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Sample records for carcinoid tumor

  1. Tumor carcinoide apendicular Appendiceal carcinoid tumor

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    Julio Vázquez Palanco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue dar a conocer un interesante caso de tumor carcinoide que se presentó con cuadro clínico de apendicitis aguda. El paciente fue un varón de 8 años de edad, al cual se realizó apendicectomía a causa de una apendicitis aguda. El resultado anatomopatológico confirmó un tumor de células endocrinas (argentafinoma, tumor carcinoide en el tercio distal del órgano, que infiltraba hasta la serosa, y apendicitis aguda supurada. El paciente fue enviado a un servicio de oncohematología para tratamiento oncoespecífico. Por lo inusual de estos tumores en edades tempranas y por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta no consecuente, decidimos presentar este caso a la comunidad científica nacional e internacional. Es extremadamente importante el seguimiento de los pacientes con apendicitis aguda y de las conclusiones del examen histológico, por lo que puede representar para el niño una conducta inadecuada en una situación como esta.The objective of this paper was to make known an interesting case of carcinoid tumor that presented a clinical picture of acute appendicitis.The patient was an eight-year-old boy that underwent appendectomy due to an acute appendicitis. The anatomopathological report confirmed an endocrine cell tumor (argentaffinoma, carcinoid tumor in the distal third of the organ that infiltrated up to the serosa, and acute suppurative appendicitis. The patient was referred to an oncohematology service for oncospecific treatment. As it is a rare tumor at early ages, and taking into account what a inconsequent behavior may represent for the child, it was decided to present this case to the national and international scientific community. The follow-up of the patients with acute appendicitis and of the conclusions of the histological examination is extremely important considering what an inadequate conduct may represent for the child in a situation like this.

  2. Primary Testicular Carcinoid Tumor presenting as Carcinoid Heart Disease

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    Manjunath L Chikkaraddi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary carcinoid tumors of the testis are very rare, and they seldom present with carcinoid syndrome. We report a hereto unreported instance, where a patient with a long-standing testicular mass presented with carcinoid heart disease, an uncommon form of carcinoid syndrome. He presented with symptoms of right heart failure, episodic facial flushing and was found to have severe right-sided valvular heart disease. His urinary 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid level was elevated. He underwent orchidectomy and the histopathology confirmed a testicular carcinoid tumor.

  3. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Sep-Oct 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 5. Abstract. Bronchial carcinoid tumors (BCTs) are an uncommon group of lung tumors. They commonly affect the young adults and the middle aged, the same age group affected by other more common chronic lung conditions such as ...

  4. Fibrogenesis and carcinoid tumor - a case report

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    Eduardo Fonseca Alves Filho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are rare. They may appear in the entire gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, with single or multiple occurrences. Prognosis is dependent on the size and location. Symptoms may appear in carcinoid syndrome, related to active substances, especially serotonin. One important aspect associated with these tumors and usually ignored is fibrogenesis. This is a case report of a patient with carcinoid tumor of the terminal ileum, treated by laparoscopy, associated with fat and fibrosis infiltration.Tumores carcinoides são pouco frequentes, podem surgir em todo o trato gastrointestinal e respiratório, podem ser únicos ou múltiplos. O prognóstico depende do tamanho e da localização do tumor. Podem ocorrer sintomas relacionados à síndrome carcinoide, decorrente da produção de substâncias ativas, em especial serotonina. Um aspecto comumente ignorado associado a estes tumores é a estimulação da fibrogênese. Relatamos um caso de tumor carcinoide de íleo, tratado por videolaparoscopia, associado à infiltração fibroadiposa.

  5. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  6. Current Concepts on Gastric Carcinoid Tumors

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    George C. Nikou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoid tumors (GCs are rare lesions representing less than 10% of carcinoid tumors and less than 1% of all stomach neoplasms. There are three distinct types of gastric carcinoids; type I includes the vast majority (70–85% of these neoplasms that are closely linked to chronic atrophic gastritis. Type II which accounts for 5–10 %, is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and often occurs in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Type III, finally, represents 15–25% of gastric carcinoids and is characterized by a far more aggressive course. The optimal clinical approach to GCs remains to be elucidated, depending upon type, size, and number of carcinoids. While there is universal agreement about the surgical treatment of type III GCs, current options for type I and II include simple surveillance, endoscopic polypectomy, surgical excision associated with or without surgical antrectomy, or total gastrectomy. Moreover, the introduction of somatostatin analogues could represent another therapeutic option.

  7. Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collazo Mauri, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors of the cecal appendix are the most frequent of all appendicular tumors, with no clinical manifestations in general. The general objective of this paper was to present an interesting case of carcinoid tumor found in a 26 years-old woman, whose clinical picture was diagnosed as subacute appendicitis. She was hospitalized and treated with antibiotics with good recovery and discharged 10 days later. She had no abdominal tumors confirmed clinically and echographically at that time. Three months later, the patient was operated on and underwent cecal appendicectomy. The pathological anatomy analysis yielded argentaffinoma in the distal third of the cecal appendix with mucosal infiltration. She was referred to the oncology service to be followed up. She has been free from any complication with good recovery for 10 years. The annual ultrasound and the CT scan show that there is neither regional adenopathy nor hepatic metastasis

  8. Stages of Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

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    ... used: Endoscopic resection : Surgery to remove a small tumor that is on the inside lining of the GI tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth and passed through the esophagus to the stomach and sometimes, the duodenum . An ...

  9. Ki67 Proliferative Index in Carcinoid Tumors Involving Ovary.

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    Zhang, Xiaotun; Jones, Andrea; Jenkins, Sarah M; Huang, Yajue

    2018-03-01

    Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are rare neoplasms that constitute less than 0.1% of all ovarian carcinomas. However, carcinoid tumors metastatic to ovaries are more common. Cell proliferative rate is an important factor in the determination of neuroendocrine tumor prognosis. Limited data are available as regards Ki67 proliferation index in predicting the physiological features of carcinoid tumors involving the ovary. Pathology files of Mayo Clinic Rochester (1995-2014) were searched, and clinical information was collected from medical records. All cases were stained with an antibody against Ki67, and digital analysis was performed with digital imaging analysis. A total of 36 cases (median age 64 years, range 33-83 years), including 9 primary (median age 68 years, range 33-73 years) and 27 metastatic carcinoid cases (median age 64 years, range 36-83 years), were investigated in the current study. Seven out of nine (77.8%) primary ovarian carcinoids are associated with mature teratoma. Twenty two metastatic carcinoids (81.5%) were from the GI tract, four (14.8%) from the pancreas, and one (3.7%) from the posterior thorax location. There was significant difference of Ki67 index between primary (median 2.3%, range, 0.6-8.4%) and metastatic carcinoid tumors (median 9.7%, range, 1.3-46.7%) (p = 0.002). The survival time is much shorter among patients with metastatic carcinoid tumor (median survival 5.8 years) comparing to primary ovarian carcinoid tumor (median 14.2 years) (p = 0.0005). A strong association between Ki67 index and patient survival time was identified (Hazard ratio for 1-percentage point increase 1.11, p = 0.001). Comparing to primary ovarian carcinoid tumor, metastatic carcinoid usually exhibits a higher Ki67 index and a worse outcome.

