continuous shaft in inertial frame of reference is studied. In particular, determination of the parameter ranges for the stability or instability of the shaft response is the focus of the present work. The governing equations are a fourth-order coupled partial differential equations containing time dependent coefficients. The equations are non-dimensionalized in terms of two parameters related to the average moment of inertia and the difference of moments of inertia about the principal axes. Using the latter as the asymptotic parameter and employing modal superposition, a formal methodology based on perturbation methods is developed to ascertain the stability and instability characteristics. The methodology is applicable to shafts subjected to some of the classical boundary conditions viz. simply supported, cantilever, and fixed-fixed. Similar stability curves are obtained for each mode for these different boundary conditions. The novel non-dimensionalization scheme chosen leads to the stability boundaries as well as the loci of varying speeds to be in the form of straight lines. The intersection of these lines determine the stable and unstable speed ranges of different asymmetric shafts. The results are generalized for different material and geometric properties of the shaft.

  2. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  3. Inductive heating and quenching of planetary shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kosec

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: High mechanical and temperature cyclic loading of the final products for automotive, construction, transport and agriculture mechanization industry, demands sufficient mechanical properties of all of their components during its exploitation. Majority of the components is made from steel, by different cold forming processes. Their main demanded characteristics are surface wear resistance and fatigue strength under pulsating stress in combination with cyclic temperature loading, which could be achieved only by appropriate heat treatment.Design/methodology/approach: In the experimental part of our work, the efficiency of the combined inductive heating and water quenching heat treatment and quality of the planetary shafts were analyzed, with the use of thermographic analysis, hardness measurements, and metallographic examination.Findings: Combination of inductive heating and water quenching is the most effective heat treatment process of carbon steel planetary shafts for the diesel engine starters.Research limitations/implications: Long life span of carbon steel planetary shafts it's essential for their economical production. The replacement of starter is expensive from both: money and working time point of view.Practical implications: Surface temperature measurements during the inductive heating process were realized in the industrial environment. The intensity and homogeneity of the planetary shaft surface temperature field was measured by thermographic camera.Originality/value: On the base of theoretical knowledge and measurements, a mathematical model for temperature conditions determination in the shaft during the entire process of heating and quenching was carried out. On the basis of developed mathematical model a computer program was worked out, and used for analyses and optimization of planetary shafts induction hardening process.

  4. External fixation of complex femoral shaft fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Zlowodzki, M; Prakash, J. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.

    2006-01-01

    Conversion of temporary external fixation to an intramedullary nail within the first 2 weeks after a femoral shaft fracture is standard practice. However, due to financial constraints, in large parts of the world external fixation of femoral shaft fractures is often the definitive treatment. Out of 60 fractures, 47 were followed-up for a minimum period of 39 weeks. The average follow-up time was 75 weeks. Fourteen fractures were closed, and 33 open. Forty-four fractures united at an average o...

  5. Shaft Grouting HATS2A Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Strøm, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I have been following 5 grouting rounds at Cyberport shaft and 4 grouting rounds at Sandy Bay shaft.There were some communication problems between the grouting team and the geologists, resulting in missing water inflow measurements.The rock quality was very poor (Q-value 0.1 – 1), with coarse ash tuff as the most common rock mass in Cyberport, and rhyolitic tuff as the most common rock mass in Sandy Bay. The Q-values were below 1, with Cyberport just a bit higher than Sandy Bay...

  6. Hair shaft abnormalities--clues to diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, Peter H; Fistarol, Susanna K

    2005-01-01

    Hair dysplasias are congenital or acquired alterations which often involve the hair shaft. Hair shaft abnormalities are characterized by changes in color, density, length and structure. Hair shaft alterations often result from structural changes within the hair fibers and cuticles which may lead to brittle and uncombable hair. The hair of patients with hair shaft diseases feels dry and looks lusterless. Hair shaft diseases may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. Hair shaft diseases are separated into those with and those without increased hair fragility. In general, optic microscopy and polarized light microscopy of hair shafts provide important clues to the diagnosis of isolated hair shaft abnormalities or complex syndromes. To establish an exact diagnosis of dysplastic hair shafts, a structured history and physical examination of the whole patient are needed which emphasizes other skin appendages such as the nails, sweat and sebaceous glands. Profound knowledge on hair biology and embryology is necessary to understand the different symptom complexes. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus on the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as drying hair with an electric dryer or permanent waves and dyes, is important. A short hairstyle is more suitable for patients with hair shaft disorders.

  7. Failure Analysis and Redesign of Shaft of Overhead Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit P. Raut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the failure analysis and redesign of shaft of overhead crane having capacity 25 tonne. There is problem of failure of the shaft in gear box which is mounted on the crane. The shaft breakage occurred due to dynamic, alternating low tensile– compressive stresses and simultaneous torsional load. An overhead crane is mechanical equipment for lifting and lowering a load and moving it horizontally, with the hoisting mechanism which is an integral part of the machine. To carry out the failure analysis of shaft it is necessary to model the shaft in any modelling software like PRO-E, CATIA etc. Then analysis of existing shaft is done analytically and with ANSYS11. The shaft is then redesigned with suitable material available in data book of machine design and then analysis of new design of shaft is done with the help of ANSYS-11 software.

  8. FORMATION OF SHAFT SPLINES USING ROLLING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sidorenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes design of rolling heads used for cold rolling of straight-sided splines on shafts and presents theoretical principles of this process. These principles make it possible to calculate an effort which is required for pushing billet through rolling-on rolls with due account of metal hardening during deformation.

  9. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  10. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  11. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  12. Humeral shaft fracture with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Behera Prateek; Kumar Vishal; Aggarwal Sameer

    2014-01-01

    【Abstract】Although fracture of the humeral shaft or dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common injury, a simutaneous injury is rare. We present such a case combined with head injury which took precedence over the skeletal injuries. The postoperative rehabilitation was slowed down by the head injury. This case report makes us aware of some problems when managing the patient with this rare injury and helps us understand the management options better. Also the need for proper follow-up ...

  13. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  14. Experimental Analysis of a Vertical Drop Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Del Giudice

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign is undertaken in order to investigate the hydraulic features of a vertical drop shaft, also considering the influence of a venting system consisting of a coaxial vertical pipe, projecting within the drop shaft with different plunging rates. Three different flow regimes are observed: a “weir flow” for very low head values, where the flow profile is subject to the atmospheric pressure; a “full flow” for high head values, where water flows in a pressurized regime along the whole shaft; and a “transitional flow” for intermediate water head values. Weir flow and full flow can be experimentally investigated under steady-state conditions, whereas transitional flow is a pulsating condition, alternately switching from full flow to weir flow. Considering some significant geometric parameters, a head-discharge relation is sought both for the non-vented and for the vented configurations, by means of an energy balance equation, with specific assumptions about intake losses.

  15. Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  17. Hydrodynamics of fermenter with multi-shaft stirrer

    OpenAIRE

    Закоморний, Дмитро Миколайович; Кутовий, Михайло Григорович; Костик, Сергій Ігорович; Поводзинський, Вадим Миколайович; Шибецький, Владислав Юрійович

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on computer modeling of the hydrodynamic conditions in the fermenter with one-shaft and many-shafts mixing devices. On the basis of the research the features of formation of the vortex was found. Comparative analysis of hydrodynamic fluid flows that arising in volume by the usage of mixing devices of various designs was conducted. A modern design of many-shafts fermenter with avoidance of origin of vortex was made

  18. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2015-01-01

    An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM) along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile thro...

  19. Humeral shaft fracture with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prateek Behera; Vishal Kumar; Sameer Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Although fracture of the humeral shaft or dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common injury,a simutaneous injury is rare.We present such a case combined with head injury which took precedence over the skeletal injuries.The postoperative rehabilitation was slowed down by the head injury.This case report makes us aware of some problems when managing the patient with this rare injury and helps us understand the management options better.Also the need for proper follow-up and rehabilitation is emphasized.

  20. Humeral shaft fracture with ipsilateral shoulder dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behera Prateek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Although fracture of the humeral shaft or dislocation of the shoulder joint is a common injury, a simutaneous injury is rare. We present such a case combined with head injury which took precedence over the skeletal injuries. The postoperative rehabilitation was slowed down by the head injury. This case report makes us aware of some problems when managing the patient with this rare injury and helps us understand the management options better. Also the need for proper follow-up and rehabilitation is emphasized.

  1. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  2. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  3. The composite shaft management system at Rufford Colliery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, T.J.; Wootton, A.P. (British Coal Corporation, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    This paper illustrates how British Coal at Rufford Colliery has replaced the existing multitude of shaft control systems with one rationalised shaft management system which provides an integrated shaft signals, shaft interlocks/push button winding and shaftside control system using a new intrinsically safe distributed plc. The colliery electrical engineer puts forward his practical reasons for updating the existing system in this particular manner, which has resulted in the first mine in the UK to achieve such a high level of integrated shaft control. Westinghouse Systems explains how this level of integration has been achieved and why it is both wise and necessary to pursue this course. The paper aims to highlight the problems facing management in monitoring safe, efficient, reliable shaft operations with limited manpower and minimum-downtime. It shows how this solution to modern day shaft controls provides constant health monitoring and the supply of management information to the colliery information system. In essence the shaft management system takes control from the winder to the extremities of the shaftside equipment. 1 fig.

  4. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    OpenAIRE

    Radha; Ravi Shankar; Naveen; Roopa

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to ...

  5. Performance of meta power rotor shaft torque meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt Paulsen, U.

    2002-01-01

    The present report describes the novel experimental facility in detecting shaft torque in the transmission system (main rotor shaft, exit stage of gearbox) of a wind turbine, the results and the perspectives in using this concept. The measurements arecompared with measurements, based on existing ...

  6. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  7. Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures: An overlooked association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 304 patients with injuries to the femoral shaft and ipsilateral hip presented between 1984 and 1990. Some 253 of them suffered fractures of the femoral shaft and dislocated hips or fractures of the acetabulum, and 51 of these sustained fractures of the femoral shaft and neck or trochanteric region. All of the trochanteric injuries were demonstrated on the initial radiographs. However, in 11 of the patients with combined femoral shaft and neck fractures, the diagnosis was delayed by as much as 4 weeks. This delay related to the fact that these fractures tended not to separate in the initial evaluation period and that there was external rotation of the proximal femoral fragment due to the femoral shaft fracture. (orig./GDG)

  8. Design Analysis of an Automotive Composite Drive Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Hossain

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Automotive drive Shaft is a very important components of vehicle. The present paper focuses on the design of such an automotive drive shat by composite materials. Now a days two pieces steel shaft are used as drive shaft. However, the main advantages of the present design is;only one piece of composite drive shat is possible that fulfil allthe requirements of drive shaft. Two different designs are proposed, one is purely from Graphite/Epoxy lamina and other is using Aluminum with Graphite/Epoxy. The basic requirements considered here are torsional strength, torsional buckling and bending natural frequency. An optimum design of the draft shaft is done, which is cheapest and lightest but meets all of the above load requirements. Progressive failure analysis of the selected design is also done.

  9. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 and described further in 1972. Several authors have refined this method over...... the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid seventies...... Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work...

  10. Shaft Inflation and the Planck satellite observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    A new family of inflation models is introduced and studied. The models are characterised by a scalar potential which, far from the origin, approaches an inflationary plateau in a power-law manner, while near the origin becomes monomial, as in chaotic inflation. The models are obtained in the context of global supersymmetry starting with a superpotential, which interpolates from a generalised monomial to an O'Raifearteagh form for small to large values of the inflaton field respectively. It is demonstrated that the observables obtained, such as the scalar spectral index, its running and the tensor to scalar ratio, are in excellent agreement with the latest observations, without any fine-tuning. Moreover, by widening mildly the shaft in field space, it is shown that sizable tensors can be generated, which may well be observable in the near future.

  11. Exploratory Shaft Facility quality assurance impact evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report addresses the impact of the quality assurance practices used for the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) design, and construction in licensing as part of the repository. Acceptance criteria used for evaluating the suitability of ESF QA practices are based on documents that had not been invoked for repository design or construction activities at the time of this evaluation. This report identifies the QA practices necessary for ESF design and construction licensability. A review and evaluation of QA practices for ESF design and construction resulted in the following conclusions. QA practices were found to be acceptable with a few exceptions. QA practices for construction activities were found to be insufficiently documented in implementing procedures to allow a full and effective evaluation for licensing purposes. Recommendations are provided for mitigating impacts to ensure compatibility of the QA practices with those considered necessary for repository licensing. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisley Susan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8% of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29 and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8% were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8% by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3% with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction.

  13. A study on centrifugal charaging pump shaft failure investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, S. D.; Kim, B. K. [KEPCO, Woolsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    Pump shafts in the centrifugal charging safety injection pumps in PWRs have been subject to occasional failures over the past several years. Service experience showed that the pump shaft failures can result in significant emergency repair and maintenance costs to the plant. Metallurgical investigations of the pump shafts fabricated prior to 1977 confirmed that the cracking was initiated at stress concentrations sitcs, such as a locknut thread root or a split ring groove, and progressed by a high cycle fatigue mechanism. Westinghouse implemented a series of improvements and upgrades to increase the safety margins and to mitigate the effect of the off-design operating conditions. These included design enhancements as well as material condition (heat treatment) modifications. The pump shaft upgrading program significantly improved the design life of the shafts but did not fully mitigate the issue. Investigation of recent failures of the upgraded shafts suggested that these failures are initiated by a combination of off-design loading events such as loss of flow or gas binding and a reduction of pump shaft resistance to cracking due to the aqueous environmental conditions.

  14. EVALUATION OF NECK SHAFT ANGLE OF FEMUR ON DRY BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the neck shaft angle of femur helps to understand clinical relevance in bio mechanics of the hip joint. It helps for the better treatment of different pathological conditions of hip and femur and also to design prosthesis. Femoral neck shaft angle is important to convey the information regarding the race to which they belong. Hence the present study was under taken to determine the neck shaft angle of femur in humans. OBJECTIVE: 1. To correct the different types of deformity and to have a normal good walking Mechanism. 2. To know the recent methodology and attempt to evaluate the range of normal Angles of femora and their sex differences. METHODS: ANTHROPOMETRIC: 100 Adult dry bones were studied and analyzed . The neck shaft angle of femur was measured by tracing outlines of contours of all femora. RESULTS: The neck shaft angle of the femur have revealed that there is no much difference in between males and females. There was slightly higher 0.2° in females. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: There was no significant gender difference in neck shaft angle. The Knowledge of knowing the neck shaft angle helps to understand the Biomechanics of the hip joint and also for better treatment of pathological condition of hip and femur.

  15. Construction features of the Exploratory Shaft at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1,480-foot-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 feet, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 feet from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2,300 feet from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1,480 feet and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1,200 feet consists of the equivalent of 1,150 feet of 15- by 15-foot drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Such techniques generally classified as ''smooth blasting'' are commonly used for excavation in the construction industry

  16. An alternative method of osteosynthesis for distal humeral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jonathan C; Kalandiak, Steven P; Hutson, James J; Zych, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    Treatment of extra-articular distal humerus shaft fractures with plating techniques is often difficult, as traditional centrally located posterior plates often encroach on the olecranon fossa, limiting distal osseous fixation. The use of a modified Synthes Lateral Tibial Head Buttress Plate (Synthes, Paoli, PA) allows for a centrally placed posterior plating of the humeral shaft that angles anatomically along the lateral column to treat far distal humeral shaft fractures. Fifteen patients treated in this manner were followed to radiographic and clinical union. There were no cases of instrumentation failure or loss of reduction.

  17. Investigation on collapse mechanism of super-deep vertical shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent interests in the development of deep underground facilities have been drawing significant attention for the importance of vertical shafts at great depth. However, due to shrinkage of domestic coal production, any deep shafts in the order of 1000m have not been constructed in more than 20 years. For the purposes of technical transfer and establishment of fundamentals for rational design method of vertical shafts, intensive literature review and interviews to engineers with relevant experiences were conducted. As the results, there are two distinctive modes of failure mechanism originated by the common cause, that is 'takanuke' collapse and lining failure due to unexpected earth pressure. (author)

  18. Mechanical Deformation of Ship Stern-Shaft Mechanical Face Seals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱汉华; 刘正林; 温诗铸; 严新平

    2004-01-01

    In ship propeller shaft systems, the shaft seal is a mechanical face seal, which includes a stationary metal seal ring and a rotating ring.The seal faces are deformed with different loads.The deformation of the seal faces affects the performance of mechanical face seals, which leads to water leakage, so the seal face deformation must be analyzed.A mechanics model with deformation equations was developed to describe ship stern-shaft seals.An example was given to verify the deformation equations.The solution of the deformation equations gives a theoretical basis for the analysis of seal leakage and improvements of seal structures.

  19. Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James D.

    1996-01-01

    SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

  20. Predicting remaining life in upper sugar-mill shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rodríguez Pulecio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A fracture mechanics-based method is presented for determining critical crack size and residual life of upper sugar-mill shafts having semi-elliptical and circumferential cracks. Due to the multiaxial stress field, an equivalent strain energy release rate stress intensity solution is used in Paris’ law to predict crack growth. Ultrasonic inspection intervals for the shaft were established. The crack zone evaluated was located in the shoulder of the bearing nearest to the square box coupling where about 25% of service failures in these types of shaft are observed.

  1. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Bombara, David; Green, Kevin E.; Bird, Connic; Holowczak, John

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  2. Design of the shaft lining and shaft stations for deep polymetallic ore deposits: Victoria Mine case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Fabich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to properly design a shaft it is necessary to acquire full information about the rock mass in the exploration area. It is especially crucial in the case of the deposit of an unusual vertical intrusion shape, occurring at a great depth. Such a situation implies that the shaft lining design must take into consideration not only the geomechanical properties of the rock mass but also the virgin stresses (often having significant values. In this paper, the methodology of the shaft lining and shaft station lining design for a deep shaft is presented based on the Victoria Mine located in Canada. Taking into consideration the geological structure as well as the results of the laboratory tests, the properties of the rock mass were derived. Next, the numerical calculation was performed based on the elasto-plastic model of the rock mass. The numerical analysis consisted of simulation of the multistage technology of the shaft excavation and lining execution. This allowed to estimate the forces in rock bolts of the temporary ground support as well as stresses in the final concrete lining of the shaft.

  3. Gas Flow Distribution in Pelletizing Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; DONG Hui; WANG Guo-sheng; YANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Through thermal test, cold state experiment, analysis and simulation of thermal process, the gas flow distribution in pelletizing shaft furnace (PSF) was discussed. The results show that there are five flowing trends; among them, the downward roasting gas and the upward cooling gas are the most unsteady, which influence flow distribution greatly. Among the operating parameters, the ratio of inflow is a key factor affecting the flow distribution. The roasting and cooling gases will entirely flow into the roasting zone and internal vertical air channels (IVAC), respectively, if the ratio of inflow is critical. From such a critical operating condition increasing roasting gas flow or decreasing cooling gas flow, the roasting gas starts flowing downwards so as to enter the inside of IVAC; the greater the ratio of inflow, the larger the downward flowrate. Among constructional parameters, the width of roasting zone b1, width of IVAC b2 and width of cooling zone b3, and the height of roasting zone h1, height of soaking zone h2 and height of cooling zone h3 are the main factors affecting flow distribution. In case the ratio of b2/b1, or h3/h2, or h1/h2 is increased, the upward cooling gas tends to decrease while the downward roasting gas tends to increase with a gradual decrease in the ratio of inflow.

  4. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this method...... over the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund [5]published an approach to ¯nd the dynamic coe±cients of a journal bearing by a ¯rst order perturbation of the Reynold's equation. These coe±cients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid...... seventies Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coe±cients of the bearing could be used to ¯nd the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for ¯nding the damping coe±cients in this work...

  5. ESF [Exploratory Shaft Facility] flexibility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report directs that uncertainty allowances be included within the ESF facilities. The recommendations herein developed are intended as input to Title II Design criteria. Flexibility is measured first by lineal ft of drift, and then by hoisting rate and capacity of supporting utilities and services. A defined probability of need shows an extra 10,000 ft of drift for the first level of flexibility responding to testing and operations, and over 60,000 ft of drift for the second level of flexibility which recognizes possible need for perimeter drifting to investigate geologic stratigraphy. Observing there will be time constraints, a single shaft muck hoisting rate up to 170 to 250 tons per hour is recommended. The potential hoisting rate recommended for flexibility should be satisfied by a hoist approximately equivalent to, or conveniently upgraded from those being considered for sinking and construction, or 1000 horsepower. The cost of flexibility is limited to engineering planning and design (mostly conceptual) which makes later expansion achievable, and to selected items for initial construction where later upgrading would be impractical, impossible, or very costly. The cost is fixed to the level of flexibility and does not vary with excavated footage. The incremental margin is only a small fraction of the additional footage made available. Flexibility presents a strategy and not a position of design or technology. Examples used in this report are intended to be illustrative only, and not to lead design or cost estimates. 7 tabs

  6. Mechanism of Reinforcement on Inwall of Coal Mine Shaft Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinlong Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the theory of elasticity, the analytic solution of temperature stress on shaft wall of coal mine with reinforcement on inwall is deduced. It is shown that with the increment of reinforcement stress Pa, the radial compressive stress &sigmar become larger, the vertical compressive stress &sigmaz become less, while the circumferential stress &sigma &theta changed from compressive stress to tensile stress. The stability of shaft wall enhanced with vertical stress reduced by reinforcement on inwall of shaft wall. Compressive steel plate could be used to reinforce the inwall, characterized with low-cost, short time and construction easy. While the intelligent equipment should be developed further to provide everlasting and greater reinforcement on in wall of coal mine shaft wall.

  7. Shaft Crack Identification Based on Vibration and AE Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxiu Lu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft crack is one of the main serious malfunctions that often occur in rotating machinery. However, it is difficult to locate the crack and determine the depth of the crack. In this paper, the acoustic emission (AE signal and vibration response are used to diagnose the crack. The wavelet transform is applied to AE signal to decompose into a series of time-domain signals, each of which covers a specific octave frequency band. Then an improved union method based on threshold and cross-correlation method is applied to detect the location of the shaft crack. The finite element method is used to build the model of the cracked rotor, and the crack depth is identified by comparing the vibration response of experiment and simulation. The experimental results show that the AE signal is effective and convenient to locate the shaft crack, and the vibration signal is feasible to determine the depth of shaft crack.

  8. Nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller/shaft assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pump is described comprising: (a) a casing having an inlet and an outlet in fluid communication for circulating fluid coolant through the pump; (b) a shaft positioned in the casing; (c) an impeller nut connected to the shaft; (d) a lockbolt fixedly connecting the impeller nut relative to the shaft; (e) passageway means with first and second ends for directing fluid from the lockbolt to the shaft; (f) first conduit means formed in the impeller nut in fluid communication with the first end of the passageway means and the inlet of the casing; and (g) second conduit means formed in the impeller nut in fluid communication with the second end of the passageway means and the outlet of the casing. A portion of the fluid coolant circulating through the inlet of the casing is pumped through the first conduit means, through the passageway means, out the second conduit means and into the outlet of the casing

  9. Optimization Design of Cardan Universal Joint Driving of Automotive Steering System%汽车转向系统十字轴万向节传动优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国强; 岳红旭

    2011-01-01

    转向力是汽车操纵稳定性中一项重要的评价指标,其力矩波动直接影响驾驶感觉。文章对汽车转向轴的布置与力矩波动的关系进行了分析,并针对某车型转向系统的十字轴万向节结构进行优化设计。优化结果在matlab软件里仿真,得到较好的结果,波动力矩在允许的范围内。并得出最佳的中间轴相位角及轴系布置方案,对转向系统的优化设计有一定的参考价值,可作为实际车型开发中传动优化设计的技术依据。%Steering force is a very important evaluation index in vehicle controll stability;the torque fluctuation directly affects driving feeling.The relationship between the steering shaft arrangement and torque fluctuations is analyzed,and optimization design of cross axis universal structure in a car steering system is conducted.The optimization results are simulated in Matlab software and better results are achieved.The fluctuation torque is in permitted range.The best countershaft phase angle and shafting arrangement solution is gained.It provides reference for optimization design of steering system;and it can be used as technical basis of transmission optimization design in developing automobiles.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. 77.1900... COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1900 Slopes and shafts; approval of plans. (a) Each operator of... slope or shaft that is commenced or extended after June 30, 1971. The plan shall be consistent...

  11. Analysis of fatigue transverse cracks in turbine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a safety control of the low pressure turbines CP0/CP1 shafts, some transverse cracks have been identified. In a first step, the crack propagation has been studied by the following three actions: improvement of the control methods, material characterization to calculate the crack propagation threshold taking into account the operating conditions, a 3-D numerical analysis of the shaft solicitations with the calculation of KI KII KIII for the crack propagation estimation. (A.L.B.)

  12. Nuclear reactor coolant pump impeller/shaft assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear reactor coolant pump including an impeller and impeller mounting bolt with a plurality of passages formed in the impeller mounting bolt adjacent a portion of the shaft in such a manner that the coolant is effectively pumped through the passegeways to heat the shaft to a temperature approximately equal to that of the impeller, thus creating thermal balance of the pump's component parts and providing improved pump efficiency

  13. ANALYSIS OF VIBRATION DAMPING IN PROPELLER SHAFT USING VISCOELASTIC POLYMERS

    OpenAIRE

    J.Suresh Kumar*; G.V. Pradeep Varma

    2016-01-01

    This project work expresses the difference between the structures with and without damping material.  The effect of damping on the performance of isotropic (steel) and orthotropic (Carbon Epoxy) structures is to be analysed by using Finite Element Analysis.  The values of damping factor, fundamental natural frequency and the static deflection for Steel Shaft, Carbon Epoxy Shaft and are to be compared with and without viscoelastic polymer (Rubber).   A new composite damp...

  14. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs

  16. Treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-qiang; HAN Yi-sheng; LI Xin-kui; LI Ming-quan; WEI Yi-yong; WU Zi-xiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment options and causes of misdiagnosis of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. Methods: Among 20 patients with ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, 19 were treated operatively and 1 was treated conservatively. Sixteen cases of femoral shaft fractures were treated by open reduction and internal fixation with compressive plate, and 2 cases were treated with interlocking intramedullary nailing. Eighteen femoral neck fractures were treated with cannulated screws. Another patient was treated with proximal femoral nail to fix both the neck and shaft. Delayed diagnosis for femoral neck frac tures occurred in 2 cases preoperatively. Results: A total of 19 patients were followed up. The follow up period ranged from 5 to 48 months with an average of 15 months. All the fractures were healed. Conclusion: For case of femoral shaft fracture caused by high energy injury, an AP pelvic film should be routinely taken. Once the femoral neck fracture is recognized, operative reduction and fixation should be performed in time. Femoral neck and shaft fractures should be fixed separately.

  17. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of nonunions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tibia shaft fractures (TSF are common for men and women and cause substantial morbidity, healthcare use, and costs. The impact of nonunions on healthcare use and costs is poorly described. Our goal was to investigate patient characteristics and healthcare use and costs associated with TSF in patients with and without nonunion. Methods We retrospectively analyzed medical claims in large U.S. managed care claims databases (Thomson Reuters MarketScan®, 16 million lives. We studied patients ≥ 18 years old with a TSF diagnosis (ICD-9 codes: 823.20, 823.22, 823.30, 823.32 in 2006 with continuous pharmaceutical and medical benefit enrollment 1 year prior and 2 years post-fracture. Nonunion was defined by ICD-9 code 733.82 (after the TSF date. Results Among the 853 patients with TSF, 99 (12% had nonunion. Patients with nonunion had more comorbidities (30 vs. 21, pre-fracture and were more likely to have their TSF open (87% vs. 70% than those without nonunion. Patients with nonunion were more likely to have additional fractures during the 2-year follow-up (of lower limb [88.9% vs. 69.5%, P  Conclusions Nonunions in TSF’s are associated with substantial healthcare resource use, common use of strong opioids, and high per-patient costs. Open fractures are associated with higher likelihood of nonunion than closed ones. Effective screening of nonunion risk may decrease this morbidity and subsequent healthcare resource use and costs.

  18. Failure analysis of axle shaft of a fork lift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An axle shaft of fork lift failed at operation within 296 h of service. The shaft transmits torque from discrepancy to wheel through planetary gear arrangement. A section of fractured axle shaft made of induction-hardened steel was analyzed to determine the root cause of the failure. Optical microscopies as well as field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM along with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS were carried out to characterize the microstructure. Hardness profile throughout the cross-section was evaluated by micro-hardness measurements. Chemical analysis indicated that the shaft was made of 42CrMo4 steel grade as per specification. Microstructural analysis and micro-hardness profile revealed that the shaft was improperly heat treated resulting in a brittle case, where crack was found to initiate from the case in a brittle mode in contrast to ductile mode within the core. This behaviour was related to differences in microstructure, which was observed to be martensitic within the case with a micro-hardness equivalent to 735 HV, and a mixture of non-homogeneous structure of pearlite and ferrite within the core with a hardness of 210 HV. The analysis suggests that the fracture initiated from the martensitic case as brittle mode due to improper heat treatment process (high hardness. Moreover the inclusions along the hot working direction i.e. in the longitudinal axis made the component more susceptible to failure.

  19. Torsional Vibration of a Shafting System under Electrical Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Torsional vibration responses of a nonlinear shafting system are studied by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix combining with the Newmark-β method. Firstly, the system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, from which a multi-segment lumped mass model is established. Secondly, accumulated errors are eliminated from the eigenfrequencies and responses of the system's torsional vibration by this newly developed procedure. The incremental transfer matrix method, combining the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix with Newmark-β method, is further applied to solve the dynamical equations for the torsional vibration of the nonlinear shafting system. Lastly, the shafting system of a turbine-generator is employed as an illustrating example, and simulation analysis has been performed on the transient responses of the shaft's torsional vibrations during typical power network disturbances, such as three-phase short circuit, two-phase short circuit and asynchronous juxtaposition. The results validate the present method and are instructive for the design of a turbo-generator shaft.

  20. Isolation and Quantification of Glycosaminoglycans from Human Hair Shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonovas, Stefanos; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are present in the hair shaft within the follicle but there are no studies regarding GAGs isolation and measurement in the human hair shaft over the scalp surface, it means, in the free hair shaft. Objective The purpose of our research was to isolate and measure the total GAGs from human free hair shaft. Methods Seventy-five healthy individuals participated in the study, 58 adults, men and women over the age of 50 and 17 children (aged 4~9). GAGs in hair samples, received from the parietal and the occipital areas, were isolated with 4 M guanidine HCl and measured by the uronic acid-carbazole reaction assay. Results GAGs concentration was significantly higher in the occipital area than in the parietal area, in all study groups. GAG levels from both areas were significantly higher in children than in adults. GAG levels were not associated with gender, hair color or type. Conclusion We report the presence of GAGs in the human free hair shaft and the correlation of hair GAG levels with the scalp area and participants' age.

  1. Investigation of water aggressiveness towards concrete shaft lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majzner-Rulka, H.; Durczynski, S.

    1989-09-01

    Considers the corrosive action exerted by water on concrete shaft linings. Several kinds of water aggressiveness are distinguished: sulfate, acidic, carbonate, magnesian, leachate and of the ammonium type. Laboratory and in situ investigations into water aggressiveness towards shaft lining are described and results are presented. Related Polish standards are discussed. Presence of a new kind of water was established in which Mg{sup 2+} ion concentration reaches 4,500 mg/dm{sup 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion concentration exceeds 3,000 mg/dm{sup 3}. Damage to concrete shaft lining caused by aggressive water was found in shafts of several mines in the Upper Silesia coal basin. Investigations into the effect of high Mg{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion concentration in water on concrete shaft lining have been conducted at the Research and Development Department of the Mine Work Enterprise Budokop in Myslowice since 1984. Redrafting of related standards is recommended. 5 refs.

  2. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites

  3. Three Dimensional Modeling of Shaft with Process Structures on CATIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Sheng-lai; WANG Xiao-yu; JIANG Xu; WU You; MENG Xiang-bao

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional models of shaft were completed on CATIA Part Design module with the Chinese national standard (GB) process structures such as chamfers, threads and tool withdrawal grooves, center holes, flat/woodruff/gib head taper keyseats, grinding undercuts, straight-sidedsplines, circlip slots and collars. The modeling steps are arranged in dialog menu interface by VB 6.0, the shaft creator, that permits users input geometric feature based parameters explicitly, and the standardized processdata are reorganized in Excel files that can be invoked correspondingly in the modeling procedure. It is aimed that this process may supply a simple way for shaft rapid modeling and comprehensive discipline for engineering students in their professional design activities.

  4. Coupled exofixator for comminuted fracture of humeral shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红如; 马树林; 尹同珍

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To report and assess the efficacy of a coupled exofixator in the treatment of comminuted fracture of the humeral shaft.Methods: From June 1999 to September 2003, 24 patients with comminuted fracture of the humeral shaft were treated in our department, in whom 11 were involved in left humerus fractures and 13 in right humerus fractures. Closed reduction or open reduction with a small incision as well as a coupled exofixator was used to treat these patients. Results: All cases got anatomical reduction after 6-12 months follow-up. The time for fracture union averaged 5.8 months with a good functional recovery of the shoulder-elbow joints. Conclusions: The coupled exofixator is favorable to the treatment of comminuted humeral shaft fractures. It can shorten union time and avoid nonunion occurrence.

  5. A laser shaft alignment system with dual PSDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Guo-hua; LI Yu-lin; ZHANG Dong-bo; LI Tong-hai; HU Bao-wen

    2006-01-01

    Shaft alignment is an important technique during installation and maintenance of a rotating machine. A high-precision laser alignment system has been designed with dual PSDs (Position Sensing Detector) to change traditional manual way of shaft alignment and to make the measurement easier and more accurate. The system is comprised of two small measuring units (laser transmitter and detector) and a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) with measurement software. The laser alignment system with dual PSDs was improved on a single PSD system, and yields higher measurement accuracy than the previous design, and has been successful for designing and implements actual shaft alignment. In the system, the range of offset measurement is ±4 mm, and the resolution is 1.5 μm, with accuracy being less than 2 μm.

  6. The Laser Shaft Alignment System with Dual PSDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Guohua; LI Yulin; ZHANG Dongbo; LI Tonghai; HU Baowen

    2006-01-01

    Shaft alignment is an important technique during installation and maintenance of a rotating machine. A high-precision laser alignment system has been designed with dual PSDs (Position Sensing Detector) to change traditional manual way of shaft alignment and to make the measurement easier and more accurate. The system is comprised of two small measuring units (laser transmitter and detector) and a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) with the measurement software. The laser alignment system with dual PSDs was improved on a single PSD system, and it gets higher measurement accuracy than the previous design, and it has been succeeded in designing and implement for actual shaft alignment. In the system, the range of offset measurement is ±4 mm, and the resolution is 1.5 μm, and the accuracy is less than 2 μm.

  7. Shaft Excavation in Frozen Ground at Point 5

    CERN Document Server

    Osborne, J

    2000-01-01

    Construction work on the 112 MCHF civil engineering contract started at Point 5 in August 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the CMS detector for the LHC Project. The principal underground works consist of two new shafts, two parallel caverns separated by a supporting pillar, and a number of small connection tunnels and service galleries. The two shafts are to be sunk through approximately 50 m of water-bearing moraine to the underlying molasse rock. From a number of possible construction methods, ground freezing of the moraine was considered to be most appropriate. The ground freezing is used to control the groundwater and to support temporarily the moraine during excavation and lining of the shafts. The aim of this paper is to present the ground-freezing technique and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the system in the light of its first few months of running on the Point 5 site.

  8. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  9. Assessment of shaft safety and management system of controlling engineering information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Rui-xin; Xu Yan-chun [Yanzhou Mining Group Ltd., Zoucheng (China)

    2008-02-15

    Evaluating shaft safety and establishing a system for controlling engineering information is very important because more than 90 shafts in thick alluvial areas suddenly have shaft wall fracturing or breaking problems and there are more than a few hundred shafts of similar geologic conditions. Taking shaft control in the Yangzhou Coal Mining Group as an example, an assessment and management system and related software were established. This system includes basic information of the mine, measurement results and analysis, and functions of empirical and theoretical forecasting and finite element analysis, which are confirmed to be very effective for guiding shaft well control engineering in practice. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Automatic balancing of a rigid rotor with misaligned shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, DJ; Champneys, AR; Friswell, MI; Wilson, RE

    2006-01-01

    We present a nonlinear analysis of the dynamics of an automatic ball balancer (ABB) for rotors which are both eccentric and misaligned. The ABB consists of two or more ball bearings which are free to travel around a circular race at a fixed distance from the shaft. The balls, after a transient response, find a steady state which balances the rotor. Following the previous work of Green et al. at Bristol, we have included the effect of shaft misalignment which causes the rotor to precess. This ...

  11. Granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trap, R; Wiebe, B

    1993-01-01

    A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis.......A case of granuloma annulare localized to the shaft of the penis is reported. The differential diagnoses are discussed. Penile granuloma annulare is a rare disorder and it is concluded that biopsies of penile lesions are recommended to verify the correct diagnosis....

  12. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours

  13. Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlykken, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.

  14. Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack - Regulering af brændselsceller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2009-01-01

    Afsluttende formidling af forskningsresultater i forbindelse med projektet Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack......Afsluttende formidling af forskningsresultater i forbindelse med projektet Fuel Cell Shaft Power Pack...

  15. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  16. Analisa Distribusi Tegangan Eccentric Shaft Stone Crusher Dengan Software Ansys

    OpenAIRE

    Renreng, Ilyas

    2012-01-01

    Analysis ofstress distributionon thestonecrushereccentricshaftsaimedtodetermine the effect ofstresson theeccentricshaftmaterial failure. Onthis topic, the caseis afracture ofthe rockbreaking machineshaft(eccentric shaft) owned by PT. BumiKarsaMakassarprocessesthat resulted incessation ofengine work. Himthatthis research aimsto calculatethe magnitude and locationof criticalstressoccurring along theeccentricshaftsectionanalyzedthe causes offailureKem...

  17. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Experimental study of torsional impact fatigue of shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Ion; Marsavina, Liviu; Faur, Nicolae

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents a methodology to study the fatigue strength of shafts under repeated impacts. The equipment for repeated impacts was designed for torsion tests of shafts for the same loading conditions as in service. The stress concentration effect, due to a fillet radius between square and circular cross-sections of the axle, was emphasized. Five groups of shafts with radius between 0.5 and 3.2 mm from a number of 100 shafts with different notch radius were selected. Based on a model proposed by the authors for defining the energy reduction factor β due to a notch the variation of the notch sensitivity factor η versus fillet radius was analyzed for two different numbers of cycles. It was observed that for a high number of cycles ( N=2×10 6 impacts) the behaviour is similar to that of traditional fatigue tests. Oppositely, at lower number of cycles the particular aspect of the notch sensitivity is highlighted in the limited durability domain.

  19. Nonlinear Normal Modes of a Rotating Shaft Based on the Invariant Manifold Method

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Legrand; Dongying Jiang; Christophe Pierre; Shaw, Steven W.

    2002-01-01

    International audience The nonlinear normal mode methodology is generalized to the study of a rotating shaft supported by two short journal bearings. For rotating shafts, nonlinearities are generated by forces arising from the supporting hydraulic bearings. In this study, the rotating shaft is represented by a linear beam, while a simplified bearing model is employed so that the nonlinear supporting forces can be expressed analytically. The equations of motion of the coupled shaft-bearings...

  20. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  1. LEAST INERTIA APPROACH TO LOW-SPEED MARINE DIESEL PROPULSION SHAFTING OPTIMUM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Magazinović, Gojko

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel approach to the low-speed marine diesel propulsion shafting design is proposed and examined. The proposed approach is based on the shafting least inertia principle, in which the design task is formulated and solved as a constrained nonlinear optimization problem. The core of the approach is a cost function, which is defined as a weighted sum of the shafting, turning wheel, and tuning wheel inertias, because it is a suitable proxy of the propulsion shafting material and ...

  2. Magnetic shaft seals prevent hazardous leakage from wastewater agitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy's laboratory in Miamisburg, OH, operated by Monsanto Research Corporation, processes approximately 45,000 gallons per week of low-level radioactive wastewater to meet Federal Environmental Protection Agency quality standards. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination throughout the operating area demands effective sealing of all process piping, valves, pumps, and agitators. Rotating shafts of pumps and agitators installed a the start of operations in 1947 were sealed by stuffing glands with graphite impregnated asbestos packing. These pumps proved to be unsatisfactory. In the mid-1970's, new process pumps with mechanical seals and some with magnetic drives were installed. Later, in January 1979, new agitator shaft drives with double tandem, spring-loaded mechanical seals were installed, maintenance of these pumps was costly. The agitator drive shafts were redesigned to accommodate magnetic seals of the type successfully used in blowers and vacuum/pressure pumps in other plant locations. One inherent advantage of the magnetic seal is that it operates with a face loading as much as 50% less than a conventional spring-loaded mechanical seal. The lower loading by a predetermined uniform magnetic force contributes to long face life. Other advantages include compactness, ease of assembly with only a few parts, and insensitivity to vibration. The magnetic shaft seals installed on the agitator shafts in February 1983 are still in service without any leakage or need for maintenance. Based on current operating data and a projected five-year meantime between failures, the estimated cost benefit of the magnetic seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals over spring-loaded mechanical seals will be $640 vs $2400 respectively per seal, with 60% less downtime for maintenance

  3. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  4. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SHAFT LINING WHEN THE STRATUM SETTLEMENT RESULTING FROM WATER DRAINAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋斌松

    1997-01-01

    Based on the stratum settlement resulting from water drainage, this paper establishes the calculating method of stresses and displacements of shaft lining and stratum by using Fourier integration, obtains the calculating formulas of tangiential load which shaft lining is subjected to, and provides theoretical basis for design of shaft lining.