  10. NEW CLASSIFICATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF APPENDICEAL CARCINOID TUMORS

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    Vuka Katić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumours are rare lesions that belong to the APUDoma category having the capacity of Amine Precursor Uptake and Decarboxylase. Gastrointestinal system comprises 90% of all carcinoids in the body and they are the most common type of primary malignant lesions of the appendix. New WHO classification of gastrointestinal carcinoids, diagnostic dilemmas of some carcinoid variants and, sometimes unpredictable prognosis are the reasons for the following study: clinical, macro- and microscopical as well as cytochemical and immunocytochemical examination of the vermiform appendix carcinoids, surgically removed from 16 patients. The appendectomy was induced by acute appendicitis or tumorous mass, without carcinoid syndrome. After two-day fixation in 10% formaldehyde, routinelly processed and embedded in paraffin, laboratory sections were stained with H&E, Fontana-Masson’s, Grimelius’, FIF and ABPAS methods. ABC method has been used for immunohistochemical examination. The antibodies for Chromogranin A, NSE, Synaptophysin, Cytokeratin 7, S-100 protein, Ki67 and CEA (primary antibodies and ABC (secondary antibody (Dako Kopenhagen were tested. The patients had no carcinoid syndrome. The most frequent was classic appendiceal carcinoid, well differentiated - NETG1 (8 cases, without metastases; goblet cell carcinoids were rare (3 cases, one case with liver metastases. The second case of goblet cell carcinoid was associated with cystadenoma papillare mucinosum, complicated by pseudomixoma peritonei and the third case was limited only to appendiceal wall. The patient with liver metastases died five months after appendectomy. The patient with goblet cell carcinoid associated with papillary mucinous cystadenoma and complicated by pseudomixoma peritonei had re-operation with both partial cecal and right ovarial resection, associated with washing the peritoneal cavity. The patient was feeling well during six years from the second operation. Based on our

  11. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in pulmonary carcinoid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparri, R.; Rezende, G. C.; Brambilla, D.; Petrella, F.; Galetta, D.; Spaggiari, L.; Fazio, N.; Maisonneuve, P.; Travaini, L. L.; Paganelli, G.

    2015-01-01

    The role of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) as an additional investigation to computer tomography for pulmonary carcinoid tumors remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the role of FDG-PET for the diagnosis and staging of pulmonary carcinoid tumors. It has been performed a retrospective mono-institutional analysis of data from 97 patients with pathologically confirmed pulmonary carcinoid tumor who had been operated on between July 1998 and April 2009 and had had a preoperative FDG-PET scan performed. Sixty-five (67%) of the 97 tumors were typical (TC) and 32 (33%) atypical (AC) carcinoid tumors. Overall FDG-PET sensitivity was 67% being lower for TC (60%) than for AC (81%) (P=0.04). FDG-PET negative tumors were smaller than FDG-PET positive tumors, with a respective median size of 15 and 17 mm (P=0.02). Median SUVmax for FDG-PET-positive tumors was 4.0 (2.8-5.1) with no difference between TC and AC tumors. Median Ki-67 expression was respectively 4.7% and 3.1% for FDG-PET positive and FDG-PET negative tumors (P=0.05). During a median follow-up of 49 months (interquartile range 30-63 months), 9 patients (4TC, 5AC) developed recurrent disease. Neither SUVmax nor Ki-67 expression resulted associated with disease-free survival. With an overall sensitivity of 67%, FDG-PET has shown to be useful in the preoperative work-up of patients with suspect lung carcinoid tumors. In particular it could have a role in larger tumors. These results warrant a prospective evaluation of FDG-PET in the staging of lung carcinoid tumor.

  12. Carcinoid tumors: Challenges and considerations during anesthetic management

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    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neoplasms of neuroendocrine tissues from enterochromaffin or kulchitsky cells, which have the potential to metastasize. The mediators released from these tumors when bypass the hepatic metabolism, can lead to the possible development of carcinoid syndrome. This is a life-threatening complication, which can lead to profound hemodynamic instability, especially in a peri-operative period, when the patient is exposed to various types of noxious stimuli. Off late, use of octreotide, a synthetic analog of somatostatin, has significantly reduced the peri-operative morbidity and mortality. The current review discusses the various anesthetic challenges and considerations during peri-operative management of carcinoid tumors.

  13. Primary renal carcinoid tumor mimicking non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma: A case report

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    Joo, Lee Hi; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Choe, Mi Sun [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Carcinoid tumors are neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation, and they are most commonly found in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Primary renal carcinoid tumor has rarely been reported. Here, we present a case of primary renal carcinoid tumor manifesting as a small but a gradually enhancing mass with calcification and a cystic component.

  14. A case of retroperitoneal carcinoid tumor which was radioeffective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Ogawa, Osamu; Yoshimura, Naoki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Rei; Sasaki, Miharu.

    1984-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital on May, 24, 1978, with complaints of lower abdominal pain, lower abdominal mass, constipation and pollakisuria. Physical examination revealed a lower abdominal tumor which was smooth, elastic soft and of childs' head size. IVP and urethrography revealed left nonvisualizing kidney, right hydronephrosis and deformity of bladder. CT scan revealed a large intrapelvic mass. Under the diagnosis of retroperitoneal tumor, operation was done on June, 29, 1978. Adhesive changes between the tumor, sacrococcyx and left internal iliac artery was so severe that the tumor could not be resected, and only biopsy-specimen was taken. Pathohistological diagnosis of the tumor was carcinoid tumor. He received postoperative radiation therapy with total dosis of 5000 rad in 5 weeks, and complete remission was obtained. Now, more than 5 years have passed after operation, no recurrence was detected. Carcinoid tumors are rare and generally are not radioeffective, but some cases without carcinoid syndrome, including our case, are radioeffective. So radiation therapy should be the second choice of treatment for carcinoid tumor. (author)

  15. Endoscopic Management of a Primary Duodenal Carcinoid Tumor

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    Albin Abraham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoids are rare, slow-growing tumors originating from a variety of different neuroendocrine cell types. They are identified histologically by their affinity for silver salts and by positive reactions to neuroendocrine markers such as neuron-specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. They can present with various clinical symptoms and are difficult to diagnose. We present the case of a 43-year-old woman who was referred for evaluation of anemia. Upper endoscopy showed a duodenal bulb mass around 1 cm in size. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry staining were consistent with the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor. Further imaging and endoscopic studies showed no other synchronous carcinoid lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS revealed a 1 cm lesion confined to the mucosa and no local lymphadenopathy. Successful endoscopic mucosal resection of the mass was performed. Follow-up surveillance 6 months later with EUS and Octreoscan revealed no new lesions suggestive of recurrence. No consensus guidelines exist for the endoscopic management of duodenal carcinoid tumors. However, endoscopic resection is safe and preferred for tumors measuring 1 cm or less with no evidence of invasion of the muscularis layer.

  16. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors.

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    Greenleaf, Erin K; Cooper, Amanda B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR]), controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed) patients. Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08-1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22-1.46], respectively) and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00-1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03-1.29], respectively) than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25-2.11], respectively) than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P married patients have a survival advantage after diagnosis of any carcinoid tumor, potentially reflecting better social support and financial means

  17. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors

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    Erin K. Greenleaf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Methods Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR], controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed patients. Results Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08–1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22–1.46], respectively and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00–1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03–1.29], respectively than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08–1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25–2.11], respectively than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P < 0.0001. Conclusions Even after controlling for other prognostic factors, married patients

  18. Bronchial carcinoid tumor: helical CT and virtual bronchoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Patricia; Capunay, Carlos; Spinozzi, German; Abramson, Horacio; Berna, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    The authors reported a case of a 61 years old man with recurrent neumonia of the inferior right lobe diagnosed by a chest radiography. A complementary helical CT showed an endobronquial mass on the right intermediate bronchus. Virtual bronchoscopy contributed to a better definition of this lesion, confirmed by a real bronchoscopy. The lesion was diagnosed as a carcinoid tumor by a bronchial biopsy. After surgery (sleeve resection of the tumor) the patient did not show any recurrence of his broncho-neumonic clinical features. (author)

  19. Endobronchial carcinoid tumor: Radiological findings of a clinical case

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    Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz

    Full Text Available Summary We describe the case of a female patient, 21 years old, complaining of dyspnea attacks and wheezing 2 years ago. Chest radiography showed volume loss in the left lower lobe and ipsilateral retrocardiac triangular basal opacity. CT scan showed an extensive solid mass with apex protruding into the left main and lower lobar bronchi, causing distal atelectasis. Histopathological and immunohistochemical study of transbronchial biopsy of the lesion revealed a typical carcinoid tumor, confirmed after tumor resection with total left pneumectomy.

  20. General Information about Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

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    ... used: Endoscopic resection : Surgery to remove a small tumor that is on the inside lining of the GI tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth and passed through the esophagus to the stomach and sometimes, the duodenum . An ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors)

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    ... used: Endoscopic resection : Surgery to remove a small tumor that is on the inside lining of the GI tract. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth and passed through the esophagus to the stomach and sometimes, the duodenum . An ...

  2. Calcitonin-producing well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder: case report

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    De Rosa Gaetano

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of calcitonin-secreting primary carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder is extremely rare. Case presentation The case of a 68-year-old male with carcinoid tumor arising in the urinary bladder is presented. Transurethral resection of a polypoid small tumor 0.4 cm in diameter was performed. Immunohistochemical study using neuroendocrine markers allowed a straightforward diagnosis of a low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma (carcinoid tumor of the urinary bladder. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated calcitonin immunoreactivity in the most of the tumor cells. Conclusion This tumor shows specific clinical, macroscopical and histological features and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of bladder neoplasms.

  3. Combined adenocarcinoma-carcinoid tumor of transverse colon

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    Prosanta Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old male presented with painless hematochezia associated with episodic cramps in upper abdomen, watery diarrhea, and a slowly growing mass in upper abdomen. Examination revealed a firm 6 x 5 cm, intra-abdominal, epigastric mass. Colonoscopy up to 90 cm showed a stenosing, ulcero-proliferative lesion in the transverse colon. No synchronous lesion was detected. Biopsy revealed mucin secreting adenocarcinoma. Exploration showed the growth involving the transverse colon proximal to the splenic flexure with a part of ileum, approximately three feet proximal to ileo-caecal junction, adherent to it. No significant mesenteric lymph node enlargement was evident. The patient underwent resection of the growth along with the segment of adherent ileum. Continuity was re-established by a colo-colic and ileo-ileal anastomosis respectively. Patient received adjuvant chemotherapy. Post-operative histopathology demonstrated a composite histological pattern with an admixture of carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma, invasion of ileal serosa and adenocarcinomatous deposits in mesocolic lymph nodes, the tumor staging being (T4, N0, M0/Stage II for carcinoid and (T4, N1, M0/Stage III for adenocarcinoma. Patient was followed-up for a year and was doing well without any evidence of recurrence.

  4. Diagnosis and therapy of carcinoid tumors-current state of the art and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Mazhar U.; Coleman, R. Edward

    2008-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors account for less than 1% of all malignancies and the majority arise in the gastrointestinal system. These tumors are slow growing compared with adenocarcinomas and they differ from the other neuroendocrine malignancies by their protean clinical presentation. Carcinoid tumors were previously considered indolent, but they can manifest malignant characteristics with metastatic spread which often results in a poor prognosis. Although there have been advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities, carcinoid tumors are still often diagnosed late, often when the tumor has metastasized and patients develop carcinoid syndrome. Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options are based on biochemical markers and imaging investigations. High concentration of urinary 5-HIAA, elevated plasma serotonin and chromogranin A levels help to establish the initial diagnosis of carcinoid tumors. In addition to the CT and MRI, molecular imaging modalities such as OctreoScan, MIBG imaging and more recently PET imaging are vital in detection of primary malignancy and metastatic involvement. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment of nonmetastatic carcinoid tumors. Cytotoxic chemotherapy is not beneficial due to the chemoresistant nature of these tumors. Because carcinoid tumors express somatostatin receptors, somatostatin analogues, which inhibit the release of serotonin and other neuroendocrine peptides, are often used, but their use is limited to symptom control. Treatment using high doses of radionuclides such as radiolabeled somatostatin analogues and MIBG is a more recent option which offers a definite advantage in management. In this article, we review typical features of the carcinoid tumors, examine contemporary methods of detecting and assessing carcinoid tumors and discuss the role of various diagnostic and therapeutic options

  5. Cecal Carcinoid Tumor in a Nigerian Man: A Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-10

    Oct 10, 2016 ... a case of a 56-year-old Nigerian man with a cecal carcinoid tumor that was surgically removed. ... per 100,000.[3,4]. Other studies have found carcinoid ... with symptoms of pain, anorexia, or weight loss.[8]. Approximately ...

  6. A Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix in a Child: A Case Report

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    Laleh Vahedi Larijani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The appendix is one of the most common sites for carcinoid tumors. Most carcinoids are found in appendices removed incidentally at laparotomy for conditions unrelated to acute appendicitis. We describe the case of a 13-year-old female who presented with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant (RLQ, with nausea and decreased appetite for the previous 2 days. A physical examination favoreda diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A carcinoid tumor was diagnosed based on the histological examination of the removed appendix. The patient underwent an isolated appendectomy due to the small size of the lesion.

  7. [The scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors in the carcinoid tumor].

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    Banzo, J; Abós, M D; Prats, E; Delgado , M; Razola, P; García, S; Gomollón, F; García, F

    2001-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide scintigraphy in the different situations that can be present when an examination is requested during the clinical course of the carcinoid tumor (CT). We have performed 41 scintigraphies with 111In-octreotide (145-185 MBq) in 35 patients (19 females and 16 males) with clinically suspected or confirmed CT. The patients were classified into five groups: Group A: Indolent symptoms of CT (n=9); B: CT staging located in lung (n=4), stomach (n=2), cecum (n=1), thymus (n=1) and pancreas (n=1); C: Carcinoid syndrome (n=1); D: CT staging after surgery located in pancreas (n=1), ovary (n=1), cecum (n=1), stomach (n=1), appendix (n=1) and ileum (n=1); and E: Post-treatment follow-up (n=13), with CT located in bronchial tree (n=5), small intestine (n=3), appendix (n=2), thymus (n=1), ovary (n=1) and unknown primary tumor (n=1). Three patients of this group had one scintigraphic study before the treatment. Head and neck, thorax and abdomen images were obtained at 4 and 24 h in all of the patients and SPECT images of the abdomen (n=14), thorax (n=10), and brain (n=1) were obtained at 24 h in 25 patients. Group A: In the 3 patients with a positive scintigraphy, the definitive diagnosis was meningioma, Hurtle cell's carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma. The clinical follow-up in the six other patients, at least during one year, did not show any evidence of CT. Group B: Six of the 9 CT were detected with the scintigraphy. In 2 cases of bronchial CT, the scan showed sarcoidotic regional lymph node involvement and CT hepatic and bone metastases, respectively. Group C: The scintigraphy detected hepatic metastases from an unknown primary tumor. Group D: The scintigraphy was positive in 3 cases (hepatic or/and abdominal metastases) and was normal in the other 3. The scintigraphy was negative in one patient with peritoneal metastases. Group E: The scintigraphy was normal in 7 patients in concordance with the