  5. Impeller-shaft connection, especially for a PWR primary coolant pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pump has: - a rotation shaft - an impeller mounted on the shaft - a thermal barrier placed above the impeller. An hydrostatic bearing is mounted on the extension belt of the impeller the impeller-shaft connection is made by a fixation device, a centering device and a coupling transmission device

  6. 30 CFR 75.1403-11 - Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Entrances to shafts and slopes. 75.1403-11 Section 75.1403-11 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 75.1403-11 Criteria—Entrances to shafts and slopes. All open entrances to shafts should be...

  7. Simulation on spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft for a high-rise building

    OpenAIRE

    Yunchun Xia

    2014-01-01

    Spread of fire smoke in the elevator shaft of a high-rise building is influenced by many driving facts. We simulate smoke spreading in the elevator shaft, stair room, and pre-chamber with and without different supplied pressurized air. The simulation shows that smoke moves very fast in the elevator shaft. When a 12 floor high-rise building is in fire, smoke can fill up the elevator shaft in less than 1.5 min after a fire started, temperature in the elevator shaft can be higher than 187°C in 5...

  8. Shaft sealing issue in CO2 storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieudonné, A.-C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is an innovating approach to tackle climate changes through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and unmineable coal seams are among the most studied reservoirs. However other types of reservoir, such as abandonned coal mines, could also be used for the storage of carbon dioxide. In this case, the problem of shaft sealing appears to be particularly critical regarding to the economic, ecologic and health aspects of geological storage. The purpose of the work is to study shaft sealing in the framework of CO2 storage projects in abandoned coal mines. The problem of gas transfers around a sealing system is studied numerically using the finite elements code LAGAMINE, which has been developped for 30 years at the University of Liege. A coupled hydro-mechanical model of unsaturated geomaterials is used for the analyses. The response of the two-phase flow model is first studied through a simple synthetic problem consisting in the injection of gas in a concrete-made column. It stands out of this first modeling that the advection of the gas phase represents the main transfer mechanism of CO2 in highly unsaturated materials. Furthermore the setting of a bentonite barrier seal limits considerably the gas influx into the biosphere. A 2D axisymetric hydromechanical modeling of the Anderlues natural gas storage site is then performed. The geological and hydrogeological contexts of the site are used to define the problem, for the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the material properties. In order to reproduce stress and water saturation states in the shale before CO2 injection in the mine, different phases corresponding to the shaft sinking, the mining and the set up of the sealing system are simulated. The system efficiency is then evaluated by simulating the CO2 injection with the imposed pressure at the shaft wall. According to the modeling, the low water saturation of concrete and

  9. Failure Mode Analysis Of Torsion Shaft In Garrett-5 Engine Using Two Test Pieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Melvin Aro. T

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with “Failure Analysis of Internal splines in Torsion Shaft” of “TPE 331-5-252D - GARRET ENGINE” which is used in Dornier aircraft. Garret Engine is a type of air breathing engine. It comes under the category of Turboprop engines of Gas turbine engine. As separate shafts are used for propeller and turbine, this aids them to rotate at different RPM. A torsion shaft is used to transmit the torque from main shaft to propeller shaft. Torsion shaft is used to give a deflection which is also used to measure the torque of the engine. This torsion shaft is internally connected with the main power transmission shaft and its other end is coupled to a coupler shaft with engagement of its internal splines to the external splines of coupler shaft. Further this coupler connects to the gearing system and transmits power to the propeller shaft. Due to Continues variable load over internal splines, it is subjected to high rate of wear and tear. This problem can be rectified by Failure Mode Analysis Method, in which heat treatment process of torsion shaft is being carried out. Two test pieces are heat treated separately at different temperatures of 5800C and 5400C at variable time durations. Tuffriding which is a Liquid nitriding process is done with this two test pieces and results are analyzed. The hardness of the material is increased to desired values and its life time is also increased which overcomes the problem.

  10. Design of a Composite Drive Shaft and its Coupling for Automotive Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Khoshravan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a design method and a vibration analysis of a carbon/epoxy composite drive shaft. The designof the composite drive shaft is divided into two main sections: First, the design of the composite shaft and second, thedesign of its coupling. Some parameters such as critical speed, static torque, fiber orientation and adhesive jointswere studied. Tsai-Hill failure criterion was implemented to control the rupture resistance of the composite shaft andthen its critical speed analysis and modal analysis were carried out using ANSYS. The behavior of materials isconsidered nonlinear isotropic for adhesive, linear isotropic for metal and orthotropic for composite shaft. The resultsshowed significant points about the appropriate design of composite drive shafts. The substitution of composite driveshaft has resulted in considerable weight reduction about 72% compared to conventional steel shaft. Furthermore,results revealed that the orientation of fibers had great influence on the dynamic characteristics of the compositeshaft.

  11. Integrated analysis of rock mass deformation within shaft protective pillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Warchala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the rock mass deformation resulting from mining in the vicinity of the shaft protection pillar. A methodology of deformation prediction is based on a deterministic method using Finite Element Method (FEM. The FEM solution is based on the knowledge of the geomechanical properties of the various geological formations, tectonic faults, types of mining systems, and the complexity of the behaviour of the rock mass. The analysis gave the stress and displacement fields in the rock mass. Results of the analysis will allow for design of an optimal mining system. The analysis is illustrated by an example of the shaft R-VIII Rudna Mine KGHM Polish Copper SA.

  12. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  14. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Tekwani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the results of Seismic Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shaft Support Water Storage Tank carried out in accordance with IS: 1893- 1984 and IS: 1893-2002 (Part-2 draft code. The analysis is carried out for shaft supported water tank of 500,750 and 1000 Cu.m capacity, located in four seismic zones (Zone-II, Zone -III, Zone-IV, Zone-V and on three different soil types (Hard rock, Medium soil, Soft soil. Further, 1000 kl tank for conditions - tank full, tank empty are also considered in this study. The analysis was performed using MAT LAB. The parameters of comparison include base shears, base moments and time history analysis. The above models are analyzed for different time history data such as El Centro, Kobe, Ji-Ji, Erzincan. The comparison is made between the structural responses of one mass and two mass models of above capacity.

  16. Severity estimation of cracked shaft vibrations within fluid film bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, B. S.; Sekhar, A. S.

    1995-07-01

    The equations of motion, with four degrees of freedom, taking into consideration the flexibility, damping and cross coupling of the fluid film bearings are derived for a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on fluid film bearings. Dimensionless equations are developed for dynamic radial load, dynamic pressure developed in the fluid film bearings and coefficient of dissipation considering the journal vibrations in two harmonics; bearing fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients. These are applied to a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on different types of bearings, i.e., cylindrical journal bearings, offset cylindrical bearings, tilting pad journal bearings and three-lobe bearings. Based on the allowable dynamic pressure developed in the fluid bearings, the severity of cracked shaft and allowable crack depths are estimated in this study. Measurement of dynamic pressure and dissipation for monitoring the crack growth is suggested. However, 2x vibration is the best indicator of cracks in the shafts.

  17. CURRENT TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONS IN FREEZE SHAFT SINKING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 翁家杰; 夏正明

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives a brief review of the development of shaft sinking by artificial ground freezing since 1949 when new China was founded. Several shaft freezing schemes which have been successfully applied from the economic and safe viewpoints are presented. Current technology and some innovative techniques,especially the shah lining which have experienced major improvements over the last four decades,are briefly reviewed. The technique of the in-situ pour concrete incorporating ailica fume with higher early strength under low temperature curing conditions is described. The temperature field in shah freezing and its finite difference solution are given in this paper. A recently developed method combining freeze wall model test with back analysis technique based on numerical simulation is also described.

  18. Elementary calculation of clip connections with incomplete sweep of shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan P. Shatsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes promising structures of clip (screw and friction connections with incomplete sweep of shaft used in machines and mechanisms for the oil and gas industry. The contact problems of interaction between semi-hubs and shaft for the symmetric and asymmetric connections are formulated. For structures that are asymmetric relatively the joint bolt two types of interaction are investigated: with and without lateral displacement. Based on a priori assumption about the distribution laws of contact pressure accepted in traditional courses of “Machine Details” an engineering method for calculating of clip connections is developed. Herewith different types of details coupling (with a gap, matched, with tension correspond to concentrated, cosine and sustainable (linear distributions of contact stresses. There are determined an analytical dependences of boundary points and breakloose force on spanning angles, bolt tightening force and tribological properties of joined parts of subassembly.

  19. Conservative management of femoral shaft fractures in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, T; Pan, K L; Razak, M

    1998-09-01

    Thirty-two children with femoral shaft fractures were treated conservatively with initial skin traction followed by an additional period in a spica cast. After 12 to 20 months of follow up, none had any pain and all of them were attending school without problems. Shortening of more than 2 cm occurred in 6 (19%) of the 32 patients. The most important factor associated with shortening was an overlap of more than 2 cm of shortening of the fracture ends at the time of cast fitting. The average compensatory overgrowth at final assessment was 7 mm. Angular deformity did not pose a problem. This is a safe, simple and practical method to treat childhood femoral shaft fractures.

  20. Penile Shaft : An Unusual Location For Skin Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thami Gurvinder P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin tags or acrochordons, commonly observed in the flexural surfaces and various folds of skin, are more frequently encountered in presence of obesity, diagetes and old age. Although lesions are quite characteristic clinically, at times these need to be differentiated from warts, fibromas and other benign tumors of skin and their appendages. A rare case with presence of skin tags over the shaft of penis is described.

  1. Digital shaft encoders for nuclear and conventional industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photoelectric incremental shaft encoder giving 100 pulses per revolution developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre is described. Some of its applications for position measurement in reactors and industry are discussed. They are for : (1) control rod position display in PURNIMA reactor, (2) X-ray diffractometer in CIRUS, (3) level measurement of liquid in PURNIMA II, (4) digital display of ram B in fuelling machine (5) position feedback device in numerically controlled drilling machine and (6) a tachometer. (M.G.B.)

  2. Displaced tibial shaft fractures treated with ASIF compression internal fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Larsen, T K; Petersen, O C

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one tibial shaft fractures treated by ASIF compression osteosynthesis were seen at follow-up at a median time of 46 weeks after injury. Twenty-four were open fractures and the patients received prophylactic antibiotics. The median stay in hospital was 15 days for open fractures and 6 days...... for closed fractures. There were complications in 26 cases, with deep infection in 9 cases. At present we cannot advocate the use of ASIF compression osteosynthesis for displaced tibial fractures....

  3. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramji Lal Sahu; Rajni Ranjan; Ajay Lal

    2015-01-01

    Background:Fracture shaft humerus is a major cause of morbidity in patients with upper extremity injuries.The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of interlocking nail in humeral shaft fractures.Methods:This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopedic Surgery in SMS and R Sharda University from January 2010 to November 2013.Seventy-eight patients were recruited from emergency and out-patient department having a close fracture of humerus shaft.All patients were operated under general anesthesia and closed reamed interlocking nailing was done.All patients were followed for 9 months.Results:Out of 78 patients,69 patients underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days.Complications found in four patients who had nonunion,and five patients had delayed union,which was treated with bone grafting.All the patients were assessed clinically and radiologically for fracture healing,joint movements and implant failure.The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients.Complete subjective,functional,and clinical recovery had occurred in almost 100% of the patients.Conclusions:The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications,reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  4. Correlation of operating parameters on turbine shaft vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar; Rajora, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics system plays an important role in efficient functioning of power plants. In most of the rotating machine, defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situation occurs. It allows the efficient use of stationary on-line continuous monitoring system for condition monitoring and diagnostics as well. Condition monitoring of turbine shaft can not only reduce expenses of maintenance of turbo generator of power plants but also prevents likely shutdown of plant, thereby increases plant load factor. Turbo visionary parameters are essential part of health diagnosis system of turbo generator. Particularly steam pressure, steam temperature and lube oil temperature are important parameters to monitor because they are having much influence on turbine shaft vibration and also governing systems are available for change values of those parameters. This paper includes influence of turbo visionary parameters i.e., steam temperature, steam pressure, lube oil temperature, turbine speed and load on turbine shaft vibration at turbo generator at 195 MW unit-6,Kota Super Thermal Power Station by measuring vibration amplitude and analyze them in MATLAB.

  5. Detection of cracks in shafts with the Approximated Entropy algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Diego Luchesi; Nicoletti, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    The Approximate Entropy is a statistical calculus used primarily in the fields of Medicine, Biology, and Telecommunication for classifying and identifying complex signal data. In this work, an Approximate Entropy algorithm is used to detect cracks in a rotating shaft. The signals of the cracked shaft are obtained from numerical simulations of a de Laval rotor with breathing cracks modelled by the Fracture Mechanics. In this case, one analysed the vertical displacements of the rotor during run-up transients. The results show the feasibility of detecting cracks from 5% depth, irrespective of the unbalance of the rotating system and crack orientation in the shaft. The results also show that the algorithm can differentiate the occurrence of crack only, misalignment only, and crack + misalignment in the system. However, the algorithm is sensitive to intrinsic parameters p (number of data points in a sample vector) and f (fraction of the standard deviation that defines the minimum distance between two sample vectors), and good results are only obtained by appropriately choosing their values according to the sampling rate of the signal.

  6. Buoyancy and Pressure Induced Flow of Hot Gases in Vertical Shafts with Natural and Forced Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Tamm, Gunnar Olavi

    2014-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study buoyancy and pressure induced flow of hot gases in vertical shafts to model smoke propagation in elevator and ventilation shafts of high rise building fires. Various configurations were tested with regard to natural and forced ventilation imposed at the upper and lower surfaces of the vertical shaft. The aspect ratio was taken at a typical value of 6. From a lower vent, the inlet conditions for smoke and hot gases were varied in terms of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers. The forced ventilation at the upper or lower boundary was of the same order as the bulk shaft flow. Measurements were taken within the shaft to allow a detailed study of the steady state flow and thermal fields established for various shaft configurations and inlet conditions, from which optimal means for smoke alleviation in high rise building fires may be developed. Results indicated a wall plume as the primary transport mechanism for smoke propagating from the inlet towards the exhaust region. Recirculation and entrainment dominated at high inlet Grashof number flows, while increased inlet Reynolds numbers allowed greater mixing in the shaft. The development and stability of these flow patterns and their effects on the smoke behavior were assessed for several shaft configurations with different inlet conditions. The comparisons indicated that the fastest smoke removal and lowest overall shaft temperatures occur for a configuration with natural ventilation at the top surface and forced ventilation up from the shaft bottom.

  7. Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 μm are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

  8. Dynamic Analysis of Rotating Shaft Subjects to Slant Crack with Experimentation and ANSYS Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushikesh V. Dhokate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contents the dynamic study of rotating shaft with slant crack on surface of shaft. Slant cracks are prepared artificially on surface of shaft with material EN8. In this study, crack location taken on shaft 150 mm from motor side and also for effective study healthy shaft of EN8 material is taken. Experimental results are taken with the help of FFT analyzer. Analysis is carried out from these results and finally these results are validated in FEA software i. e. ANSYS14 software. These validated results with graphs are explained in this paper. The experimentation is also done on healthy shaft of EN8 material for analysis. This paper mainly focused on validation of experimental results with ANSYS software.

  9. Shafting Alignment Computing Method of New Multibearing Rotor System under Specific Installation Requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The shafting of large steam turbine generator set is composed of several rotors which are connected by couplings. The computing method of shafting with different structure under specific installation requirement is studied in this paper. Based on three-moment equation, shafting alignment mathematical model is established. The computing method of bearing elevations and loads under corresponding installation requirements, where bending moment of each coupling is zero and there exist preset sag and gap in some couplings, is proposed, respectively. Bearing elevations and loads of shafting with different structure under specific installation requirement are calculated; calculation results are compared with installation data measured on site which verifies the validity and accuracy of the proposed shafting alignment computing method. The above work provides a reliable approach to analyze shafting alignment and could guide installation on site.

  10. Application of modern calculation and design methods for bucket wheel sleeve shafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeser, H. (VEB Schwermaschinenbau Lauchhammerwerk, Lauchhammer-Ost (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-01-01

    Explains design of the bucket wheel sleeve shaft for the large SRs 6,300 bucket wheel excavator, built by TAKRAF, GDR. The excavator has a production capacity of 14,500 m{sup 3}/h and a bucket wheel diameter of 17 m. The bucket wheel shaft is 7 m long and weighs 33 t. A scheme of the shaft is provided. The design was developed by computer calculations with the ROSCHA program system of the Dresden Technical University. Shaft groove geometry was determined with the ALPHA program. The shaft was welded from segments that fulfilled requirements of the TGL 19 340 industrial standard. Measurements of load on this bucket wheel shaft and assessment of service life have been made during excavator operations in brown coal surface mines. 5 refs.

  11. Bubble Hair and Other Acquired Hair Shaft Anomalies due to Hot Ironing on Wet Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Savitha, AS; S Sacchidanand; Revathy, TN

    2011-01-01

    Bubble hair is an acquired hair shaft abnormality characterized by multiple airfilled spaces within the hair shaft. It is a result of thermal injury. We report a classic case of 22-year-old female who complained of dry brittle hair of two-week duration. Patient had used hot iron on wet hair twice to straighten hair. Hair microscopy was diagnostic and showed multiple air-filled spaces within the hair shaft.

  12. Study on Surgical management of fracture shaft of Humerus by interlocking nail

    OpenAIRE

    N, Arun K; Paladugu, Kirthi; Reddy, Praveen Kumar P

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: Operative management of fracture shaft of humerus can be with plate osteosynthesis or with intramedullary nailing. In this study we have tried to analyze the outcome in terms of time for consolidation, union rates, functional results and complications of humeral shaft fractures managed with closed antegrade interlocking nailing. Study was conducted Navodaya Medical college Hospital and Research Centre, RaichurMethods: A series of 25 patients with acute fractures of shaft of humer...

  13. Influence of rotatory inertia on stochastic stability of a viscoelastic rotating shaft

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović Ratko; Kozić P.; Janevski G.

    2008-01-01

    The stochastic stability problem of a viscoelastic Voigt-Kelvin balanced rotating shaft subjected to action of axial forces at the ends is studied. The shaft is of circular cross-section, it rotates at a constant rate about its longitudinal axis of symmetry. The effect of rotatory inertia of the shaft cross-section and external viscous damping are included into account. The force consists of a constant part and a time-dependent stochastic function. Closed form analytical solutions are obtaine...

  14. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of Gearbox Motion and High-Speed-Shaft Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-18

    This paper extends a model-to-test validation effort to examine the effect of different constant rotor torque and moment conditions and intentional generator misalignment on the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads. Fully validating gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads across a range of test conditions is a critical precursor to examining the bearing loads, as the gearbox motion and high-speed-shaft loads are the drivers of these bearing loads.

  15. Numerical Analysis and Demonstration: Transmission Shaft Influence on Meshing Vibration in Driving and Driven Gears

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Jinli; Su Xingyi; Peng Bo

    2015-01-01

    The variable axial transmission system composed of universal joint transmission shafts and a gear pair has been applied in many engineering fields. In the design of a drive system, the dynamics of the gear pair have been studied in detail. However few have paid attention to the effect on the system modal characteristics of the gear pair, arising from the universal joint transmission shafts. This work establishes a torsional vibration mathematical model of the transmission shaft, driving gear,...

  16. Pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated by flexible intramedullary nailing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.C.Kapil Mani; R.C.Dirgha Raj; Acharya Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Background:Nowadays pediatric femoral fractures are more commonly managed with operative treatment rather than conservative treatment because of more rapid recovery and avoidance of prolonged immobilization.Children between the ages of 5-13 years are treated either by traction plus hip spica and flexible/elastic stable retrograde intramedullary nail,or external fixators in the case of open fractures.The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated by stainless steel flexible intramedullary nail in children between 5 and 13 years of age.Methods:There were 32 cases of femoral shaft fractures which were all fixed with stainless steel flexible intramedullary nail under fluoroscopy.Long leg cast was applied at the time of fixation.Partial weight bearing was started 2 weeks after surgery.Patients were evaluated in follow-up study to observe the alignment of fracture,infection,delayed union,nonunion,limb length discrepancy,motion of knee joint,and time to unite the fracture.Results:We were able to follow up 28 out of 32 patients.The patients were 8.14 years of age on average.The mean hospital stay after operation was 4 days and fracture union time was 9.57 weeks.There were 3 cases of varus angulation,2 cases of anterior angulation,and 4 cases of limb lengthening.Conclusion:Patients aged between 5 and 13 years treated with flexible intramedullary nail for closed femoral shaft fracture have rapid union and recovery,short rehabilitation period,less immobilization and psychological impact,and cost-effective.

  17. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  18. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Development of a winder for a long inclined shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyano, H. [Taiheiyo Coal Mining Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan). Mechanical and Electrical Department

    1997-09-01

    The introduction and use of an inclined shaft winder at the Kushiro Colliery, where mining is conducted offshore below the seabed, is described. The winder operates a personnel train, automatically and rapidly, over a distance of 6,625 m. The system allows the establishment of an accurate personnel train schedule with reduction in the time required to enter and return to the mining site. The results, after two years of use, include increased productivity at the working face, reduced maintenance requirements, and greater safety. 5 figs., 9 photos.

  20. Metal deformation in skew rolling step-shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Kang; Jinping Liu; Cuiping Yang; Zhenghuan Hu

    2003-01-01

    The process of rolling step-shaft was simulated with the help of the FEM (Finite-Element Model) software-DEFORMTM 3D. The characteristics of metal flow in different periods were analyzed, and the curve of variety in non-round area at different crosssections of the rolled piece, the curve of variety in bulge volume and the curve of variety in non-column volume were obtained. On this base the method of tool design is worked out and validated by experiment.

  1. Experimental study on a magnetofluid sealing liquid for propeller shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chang-fa; SUN Rong-hua; ZHENG Jin-xing

    2003-01-01

    The selecting and preparing method of the basic material of magnetic fluid was introduced. By using a chemical method, the magnetic micropowder Fe3O4 was successfully yielded, and an oil-base as a working carrier and dispersing agent was determined. The preparation process of the magnetic fluid and prescription of the oil-base magnetic fluid were discussed. The simulation experimental rig of magnetic fluid sealing for propeller shaft was designed. The sealing ability experiment was conducted and results were analyzed. The pressure of sealing is up to 2 Mpa.

  2. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Chul [Gyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Hun [Jungwon Univ., Goisan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sik [Gyeongsang Natiional Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts.

  3. Conceptual design of shaft seals for a nuclear waste disposal vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a disposal vault in the Canadian Shield for the effective isolation of nuclear fuel wastes is being assessed as part of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. The vault would be accessed from the surface by a number of shafts, which would likely penetrate the vault environment and intersect significant rock fractures and thereby form preferential pathways for the migration of radionuclides from the disposal area to the biosphere. Golder Associates were retained to conduct a conceptual design study of sealing and backfilling the shafts. The first volume of this report reviews current shaft sinking and lining technologies, and recommends the preferred construction methods for the shafts. Factors that could affect the design of a shaft seal system are reviewed, and a conceptual shaft seal is proposed. The second volume addresses the performance assessment of a shaft seal system. While there are no specific performance criteria against which to compare the anticipated containment characteristics of the shaft seal system proposed, the methodology developed for the performance assessment of the reference design should enable the design to be modified to meet performance criteria as they are developed. The report estimates that it will cost $133.7 million in 1986 Canadian dollars to seal three reference shafts, including $18 million for labour and equipment, $103.4 million for backfill and sealing materials, $9.5 million for project indirect costs, and $2.8 million project management. (author). 53 refs., 36 tabs., 43 figs

  4. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  5. Research and development on cutting scale machine in the coalmine shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Bao-cai(任保才)

    2004-01-01

    The deposit scale in the coal mine shaft usually causes serious accidents, such as making rope broken, cage seized or dropped. To solve this kind of problems, the research of the cutting scale mechanism was made, and a new type of removal scale equipment was made with using imported hard alloy material. The cutting experiment and actual cutting show that it can adapt to abominable condition in the shaft, such as narrow space, wet and excessive shaft crevice water and so on, and can work safely and reliably, and has high cutting scale efficiency. It can also cut out the deposit scale in the circular section of shaft.

  6. THE MODEL TEST RESEARCH OF HORIZONTAL FORCE ON RIGID SHAFT FURNITURE IN DEEP MINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强; 史天生; 郭晋蒲; 王东权

    1998-01-01

    The state of deep mine rigid shaft furniture horizontal force calculation in China isintroduced and the calculating model of horizontal force is determined. Based on the interactionbetween hoisting vessel and shaft furniture, the vertical model test device is built and a largenumber of model tests and analyses are carried out. At last, the relationship between horizontalforce and hoisting end load, hoisting speed or bunton level interval is gained. The threeparameters horizontal force calculating equation of deep mine rigid shaft furniture is given and itcan guide the design and calculation of shaft engineering.

  7. Building up a Mathematical Model of Shaftes System and CAD for Linked Tetra—Shaft and Double—Cantilever Flat Flap Gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FuQ满怀; ZhaoZe-bin; 等

    1999-01-01

    Linked tetra-shaft and double-cantilever flat flap gate is a new type of structure in water conservancy projects,but the traditional method is now adopted in its design.In order to the application and dissemination of the type of sluice,this paper researches the difficult points of design advance,through researching the motion locus & stress coundition of linked tetra-shaft system.The writer will build up the mathmatical model and handle it with the computer.Thus,we can achieve the modern desing on the basis of the software of linked tetra-shaft system development.

  8. Building up a Mathematical Model of Shaftes System and CAD for Linked Tetra-Shaft and Double-Cantilever Flat Flap Gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Linked tetra-shaft and double-cantilever flat flap gate is a new type of structure in water conservancy projects ,but the traditional method is now adopted in its design. In order to the application and dissemination of the type of sluice ,this paper researches the difficult points of design advance ,through researching the mo- tion locus & stress coundition of linked tetra-shaft system. The writer will build up the mathmatical model and handle it with the computer. Thus, we can achieve the modern desing on the basis of the software of linked tetra-shaft system development.

  9. A novel shaft-less double suction mini pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NISHI; Michihiro

    2010-01-01

    A novel double suction shaft-less mini pump was developed for heat control of small energy systems in this study.The mini pump impeller with an exit diameter of 40 mm was combined with the motor rotor supported by the hybrid dynamic bearing.The specific speed of the pump was 125 min-1 m3 min-1 m.The hydraulic performance of the pump was investigated experimen-tally under four rotational speeds.From the test results,it was recognized that the pump could provide a flow discharge of 5 L/min and head of 1.5 m,which are applicable for the heat control system of a 3 kW fuel cell.A three-dimensional turbulent flow simulation in the pump was also conducted near the design point.The numerical results showed that the average hydraulic performance of the mini pump was predicted reasonably.From the internal flow simulation,it was revealed that the favorable inflow condition upstream of impeller inlet could be attained by applying the double suction shaft-less design for the mini pump.

  10. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citak, Musa; Jagodzinski, Michael; Krettek, Christian; Huefner, Tobias [Hannover Medical School, Trauma Department, Hannover (Germany); Citak, Mustafa [BG-University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Surgery, Bochum (Germany); Kendoff, Daniel; O' Loughlin, Padhraig F. [Hospital for Special Surgery, Orthopaedic Department, New York, NY (United States); Tavassol, Frank [Hannover Medical School, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  11. Estimation of pretraumatic femoral antetorsion in bilateral femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe a system for measurement of the pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angle post-bilateral femoral shaft fracture with the use of new imaging software which allows segmentation and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) images. This case involved a 20-year-old patient with bilateral femoral shaft fractures. Following initial clinical examination, CT scans of both femurs were performed. Subsequently, the DICOM datasets were uploaded to the new software tool. Following segmentation and 3D reconstruction, pretraumatic femoral antetorsion angles were determined. Femoral antetorsion was described and assessed in two ways by referring to the intersection of the posterior condylar plane and (1) a line drawn between the center of the femoral head and femoral neck, (2) a line drawn between the centers of the femoral head and greater trochanter. Using these definitions, values for femoral antetorsion were found to be, respectively, 20 at the right fracture site and 19 on the left site, and 33 bilaterally. The investigators describe in this current technical report the use of new imaging software which enables the calculation of femoral AV following reduction of virtual fracture fragments which are created from standard DICOM images. We believe that this 3D reconstruction method of measuring the antetorsion angle can be integrated into a regular treatment algorithm and may potentially optimize clinical outcomes. (orig.)

  12. Femoral Neck Shaft Angle in Men with Fragility Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tuck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric, symptomatic vertebral (91, and distal forearm (67 fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm2: lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately, nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P=0.001, but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P=0.01. Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  13. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  14. Predicted Fracture Behavior of Shaft Steels with Improved Corrosion Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vukelic

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the crucial steps in the shaft design process is the optimal selection of the material. Two types of shaft steels with improved corrosion resistances, 1.4305 and 1.7225, were investigated experimentally and numerically in this paper in order to determine some of the material characteristics important for material selection in the engineering design process. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength have been experimentally obtained, proving that steel 1.4305 has higher values of both. In addition, J-integral is numerically determined as a measure of crack driving force for finite element models of standardized fracture specimens (single-edge notched bend and disc compact tension. Obtained J values are plotted versus specimen crack growth size (Δa for different specimen geometries (a/W. Higher resulting values of J-integral for steel 1.4305 as opposed to 1.7225 can be noted. Results can be useful as a fracture parameter in fracture toughness assessment, although this procedure differs from experimental analysis.

  15. How Does The Bone Shaft Geometry Affect its Bending Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh P. Saffar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, ten fresh specimens of sheep tibiae were provided from slaughtered animals. Whole bone specimens were loaded in three-point bending according to standard wet bone test protocols. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with the results which were obtained from two dry bone tests. The results showed that fracture bending moment and bone extrinsic stiffness had significant relations with fracture cross-section dependent parameters (i.e., cross-section area and area moment of inertia. Where, fracture energy and ultimate strength did not have such a relation with these parameters. Finite element modeling of bone shaft was made with simplified geometry (neglecting cross-section variations along bone shaft in two steps: First, by elliptical cross-section and second, by circular cross-section, assuming linear elastic and isotropic properties for the specimens. Elastic (Young’s modulus and fracture load, evaluated from curves obtained from tests, were applied to the finite element model and close results of maximum stress in both test specimen and first (elliptical cross-section model showed up. There was an average difference of about 2% between ultimate strength of wet bone specimens and maximum (tensile stress occurred in the elliptical models. However, this value for circular models was about 16%.

  16. Plucked Human Hair Shafts and Biomolecular Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schembri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hair follicle is a skin integument at the boundary between an organism and its immediate environment. The biological role of the human hair follicle has lost some of its ancestral importance. However, an indepth investigation of this miniorgan reveals hidden complexity with huge research potential. An essential consideration when dealing with human research is the awareness of potential harm and thus the absolute need not to harm—a rule aptly qualified by the Latin term “primum non nocere” (first do no harm. The plucked hair shaft offers such advantages. The use of stem cells found in hair follicles cells is gaining momentum in the field of regenerative medicine. Furthermore, current diagnostic and clinical applications of plucked hair follicles include their use as autologous and/or three-dimensional epidermal equivalents, together with their utilization as surrogate tissue in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies. Consequently, the use of noninvasive diagnostic procedures on hair follicle shafts, posing as a surrogate molecular model for internal organs in the individual patient for a spectrum of human disease conditions, can possibly become a reality in the near future.

  17. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  18. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baird, G.T.; Jones, R.L. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  19. Experiences with the operation of a shaft-helix in connection with a special steel ring lining in the shafts Gorleben 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When sinking the Gorleben 1 shaft good reasons prevented the method of drilling and blasting to create the excavation. Considering the special conditions and after a successful test, the application of a modified helix was given preference to an impact-ripper, tested on an other freeze shaft project. A report is given on the experiences gained with respect to the following criteria: Assembly, dismantling and transport of the machine in the shaft - conveyance of electric energy - dust problems when cutting the concrete plug and the means engaged to overcome those problems - performance in the different types of rock formation - cutting the circular shape of the excavation with sufficient accuracy - matters of safety in connection with cutting, loading and lining the excavation - consumption and costs of cutters - total costs. A final assessment of the excavation system is made with respect to its possible application with for shaft-sinking projects. (orig.)

  20. Humeral shaft fractures: Retrospective results of non-operative and operative treatment of 186 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); L.M.M. Vogels (Lucas); B.J. Punt (Bas); G.R. Roukema (Gert); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Humeral shaft fractures account for 1-3% of all fractures and 20% of the fractures involving the humerus. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcome after operative and non-operative treatment of humeral shaft fractures, by comparing the time to radiological unio

  1. Response to Comment on "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Marcus Thomas Pius; Miller, Webb; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2008-01-01

    Debruyne et al. challenge the findings of our study and imply that we argue that hair shafts are an overall superior source of ancient DNA than bone. However, the authors are misreading and misinterpreting the conclusions of our study; we claim nothing further than that hair shaft represents...

  2. Dynamic Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Medium Duty Drive Shaft Using Conventional and Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Jain, Rajat; Patil, Pravin P.

    2016-09-01

    The main highlight of this study is structural and modal analysis of single piece drive shaft for selection of material. Drive shaft is used for torque carrying from vehicle transmission to rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty transmission drive shaft was selected as research object. Conventional materials (Steel SM45 C, Stainless Steel) and composite materials (HS carbon epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin Composite) were selected for the analysis. Single piece composite material drive shaft has advantage over conventional two-piece steel drive shaft. It has higher specific strength, longer life, less weight, high critical speed and higher torque carrying capacity. The main criteria for drive shaft failure are strength and weight. Maximum modal frequency obtained is 919 Hz. Various harmful vibration modes (lateral vibration and torsional vibration) were identified and maximum deflection region was specified. For single-piece drive shaft the natural bending frequency should be higher because it is subjected to torsion and shear stress. Single piece drive shaft was modelled using Solid Edge and Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis was used for structural and modal analysis with actual running boundary condition like frictional support, torque and moment. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental literature results.

  3. Global Dynamics of Shaft Lines Rotating in Surrounding Fluids Application to Thin Fluid Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lornage

    2004-01-01

    a disc and a thin-walled shaft mounted on a hydrodynamic bearing. The second is intended for studying a more realistic structure composed of a shaft and a wheel coupled with a fluid film between the wheel and a casing. These applications make it possible to identify trends related to fluid effects and couplings between the flexible structural parts.

  4. Long-term functional outcome following intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moumni, Mostafa; Voogd, Emma Heather; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Background: The management of femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing is a popular method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome after antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing of traumatic femoral shaft fractures. We further determined predicto

  5. A methodology for lining design of circular mine shafts in different rock masses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozturk Hasan⇑; Guler Erdogan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the finite element numerical modelling of 2D shaft sections in a Hoek–Brown medium are carried out in a non-hydrostatic stress state in an attempt to predict pressures developing around mine shafts. An iterative process of applying support pressure until observing no failure zone around the shaft is used to simulate the required lining support pressure for different shaft models. Later, regression anal-ysis is carried out to find a generic shaft pressure equation representing the rock mass and the stress state. Finally, the developed pressure equation which shows a good agreement with a case study is used in elastic‘thick-walled cylinder”equation to calculate the lining thickness required to prevent the devel-opment of a failure zone around the shaft. At the end of the study, a user-friendly object-oriented com-puter program‘Shaft 2D”is developed to simplify the rigorous shaft lining thickness calculation process.

  6. A CLINICAL STUDY ON SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF TIBIA SHAFT FRACTURES BY INTRAMEDULLARY INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageshwara Rao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To assess and study tibial shaft fractures presented to Orthopaedic department at Government General Hospital, Kurnool and to evaluate the final outcome of patients with tibial shaft fracture operated with intramedullary interlocking nailing. The procedure is safe with no morbidity, relatively few complications and helpful in early recovery after surgery

  7. TECHNOLOGY OF HEAT TREATING-STRAIGHTENING OF LONG SHAFTS WITH LOW RIGIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Świć

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method of heat treating-straightening of long shafts with low rigidity. Analytical relationships for the determination of rectilinearity of shaft axis in heat treating- straightening are presented. A fixture for heat treating-straightening of shafts was developed. The experiment conducted as well as the calculations confirm high effectiveness of the developed method of heat treating-straightening of long shafts with low rigidity. Application of the developed technology of heat treating-straightening permits minimisation of the value of deflection of semi-finished product and stabilisation of the level of residual longitudinal stress, which results in enhanced operational accuracy of long shafts with low rigidity, improved quality and operation parameters of finished products.

  8. Cost-Effective Shaft Torque Observer for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Pedersen, Bo Juul

    2015-01-01

    Improvement of condition monitoring (CM) systems for wind turbines (WTs) and reduction of the cost of wind energy are possible if knowledge about the condition of different WT components is available. CM based on the WT drive train shaft torque signal can give a better understanding of the gearbox...... suggests a novel approach for low-cost, indirect monitoring of the shaft torque from standard WT measurements. The shaft torque is estimated recursively from measurements of generator torque, high speed shaft and low speed shaft angular speeds using the well-known Kalman filter theory. The performance...... of the augmented Kalman filter with fading memory (AKFF) is compared with the augmented Kalman filter (AKF) using simulated data of theWT for different load conditions, measurement noise levels andWT fault scenarios. A multiple-model algorithm, based on a set of different Kalman filters, is designed for practical...

  9. Theoretical Vibration Analysis Regarding Excitation due to Elliptical Shaft Journals in Sleeve Bearings of Electrical Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Werner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a theoretical vibration analysis regarding excitation due to elliptical shaft journals in sleeve bearings of electrical motors, based on a simplified rotordynamic model. It is shown that elliptical shaft journals lead to kinematic constraints regarding the movement of the shaft journals on the oil film of the sleeve bearings and therefore to an excitation of the rotordynamic system. The solution of the linear differential equation system leads to the mathematical description of the movement of the rotor mass, the shaft journals, and the sleeve bearing housings. Additionally the relative movements between the shaft journals and the bearing housings are deduced, as well as the bearing housing vibration velocities. The presented simplified rotordynamic model can also be applied to rotating machines, other than electrical machines. In this case, only the electromagnetic spring value cm has to be put to zero.

  10. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  11. Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area.

  12. Shaft centre orbit for dynamically loaded radial bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coefficients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 Booker1 and described further in 1972 Booker2. Several authors have refined...... this method over the years. In 1966 Jorgen W. Lund published an approach to find the dynamic coefficients of a journal bearing by a first order perturbation of the Reynold´s equation. These coefficients made it possible to perform a rotor-bearing stability analysis for a statically loaded bearing. In the mid...... seventies Jorgen W. Lund pointed out in lecture notes that the dynamic damping coefficients of the bearing could be used to find the shaft orbit for dynamically loaded bearings. For simplicity the "Short-Width-Journal-Bearing Theory" is used as a basis for finding the damping coefficients in this work...

  13. Moving behavior of pellets in a pellet shaft furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁儒全; 赫冀成

    2008-01-01

    The downward moving behavior of pellets in a 8 m2 pellet shaft furnace with an internal vertical air channel and a drying bed was studied by means of a visualized model(1-15) and a top model(1-1).The visualized model experiment shows that the downward movement of pellets can be regarded as plug flow approximately inside the furnace except for the lower region of cooling zone due to the influence of the drained hopper.The top model experiment reveals that the pellet sizes increase along the moving direction because of the percolation phenomenon,which results in a decrease of the resistance coefficient and an increase of the gas flow rate from the furnace wall toward the furnace center.

  14. STUDY OF TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING FOR FRACTURE SHAFT FEMUR IN CHILDREN BETWEEN 3 TO 13 YEARS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of Displaced diaphyseal femoral shaft fracture in children between 3 to 13 years is controversial. Various methods are available for treatment. Titanium elastic nailing is one of the methods for treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. In our study we have assessed the outcome of titanium elastic nailing for fracture shaft femur in children. We have found that titanium elastic nailing has excellent results in treatment of femur shaft fracture in children. Also it is less time consuming

  15. Countermeasures Planned for Reducing Water Inflow into Deep Shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuji, Masayoshi; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Hara, Nasato; Minamide, Masashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. The MIU design consists of two 1,000 m-deep shafts with several research galleries. The goals of the MIU project are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of deep geological environments, and to develop a range of engineering expertise for application in deep underground excavations in crystalline rocks such as granite. The diameter of the Main and the Ventilation Shafts are 6.5 m and 4.5 m, respectively. Horizontal tunnels to connect the shafts will be excavated at 100 m depth intervals. The Middle Stage, at about 500 m in depth, and the Main Stage, at about 1,000 m in depth, will be the main locations for scientific investigations. The Main and the Ventilation Shafts were 180 m and 191 m deep, respectively, in November 2006. During construction, water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre- and post-excavation grouting has been planned. A post-excavation grouting test has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes an outline of the MIU project, its work plan and the results of the post-excavation grouting test.