  8. Goblet Cell Carcinoid Tumor of the Appendix with Small Bowel Obstruction: A Case Report

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    Hwang, Su Yeon; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min Jeong; Koh, Sung Hye; Jeon, Eui Yong; Min, Kwang Seon; Seo, Jin Won; Park, Hyoung Chul [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    Goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix (GCTA) is a tumor with histological features of both adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumors. The most common clinical presentation of GCTA is acute appendicitis, although small bowel obstruction has been reported as a rare clinical symptom of GCTA. However, to the best of our knowledge, the CT feature of small bowel obstructions in patients with GCTA has not been reported to date. Here, we present a case of small bowel obstruction in a patient with GCTA caused by extensive tumor infiltration at the terminal ileum and distal ileum.

  9. Intestinal Ischaemia Associated with Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report with Review of the Pathogenesis

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    Oktay Yener

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing neuroendocrine neoplasms that are often indolent and may not become clinically apparent until there is a metastatic spread or evidence of carcinoid syndrome.  A 44-year-old man presented to our clinic department with a history of previous left colon cancer operation, chronic crampy left lower quadrant pain, mass and severe anemia.  A MR scan was obtained which demonstrated a calcified mesenteric mass 12×8×10 cm diameter with surrounding left colon mesenteric infiltration. The liver was normal. A case of ischaemic ileal necrosis is reported. It was associated with elastic vascular sclerosis produced by mesenteric metastases of an ileal carcinoid tumor. It is postulated that intestinal ischaemia may be of more importance in the production of abdominal pain by carcinoid tumors than has been generally accepted, and that it is the result of functional and structural changes in and around the mesenteric blood vessels, caused by substances secreted by the carcinoid tumor.

  10. A case of typical pulmonary carcinoid tumor treated with bronchoscopic therapy followed by lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porpodis K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Konstantinos Porpodis1, Michael Karanikas2, Paul Zarogoulidis1, Theodoros Kontakiotis1, Alexandros Mitrakas2, Agisilaos Esebidis2, Maria Konoglou3, Kalliopi Domvri1, Alkis Iordanidis4, Nikolaos Katsikogiannis5, Nikolaos Courcoutsakis4, Konstantinos Zarogoulidis11Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; 21st University Surgery Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 31st Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Radiology Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece; 5Surgery Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Carcinoid bronchopulmonary tumors represent approximately 25% of all carcinoid tumors and 1%–2% of all lung neoplasms. The most common symptoms are: persistent cough, asthma-like wheezing, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis and obstructive pneumonitis. We present a case of a young adult diagnosed with a typical carcinoid tumor. The diagnosis was established on the basis of imaging examination and bronchoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with bronchoscopic electrocautery therapy to relieve the obstructed airway, followed by surgical lobectomy in order to entirely remove the exophytic damage. This approach was not only a palliative management to bronchial obstruction but also avoided pneumonectomy. Recent studies support the use of such interventional resection methods, as they may result in a more conservative surgical resection.Keywords: carcinoid tumor, typical lung carcinoid, therapeutic bronchoscopy, surgical resection

  11. Bronchial carcinoid tumors: A rare malignant tumor | Orakwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are many reports of this rare group of tumors in the Western and Asian regions. The only report around our sub‑region is a post mortem report of an atypical variant. We wish to report a case of the typical variant and increase our index of suspicion. A 25‑year‑old male presented with a 4 years history of cough and ...

  12. Acromegaly due to a Macroinvasive Plurihormonal Pituitary Adenoma and a Rectal Carcinoid Tumor

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    Sang Ouk Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A macroinvasive pituitary adenoma with plurihormonality usually causes acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia, and also accompanies with neurologic symptoms such as visual disturbances. However, its concurrent presentation with a rectal carcinoid tumor is rarely observed. This study reports the history, biochemical, colonoscopic and immunohistochemical results of a 48-year-old female with acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. Despite the large size and invasive nature of the pituitary adenoma to adjacent anatomical structures, she did not complain of any neurologic symptoms such as visual disturbance or headache. Immunohistochemical staining of the surgical specimen from the pituitary adenoma revealed that the tumor cells were positive for growth hormone (GH, prolactin (PRL, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH. Staining for pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1 was shown to be strongly positive, which could have been possibly contributing to the plurihormonality of this adenoma. Colonoscopy found a rectal polyp that was identified to be a carcinoid tumor using immunohistochemical staining. A macroinvasive pituitary adenoma with concomitant rectal carcinoid tumor was secreting GH, PRL, and TSH, which were believed to be in association with over-expression of Pit-1. This is the first case report of double primary tumors comprising a plurihormonal pituitary macroadenoma and rectal carcinoid tumor.

  13. Carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts: a study of seven cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maitra, A.; Krueger, J. E.; Tascilar, M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Angeles-Angeles, A.; Klimstra, D. S.; Hruban, R. H.; Albores-Saavedra, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors report seven patients with carcinoid tumors of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs). All patients were women, with an average age at diagnosis of 49.8 years (range, 37-67 yrs). The most common presenting symptom was painless jaundice with or without pruritus. Although one patient had

  14. Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary mimicking struma ovarii and carcinoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduaij, Ahmad; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2011-04-01

    Clear cell carcinomas are considered as high-grade tumor often with poor prognosis. We describe 2 cases of clear cell carcinomas of the ovary mimicking benign or less aggressive tumors encountered in the female genital track. The first case is mimicking a benign monodermal teratoma, the so-called struma ovarii, and the second mimicking a carcinoid tumor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical Control of a Primary Hepatic Carcinoid Tumor: A Case Report

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    Norio Yokoigawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor occurring in a 47-year-old man. The patient consulted our hospital complaining of epigastralgia. Abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large mass in the right lobe of the liver. FDG-PET revealed 18F-FDG uptake by the right hepatic lobe. The tumor was a solid mass with cystic components, approximately 15 cm in diameter. We conducted an extended right lobectomy of the liver. The resected specimen was a solid tumor with cystic components and hemorrhagic lesion. Microscopic findings showed that the tumor cells had round nuclei and formed trabecular patterns. Immunohistologically, tumor cells were stained positive for chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase, CD56, and S-100. Careful examinations before and after the operation revealed no other possible origin of the tumor. Based on these findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a primary hepatic carcinoid. This is a report of a rare case of a primary hepatic carcinoid tumor with a discussion of several other relevant reports.

  16. Surgical treatment of a rare primary renal carcinoid tumor with liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowland Randall G

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid tumors are characteristically low grade malignant neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation that arise in various body sites, most commonly the lung and gastrointestinal tract, but less frequently the kidneys, breasts, ovaries, testes, prostate and other locations. We report a case of a carcinoid of renal origin with synchronous single liver metastases on radiological studies. Case presentation A 45 year-old patient who presented with abdominal pain was found on CT scan to have lesions in the right ovary, right kidney, and left hepatic lobe. CA-125, CEA, and CA 19-9 were within normal limits, as were preoperative liver function tests and renal function. Biopsy of the liver mass demonstrated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor. At laparotomy, the patient underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, radical right nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy, and left hepatectomy. Pathology evaluation reported a right ovarian borderline serous tumor, well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of the kidney (carcinoid with 2 positive retroperitoneal lymph nodes, and a single liver metastasis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that this lesion was positive for synaptophysin and CD56, but negative for chromogranin as well as CD10, CD7, and CD20, consistent with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. She is doing well one year after her initial surgery, with no evidence of tumor recurrence. Conclusion Early surgical intervention, together with careful surveillance and follow-up, can achieve successful long-term outcomes in patients with this rare malignancy.

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of a carcinoid tumor using iodine-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.; Den Hartog Jager, F.C.; Van Gennip, A.H.; Marcuse, H.R.; Taal, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scintigraphy using I-131 meta-iodobenzylguanidine has been introduced as an effective method to detect pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas, and the radiopharmaceutical also is applied in therapy of these tumors. The authors present a case of a metastatic gastric carcinoid tumor, another neural crest tumor, concentrating I-131 MIBG, which was documented by conventional scintigraphy and SPECT in correlation with CT scans and colloid scintigrams of the liver. Two therapeutic attempts in this patient, using I-131 MIBG, are described. The metabolic basis of this phenomenon is discussed, and the importance of I-131 MIBG imaging in the detection of neural crest tumors is underlined

  18. 131I-MIBG scintigraphy in carcinoid tumor with liver metastases (case report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Olamaei, R.; Fard, A.; Beiki, D.; Saghari, M.

    2003-01-01

    A 65 year old male presented with abdominal pain (R.U.Q) and constipation, associated with weight loss and anorexia since 40 days prior to admission. Serum biochemical tests were normal. Colonoscopy showed hemorrhagic polyploid lesion in the cecum Barium enema revealed filling defect in the cecum. Sonography revealed a target-shaped lesion(3cm X 2.5 cm)in upper segment of the right hepatic lobe. CT scan confirmed the same finding as a hypodense lesion. Following segmental resection of the cecum, pathology indicated the presence of the carcinoid tumor. For the better evaluation, 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy was carried out, demonstrating tracer avid metastatic lesions in the right and left hepatic lobes. A review of the series reported in the literature, shows that approximately 50-60% of carcinoids are able to concentrate radiolabeled MIBG. MIBG uptake apparently correlated with the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA, although this is not a universal finding. The most frequently occurring midgut carcinoids probably concentrate the radiolabeled MIBG more readily than those in the hind gut and fore gut. Primary and residual tumors are sometimes visualized , but the most striking imaging is that of carcinoids metastases in the peritoneum and liver(provided that SPECT images with 123 I-MIBG or alternatively 131 I-MIBG delayed scans are performed). Lymph node involvement, bone deposits and ovarian metastases have been reported as well. When radioiodinated MIBG and somatostatin scintigraphy results are compared, somatostatin scintigraphy shows a better sensitivity (>80%) in detecting both primary and metastatic lesions. These radiopharmaceuticals play complementary roles in that each give unique information concerning possible treatment either with octreotide or 131 I-MIBG, or both. MIBG imaging can not generally relied upon either to detect a carcinoid, or to rule out the disease.When a tumor is strongly suspected of being carcinoid however, the test can be worthwhile for the

  19. CARCINOID TUMOR OF THE DUODENUM: a rare tumor at an unusual site. Case series from a single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques WAISBERG

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Duodenal carcinoids are extremely rare, and their characteristics and biological behavior have not been fully elucidated. Objective To analyze the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with resected duodenal carcinoids. Methods Twenty patients (12 females and 8 males were investigated. Their average age was 66.4 ± 5.8 years old (43 to 88 years old. The data corresponding to the clinical picture, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of patients with duodenal carcinoid tumors subjected to resection over a period of 18 years (1993-2011 were analyzed. Results The most common symptoms were dyspepsia (50% and epigastric pain (45% followed by weight loss (10% and vomiting (5%. Carcinoid syndrome was not observed in any patient. The lesion was located on the first part of the duodenum in 15 (75% patients, the second part in 4 (20% patients, and the third part in 1 (5% patient. The diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor was established through an endoscopic excision biopsy in 19 (95% patients and an histopathological examination of the surgical specimen in 1 (5% patient. The average tumor size was 1.1 cm ± 0.4 cm (0.3 cm to 6.0 cm. Nineteen (95% patients were initially treated by endoscopic resection of the duodenal lesion. One patient (5%, whose tumor was on the third part of the duodenum underwent a duodenectomy of the third and fourth duodenal parts and duodenojejunal anastomosis. The duodenal carcinoid resection margin was involved in four (20% patients. Four (20% patients were subjected to a partial gastrectomy to fully remove the lesion. The tumor was restricted to the submucosal layer in 16 (80% cases, and it penetrated into the muscular layer in 4 (20% cases. All patients exhibited positive chromogranin A, neuron-specific enolase, and/or synaptophysin immunostaining. The average duration of the follow-up period was 39.6 months (3 to 96 months. Twelve (60% of the 20 cases in this series are alive without any evidence of active

  20. 131I Metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I MIBG) kinetics in a carcinoid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavo, R.; Concolino, G.; Fazi, F.; Iannantuono, P.; Voti, S. Li; Manzara, A.; Pavoni, P.

    1987-01-01

    The 131 I-MIBG kinetics was studied in vivo in patients with carcinoid tumors and liver metastases. Activity curve analysis showed that the maximum uptake of 131 I-MIBG in a carcinoid tumor occurred after 48 hours, while its biological half time was of 8 days and a half. Although more data are necessary to understand a significant variation in 131 I-MIBG kinetics between the different kinds of APUD neoplasms, it is thought that a dynamic-funtional study allowing the evaluation of the different biological half-time, could be helpful for the selection of these neoplasms, which could be treated with 131 I-MIBG. Radiation doses required for the treatment are also estimated. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney: report of a rare entity and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwani Anil V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and their clinicopathologic features are not well described. Our objective was to further define the clinical features and pathologic spectra of primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney. Methods Six previously reported case reports were identified using MEDLINE and a subsequent bibliographic search of all pertinent reports and reviews was performed. We also searched the electronic medical archival records of our institution and identified one additional unreported case. Data were extracted on the demographics, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, radiographic features, gross pathology, microscopic pathology, immunophenotype, therapy, and outcome of each of these seven cases. Results Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney was found at a mean age of 41.4 years. Of the 7 cases, 3 were female and 4 were male. Two of the 7 cases (28.6% were associated with horseshoe kidney. It typically presented with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It typical radiologic appearance was well circumscribed partly calcified Bosniak II-III lesion. Histologically, the carcinoid tumor showed monotonous small round cells arranged in classic anastomosing cords/ribbons intermixed with solid nests. Surgery was curative, no additional treatment was required, no local recurrences occurred, and no metastases occurred in all 7 cases. The 3 cases with available outcome data were alive at the time of publication of their respective cases (mean, 5 months. Conclusion Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is a rare tumor that typically presents with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It is not associated with local recurrence and metastasis, is surgically curable, and has excellent prognosis.