  16. METHOD OF ACHIEVING ACCURACY OF THERMO-MECHANICAL TREATMENT OF LOW-RIGIDITY SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Świć

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method combining the processes of straightening and thermal treatment. Technological processes with axial strain were considered, for the case of heated material and without its heating. The essence of the process in the case of heated material consisted in the fact that if under tension all longitudinal forces in the first approximation are uniform - the same strains are generated. The presented technological approach, aimed at reducing the curvature of axial-symmetrical parts, is acceptable as the process of rough, preliminary machining, in the case of shafts with the ratio L/D≤100 (L – shaft length, d – shaft diameter and without a tendency of strengthening. To improve the accuracy and stability of geometric form of low-rigidity parts, a method was developed that combines the processes of straightening and heat treatment. The method consists in that axial strain – tension, is applied to the shaft during heating, and during cooling the product is fixed in a fixture, the cooling rate of the shaft being several-fold greater than that of the fixture. A device is presented for the realisation of the method of controlling the process of plastic deformation of low-rigidity shafts. In the case of the presented device and the adopted calculation scheme, a method was developed that permits the determination of the length of shaft section and of the time of its cooling.

  17. The influence of golf club shaft stiffness on clubhead kinematics at ball impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worobets, Jay; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2012-06-01

    The role of shaft stiffness on the golf swing is not well understood. Studies in which golfers hit balls with clubs of varying shaft flex have reported changes in ball distance. The results of mathematical models suggest that shaft stiffness affects only the orientation of the clubhead at impact, not the speed of the clubhead, but there are no experimental results validating these findings. The purpose of this study was therefore to experimentally examine the influence of shaft stiffness on clubhead kinematics at ball impact. Forty golfers hit 10 balls with each of five drivers varying in shaft stiffness from 'Ladies' to 'Extra-Stiff', in a double-blind study design. The motions of three reflective markers attached to the clubhead were captured with a high-speed motion analysis system. At ball impact, shaft stiffness had a statistically significant influence on clubhead speed for 27 subjects, on loft angle for 11 subjects, and on lie angle for all 40 subjects. No effect was observed on face angle, in to out path angle, or attack angle. These results show that shaft stiffness can affect ball launch conditions by altering clubhead speed and/or loft angle. PMID:22900404

  18. Concrete strain gage in concrete shaft lining: Installation and monitoring procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cast-in-place concrete or concrete block preliminary lining component and a cast-in-place final concrete lining form part of the shaft lining system. Strain measurements within the cast-in-place concrete linings will be obtained using a concrete strain gage (CSG). This gage consists of a vibrating wire sensor and anchors embedded in the concrete during casting CSGs will be installed in both exploratory shafts. The primary objective of the overall monitoring program, of which these gages constitute one part, is to define the stress-deformation behavior of the shaft lining, seals, and foundations during and after construction. For this purpose it is necessary to consider the CSG embedded in the concrete as one element of an integrated program of monitoring the mechanical and thermomechanical response of the shaft. Other instruments that form part of this program include concrete stress meters, steel strain gages on the steel shaft liner, convergence gages, piezometers, joint meters, bitumen pressure gages, temperature detectors, and extensometers. For a justification and basis for design of the instrument arrays which form part of the Shaft Mechanical and Thermal Response Monitoring, refer to the Draft Shaft Study Plan. 8 figs

  19. Torsional vibration measurements on rotating shaft system using laser doppler vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ling; Yang, Shixi; Gan, Chunbiao

    2012-11-01

    In this work, a laser torsional vibrameter was used to measure the torsion vibration of a rotating shaft system under electrical network impact. Based on the principles of laser Doppler velocimetry, the laser torsional vibrometer (LTV) are non-contact measurement of torsional oscillation of rotating shafts, offering significant advantages over conventional techniques. Furthermore, a highly complex shafting system is analyzed by a modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix. The system is modeled as a chain consisting of an elastic spring with concentrated mass points, and the multi-segments lumped mass model is established for this shafting system. By the modified Riccati torsional transfer matrix method, an accumulated calculation is effectively eliminated to obtain the natural frequencies. The electrical network impacts can activize the torsional vibration of shaft system, and the activized torsion vibration frequencies contained the natural frequencies of shaft system. The torsional vibrations of the shaft system were measured under electrical network impacts in laser Doppler torsional vibrometer. By comparisons, the natural frequencies by measurement were consistent with the values by calculation. The results verify the instrument is robust, user friendly and can be calibrated in situ. The laser torsional vibrometer represents a significant step forward in rotating machinery diagnostics.

  20. Study of the turbocharger shaft motion by means of infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, J. R.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2015-05-01

    This work describes a technique for measuring the precession movement of the shaft of small automotive turbochargers. The main novelty is that the technique is based on infrared light diode sensors. With presented technique it is possible to perform secure mounting of electronics and also to measure, with good accuracy, far enough from the turbocharger shaft. Both advantages allow applying it even in critical lubrication conditions and when blade contact occurs. The technique's main difficulties arise from the small size of the turbocharger shaft and the high precession movement in critical conditions. In order to generate the optimum albedo reflection for infrared measurement, a special cylindrical nut with larger diameter than the original one is assembled at the shaft tip in the compressor side. Following, shaft balancing, the calibration of the sensors and the compensation of errors from different sources are needed steps before the method is able to identify the main frequencies of shaft motion. Once synchronous and sub-synchronous frequencies have been obtained it is possible to reconstruct the instantaneous position of the shaft to determine its precession movement.

  1. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the binder consisting of sodium silicate and cement. Through BOTDR-based deformation detection, the real-time deformation of the shaft lining caused by grouting was immediately spotted. By comparing the respective strain of shaft lining deformation and concrete deformation, the risk range of shaft lining grouting was identified. With the additional strain increment of the shaft lining triggered by each process of grouting, the saturated condition of grouting volume in strata was analyzed, providing an important technical insight into the field construction and the safety of the shaft lining.

  2. Sinking the II mine shaft in fissured aquiferous sandstone layers in the Budryk mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamparski, H.; Mizia, A.; Napieracz, T.

    1984-03-01

    Methods are evaluated for prevention of water influx during excavation of the II Budryk shaft in the Budryk black coal mine being constructed in Ornontowice. Water hazards are associated with a layer of fissured aquiferous sandstones at 270 m depth. After drilling and blasting at 270 m depth, water influx to the shaft increased in the initial phase to 2 m/sup 3//min and at a later stage to 4.7 m/sup 3//min. Water removal from the shaft using pumps with an output of 5 m/sup 3//min caused a decrease in mineral content from 12 to 6.6 g/l. This showed that water removed from the shaft flew through a system of geologic fissures from aquiferous strata. Grouting was used for prevention of water influx. Two phases of water influx control are characterized: prevention of water influx to the shaft, grouting the surrounding rock strata. A layer of concrete placed at the shaft bottom was used for water influx prevention. The concrete cover consisted of 3 layers: crushed brick layer 2 m thick, plastic layer 2 mm thick and 5.5 m thick concrete layer. Pipes used for water removal were placed directly in aquiferous fissures from 1 cm to 10 cm wide. After water influx to the mine shaft declined, surrounding rock strata were grouted using 15 boreholes.

  3. Unstable Pelvic Fractures Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures: A Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Wu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both pelvic fractures and femoral shaft fractures are caused by high-energy injuries. When unstable pelvic fractures and femoral shaft fractures occur concomitantly, the optimal treatment method is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish a reasonable principle for treating such complicated injuries. Methods: Forty patients sustaining unstable pelvic fractures and concomitant femoral shaft fractures were treated in a 7-year period. The initial management of the fractures was started at the emergency service according to the Advanced Trauma Life Support protocol. Unstable pelvic fractures were wrapped by cloth sheets and femoral shaft fractures were immobilized with a splint. Angiography was performed on patients with unstable hemodynamic status. The definitive treatment for combined fractures was performed after stabilizing the hemodynamics. Closed nailing was used for femoral shaft fractures, and pelvic fractures were treated with various techniques. Results: The mortality rate was 12.5% (5/40 during admission. Thirty-three patients were followed up for an average of 32 months (range, 12-76 months. There were 33 cases of unstable pelvic fractures and 36 instances of femoral shaft fractures. The union rate for pelvic fractures was 100% (33/33, while femoral shaft fractures had a 94.4% (34/36 union rate. The average healing time was 3.3 months (range, 1.6-8.1 months and 4.1 months (range, 2.5-18.2 months for pelvic and femoral shaft fractures, respectively. After fracture, 34 hips (94% achieved a satisfactory result in the Harris hip score and 30 knees (83% achieved a satisfactory result in the Mize knee score. Conclusions: Stabilization of the hemodynamics in patients with combined fractures should be the first aim. Angiography to stop arterial bleeding in the pelvis is often life-saving. The definitive treatment for combined fractures, such as pelvic fractures and femoral shaft fractures, should wait until hemodynamics

  4. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF A SPATIAL COUPLED TIMOSHENKO ROTATING SHAFT WITH LARGE DISPLACEMENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怀亮

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic simulation is presented for an axial moving flexible rotating shafts,which have large rigid motions and small elastic deformation. The effects of the axial inertia,shear deformation, rotating inertia, gyroscopic moment, and dynamic unbalance areconsidered based on the Timoshenko rotating shaft theory. The equations of motion andboundary conditions are derived by Hamilton principle, and the solution is obtained by usingthe perturbation approach and cssuming mode method. This study confirms that the influenceof the axial rigid motion, shear deformation, slenderness ratio and rotating speed on thedynamic behavior of Timoshenko rotating shaft is evident, especially to a high-angularvelocity rotor.

  5. Experimental and numerical analyses of micro rotary shaft pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents experimental and numerical results obtained with micro rotary shaft pumps (RSP). Impellers with a diameter of 2.5 mm, different outlet widths and blade number were coupled with semicircular volutes with different eccentricities. Experimental data for every impeller–volute couple were reported and include the flow rate, head and overall efficiency. Different rotational speeds were tested up to 24 000 rpm, obtaining pressure increases up to 5.7 kPa and flow rates up to 80 ml min−1. The non-dimensional performance was also computed obtaining the maximum head coefficient of 0.49 and the maximum flow coefficient of 0.138. Furthermore, experimental data were compared with 3D time-dependent CFD simulations. The focus of the simulation was to study the flow field structure inside the impeller and in the volute. Moreover, CFD data allowed for the calculation of the hydraulic efficiency of the pump and for the impeller to highlight the stator rotor interference influence on the pump characteristics, as well as to show the distribution of losses inside the volute

  6. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B. [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States); Pfeifle, T.W. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  7. Persistent knee complaints after retrograde unreamed nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Moumni, Mostafa; Schraven, Pim; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Retrograde nailing is an attractive method for stabilisation of femoral shaft fractures in cases of polytrauma, ipsilateral pelvic, acetabular, tibial and femoral neck fractures, bilateral femoral fractures, obese and pregnant patients. However, retrograde nailing may result in complaints about the

  8. Skill Analysis of the Wrist Release in the Golf Swings Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Hoshino, Yohei; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    This study analyzes the skill component of the wrist release in the golf swing by employing a three-dimensional dynamic model considering vibration of the club shaft. It is observed that professional and expert golfers relax their wrists in the swing motion as a "natural" or "late" release. Thus, the relationship between the timing of the wrist release and the shaft vibration is examined in this study. First, it is demonstrated that "natural release" at the zero-crossing point of the bending vibration of the shaft efficiently increases the head speed at impact. In the next step, the "late hitting" condition is imposed upon the model. It is demonstrated that "late hitting" could further improve the efficiency of the swing motion. Finally, the skill component in the wrist release for the long drive is experimentally verified by measuring the movement of the wrist and the dynamic deformation of the shaft during the downswing.

  9. Follow-On Shaft Seal Evaluation for Future OMS Engine Series Valve Derivations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Evidence of nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellant vapor leakage across the primary and secondary shafts seals of the four OMS-E series...

  10. Multistep Optimization of Composite Drive Shaft Subject to Strength, Buckling, Vibration and Manufacturing Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Komarov, Valeriy

    2015-10-01

    Composite drive shafts are extensively used in automotive and aeronautical applications due to lightweight combined with exceptional strength and stiffness. Complexity of the drive shaft design problem associated with the need to determine rational values for multiple parameters characterizing composite material (fiber orientation angles, stacking sequence and ply thicknesses), as well as with the fact that multiple conflicting design constraints should be considered simultaneously. In this paper we approach this problem considering carbon/epoxy drive shaft design as a multistep optimization process. It includes the following steps: 1) determination of fiber orientation angles and laminate stacking sequence based on analysis of loading conditions and analytical expressions predicting buckling load and minimal natural frequency of idealized drive shaft; 2) finding rational ply thicknesses using formal optimization procedure utilizing response surface approximations and gradient-based optimization algorithm; and 3) verification analysis of the optimized configuration with the use of nonlinear buckling analysis to ensure satisfaction of stability constraint.

  11. Analysis of the flexural vibration of ship's tail shaft by transfer matrix method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiao-jun; FAN Shi-dong

    2008-01-01

    A ship's tail shaft has serious flexural vibration due to the cantilevered nature of the propeller's blades. Analysis of the nature frequency of flexural vibration is vital to be able to provide effective shock absorption for a ship's tail shaft. A mathematic model of tail shaft flexural vibrations was built using the transfer matrix method. The nature frequency of flexural vibration for an electrically propelled ship's tail shaft was then analyzed, and an effective method for calculating it was proposed: a genetic algorithm (GA), which calculates the nature frequency of vibration of a system. Sample calculations, with comparisons by the Prohl method under conditions bearing isotropic support, showed this method to be practical. It should have significant impact on engineering design theory.

  12. RESEARCH AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT OF DRILLING AND BLASTING TECHNOLOGY PENETRATIONS OF VERTICAL SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Rubleva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The model of destruction of rocks by explosion in vertical shafts is presented. On its basis the most important parameters of technical-and-economical indices of the drilling-and-blasting technology are calculated.

  13. Different Condition Monitoring Approaches for Main Shafts of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    the applicability of different condition monitoring techniques like performance monitoring, strain gauge results and vibration analysis for crack detection on the low speed shaft. Different signal processing methods like descriptive statistics, Fourier Transforms, Wavelet transforms, Modal Assurance Criteria...

  14. Development of a rotordynamic analysis model for rotor shaft of SMART MCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotordynamic analysis model for rotor shaft assembly of SMART MCP was developed. The rotor shaft assembly consists of vertical spinning shaft, impeller, water lubricated bearing and canned motor. The analysis model includes journal bearing model, gap model between the motor stator and rotor, motor dynamic model, and impeller dynamic model. Reynolds' equation is applied to predict the stiffness and damping of the axially grooved journal bearings. Its solution is obtained by finite different method. Black's equation is used to calculate the stiffness, damping, and added mass for the small gap filled with water between the stator and rotor of motor. Dynamic parameters of impeller are calculated using Childs' equation which depicts the hydraulic imbalance forces. Electromagnetic force of canned motor is calculated using Iwata's model. The developed analysis model was applied to investigate the critical speeds, vibration mode shapes, and damped responses at bearings of the conceptually designed MCP rotor shaft

  15. Interaction between Uneven Cavity Length and Shaft Vibration at the Inception of Synchronous Rotating Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cavitation is known as one type of the sources of cavitation induced vibration in turbomachinery. Cavity lengths are unequal on each blade under condition of synchronous rotating cavitation, which causes synchronous shaft vibration. To investigate the relationship of the cavity length, fluid force, and shaft vibration in a cavitating inducer with three blades, we observed the unevenness of cavity length at the inception of synchronous rotating cavitation. The fluid force generated by the unevenness of the cavity length was found to grow exponentially, and the amplitude of shaft vibration was observed to increase exponentially. These experimental results indicate that the synchronous shaft vibration due to synchronous rotating cavitation is like selfexcited vibrations arising from the coupling between cavitation instability and rotordynamics.

  16. Low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration of lightweight elastic metamaterial shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Cai, Anjiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration is investigated for a kind of light elastic metamaterial (EM) shafts architecture comprised of a radial double-period element periodically as locally resonant oscillators with low frequency property. The dispersion relations are calculated by a method combining the transfer matrix and a lumped-mass method. The theoretical results agree well with finite method simulations, independent of the density of the hard material ring. The effects of the material parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Our results show that in contrast to the traditional EM shaft, the weight of our proposed EM shaft can be reduced by 27% in the same band gap range while the vibration attenuation is kept unchanged, which is very convenient to instruct the potential engineering applications. Finally, the band edge frequencies of the lower band gaps for this light EM shaft are expressed analytically using physical heuristic models.

  17. Effects of wire rope in a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste shaft accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the empirical test program conducted on a 1/22-scale model of the WIPP facility. The model was designed to study the actions and effects of the wire rope used in the Koepe or friction-type hoist planned for use in the WIPP waste shaft during various accident scenarios. It is assumed that the hoist cable breaks and the cab (or shaft conveyance) falls to the bottom of the shaft during such an accident. The report gives the results of the study and makes recommendations for a continuing program of testing and redesign of the shaft to mitigate the effects of such an accident. The wire rope is shown to act as a good shock-absorbing material

  18. Predictive analysis of shaft station radon concentrations in underground uranium mine: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoyan; Hong, Changshou; Li, Xiangyang; Lin, Chunping; Hu, Penghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented a method for predicting shaft station radon concentrations in a uranium mine of China through theoretical analysis, mathematical derivation and Monte-Carlo simulation. Based upon the queuing model for tramcars, the average waiting time of tramcars and average number of waiting tramcars were determined, which were further used in developing the predictive model for calculating shaft station radon concentrations. The results exhibit that the extent of variation of shaft station radon concentration in the case study mine is not significantly affected by the queuing process of tramcars, and is always within the allowable limit of 200 Bq m(-3). Thus, the empirical limit of 100,000 T annual ore-hoisting yields has no value in ensuring radiation safety for this mine. Moreover, the developed model has been validated and proved useful in assessing shaft station radon levels for any uranium mine with similar situations. PMID:27100335

  19. Coal Fields - MO 2015 Closed Non-coal Mine Shafts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains the locations and descriptions of abandoned non-coal mine shafts in Missouri closed by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (DNR),...

  20. Empirical mode decomposition, an adaptive approach for interpreting shaft vibratory signals of large rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) has been the most popular method for analyzing large rotating machine shaft vibration problems, but it assumes that these vibration signals are linear and stationary. However, in reality this is not always true. Nonlinear and non-stationary shaft vibration signals are often encountered during the start-up and shut-down processes of the machines. Additionally, mechanical faults, for example rotor-to-stator rubbing, fluid excitation, part-loosening, and shaft cracking, are nonlinear. Owing to these reasons, an accurate analysis of shaft vibration cannot always be achieved by using the FT. An alternative tool, the wavelet transform (WT), is now being used to improve the situation. But the efficiency is a problem especially when applying the WT to the accurate analysis of a large-scale, lengthy data. In view of the powerful capability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process nonlinear/non-stationary signals, its algorithm efficiency and its satisfactory performance in minimizing energy leakage, the EMD is used in this paper to analyze the problem, the signals investigated are adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The principal IMFs, identified using an energy-distribution threshold, dominate the signals' oscillation. So, 'purified' shaft vibration signals can be reconstructed from these principal IMFs. To remove interference present in principal IMFs, an adaptive band-pass filter is designed, whose central frequency is automatically set to the frequency dominating the IMF being investigated. To facilitate the observation of transient shaft vibration, a transient shaft orbit (TSO) is constructed by introducing timescale into the orbit drawing process. Nine mathematical criteria are also proposed to evaluate the shaft vibrations exhibited in the IMFs and TSOs. The novelty of this approach is that the EMD provides an adaptive, effective, and efficient way to obtain 'purified' shaft vibration

  1. Parallel Construction Technology of Mine Shaft Sinking and Mine Shaft Headframe in 1 000m Depth Mine Shaft%千米立井井筒与井塔平行施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明祥; 龙志阳; 杨永军

    2014-01-01

    In Sanxin Gold and Copper Mine ,a new mine shaft has a depth of 1 091m and a net diameter of 4.5m.A hydraulic umbrella drilling frame for rock drilling ,a central rotary grab for rock loading , 3.8m height integrated metal formwork for the shaft liner and other large mechanized matched opera-tion line were applied to the construction of the mine shaft .The new headframe of the mine main shaft is a cast-in-site reinforced concrete frame and a shear wall structure and was constructed with sliding formwork technology.The mine shaft and headframe were constructed in parallel .The total construc-tion period of the mine shaft and headframe could be reduced by seven months as predicted.Obvious economic benefit would be obtained.The technology successfully applied to the construction of the 1 000m depth mine shaft could promote the technology innovation of the mine construction sector in China ,would drive the upgrading of the integrated technology level in China mine industry and would promote the industrial technology progress.%三鑫金铜矿新主井深1091m ,净直径4.5m ,采用液压伞形钻架凿岩,中心回转式抓岩机装岩,3.8m高的整体金属大模板砌壁等大型机械化配套作业线施工。新主井井塔为现浇钢筋混凝土框架剪力墙结构,采用滑模施工工艺。井筒与井塔平行施工,预计将缩短井筒、井塔施工总工期7个月,并取得明显的经济效益。该项技术在千米立井施工中的成功应用,将促进我国建井行业技术革新,带动我国矿山产业整体技术水平的提升,推动行业技术进步。

  2. Uncoiling of reamer during intramedullary nailing for fracture shaft of femur

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Trikha, Vivek; Singh, Vivek; Mittal, Samarth; Kishanpuria, Tanmay S.

    2013-01-01

    Intramedullary nailing is considered the standard of care for closed femoral shaft fractures. Several studies have shown that reamed intramedullary nailing is a safe procedure in fracture shaft femur with lower nonunion rates than unreamed nailing. Reamed intramedullary nailing provides better stability because of increased contact between the nail and medullary canal. However, careful attention to reaming techniques as well good instrumentation is necessary while undertaking such a procedure...

  3. OPTIMUM CONTROL TO A PARTIALLY CONTROLLED TURBOGENERATOR SHAFT TORSIONAL VIBRATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The optimal control to a partially controlled turbogenerator shaft torsional vibration system is investigated. The principle of input feedforward control is presented to achieve the minimum of the average vibration energy in a system,and the optimal control matrix of the system is derived. A turbogenerator shaft system is taken as an example to simulate the optimal control process of the torsional vibration. Results from this simulation indicate that the vibration can be effectively controlled by a partial control strategy.

  4. A Case of Posterior Shoulder Dislocation with Ipsilateral Humeral Shaft Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, P.; Meena, S.; Rastogi, D; Chowdhury, B

    2014-01-01

    Posterior shoulder dislocations are rare and represent 2–5% of all traumatic shoulder dislocation. A combination of this injury with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture is extremely rare event. We here report a case of posterior shoulder dislocation with ipsilateral fracture shaft of humerus following road traffic accident. Through this report, we highlight the rarity of the condition and review the available literature on the subject. We also emphasize the importance of complete physical and ...

  5. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 3. Specification guidelines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria to aid in the generation of procurement specifications for Main Coolant Pump Shaft Seals. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies, a review of pump and shaft seal literature and discussions with pump and seal designers. This report is preliminary in nature and could be expanded and finalized subsequent to completion of further design, test and evaluation efforts

  6. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 1. Maintenance-manual guidelines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of guidelines and a listing of information and data which should be included in maintenance manuals and procedures for Main Coolant Pump Shaft Seals. The noted guidelines and data listing are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear plant seal operating experience studies. The maintenance oriented results of the most recent such study is summarized. The shaft seal and its auxiliary supporting systems are discussed from both technical and maintenance related viewpoints

  7. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 2. Operational guidelines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria for improving main coolant pump shaft seal operational reliability. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies. Usage procedures/practices and operational environment influence on seal life and reliability from the most recent such survey are summarized. The shaft seal and its auxiliary supporting systems are discussed both from technical and operational related viewpoints

  8. Vibration and Instability of Rotating Composite Thin-Walled Shafts with Internal Damping

    OpenAIRE

    Ren Yongsheng; Zhang Xingqi; Liu Yanghang; Chen Xiulong

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical analysis of a rotating thin-walled composite shaft with internal damping is carried out analytically. The equations of motion are derived using the thin-walled composite beam theory and the principle of virtual work. The internal damping of shafts is introduced by adopting the multiscale damping analysis method. Galerkin’s method is used to discretize and solve the governing equations. Numerical study shows the effect of design parameters on the natural frequencies, critical rot...

  9. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for humeral shaft fractures: are results reproducible?

    OpenAIRE

    Concha, Juan M.; Sandoval, Alejandro; Philipp N Streubel

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) has been advocated as a safe approach to humeral shaft fracture management. We evaluated the reproducibility of this technique in a regional hospital. Thirty-five patients underwent MIPO of humerus shaft fractures. Fifteen patients had an open fracture, six a preoperative radial nerve palsy, and nine a concomitant thoracic, musculoskeletal or vascular injury. At an average 12-month follow-up, 91% of fractures healed after a mean of 12 weeks (rang...

  10. A CLINICAL STUDY OF FIXATION O FRACTURE OF SHAFT OF HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL

    OpenAIRE

    Jayachandra Reddy; Athmaram; Santhi Swaroop

    2015-01-01

    the aim of the present study is to evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nail in the management of fractures of shaft humerus.20 humeral shaft fractures were treated by closed reduction and intramedullary interlocking nailing in the department of orthopaedics , government medical college , government general hospital , anantapuramu from November 2010 to A ug 2012. The cause of fracture was RTA in 17 cases and fall in 3 cas es. Age...

  11. Evaluation of variations of neck to shaft of femur in amputations above knee

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi M; Hedayatpoor A

    1997-01-01

    In this study, we investigated variations of the angle between neck and shaft of femur after amputation of tigh above the knee. In amputated tigh the angle between neck and shaft of the femur is decreased than normal (nearly 90° degrees) (coax vara). The angle of the normal femur usually increases due to weight bearing (coax valga). In the patients that both tighs have been amputated the changes of the angle are equal.

  12. Evaluation of variations of neck to shaft of femur in amputations above knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraghi M

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated variations of the angle between neck and shaft of femur after amputation of tigh above the knee. In amputated tigh the angle between neck and shaft of the femur is decreased than normal (nearly 90° degrees (coax vara. The angle of the normal femur usually increases due to weight bearing (coax valga. In the patients that both tighs have been amputated the changes of the angle are equal.

  13. Correlation of Trochanter-Shaft Angle in Selection of Entry Site in Antegrade Intramedullary Femoral Nail

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhwani, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Selection of entry point for nail insertion is controversial and lack firm anatomical basis. The study is done to analyze the proximal anthropometry of femur and measure the Trochanter-Shaft Angle to find its relation and significance in selection of entry point for antegrade uniplanar femoral nail. Materials and Methods. Study involves the measurement of trochanter-shaft angle and other anthropometric measurements on 50 dry femora and on digital radiogram. Results. Trochanter-Sha...

  14. Numerical and experimantal analysis of a shaft bow influence on a rotor to stator contact dynamics:

    OpenAIRE

    Braut, Sanjin; Butković, Mirko; Žigulić, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The shaft bow problem presents a real situation especially in case of slender rotors. This paper investigates the shaft bow influence on the rotor-stator contact dynamics. For this purpose the rotor is described as a simple Jeffcott model and the stator as an elastically suspended rigid ring. To test the numerical model, except a usual run down analysis, an emergency shut down after the sudden rotor unbalance increase is also analyzed. Numerical integration is carried out by the fourth-order ...

  15. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    OpenAIRE

    Chunde Piao; Jun Yuan; Bin Shi; Haijun Lu; Guangqing Wei; Chunsheng Gu

    2015-01-01

    The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the b...

  16. Parametric stability of continuous shafts, connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, O.; Koser, K.

    2004-10-01

    Stability of the parametrically excited torsional vibrations of shafts connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia is studied via a version of Bolotin's method. The shafts are considered to be torsionally elastic, distributed parameter systems and discretized through a finite element scheme. The mechanisms are modelled by a linearized Eksergian equation of motion. A general method of analysis is described and applied to examples with slider-crank and Scotch-yoke mechanisms.

  17. The vertical shaft construction technology of cutter head transformation of large diameter shield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Feng; Wang Ying; Wang Zhenfei; Wang Baiquan

    2012-01-01

    Taking vertical shaft construction of cutter transformation of the Beijing underground diameter shield for ex- ample, the design and construction of cutter structure transformation under complex boundary conditions for large diameter shield were discussed. Practice about how to ensure the structure safety of the shaft as well as well-coordinated shield construction was explored, and reliable solutions were provided successfully, which can provide reference for similar projects.

  18. Non-destructive techniques for measuring random loading signals and their analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method described in this paper deals with the forces and torsional moments distribution in cardan shaft. Two major difficulties occur in performing this method: Since the values of forces and moments cannot be directly measured, they are inferred from strain measuring of the cardan shaft, foil strain gauges are used. However, they are only the pure data in a research laboratory, and it would be very interesting to compare them with the data obtained on actual mobile machine wheel-type tractor. (orig.)

  19. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Torsional Vibrations of a Conic Shaft with Opposite Tapers Carrying Arbitrary Concentrated Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Jang Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the exact solution for free torsional vibrations of a linearly tapered circular shaft carrying a number of concentrated elements. First of all, the equation of motion for free torsional vibration of a conic shaft is transformed into a Bessel equation, and, based on which, the exact displacement function in terms of Bessel functions is obtained. Next, the equations for compatibility of deformations and equilibrium of torsional moments at each attaching point (including the shaft ends between the concentrated elements and the conic shaft with positive and negative tapers are derived. From the last equations, a characteristic equation of the form is obtained. Then, the natural frequencies of the torsional shaft are determined from the determinant equation , and, corresponding to each natural frequency, the column vector for the integration constants, , is obtained from the equation . Substitution of the last integration constants into the associated displacement functions gives the corresponding mode shape of the entire conic shaft. To confirm the reliability of the presented theory, all numerical results obtained from the exact method are compared with those obtained from the conventional finite element method (FEM and good agreement is achieved.

  1. Viscoelastic Characterization of Long-Eared Owl Flight Feather Shaft and the Damping Ability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flight feather shaft of long-eared owl is characterized by a three-parameter model for linear viscoelastic solids to reveal its damping ability. Uniaxial tensile tests of the long-eared owl, pigeon, and golden eagle flight feather shaft specimens were carried out based on Instron 3345 single column material testing system, respectively, and viscoelastic response of their stress and strain was described by the standard linear solid model. Parameter fitting result obtained from the tensile tests shows that there is no significant difference in instantaneous elastic modulus for the three birds’ feather shafts, but the owl shaft has the highest viscosity, implying more obvious viscoelastic performance. Dynamic mechanical property was characterized based on the tensile testing results. Loss factor (tanδ of the owl flight feather shaft was calculated to be 1.609 ± 0.238, far greater than those of the pigeon (0.896 ± 0.082 and golden eagle (1.087 ± 0.074. It is concluded that the long-eared owl flight feather has more outstanding damping ability compared to the pigeon and golden eagle flight feather shaft. Consequently, the long-eared owl flight feathers can dissipate the vibration energy more effectively during the flying process based on the principle of damping mechanism, for the purpose of vibration attenuation and structure radiated noise reduction.

  2. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders with Fragility-Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options of hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in the English language related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, wooly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have improved hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27292719

  3. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders without Fragility-Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options for hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in English related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, woolly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati, improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have been found to improve hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Furthermore, any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27293153

  4. Influence of rock spalling on concrete lining in shaft sinking at the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A shaft is the shortest way to access the deep underground. In shaft sinking through large-scale faults or under low competence factor, spalling of shaft walls is likely to occur. Although earlier studies indicated that rock spalling is an undesirable phenomenon that threatens safety in excavation work and causes delay in construction schedule, there have been few studies which discussed damage to concrete lining induced by spalling. Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been constructing three shafts (one for ventilation and the others for access) to a depth of 500 m in the Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory. During the construction of the Ventilation Shaft (4.5 m diameter) below a depth of 250 m, rock spalling occurred at several depths and an open crack developed in the concrete lining installed just above the location of the rock spalling. In this study, the geometry of the shaft wall was measured using a three-dimensional laser scanner. Numerical analysis was also conducted to estimate changes in stress distribution and deformation induced by rock spalling in both the concrete lining and the surrounding rock. As a result, it was clarified that rock spalling induced a vertical tensile stress in the concrete lining. Especially, the tensile stress in a concrete lining was likely to exceed the tensile strength of the concrete lining when it developed more than 100 cm into the wall rock. (author)

  5. Understanding Radionuclide Migration from the D1225 Shaft, Dounreay, Caithness, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, D.; Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Bond, A.; Jones, W.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, A.; Munro, C.; Penfold, J.; Watson, S.

    2009-04-01

    A vertical shaft was sunk at Dounreay in the 1950s to build a tunnel for the discharge of radioactive effluent from the various nuclear facilities then under construction. The Shaft has an average diameter of 4.6 m and a total height of 65.4 m, with the lower 52 m being unlined and in direct contact with micaceous flagstones of the Devonian Dounreay Shore Formation. In 1959, the Shaft was licensed as a disposal facility for radioactive wastes and was routinely used for the disposal of unconditioned intermediate level waste (ILW) until 1970. All material consignments to the Shaft ceased in 1977 following an explosion in the head-space above the waste column. In 1998, it was decided to retrieve the waste for treatment and surface storage. The first phase of decommissioning is hydraulic isolation, creating a containment barrier between the waste in the Shaft and the groundwater that flows through the surrounding rock. This has involved drilling approximately 400 boreholes and injecting very fine cement grout under pressure in a 10 m wide band of rock around the Shaft. This process was completed in Spring 2008. Despite the operation of a hydraulic containment scheme around the Shaft, some radioactivity from the wastes disposed to the Shaft is known to have leaked into the surrounding rocks. Detailed logging, together with mineralogical and radiochemical analysis of drillcore from the dense network of boreholes around the Shaft has revealed four distinct bedding-parallel zones of contamination. The most extensive zones of contamination are associated with hydraulically transmissive layers and while most of the contamination is located around the Shaft itself, it is clear that a small amount of contamination has travelled approximately 100 m from the Shaft. The data show that Sr-90 dominates the bulk beta/gamma contamination signal, whereas other radionuclides such as Cs-137 and Pu-248/249 are found only to be weakly mobile in the geosphere, leading to very low

  6. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. (IT Corporation (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  8. Percutaneous Kirschner wire (K-wire fixation for humerus shaft fractures in children: A treatment concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are uncommon, representing less than 10 percent of all fractures in children. Humeral shaft fractures in children can be treated by immobilisation alone. A small number of fractures are unable to be reduced adequately or maintained in adequate alignment, and these should be treated surgically. In the present study, Kirschner wires (K-wire were used to achieve a closed intramedullary fixation of humeral shaft fractures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intramedullary K-wires for the treatment of humeral shaft fracture in children. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from June 2005 to June 2010. Sixty-eight children with a mean age of 7.7 years (range, 2-14 years were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of humerus shaft. All patients were operated under general anaesthesia. All patients were followed for 12 months. Results: Out of 68 patients, 64 patients underwent union in 42-70 days with a mean of 56 days. Complications found in four patients who had insignificant delayed union which were united next 3 weeks. Intramedullary K-wires were removed after an average of 5 months without any complications. The results were excellent in 94.11% and good in 5% children. Conclusion: This technique is simple, quick to perform, safe and reliable and avoids prolonged hospitalization with good results and is economical.

  9. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via β-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and β-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/β-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b

  10. Hoffa fracture associated with ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: clinical feature and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yu-bao; LI Qing-song; YANG Chen; LI Shu-qiang; LIU Jian-guo; QI Xin

    2011-01-01

    Hoffa fracture associated with ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture is very rare.Three cases of this rare type of injury were retrospectively reviewed.The sites of femoral shaft fractures and Hoffa fractures were documented.All femoral shaft fractures were managed with internal fixation.The rate of misdiagnosis for the Hoffa fractures was documented.Functions of the affected knees were evaluated according to the modified Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) scores at two years follow-up.Femoral fractures were either transverse or composite in all three cases.Ipsilateral Hoffa fractures occurred at medial condyle in two cases,and lateral condyle in one case.Only one Hoffa fracture was identified preoperatively.All the femoral shaft fractures healed uneventfully.In the patient whose Hoffa fracture was correctly diagnosed,the modified HSS score was 94.In another patient,whose Hoffa fracture was treated by a second operation,the modified HSS score was 93.And in the third case,who refused additional operation for the Hoffa fracture,the modified HSS score was only 70.Conclusively femoral shaft fracture can be associated with ipsilateral Hoffa fracture,especially in motorcycle accident.This type of injury is very rare and misdiagnosis is common.

  11. Minimization of shaft oscillations by fuzzy controlled SMES considering time delay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mohd Hasan; Dougal, Roger A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 301 South Main Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Wu, Bin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, George Vari Engineering and Computing Center, 245 Church Street, Toronto, Ontario M5B 1Z2 (Canada); Tamura, Junji [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of fuzzy logic-controlled superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) on minimizing shaft torsional oscillations of synchronous generators in a multi-machine power system. The proposed fuzzy logic controller has been designed in a very simple way considering only one input variable and one output variable. The time derivative of the total kinetic energy deviation (TKED) of the synchronous generators is used as the global input to the fuzzy controller for SMES switching. The influence of time delay associated with the global input calculation of the fuzzy controller on minimizing shaft torsional oscillations is investigated. Global positioning system (GPS) is proposed for the practical implementation of the calculation of the global input to the fuzzy controller. Simulation results of a balanced fault at different points in a multi-machine power system show that the proposed SMES can minimize the shaft torsional oscillations of synchronous generators well. Moreover, the time delay has an influence on the performance of fuzzy controlled SMES to minimize shaft torsional oscillations. However, even though the performance of fuzzy controlled SMES is somewhat effected by the communication delay, it is clear from the simulation responses that the fuzzy logic-controlled SMES considering typical communication delays can minimize the shaft torsional oscillations of synchronous generators well. (author)

  12. Functional design criteria for an exploratory shaft facility in salt: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Functional Criteria for Design is to provide technical direction for the development of detailed design criteria for the exploratory shaft facility. This will assure that the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with the current Mission Plan as well as the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and 10 CFR Part 60, which will facilitate the licensing process. The functional criteria for design are not intended to limit or constrain the designer's flexibility. The following philosophies will be incorporated in the designs: (1) The exploratory shaft will be designed to fulfill its intended purpose which is to characterize the salt site by subsurface testing; (2) the design will minimize any adverse impact which the facility may cause to the environment and any damage to the site if it should be found suitable for a repository; (3) the health and safety of the public and of the workers will be an essential factor in the design; (4) sound engineering principles and practices will be consistently employed in the design process; (5) the exploratory shaft and related surface and subsurface facilities will be designed to be economical and reliable in construction, operation, and maintenance; and (6) the exploratory shaft facility will be designed in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations, as well as all applicable national consensus codes and standards

  13. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  14. Influence of Bearing Stiffness on the Nonlinear Dynamics of a Shaft-Final Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jinli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bearing stiffness has a considerable influence on the nonlinear coupling vibration characteristics of the shaft-final drive system. A 14-DOF nonlinear coupled vibration model was established by employing the lumped mass method so as to identify the coupling effects of the bearing stiffness to the vibration response of the shaft-final drive system. The engine’s torque ripple, the alternating load from the universal joint (U-joint, and the time-varying mesh parameters of hypoid gear of the shaft-final drive system were also considered for accurate quantitative analysis. The numerical analysis of the vibration response of the coupled system was performed and the experimental measurements were carried out for the validation test. Results show that, at the given driving speed, improving the bearing stiffness can reduce the vibration response of the given coupled system; however, when the bearing stiffness increases to a critical value, the effects of bearing stiffness on the vibration reduction become insignificant; when the driving speed changes, the resonance regions of the coupled system vary with the bearing stiffness. The results are helpful to determine the proper bearing stiffness and the optimum control strategy for the shaft-final drive system. It is hoped that the optimal shaft-final drive system can provide good vibration characteristics to achieve the energy saving and noise reduction for the vehicle application.

  15. Interlocking nailing of humeral shaft fractures a retrospective study of 114 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demirel M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of the humeral shaft are relatively common injuries. Literature suggests that humeral shaft fractures represent approximately 3 % of all fractures. There are several modalities for the management of diaphyseal humeral fractures. The latest investigations emphasize the concept of minimal exposure and rigid fixation. Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the results of antegrade intramedullary nailing in humeral shaft fractures. Design: A retrospective review Settings: Patients were treated in private hospital settings by 3 orthopaedics surgeon Material and Methods: Between 1995 and 2003, the technique of antegrade locked intramedullary nailing with UHN in humeral shaft fractures was performed on 114 patients. Forty-two (36% patients sustained multiple traumas, and 22 (19% fractures were open. The outcomes were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 41 months. Statistical analysis used: Ranges of results given Results:0 In 109 fractures primary union observed. In the other five patients union achieved after removal of the nail and fixation with DCP and bone grafting. The average time for union was 13 weeks (range, 10-36 weeks. One hundred-five patients had excellent or satisfactory recovery of shoulder and elbow function. Complications included impingement due to proximal locking screws in two patients and prominent nail in three patients, transient postoperative radial nerve palsy in four patients. Conclusions: This study shows that antegrade locked nailing in humeral shaft fractures are reliable and also effective in multiply injured patients.