  2. Abordaje quirúrgico del tumor carcinoide broncopulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Palafox

    2014-01-01

    Conclusiones: El tratamiento quirúrgico es orientado hacia la resección pulmonar conservadora; en casos de tumores atípicos, se prefiere resección amplia y extirpación de ganglios linfáticos mediastínicos.

  3. Carcinoid crisis induced by receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC in a case of liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, M V; Bodei, L; Francia, G; Bartolomei, M; Oliani, C; Scilanga, L; Reghellin, D; Falconi, M; Paganelli, G; Lo Cascio, V; Ferdeghini, M

    2006-06-01

    SS receptors are overexpressed in many tumors, mainly of neuroendocrine origin, thus enabling the treatment with SS analogs. The clinical experience of receptor radionuclide therapy with the new analog [90Y-DOTA0-Tyr3 ]-octreotide [90Y-DOTATOC] has been developed over the last decade and is gaining a pivotal role in the therapeutic workout of these tumors. It is well known that some procedures performed in diagnostic and therapeutic management of endocrine tumors, such as agobiopsy and hepatic chemoembolization, can be associated with the occurrence of symptoms related to the release of vasoactive amines and/or hormonal peptides from tumor cell lysis. This is the first report of a severe carcinoid crisis developed after receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC administered in a patient affected by liver metastases from bronchial neuroendocrine tumor (atypical carcinoid). Despite protection with H1 receptor antagonists, octreotide and corticosteroids, few days after the therapy the patient complained of persistent flushing of the face and upper trunk, severe labial and periocular oedema, diarrhoea and loss of appetite. These symptoms increased and required new hospitalisation. The patient received iv infusion of octreotide associated with H1 and H2 receptor antagonists and corticosteroid therapy, which induced symptom remission within few days. The case here reported confirms that radionuclide therapy is highly effective in determining early rupture of metastatic tissue and also suggests that pre-medication should be implemented before the radiopeptide administration associated with a close monitoring of the patient in the following days.

  4. Advanced Research of mTOR and Lung Carcinoid Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixuan ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a main protein kinase in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, is an important intracellular mediator involved in multiple celluar functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. Recently, the high expression of mTOR and mTOR-related kinase have been found in neuroendocrin tumors. Therefore, mTOR pathway represents an attractive target for new anticancer therapies except surgery.

  5. Study of frequency and Prognosis of appendix carcinoid tumor in appendoctomies done in Shohada hospital in Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mojtaba Ahmadi Nejad

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendix carcinoid tumors are of rare cases. Their commonest place is in digestive system in appendix intensine and rectom respectively. They have no symptoms and they are detected along with laparotomy or inflation in appendix. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of carcinoid tumor in appendix and its prognosis in a period of 3 to 8 years in Shohada hospital in khorramabad. Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross – sectional which was carried out on 2845 patients with appendectomy in Shohada hospital in khorramabad in 2003-2006. The needed data were collected through a questionnaire from the pationts files who had the tumor operation in the hospital. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Then the patients prognosis was determind. Results: The results showed that among all the cases with tumors, three out of five were carcdinoids, one was mucucell, one was mucucell associated lymphoid tissue. In adition to these cases, one case was colon carcinoid related to metastatic΄s deodenom, but no adenocarcinoma tumor was observed. After pathological analysis, the results showed that none of the patients with carcinoid appendix needed any treatment in 3-8 years follow up program and there was no recurrent growth for the disease. Conclusion: As carcinoid in appendix can be malignant and spread over other tissues and causes short life, it needs special care and follow and the patients should be referred to the specialist to complete treatment. Carcinoid appendix should be considerd as a neoplasm since it has the special power of spreading and metastasis over distant tissues.

  6. Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are rare, slow-growing tumors that originate in the neuroendocrine cells in the GI tract. Find evidence-based information on gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors treatment and research.

  7. Tumor de colisión periampular Collision tumor of the ampulla of Vater: Carcinoid and adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ferrando Marco

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de tumor de colisión periampular en el que coexisten un tumor carcinoide de pared duodenal y un adenocarcinoma de cabeza de páncreas. El paciente era un varón de 64 años con historia reciente de diarreas al que se diagnosticó una ictericia obstructiva. Histopatológicamente el tumor resecado mostraba dos neoplasias independientes. Una de ellas constituida por cordones sólidos de células neuroendocrinas que afectaba pared duodenal. La otra está formada por un adenocarcinoma bien diferenciado procedente del páncreas. Ambas neoplasias fueron confirmadas inmunohistoquímicamente. Según la literatura anglosajona revisada tan sólo hemos encontrado seis casos de esta rara coexistencia neoplásica.We report the case of a periampullary collision tumor, in which a duodenal-wall carcinoid and an adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas coexisted. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man with a recent history of diarrhea, who was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice. A duodeno-pancreatectomy was performed, and the specimen showed two independent neoplasms in the histopathologic study. Solid cords and nests of neuroendocrine cells in the duodenal wall formed the carcinoid tumor, whereas the other neoplasm was made up of a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Both were confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. According to the literature reviewed, this is the sixth reported case of this rare neoplastic association.

  8. Carcinoid Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  9. Nationwide multicenter study on the management of pulmonary neuroendocrine (carcinoid tumors

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    Samira M Sadowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: To analyze the management and outcome of patients with primary typical (TC and atypical lung carcinoids (AC in Switzerland. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients selected from a neuroendocrine tumor (NET registry. Patients were divided into TC and AC according to pathology reports, and surgical procedures were grouped as wedge/segmentectomy, lobectomy/bilobectomy and pneumectomy. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank test. Results: Over 7 years, 113 pulmonary carcinoids (61.9% females, mean age 59.4 years were included from 19 hospitals, with pathology data on Ki67 and necrosis incomplete in 16 cases. Eighty-three TC and 14 AC underwent surgical resection with a primary tumor size of median 14.5 (range 1–80 mm and diagnosis was established in 55.8% at surgery. Mean follow-up was 30.2 ± 23.1 months. Lobectomy was performed in 54.2% and wedge resection in 17.7% of cases. Six patients received additional systemic therapy. There was a trend for larger primary lesion size and a significantly higher rate of N2–N3 status in AC. Mean survival tended to be increased in patients with TC compared to AC (86.1 vs 48.4 months, P = 0.06 and mean disease-free interval after surgical resection was 74.1 and 48.3 months for TC and AC, respectively (P = 0.74. Conclusion: AC of the lung has a more malignant behavior and a trend to a worse outcome. The results of this registry reinforce the need for standardized histological diagnosis and inter-disciplinary therapeutic decision making to improve the quality of care of patients with TC and AC.

  10. Patients with carcinoid syndrome exhibit symptoms of aggressive impulse dysregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, S; Boon, JC; Kema, IP; Willemse, PHB; den Boer, JA; Korf, J; de Vries, EGE

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Carcinoid tumors can produce excessive amounts of biogenic amines, notably serotonin. We assessed psychiatric symptoms in carcinoid patients and peripheral metabolism of tryptophan, the precursor of serotonin. Methods: Twenty consecutive patients with carcinoid syndrome underwent a

  11. Carcinoid tumor of the verumontanum (colliculus seminalis of the prostatic urethra with a coexisting prostatic adenocarcinoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werahera Priya N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Urethral carcinoid tumors are very rare tumors with only four cases described in the literature. Case presentation We present the case of a 61-year-old man with a primary carcinoid tumor of the verumontanum (colliculis seminalis portion of the prostatic urethra with a coexisting prostatic adenocarcinoma. In addition to whole mount hematoxylin and eosin staining, special immunoperoxidase staining specific for chromogranin A, neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin, pan-cytokeratin and PSA, and a special combined staining for racemase (α-methyl CoA antigen and p63 antigen were performed. A review of the literature is included. A single focus of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma was identified in the periphery of the mid-left, posterior quadrant of the prostate. Approximately 17 mm from this adenocarcinoma, within the verumontanum of the prostatic urethra, there was a 3 mm maximal dimension carcinoid tumor. Conclusion Based on different histological features and antigenic profiles, we concluded that the two tumors were distinct.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-assisted endoscopic resection of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract Resección endoscópica asistida por ecoendoscopia de tumores carcinoides del aparato digestivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martínez-Ares

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: usually found in the gastrointestinal tract, carcinoids are the most frequent neuroendocrine tumors. Most of these lesions are located in areas that are difficult to access using conventional endoscopy (small intestine and appendix; carcinoid tumors found in the gastroduodenal tract and in the large intestine can be studied endoscopically; in these cases, if localized disease is confirmed, local treatment by endoscopic resection may be the treatment of choice. Since endoscopic ultrasonography has been shown to be the technique of choice for the study of tumors exhibiting submucosal growth, the selection of patients who are candidates for a safe and effective local resection should be based on this technique. Patients and method: we selected patients with gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors who were endoscopically treated between 1997 and 2002. Those patients with tumors measuring less than 10 mm, which had not penetrated the muscularis propria, and those with localized disease were considered candidates for endoscopic resection. The endpoints of this study were to assess the effectiveness (complete resection and safety (complications of the technique. Follow-up consisted of eschar biopsies performed one month and twelve months after the resection. Results: during the aforementioned period, we resected endoscopically 24 tumors in 21 patients (mean age: 51.7 years; 71.5% males. Most lesions were incidental discoveries made during examinations indicated for other reasons. Resection was indicated in most cases as a result of the suspected presence of a carcinoid tumor after endoscopic ultrasonography. Endoscopic ultrasonography also enabled us to clearly identify the layer where the lesion had originated, as well as the size of the lesion. The carcinoid tumor was removed in 13 cases (54.2% by using the conventional snare polypectomy technique, in 9 cases (37.5% assisted by a submucosal injection of saline solution and/or adrenaline, and

  13. Transcatheter arterial embolization with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (Embosphere®) leads to life-threatening tumor lysis syndrome in a rectal carcinoid patient with hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Yuan-Hao; Tsai, Ming-Tsun; Kuo, Chen-Yu; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Li, Chung-Pin; Chen, Jinn-Yang; Chao, Yee

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal carcinoids appears to be increasing, and the rectum is the third most common location. Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with trisacryl gelatin microspheres (Embosphere ® ) has been reported as an effective method for hepatic metastases of rectal carcinoids. Complications are uncommon and usually of minor consequence. We report an unusual case of a 34-year-old man with tumor lysis syndrome following TAE with Embosphere ® in a patient with multiple hepatic metastases of a rectal carcinoid. Early detection and effective treatment are essential for this rare but potentially catastrophic complication

  14. IMPROVED DIAGNOSIS OF CARCINOID-TUMORS BY MEASUREMENT OF PLATELET SEROTONIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KEMA, IP; DEVRIES, EGE; SCHELLINGS, AMJ; POSTMUS, PE; MUSKIET, FAJ

    Carcinoid patients are diagnosed biochemically on the basis of increased urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA); urinary and platelet serotonin concentrations are considered to provide complementary information. Using established HPLC methods with fluorometric detection, we

  15. Tumor carcinóide do timo - Caso clínico Thymic carcinoid - case report

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    Lina Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores neuroendócrinos primários representam cerca de 4% do total dos tumores do mediastino anterior, incluindo o timo, afectando mais homens que mulheres numa razão de 3:1 e apresentando uma maior incidência entre os 40 e os 60 anos. Antigamente classificados como timomas, desde 1972 são considerados um grupo distinto de neoplasias tímicas, podendo ser biologicamente activos, estando sobretudo associados à síndroma NEM-1 (19 a 25% dos doentes, sendo nestes casos mais agressivos. São descritos como tendo grande progressão local, recorrência e metástases em elevada percentagem de casos, o que determina um mau prognóstico. O estadiamento é o parâmetro mais importante para determinar a sobrevida. Tumores detectados em fase precoce e capsulados associam-se a um excelente prognóstico, enquanto em estádios avançados, localmente invasivos, têm prognóstico relativamente pobre. A remoção cirúrgica completa, para todos os tumores tímicos, é a base da terapêutica e o factor crítico para a sobrevivência a longo prazo, independentemente do tipo histológico. São uma causa de morte importante, nomeadamente os tumores associados a NEM-1 e síndroma de Cushing, e há autores que defendem a realização de timectomia profiláctica nestes doentes.Primary neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoid tumours account for about 4% of anterior mediastinal tumours concerning thymus localization. They appear to have a male predilection (3:1 ratio and occur mostly between 40 and 60 years of age. Classified primarily as thymomas, they have been considered a different group of thymic neoplasia since 1972. They can be biologically active, mostly associated with MEN-1 (19-25% of patients and more aggressive in these cases. As a locally invasive disease, with recurrence and metastasis in a high percentage of cases, it correlates with a poor prognosis. Staging is the most important determinant of survival. Encapsulated tumours diagnosed in early stages

  16. Regorafenib in Treating Patients With Advanced or Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-18

    Gastrinoma; Glucagonoma; Insulinoma; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Islet Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatinoma

  17. Synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and primary adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney: a unique case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov Aleksandr M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is a rare complication. While any of the constituent tissues of a teratoma has the potential to undergo malignant transformation, squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly associated malignancy. Renal carcinoid tumors are rare and frequently associated with horseshoe kidney and renal teratoma. Renal teratoma rarely presents together with carcinoid tumor or adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, there has never been a report of renal teratoma coexisting with both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma. Methods Here, we present a unique and first case of synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney in a 50-year-old female. Lumbar spine X-ray, done for her complaint of progressive chronic low back pain, accidentally found a large calcification overlying the lower pole of the right kidney. Further radiologic studies revealed horseshoe kidney and a large multiseptated cystic lesion immediately anterior to the right renal pelvis with central calcification and peripheral enhancement. She underwent right partial nephrectomy. Results Macroscopically, the encapsulated complex solid and multiloculated cystic tumor with large calcification, focal thickened walls and filled with yellow-tan gelatinous material. Microscopically, the tumor showed coexistent mature cystic teratoma, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor. Immunohistochemically, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A-racemase, calretinin, CD10 and thyroid transcription factor-1 were negative in all the three components of the tumor. The teratomatous cysts lined by ciliated epithelium showed strong staining for cytokeratin 7 and pancytokeratin, and those lined by colonic-like epithelium showed strong staining for CDX2, cytokeratin 20 and pancytokeratin, but both were negative for calretinin. Additionally, the