  16. Injuries Associated with Femoral Shaft Fractures with Special Emphasis on Occult Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Fractures of the femoral shaft are mostly the result of high-energy accidents that also cause multiple trauma injuries, in particular ipsilateral knee and hip injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures and how many of them were undetected. Methods: We studied 148 patients (150 femoral shaft fractures with an average age of 52 (range: 18-97. Femoral shaft fractures were treated with antegrade intramedullary nailing in 118 cases (78.7%, and with open reduction and internal fixation in 32 cases (21.3%. Unlocked reamed intramedullary nailing was performed in Winquist type I and type II fractures, while statically locked unreamed intramedullary nailing was carried out in Winquist type III and type IV fractures. Results: There were 70 patients with associated injuries (46.4%. The associated injuries went undetected in 18 out of 70 patients (25.5%. Six femoral nonunions (4% occurred in patients under 70 years of age (high-energy accidents treated by open reduction and internal fixation. Conclusion: Injuries associated with femoral shaft fractures were very frequent (46.4% in our series, with 25.5% undetected. Open reduction and internal fixation was a poor prognostic factor of nonunion in these fractures.

  17. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF NOVEL ACTIVE ACTUATOR TO CONTROL LOW FREQUENCY VIBRATIONS OF SHAFT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at providing with high-load capability in active vibration control of large-scale rotor system, a new type of active actuator to simultaneously reduce the dangers of low frequency flexural and torsional vibrations is designed. The actuator employs electro-hydraulic system and can provide a high and circumferential load. To initialize new research, the characteristics of various kinds of active actuators to control rotor shaft vibration are briefly introduced. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the preliminary results via presenting the structure, functions and operating principles, in particular, the working process of the electro-hydraulic system of the new actuator which includes a set of high speed electromagnetic valves and a series of sloping cone-shaped openings, and presenting the transmission relationships among the control parameters from control signals into the valves to active load onto shaft. The course of the work is dynamic, and a series of spatial forces and moments are put on the shaft to get an external resultant force to reduce excitations that induce vibration of shafts. By checking states of vibration, the actuator can control the impulse width and the interval of injection time for applying different control force to a vibration shaft in two circumference directions through the regulating action of a set of combination directional control valves. The results from simulating analysis and experiment show evidence of that this design can satisfy the case of active process of decreasing of flexural and torsional vibrations.

  18. Propeller Excitation of Longitudinal Vibration Characteristics of Marine Propulsion Shafting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganbo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The submarine experiences longitudinal vibration in the propulsion shafting system throughout most of run. A transfer matrix model of the propulsion shafting system, in which the dynamic characteristics of oil film within thrust bearing are considered, is established to describe the dynamic behavior. Using hydrodynamic lubrication theory and small perturbation method, the axial stiffness and damping of oil film are deduced in great detail, followed by numerical estimation of the foundation stiffness with finite element method. Based upon these values of dynamic parameters, the Campbell diagram describing natural frequencies in terms of shafting rotating speeds is available, and the effect on the 1st natural frequency of considerable variations in thrust bearing stiffness is next investigated. The results indicate that the amplitude of variation of the 1st natural frequency in range of low rotating speeds is great. To reduce off-resonance response without drastic changes in propulsion shafting system architecture, the measure of moving thrust bearing backward is examined. The longitudinal vibration transmission through propulsion shafting system results in subsequent axial excitation of hull; the thrust load acting on hull is particularly concerned. It is observed that the measures of structural modification are of little benefit to minimize thrust load transmitted to hull.

  19. latrogenic brachial artery injury during anterolateral plating of humeral shaft fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishal Kumar; Prateek Behera; Sameer Aggarwal; Umesh Kumar Meena

    2013-01-01

    There are several well defined indications for surgical management of humeral shaft fractures.Operative procedures on the humerus are associated with their own complications.Iatrogenic brachial artery injury as a complication of humeral shaft plating has not been reported previously.We report a case of a 48 years old femalewho received operation at a district hospital and was referred to us when the surgeon could not palpate the pulse.CT angiogram showed that there was segmental non-opacification of the brachial artery.There was distal reformation and the thrombosis was decided to be managed conservatively.We believe that the arterial injury was a result ofimproper surgical technique and the segmental block might be due to improper use of plate holding forceps.This case report makes us aware of a rare complication of operative management of humeral shaft fractures and that basic principles of surgery must be always followed to prevent such injuries.

  20. Nonunion of the Humeral Shaft Treated by Intramedullary Impaction. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosvani Sánchez Pérez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nonunion of the humeral shaft is one of the most challenging orthopedic complications. The case of a 39-year-old female patient who suffered a trauma resulting in a comminuted fracture of the proximal third of the right humeral shaft is presented; she received conservative treatment with a cast brace for six months without showing signs of bone consolidation. A year and six months after the fracture, the patient underwent an intramedullary impaction for repairing the nonunion with satisfactory results. This case is presented in order to show the validity of this option for the management of nonunions of the humeral shaft due to its easy application and favorable results.

  1. 1/2 SUBHARMONIC RESONANCE OF A SHAFT WITH UNSYMMETRICAL STIFFNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The 1/2 subharmonic resonance of a shaft with unsymmetrical stiffness is studied. By means of the Hamilton's principle the nonlinear differential equations of motion of the rotating shaft are derived in the rotating rectangular coordinate system. Transforming the equations of motion from rotating coordinate system into stationary coordinate system and introducing a complex variable, the equation of motion in complex variable form is obtained, in which the stiffness coefficient varies periodically with time. It presents a nonlinear oscillation system under parametric excitation. By applying the method of multiple scales (MMS) the averaged equation, the bifurcating response equations and local bifurcating set are obtained. Via the theory of singularity, the stability of constant solutions is analyzed and bifurcating response curves are obtained. This study shows that the rotating shaft has rich bifurcation phenomena.

  2. Shaft flexibility effects on the forced response of a bladed-disk assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, N.; Loewy, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A model analysis approach is used to study the forced response of an actual flexible bladed-disk-shaft system. Both in-plane and out-of-plane flexible deformations of the bladed-disk assembly are considered, in addition to its rigid-body translations and rotations, resulting from the bending of the supporting flexible shaft in two orthogonal planes. The effects of Coriolis forces and structural coupling between flexible and rigid disk motions on the system's response are investigated. Aerodynamic loads acting on the rotating and vibrating bladed-disk assembly are accounted for through a simple quasi-steady representation, to evaluate their influence, combined with shaft flexibility and Coriolis effects.

  3. Calculating Model of Interference Amount for Miniaturized Gear and Shaft Shrink Fit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xin; ZHANG Zhi-jing; YE Xin; LI Zhong-xin

    2006-01-01

    Based on miniaturized components' characteristics, the method of assembling miniaturized gear and shaft together with corresponding calculating model of the interference amount are proposed. On the basis of main effecting factors analysis on the gear and shaft assembling interference amount, calculating formula including all factors effective on the interference amount necessary for reliable system running was built up. The methods of reverse calculating theoretical model was used to build up the equivalent simulation model of the theoretical one, together with simulation verification and case study for calculating formula. The results show that the cold assembling method is applicable for miniaturized gear and shaft, but in the assembling process,the interference amount compensating the shape error of contacting surfaces takes a large proportion, which is the main cause of stress variance on contacting surfaces.

  4. Femoral shaft fractures in children: elastic stable intramedullary nailing in 31 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshian, Shirzad; Gøthgen, Charlotte Buch; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech;

    2004-01-01

    We report our experience with elastic stable intramedullary titanium nailing (ESIN) of femoral shaft fractures in children. From 1998 to 2001, we treated 31 children (20 boys), median age 6 (4-11) years, with ESIN for 29 closed and 2 grade I open femoral shaft fractures. We reviewed 30 children...... clinically after median 1.5 (1-3) years. Their median hospital stay was 6 (2-20) days. All fractures were radiographically united at a median of 7 (5-9) weeks. The nails were removed in 29 children after a median of 22 (6-38) weeks postoperatively. At follow-up, we found a leg-length discrepancy up to 1 cm...... in 6 children and 10 degrees of internal rotational deformity in 1 child. No angular deformity had occurred. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing seems to be a safe method for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children between 4 and 11 years of age....

  5. A STUDY OF CLOSED INTERLOCKING NAILING FOR FRACTURES OF SHAFT OF FEMUR IN ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:-This study is to determine the clinical course and results after interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fractures , merits and demerits of interlocking nailing, achieving the final goals of femoral shaft fracture management with special references to time for radiological union, knee stiffness, limb length discrepancy, ambulation and return to work. Femur is the strongest and heaviest bone in the human skeleton. It is also the longest bone contributing 26% to height of an individual. Fractures of the shaft of the femur are among the most common fractures encountered in orthopaedic practice, can cause prolong morbidity and extensive disability unless treatment is appropriate. Many treatment modalities were described; with many surgeons advocating different methods of treatment .At present Interlocking nailing of the femur seems to be the ideal method of treatment for complex femoral fractures.

  6. APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER FOR PREAND POST-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY OF ELEVATOR SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterionok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floor-by-floor survey of installed elements of an elevator shaft using coordinate method and tacheometer is also inhibited by the necessity to determine device installation points for floors of every mounting horizon that leads to additional measurements due to conditions of the completed building framework and presence of a great number of situational disturbances and then it entails significant time expenditure and diminution of accuracy in the obtained results. Technical capabilities of the modern electronic tacheometer substantially simplify an accomplishment of the mission because the device can be applied not only in function of vertical projection but it can be used for preand post-construction survey of the elevator shaft with the help of advanced radiation method. While using the given method the electronic tacheometer equipped with diagonal ocular is installed over a bearing sign in the elevator pit and control points of the elevator shaft are determined with the help of specially developed portable beam deflector in the form of disc with radius r, which is fixed to a handle rod and orientated perpendicularly to a laser beam. An innovation diagram for preand post-construction survey of elevator shaft has been developed while applying this type of deflector. The diagram is characterized by high efficiency due to the fact that one tacheometer installation makes it possible to execute highly accurate, complete plane and high-level surveying of the whole elevator shaft including doorways, door sills and jambs.The paper proposes a new method for pre and post construction survey of the elevator shaft using the electronic tacheometer while applying specially developed beam deflector that ensures a geometric fixing of one or simultaneously two surveying points to spatial coordinate system where the preand post-construction survey is carried out. The method is characterized by high geometric accuracy and technological efficiency.

  7. Research on a novel orientation algorithm of single-ring absolute photoelectric shaft encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun

    2007-01-01

    A novel single-ring absolute optical shaft encoder is designed by studying the encoding principle of traditional absolute optical shaft encoder in this paper. The description of the orientation algorithm of the encoder is specified,and an example for explaining the orientation arithmetic is given,which indicates that the theory of the encoder works. The visual interface to acquire signals of CCD is shown with VB,which provides reliable foundation to process data. The effective factors of measurement precision of the encoder are analyzed.

  8. Vibration and Stability of Variable Cross Section Thin-Walled Composite Shafts with Transverse Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing-min

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic model of composite shaft with variable cross section is presented. Free vibration equations of the variable cross section thin-walled composite shaft considering the effect of shear deformation are established based on a refined variational asymptotic method and Hamilton’s principle. The numerical results calculated by Galerkin method are analyzed to indicate the effects of ply angle, taper ratio, and transverse shear deformation on the first natural frequency and critical rotating speed. The results are compared with those obtained by using finite element package ANSYS and available in the literature using other models.

  9. Calculation Of The Brushless DC Motor Shaft Speed With Allowances For Incorrect Alignment Of Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolano Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats of correcting calculation errors of the BLDC motor speed, based on the time elapsed between successive changes in the shaft position sensor signal. The developed method enables correction of errors of the deployment of sensors as well as rotating elements of the observation system of the motor shaft position. The correction algorithm performance was analysed with the aid of a model implemented in Matlab-Simulink environment. After confirming usefulness of the developed method through simulation, its usefulness was verified in real closed-loop feedback systems with a BLDC motor. The results of measurements carried out at the developed laboratory station are presented.

  10. Study on flaw identification of ultrasonic signal for large shafts based on optimal support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Xiufen; Yin Guofu; Tian Guiyun; Yin Ying

    2008-01-01

    Automatic identification of flaws is very important for ultrasonic nondestructive testing and evaluation of large shaft. A novel automatic defect identification system is presented. Wavelet packet analysis (WPA) was applied to feature extraction of ultrasonic signal, and optimal Support vector machine (SVM) was used to perform the identification task. Meanwhile, comparative study on convergent velocity and classified effect was done among SVM and several improved BP network models. To validate the method, some experiments were performed and the results show that the proposed system has very high identification performance for large shafts and the optimal SVM processes better classification performance and spreading potential than BP manual neural network under small study sample condition.

  11. EFFECT OF CLEARANCE THE BALL BEARINGS ON INCORRECT WORK OF THREE-SUPORT BEARING SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław KACZOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Durability deep groove ball bearings depends on factors (called attributes design, technological and operational. Among the design features one of the most important is play in the bearings. Polish Norm shows five groups of looseness in the bearings, in which the play range from 0 to 105 microns. Manufacturers of rolling bearings they only play group, which has a bearing data, without giving the exact value of the slack. Aim of this study is to determine how it affects the play in the bearings to work three-bearing shafts, including elasticity and resilience three-bearing shafts.

  12. A correlation between femoral neck shaft angle to femoral neck length

    OpenAIRE

    gujar, subhash moolchand; Vikani, Sanjay; Parmar, Jigna; Bondre, K V

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of proximal end of femur is a prerequisite for a complete understanding of the mechanics of the hip joint and serves as a basis for the treatment of pathological condition of the hip and femur. A total of 250 adult femora were used to  measure femoral neck shaft angle, femoral neck length & femoral total length at S.B.K.S Medical institute, Vadodara. The neck shaft angle range from 116o to 150o with means of 136.3o & no significant side difference. The neck le...

  13. A RANDOMIZED STUDY OF THE VARIATIONS IN FEMORAL NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND ANTEVERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION From Jan 2013 to Jan 2015, one hundred and fifty human femora of known gender were collected from the department of anatomy, Rangaraya medical college, Kakinada from various sources and were methodically measured and analyzed for variations in neck shaft angle and anteversion of femoral neck in both genders. Fifteen roentgenograms were collected from the department of orthopaedics, Rangaraya Medical College, Kakinada and were analyzed for neck shaft angle. The results were grouped. Femoral bones were allocated serial numbers and measurements were categorized and a random number of 150 were selected for statistical purpose.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND NECK LENGTH WITH INTEREPICONDYLAR DISTANCE IN FEMUR

    OpenAIRE

    Ishita Ghosh; Gairik Sengupta; Pallab Basu; Alpana De

    2015-01-01

    Background: Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It transmits body weight from hip bone to tibia in standing position. Femoral neck is a constricted part connecting head with shaft at an angle of about 125°-known as angle of inclination or neck shaft angle (NSA); this facilitates the movement of hip joint enabling the limb to swing clear of pelvis. Abnormal femoral neck angle (FNA) may be associated with various clinical problems ranging from harmless in toeing gait in childho...

  15. Shaft torsional oscillation interactions between turbo-generators in parallel in series compensated transmission systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, F.P. de

    1994-12-31

    Several investigators have raised the possibility of interaction between shaft systems of parallel units, particularly among identical units. The question addressed in this paper is the significance of this interaction between shaft systems of units coupled through the electrical system. A time domain model of two parallels units connected to an infinite bus trough a series compensated transmission is used to evaluate the phenomena. The same model is used to extract pertinent frequency response functions by Fourier processing of pulse response tests from which a frequency response analysis is performed to lend additional insight into the phenomena. (author) 8 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Torsional Oscillation Characteristics of Rotary Shafts Based on Torsion and Bending Coupled Vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The torsional oscillation characteristics on the bending and torsion coupled vibration of rotary shaft system were investigated using the elasto-dynamic theory and other mathematic methods, such as difference approach, Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It is concluded that mass eccentricity and other exciting modalities affect the bending and torsion coupled vibration of rotary shafts. Torsional vibration caused by bending vibration features linearity along with the change of amplitude of bending vibration. Meanwhile, energy spectrum concentrates on high frequency area with the wavelet analysis.

  17. Fuzzy Reliability Design for the Interference Articulation of a Roller Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With regard to function, the strengths for interference articulation of a roller shaft formed a series system. As the three strength reliabilities conditioned each other, there was a problem for the system reliability to apportion rationally. In fact, there was a transition from safety to deactivation. The state of structure was fuzziness which was in both safety and non-safety states. Therefore the reliability was a fuzzy event which considered the randomness for some design parameters and the fuzziness for the thresholds between generalized strength safety and deactivation. The mathematical model of fuzzy reliability design for the interference articulation of the roller shaft was presented. Eight design examples were calculated. ``

  18. Stability and transient dynamics of a propeller-shaft system as induced by nonlinear friction acting on bearing-shaft contact interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Zhiyi; Huang, Xiuchang; Hua, Hongxing

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the friction-induced instability and the resulting self-excited vibration of a propeller-shaft system supported by water-lubricated rubber bearing. The system under consideration is modeled with an analytical approach by involving the nonlinear interaction among torsional vibrations of the continuous shaft, tangential vibrations of the rubber bearing and the nonlinear friction acting on the bearing-shaft contact interface. A degenerative two-degree-of-freedom analytical model is also reasonably developed to characterize system dynamics. The stability and vibrational characteristics are then determined by the complex eigenvalues analysis together with the quantitative analysis based on the method of multiple scales. A parametric study is conducted to clarify the roles of friction parameters and different vibration modes on instabilities; both the graphic and analytical expressions of instability boundaries are obtained. To capture the nature of self-excited vibrations and validate the stability analysis, the nonlinear formulations are numerically solved to calculate the transient dynamics in time and frequency domains. Analytical and numerical results reveal that the nonlinear coupling significantly affects the system responses and the bearing vibration plays a dominant role in the dynamic behavior of the present system.

  19. Shut off butterfly valve with shaft-hubconnection re-stress device; Doppeltexzentrische Absperrklappe mit selbstnachspannender Welle-Klappenscheiben-Verbindung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanser, Axel [CTV-Armaturen GmbH, Nerdlen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The operation of shaft-hubconnection are using in torque transmission of machine parts and shut off valves as well. The new shaft-hubconnection re-stress device designed by CTV-Armaturen, have a lot of advantages in application. (orig.)

  20. Research on Stress and Strength of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Drilling Shaft Lining in Thick Top Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Zhi-shu; CHANG Hua; RONG Chuan-xin

    2007-01-01

    High strength reinforced concrete drilling shaft linings have been adopted to solve the difficult problem of supporting coal drilling shafts penetrating through thick top soils. Through model experiments the stress and strength of such shaft linings are studied. The test results indicate that the load bearing capacity of the shaft lining is very high and that the main factors affecting the load bearing capacity are the concrete strength, the ratio of lining thickness to inner radius and the reinforcement ratio. Based on the limit equilibrium conditions and the strength theory of concrete under multi-axial compressive stressed state, a formula for calculating the load-bearing capacity of a high strength reinforced concrete shaft lining was obtained. Because the concrete in a shaft lining is in a multi-axial compressive stress state the compressive strength increases to a great extent compared to uni-axial loading. Based on experiment a formula for the gain factor in compressive strength was obtained: it can be used in the structural design of the shaft lining. These results have provided a basis for sound engineering practice when designing this kind of shaft lining structure.

  1. 78 FR 66071 - Proposed Information Collection; Slope and Shaft Sinking Plans (Pertains to Surface Work Areas of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Information Collection; Slope and Shaft Sinking Plans (Pertains to Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor... information collection for Slope and Shaft Sinking Plans, 30 CFR 77.1900. DATES: All comments must...

  2. 机车电机转轴及小齿轮轴断裂失效分析%Fracture Failure Analysis for Traction Motor Rotation Shaft and Pinion Shaft of Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志亮; 左华付; 肖先忠

    2011-01-01

    Fracture morphology, chemical composition, hardness and microstrueture were analyzed to find the fracture reason of traction motor rotation shaft and pinion shaft of a locomotive which were interference fit. The results showed that the rotation shaft and pinion shaft were all rotation bending fretting fatigue fracture, the main reasons of fracture were the fretting abrasion of the interference surface between rotation shaft and pinion shaft and stress concentration on the junction of the pinion shaft;s oil groove and hole, fatigue cracks initiated because of the stress concentration, and then extended under the action of rotation bending stress to fracture finally. The crack initiation and fracture of pinion shaft were earlier than those of rotation shaft_%为查目月某机车电机转轴以及与之过盈配合的小齿轮轴的断裂原因,对断口形貌、化学成分、硬度和显微组织进行了综合分析。结果表明:转轴及小齿轮轴的断裂均为旋转弯曲微动疲劳断裂;断裂原因主要是由于转轴与小齿轮轴过盈配合面的微动磨损以及小齿轮轴的油槽与油孔交界处的应力集中,应力集中导致疲劳裂纹的萌生,然后在旋转弯曲应力的作用下扩展直至断裂,小齿轮轴的起裂及断裂均先于转轴。

  3. Control of the low-frequency vibrations of elastic metamaterial shafts with discretized arc-rubber layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixia, Li; Anjiang, Cai

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new kind of elastic metamaterial (EM) shaft with discretized arc-shaped rubber layers, which shows excellent low-frequency vibration properties. The band gaps of the shaft structure were analyzed by employing the finite element method. The proposed EM shaft exhibits much lower band gaps than the corresponding structures with the whole rubber ring. Furthermore, the band gaps can be modulated by tuning the arc angle and the number of the arc-shaped rubbers. Additionally, we observed that the first complete band gap tends to disappear when the arc angle of each arc-shaped rubber section is decreased but the arc number remains fixed because the arc angle more strongly affects the rotational stiffness than the transverse stiffness of the rubber layers. This new type of EM shafts could find potential application as a means to control the low-frequency vibrations of rotor shafts in mechanical engineering.

  4. Pervasive Investigations of Critical Speed over Weight and Deflection Factors of Shaft Assembly in CNC Ball Screw System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The demand for higher productivity requires machine tools to work on the adequate critical speed to have faster and more accurate ball screw system. Ball screw affects severely over the higher rotation speed of the shaft in computer numeric control (CNC machining centers. This paper deals with an approach to calculate the initial critical speed of the shaft. Critical speed requires significant attention due to its major use in the manufacturing sectors. The impacts of weight on the critical speed of shaft assembly have been analyzed from theoretical as well as analytical investigations. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of weight on the deflection of the shafts along with failure analysis of shafts with respect to critical speed. Further, we computed the results for critical speed based factor to enhance the accuracy of CNC machining centers. Finally, the analytical estimations have been carried out to prove the validity of our proposal.

  5. Ultrasonic turbine shaft inspection using the synthetic aperture focussing technique (SAFT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic imaging techniques developed for turbine shaft inspection result in a two-dimensional image of the defect distribution inside the specimen. It is shown, how the effect of reflectors outside of the image plane lead to misinterpretation of the reflector positions. The expansion of the two-dimensional imaging technique to three-dimensions will help to overcome these problems. (orig.)

  6. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  7. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar,; Mahendranath Reddy

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : Conservative treatment of fracture humerus has resulted in malunion , nonunion , and ultimately poor functional outcome. Internal fixation of fracture shaft of humerus allows ready access for nursing care in patients with multiple injuries and associated co morbid conditions. And also restrictive bandages and splints are avoided , early mobilization o f the patients and his limbs helps to prevent fracture disease....

  8. Information on the shaft facility Asse II. That much is sure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following issues are discussed in the brochure on Asse II: collapse hazard, knowledge on the inventory, cancer incidence in the vicinity of Asse II, fact finding and waste retrieval delay, possibility of new shaft excavation, emergency preparedness - retrieval delay, retrieval only if intermediate storage facility is found, consequences in case of Asse flooding, salt caverns for final repository.

  9. BIFURCATION OF A SHAFT WITH HYSTERETIC-TYPE INTERNAL FRICTION FORCE OF MATERIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁千; 陈予恕

    2003-01-01

    The bifurcation of a shaft with hysteretic internal friction of material was analysed. Firstly, the differential motion equation in complex form was deduced using Hamilton principle. Then averaged equations in primary resonances were obtained using the averaging method. The stability of steady-state responses was also determined. Lastly, the bifurcations of both normal motion (synchronous whirl) and self-excited motion (nonsynchronous whirl) were investigated using the method of singularity. The study shows that by a rather large disturbance, the stability of the shaft can be lost through Hopf bifurcation in case the stability condition is not satisfied. The averaged self-excited response appears as a type of unsymmetrical bifurcation with high orders of co-dimension. The second Hopf bifurcation, which corresponds to double amplitude-modulated response, can occur as the speed of the shaft increases. Balancing the shaft carefully to decrease its unbalance level and increasing the external damping are two effective methods to avoid the appearance of the self-sustained whirl induced by the hysteretic internal friction of material.

  10. Magnetic Actuation Connector Between Extension Shaft and Armature for Bottom Mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Hyung; Cho, Yeong Garp; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The electromagnet and armature inside the guide tube interact and produce magnetism, thus making the armature, connecting extension shaft and control rod move up and down to control the power of reactor. During the overhaul, the control absorber rod (CAR), extension shaft, and armature of BMCRDM are lifted together for closing a seal valve. But total length of CAR assembly is so long that it cannot be lifted due to exposure above the water level of pool which is strictly controlled. In addition to this, it is difficult to calibrate a position indicator and lifting force of electromagnet without armature assembly as a seal valve is closed. For this reason, it is necessary to install a disconnecting system between armature and extension shaft. Therefore, KAERI has developed magnetic actuation connector using plunger between armature and extension shaft for the bottom mounted control rod drive mechanism in research reactor. The results of a FEM and the experiments in this work lead to the following conclusions: The FEM result for the design of the magnetic actuation connector is compared with the measured lifting force of prototype production. As a result, it is shown that the lifting force of the prototype connector has a good agreement with the result of the FEM. A newly developed technique of prototype magnetic actuation connector which is designed by FEM analysis result is proposed.

  11. Treatment of ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures with reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立东; 吴琼华; 严世贵; 潘志军

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail in the treatment of ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures. Methods: From August 1997 to November 2001, 13 patients were treated with the reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail. Nine patients were associated with ipsilateral femoral neck fractures, three with ipsilateral intertrochanteric fractures, and one with subtrochanteric fracture. Results: The follow-up time was from 6 to 38 months with an average of 14 months. All the femoral shaft and hip fractures healed up well. There was no nonunion of the femoral neck, and only one varus malunion. No patient had avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The average healing time for femoral neck fracture was 4.6 months and for shaft fracture 5.8 months. The joint movement and other functions were fairly resumed. Conclusions: The reconstructive intramedullary interlocking nail, with less trauma, reliable fixation, and high rate of fracture healing, is an ideal method of choice in the treatment of ipsilateral hip and femoral shaft fractures.

  12. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process. PMID:25084404

  13. Femoral shaft fractures in children, treaties with elastic nails of titanium - TENs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Femoral shaft fractures are a common and temporarily disabling injury in children. Recent advances in orthopedic traumatology have led us at the Hospital Universitario del Valle, in Cali, Colombia, to perform a case series observational study with the use of a more aggressive approach with the new endomedullar titanium nails (TENs) in children suffering femur shaft fractures, in a closed procedure performed under image intensification. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of 30 children treated with these nails. Pediatric femoral shaft fractures are more common in males with approximately a 2.75:1 male to female ratio. The age distribution is bimodal, with peaks in the younger than 5 years and mid-teenage groups (10-14 years) because of the increased incidence of high-energy trauma in teenage children (mean age: 9 years). Overall, TENs allowed rapid mobilization with few complications. The results were excellent or satisfactory in our cases. No child lost rotational alignment in the postoperative period. Irritation of the soft tissue near the knee by the nail tip occurred in one patient. As indications, implantation technique, and aftercare are refined, TENs may prove to be the ideal implant to stabilize most pediatric femur shaft fractures, avoiding the prolonged immobilization and complications of traction and spica cast

  14. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient.

  15. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  16. Diagnosis of power generator sets by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the diagnosis of a powerful 20-cylinder diesel engine which runs a generator set in a nuclear plant. The objective is to make a diagnosis by analyzing the crank shaft angular speed variations. Only combustion related faults are investigated. As the engine is very large, the first crank shaft natural modes are in the low frequencies. Torsional vibrations of the flexible crank shaft strongly complicate the analysis of the angular speed variations. Little attention has been paid to such large engines in the literature. First, a dynamical model with the assumption of a flexible crank shaft is established. The parameters of the model are optimized with the help of actual data. Then, an original automated diagnosis based on pattern recognition of the angular speed waveforms is proposed. Indeed, any faulty cylinder in combustion stroke will distort the angular speed waveform in a specific way which depends on its location with respect to nodes and anti-nodes of the modes. Reference patterns, representative of the engine conditions, are computed with the model constituting the main originality of this work. Promising results are obtained in operational phase. An experimental fuel leakage fault was correctly diagnosed, including detection and localization of the faulty cylinder and an indication of the severity of the fault. (author)

  17. A study on the turbine efficiency through the shaft packing improvement of new fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main reason for applying positive pressure variable clearance packing in fossil power plant is high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to analyze the turbine efficiency through the shaft packing improvement in thermal power plant and makes its comparison to that of the used packing

  18. Direct disposal of spent fuel. Simulation of shaft transport. Phase III. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of these demonstration tests was to verify the technical feasibility of a shaft hoisting equipment with a payload of 85 t as well as the safe transport of POLLUX-casks. In phase III of the project the components and the test stand were built, their proper functioning and reliability were tested to demonstrate that they are state-of-the-art. The following additional investigations were carried out: - Tests to fix operational disturbances and simulation tests for the new components to demonstrate their licensibility -Selection and lifetime tests of ropes and investigation of the present state-of-the-art of rope slighting under the conditions of the conceptual design of the shaft hoisting facility - Execution of a probabilistic safety analysis e.g. the determination of the release of radioactive material (result: probability <10E-6). With the confirmation that the conceptual design of the shaft hoisting facility including the developed components now has become state-of-the-art the contractor and the Reactor Safety Commission has the opinion that the licensibility nuclear safety conditions is now reached. On this base it is possible to construct the real shaft hoisting equipment for a payload of 85 metric tons. (orig.)

  19. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration. PMID:26837377

  20. Numerical modelling of heat transfer in plasma shaft electric furnace at utilization of anthropogenic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliferov, A. I.; Anshakov, A. S.; Sinitsyn, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The mathematical model of heat transfer between the counter flows of gas and porous batch of anthropogenic wastes in the working area of a shaft furnace is presented. This model considers chemical transformations in separate batch components and radiation heat transfer between the gas and solid phases. Results of calculations are presented.

  1. Control of Rotor-Blade Coupled Vibrations Using Shaft-Based Actuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rene H.; Santos, Ilmar

    2006-01-01

    When implementing active control into bladed rotating machines aiming at reducing blade vibrations, it can be shown that blade as well as rotor vibrations can in fact be controlled by the use of only shaft-based actuation. Thus the blades have to be deliberately mistuned. This paper investigates ...

  2. Comparison of Transient Behaviors of Wind Turbines with DFIG Considering the Shaft Flexible Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Ye, Ren-jie; Hui, Li;

    2008-01-01

    on the electrical transient performances of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines with different operationally states is investigated. In order to compare the transient performances of DFIG wind turbines during electrical transients, a DFIG model with simple one-mass lumped model and a two-mass shaft...

  3. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Ashoori, Keyqobad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods: In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients) or MIPO (32 patients). Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results: The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months). The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture. PMID:26543844

  4. Magnetic Actuation Connector Between Extension Shaft and Armature for Bottom Mounted Control Rod Drive Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electromagnet and armature inside the guide tube interact and produce magnetism, thus making the armature, connecting extension shaft and control rod move up and down to control the power of reactor. During the overhaul, the control absorber rod (CAR), extension shaft, and armature of BMCRDM are lifted together for closing a seal valve. But total length of CAR assembly is so long that it cannot be lifted due to exposure above the water level of pool which is strictly controlled. In addition to this, it is difficult to calibrate a position indicator and lifting force of electromagnet without armature assembly as a seal valve is closed. For this reason, it is necessary to install a disconnecting system between armature and extension shaft. Therefore, KAERI has developed magnetic actuation connector using plunger between armature and extension shaft for the bottom mounted control rod drive mechanism in research reactor. The results of a FEM and the experiments in this work lead to the following conclusions: The FEM result for the design of the magnetic actuation connector is compared with the measured lifting force of prototype production. As a result, it is shown that the lifting force of the prototype connector has a good agreement with the result of the FEM. A newly developed technique of prototype magnetic actuation connector which is designed by FEM analysis result is proposed

  5. Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of mitochondria from ancient hair shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Tomsho, Lynn P; Rendulic, Snjezana;

    2007-01-01

    Although the application of sequencing-by-synthesis techniques to DNA extracted from bones has revolutionized the study of ancient DNA, it has been plagued by large fractions of contaminating environmental DNA. The genetic analyses of hair shafts could be a solution: We present 10 previously...

  6. The incidence of non-union following unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moumni, M.; Leenhouts, P. A.; ten Duis, H. J.; Wendt, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Stabilisation. of fractures with an intramedullary nail is a widespread technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in adults. To ream or not to ream is still debated. The primary objective of this Study was to determine the incidence of non-union following unreamed intramedu

  7. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Strength of Anteromedial Plating for Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Feng Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Anteromedial plating was superior to anterolateral or posterior plating in all mechanical tests except in AP four-point bending fatigue tests compared to the anterolateral plating group. We can suggest that anteromedial plating is a clinically safe and effective way for humeral shaft fractures.

  8. A Method For Producing Hollow Shafts By Rotary Compression Using A Specially Designed Forging Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for manufacturing hollow shafts, where tubes are used as billet. First, the design of a specially designed forging machine for rotary compression is described. The machine is then numerically tested with regard to its strength, and the effect of elastic strains of the roll system on the quality of produced parts is determined. The machine’s strength is calculated by the finite element method using the NX Nastran program. Technological capabilities of the machine are determined, too. Next, the results of the modeling of the rotary compression process for a hollow stepped shafts by the finite element method are given. The process for manufacturing hollow shafts was modeled using the Simufact.Forming simulation program. The FEM results are then verified experimentally in the designed forging machine for rotary compression. The experimental results confirm that axisymmetric hollow shafts can be produced by the rotary compression method. It is also confirmed that numerical methods are suitable for investigating both machine design and metal forming processes.

  9. STUDY ON NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND FEMORAL LENGTH OF SOUTH INDIAN FEMURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakil Mohamad Khan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Femoral nek anteversion describes the angle subtended by the femoral neck with reference to the transcondylar plane of the distal end of the femur and is usually 15° to 45°. This along with the neck shaft angle, hip axis length, femoral neck width influence the risk of femoral neck fracture. Femoral neck anteversion angle has to be taken into consideration when reduction and fixation is selected as a method of treatment. Objectives: The objectives of present study to find out the measurements of Neck shaft angle, Femoral Length and Neck Length of femur. Materials and Methods: In present study have used 250 femurs from different colleges in south India. The following measurements were conducted Neck shaft angle, Femoral Length and Neck Length of femur. Results: The results of present study are the length of femur was 446.2+26.39mm, right femur was 446.6+26.66mm and left femur was 445.8+26.12mm, the Neck Length femur was 36.3+4.2mm, right femur was 36.1+4.1mm and left femur was 36.4+4.3m. the neck shaft angle of femur was 137.10 , right femur was 137.30 and left femur was 136.90. Conclusion: There is no significance difference between right and left femur measurements. Orthopaedists and Radiologists use the normal range and means of the neck shaft angle in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease of the hip. The angle is increased in congenital subluxation and dislocation of the hip, poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy and idiopathic scoliosis and decreased in the congenital coxavara , post traumatic coxa vara due to malunited femoral neck and inter trochanteric fractures.

  10. Study of Ender’s Nailing in Shaft Femur Fractures of Older Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladani HG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures in shaft femur in children are relatively common. Various methods of treating these fractures starting from non operative to methods like closed intramedullary nailing are at our disposal. Traditionally non operative methods are acceptable and find wide acceptance even today in very young children. However in older children certain problems are encountered like failure to control angulation and shortening, prolonged immobilization which causes very much discomfort & the overgrowth phenomenon. In view of above difficulties, closed intramedullary nailing was attempted in older children and adolescents. I have tried to study 23 cases of shaft femur fractures in older children treated by Ender’s nails. Methodology: 22 pts., out of which one having bilateral # shaft femur (total 23 #s with age ranging from 7 to 16 yrs. were studied. 3 pts. having polio limbs studied separately. Fracture was in upper third shaft femur in 5 pts., middle third in 13 pts., lower third in 3pts. & involving more than one region in 2 pts. Fracture was transverse in 6 pts., spiral in 3 pts., oblique in 12 pts.& comminuted in 2 pts.. Results: Average union time was 10 weeks except in polio pts. where it was delayed. No nonunion, no infection. Excellent hip & knee movements in almost all pts. Out of 20 pts. ( except polio pts. limb length was equal in 17 pts., one pt. was having 1 cm. lengthening & 2 pts. were having shortening ( 1cm. & 2 cm.. Conclusion: Results of this study strongly favor the use of Ender’s nailing in shaft femur fractures in older children. Second surgery of implant removal is mandatory. Closed reduction can usually be achieved if surgery is performed earlier.

  11. Outcome of non-operative management of femoral shaft fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyoola A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral shaft fractures are common injuries in childhood. There is paucity of information on their presentation and outcome of the available treatment methods in the African population. This study evaluated the outcome of non-operative methods of treatment of femoral shaft fractures in our centre. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of the database of children aged 14 years and below with femoral shaft fractures treated non-operatively over a 10-year period. Results: A total of 134 patients with 138 fractures met the study criteria. This consisted of 71 boys (mean age = 6.1 years ± SD and 63 girls (mean age = 6.5 years ± SD. Pedestrian vehicular accident was the most common cause of femoral shaft fractures in the study population. The midshaft was the most common site of fractures. There were associated injuries to other parts of the body (especially head injury in 34.3% of the patients. The commonest mode of treatment was skin traction only (87.7%. The mean time to fracture union was 4.9 weeks ± SD (range = 3-15 weeks. The mean length of hospitalisation was 6.7 weeks ± SD (range = 5 days-11 weeks. There was a fairly strong positive correlation between the length of hospitalisation and the presence of associated injuries, especially head injury, upper limb fractures and bilaterality of the fractures. The mean total cost of treatment was #7685 (Naira or $51.2 (range = $14.2-$190. At the last follow up, 97.8% of the fractures united without significant angulation or shortening. Conclusion: The outcome of non-operative treatment of femoral shaft fractures in our setting is comparable to the results of other workers. Methods of treatment that shorten the length of hospitalisation without unduly increasing cost should be encouraged.

  12. Placement of pre-compacted and in situ compacted dense backfill materials in shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In 2003, a decision was made to discontinue operation of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) and ultimately to decommission and permanently close the underground portion of this facility. As part of the Nuclear Legacy Liability Program (NLLP) being funded by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan), an ongoing program of work is being undertaken to decommission and deal with facilities that are no longer part of AECL's mandate or operations. The URL is included in these facilities. Part of this work is the installation of seals at the intersection of the access and ventilation shafts and an ancient thrust fault, Fracture Zone 2 (FZ2), approximately 275 m below surface. These seals are being installed in order to limit the potential for mixing of deeper saline and shallower, less saline groundwater. The seal design in each shaft is similar with a heavily reinforced lower concrete component, a central bentonite clay-sand component and an upper un-reinforced concrete component. The main shaft at the URL at the location of the seal is circular (∼5-m diameter), and was excavated using careful drill and blast techniques. The seal itself consists of two keyed, conical sectioned, 3-m-thick by 5 to 6-m diameter concrete segments that confine a 6-m-thick swelling clay section. The ventilation shaft at the URL is 1.8 m in diameter and was excavated using raise-boring. The ventilation shaft will consist of two keyed, conical sectioned, 2-m-thick concrete by 1.8 to 2.8 m diameter concrete segments confining a 5-m-thick assembly of pre-compacted clay-sand blocks. The concrete is a low pH concrete designed for repository use, which can develop a 70 MPa unconfined compressive strength after 28 days. It has a pH of less than 11 achieved by substitution of 75% of the cement powder with silica fume and ground silica so the likelihood of free calcium and an alkaline plume is

  13. Investigation of helix-shaped and transverse crack propagation in rotor shafts based on disk shrunk technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrier, B. [EDF/GDL, 2 Rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex (France); Garbay, E. [EDF/GDL, 2 Rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex (France); Hasnaoui, F. [EDF/DRD, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France); Massin, P. [CNRS-EDF, UMR 2832, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)]. E-mail: patrick.massin@edf.fr; Verrier, P. [EDF/DRD, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2006-02-15

    It is known from international feedback that the rotor shafts of the turbo-generators with disk shrunk technology may have transverse cracks located near the keys which maintain the bond between the core of the shaft and the surrounding disks in case of over speed. It was understood that the cracks were initiated by fretting between the keys and the shaft and that they propagated due to a fatigue mechanism generated by the rotational flexion of the shafts under gravity. The destructive observation now correlated to the service history of the shaft shows different mixed modes propagation phases and a stopped circumferential crack evolution during the last months of service of the shaft. Mechanical studies based on the determination of the stress intensity factors provide the evolution of the stress intensity factors during the crack propagation. They give access to information not available otherwise to explain the observed crack profiles. Finally, experimental investigations are needed to obtain the kinetics as a function of the stress intensity factors. The information provided is helpful in determining the possible crack profiles to be detected by the most suitable vibratory surveillance systems before failure in service of the shaft line.

  14. Investigation of helix-shaped and transverse crack propagation in rotor shafts based on disk shrunk technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known from international feedback that the rotor shafts of the turbo-generators with disk shrunk technology may have transverse cracks located near the keys which maintain the bond between the core of the shaft and the surrounding disks in case of over speed. It was understood that the cracks were initiated by fretting between the keys and the shaft and that they propagated due to a fatigue mechanism generated by the rotational flexion of the shafts under gravity. The destructive observation now correlated to the service history of the shaft shows different mixed modes propagation phases and a stopped circumferential crack evolution during the last months of service of the shaft. Mechanical studies based on the determination of the stress intensity factors provide the evolution of the stress intensity factors during the crack propagation. They give access to information not available otherwise to explain the observed crack profiles. Finally, experimental investigations are needed to obtain the kinetics as a function of the stress intensity factors. The information provided is helpful in determining the possible crack profiles to be detected by the most suitable vibratory surveillance systems before failure in service of the shaft line

  15. Deformation Analysis and Stability Evaluation of the Main Shaft at Jinchuan Mine No.3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qian-li; GAO Qian; ZHANG Zhou-ping; XIAO Wei-guo

    2007-01-01

    Unexpected, serious deformation failures have occurred during construction of a main shaft. A study of construction parameters of the main shaft is required. First, the stability of the shaft and wall-rock is investigated by numerical methods. The modeling results are as follows: The convergence of shaft liner is greater than 60 mm at a depth of 650 m; the maximum principal stress in the liner approaches 190 MPa, which exceeds the strength of the liner, so it is inevitable that the liner deform locally. Second, stability analysis of shafts with different liner thicknesses has been completed. The results have the following features: If the depth where the liner thickness is increases from 400 mm to 500 mm is 650 meters, the convergence deformation of the liner is reduced by 3.4 mm while the maximum principal stress is reduced by 5 MPa. At a depth of 250 m if the liner thickness is increased from 400 mm to 500 mm the convergence of the liner is reduced by 1.5 mm while the maximum principal stress is reduced by 10 MPa. Therefore, increasing the liner thickness has little effect on liner convergence but can reduce the maximum principal stress in the liner. The thickness of the liner can be increased to reduce the maximum principal stress and increase the capacity for shear deformation. Finally, construction techniques employing releasing-displacements have been numerically simulated. The conclusions are that as the releasing displacement is increased the convergence of the surrounding rock increases linearly while the convergence of the lining decreases linearly. The plastic zone in the surrounding rock mass at first increases linearly but then, at a release-displacement of 95 mm, expands rapidly. These conclusions show that use of suitable releasing displacement can increase the self-supporting capacity of the surrounding rock. But when the releasing displacement exceeds 95 mm the plastic zone rapidly enlarges and stability rapidly decreases. The maximum principal

  16. Influence of parameters detuning on induction motor NFO shaft-sensorless scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KULIC, F.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the parameter sensitivity analysis of shaft-sensorless induction motor drive with natural field orientation (NFO scheme is performed. NFO scheme calculates rotor flux position using the rotor flux vector reference only, does not require significant processor power and therefore it is suitable for low cost shaft sensorless drives. This concept also eliminates the need for sensitive stator voltage vector integration and it is usable in low rotor speed range. However, low speeds are coupled with low stator voltage amplitudes, which inflate the NFO scheme sensitivity to an error in stator resistance parameter. Similar problems can also take place if mutual inductance parameter is detuned, but this time in whole speed range. This paper investigates the influence of each parameter error on the NFO control steady state characteristics and dynamic performance.

  17. Final report of the borehole, shaft, and tunnel sealing test. Vol.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaft sealing by use of highly compacted bentonite was investigated in a 14 m long shaft in which two plugs were constructed with a central sand-filled central space for injecting water. A first reference test with concrete plugs was followed by a main test in which the plug material consisted of blocks of highly compacted sodium bentonite powder. In the latter test, the outflow from the injection chamber was only a few percent of that with the concrete plugs, which demonstrates the excellent sealing properties of the clay. The main effect was that practically no water flow took place along the rock/clay interface. The longevity of smectite clay in crystalline rock is sufficient to make bentonite plugs operative for several thousand years. (authors)

  18. Simulation Analysis of Spherical Mechanical Seal Property of Marine Stern Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xu Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The finite element model of spherical mechanical seal wasestablished with ANSYS, and the influence of seawater pressure, shaft speed and other factors on the sealing performance was discussed. The study results show that local contact situation of the spherical mechanical seal is in the outside of the seal rings, and both maximum contact pressure and temperature appearat the same position. As sea water pressure and stern shaft rotary speed are increased, the contact pressure and temperature of the spherical seal surface are raised, and when the contact pressure of seal surface is 0, the spherical seal surface forms two zones including contact one and clearance zone. The former is near the outside of the seal ring, the lateris close to the inside of one. These research results are of important theoretical significance and engineering application value for the development of new kinds of mechanical seals, and improvement of both safety and survivability of underwater vehicles.

  19. A study on the characterization of smoke movement in shafts with different fire source positions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Jie; Yang Tianyou; Wu Jianbo; Du Lulu

    2013-01-01

    In this study,experimental and numerical simulation methods were combined to simulate the changing course of the temperature and velocity fields in nine different fire scenes. The characteristics of smoke movement in shafts with different fire source position factors (h/H) were quantitatively investigated,and the non-dimensional fitting function between the fire source position factors and the maximum temperature was deduced. The results showed that the location of the neutral plane moved upward as the fire source rose,and all the generated smoke spread to the upper areas;however,there was barely any smoke in the lower areas. The maximum temperature was inversely proportional to the fire source position factor;the higher the source position is,i.e. the higher the ra-tio factor is,the lower the maximum temperature is in the shaft. The experimental verification of the fire dynamics simulator (FDS) showed good results.

  20. Diagnosis of the Thermal Bow of a Shaft in a Three Stage Centrifugal Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In practice many turbo-machines driven by motors are started up to operational speed within a very short time, i.e. in less than 20 seconds. For this type of machines the compatibility of thermal deformation of the rotor structure must be taken into account in the machine design, or the thermal deformation will be constrained and a huge resultant force can cause the shaft bending and consequently resulting in violent vibrations. In this paper, detection of thermal bow of a shaft in a three stage centrifugal compressor in a petrochemical plant is presented. The diagnostic results show that the thermal bow was induced by the incompatibility of axial thermal deformation of the rotor structure. A remedial action allowing free axial thermal expansion of the outer parts of the rotor is suggested.

  1. Secondary Radial Nerve Palsy after Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis of a Distal Humeral Shaft Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursina Bichsel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis is a widely used procedure for the treatment of fractures of the femur and the tibia. For a short time it is also used for the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Among other advantages, the ambassadors of this technique emphasize the lower risk of nerve injuries when compared to open reduction and internal fixation. We report the case of secondary radial nerve palsy caused by percutaneous fixation of a plate above the antecubital fold. The nerve did not recover and the patient needed a tendon transfer to regain active extension of the fingers. This case points to the importance of adequate exposure of the bone and plate if a humeral shaft fracture extends far distally.

  2. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Hydrodynamic Performance of Propeller with Varying Shaft Depths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春雨; 赵大刚; 孙瑜

    2014-01-01

    In order to study hydrodynamic performance of a propeller in the free surface, the numerical simulation and open-water experiments are carried out with varying shaft depths of propeller. The influences of shaft depths of a propeller on thrust and torque coefficient in calm water are mainly studied. Meanwhile, this paper also studies the propeller air-ingestion under special working conditions by experiment and theoretical calculation method, and compares the calculation results and experimental results. The results prove that the theoretical calculation model used in this paper can imitate the propeller air-ingestion successfully. The successful phenomenon simulation provides an essential theoretical basis to understand the physical essence of the propeller air-ingestion.

  3. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of the Shaft System in Water Turbine Generator Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhenyue; SONG Zhiqiang

    2009-01-01

    A 3D finite element vibration model of water turbine generator set is constructed considering the coupling with hydropower house foundation. The method of determining guide bearing dynamic characteristic coefficients according to the swing of the shaft is proposed, which can be used for studying the self-vibration characteristic and stability of the water turbine generator set. The method fully considers the complex supporting boundary and loading conditions; especially the nonlinear variation of guide bearing dynamic characteristic coefficients and the coupling effect of the whole power-house foundation. The swing and critical rotating speed of an actual generator set shaft system are calculated. The simulated results of the generator set indicate that the coupling vibration model and calculation method presented in this paper are suitable for stability analysis of the water turbine generator set.

  4. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-06-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  5. Evaluation of the reproducibility of the AO/ASIF classification for humeral shaft fractures☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignataro, Gustavo Soriano; Junqueira, André Elias; Matsunaga, Fabio Teruo; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Belloti, João Carlos; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun Sugawara

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reproducibility of the AO/Asif classification for humeral shaft fractures. Methods Consecutive radiographs of the arm in both anteroposterior and lateral view from 60 patients with humeral shaft fractures were analyzed. Six observers who were familiar with the AO/Asif classification (three shoulder and elbow surgery specialists and three general orthopedists) were selected to make the analysis, which was done at three different times. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using the kappa coefficient. Results The intra and interobserver concordance was statistically significant in all the analyses. Conclusions All the evaluators showed concordance between the three evaluations that was considered to be statistically significant. However, the highest values were found among the specialists. PMID:26417565

  6. Treatment Outcome of Intramedullary Fixation with a Locked Rigid Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mardani-Kivi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the treatment outcome of humeral shaft fractures with a locked rigid intramedullary nail in patients indicated for surgical treatment. Methods: In this descriptive-cross sectional study, all patients were followed up for one, six, and 18 months post operatively. The Short Form Questionnaire (SF-36 and Constant Shoulder Score were applied. Results: Of 78 included patients (mean age: 35, one patient had a soft tissue infection, one had secondary radial nerve palsy, eight had non-union, one had elbow limited range of motion in extension, and three patients had decreased shoulder range of motion. The Constant Shoulder Score and Short Form Questionnaire Score (SF-36 increased in all patients, although aged women showed lower improvement. Conclusion: Intramedullary nail fixation in the humeral shaft fracture may be associated with high rates of non-union.

  7. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Investigation of High-Speed-Shaft Bearing Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The loads and contact stresses in the bearings of the high speed shaft section of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox are examined in this paper. The loads were measured though strain gauges installed on the bearing outer races during dynamometer testing of the gearbox. Loads and stresses were also predicted with a simple analytical model and higher-fidelity commercial models. The experimental data compared favorably to each model, and bearing stresses were below thresholds for contact fatigue and axial cracking.

  8. Femoral shaft fracture osteosynthesis in a critically ill patient under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Cristobal; Salineros Matias; Diaz Rodrigo; Carvajal Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) is an invasive procedure used in critically ill patients with catastrophic pulmonary failure or cardiogenic shock in which conventional management has failed. These patients are managed with permanent anticoagulation, with increased bleeding risk. Hemorrhage is the main reported complication. Case: A 25-year-old polytraumatized woman, both lower limbs amputated and a left femoral shaft fracture with catastrophic pulmonar...

  9. Demonstration of Protein-Based Human Identification Using the Hair Shaft Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Tami; Anex, Deon S.; Hilmer, Jonathan K.; Matsunami, Nori; Baird, Lisa; Stevens, Jeffery; Parsawar, Krishna; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P.; Rocke, David M.; Nelson, Chad; Fairbanks, Daniel J.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Rice, Robert H.; Woodward, Scott R.; Bothner, Brian; Hart, Bradley R.; Leppert, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Human identification from biological material is largely dependent on the ability to characterize genetic polymorphisms in DNA. Unfortunately, DNA can degrade in the environment, sometimes below the level at which it can be amplified by PCR. Protein however is chemically more robust than DNA and can persist for longer periods. Protein also contains genetic variation in the form of single amino acid polymorphisms. These can be used to infer the status of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism alleles. To demonstrate this, we used mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics to characterize hair shaft proteins in 66 European-American subjects. A total of 596 single nucleotide polymorphism alleles were correctly imputed in 32 loci from 22 genes of subjects’ DNA and directly validated using Sanger sequencing. Estimates of the probability of resulting individual non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism allelic profiles in the European population, using the product rule, resulted in a maximum power of discrimination of 1 in 12,500. Imputed non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism profiles from European–American subjects were considerably less frequent in the African population (maximum likelihood ratio = 11,000). The converse was true for hair shafts collected from an additional 10 subjects with African ancestry, where some profiles were more frequent in the African population. Genetically variant peptides were also identified in hair shaft datasets from six archaeological skeletal remains (up to 260 years old). This study demonstrates that quantifiable measures of identity discrimination and biogeographic background can be obtained from detecting genetically variant peptides in hair shaft protein, including hair from bioarchaeological contexts. PMID:27603779

  10. INTERNAL FRICTION OF 51CrV4 SHAFT INFLUENCED BY THERMO-MECHANICAL COUPLING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G(o)ken; M. Maikranz-Valentin; K. Steinhoff; T.S. Pavlova; T.V. Ivleva; I.S. Golovin

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous influence of thermal and mechanical treatment was applied to produce a geometrically complex shaft from 51CrV4 steel leading to the formation of microstructures which were significantly different from each other. These microstructural differences were accompanied by a local change of mechanical properties in terms of hardness, electrical resistivity and especially internal friction. The Snoek-Koster peak was recognized and analyzed in the structure of this steel.

  11. Methodology of determination the influence of corrosion pit on decrease of hydro turbine shaft fatigue life

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović, Radivoje; Atanasovska, Ivana; MOMČILOVIĆ, Dejan; Vuherer, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of corrosion on stress concentration factor and crack initiation at shaftflange transition section. The case study of hydraulic turbine shaft failure is used as the basis for this research. The quantification of the stress concentrators was accomplished by the usage of Theory of critical distances (TCD) in the prediction of high-cycle fatigue behavior in machine parts and systems. The stresses obtained by Finite Element Analysis, was used as an entry values ...

  12. Simultaneous anterior dislocation of the shoulder and fracture of the ipsilateral humeral shaft : Two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.-H.; Lai, P.-L.; Niu, C.-C.; Chen, W.-J.; Shih, C.-H.

    1998-01-01

    Two patients with anterior dislocation of the shoulder and ipsilateral fracture of the shaft of the humerus have been studied and the mechanism of their injuries has been documented. Closed reduction of the dislocations was performed under anaesthesia during surgery for humeral fixation with a dynamic compression plate. The fractures and dislocations healed without any problems at 6 to 9 months postoperatively. At recent follow-up, one patient had returned to work and ...

  13. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chelsea N. Laatsch; Blythe P Durbin-Johnson; Rocke, David M.; Sophie Mukwana; Abby B. Newland; Flagler, Michael J.; Michael G. Davis; Eigenheer, Richard A; Phinney, Brett S.; Rice, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African-American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences bet...

  14. Management of open fractures of the tibial shaft in multiple trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Boltuc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The work presents the assessment of the results of treatment of open tibial shaft fractures in polytrauma patients. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 28 patients who underwent surgical treatment of open fractures of the tibial shaft with locked intramedullary nailing. The mean age of the patients was 43 years (range from 19 to 64 years. The criterion for including the patients in the study was concomitant multiple trauma. For the assessment of open tibial fractures, Gustilo classification was used. The most common concomitant multiple trauma included craniocerebral injuries, which were diagnosed in 12 patients. In 14 patients, the surgery was performed within 24 h after the injury. In 14 patients, the surgery was delayed and was performed 8-10 days after the trauma. Results: The assessment of the results at 12 months after the surgery included the following features: time span between the trauma and the surgery and complications in the form of osteomyelitis and delayed union. The efficacy of gait, muscular atrophy, edema of the operated limb and possible disturbances of its axis were also taken under consideration. In patients operated emergently within 24 h after the injury, infected nonunion was observed in three (10.8% males. These patients had grade III open fractures of the tibial shaft according to Gustilo classification. No infectious complications were observed in patients who underwent a delayed operation. Conclusion: Evaluation of patients with open fractures of the tibial shaft in multiple trauma showed that delayed intramedullary nailing performed 8-10 days after the trauma, resulted in good outcome and avoided development of delayed union and infected nonunion. This approach gives time for stabilization of general condition of the patient and identification of pathogens from wound culture.

  15. Analysis of electrodynamic brake for utilization in systems with rotating shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolov, Georgii

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct an analysis of an opportunity to apply eddy current brakes in dynamical systems containing rotating shafts. While conducting the research the general principles of deceleration, eddy currents’ origin, basics of magnetism and currently existing types of brakes were clarified and gathered briefly, but informatively. The theory which is explained in this thesis was taken from reliable secondary sources. The concepts of physics were investigated from sever...

  16. An Efficiency Optimizing Shaft Speed Control for Ships in Moderate Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Pivano, Luca; Johansen, Tor Arne

    2007-01-01

    Ships in moderate sea experience time-varying thrust and torque load on the shaft of their prime mover. The reason is the varying inflow velocity to the propeller during the passage of a wave. This variation has been considered a nuisance to the main engine control where the induced fluctuations...... that is shown to theoretically enhance the propulsion efficiency. Model tests determine dynamic characteristics of propellers in waves and a simulation is employed to validate the novel control scheme....

  17. Comparison of the results of treatment of humeral shaft fractures by different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić Vladimir; Maljanović Mirsad; Arsić Miroslav; Matijević Radmila; Milankov Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional results of non-operative and different operative techniques of managing humeral shaft fractures. The average follow-up was one year after the trauma in 61 patients with united fracture, where the initial method of treatment was the definitive one. The patients were divided into four groups: 22 were treated with hanging cast, 20 with intramedullary nails, 10 with dynamic-compressive plates and screws and 9 with external fixators. We est...

  18. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Zhang; Xuerui Ma; Chengliang Yin; Shifei Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG) sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT) can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Aut...

  19. Turbo-generators CP0/CP1 - transverse cracking of shafts with disk shrunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international experience feedback showed that the shafts of the turbo-generators with disk shrunk on technology are likely to present a risk of transverse cracking at the right of the central spacer, which also is shrunk on the shaft, in particular during barring phases. For the EDF NPPs, the low pressure (LP) rotors of 24 PWR 900 MWe units, known as 'CP0/CP1', are concerned with this disk shrunk on technology. The perception of the risk, identified well with the design, resulted in engaging operating precautions to limit the range of it. These cracks can be propagated under the effects of the rotational flexion during barring phases, mode more penalizing. and then, at nominal speed starting from a certain crack size, called as maximum crack limit m operation In October 1998, the ultrasonic inspection of a LP shaft highlighted the presence of 2 indications at the level of two positioning keys of the central spacer. This phenomenon is generic with the whole et the 72 rotors of the 'CP0/CP1' 900 MWe units. Among the actions engaged by EDF following this finding, it was undertaken, on the one hand, b mechanical study and tests which made it possible to define a first estimate of the operational limiting size of the defects affecting the lines of shafts while taking into account the parameters of influence, and on the other hand, the removal, for metallurgical investigations, of the most affected rotor. The access to the damaged zone for metallurgical investigations required to take each rotor disk off. Non destructive examinations were carried out at various stages of this operation to characterize the contour of the crack. The exploitation of the fracture topography is based on the lesson resulting from the study and the quantitative analysis of the fatigue tests of threshold of not-propagation realized in laboratories. (authors)

  20. Modelling a DR shaft operated with pure hydrogen using a physical-chemical and CFD approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzani Da Costa, Andrea; Wagner, D.; Patisson, F.; Ablitzer, D.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The hydrogen-based route could be a valuable way to produce steel considering its low carbon dioxide emissions. In ULCOS, it is regarded as a long-term option, largely dependent on the emergence of a hydrogen economy. To anticipate its possible development, it was decided to check the feasibility of using 100% H2 in a Direct Reduction shaft furnace and to determine the best operating conditions, through appropriate experimental and modelling work. We developed from s...

  1. Modelling and Stability of a Single-Shaft Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas Vournas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the development of a dynamic model for a single-shaft combined cycle plant and the analysis of its response to electrical load and frequency transients. In particular the stability of the frequency control, as well as the implications of overheat control are investigated. The model is developed in the Simulink environment of Matlab as part of an educational and research simulation package for autonomous and interconnected systems.

  2. Linear force and moment equations for an annular smooth shaft seal perturbed both angularly and laterally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, J.; Dijulio, R.; Ek, M. C.; Ehrgott, R.

    1982-01-01

    Coefficients are derived for equations expressing the lateral force and pitching moments associated with both planar translation and angular perturbations from a nominally centered rotating shaft with respect to a stationary seal. The coefficients for the lowest order and first derivative terms emerge as being significant and are of approximately the same order of magnitude as the fundamental coefficients derived by means of Black's equations. Second derivative, shear perturbation, and entrance coefficient variation effects are adjudged to be small.

  3. Pressure Pulsations of the Blade Region in S-Shaped Shaft-Extension Tubular Pumping System

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Yang; Chao Liu

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional unsteady numerical method is applied to investigate the pressure fluctuation of the S-shaft extension pumping system. Some monitor pointers are set at the key positions of blade region to capture the changing rules of the pressure pulsations, from which the data are collected through time-domain and spectrum analysis. The predicted head and efficiency were validated by the comparison with the tested results, and the comparison result shows that the unsteady flow characte...

  4. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Julian Matthew; Vakili Abouzar; Jakubowski Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM), which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located...

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF A HELICAL SAVONIUS ROTOR WITHOUT SHAFT AT 45° TWIST ANGLE USING CFD

    OpenAIRE

    Bachu Deb; Rajat Gupta; R.D. Misra

    2013-01-01

    Helical Savonius rotor exhibits better performance characteristics at all the rotor angles compared to conventional Savonius rotor. However studies related to the performance measurement and flow physics of such rotor are very scarce. Keeping this in view, in this paper, a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis using commercial Fluent 6.2 software was done to predict the performance of a two-bucket helical Savonius rotor without shaft and with end plates in a complete cycle o...

  6. Influence of fluid temperature gradient on the flow within the shaft gap of a PLR pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, W.; Rosic, B.; Zhang, Q.; Khanal, B.

    2016-03-01

    In nuclear power plants the primary-loop recirculation (PLR) pump circulates the high temperature/high-pressure coolant in order to remove the thermal energy generated within the reactor. The pump is sealed using the cold purge flow in the shaft seal gap between the rotating shaft and stationary casing, where different forms of Taylor-Couette flow instabilities develop. Due to the temperature difference between the hot recirculating water and the cold purge water (of order of 200 °C), the flow instabilities in the gap cause temperature fluctuations, which can lead to shaft or casing thermal fatigue cracks. The present work numerically investigated the influence of temperature difference and rotating speed on the structure and dynamics of the Taylor-Couette flow instabilities. The CFD solver used in this study was extensively validated against the experimental data published in the open literature. Influence of temperature difference on the fluid dynamics of Taylor vortices was investigated in this study. With large temperature difference, the structure of the Taylor vortices is greatly stretched at the interface region between the annulus gap and the lower recirculating cavity. Higher temperature difference and rotating speed induce lower fluctuating frequency and smaller circumferential wave number of Taylor vortices. However, the azimuthal wave speed remains unchanged with all the cases tested. The predicted axial location of the maximum temperature fluctuation on the shaft is in a good agreement with the experimental data, identifying the region potentially affected by the thermal fatigue. The physical understandings of such flow instabilities presented in this paper would be useful for future PLR pump design optimization.

  7. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal reliability investigation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results of a survey of reactor coolant pump shaft seal reliability. The survey sample is representatively large (approx. = 27% of total US commercial plant population) and includes the three industry seal suppliers (Bingham-Williamette, Byron Jackson, and Westinghouse). Operationally incurred/induced problems and seal redesign parameters are identified. Failure hypotheses in the form of fault trees have been developed to describe the failure mechanisms. Recommendations are made for seal reliability improvement

  8. Treatment of a femoral shaft fracture in a patient with congenital hip disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Koutsostathis Stefanos D; Tsakotos George A; Macheras George A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction We present a rare case of two concomitant morbidities treated in one operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature. Case presentation A 57-year-old Greek woman was admitted to the emergency department having sustained a spiral mid-shaft femoral fracture. She also suffered from an ipsilateral hip congenital dysplasia with ankylosed hip joint due to severe arthritis. She was treated with a total hip arthroplasty using a long stem perfo...

  9. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  10. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybeł, Piotr; Wałach, Daniel; Jaskowska-Lemańska, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  11. Is it possible to win back a part of coal resources confined to the safety pillar of a pit shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzysztof Ogieglo; Mieczyslaw Lubryka; Jerzy Sliwinski; Piotr Malkowski [Stone Coal Mine ' JAS-MUS' , Jastrzcbic (Poland)

    2003-07-01

    Results of the analysis of the impact of exploitation carried out in three mines of Jastrzebie Mining Joint Stock Company, in Poland close to pillars and exploitation encroaching upon safety pillars of 4 pit shafts on deformation of and damage to pit shaft pipes have been described in this paper. For some mines a period has been analyzed even since 1965. Making use of measurements and observations gained in natural conditions and numeric simulation in a method of finite elements with the use of COSMOS/M program a thesis has been proved that in the conditions of stone coal mines with the increase of the depth of exploitation there is a possibility of partial disturbance of defined boundaries of pillars of pit shafts without damaging and deforming these pit shafts. The course of walls prolonged in this way allows additional extraction without additional expenses. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  12. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  13. ABOUT THE MAINTENANCE OF THE RADIAL AND AXIAL SHAFT BEARINGS FROM PROPULSION PLANT WITH GAS AND STEAM TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION ADRIAN GIRBA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main rules imposed by classification societies for design the shaft for propulsion plant with gas and steam turbines. It also analyzes the main maintenance activities to ensure their safe operation.

  14. Modeling and experimental validation of the dispersion of 222Rn released from a uranium mine ventilation shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Wang, Hanqing; Kearfott, Kimberlee J.

    2012-12-01

    Radon (222Rn) found in uranium mine shaft ventilation exhaust gases could pose hazards to the surrounding environment and the public by virtue of its progeny. Radon migration under complex terrain is complicated by pollution source characteristics, geographical features of the dispersion region, meteorological conditions and precipitation. Fluid dynamics computations of 222Rn dispersion are performed for uranium mine shaft exhausts for complex models of the actual physical terrain corresponding to a mine in the Jiangxi Province of China. The eight cases studied included a ventilation shaft source, four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 m s-1) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m, 1.0 m). 222Rn distributions in the vicinity of uranium mine ventilation shaft are computed and compared with field measurements.

  15. Use of liquid nitrogen to freeze rocks in shaft collar construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyal' tsev, M.M.; Agishev, V.V.

    1984-04-01

    This paper describes the process by which loam was frozen to protect the collar of an air shaft in a Donbass mine in 1982. The shaft, 6 m internal diameter, was excavated to about 15 m, but influxes of watery loam could not be prevented by either reinforced concrete or metal tubbing sections. Boreholes for local freezing were drilled with an SBA-500 unit fanwise into the shaft walls. The freezing boreholes were 11 m long. A description of the distribution of the 9 freezing sections is given, in each of which were a 108 mm gas pipe and 89 mm liquid and vapor/liquid pipes. The liquid nitrogen was pumped in from tankers at the surface via a 53 mm pipe. Four monitoring boreholes with remote control sensors were used to check the rock temperature. The freezing process (to a thickness of 55 cm) took 9 days and 250 t of nitrogen, and represented a savings of 150 man days. The strength of the frozen rocks was 3.5-4 times greater than for brine freezing, so that the thickness of the frozen layer could be halved. (In Russian)

  16. Generalized solution of design optimization and failure analysis of composite drive shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollipalli, K.; Shivaramakrishna, K.V.S.; Prabhakaran, R.T.D. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Goa (India)

    2012-07-01

    Composites have an edge over conventional metals like steel and aluminum due to higher stiffness-to-weight ratio and strength-to-weight ratio. Due to these advantages, composites can bring out a revolutionary change in materials used in automotive engineering, as weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In this paper, the drive line system of an automotive system is targeted for use of composites by keeping constraints in view such as such as torque transmission, torsional buckling load and fundamental natural frequency. Composite drive shafts made of three different composites ('HM Carbon/HS Carbon/E-glass'-epoxy) was modeled using Catia V5R16 CPD workbench and a finite element analysis with boundary conditions, fiber orientation and stacking sequence was performed using ANSYS Composite module. Results obtained were compared to theoretical results and were found to be accurate and in the limits. This paper also speaks on drive shaft modeling and analysis generalization i.e., changes in stacking sequence in the future can be incorporated directly into ANSYS model without modeling it again in Catia. Hence the base model and analysis method made up in this analysis generalization facilitated by CAD/CAE can be used to carry out any composite shaft design optimization process. (Author)

  17. A CLINICAL STUDY OF FIXATION O FRACTURE OF SHAFT OF HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandra Reddy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the aim of the present study is to evaluate the results of closed interlocking intramedullary nail in the management of fractures of shaft humerus.20 humeral shaft fractures were treated by closed reduction and intramedullary interlocking nailing in the department of orthopaedics , government medical college , government general hospital , anantapuramu from November 2010 to A ug 2012. The cause of fracture was RTA in 17 cases and fall in 3 cas es. Age incidence varied from 20 years to 60 years , 14 were male 6 female. Out of 20 cases in 18 cases fracture united by 3 to 4 months. 2 non - unions occurred after 6 months. , Excellent results were obtained in 40% of the cases , good results in 20%of the cases , fair results in 25% and Poor results in 15% of the cases. M ost common complication was shoulder stiffness occurring in 5 cases. W e conclude that interlocking nailing for humerus shaft fractures is an effective means of fixation. T he most common complication is shoulder stiffness which can be minimized by preventing proximal protrusion of nail , proper repair of rotator cuff and early rehabilitation.

  18. Numerical Study on Pressure Drop Factor in the Vent-Cap of CDQ Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Song; Yanhui Feng; Xinxin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) shaft, the vent-cap with complex structure is installed in the cone-shaped funnel under the cooling chamber. It acts to introduce cooling gas and support the descending coke in the chamber. The designing and installation of vent-cap aim to get relatively uniform gas distribution, to reduce the temperature fluctuation of cokes at outlet and realize stable operation of CDQ apparatus. In this paper, the turbulent flow of gas in vent-cap of 1:7 scale CDQ experimental shaft is numerically simulated by using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software, CFX. The velocity field, the outlet flux distribution and the pressure drop factor of each outlet under three kinds of vent-cap (called high vent-cap, low vent-cap and elliptic vent-cap) are analysed and compared. The results turn out that the pressure drop factor of elliptic vent-cap is larger than the other two vent-caps, and that the pressure drop factors of high vent-cap and low vent-cap almost have the same value.While for a specified vent-cap, the pressure drop factor with pressing brick is larger than that without pressing brick. The work in this paper is valuable for the designing of vent-cap for large-acale CDQ shaft.

  19. An adaptive turbo-shaft engine modeling method based on PS and MRR-LSSVR algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiankang; Zhang Haibo; Yan Changkai; Duan Shujing; Huang Xianghua

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish an adaptive turbo-shaft engine model with high accuracy,a new modeling method based on parameter selection (PS) algorithm and multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least square support vector regression (MRR-LSSVR) machine is proposed.Firstly,the PS algorithm is designed to choose the most reasonable inputs of the adaptive module.During this process,a wrapper criterion based on least square support vector regression (LSSVR) machine is adopted,which can not only reduce computational complexity but also enhance generalization performance.Secondly,with the input variables determined by the PS algorithm,a mapping model of engine parameter estimation is trained off-line using MRR-LSSVR,which has a satisfying accuracy within 5‰.Finally,based on a numerical simulation platform of an integrated helicopter/turbo-shaft engine system,an adaptive turbo-shaft engine model is developed and tested in a certain flight envelope.Under the condition of single or multiple engine components being degraded,many simulation experiments are carried out,and the simulation results show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed adaptive modeling method.

  20. Human hair shaft proteomic profiling: individual differences, site specificity and cuticle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N. Laatsch

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hair from different individuals can be distinguished by physical properties. Although some data exist on other species, examination of the individual molecular differences within the human hair shaft has not been thoroughly investigated. Shotgun proteomic analysis revealed considerable variation in profile among samples from Caucasian, African–American, Kenyan and Korean subjects. Within these ethnic groups, prominent keratin proteins served to distinguish individual profiles. Differences between ethnic groups, less marked, relied to a large extent on levels of keratin associated proteins. In samples from Caucasian subjects, hair shafts from axillary, beard, pubic and scalp regions exhibited distinguishable profiles, with the last being most different from the others. Finally, the profile of isolated hair cuticle cells was distinguished from that of total hair shaft by levels of more than 20 proteins, the majority of which were prominent keratins. The cuticle also exhibited relatively high levels of epidermal transglutaminase (TGM3, accounting for its observed low degree of protein extraction by denaturants. In addition to providing insight into hair structure, present findings may lead to improvements in differentiating hair from various ethnic origins and offer an approach to extending use of hair in crime scene evidence for distinguishing among individuals.

  1. Interlocking versus kuntscher nails in the management of femoral shaft fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the outcome of Femoral shaft fractures managed with Interlocking and Kuntscher intramedullary nails, in terms of healing time, full weight bearing and post-operative complications. A total of 200 cases of Femoral shaft fractures. Half (100) the cases of Femoral shaft fractures were treated with Kuntscher intramedullary nails and the other half (100) with Interlocking nails, the cases being assigned randomly. The detailed data of the patients was recorded, computed and analyzed using Chi-square test and Students t-test. The main parameters compared included fracture healing time, full weight bearing time and post-operative complications. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of demographic data, fracture type and associated co-morbidities. The average operating time was 110+-25 minutes for the Interlocking nail and 80+-15.8 mins for the K-nail. All patients of K-nail group needed blood transfusion, while only 17 patients of interlocking group needed blood transfusion. The full weight bearing time was significantly shorter (p<0.005) in cases of Inter- locking nail. Out of 200 fractures 182 (91%) healed with in six months while 18 (9%) did not. The latter included 6 (3%) cases treated with Interlocking nails and 12 (6%) with Kuntscher nails, p<0.005. Interlocking intramedullary nailing is better than Kuntscher nailing in every respect. (author)

  2. Effect of rain boot shaft length on lower extremity muscle activity during treadmill walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the extent of lower extremity muscle activity before and after walking based on rain boot shaft length. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects, 12 young and healthy females, were divided into three groups based on rain boot shaft length (long, middle, and short). They walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes. Activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and gastrocnemius was measured using electromyography before and after walking. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to compare the muscle activities of each group. [Results] There were no significant differences in terms of the interactive effects between group and time for all muscles, the main effects of group, or the main effects of time. [Conclusion] The results of this study may indicate that movement of the lower extremities was not significantly limited by friction force based on the characteristics of the boot material or the circumference of the boot shaft. Thus, it may be helpful instead to consider the material of the sole or the weight of the boots when choosing which rain boots to wear. PMID:27799685

  3. A Two-Disk Extended Jeffcott Rotor Model Distinguishing a Shaft Crack from Other Rotating Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a cracked rotor and an asymmetric rotor with two disks representing a turbine and a generator is utilized to study the vibrations due to imbalance and side load. Nonlinearities typically related with a “breathing” crack are included using a Mayes steering function. Numerical simulations demonstrate how the variations of rotor parameters affect the vibration response and the effect of coupling between torsional and lateral modes. Bode, spectrum, and orbit plots are used to show the differences between the vibration signatures associated with cracked shafts versus asymmetric shafts. Results show how nonlinear lateral-torsional coupling shifts the resonance peaks in the torsional vibration response for cracked shafts and asymmetric rotors. The resonance peaks shift depending on the ratio of the lateral-to-torsional natural frequencies with the peak responses occurring at noninteger values of the lateral natural frequency. When the general nonlinear models used in this study are constrained to reduce to linear torsional vibration, the peak responses occur at commonly reported integer ratios. Full spectrum analyses of the X and Y vibrations reveal distinct vibration characteristics of both cracked and asymmetric rotors including reverse vibration components. Critical speeds and vibration orders predicted using the models presented herein include and extend diagnostic indicators commonly reported.

  4. [Progress in diagnosis and treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, C G; Zhang, Y Z; Chen, W

    2016-07-01

    Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures are rare injuries, which are often caused by high-energy trauma and combined with multiple injuries, such as thoracic and abdominal injury, head injuries, and fractures of other sites.Delayed or missed diagnosis of the ipsilateral femoral neck fracture often occurs.When patients with femoral shaft fractures caused by high-energy trauma are admitted into hospital, physical examination should be conducted carefully.In addition to femoral shaft fractures, radiographs of the ipsilater hip and knee joints should been taken, simultaneously taking into consideration the potential effect of anteversion angle on the demonstration of femoral neck fracture.Computed tomograph and magnetic resonance imaging are advised to perform if necessary to facilitate early and accurate diagnosis of ipsilateral femoral neck fracture.Comprehensive evaluation should be done based on age, physical condition, associated injuries as well as fracture site, classification and injury severity.Accordingly, proper and reasonable surgical plan is made.During the operation, anatomical reduction of the fractures, especially femoral neck fractures, should be achieved, and then fixed with appropriate internal implants.Besides, attention should also be paid to the treatment of associated injuries as well as the prevention and management of complications. PMID:27373484

  5. Influence of pre-load coefficient of TPJBs with even number pads on shaft lateral vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For a rotating machine with one or more tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs), it is acommon state that pad-to-journal assembling clearances are uneven in one bearing, or inconsis-tent relationship of assembling clearances are encountered among all the bearings. Consideringthe structural characteristics of a TPJB, a concept named as "pad pair pre-load coefficient" corre-sponding to bearing pre-load coefficient is proposed. Firstly, the influence of bearing pre-load coef-ficient and pad pair pre-load coefficient on shaft vibration in a Jeffcot rotor is analyzed. Then takingNo.1 unit with two TPJBs in Guangzhou pumped storage power plant (GPSP) as an example, theinfluence of inconsistent relationship of the two bearing pre-load coefficients on shaft vibration isanalyzed. The results show that variety of one bearing pre-load coefficient will only influence vibra-tion amplitude, not involving the shape of shaft center orbit. But variety of one or more "pad pairpre-load coefficient" will influence not only vibration amplitude, but also the shape of orbit-whichwill be turned from a circle to an ellipse. By investigating variation characteristics of shape andvibration amplitude of orbits at the TPJBs, some theoretical bases will be supplied for diagnosingthe condition of the unit bearings.

  6. Rheinberg shaft: planning and execution of freezing methods. Schacht Rheinberg: Planung und Durchfuehrung des Gefrierverfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonscheidt, H.-W. (Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-06-13

    The availability of representative geological and geomechanical data is a prerequisite for good planning of a freezing shaft project. The recommendations of the geological and geotechnical expert report based on four exploratory boreholes are explained and their incorporation in the shaft planning described. As most of the overburden is aquiferous and unstable, a minimum freezing depth of 523 m was recommended together with a brine feed temperature of -35{degree}C, extreme care in the drilling and equipment of the shaft centre hole and regular monitoring of the rock deformations by measurements. The frost casing/outer lining system was dimensioned according to H. Neuber's method: a frost casing thickness of 13 m and outer lining (concrete blocks with flax boards) thickness between 30 and 90 cm corresponding to the respective rock strata were selected. Aquiferous rock with a volume of 520 000 m{sup 3} had to be frozen. 44 freezing holes, three temperature measuring holes and the central hole - a total of about 25 000 metres - were drilled for this purpose. Six refrigerators produced a total refrigerating capacity of 15.6{center dot}106kJ/h. The installed measuring system supplied a large amount of data, the most important of which are represented as a function of the freezing time or depth. It can be stated that planning and execution have led to a reliably dimensioned frost casing completed on schedule. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Analysis of fatigue transverse cracks in turbine shafts; Analyse des fissures transverses de fatigue dans les arbres de turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubry, P. [Alstom Power, service client, 93 - Stains (France); Cailleaux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), Pole Industrie Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    During a safety control of the low pressure turbines CP0/CP1 shafts, some transverse cracks have been identified. In a first step, the crack propagation has been studied by the following three actions: improvement of the control methods, material characterization to calculate the crack propagation threshold taking into account the operating conditions, a 3-D numerical analysis of the shaft solicitations with the calculation of KI KII KIII for the crack propagation estimation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Geophysical and intrusive site investigations to detect an abandoned coal-mine access shaft, Apedale, Staffordshire, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, SG; Pringle, JK

    2011-01-01

    Derelict coal mine workings at Apedale in Staffordshire, United Kingdom were the focus for a multi-disciplinary geophysical and intrusive site investigation. Objectives were to: 1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, 2) determine the inclined shaft’s changing depth below present ground level, 3) determine if it was open, partly or fully filled, 4) locate it beneath a known shaft if (1) was unsuccessful and finally 5) compare geophysical mineshaft detection techniques in d...

  9. Exchanging reamed nailing versus augmentative compression plating with autogenous bone grafting for aseptic femoral shaft nonunion: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang-ying, Ru; Yun-fei, Niu; Yu, Cong; Wen-bo, Kang; Hai-bin, Cang; Jian-ning, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of exchanging reamed nailing (ERN) and augmentative compression plating (ACP) with autogenous bone grafting (BG) for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to the treatment of intramedullary nailing (IMN).Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed for 178 patients (180 cases) of aseptic femoral shaft nonunion secondary to first treatment of IMN. All cases were fixed with either ERN (n=87) or ACP ...

  10. Two-dimensional modeling of unilateral contact-induced shaft precessional motions in bladed-disk/casing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salvat, Nicolas; Batailly, Alain; Legrand, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The present work targets shaft whirling motions induced by direct blade/casing unilateral contact occurrences in aircraft engine bladed-disk assemblies. These contact events are favored by increasingly reduced blade-tip clearances and potentially lead to harmful interactions that may threaten the engine structural integrity.A simplified 2D in-plane finite element model representative of the engine fan stage is built, accounting for the flexibility of the shaft through two linear springs attac...

  11. A New Method for Investigation of the Hair Shaft: Hard X-Ray Microscopy with a 90-nm Spatial Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Soo-Young; Goo, Ja Woong; Hong, Seung Phil; Oh, Tak Heon; Youn, Hwa Shik; Lee, Won-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Various methods have been used to investigate the hair shaft. In the ultrastructural hair field, scanning and transmission electron microscopies are widely used investigative methods, but they have some technical limitations. Recently, X-ray microscopes with sub-micron spatial resolution have emerged as useful instruments because they offer a unique opportunity to observe the interior of an undamaged sample in greater detail. In this report, we examined damaged hair shaft tips using hard X-ra...

  12. DIAGNOSTICS OF FATIGUE CRACK IN ULTERIOR PLACES OF LARGERSCALE OVERLOADED SUPPORTING SHAFT BASED ON TIME SERIES AND NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xuejun; BIN Guangfu; CHU Fulei

    2007-01-01

    To improve the diagnosis accuracy and self-adaptability of fatigue crack in ulterior place of the supporting shaft, time series and neural network are attempted to be applied in research on diagnosing the fatigue crack's degree based on analyzing the vibration characteristics of the supporting shaft. By analyzing the characteristic parameter which is easy to be detected from the supporting shaft's exterior, the time series model parameter which is hypersensitive to the situation of fatigue crack in ulterior place of the supporting shaft is the target input of neural network, and the fatigue crack's degree value of supporting shaft is the output. The BP network model can be built and network can be trained after the structural parameters of network are selected. Furthermore, choosing the other two different group data can test the network. The test result will verify the validity of the BP network model. The result of experiment shows that the method of time series and neural network are effective to diagnose the occurrence and the development of the fatigue crack's degree in ulterior place of the supporting shaft.

  13. Biomechanical Study of the Fixation Strength of Anteromedial Plating for Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Feng Zheng; Jun-Lin Zhou; Xiao-Hong Wang; Lei Shan; Yang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Open reduction and internal fixation with plate and screws are the gold standard for the surgical treatment of humeral shaft fractures,this study was to compare the mechanical properties of anteromedial,anterolateral,and posterior plating for humeral shaft fractures.Methods:A distal third humeral shaft fracture model was constructed using fourth-generation sawbones (#3404,composite bone).Atotal of 24 sawbones with a distal third humeral shaft fracture was randomly divided into three Groups:A,B,and C (n =8 in each group) for anteromedial,anterolateral,and posterior plating,respectively.All sawbones were subjected to horizontal torsional fatigue tests,horizontal torsional and axial compressive fatigue tests,four-point bending fatigue tests in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and horizontal torsional destructive tests.Results:In the horizontal torsional fatigue tests,the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A,B,and C were 6.12°,6.53°,and 6.81°.In horizontal torsional and axial compressive fatigue tests,the mean torsional angle amplitude in Groups A,B,and C were 5.66°,5.67°,and 6.36°.The mean plate displacement amplitude was 0.05 mm,0.08 mm,and 0.10 mm.Group A was smaller than Group C (P < 0.05).In AP four-point bending fatigue tests,the mean plate displacement amplitude was 0.16 mm,0.13 mm,and 0.20 mm.Group B was smaller than Group C (P < 0.05).In ML four-point bending fatigue tests,the mean plate displacement amplitude were 0.16 mm,0.19 mm,and 0.17 mm.In horizontal torsional destructive tests,the mean torsional rigidity in Groups A,B,and C was 0.82,0.75,and 0.76 N.m/deg.The yielding torsional angle was 24.50°,25.70°,and 23.86°.The mean yielding torque was 18.46,18.05,and 16.83 N·m,respectively.Conclusions:Anteromedial plating was superior to anterolateral or posterior plating in all mechanical tests except in AP four-point bending fatigue tests compared to the anterolateral plating group.We can suggest that

  14. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-12-01

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Site study plan for Exploratory shaft facilities design foundation boreholes (shaft surface facility foundation borings), Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Surface-based geotechnical field program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This site study plan describes the Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) Design Foundation Boreholes field activities to be conducted during early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County, Texas, site. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from federal/state/local regulations, and repository program requirements. Approximately 50 foundation boreholes will be drilled within the ESP location to provide data necessary for design of the ESF and to satisfy applicable shaft permitting requirements. Soils and subsurface rock will be sampled as the foundation boreholes are advanced. Soil samples or rock core will be taken through the Blackwater Draw and Ogallala Formations and the Dockum Group. Hydrologic testing will be performed in boreholes that penetrates the water table. In-situ elastic properties will be determined from both the soil strata and rock units along the length of the boreholes. Field methods/tests are chosen that provide the best or only means of obtaining the required data. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. Drilling will not begin until after site ground water baseline conditions have been established. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 25 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  16. Science design for two shafts in phase 1a of the proposed rock characterisation facility at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, United Kingdom Nirex planned to begin construction of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Sellafield as part of it's ongoing assessment of the suitability of the site as a host for a deep radioactive waste repository. The RCF was to have addressed issues relating to the geology, hydrogeology and geomechanical behaviour of the site by collecting data for testing predictive models and acquiring information only available from an underground situation. In March 1997, the UK Government refused permission for Nirex to begin construction and work at Sellafield was wound down. However, the science design for Phase 1a of the RCF, two vertical access shafts, was completed to provide a set of conceptual designs which address the issues identified by Nirex. By using Sellafield as an example, the designs contribute to a series of reports which demonstrate an approach to validation using an underground facility. This paper describes the Science Design for data collection during shaft construction, which began with the information requirements specified by Nirex on the basis of it's conceptual models and predictive work. It describes the scientific measurements designed to acquire this information and the process of combining the individual measurements into test plans for each shaft. Measurements were planned in the shafts themselves and in boreholes drilled from the shafts. They were designed to provide data on formation porosity and permeability, the geochemistry of formation water and the nature of the fresh-water salt-water interface, shaft inflow, the influence of geological structures on performance, and geomechanical responses to shaft excavation. A key element of the design process was the development of test plans, requiring the co-ordination and integration of the construction and science activities so that both could be carried out in a timely and cost-effective manner

  17. Modeling of shaft tombs in western Mexico by mean of resistive tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Zamora, M. A.; Gutierrez-Peña, Q. J.; Gomez-Gomez, G.; Rosas-Elguera, J.

    2013-05-01

    The archaeological affluence of Mexico is huge. However, the western part of the country is viewed as lacking of important prehispanic constructions. Discoveries since 1970 have exposed an ancient culture that has been termed as Teuchitlan Tradition. This culture is characterized by ceremonial centers formed with circular pyramids and several rectangular platforms surrounding them, and tombs below any of these structures. The tombs in turn are typically composed of a vertical shaft and one to three horizontal chambers, where bodies were placed. Due to this character is also referred to as Shaft Tombs Culture. The tombs are located mainly in low cohesion pumice, welded tephras and volcanic ash deposits. The vertical shafts were usually filled, and there was always the camera. Two major centers developed by this culture are found in Teuchitlan and El Arenal, in the western state of Jalisco. The former has been rebuilt and is currently open to tourism, while the latter is not restored yet. The latter apparently has two ceremonial centers located at two different altitudes. We conducted a survey in both sites with resistive tomography. The first study was conducted in Teuchitlan, on a circular platform. In this structure there are already located three shaft tombs. The results obtained using the Wenner alpha array with equidistance of 0.5 and 1 meter, are successful. The data have been modeled using the program RES2DINV, and models obtained show the presence of a boot-shaped tomb and other like bottle. The graves are identified with higher resistivity values, while values lower than 30 ohm-m indicate moisture leaks at the ends of the structure. Theoretical modeling of the tombs and the building was carried out, which is compared with the actual sections and their inversion models. Coincidences are appreciable. With this results, were conducted two lines in ceremonial centers of El Arenal, to identify the occurrence of shaft tombs. The two centers are separated by

  18. Treatment of the humeral shaft fractures - minimally invasive osteosynthesis with bridge plate versus conservative treatment with functional brace: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Matsunaga, Fabio T; Tamaoki, Marcel J S; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; dos Santos, João B G; Faloppa, Flavio; Belloti, João C

    2013-01-01

    Background Humeral shaft fractures account for 1 to 3% of all fractures in adults and for 20% of all humeral fractures. Non-operative treatment is still the standard treatment of isolated humeral shaft fractures, although this method can present unsatisfactory results. Surgical treatment is reserved for specific conditions. Modern concepts of internal fixation of long bone shaft fractures advocate relative stabilisation techniques with no harm to fracture zone. Recently described, minimally i...

  19. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  20. Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacksin, M.F.; Zurlo, J.V. [Department of Radiology, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States); Levy, A.S. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, University Hospital, Newark, NJ 07103-2426 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 13 refs.

  1. Internal derangement of the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture: MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. This study uses magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to delineate the types and frequencies of injuries seen in the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. We also compare the results of the orthopedic knee examination with the MR findings. Design and patients. MR imaging of the ipsilateral knee was performed on 34 patients with closed femoral shaft fractures. Indications for knee MR imaging included knee pain at the time of fracture, soft tissue swelling or an effusion of the knee, or a positive knee examination under anesthesia. The patients had a mean age of 27 years and all were stabilized with intramedullary nails. Imaging was performed a mean time of 2.5 days after surgery. All patients had knee examinations done under anesthesia, and the MR results were compiled and compared with the clinical examinations. Results. Ninety-seven percent of patients demonstrated knee effusions. Twenty-seven percent of patients demonstrated meniscal tears, with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus most frequently torn. The medial collateral ligament was the most frequent site of ligamentous injury (38%) followed by the posterior cruciate ligament (21%). Fifty percent of patients had injuries of the extensor mechanism. Bone bruises were noted in 32% of patients. Articular cartilage injuries were confined to the patella in four cases. One occult tibial plateau fracture and one meniscocapsular separation were seen. Conclusions. There is a common incidence of both ligamentous and meniscal injury to the knee after ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture. MR imaging can be useful in assessing the extent of injury, and may reveal findings unsuspected after clinical examination of the knee. (orig.)

  2. Lifetime cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in soils from Tudor Shaft mine environs, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. Njinga

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to evaluate the soil radionuclides' activity concentrations and environmental outdoor gamma dose rates in Tudor Shaft mine environs, South Africa. The excess lifetime cancer risks are also calculated. Outdoor gamma dose rates were determined in 45 soil samples taken from 9 locations. The maximum and minimum average outdoor gamma dose rate taken 1 m above ground was 202.74 ± 14.18 and 131.09 ± 5.43 nGy/h, respectively. Also, the maximum and minimum mean annual effective gamma dose of Tudor Shaft mine environs was 2.49 × 10−1 and 1.61 × 10−1 mSv/y, respectively and the excess lifetime cancer risk from the average values of the outdoor gamma dose from nine areas of 1.03 × 10−3 was observed. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectroscopy and the average 238U, 232Th, and 40K activities were 271.96 ± 3.59 Bq/kg, 47.65 ± 3.69 Bq/kg and 87.17 ± 5.19 Bq/kg, respectively. The average soil radionuclides' concentrations of Tudor Shaft mine environs were above the worldwide range and some extreme values had been determined. Annual effective gamma doses and the excess lifetime risks of cancer were higher than the world's average.

  3. Mechanism of ad5 vaccine immunity and toxicity: fiber shaft targeting of dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Cheng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenoviral (rAd vectors elicit potent cellular and humoral immune responses and show promise as vaccines for HIV-1, Ebola virus, tuberculosis, malaria, and other infections. These vectors are now widely used and have been generally well tolerated in vaccine and gene therapy clinical trials, with many thousands of people exposed. At the same time, dose-limiting adverse responses have been observed, including transient low-grade fevers and a prior human gene therapy fatality, after systemic high-dose recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5 vector administration in a human gene therapy trial. The mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood. Here, we define the mechanism by which Ad5 targets immune cells that stimulate adaptive immunity. rAd5 tropism for dendritic cells (DCs was independent of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR, its primary receptor or the secondary integrin RGD receptor, and was mediated instead by a heparin-sensitive receptor recognized by a distinct segment of the Ad5 fiber, the shaft. rAd vectors with CAR and RGD mutations did not infect a variety of epithelial and fibroblast cell types but retained their ability to transfect several DC types and stimulated adaptive immune responses in mice. Notably, the pyrogenic response to the administration of rAd5 also localized to the shaft region, suggesting that this interaction elicits both protective immunity and vector-induced fevers. The ability of replication-defective rAd5 viruses to elicit potent immune responses is mediated by a heparin-sensitive receptor that interacts with the Ad5 fiber shaft. Mutant CAR and RGD rAd vectors target several DC and mononuclear subsets and induce both adaptive immunity and toxicity. Understanding of these interactions facilitates the development of vectors that target DCs through alternative receptors that can improve safety while retaining the immunogenicity of rAd vaccines.

  4. Infant bone age estimation based on fibular shaft length: model development and clinical validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Stamoulis, Catherine; Bixby, Sarah D.; Breen, Micheal A.; Connolly, Susan A.; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Bone age in infants (<1 year old) is generally estimated using hand/wrist or knee radiographs, or by counting ossification centers. The accuracy and reproducibility of these techniques are largely unknown. To develop and validate an infant bone age estimation technique using fibular shaft length and compare it to conventional methods. We retrospectively reviewed negative skeletal surveys of 247 term-born low-risk-of-abuse infants (no persistent child protection team concerns) from July 2005 to February 2013, and randomized them into two datasets: (1) model development (n = 123) and (2) model testing (n = 124). Three pediatric radiologists measured all fibular shaft lengths. An ordinary linear regression model was fitted to dataset 1, and the model was evaluated using dataset 2. Readers also estimated infant bone ages in dataset 2 using (1) the hemiskeleton method of Sontag, (2) the hemiskeleton method of Elgenmark, (3) the hand/wrist atlas of Greulich and Pyle, and (4) the knee atlas of Pyle and Hoerr. For validation, we selected lower-extremity radiographs of 114 normal infants with no suspicion of abuse. Readers measured the fibulas and also estimated bone ages using the knee atlas. Bone age estimates from the proposed method were compared to the other methods. The proposed method outperformed all other methods in accuracy and reproducibility. Its accuracy was similar for the testing and validating datasets, with root-mean-square error of 36 days and 37 days; mean absolute error of 28 days and 31 days; and error variability of 22 days and 20 days, respectively. This study provides strong support for an infant bone age estimation technique based on fibular shaft length as a more accurate alternative to conventional methods. (orig.)

  5. Unilateral external fixator in the treatment of lower third humeral shaft fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhen-zhou; HOU Shu-xun; WU Ke-jian; ZHANG Wei-jia; LI Wen-feng; SHANG Wei-lin; WU Wen-wen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the effect of unilateral external fixators in the treatment of lower third humeral shaft fractures.Methods: From October 1997 to October 2003, 33 patients aged 15 -70 years (average 31 years) with lower third humeral shaft fractures were treated with unilateral external fixators. There were 9 spiral fractures (type A1), 1 oblique fracture (type A2), 3 transverses fractures (type A3) and 20 comminuted fractures (11 type B1, 9 type B2) according to AO classification. Fifteen cases were treated with open reduction and limited internal fixation and fixation with external fixators, 10 cases treated with open reduction and fixation with external fixators, and 8 cases treated with closed reduction and fixation with external fixators. Nerve exploration was undertaken in 9 cases with preoperative radial nerve injury. External fixators were removed after bone healing. The average follow-up was 18 months with a range from 8 to 24 months. Results: The time of bone healing ranged 11-22 weeks (average 14 weeks). The latest follow-up showed the functions of 9 cases of preoperative radial nerve injury and of 2 cases postoperative radial nerve injury and the function of elbow were recovered to normal. There were only 7 cases of superficial infection at pin hole, which was subsided by using oral antibiotics and pin-hole care with mild disinfectants.Conclusions: Fixation with unilateral external fixators combined with open reduction and limited internal fixation has a good effect in the treatment of lower third humeral shaft fractures.

  6. Open tibial shaft fractures. Treatment with intramedullary nailing after provisional stabilization with non penetrating external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Octavio Soares Hungri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the incidence of union, nonunion, deep infection and factors influencing the time of bone healing in the treatment of open tibial shaft fractures Gustilo and Anderson types I and II initially treated with a non penetrating external fixator (Pinless(r followed by an unreamed intramedullary locked nail (UTN(r. Methods: It is a prospective study of 39 open tibial shaft fractures. According to the AO classification, 16 patients (41.0% were type A, 17 (43.6% were type B and six (15.4% were type C. According to the Gustilo and Anderson classification, 14 patients (35.9% were type I and 25 (64.1% were type II. For the definitive stabilization of the fracture were used an unreamed intramedulary locked nail (UTN(r. Results: Bone healing was achieved in 97.4% of the cases, with a mean time of 21.2 weeks, ranging from 12 to 104 weeks. Deep infection was seen in 2.6% patients and malunion were seen in 5.1%. Only the presence of complications were statistically significant to the time of bone healing, with a risk of faster healing in patients without complications of 4.29 times (CI 95%: 1.25 -14.71 comparing to patients with complications. Conclusion: The treatment of open tibial shaft fractures with unreamed intramedullary locked nail allows high rates of bone healing, low rates of nonunion and deep infection, and only the presence of complications is statistically significant to the time of bone healing.

  7. CFD modeling of multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft with layered burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ironmaking blast furnace is a counter-current chemical reactor which includes the ascending gas flow and the counter-current descending porous bed (burden). A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to simulate the multiphase reacting flow in blast furnace shaft. The gas flow dynamics, burden movement, chemical reactions, heat and mass transfer between the gas phase and burden phase are included in the CFD model. The blast furnace burden consists of alternative layers of iron ore and coke. A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the effects of alternative burden layer structure on gas flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and chemical reactions. Different reactions and heat transfer characteristics are applied for difference types of layer. In addition, the layered CFD model accurately predicts the Cohesive Zone (CZ) shape where the melting of solid burden taking place. The shape and location of the CZ are determined by an iterative method based on the ore temperature distribution. The theoretical formation and the methodology of the CFD model are presented and the model is applied to simulate industry blast furnaces. The proposed method can be applied to investigate the blast furnace shaft process and other moving bed system with periodic burden structure configuration. - Highlights: •A novel methodology is proposed to efficiently model the blast furnace shaft with layered burden. •The effects of layered burden on flow, heat transfer, and chemical reactions are considered in the model. •The shape and location of the cohesive zone is determined by an iterative method

  8. Shaft inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new family of inflation models is introduced and studied. The models are characterised by a scalar potential which, far from the origin, approximates an inflationary plateau, while near the origin becomes monomial, as in chaotic inflation. The models are obtained in the context of global supersymmetry starting with a superpotential, which interpolates from a generalised monomial to an O'Raifearteagh form for small to large values of the inflaton field respectively. It is demonstrated that the observables obtained, such as the scalar spectral index and the tensor to scalar ratio, are in excellent agreement with the latest observations. Some discussion of initial conditions and eternal inflation is included

  9. Method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, G.D.; Fayner, L.B.; Gurerich, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    A method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit consists of duplicating its position by an indicator which moves along with movement of the drill head during its forward and backward movements. In order to reduce time spent on auxilliary operations mismatching of the reading of the indicator and the position of the drill head is accomplished due to automatic rejection of the accumulated air during backward motion. The indicated mismatching is rejected at the end of the backward cycle.

  10. Comparison of two kinds of intramedullary nails in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; WANG Juan; SU Yan-ling; ZHAGN Qi; WANG Bo; LI Zhi-yong; ZHANG Ying-ze

    2011-01-01

    Background Intramedullary nails have been widely used in treating femoral shaft fractures.However,end caps falling into soft tissue intraoperatively may cause trouble to surgeons,prolong operative time and increase radiation exposure.Additionally,difficulties may be encountered when removing nails because of callus formation over the nail tip.We performed a prospective study to compare two types of nails in managing femoral shaft fractures.Methods Group I consisted of seventy-four patients with unilateral femoral shaft fractures treated with cannulated interlocking anatomical femoral intramedullary nails.Group Ⅱ consisted of seventy-eight patients treated with cannulated interlocking anatomical femoral intramedullary nails with tail wires.The patients' ages,fracture severity,duration of operation,fluoroscopy time,blood loss and falls of end caps into soft tissue were recorded.Nails were removed after fracture healing.The duration of operation and blood loss during nail removal were recorded.Results There were no significant differences between groups with respect to age and fracture severity (P>0.05).End caps fell into soft tissue 17 times in 15 cases in group Ⅰ and 21 times in 16 cases in group Ⅱ.An average of seven minutes was spent recovering a lost cap in group Ⅰ.In group Ⅱ,all lost caps were recovered immediately.The duration of operation and fluoroscopy time in group Ⅱ was significantly less than in group Ⅰ (P <0.05).Asymptomatic palpable nodules were detected in 4 cases in group Ⅱ.Nail removals were performed on 58 patients in group Ⅰ and 69 patients in group Ⅱ.The duration of operation,blood loss and complications in group Ⅱ were less than in group Ⅰ (P<0.05).Conclusion Intramedullary nails with tail wires facilitate both fracture fixation and nail removal,which can be used to treat femoral shaft fractures with less radiation exposure,shorter surgical time and fewer complications.

  11. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  12. Torsional Vibrations at Guide-Vane Shaft of Pump–Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Predin

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the problem of guide-vane vibrations of reversible pump–turbines, especially, in the pump mode. These vibrations are transmitted to the guide-vane shaft torque. The guide-vane vibrations are caused by the impeller exit flow, which has a turbulent and partly nondeterministic property. Experimentally determined flow velocities at the impeller exit are given. The mathematical models for theoretical torsional vibration prediction formulated using linear and nonlinear differential equations are presented. The results of theoretical calculations are compared with measurement results. The possibility of transferring the parameters from the model to the prototype is discussed.

  13. NEW TECHNOLOGY AND MACHINE TOOL FOR THE FORMING OF THE REAR AXLE SHAFT OF LIGHT TRUCK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yingchun; Yu Duonian; Wang Xueming

    2004-01-01

    A new technology of forward extrusion and cross rolling has been developed to process the rear axle shaft sleeve of light truck with the use of tube billets. This technology is characterized by large reductions of material, energy and cost of production and has significant economical benefits. This technology is stable and reliable. The three rolls transverse rolling mill built based on this technology has novelty construction, higher production efficiency, non-vibration and noise. The research results have been extensively applied to light trucks and farm transport with load of 1 to 3 tones.

  14. Cephalomedullary fixation for femoral neck/intertrochanteric and ipsilateral shaft fractures: surgical tips and pitfalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Bali; Nitesh Gahlot; Sameer Aggarwal; Vijay Goni

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Surgical management options for femoral shaft fracture and ipsilateral proximal femur fracture vary from single-implant to double-implant fixation.Cephalomedullary fixation in such fractures has relative advantages over other techniques especially because of less soft tissue dissection and immediate postoperative weight beating with accelerated rehabilitation.However,the surgery is technically demanding and there is a paucity of literature describing the surgical techniques for this fixation.The aim of the study was to describe the surgical technique of cephalomedullary fixation for femoral shaft fracture and ipsilateral proximal femur fracture.Methods:Sixteen cases (10 males and 6 females with a mean age of 41.8 years) ofipsilateral proximal femur and shaft fractures were treated by single-stage cephalomedullary fixation at tertiary level trauma center in northern India.The fractures were classified according to AO classification.An intraoperative record of duration of surgery as well as technical challenges unique to each fracture pattern was kept for all the patients.ResuRs:The most common proximal femoral pattern was AO B2.1 observed in 9 of our patients.The AO B2.3 fractures were seen in 4 patients while the AO A1.2 fractures in 3 patients.Four of the AO B2.1 and 2 of the AO B2.3 fractures required open reduction with Watson-Jones approach.The mean operative time was around 78 minutes,which tended to decrease as the surgical experience increased.There was only one case of malreduction,which required revision surgery.Conclusion:Combination of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture and neck/intertrochanteric fracture is a difficult fracture pattern for trauma surgeons.Cephalomedullary nail is an excellent implant for such fractures but it requires careful insertion to avoid complications.Surgery is technically demanding with a definite learning curve.Nevertheless,a majority of these fractures can be surgically managed by singleimplant cephaiomedullary

  15. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: exploratory shaft. Phase I. Conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.C.; Merson, T.J.; McGuire, P.L.; Sibbitt, W.L.

    1982-06-01

    It is proposed that an Exploratory Shaft (ES) be constructed in Yucca Mountain on or near the southwest portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This document describes a conceptual design for an ES and a cost estimate based on a set of construction assumptions. Included in this document are appendixes consisting of supporting studies done at NTS by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. and Holmes and Narver, Inc. These appendixes constitute a history of the development of the design and are included as part of the record.

  16. Development of the world largest 650 ton ingot for rotor shaft application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mono block low pressure steam turbine rotor shaft forging and flange integrated nozzle shells for nuclear power plants have been produced from up to 600 metric ton ingots. With increasing generator unit capacity, there are calls for ingots larger than 600 tons. However, segregation, non-metallic inclusions, and micro porosities inevitably increase with the rise in ingot size. Making such massive ingots with high soundness is a quite difficult challenge. The Japan Steel Works has been carrying out the development of 650-ton class ingot production. The first 650-ton ingot was dissected and investigated in order to verify its internal quality. (author)

  17. STUDY ON NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND FEMORAL LENGTH OF SOUTH INDIAN FEMURS

    OpenAIRE

    Shakil Mohamad Khan; Shaik Hussain Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Back ground: Femoral nek anteversion describes the angle subtended by the femoral neck with reference to the transcondylar plane of the distal end of the femur and is usually 15° to 45°. This along with the neck shaft angle, hip axis length, femoral neck width influence the risk of femoral neck fracture. Femoral neck anteversion angle has to be taken into consideration when reduction and fixation is selected as a method of treatment. Objectives: The objectives of present study to find out ...

  18. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: exploratory shaft. Phase I. Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proposed that an Exploratory Shaft (ES) be constructed in Yucca Mountain on or near the southwest portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This document describes a conceptual design for an ES and a cost estimate based on a set of construction assumptions. Included in this document are appendixes consisting of supporting studies done at NTS by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. and Holmes and Narver, Inc. These appendixes constitute a history of the development of the design and are included as part of the record

  19. Study on dynamic behavior of a shaft excavation through a faulted crystalline rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory' has been studying and developing engineering technology for deep underground applications. These applications are multifaceted and are categorized as development of design and construction planning technology, development construction technology, development of countermeasure technology, and development of technology for construction and operation security. In this report, the dynamic behavior of shaft and the surrounding rock mass has been studied with respect to rock mass displacement and stress, the effect of using a concrete liner and excavating through faulted crystalline rock. (author)

  20. Ipsilateral Fracture Shaft Femur with Neglected Dislocation of Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantu Jain

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Neglected hip dislocation is rare in today’s world and after prosthesis replacement even rarer finding. However such patients may not report to surgeons until they develop secondary complications. Management of such patient’s is a challenge to the treating surgeon and need to be tailored suiting to patient’s demands, expectations and constraints of financial resources. We did not find a similar case in the electronic and print media and therefore report this case which was innovatively managed. Case Report: A 60 year farmer presented with fracture shaft femur and ipsilateral dislocation prosthesis of right hip. He had a hemiarthroplasty done for fracture neck of femur in the past but used to walk with a lurch since he started to ambulate after discharge. However he was satisfied despite “some problems” which had caused shortening of his limb. The patient was informed of the various treatment options and their possible complications. He expressed his inability to afford a Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA at any stage and consented for other options discussed with him. The patient was positioned supine and adductor tenotomy done. Next he was positioned laterally and the fracture was fixed with heavy duty broad dynamic compression plate and screws. The wound was temporarily closed. Now through the previous scar via posterior approach the hip was exposed. The prosthesis was found to be firmly fixed to the proximal femur. The acetabulum was cleared with fibrous tissue. All attempts the prosthesis to relocate the prosthesis failed after several attempts and it was best decided to leave alone. Post operatively period was uneventful. At follow up he refused for any further manoeuvre in future inform of heavy traction and attempts to reduce the same. At one year when he was walking unaided and his X-rays showed that fracture had well united his SF-36 score was PCS – 49.6 and MCS – 51.9. Conclusion: Ipsilateral shaft femur fracture

  1. Utilization of deep shaft for bore-hole disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Novi Han Repository is the only existing repository in Bulgaria for the disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear applications in industry, medicine and research. The disposal vault for spent sealed sources is not designed for disposal of powerful 137Cs and 60Co sources. Long-lived waste from nuclear applications is also not allowed for disposal at the Novi Han Repository. As an operator of the Novi Han Repository, the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE) initiated a programme for assessment of the possible utilization of deep shaft Gabra for disposal of such waste. Results of the preliminary study are discussed. (author)

  2. Study on the construction of the shaft used in naval propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmen, F.; Macuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    Ship building industry is evolving internationally facilitating the transport of goods in large quantities at low cost. The marine environment is a challenge for engineers in the field because it also calls for intensive hull and propulsion system. This article is a comparative study of a constructive element of the axial line (shaft) which was used in connection radius. The study is based on the requirements of classification societies in the field and ends with finite element analysis using a CAD environment SolidWorks2010.

  3. Treatment of a femoral shaft fracture in a patient with congenital hip disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsostathis Stefanos D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present a rare case of two concomitant morbidities treated in one operation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind in the literature. Case presentation A 57-year-old Greek woman was admitted to the emergency department having sustained a spiral mid-shaft femoral fracture. She also suffered from an ipsilateral hip congenital dysplasia with ankylosed hip joint due to severe arthritis. She was treated with a total hip arthroplasty using a long stem performing as an intramedullary nail. Conclusion We undertook a complex operative treatment of both co-morbidities in a one stage procedure with a satisfactory clinical result.

  4. Long term stability analysis of cast iron shaft linings after Coal Mine closure and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadj-Hassen, F. [Ecole des Mines de Paris - CGES, 77 - Fontainebleau (France); Bienvenu, Y. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, CM, 91 - Evry (France); Noirel, J.F. [Charbonnages de France, DTN, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France); Metz, M. [charbonnages de France, ESA, 57 - Freyming Merlebach (France)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to analyse the long term stability of the cast iron shaft lining after coal mine closure and flooding. The attention is mainly focused on the behaviour during the critical phase of flooding as well as the phase corresponding to the disappearance of the water pressure and the stabilization of the environment. This pluri-disciplinary study was conducted by a team combining specialists in rock mechanics who identified the main risks and the conditions of stability of the lining and specialists in metallurgy who studied the composition of the cast iron and its corrosion behaviour after exposure to mine water. (authors)

  5. A Simplified Model to Predict Smoke Movement in Vertical Shafts During a High-Rise Structural Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xutao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A simplified two-layered zonal model coupled with a network model is developed to predict the smoke movement in vertical shafts such as stairwells and elevator shafts during a high-rise fire. The main governing equations of smoke movement consist of conservation equations of mass and energy, convective heat transfer, radiative heat transfer and momentum transfer. It is essential to consider the temperature distribution in the vertical shaft, the buoyancy-induced flow and heat transfer results of strong upward forces known as “stack effect”. This model is aiming at predicting the smoke movement in order to develop a successful fire protection plan and improve the occupants’ safety in the event of fire. The model analysis yields three main measures to improve safety on the upper floors, including increasing the vent size on the top of the elevator shaft, pressurizing the floors except the fire floor and reducing the gaps around elevators. These measures can also raise the location of neutral pressure plane (NPP which is critical for upper floor smoke controls. Ultimately, the location of NPP can be raised above the total height of structure, thus the smoke will be kept inside and exhausted out of the elevator shaft.

  6. Construction Experiences of Mine Main Shaft in Shaozhai Mine%邵寨煤矿主井施工经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李治祥

    2014-01-01

    A common method was applied to the early stage construction of the mine main shaft in Shao-zhai Mine ,when the mine shaft was in an aquifer of Cretaceous Luohe Formation ,due to the water in‐flow too high ,a pre-grouting at the shaft sinking face ,backfill grouting ,cut-off trench set in the shaft liner ,enlarged water drainage capacity and other comprehensive water prevention and control measures were applied to control the water inflow .The results were small ,the mine shaft was hard to continue the downward sinking and the common construction method had to change to the ground freezing method construction .The ground freezing method construction was taken 189 days and was success‐fully completed.%邵寨煤矿主井前期采用普通法施工,在进入白垩系洛河组含水地层后,由于涌水量太大,采用工作面预注浆、壁后注浆、井壁设置截水槽、增大排水能力等综合防治水措施加以治理,收效甚微,井筒难以继续向下掘进,不得不改用冻结法施工。冻结法施工历时189d ,顺利完成。

  7. Study of Effect of Quenching Deformation Influenced by 17CrNiMo6 Gear Shaft of Carburization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zirui; Yu, Shenjun; Xu, Jinwu

    The 17CrNiMo6 steel is mainly used for the gear shaft of large modulus in many fields of heavy industry such as mining, transit, hoist, forging and so on[1]. The size of addendum circle and common normal line is changed a lot beyond the tolerance because of the long time of carburizing process and the out-of-step structural stress and thermal stress during the quenching process. And thus the posterior grinding efficiency and quality are influenced. In the paper comparison and analysis of the deformation affected by solid and hollow gear shafts were done and the methods of simulation and practice were both used. The results are as follows: the deformation of gear shaft was small before and after carburizing while that of gear shaft was large before and after quenching because of different cooling velocity, structure and hardness of each position. And the deformation of hollow was much smaller than that of solid. Therefore, if the hollow gear shaft is used, the waste of material will be decreased, and finishing cost will be reduced, and thus the technology of heat treatment will be optimized.

  8. Strength Analysis of Rotary Flying Shear Shaft%回转式飞剪机刀轴强度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增磊

    2014-01-01

    Stress analysis of rotary flying shear shaft during the shearing process was performed in this pa-per. Fatigue strength and static strength of the improved shaft was checked by respectively using bending-tor-sion composition calculation and safety factor method. The theoretical calculation results showed that the shear shaft bending stress on the dangerous sections is less than the allowable bending stress of the cutter shaft mate-rial, and the shaft had enough fatigue strength and static strength. The actual production proved that the im-proved design flying shear satisfied the requirements of production line.%分析了回转式飞剪机上刀轴在剪切过程中的受力状况,分别利用弯扭合成强度计算方法和安全系数法校核了改进设计的回转式飞剪机上刀轴疲劳强度和静强度。理论计算结果表明,上刀轴危险截面的弯曲应力均小于刀轴材质的许用弯曲应力,并具有足够的静强度安全系数。通过实际生产的检验,证明了改进设计的飞剪机能够满足生产线的使用要求。

  9. FE-simulation of the Presta joining process for assembled camshafts - local widening of shafts through rolling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, R.; Silbermann, C. B.; Ihlemann, J.

    2016-03-01

    Considerable weight benefits and the option to combine various steel alloys of the single parts are the major advantages of assembled over conventional camshafts. The Presta joining process is the leading manufacturing method of assembled camshafts in the global market. The process is divided into two substeps. At first, the outer diameter of the shaft is widened with a profile oriented orthogonal to the shaft axis at the intended cam seat. At this position the shaft is subsequently joined with a cam with an internal profile oriented parallel to the shaft axis. As a result, these perpendicular profiles form a tight fit due to plastic deformations. Consequently the simulation of the manufacturing process has to start with the simulation of the rolling of the shaft. The resulting profile requested in this step is axisymmetric, but the arrangement of tools is not. Thus a three-dimensional model is required, which is presented in this work. Furthermore, the infeed of the rolling tool is unknown and controlled by the stiffness of the holders of the rolling tool. This work shows the modeling of this behavior. To predict realistic results for the underlying process, the use of precise material models is essential in order to take several hardening mechanisms into account. However, the use of complex material models implies additional effort, which is shown in this work.

  10. Extension of the 7{sup th} level south shaft-landing, 10 shaft, RAG Prosper Haniel colliery; Auffahrung des suedlichen Fuellorts Schacht 10, 7. Sohle auf dem Bergwerk Prosper-Haniel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Hartmut [RAG Steinkohle AG, Bottrop (Germany). Bereich Sonderprojekte auf dem Bergwerk Prosper-Haniel; Luettig, Frank [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste; Barth, Ulrich [Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH, Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    During the further sinking of shaft 10 the landing on the 7{sup th} level was bilaterally discontinued for approx. 10 m. In September 2008, with the drifting of the lateral C467 the interconnection was effected at the northern landing. Based on a further detail investigation of the rock mechanics and the experience gathered in the establishment of the northern landing the recommendation for the southern landing was to perform the further drifting by starting from shaft 10 and not to head for the shaft once more. Owing to the large cross section of the southern landing the planning of the drifting required solutions that are not normally applied in ordinary roadheading business. (orig.)

  11. Modelling of rotor speed transient with shaft-to-stator contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis first reports the development of a one-dimensional model of a rotor where variables to be computed are the displacements of a beam in a three-dimensional space, and the rotor angular position. After a description of the industrial context (the turbo-alternator group which transforms the thermal energy into electrical energy within the secondary circuit of a nuclear plant), and starting with an energy formulation, the rotor movement equations are established for a speed transient. The second part deals with the contact mechanics and the time resolution of a rotor-stator interaction problem. Contactless speed transients on rotor simple models are then presented, where the equation enables the calculation of the shaft rotational speed. The author then explores interaction cases. The reliability of results is assessed by studying their evolution with respect to the time step. The convergence of different interesting quantities such as the rotor rotational speed, shaft line displacements, and stresses (bearings and contact) is shown

  12. Femoral shaft fracture osteosynthesis in a critically ill patient under Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvo Cristobal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO is an invasive procedure used in critically ill patients with catastrophic pulmonary failure or cardiogenic shock in which conventional management has failed. These patients are managed with permanent anticoagulation, with increased bleeding risk. Hemorrhage is the main reported complication. Case: A 25-year-old polytraumatized woman, both lower limbs amputated and a left femoral shaft fracture with catastrophic pulmonary failure (Murray score 4 that required intensive management care with ECMO. During her evolution definitive femoral shaft osteosynthesis with a nail as required and the medical team decided to operate on the patient under ECMO. She recovered with fluctuations in her hematocrit, but was hemodynamically stable. The patient recovered satisfactorily, was weaned from ECMO and commenced her rehabilitation program. At 16 months, she was almost autovalent, and full consolidation was achieved, with no complication of the implants. Discussion: ECMO is a life-saving support, but requires permanent anticoagulation, which implies a high risk of hemorrhages, specially for surgical treatment. This patient underwent an osteosynthesis surgery satisfactorily. Hematoma was the only complication of her intramedullary femoral nail, without compromising hemodynamics. This case shows that patients on ECMO can undergo a major orthopedic surgery in selected cases.

  13. Portable mixed abrasive water jet equipment for rescue in high gas mine shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rui; DU Chang-long; XU Rui; ZHAO Jing

    2011-01-01

    In order to rescue a trapped miner and clean out roadways quickly in a high gas mine shaft after a mining mishap, a special portable cold-cutting equipment is needed, the main technology parameters were calculated according to the advanced cold-cutting technology of high pressure abrasive water jet and the portable mixed abrasive water jet equipment (PAWE) was designed to meet the needs of emergency rescue in high gas mine shafts. Tested the PAWE in a high gas environment, and the result shows that the maximum cutting depth of solid iron pipe is 18 mm and the recoilforce of the sprayer is 28.9 N under the conditions that actual cutting pressure is 29 MPa, starting target distance is 10 mm, cutting speed is 180 mm/min and concentration of abrasive is 32%. The course of the experiment in the high gas environment was smooth and continuous, without any explosion. The PAWE is easy to move and operate, but the nozzle which was worn badly in the sprayer should be changed every 8 minutes.

  14. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-06-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient.

  15. [Atipic osteosarcoma in the femoral shaft case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara-Altamirano, M A; García-Ortega, D Y; Martínez-Tlahuel, J L; Martínez-Said, H; Caro-Sánchez, C H S; García-Ruíz, G C; Mejía-Salazar, C R; Cuellar-Hubbe, M

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor. It is characterized by osteoid production by tumor cells. Its most frequent location is in the metaphyses of long bones, but a purely diaphyseal presentation is reported in 10% of cases. We report the case of a female 25 year-old patient whose symptoms of pain and swelling of the right mid thigh started four months before, without an apparent cause. Femur X-rays showed a tumor in the femoral shaft. The MRI showed extension to soft tissues with no compromise of the neurovascular bundle. The histopathologic report of the incisional biopsy was osteoblastic and chondroblastic osteosarcoma, classified as Enneking IIB, AJCC IIB. Treatment consisted of three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Then intercalary femur resection plus reconstruction with centromedullary nailing and a diaphyseal spacer were performed. The histopathologic report was 95% necrosis (Huvos grade III). Three cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were given and now, 18 months after completing the latter, the patient has no signs of local or distant tumor activity, and she can walk unassisted. Despite the fact that osteosarcoma does not occur usually in the mid shaft of long bones, we should always bear it in mind as part of the differential diagnosis for other conditions that occur more frequently in that region. Such location allows for a broad gamut of surgical approaches that spare the adjacent joints. PMID:27627776

  16. A preliminary investigation of trunk and wrist kinematics when using drivers with different shaft properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Cochrane, Jodie; Reyes, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether skilled golfers will modify their kinematics when using drivers of different shaft properties. This study aimed to firstly determine if golf swing kinematics and swing parameters and related launch conditions differed when using modified drivers, then secondly, determine which kinematics were associated with clubhead speed. Twenty high level amateur male golfers (M ± SD: handicap = 1.9 ± 1.9 score) had their three-dimensional (3D) trunk and wrist kinematics collected for two driver trials. Swing parameters and related launch conditions were collected using a launch monitor. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant (p ≤ 0.003) between driver differences; specifically, faster trunk axial rotation velocity and an early wrist release for the low kick point driver. Launch angle was shown to be 2° lower for the high kick point driver. Regression models for both drivers explained a significant amount of variance (60-67%) in clubhead speed. Wrist kinematics were most associated with clubhead speed, indicating the importance of the wrists in producing clubhead speed regardless of driver shaft properties. PMID:27075379

  17. Impact of Shaft Stiffness on Inertial Response of Fixed Speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Future power' system faces several challenges, one of them is the high penetration level of intermittent wind power generation, providing small or even no inertial response and being not contributing to the frequency stability. The effect of shaft stiffness on inertial response of fixed speed wind turbines is presented. Four different drive-train models based on the multi-body system are developed. The small-signal analysis demonstrates no significant differences between models in terms of electro-mechanical eigen-values for increasing shaft stiffness. The natural resonance frequency of drive-train torsion modes shows slightly different values between damped and undamped models, but no significant differences are found in the number-mass models. Time-domain simulations show the changes in the active power contribution of a wind farm based on a fixed speed wind turbine during the system frequency disturbance. The changes in the kinetic energy during the dynamic process are calculated and their contribution to the inertia constant is small and effective. The largest contribution of the kinetic energy is provided at the beginning of the system frequency disturbance to reduce the rate of the frequency change, it is positive for the frequency stability.

  18. Steel strain gage on steel shaft liner: Installation and monitoring procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangential and axial strains will be measured in the steel shaft liner component using steel strain gages (SSGs). These gages are vibrating wire strain gages welded directly to the steel liner. The primary objective of the overall monitoring program of which these gages constitute one part, is to define the stress-deformation behavior of the linings, seals, and foundations during and after construction. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider the SSGs welded to the liners as one element of an integrated program of monitoring the mechanical and thermomechanical response of the shaft. Other instruments which form part of this program include extensometers, concrete strain gages, convergence gages, concrete stress gages, piezometers, joint meters, and temperature detectors. The selection of these instrument types and their locations is based on a unified concept of behavior of the lining/rock structure and on how such a model of behavior will be deduced from the results of all instrumentation at an array. 9 refs., 5 figs

  19. Analysis of shaft torsional oscillation in a power system using a Lure Lyapunov function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q. [Huazhong University of Science and Technology (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cheng, S.; Cao, Y. [Zhejiang University (China). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2003-07-01

    A method based on a Lure Lyapunov function is developed to analyse subsynchronous resonance (SSR) phenomena in power systems. An improved Lure Lyapunov function used to analyse the stability of a power system including the turbine-generator (T-G) shaft is presented first. Then, a standard Lure control model for a power system with a T-G shaft is obtained. The stability of such nonlinear systems at the equilibrium points is discussed in detail. The stable operation region of the system is discussed with the proposed method. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a case study. This study has shown potential benefits and the validity of the Lyapunov direct method in the subsynchronous resonance analysis. Compared with the conventional analysis method, such as eigenvalue and frequency scanning techniques, the proposed method is based on the original nonlinear system. Error, that may be introduced by linearisation, is avoided completely. Moreover, the stable operation region of power systems can be obtained by the proposed method. (author)

  20. HOMOGENIZATION—BASED TOPOLOGY DESIGN FOR PURE TORSION OF COMPOSITE SHAFTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁振; 吴长春; 李华

    2003-01-01

    In conjunction with the homogenization theory and the finite element method, themathematical models for designing the cross-section of composite shafts by maximizing the torsionrigidity axe developed in this paper. To obtain the extremal torsion rigidity, both the cross-section ofthe macro scale shaft and the representative microstructure of the composite material are optimizedusing the new models. The micro scale computational model addresses the problem of finding theperiodic microstructures with extreme shear moduli. The optimal microstructure obtained with thenew model and the homogenization method can be used to improve and optimize natural or artificialmaterials. In order to be more practical for engineering applications, cellular materials rather thanranked materials are used in the optimal process in the existence of optimal bounds for the elasticproperties. Moreover, the macro scale model is proposed to optimize the cross-section of the torsionalshaft based on the tailared composites. The validating optimal results show that the models are veryeffective in obtaining composites with extreme elastic properties, and the cross-section of the compositeshaft with the extremal torsion rigidity.

  1. Comparison of the results of treatment of humeral shaft fractures by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the functional results of non-operative and different operative techniques of managing humeral shaft fractures. The average follow-up was one year after the trauma in 61 patients with united fracture, where the initial method of treatment was the definitive one. The patients were divided into four groups: 22 were treated with hanging cast, 20 with intramedullary nails, 10 with dynamic-compressive plates and screws and 9 with external fixators. We estimated the presence of bone union by radiographic and clinical evaluation and compared the results with Constant and Mayo scores. The etiology of injuries was falls and traffic accidents in 87% of cases. The hanging cast group had the most of elbow contractures and insufficient results of functional scales. The plating group had lower average values of scores than nails, especially considering the elbow function. Among subgroups, the locked intramedullary nails had better results than Ender nails. The most complicated cases treated with Ilizarov and Mitković’s external fixators had good results, especially in the treatment of open humeral shaft fractures; however, the rehabilitation period was longer. The best average functional results were recorded in the nailing group because of rigid fixation, solid callus formation and return to everyday activities in the shortest time.

  2. Development and Simulation of a Type of Four-Shaft ECVT for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In hybrid electric vehicles with power-split configurations, the engine can be decoupled from the wheel and operated with improved fuel economy, while the entire efficiency of the powertrain is affected by the circular electric power flow. Two planetary gear (2-PG sets with adding brakes/clutches, namely a type of four shaft elelctric continuously variable transmission (ECVT can provide multi-mode operation for the powertrain and extend the efficient area. First, a conventional 2-PG AT (Automatic Transmission architecture is investigated. By analyzing and comparing the connection and operating modes based on the kinematic relationship and lever analogy, a feasible four-shaft ECVT architecture with two brakes and two simplified versions are picked. To make a trade-off between fuel economy and configuration complexity, an instantaneous optimal control strategy based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS concept is then developed and employed as the unified optimization method in the simulations of three different configurations. Finally, the simulation results show that the simplified versions are suboptimal sets and the fuel economy is sacrificed by the limits of different modes. From the viewpoint of concept design, a multi-mode power-split configuration is more suitable for hybrid electric vehicles. This research applied a systematic methodology from concept design to energy management optimization, which can provide the guidelines for researchers to select a suitable multi-mode power-split hybrid powertrain.

  3. Analysis of Gear Wheel-shaft Joint Characterized by Comparable Pitch Diameter and Mounting Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryś

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design procedure for a gear wheel-shaft direct frictional joint. The small difference between the operating pitch diameter of the gear and the mounting diameter of the frictional joint is the key feature of the connection. The contact surface of the frictional joint must be placed outside the bottom land of the gear, and the geometry of the joint is limited to the specific type of solutions.The strength analysis is based on the relation between the torque and statistical load intensity of the gear transmission. Several dimensionless parameters are introduced to simplify the calculations. Stress-strain verifying analysis with respect to combined loading, the condition of appropriate load-carrying capacity of the frictional joint and the fatigue strength of the shaft are applied to obtain the relations between the dimensions of the joint and other parameters. The final engineering solution may then be suggested. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example.The proposed procedure can be useful in design projects for small, high-powered modern reducers and new-generation geared motors, in particular when manufactured in various series of types.

  4. DNA extraction from hair shafts of wild Brazilian felids and canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, C C; Ribeiro-Paes, J T; Aranda-Selverio, G; Cursino-Santos, J R; Moreno-Cotulio, V R; Oliveira, A L D; Porchia, B F M M; Santos, W F; Souza, E B

    2010-12-21

    Wild felids and canids are usually the main predators in the food chains where they dwell and are almost invisible to behavior and ecology researchers. Due to their grooming behavior, they tend to swallow shed hair, which shows up in the feces. DNA found in hair shafts can be used in molecular studies that can unravel, for instance, genetic variability, reproductive mode and family structure, and in some species, it is even possible to estimate migration and dispersion rates in given populations. First, however, DNA must be extracted from hair. We extracted successfully and dependably hair shaft DNA from eight wild Brazilian felids, ocelot, margay, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, pampas cat, jaguarundi, puma, and jaguar, as well as the domestic cat and from three wild Brazilian canids, maned wolf, crab-eating fox, and hoary fox, as well as the domestic dog. Hair samples came mostly from feces collected at the São Paulo Zoo and were also gathered from non-sedated pet or from recently dead wild animals and were also collected from museum specimens. Fractions of hair samples were stained before DNA extraction, while most samples were not. Our extraction protocol is based on a feather DNA extraction technique, based in the phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol general method, with proteinase K as digestive enzyme.

  5. F1 rotary motor of ATP synthase is driven by the torsionally-asymmetric drive shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, O.; Wright, A. D.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    F1F0 ATP synthase (ATPase) either facilitates the synthesis of ATP in a process driven by the proton moving force (pmf), or uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to pump protons against the concentration gradient across the membrane. ATPase is composed of two rotary motors, F0 and F1, which compete for control of their shared γ -shaft. We present a self-consistent physical model of F1 motor as a simplified two-state Brownian ratchet using the asymmetry of torsional elastic energy of the coiled-coil γ -shaft. This stochastic model unifies the physical concepts of linear and rotary motors, and explains the stepped unidirectional rotary motion. Substituting the model parameters, all independently known from recent experiments, our model quantitatively reproduces the ATPase operation, e.g. the ‘no-load’ angular velocity is ca. 400 rad/s anticlockwise at 4 mM ATP. Increasing the pmf torque exerted by F0 can slow, stop and overcome the torque generated by F1, switching from ATP hydrolysis to synthesis at a very low value of ‘stall torque’. We discuss the motor efficiency, which is very low if calculated from the useful mechanical work it produces - but is quite high when the ‘useful outcome’ is measured in the number of H+ pushed against the chemical gradient. PMID:27321713

  6. [Atipic osteosarcoma in the femoral shaft case report and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara-Altamirano, M A; García-Ortega, D Y; Martínez-Tlahuel, J L; Martínez-Said, H; Caro-Sánchez, C H S; García-Ruíz, G C; Mejía-Salazar, C R; Cuellar-Hubbe, M

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent primary malignant bone tumor. It is characterized by osteoid production by tumor cells. Its most frequent location is in the metaphyses of long bones, but a purely diaphyseal presentation is reported in 10% of cases. We report the case of a female 25 year-old patient whose symptoms of pain and swelling of the right mid thigh started four months before, without an apparent cause. Femur X-rays showed a tumor in the femoral shaft. The MRI showed extension to soft tissues with no compromise of the neurovascular bundle. The histopathologic report of the incisional biopsy was osteoblastic and chondroblastic osteosarcoma, classified as Enneking IIB, AJCC IIB. Treatment consisted of three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Then intercalary femur resection plus reconstruction with centromedullary nailing and a diaphyseal spacer were performed. The histopathologic report was 95% necrosis (Huvos grade III). Three cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were given and now, 18 months after completing the latter, the patient has no signs of local or distant tumor activity, and she can walk unassisted. Despite the fact that osteosarcoma does not occur usually in the mid shaft of long bones, we should always bear it in mind as part of the differential diagnosis for other conditions that occur more frequently in that region. Such location allows for a broad gamut of surgical approaches that spare the adjacent joints.

  7. Outlook on shafting and propeller in future; Jikukei ni okeru kongo no tenbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes the technology trend of propulsion systems for ships, i.e., shafting and propeller. Contra-rotating propeller has been put into practice for energy saving, and new type stern tube sealing (non-leakage type) for marine pollution protection. Water jet propulsion machinery has been developed for high speed ships. Integrated control system for take-off and landing piers has been also developed. CAD and CAM were introduced for design methods. For the future trend of shafting and propeller, various considerations for needs, such as high speed of ships, reduction of noise discharge under water, and comfortableness, are to be problems. Gas turbines and water jet propulsion machineries are to be increasingly employed as main engines for high speed. Heavy-duty resistant vibration isolation rubbers and high torque resistant elastic couplings are desired to be developed as vibration isolation supports of main engines from the viewpoint of comfortableness. It is important for high reliability to accumulate the analyses of causes of accidents. It will be significant to exert effort for improvement of each part. This paper also describes propellers, stern tube bearings, and water jet propulsion machineries, respectively. It is forecasted that demand of price and reliability will increase furthermore.

  8. Synchronous dynamics of a coupled shaft/bearing/housing system with auxiliary support from a clearance bearing: Analysis and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawen, James L., Jr.; Flowers, George T.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the response of a flexible rotor supported by load sharing between linear bearings and an auxiliary clearance bearing. The objective is to develop a better understanding of the dynamical behavior of a magnetic bearing supported rotor system interacting with auxiliary bearings during a critical operating condition. Of particular interest is the effect of coupling between the bearing/housing and shaft vibration on the rotordynamical responses. A simulation model is developed and a number of studies are performed for various parametric configurations. An experimental investigation is also conducted to compare and verify the rotordynamic behavior predicted by the simulation studies. A strategy for reducing synchronous shaft vibration through appropriate design of coupled shaft/bearing/housing vibration modes is identified.

  9. Comparison of residual stresses in sand- and chill casting of ductile cast iron wind turbine main shafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Frandsen, J. O.; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    In this work, simulations of pouring, solidification and cooling, and residual stress evolution of sand and chill cast wind turbine main shafts is performed. The models are made in the commercial software MAGMAsoft. As expected, the cooling rate of the sand casting is shown to be much lower than...... for the chill casting, resulting in a very course microstructure.From the simulations the nodule count is found to be 17 nodules per mm2 and 159 nodules permm2 for the sand and chill casting, respectively, in the critical region of the main bearing seat.This is verified from nodule counts performed on...... the real cast main shafts. Residual stressevaluations show an overall increase of the maximum principal stress field for the chill casting,which is expected. However, the stresses are found to be in compression on the surface of thechill cast main shaft, which is unforeseen....

  10. Forced Axial and Torsional Vibrations of a Shaft Line Using the Transfer Matrix Method Related to Solution Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandouci Chahr-Eddine; Adjal Yassine

    2014-01-01

    This present paper deals with a mathematical description of linear axial and torsional vibrations. The normal and tangential stress tensor components produced by axial-torsional deformations and vibrations in the propeller and intermediate shafts, under the influence of propeller-induced static and variable hydrodynamic excitations are also studied. The transfer matrix method related to the constant coefficients of differential equation solutions is used. The advantage of the latter as compared with a well-known method of transfer matrix associated with state vector is the possibility of reducing the number of multiplied matrices when adjacent shaft segments have the same material properties and diameters. The results show that there is no risk of buckling and confirm that the strength of the shaft line depends on the value of the static tangential stresses which is the most important component of the stress tensor.

  11. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Theoretical modelling, analysis and validation of the shaft motion and dynamic forces during rotor–stator contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical study of a horizontal shaft, partially levitated by a passive magnetic bearing, impacting its stator. Rigid body dynamics are utilised in order to describe the governing nonlinear equations of motion of the shaft interacting with a passive magnetic bearing...... and stator. Expressions for the restoring magnetic forces are derived using Biot Savart law for uniformed magnetised bar magnets and the contact forces are derived by use of a compliant contact force model. The theoretical mathematical model is verified with experimental results, and shows good agreements...

  13. Repacking practice for G-3 engineering driller power unit with drive shaft of dual channel reverse circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong ZHU; Kun YIN; Qingyan WANG; Yong HUANG

    2008-01-01

    In order to satisfy operating requirements for constant core drilling technology in reverse circulation with hollow-through DTH,the power unit of G-3 engineering driller was ameliorated. The new one with dual channel drive shaft, achieved the perfect assemble with transmission structure of the original power unit. It could interconvert according to need by using two sets of drive shafts with direct and reverse circulation. The repacked G-3 engineering driller carried on experiment in the field test in Luanchuan molybdenum mine of Henan, whose effect was very good.

  14. Experimental quantification of dynamic forces and shaft motion in two different types of backup bearings under several contact conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahriri, Said; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    the first critical speed, the investigation revealed that different paths initiated the onset of backward whip and whirling motion. In order to improve the whirling and the full annular contact behavior, an unconventional pinned backup bearing is realized. The idea is to utilize pin connections that center...... the rotor during impacts and prevent the shaft from entering a full annular contact state. The experimental results show that the shaft escapes the pins and returns to a normal operational condition during an impact event. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Control Circuitry Using Electronic Emulation of a Synchro Signal for Accurate Control of Position and Rate of Rotation for Shafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention herein disclosed is a digital circuit which emulates a synchro signal in a synchro-resolver follower system for precise control of shaft position and rotation at very low rotational rates. The subject invention replaces the synchro and drive motor in a synchroresolver follower system with a digital and analog synchro emulation circuit for generating the resolver control signal. The synchro emulation circuit includes amplitude modulation means to provide relatively high frequency resolver excitation signals for accurate resolver response even with very low shaft rotation rates.

  16. Rethinking the Business Model in Construction by the Use of Off-Site System Deliverance: Case of the Shaft Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian; Hvam, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a set of insights to be used in the development of business models for off-site system deliveries contributing to the development of Off-Site Manufacturing practices (OSM). The theoretical offset for discussing the development of business models is the blue ocean strategy...... of installation shafts. Findings from the development and production of the installation shaft show that system deliveries represent a promising strategy for moving from red ocean competitive environment with the predominant cost+ business model, to a blue ocean situation in which the competition emerges...

  17. In-service fatigue cracking of the propeller shafts joined by a spline-pinned construction to the engines of AN-24, AN-26, and IL-18 aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shanyavskiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper delivers a critical review of the research data on the crack initiation and crack growth patterns characteristic of the components of the spline-bolted joints between the propeller shaft and reducer shaft at An-24, An-26, and Il-18 aircrafts. Cracks in the shafts nucleated because of reduced bolt-fastening force. Actually, the bolt (bolts failed first (also by fatigue and then fatigue cracks nucleated and grew in the shafts, the spline surface fretting zones and/or sharp edges of the attachment (bolt-conducting holes making the crack origin sites. The crack growth history shows itself through the regular Macro-Beach Marks, each mark sequentially pointing to the next loading event of the propeller shaft, i.e., to each next flight. The cracks cease growing for some while in the airscrews and their shafts just replaced to another aircraft. For the airscrew shafts, the critically assessed data show the crack growth period Np ranging as five to ten percent of a total running period Nf . We recommend performing nondestructive inspection of the airscrew shafts on every 250- hour running period to ensure the safety flights.

  18. Study of turbocharger shaft motion by means of non-invasive optical techniques: Application to the behaviour analysis in turbocharger lubrication failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J. V.; Serrano, J. R.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a novel non-invasive technique to estimate the turbocharger shaft whirl motion. The aim of this article is to present a system for monitoring the shaft motion of a turbocharger, which will be used in turbocharger destructive testing. To achieve this, a camera and a light source were installed in a turbocharger test bench with a controlled lubrication circuit. An image recording methodology and a process algorithm have been developed, in order to estimate the shaft motion. This processing consists on differentiating specific zones of the image, in order to obtain their coordinates. Two reference points have been configured on the compressor side, which help to calculate the relative position of the shaft, avoiding the errors due to structural vibrations. Maximum eccentricity of the turbocharger has been determined and it has been compared with shaft motion when it is spinning in different conditions. A luminosity study has been also done, in order to improve the process and to obtain locus of shaft position in a picture exposition time period. The technique has been applied to diagnosis of a lubrication failure test and the main results will be presented in this article: like shaft motion figures; thermodynamic variables and pictures of the shaft while it is spinning at abnormal lubrication conditions. The measuring components used in this technique have the ability to withstand the catastrophic failure of the turbocharger in this type of test.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NECK SHAFT ANGLE AND NECK LENGTH WITH INTEREPICONDYLAR DISTANCE IN FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femur is the longest and strongest bone of the body. It transmits body weight from hip bone to tibia in standing position. Femoral neck is a constricted part connecting head with shaft at an angle of about 125°-known as angle of inclination or neck shaft angle (NSA; this facilitates the movement of hip joint enabling the limb to swing clear of pelvis. Abnormal femoral neck angle (FNA may be associated with various clinical problems ranging from harmless in toeing gait in childhood to disabling osteoarthritis in adults. The current study attempted to find out if a co-relation exists between those parameters and other clinically measurable variables like inter-epicondylar distance or distance between greater trochanter to lateral epicondyle. This may help to predict the risk of fracture neck femur without any risk of radiation exposure and proper prophylactic measures can be undertaken (Vit-D, calcium to decrease risk of fracture. Results: Measurements were taken in dry femora mostly in East Indian population. Variables that were measured in 158 dry femora (85 femora from left side and 73 from the right side are: - a Neck shaft angle of femur, b Neck length of femur, c Neck circumference of femur, d Inter-epicondylar distance of femur, e Distance between lateral epicondyle and greater trochanter of femur. No significant difference was found between the right and left sided femoral groups regarding any of the study variables. From the analysis it was revealed that no positive or negative correlation exists between the study variables. Therefore, it is not possible to predict the value of one or more of them from the magnitude of the other variable(s. Conclusions: Our study attempted to find out if it was possible to predict the risk of fracture neck femur by simple clinical procedure without exposing the subjects to radiation hazards associated with a radiological imaging. A screening test and subsequent prophylactic measures could

  20. Nonunited humerus shaft fractures treated by external fixator augmented by intramedullary rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A El-Rosasy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nonunion of humeral shaft fractures after previously failed surgical treatment presents a challenging therapeutic problem especially in the presence of osteoporosis, bone defect, and joint stiffness. It would be beneficial to combine the use of external fixation technique and intramedullary rod in the treatment of such cases. The present study evaluates the results of using external fixator augmented by intramedullary rod and autogenous iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG for the treatment of humerus shaft nonunion following previously failed surgical treatment. Materials and Methods: Eighteen patients with atrophic nonunion of the humeral shaft following previous implant surgery with no active infection were included in the present study. The procedure included exploration of the nonunion, insertion of intramedullary rod (IM rod, autogenous ICBG and application of external fixator for compression. Ilizarov fixator was used in eight cases and monolateral fixator in ten cases. The monolateral fixator was preferred for females and obese patients to avoid abutment against the breast or chest wall following the use of Ilizarov fixator. The fixator was removed after clinical and radiological healing of the nonunion, but the IM rod was left indefinitely. The evaluation of results included both bone results (union rate, angular deformity and limb shortening and functional outcome using the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA rating scale. Results: The mean follow-up was 35 months (range 24 to 52 months. Bone union was obtained in all cases. The functional outcome was satisfactory in 15 cases (83% and unsatisfactory in 3 cases (17% due to joint stiffness. The time to bone healing averaged 4.2 months (range 3 to 7 months. The external fixator time averaged 4.5 months (range 3.2 to 8 months. Superficial pin tract infection occurred in 39% (28/72 of the pins. No cases of nerve palsy, refracture, or deep infection were encountered

  1. 风力发电机轴电压轴电流对轴承影响及改进措施%Wind turbine generator shaft voltage and shaft current on the bearing and preventive measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国强; 陈国忠; 徐明; 张杰; 高坡; 刘志强

    2014-01-01

    风力发电机轴承失效频繁发生,在研究应用条件和调查轴承失效的基础上,基本确认了造成轴承失效的根本原因:双馈感应发电机变频驱动所导致的轴承过电流和相应的电腐蚀及润滑、磨损等。本文分析了轴电压轴电流产生的原理和造成的危害,叙述了对轴电压的抑制措施,并在风电场推广应用,实践验证了轴电流抑制技术的有效性。%Bearing failures of windturbine generator are occurring frequently. Based on application studies and bearing investiga-tions main root causes have been identified: electrical current passage, electrical erosion respectively, due to frequency convert-er supply of doubly-fedinduction generator sand lubrication and wear related problems.This paper analyzed the cause of shaft voltage and shaft current and its related harm in doubly-fed wind turbine architecture. Measures to suppress the shaft voltage and shaft current are detailed and put into practice in pilot wind farms. The effectiveness of the measures are approved by field data.

  2. Tests of Shaft Seal Systems of Circulation Pumps during Station Blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beisiegel, A.; Foppe, F.; Wich, M.

    2014-07-01

    AREVA GmbH operates a unique Thermal-hydraulic plat form in Germany, France and USA. It is recognised as a test body according to ISO 17025. The Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle GmbH (DAkkS - German Society for Accreditation) has also certified the Thermal-hydraulic platform as an independent inspection body Type C according to ISO 17020. A part of this platform is the Component Laboratory located in Karlstein, Germany which is in operation since more than 50 years. The testing activities cover a wide range as: Critical Heat Flux Tests, Valve Testing and Environmental Qualification for safety related components. Since 2011 the Component Qualification Karlstein extended their testing scope for different types of Shaft Seal Systems. (Author)

  3. Methodologies of Measuring Mechanical Power Delivered at the Shaft of an Induction Motor Driven by VFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MANEA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring precise power used by a load of an induction motor driven by a VFD implies a few facts that need to be considered. First, the real electric power. When dealing with waveforms of electric current that contain harmonics, traditional methods of power measuring could lead to inaccurate results. Therefore, further investigation needs to be performed in order to provide meaningful values. Then there is the efficiency. Motor losses are to be taken into account for finding out exactly how much power is being used for a specific application.This paper shows a method of measuring and calculating the electric real power of fundamental harmonic and of extracting an actual output value of mechanical power at the motor shaft. For this purpose we used a data acquisition system made of a basic power quality analyzer and data acquisition software. Harmonic analysis of the waveforms is considered, combined with the use of the true power factor.

  4. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyuan Wu

    Full Text Available The behavior of rope-guided conveyances is so complicated that the rope-guided hoisting system hasn't been understood thoroughly so far. In this paper, with user-defined functions loaded, ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 was employed to simulate lateral motion of rope-guided conveyances in two typical kinds of shaft layouts. With rope-guided mine elevator and mine cages taken into account, results show that the lateral aerodynamic buffeting force is much larger than the Coriolis force, and the side aerodynamic force have the same order of magnitude as the Coriolis force. The lateral aerodynamic buffeting forces should also be considered especially when the conveyance moves along the ventilation air direction. The simulation shows that the closer size of the conveyances can weaken the transverse aerodynamic buffeting effect.

  5. TUM shaft hydro power. Efficient and ecological; Das Schachtkraftwerk. Ein Wasserkraftkonzept in vollstaendiger Unterwasseranordnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutschmann, Peter; Sepp, Albert; Geiger, Franz; Barbier, Julien [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl und Versuchsanstalt fuer Wasserbau

    2011-07-01

    With today's requirements, it is very difficult to plan conventional hydropower plants in Middle Europe that are economical or even capable of approval. Against this background of higher ecological standards, new concepts need to be developed that are more efficient. At the TU Muenchen, research is underway to develop a power plant that can be completely submerged. Using a horizontal inlet plane and situating the machinery in a shaft in front of the weir, the volume of the structure can be greatly reduced. An opening with a gate is made in the weir. Tests on a physical scale model have shown, that alongside hydraulic criteria, this concept fulfills the requirements for fish protection. (orig.)

  6. A Two-step Design Method for Shaft Work Targeting on Low-temperature Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 冯胜科; 孙长江; 袁希钢

    2014-01-01

    In low-temperature processes, there are interactions between heat exchanger network (HEN) and refrig-eration system. The modification on HEN of the chilling train for increasing energy recovery does not always coor-dinate with the minimum shaft work consumption of the corresponding refrigeration system. In this paper, a sys-tematic approach for optimizing low-temperature system is presented through mathematical method and exergy analysis. The possibility of“pockets”, which appears as right nose section in the grand composite curve (EGCC) of the process, is first optimized. The EGCC with the pockets cutting down is designed as a separate part. A case study is used to illustrate the application of the approach for a HEN of a chilling train with propylene and ethylene refrig-erant system in an ethylene production process.

  7. Wnt-10b, uniquely among Wnts, promotes epithelial differentiation and shaft growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Wnts are expressed in hair follicles throughout life from embryo to adult, and considered to be critical for their development and maturation, their roles remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Wnts (Wnt-3a, Wnt-5a, Wnt-10b, and Wnt-11) on epithelial cell differentiation using adult mouse-derived primary skin epithelial cell (MPSEC) cultures and hair growth using hair follicle organ cultures. Only Wnt-10b showed evident promotion of epithelial cell differentiation and hair shaft growth, in contrast to Wnt-3a, 5a, and 11. Our results suggest that Wnt-10b is unique and plays an important role in differentiation of epithelial cells in the hair follicle

  8. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  9. Local and Widespread Hyperalgesia After Isolated Tibial Shaft Fractures Treated with Intramedullary Nailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Elsøe, Rasmus; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Knee pain is accepted as a common complication to intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures. However, no studies have systematically studied the pain sequel following tibial fractures. The objective of this study was to assess pain and hyperalgesia from 6 weeks to 12 months...... postoperatively after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fracture. METHODS: A total of 39 patients were included in this 12-month follow-up study. After 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively the pain intensity was measured on a visual analog scale (VAS) and the pressure pain sensitivity was assessed...... bilaterally by pain pressure thresholds (PPTs). RESULTS: The mean age at the time of fracture was 42.9 years. Twelve months after surgery, the pain intensity for worst pain during the last 24 hours was 1.8 ± 2.7 cm. The PPTs progressively increased from 6 weeks after surgery to 12 months postoperatively for...

  10. Semiextending Nailing for Combined Shaft and Ankle Injuries of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probe, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Over recent years, orthopaedic traumatologists have been gaining experience with tibial nailing in the extended position. Originally developed to address the complexities of alignment in proximal tibial fractures, this technique has also proven valuable in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures combined with ankle injuries. Depicted in this video presentation is the surgical techniques used to simultaneously address a spiral fracture of the distal tibia associated with a large coronal plane fracture of the tibial articular surface. Discussed are leg positioning, technical aspects of the medial approach, strategies for preliminary ankle stabilization, and fine details of aligning the tibial component of the injury. With a growing body of evidence suggesting similar knee outcomes with semiextended and conventional infrapatellar approaches, it is anticipated that this technique will become increasingly popular in coming years. PMID:27441937

  11. OUTCOME STUDY OF TITANIUM AND STAINLESS STEEL ELASTIC NAIL FIXATION OF PAEDIATRIC FRACTURE SHAFT OF FEMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saubhik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Femoral shaft fractures are common fractures in paediatric age group. There are various methods to treat them. Elastic stable intramedullary nailing is one of them and an established and reliable method for treating these fractures. Ideal treatment of femoral shaft fractures in the age group of 5 to 14 years is still a matter of debate as no consensus has been achieved till now. We have done a study to know whether elastic stable intramedullary nails can be used reliably in this age group. So, purpose of the present study is to evaluate the outcome of titanium and stainless steel elastic nail in paediatric femoral fractures in 5-14 years of age group. METHODS: A group of forty two children with femoral fractures that were treated with elastic nails (which includes both titanium and stainless steel nails- both nail types were of similar design and outcome was evaluated. Twenty children (16 boys, four girls in the age group of 5-14 years (average 9.3 years with femoral shaft fractures (16 closed, two Grade- I and two Grade- II compound were stabilized with Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN, while twenty-two (16 boys, six girls in the age group of 5-14 years (average 9.1 years with femoral shaft fractures (18 closed, two Grade- I and two Grade- II compound were stabilized with Stainless Steel Elastic Nail (SSEN between June 2009 and October 2011. A familiar retrograde insertion technique was used. Major complications were defined as malunion with sagittal angulation of >15° and coronal angulation of >10°, nail irritation requiring revision surgery, infection, delayed union, and rod breakage. Minor complications were defined as nail irritation or superficial infection not requiring surgery. RESULTS: Radiological union was achieved in all cases in a mean time of 7.7 weeks (6-12 weeks in TEN groups while that took 7.9 weeks in SSEN group. Full weight bearing was possible in a mean time of 7.7 weeks (6-12 weeks in TEN groups and a mean of 7

  12. Preclosure radiological safety analysis for the exploratory shaft facilities; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.W.; Miller, D.D.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This study assesses which structures, systems, and components of the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) are important to safety when the ESF is converted to become part of the operating waste repository. The assessment follows the methodology required by DOE Procedure AP-6.10Q. Failures of the converted ESF during the preclosure period have been evaluated, along with other underground accidents, to determine the potential offsite radiation doses and associated probabilities. The assessment indicates that failures of the ESF will not result in radiation doses greater than 0.5 rem at the nearest unrestricted area boundary. Furthermore, credible accidents in other underground facilities will not result in radiation doses larger than 0.5 rem, even if any structure, system, or component of the converted ESF fails at the same time. Therefore, no structure, system, or component of the converted ESF is important to safety.

  13. Coupled vibration study of the blade of the flexible wind wheel with the low-speed shafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movement and deformation of flexible wind wheel has a profound effect on dynamics of the low-speed shafting in Megawatt wind turbine. The paper is based on the power production1.2 MW wind turbine, vibration characteristics of elastic wind wheel with the low-speed shafting were studied. In order to obtain the finite element model, the author created a physical model of this coupled system and used the minimum energy principle to simplify the model. While its single blade simplified as cantilever. Using modal superposition method for solving the coupled system model. Structural mechanics equations were used to solve the simple blade finite element model. Analyzing the natural frequency of the coupled system and the stress diagram, the results indicate that in the coupling system, low frequency vibration occurs in the low-speed shaft bearing, while the high-frequency vibration happens on wind turbine blades. In the low-frequency vibration process, blades vibration and low-speed shaft vibration there is a strong correlation. Contrast inherent frequency of the wind wheel with natural frequency of a single blade, the results show that the frequency of the wind wheel slightly less than it in the single blade

  14. Analysis of Mixing Principle and Optimization of Parameter on the Single-shaft Horizontal Total Mixed Ration Mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; WANG Defu

    2008-01-01

    The main structure and working principle of the single-shaft horizontal total mixed ration mixer was discussed.For studying the mixing principle,the analysis of force and motion of the material on the paddle were made,and paddle angle and rotational speed of the rotor were determined by the experiment,the main mixing ways were explained.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM SPEED DIAGRAMS FOR SMALL MOVEMENT OF AN ACTUATING DEVICE OF AС ELECTRIC DRIVE-WITH ELASTIC SHAFTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrobaba Y. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe the optimum speed diagram of moving actuating device of АС electric drive with elastic shafting. Parameters, conditions of existence and dependence of the duration of the cycle from the angle of rotation of actuating device are defined as well

  16. A Novel Dynamics Equation of Elastic Rotation Shaft Possessing Twin Side Based on the Theory of Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGQuan-Lin; LIUBin

    2003-01-01

    A novel dynamics equation of elastic rotation shaft possessing twin side based on the theory of relativity is built in this paper. The eql~tion is established in different coordinate systems, which can provide the foundation theoretically and methods for the similarity engineering and the similarity calibration of instruments used for measuring,observing, and controlling.

  17. A Novel Dynamics Equation of Elastic Rotation Shaft Possessing Twin Side Based on the Theory of Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Quan-Lin; LIU Bin

    2003-01-01

    A novel dynamics equation of elastic rotation shaft possessing twin side based on the theory of relativityis built in this paper. The equation is established in different coordinate systems, which can provide the foundationtheoretically and methods for the similarity engineering and the similarity calibration of instruments used for measuring,observing, and controlling.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic modeling for a diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinglei; Duan, Jianguo; Zhang, Suohuai; Fu, Yumin

    2014-09-01

    Longitudinal vibration, torsional vibration and their coupled vibration are the main vibration modes of the crankshaft-sliding bearing system. However, these vibrations of the propeller-crankshaft-sliding bearing system generated by the fluid exciting force on the propeller are much more complex. Currently, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations have been studied separately while the research on their coupled vibration is few, and the influence of the propeller structure to dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft has not been studied yet. In order to describe the dynamic properties of a crankshaft accurately, a nonlinear dynamic model is proposed taking the effect of torsional-longitudinal coupling and the variable inertia of propeller, connecting rod and piston into account. Numerical simulation cases are carried out to calculate the response data of the system in time and frequency domains under the working speed and over-speed, respectively. Results of vibration analysis of the propeller and crankshaft system coupled in torsional and longitudinal direction indicate that the system dynamic behaviors are relatively complicated especially in the components of the frequency response. For example, the 4 times of an exciting frequency acting on the propeller by fluid appears at 130 r/min, while not yield at 105 r/min. While the possible abnormal vibration at over-speed just needs to be vigilant. So when designing the propeller shafting used in marine diesel engines, strength calculation and vibration analysis based only on linear model may cause great errors and the proposed research provides some references to design diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines.

  19. SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : Conservative treatment of fracture humerus has resulted in malunion , nonunion , and ultimately poor functional outcome. Internal fixation of fracture shaft of humerus allows ready access for nursing care in patients with multiple injuries and associated co morbid conditions. And also restrictive bandages and splints are avoided , early mobilization o f the patients and his limbs helps to prevent fracture disease. Hence the present study was undertaken to provide satisfactory functional outcome and to know the advantage and complications of the interlocking nail in treating humerus fracture. MATERIALS A ND METHODS : A prospective study of 32 patients with closed diaphyseal fracture humerus aged above 18 years who were medically fit were included in study. They were managed surgically by using interlocking nail. Average follow up period was 38 weeks. Functi ons results were scored using . Naiman , PT Schein , A.J.et al criterion. RESULTS : Male preponderance (62.5% was observed in the study with right humerus predominance (56.25%. Road traffic injury accounted for 87.5% of fractures. Majority were middle third fractures (62.5% with type A3 being the most common (53.125%. 2 patients had radial nerve palsy and they were recovered post operatively. 26 patients had sound union in less than 4 months and 3 patients at 6 months , with 29 (90.625% cases having excelle nt result according Naiman , PT Schein , A.J.et al criterion system. Post operative complication s in the form of nonunion in 3 cases (9.375% underwent reoperation and were united. and shoulder pain noted in 3 patients (9.375%. CONCLUSION : The interlocking nail properly applied , is an excellent method for internal fixation of fractures of the shaft of the humerus alternative to plating. Most of the fracture united within 4 months with minimal complication.

  20. Design optimization for a shaft-less double suction mini turbo pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to further satisfy the operation needs for social applications, a shaft-less double suction mini turbo pump with outer impeller diameter of 24 mm and specific speed of 188 min-1·m3min-1·m has been designed. In order to simulate the three dimensional steady turbulent flow in the mini pump so as to improve the pump impeller design, RANS equations and k-ω SST turbulence model are used. Based on the detailed analysis of the internal flow in the pump, six new impellers have been designed to investigate the effects of impeller parameters on the performance of the mini pump. Based on those results, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) For the double-suction shaft-less mini turbo pump, the averaged wall shear stress has very low level and the maximum hydraulic efficiency is larger than 80%. Those favourable features must be related to the symmetric suction design of the mini pump; (2) Large vane angle at the trailing edge is suitable for a mini turbo pump in many applications so as to obtain higher head and smaller impeller size. On the other hand, the impellers with β1=900 may result in large wall shear stress at the vane leading edge at small flow rate; (3) Because the radial impeller is much convenient for manufacture and creates much larger head, it is preferable for a mini turbo pump if the wall shear stress can be controlled within the acceptable range due to further design optimization.

  1. Design optimization for a shaft-less double suction mini turbo pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, B.; Luo, X.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, X.; Xu, H.; Nishi, M.

    2010-08-01

    In order to further satisfy the operation needs for social applications, a shaft-less double suction mini turbo pump with outer impeller diameter of 24 mm and specific speed of 188 min-1·m3min-1·m has been designed. In order to simulate the three dimensional steady turbulent flow in the mini pump so as to improve the pump impeller design, RANS equations and k-ω SST turbulence model are used. Based on the detailed analysis of the internal flow in the pump, six new impellers have been designed to investigate the effects of impeller parameters on the performance of the mini pump. Based on those results, the following conclusions are drawn: (1) For the double-suction shaft-less mini turbo pump, the averaged wall shear stress has very low level and the maximum hydraulic efficiency is larger than 80%. Those favourable features must be related to the symmetric suction design of the mini pump; (2) Large vane angle at the trailing edge is suitable for a mini turbo pump in many applications so as to obtain higher head and smaller impeller size. On the other hand, the impellers with β1=90° may result in large wall shear stress at the vane leading edge at small flow rate; (3) Because the radial impeller is much convenient for manufacture and creates much larger head, it is preferable for a mini turbo pump if the wall shear stress can be controlled within the acceptable range due to further design optimization.

  2. ANTEGRADE INTRAMEDULLARY FIXATION OF HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES WITH INTERLOCKING NAIL - AN ANALYSIS OF COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvinder

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT : Fractures of the humeral shaft account for 3% of all the fractures . Primary cause of these fractures i s high energy traumas. Goals in managing these fractures are osseous union, minimal deformity and return of maximal extremity function. The union rate of simple fractures of humerus treated conservatively is over 90%. Surgical management of these fractures is preferred in Segmental fractures, Polytrauma patients, Pathological fractures, Open fractures , Failed conservative treatment, Associated progressive neurological deficit , Vascular injury, Morbid obesity. We analysed intraoperative and postoperative com plications in twelve patients with humeral shaft fractures managed with antegrade interlocking nails. There were seven males and five females. Their ages ranged between 20 – 60 years with an average of 32.6 years. There were 11 close and one Gustilo grade I open fractures. There were six comminuted , four transverse, and two oblique fractures. Nine fractures were in middle third one in proximal third and two in distal third. Five patients had associated injuries. We faced difficulty in localizing entry port al in 2 patients . There was difficulty in reduction in 2 patients We had one patient with iatrogenic comminution . Three patients had improper locking screw size. One had nail protrusion proximally , one patient had distraction at the fracture site . There we re two superficial entry portal skin infections and one deep proximal cross screw infection. We had two patients with shoulder and one patient with elbow stiffness. Chronic rotator cuff irritation was present in three patients. We recorded three delayed un ions, one nonunion and one rotatory malunion The results of the present study indicate that antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing is one of the best method of treatment among the currently available methods.

  3. Dynamic Modeling of a Roller Chain Drive System Considering the Flexibility of Input Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lixin; YANG Yuhu; CHANG Zongyu; LIU Jianping

    2010-01-01

    Roller chain drives are widely used in various high-speed, high-load and power transmission applications, but their complex dynamic behavior is not well researched. Most studies were only focused on the analysis of the vibration of chain tight span, and in these models, many factors are neglected. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to calculate the dynamic response of a roller chain drive working at constant or variable speed condition. In the model, the complete chain transmission with two sprockets and the necessary tight and slack spans is used. The effect of the flexibility of input shaft on dynamic response of the chain system is taken into account, as well as the elastic deformation in the chain, the inertial forces, the gravity and the torque on driven shaft. The nonlinear equations of movement are derived from using Lagrange equations and solved numerically. Given the center distance and the two initial position angles of teeth on driving and driven sprockets corresponding to the first seating roller on each side of the tight span, dynamics of any roller chain drive with two sprockets and two spans can be analyzed by the procedure. Finally, a numerical example is given and the validity of the procedure developed is demonstrated by analyzing the dynamic behavior of a typical roller chain drive. The model can well simulate the transverse and longitudinal vibration of the chain spans and the torsional vibration of the sprockets. This study can provide an effective method for the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of all the chain drive systems.

  4. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling for a Diesel Engine Propeller Shafting Used in Large Marines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qinglei; DUAN Jianguo; ZHANG Suohuai; FU Yumin

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal vibration, torsional vibration and their coupled vibration are the main vibration modes of the crankshaft-sliding bearing system. However, these vibrations of the propeller-crankshaft-sliding bearing system generated by the fluid exciting force on the propeller are much more complex. Currently, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations have been studied separately while the research on their coupled vibration is few, and the influence of the propeller structure to dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft has not been studied yet. In order to describe the dynamic properties of a crankshaft accurately, a nonlinear dynamic model is proposed taking the effect of torsional-longitudinal coupling and the variable inertia of propeller, connecting rod and piston into account. Numerical simulation cases are carried out to calculate the response data of the system in time and frequency domains under the working speed and over-speed, respectively. Results of vibration analysis of the propeller and crankshaft system coupled in torsional and longitudinal direction indicate that the system dynamic behaviors are relatively complicated especially in the components of the frequency response. For example, the 4 times of an exciting frequency acting on the propeller by fluid appears at 130 r/min, while not yield at 105 r/min. While the possible abnormal vibration at over-speed just needs to be vigilant. So when designing the propeller shafting used in marine diesel engines, strength calculation and vibration analysis based only on linear model may cause great errors and the proposed research provides some references to design diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines.

  5. FATIGUE LIVES FOR INDUCTION HARDENED SHAFTS MATERIALS ACCORDING TO THE ENVIRONMENTAL TEMPERATURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.G. Lee; K.C.Jang; J.M. Kuk; I.S. Kim

    2005-01-01

    Rotary bending fatigue tests were carried out with two kinds of materials, S43C and S50C, using the front engine and front drive shaft (FF shaft) of vehicle. The specimens were induction hardened about 1.0mm depth from the specimen surface, and the hardness value on the surface was about HRC56-60. The tested environment temperatures were -30, 25 and 80℃ in order to look over effect of the induction hardening and the environmental temperatures on the fatigue characteristics. The fatigue limit of induction hardened specimens increased more about 45%than non-hardened specimens showing that the endurances of S43C and S50C were 98.1 and 107.9MPa in non-hardened samples, 147.1 and 156.9MPa in hardened samplesrespectably. The maximum tensile and compressive stress on the small circular defect was about +250 and -450MPa respectively when circular defect is situated on top and bottom. The fatigue life increased 80, 25and -30℃ in order regardless of hardening. In comparison of the fatigue lives on the basis of tested result at 25℃, the fatigue lives of non-hardened specimens decreased about 35%, but that of hardened specimens decreased about only 5% at 80℃ more than at 25℃. And fatigue life of non-hardened and hardened specimens were about 110% and 120% higher at -30℃ than that of 25℃. Based on the result of stress distribution near the defect, the tensile and compressive stress repeatedly generated by load direction were the largest on the small circular defect due to the stress concentration.

  6. Quick determination of gas pressure before uncovering coal in cross-cuts and shafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Cheng-lin; DENG Su-hua; ZHANG Chao-jie; CHENG Song-li; LV Shu-wen; WANG Chen; LI Xiao-wei; CHEN Yu-jia; XIE Qing-xue; LIU Ying; TANG Jun; YANG Fei-long; WANG Fa-kai

    2008-01-01

    The determination of gas pressure before uncovering coal in cross-cuts and in shafts is one of the important steps in predicting coal and gas outbursts. However, the time spent for testing gas pressure is, at present, very long, seriously affecting the application of outburst prediction techniques in opening coal seams in cross-cuts and shafts. In order to reduce the time needed in gas pressure tests and to improve the accuracy of tests, we analyzed the process of gas pressure tests and examined the effect of the length of boreholes in coal seams in tests. The result shows that 1) the shorter the borehole, the easier the real pressure value of gas can be obtained and 2) the main factors affecting the time spent in gas pressure tests are the length of the borehole in coal seams,the gas emission time after the borehole has been formed and the quality of the borehole-sealing. The longer the length of the borehole, the longer the gas emission time and the larger the pressure-relief circle formed around the borehole, the longer the time needed for pressure tests. By controlling the length of the borehole in a test case in the Huainan mining area, and adopting a quick sealing technique using a sticky liquid method, the sealing quality was clearly improved and the gas emission time as well as the amount of gas discharged greatly decreased. Before the method described, the time required for the gas pressure to increase during the pressure test process, was more than 10 days. With our new method the required time is only 5 hours. In addition, the accuracy of the gas pressure test is greatly improved.

  7. An Effective Approach for Optimization of a Composite Intramedullary Nail for Treating Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-reinforced composite nail made of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy based on a combination of the classical laminate theory, beam theory, finite-element (FE) method, and bone remodeling model using irreversible thermodynamics. The optimization began by altering the composite stacking sequence and thickness to minimize axial stiffness, while maximizing torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffnesses. The selected candidates for the seven intervals of bending stiffness were then examined in an experimentally validated FE model to evaluate their mechanical performance in transverse and oblique femoral shaft fractures. It was found that the composite nail having an axial stiffness of 3.70 MN and bending and torsional stiffnesses of 70.3 and 70.9 N⋅m², respectively, showed an overall superiority compared to the other configurations. It increased compression at the fracture site by 344.9 N (31%) on average, while maintaining fracture stability through an average increase of only 0.6 mm (49%) in fracture shear movement in transverse and oblique fractures when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. The long-term results obtained from the bone remodeling model suggest that the proposed composite IM nail reduces bone loss in the femoral shaft from 7.9% to 3.5% when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. This study proposes a number of practical guidelines for the design of composite IM nails. PMID:26458035

  8. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS AND ISHIKAWA DIAGRAM FOR BURN ON EFFECT ON MANGANESE SILICON ALLOY MEDIUM CARBON STEEL SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AsmamawTegegne

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Burn on/metal penetration is one of the surface defects of metal castings in general and steel castings in particular. A research on the effect of burn on the six ton medium carbon steel shaft for making a roller of cold rolled steel sheet produced at one of the metals industry was carried out. The shaft was cast using sand casting by pouring through riser/feeding head step by step (with time interval of pouring. As it was required to use foam casting method for better surface finish and dimensional accuracy of the cast, the pattern was prepared from polystyrene and embedded by silica sand. Physical observations, photographic analysis, visual inspection, measurement of depth of penetration and fish bone diagram were used as method of results analysis. The shaft produced has strongly affected by sand sintering (burn on/metal penetration. Many reasons may be the case for these defects, however analysis results showed that the use of poorly designed gating system led to turbulence flow, uncontrollable high temperature fused the silica sand and liquid polystyrene penetrated the poorly reclaimed and rammed sand mold as a result of which eroded sand has penetrated the liquid metal deeply and reacted with it, consequently after solidification and finishing the required 240mm diameter of the shaft has reduced un evenly to 133mm minimum and 229mm maximum mm that end in the rejection of the shaft from the product since it is below the required standard for the designed application. In addition, it was not possible to remove the adhered sand by grinding. Thus burn on is included in mechanical type burn on.

  9. A multi-method approach for speleogenetic research on alpine karst caves. Torca La Texa shaft, Picos de Europa (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; Giralt, Santiago; García-Sansegundo, Joaquín; Meléndez-Asensio, Mónica

    2015-10-01

    Speleogenetic research on alpine caves has advanced significantly during the last decades. These investigations require techniques from different geoscience disciplines that must be adapted to the methodological constraints of working in deep caves. The Picos de Europa mountains are one of the most important alpine karsts, including 14% of the World's Deepest Caves (caves with more than 1 km depth). A speleogenetic research is currently being developed in selected caves in these mountains; one of them, named Torca La Texa shaft, is the main goal of this article. For this purpose, we have proposed both an optimized multi-method approach for speleogenetic research in alpine caves, and a speleogenetic model of the Torca La Texa shaft. The methodology includes: cave surveying, dye-tracing, cave geometry analyses, cave geomorphological mapping, Uranium series dating (234U/230Th) and geomorphological, structural and stratigraphical studies of the cave surroundings. The SpeleoDisc method was employed to establish the structural control of the cavity. Torca La Texa (2653 m length, 215 m depth) is an alpine cave formed by two cave levels, vadose canyons and shafts, soutirage conduits, and gravity-modified passages. The cave was formed prior to the Middle Pleistocene and its development was controlled by the drop of the base level, producing the development of the two cave levels. Coevally to the cave levels formation, soutirage conduits originated connecting phreatic and epiphreatic conduits and vadose canyons and shafts were formed. Most of the shafts were created before the local glacial maximum (43-45 ka) and only two cave passages are related to dolines developed in recent times. The cave development is strongly related to the structure, locating the cave in the core of a gentle fold with the conduits' geometry and orientation controlled by the bedding and five families of joints.

  10. 毛干DNA提取方法概述%Review of Different DNA Extraction Methods in Hair Shafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管政; 陈爱亮

    2012-01-01

    Hair shaft can be a valuable source of DNA for the noninvasive study of human and nonhuman populations because it' s easy to get, transport and store. However, hair shafts contain extremely small quantities of DNA but a large quantity of impurities like keratin and pigment, making the method used to extract the DNA of paramount importance. In order to provide sufficient documentation to help hair shaft DNA extraction, a review of recent 30 years literatures on procedures for obtaining DNA from hair shaft was presented and some conclusions for high efficiency DNA extraction in hair shaft were drawed.%毛干作为最容易取得的一种无创、运输和储存方便的生物样本,对从核酸分子水平上进行各方面研究有着十分重要的意义.但毛干中DNA含量低,不易提取,而且存在大量角蛋白和色素,纯化不净会对下游PCR扩增等反应产生抑制作用.基于毛干DNA提取现状,综述并比较了近三十年动物及人类毛发的毛干DNA提取、纯化等相关方法,拟为毛干DNA提取在分子生物学各领域的推广应用提供充分的文献支持和参考.

  11. Intramedullary nail versus dynamic compression plate fixation in treating humeral shaft fractures: grading the evidence through a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianXiong Ma

    Full Text Available There is a debate regarding the choice of operative intervention in humeral shaft fractures that require surgical intervention. The choices for operative interventions include intramedullary nailing (IMN and dynamic compression plate (DCP. This meta-analysis was performed to compare fracture union, functional outcomes, and complication rates in patients treated with IMN or DCP for humeral shaft fractures and to develop GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation-based recommendations for using the procedures to treat humeral shaft fractures. A systematic search of all the studies published through December 2012 was conducted using the Medline, Embase, Sciencedirect, OVID and Cochrane Central databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared IMN with DCP in treating adult patients with humeral shaft fractures and provided data regarding the safety and clinical effects were identified. The demographic characteristics, adverse events and clinical outcomes were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Ten studies that included a total of 448 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of a meta-analysis indicated that both IMN and DCP can achieve similar fracture union with a similar incidence of radial nerve injury and infection. IMN was associated with an increased risk of shoulder impingement, more restriction of shoulder movement, an increased risk of intraoperative fracture comminution, a higher incidence of implant failure, and an increased risk of re-operation. The overall GRADE system evidence quality was very low, which reduces our confidence in the recommendations of this system. DCP may be superior to IMN in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality RCTs are required.

  12. Sinkhole hazard assessment in the area of abandoned mining shaft basing on microgravity survey and modelling - Case study from the Upper Silesia Coal Basin in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz

    2016-07-01

    The article describes the results of a gravimetric survey conducted in the area of an abandoned mining shaft located on the premises of the liquidated "Porąbka-Klimontów" coal mine in Sosnowiec - southern Poland. After cessation of its exploitation in the past, the shaft has probably only been protected by placing a slab on a concrete pit-bank without commencing the proper liquidation. The aim of the survey was to determine whether the shaft had been backfilled and what is the condition of the rock mass where it gets in contact with the shaft barrel. In the interpretation of the Bouguer anomaly map, a forward modelling of gravity effect generated by an empty mineshaft has been used in order to eliminate its influence on the local gravitational field. That approach to survey data analysis allowed to assess not only the type of the shaft's filling but also the changes in the rock mass structure around it. The results allowed planning an adequate type of works aiming to secure the surface from potential sinkhole deformations resulting from the shaft lining collapse or wash out of the soil into the shaft barrel.

  13. The Influence of a Mistuned Blade’s Staggle Angle on the Vibration and Stability of a Shaft-Disk-Blade Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jui Chiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence on coupling vibrations and stability among shaft-torsion, disk-transverse and blade-bending of a rotor system with a mistuned blade's staggle angle was investigated analytically. A shaft-disk-blade system has been found existing two types of coupling vibrations, disk-blade (DB, and blade-blade (BB modes when the shaft was assumed rigid. If the shaft's torsional flexibility was taken into account, an additional type of coupling modes, shaft-disk-blade (SDB, appeared. When an angle-mistuned blade existed, the blades periodicity was destroyed and it was found to change not only the natural frequencies but also the types of modes. Due to blade's mistune, the shaft torsion had to participate to balance such that DB modes vanished and replaced by SDB modes. A mistuned staggle angle was numerically found to alter the natural frequencies in an almost linear trend. At last, the rotational effects were found to merge frequency loci and eventually reached an instability point. Very interestingly, a mistuned blade diminished the possible instability caused by blade-dominating modes, which existed in a perfect and periodic rotor. In words, the rotor might benefit from a mistuned blade from the stability viewpoint. The shaft-dominating mode, yet, was unaffected by the mistune and retained a possible instability.

  14. Expert system for failure analysis of shafts; Sistema experto para analisis de falla de ejes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobo Armendariz, V.H.; Cerrud Sanchez, S.M.; Ramirez Rodriguez, M.A.; Ortiz Prado, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-09-01

    An expert system for the failure analysis in metallic mechanical devices is being Developer at the Mechanical Engineering departments of the Faculty of Engineering of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) to provide a solution for the failure analysis in cases where considerable experience in needed. The system pretends to resolve the scarceness of experts in the field of failure analysis and is oriented toward the metal-mechanics industry and will also have didactic applications. The main complication in the development of the system is the broad range of applications envisioned, like gears, shafts, bolts and springs between others. Therefore, it was decided to develop the system in a modular way, using the experience obtained in a first module to proceed faster in the others. The present paper presents the elaboration of the module that analyses shafts. This will serve as the base to expand the system toward other components. It uses the general structure of the global system, including an auxiliary software for the determination of maximum stresses in the corresponding parts. [Spanish] Con el fin de contar con un medio eficaz para la solucion de problemas relacionados con el analisis de falla, en donde la experiencia juega un papel fundamental, el Departamento de Ingenieria Mecanica de la Facultad de ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) , esta desarrollando el proyecto Sistema experto para analisis de falla de elementos mecanicos, dicho sistema busca resolver el inconveniente de la escasez de expertos y se orienta, tanto a la necesidad de la industria metalmecanica como a la de la docencia. Presenta tambien complicaciones en su desarrollo, ya que se pretende la posibilidad de realizar analisis de falla de elementos como ejes, engranes, pernos, bielas, resortes, tornillos etc. Por lo anterior, se establecio como estrategia el desarrollo del sistema por modulos, ya que teniendo la experiencia de elaboracion de un primer

  15. 冻结立井壁后出水分析及处理%Analysis and Treatment on Water Inflow f rom Backwall of Mine Shaft Liner in Mine Freezing Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟强; 杨广详; 孙德林; 杜丙启

    2014-01-01

    A mine ventilation shaft in the east block of Inner Mongolia Changcheng No.1 Mine was sunk with a ground freezing method.After an operation of a freezing machine stopped for one month,during a downward excavation conducted in a mine shaft,a water inflow occurred from a backwall of the mine shaft liner at the freezing section,a max water inflow was 60m3 /h and a safety construction was influenced. According to the analysis on the causes of the water inflow from the backwall of the mine shaft liner,a location of the water flow channel was found. Then a water detection and grouting borehole was drilled in the backwall,a chemical grouting material ——— Marithan E was applied to seal the water flow channel. The water inflow from the backwall was sealed within 5 days only and an ex pected effect was obtained.%内蒙长城一矿东区风井采用冻结法凿井。冻结停机1个月后,井筒向下掘进时,冻结段井壁后面出现涌水,涌水量最大达60 m3/h ,影响施工安全。根据对壁后出水原因的分析,找到了导水通道位置。然后施工壁后探水注浆孔,采用化学注浆材料马丽散E,对导水通道进行封堵;只用了5d ,就封堵住了壁后涌水,收到了预期效果。

  16. Investigation of the Influence Factors on Distortion in Induction-Hardened Steel Shafts Manufactured from Cold-Drawn Rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juan; Epp, Jeremy; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes; Zoch, Hans Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the distortion of steel shafts was investigated before and after induction hardening. Several essential influencing factors in the manufacturing process chain regarding cold drawing, cutting method, notches on the shafts, and induction hardening were analyzed by design of experiment (DoE). Further necessary examinations of microstructures, hardness profile, segregation of chemical composition, and residual stress state were conducted for understanding the distortion behavior. The results of the statistical analysis of the DoE showed that the drawing process is the most important factor influencing distortion. The surface hardening depth of induction hardening is the second main factor. The relationship between inhomogeneities in the work pieces and the distortion was finally discussed.

  17. Implementation of preform-LCM process chain for the manufacturing of rotor hub shaft combination[Liquid Composite Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Concept of a waste-free preform-liquid composite molding (LCM) process chain for the production of composite parts is developed and implemented for an integral lightweight construction with improvement in their ecological and economical properties. This also enables new applications for the composite materials. A prototype of rotor hub and shaft combination (HSC) of a horizontal axis wind turbine was designed and manufactured using integral components and composite materials. The aim of this study was to reduce the costs and weight in comparison with individual parts of standard metallic hub and shaft. This approach in the later stage facilitates to reduce the system costs of wind turbines. In this paper, the basic concept of the HSC component and the preform-LCM process chain used for its manufacturing is presented. Major advantageous features of preform and LCM technology for the large structures are described in detail. (au)

  18. Estimation of shock loss factors at shaft bottom junction using computational fluid dynamics and scale model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purushotham, T. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States); Sastry, B.S.; Samanta, B. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2010-07-01

    This article described the design of an effective ventilation system for underground mines that meets the air and pressure requirements of a mine. The distribution of the air quantity in the mine network is determined by the mine operating conditions and the characteristics of the mine fans. Shock losses generally account for 40 percent of the total pressure losses in mines. These losses must therefore be quantified for the different flow geometries found in mine ventilation systems. The shaft bottom junction in a mine ventilation system is an important source of shock loss due to the combined effect of bend and area change. Computational fluid dynamic techniques were used in this study examined the effects of the plat roughness and the shaft bottom length on the shock loss factor values. The results will be useful in designing effective air-crossings that minimize the amount of shock losses and reduce ventilation costs. 26 refs., 6 tabs., 6 figs.

  19. Forming of Hollow Shaft Forging From Titanium Alloy Ti6Al4V by Means of Rotary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczak J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of theoretical-experimental works concerning forming of hollow shafts forgings from titanium alloys, which are applied in aviation industry. At the first stage of conducted analysis, the forging forming process was modeled by means of finite element method. Calculations were made using software Simufact Forming. On the basis of performed simulations optimal parameters of rotary compression process were determined. Next, experimental tests of forging forming in laboratory conditions were made. For the research needs, a forging aggregate, designed by the Authors, was used. Conducted research works confirmed the possibility of metal forming (by means of rotary compression of hollow shafts from hard workable titanium alloys. Numerous advantages of rotary compression process, make it attractive both for low series production (aircraft industry and for mass production (automotive industry.

  20. Shaft seals with an easily removable cylinder holder for low-pressure steam turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, A. E.; Rodionov, D. A.; Pimenov, E. V.; Sobolev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problems that occur at the operation of LPC shaft seals (SS) of turbines, particularly, their bearings. The problems arising from the deterioration of oil-protecting rings of SS and bearings and also the consequences in which they can result are considered. The existing SS housing construction types are considered. Their operational features are specified. A new SS construction type with an easily removable holder is presented. The construction of its main elements is described. The sequence of operations of the repair personnel at the restoration of the new SS type spacings is proposed. The comparative analysis of the new and the existing SS construction types is carried out. The assessment results of the efficiency, the operational convenience, and the economic effect after the installation of the new type seals are given. The conclusions about the offered construction prospects are made by results of the comparative analysis and the carried-out assessment. The main advantage of this design is the possibility of spacings restoration both in SS and in oil-protecting rings during a short-term stop of a turbine, even without its cooling. This construction was successfully tested on the working K-300-23.5 LMP turbine. However, its adaptation for other turbines is quite possible.

  1. A simple technique for double plating of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaby, Mohamed; Elhawary, Ahmed

    2012-12-01

    Plate fixation of extraarticular distal humeral shaft fracture is often difficult. Traditional techniques do not allow for stable fixation. A single DCP plate may have inadequate purchase in the distal fragment. The use of large plates extending distally over the lateral supracondylar ridge is often associated with pain and sometimes interferes with elbow range of motion. In this study, 22 patients with extra articular distal humeral fractures were managed with dual plating using a paratricipital approach. The first plate--a narrow DCP--was fixed on the dorsal surface of the humerus. The second plate--a small 3.5 reconstruction plate--was fixed on the dorsolateral surface. Elbow motion was started immediately after surgery. The average follow-up duration was 25 months. The mean elbow flexion/extension are was 4 degrees to 138 degrees. Infection was reported in two cases and was managed successfully with conservative measures. Postoperative radial nerve contusion was reported in one case with complete resolution within 3 months.

  2. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, K.A.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. BIFURCATION AND UNIVERSAL UNFOLDING FOR A ROTATING SHAFT WITH UNSYMMETRICAL STIFFNESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳启; 吴志强; 陈予恕

    2002-01-01

    The 1/2 subharmonic resonance bifurcation and universal unfolding are studied for a rotating shaft with unsymmetrical stiffness. The bifurcation behavior of the response amplitude with respect to the detuning parameter was studied for this class of problems by Xiao et al. Obviously, it is highly important to research the bifurcation behavior of the response amplitude with respect to the unsymmetry of stiffness for this problem. Here, by means of the singularity theory, the bifurcation and universal unfolding of amplitude with respect to the unsymmetrical stiffness parameter are discussed. The results indicate that it is a high codimensional bifurcation problem with codimension 5, and the universal unfolding is given. From the mechanical background, we study four forms of two parameter unfoldings contained in the universal unfolding. The transition sets in the parameter plane and the bifurcation diagrams are plotted. The results obtained in this paper show rich bifurcation phenomena and provide some guidance for the analysis and design of dynamic buckling experiments of this class of system, especially, for the choice of system parameters.

  4. SHAFT78: a two-phase multidimensional computer program for geothermal reservoir simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Zerzan, J.M.

    1979-11-01

    The computer program SHAFT78 was developed to compute two-phase flow phenomena in geothermal reservoirs. The program solves transient initial-value problems with prescribed boundary-conditions in up to three space dimensions. The solution method is an explicit-implicit IFD approach which does not distinguish between 1, 2, or 3-D coordinate systems and allows a flexible choice of the shape of the discrete grid elements. The mass-and-energy equations are formulated in conservative form. The stability and convergence of the algorithm is controlled by an automatic choice of time steps - partially controlled by the user. Although the program has been developed for use in simulating production and injection in geothermal reservoirs, there are other two-phase problems for which it is either immediately applicable, or for which it can be modified to be applicable. All fluid parameters, such as viscosity, heat capacity, heat conductivity, etc., can be specified as functions of temperature and pressure, and all parameters can vary with position. The program can handle up to seven different anisotropic rocks, with all rock parameters assumed to be independent of position, temperature, and pressure. (MHR)

  5. DEM Simulation of Solid Flow Including Asymmetric Phenomena in COREX Shaft Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-guo LUO; Heng ZHOU; Tao ZHANG; Yang YOU; Hai-feng LI; Zong-shu ZOU

    2015-01-01

    Based on the principles of the discrete element method (DEM),a scaled-down model was established to analyze burden descending behavior,including asymmetric phenomena,throughout an entire COREX shaft furnace (SF).The applicability of the DEM model was validated by determining its accordance with a previous experiment. The effects of discharge rate and abnormal conditions on solid flow were described in terms of solid flow pattern and microscopic analysis.Results confirmed that the solid flow of the COREX SF can be divided into four different flow regions;the largest normal force exists at the top of the man-made dead zone,and the weak force network exists in the funnel flow region.The basic solid flow profile was identified as a clear Flat→U→W type.Increasing the dis-charge rate decreased the quasi-stagnant zone size,but did not affect the macroscopic motion of particles or the shape of patterns above the bustle.For asymmetric conditions,in which particles were discharged at different rates,the solid flow patterns were asymmetric.Under an abnormal condition where no particles were discharged from the left outlet,a sizeable stagnant zone was formed opposite to the working outlet,and “motionless”particles located in the left stagnant zone showed potential to increase the period of static contacts and sticking effect.

  6. Automated Extraction of the Archaeological Tops of Qanat Shafts from VHR Imagery in Google Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Luo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Qanats in northern Xinjiang of China provide valuable information for agriculturists and anthropologists who seek fundamental understanding of the distribution of qanat water supply systems with regard to water resource utilization, the development of oasis agriculture, and eventually climate change. Only the tops of qanat shafts (TQSs, indicating the course of the qanats, can be observed from space, and their circular archaeological traces can also be seen in very high resolution imagery in Google Earth. The small size of the TQSs, vast search regions, and degraded features make manually extracting them from remote sensing images difficult and costly. This paper proposes an automated TQS extraction method that adopts mathematical morphological processing methods before an edge detecting module is used in the circular Hough transform approach. The accuracy assessment criteria for the proposed method include: (i extraction percentage (E = 95.9%, branch factor (B = 0 and quality percentage (Q = 95.9% in Site 1; and (ii extraction percentage (E = 83.4%, branch factor (B = 0.058 and quality percentage (Q = 79.5% in Site 2. Compared with the standard circular Hough transform, the quality percentages (Q of our proposed method were improved to 95.9% and 79.5% from 86.3% and 65.8% in test sites 1 and 2, respectively. The results demonstrate that wide-area discovery and mapping can be performed much more effectively based on our proposed method.

  7. Distortion and residual stresses in laser beam weld shaft-hub joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschenhenke, F.; Hofmann, M.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In laser beam welding, a serious challenge is to control the distortion during the process. Understanding the whole process chain in view of different distortion potentials applied in each processing step provides the ability to control the distortion of the welded components. Every manufacturing step induces residual stresses in the component which can be released by the heat of the welding process, while further residual stresses are introduced into the welded parts upon cooling. The laser beam sources of the new generation permit a high power welding process and high beam quality at the same time. These laser beams are capable of producing deep and narrow seams. Thus the thermal strains of the joined parts are expected to be minimized. Especially axial welded shaft-hub joints show an irregular distribution of bending deformation, which is caused by the self-influencing welding gap. This work deals with the investigation of different laser beam sources and their effect on the welding distortion in axial welded shafthub joints made of steel (20MnCr5). The aim of the work done was to achieve minimal distortion after the welding process. To characterize the influences on the distortion behaviour of the welded parts, residual stresses have been determined by neutron diffraction.

  8. Recommendations for avoiding knee pain after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labronici Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to analyze the proximal tibiofibular joint in patients with knee pain after treatment of tibial shaft fractures with locked intramedullary nail. Findings The proximal tibiofibular joint was analyzed in 30 patients, who reported knee pain after tibial nailing, and standard radiograph and computed tomography were performed to examine the proximal third of the tibia. Twenty patients (68.9% presented the proximal screw crossing the proximal tibiofibular joint and 13 (44.8% had already removed the nail and/or screw. Four patients (13.7% reported complaint of knee pain. However, the screw did not reach the proximal tibiofibular joint. Five patients (17.2% complained of knee pain although the screw toward the joint did not affect the proximal tibiofibular joint. Conclusion When using nails with oblique proximal lock, surgeons should be careful not to cause injury in the proximal tibiofibular joint, what may be one of the causes of knee pain. Thus, the authors suggest postoperative evaluation performing computed tomography when there is complaint of pain.

  9. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: Exploratory Shaft Facility fluids and materials evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to determine if any fluids or materials used in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) of Yucca Mountain will make the mountain unsuitable for future construction of a nuclear waste repository. Yucca Mountain, an area on and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in southern Nevada, USA, is a candidate site for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power and defense nuclear activities. To properly characterize Yucca Mountain, it will be necessary to construct an underground test facility, in which in situ site characterization tests can be conducted. The candidate repository horizon at Yucca Mountain, however, could potentially be compromised by fluids and materials used in the site characterization tests. To minimize this possibility, Los Alamos National Laboratory was directed to evaluate the kinds of fluids and materials that will be used and their potential impacts on the site. A secondary objective was to identify fluids and materials, if any, that should be prohibited from, or controlled in, the underground. 56 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Parametric Analysis of a Two-Shaft Aeroderivate Gas Turbine of 11.86 MW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lugo-Leyte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aeroderivate gas turbines are widely used for power generation in the oil and gas industry. In offshore marine platforms, the aeroderivative gas turbines provide the energy required to drive mechanically compressors, pumps and electric generators. Therefore, the study of the performance of aeroderivate gas turbines based on a parametric analysis is relevant to carry out a diagnostic of the engine, which can lead to operational as well as predictive and/or corrective maintenance actions. This work presents a methodology based on the exergetic analysis to estimate the irrevesibilities and exergetic efficiencies of the main components of a two-shaft aeroderivate gas turbine. The studied engine is the Solar Turbine Mars 100, which is rated to provide 11.86 MW. In this engine, the air is compressed in an axial compressor achieving a pressure ratio of 17.7 relative to ambient conditions and a high pressure turbine inlet temperature of 1220 °C. Even if the thermal efficiency associated to the pressure ratio of 17.7 is 1% lower than the maximum thermal efficiency, the irreversibilities related to this pressure ratio decrease approximately 1 GW with respect to irreversibilities of the optimal pressure ratio for the thermal efficiency. In addition, this paper contributes to develop a mathematical model to estimate the high turbine inlet temperature as well as the pressure ratio of the low and high pressure turbines.

  11. Final environmental and regulatory assessment of using asphalt as a sealant in mine shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the properties of asphalt, the current regulatory status governing asphalt and future regulatory implications which may be pertinent in using asphalt as a waterproof shaft sealant. An understanding of the inherent organic composition of asphalt, an increase in the number of health and environmental research publications conducted on asphalt and an examination of the apparent trend of regulatory agencies toward more stringent environmental regulation governing the use of organic materials suggests asphalt could become regulated at a future time. This would only occur, however, if asphalt was found to conform to the present regulatory definitions of pollutants, contaminants or hazardous substances or if asphalt was included on a regulated substance list. In this regard, the study points out that asphalt contains very low levels of hazardous poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA's). These levels are significantly lower than the levels present in coal tars, a substance known to contain high levels of hazardous PNA's. Asphalt, however, has the inherent potential of producing higher concentrations of PNA's if the adverse condition of cracking should occur during the refinery production stage or on-site preparation of the asphalt. Also, unless existing control technology is applied, emission levels of sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulates and volatile organic carbons from the on-site preparation facilities could approach the permissible health standard levels of EPA. The study indicates, however, that available literature is limited on these issues

  12. Production & Process Optimization of Micro Alloyed Steel Roller Shaft of an Under Carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. Gajanana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing or production is one of the most important sectors of any field. It involves various steps or processes to convert raw materials into finished products. With the more precise demands of modern engineering products and competition to provide good quality, the surface finish, dimensional accuracy along with metal removal rate (MRR plays a very important role. The selection of optimum cutting conditions (depth of cut, feed and speed is an important element of process planning for every machining operation. In order to optimize the output parameters i.e., M R R , power consumption and surface roughness, the process variables are varied. Inspite of major advancements in metal cutting practices, the metal cutting industries continues to suffer from major drawback of not running the machine tools at their optimum operating condition. Furthermore, their prediction helps in the analysis of optimization problems in machining economics, in adaptive control applications, in the formulation of simulation models used in cutting databases. In the present work full factorial design of experiments (DOE technique is used in order to find the effect of input parameters on MRR and surface roughness for Micro Alloyed Steel Roller Shaft work material of an under carriage at Berco Undercarriages India Pvt Ltd. Contribution of each factor on output is determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and using MAT LAB software the optimum values of process parameters for MRR and surface roughness are generated.

  13. Laser surface remelting and hardening of an automotive shaft sing a high-power fiber laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Sergio Fernandes de Lima

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An automotive shaft was surface-remelted and hardened using a 2 kW fiber laser and an adapted linear axis whose rotating axis produced helical tracks at 120 RPM. The process variable was the laser power, ranging from 300 to 1100 W, which produced two regions in the material: a martensitic region (MR and a partially transformed region (PTR. The MR is formed after rapid solidification or austenitization followed by rapid cooling (10(7 K.s-1. The PTR is composed of martensite, unchanged pearlite and proeutectoid ferrite. The maximum case depth was about 0.3 mm. The microhardness inside the martensitic regions are at least double that of the base material, i.e. between 800 than 600 HV compared to 300 HV. Thermal simulations using a modified Rosenthal formalism help elucidate the phase transformation inside the material and show good agreement with experimental results. The experimental laser-steel absorptivities were measured; they ranged between 38 and 59% depending on the laser power and the amount of liquid at the surface.

  14. Occupational Therapy and the amazon riverside child victim of scalping by motor boat shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Dayse Braga Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although scalping is a recurrentaccident innorthern Brazil, there are still few studies on the subject. The aim of the present work was to report the occupational therapy procedure on the minimization of the occupational performance impairment of two riverside children that were victims of scalping by unprotected motor boat shaft, through the evaluation of occupational performance and exposure of the intervention performed. This is a case study with two scalped riverside girls hospitalized between April and June, 2013. The application of evaluation protocols verified changes in the areas of occupational performance, where activities of daily living (ADL such as dependence for bathing and ambulationare inserted; changesin the performance context, verified in the anxiety to be discharged from hospital; and changesin the performance component, with decreased self-esteem because of the change on their self-image. Reassessment after intervention showed improvement in the performance of ADL and self-image perceptionof both patients. Thereby it is believed that the development of the research allowed the contact with a theme that is so typical in the Braziliannorth region, stressing the importance of Occupational Therapy assistance, providing greater independence in the performance of ADL that are meaningful to each child.

  15. Numerical investigation of nonisothermal reduction of hematite using Syngas: the shaft scale study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh Valipour, Mohammad; Saboohi, Yadollah

    2007-09-01

    A mathematical model is developed to investigate the reduction process of hematite in the reduction zone of the Midrex shaft furnace as a moving bed reactor. It is described as a counter-current moving bed cylindrical reactor in which hematite pellets are reduced by a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, water vapour, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, namely Syngas. It is laterally injected into the bed at the lower part close to the bottom. Governing equations, including continuity, momentum, energy and mass equations, are derived based on the conceptual model for both gas and solid phases in the cylindrical coordinate system. A three interface unreacted shrinking core model (USCM) is applied to describe the reduction process in the pellet scale at the hematite magnetite, magnetite wustite and wustite iron interfaces. The concluded equations are solved numerically based on the finite volume method. The model predictions are validated by a comparison with the operating data of the Gilmore Midrex plant. It was seen that the model can reproduce the operating data satisfactorily. Finally, the distribution of process variables in the bed is exhaustively explained.

  16. Mechanical assessment of suspended ALD thin films by bulge and shaft-loading techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed mechanical properties of free-standing atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) Al2O3 thin films, mixed oxide (AlxTiyOz) films and Al2O3/TiO2 nanolaminates (75 and 200 nm). Using bulge and microelectromechanical system shaft-loading techniques, we evaluated the Young’s modulus, residual stress and ultimate tensile stress of these films and laminates. Fits to the load–displacement curves provided estimates for the residual stress and Young’s modulus. We extracted a residual stress of 347–403 MPa for Al2O3, 365–389 MPa for AlxTiyOz and 450–455 MPa for the nanolaminate. The Young’s modulus was 164–165 GPa for Al2O3, 151–154 GPa for mixed oxide and 148–169 GPa for the nanolaminate. Thin membranes exhibited an ultimate tensile strength of 1.57–2.56 GPa for Al2O3, 1.17–2.09 GPa for AlxTiyOz and 1.23–2.26 GPa for the nanolaminate. The ability to make thin, yet mechanically strong, suspended membranes is useful in micro- and nanosystem applications ranging from thermally insulated devices to large stroke mechanical actuators

  17. ARSC: Augmented Reality Student Card--An Augmented Reality Solution for the Education Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Neven A. M.; Zayed, Hala H.; Sharawy, Mohamed I.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) is the technology of adding virtual objects to real scenes through enabling the addition of missing information in real life. As the lack of resources is a problem that can be solved through AR, this paper presents and explains the usage of AR technology we introduce Augmented Reality Student Card (ARSC) as an application of…

  18. Kinematic Operating Modes of Two-Speed Two-Carrier Planetary Gear Trains with Four External Shafts

    OpenAIRE

    Troha, Sanjin; Žigulić, Roberto; Karaivanov, Dimitar

    2014-01-01

    Two-speed planetary gear trains with four external shafts, composed of two simple planetary gear trains, are considered in this paper. The labelling system of these trains is defined and all possible variants are determined. Planetary gear trains are divided into three different design groups, and characteristics of trains of each group are given. Possible power flows through the train at both gears for every group are described. An example of determining the function of transmission ratios o...

  19. 细长轴车削加工工艺%The slender shaft turning processing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭勳

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, factors influencing the machining parts precision slender shaft is not high, analyzes how to raise processing precision of slender axle parts, gives the specific methods to solve the problem.%文章针对影响加工细长轴零件精度不高等因素,分析了如何提细长轴零件的加工精度,给出解决问题的具体方法。

  20. Study on the behavior of concrete lining and rock mass during shaft excavation in the Horonobe URL project. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been constructed the Underground Research Laboratory in Hokkaido. In the shaft excavation, the short step method is adopted. The examination was carried out to confirm action effect of rock bolt for rationalization of support. As a result, rational support was carried out in later steps. In this report, action effect of rock bolt and result of examination are discussed. (author)