  18. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lung in pregnancy mimicking carcinoid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Nagarjuna Maturu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMT are uncommon neoplasms of the lung in adults. They constitute less than 1% of all lung neoplasms and usually present as parenchymal masses. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. They are characterized by spindle-shaped tumor cells (fibroblasts/myofibroblasts in a background of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. About 50% of the tumors harbor an ALK gene rearrangement. They have to be differentiated from inflammatory pseudotumors (IPT, which show increased number of IgG4 plasma cells on immunostaining and are negative for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK protein. Herein, we present a case of a 28-year old female who presented with hemoptysis and was diagnosed with an IMT of lung in the first trimester of pregnancy. We have not only reviewed the occurrence of IMT during pregnancy but also discuss the management options for IMT during pregnancy.

  19. Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, IP; Meijer, WG; Meiborg, G; Ooms, B; Willemse, PHB; de Vries, EGE

    2001-01-01

    Background: Profiling of the plasma indoles tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with carcinoid tumors. We describe an automated method for the profiling of these indoles in protein-containing

  20. The predictive value of mean platelet volume, plateletcrit and red cell distribution width in the differentiation of autoimmune gastritis patients with and without type I gastric carcinoid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Ali; Keskin, Onur; Yakut, Mustafa; Kalkan, Cagdas; Soykan, Irfan

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is an autoimmune and inflammatory condition that may predispose to gastric carcinoid tumors or adenocarcinomas. The early diagnosis of these tumors is important in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. Platelet indices such as mean platelet volume and plateletcrit levels increase in inflammatory, infectious and malign conditions. The primary aim of this study was to explore wheter platelet indices and red cell distribution width have any predictive role in the discrimination of autoimmune gastritis patients with and without gastric carcinoid tumors. Also secondary aim of this study was to investigate whether any changes exist betwenn autoimmune gastritis and functional dyspepsia patients by means of platelet indices. Plateletcrit (0.22 ± 0.06 vs. 0.20 ± 0.03%, p gastritis patients compared to control group. Receiver operating curve analysis suggested that optimum plateletcrit cut-off point was 0.20% (AUC: 0.646), and 13.95% as the cut off value for red cell distribution width (AUC: 0.860). Although plateletcrit (0.22 ± 0.06 vs. 0.21 ± 0.04%, p = 0.220) and mean platelet volume (8.94 ± 1.44 vs. 8.68 ± 0.89 fl, p = 0.265) were higher in autoimmune gastritis patients without carcinoid tumor compared to patients with carcinoid tumors, these parameters were not statistically significant. Changes in plateletcrit and red cell distribution width values may be used as a marker in the discrimination of autoimmune gastritis and fucntional dyspepsia patients but not useful in patients with gastric carcinoid tumor type I.

  1. Delayed Recurrence of Atypical Pulmonary Carcinoid Cluster: A Rare Occurrence

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    Salim Surani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid is one of the most common tumors of the gastrointestinal tract followed by the tracheobronchial tree. Bronchial carcinoid compromises 20% of total carcinoid and accounts for 1–5% of pulmonary malignancies. Carcinoid can be typical or atypical, with atypical carcinoid compromises 10% of the carcinoid tumors. Carcinoid usually presents as peripheral lung lesion or solitary endobronchial abnormality. Rarely it can present as multiple endobronchial lesion. We hereby present a rare case of an elderly gentleman who had undergone resection of right middle and lower lobe of lung for atypical carcinoid. Seven years later he presented with cough. CT scan of chest revealed right hilar mass. Flexible bronchoscopy revealed numerous endobronchial polypoid lesions in the tracheobronchial tree. Recurrent atypical carcinoid was then confirmed on biopsy.

  2. Midgut carcinoids; surgical aspects, biogenic amines and vascular effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Harry de

    2006-01-01

    General introduction Carcinoids are rare slowly growing, neuroendocrine tumors. In 1907 Obendorfer was the first to use the term carcinoid (Karzinoide)1. He described an ileal tumor with a much slower progression than expected from denocarcinomas. The traditional classification of the carcinoids

  3. Telotristat ethyl: proof of principle and the first oral agent in the management of well-differentiated metastatic neuroendocrine tumor and carcinoid syndrome diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masab, Muhammad; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2017-12-01

    Metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are associated with carcinoid syndrome that is typically characterized by diarrhea, cutaneous flushing and bronchospasm. Treatment with somatostatin analogues (SSA) improves the symptom burden but a significant proportion of patients stop responding to SSA therapy eventually. Novel agents with the potential to effectively control the symptoms are urgently needed. This article reviews an in-depth analysis of the phase I-III clinical trials determining the clinical rationale for the use of tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, telotristat ethyl in patients with well-differentiated metastatic NETs and uncontrolled carcinoid syndrome. Telotristat ethyl has already been approved for the treatment of inadequately controlled carcinoid syndrome symptoms in metastatic NET patients on SSA therapy. Results from multiple phase I-III clinical studies of telotristat ethyl therapy have reported a significant decrease in the daily bowel movement frequency, increase in quality of life and the subsequent decrease in annual health costs related to carcinoid syndrome symptoms in NET patients. The associated decrease in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (u5-HIAA) provides evidence that telotristat ethyl effectively decreases serotonin production, and therefore, offers a rationale to investigate this agent to mitigate serotonin-mediated complications in this patient population, especially cardiac valvular disease or mesenteric fibrosis.

  4. Profiling of tryptophan-related plasma indoles in patients with carcinoid tumors by automated, on-line, solid-phase extraction and HPLC with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kema, I P; Meijer, W G; Meiborg, G; Ooms, B; Willemse, P H; de Vries, E G

    2001-10-01

    Profiling of the plasma indoles tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with carcinoid tumors. We describe an automated method for the profiling of these indoles in protein-containing matrices as well as the plasma indole concentrations in healthy controls and patients with carcinoid tumors. Plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue homogenates were prepurified by automated on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in Hysphere Resin SH SPE cartridges containing strong hydrophobic polystyrene resin. Analytes were eluted from the SPE cartridge by column switching. Subsequent separation and detection were performed by reversed-phase HPLC combined with fluorometric detection in a total cycle time of 20 min. We obtained samples from 14 healthy controls and 17 patients with metastasized midgut carcinoid tumors for plasma indole analysis. In the patient group, urinary excretion of 5-HIAA and serotonin was compared with concentrations of plasma indoles. Within- and between-series CVs for indoles in platelet-rich plasma were 0.6-6.2% and 3.7-12%, respectively. Results for platelet-rich plasma serotonin compared favorably with those obtained by single-component analysis. Plasma 5-HIAA, but not 5-HTP was detectable in 8 of 17 patients with carcinoid tumors. In the patient group, platelet-rich plasma total tryptophan correlated negatively with platelet-rich plasma serotonin (P = 0.021; r = -0.56), urinary 5-HIAA (P = 0.003; r = -0.68), and urinary serotonin (P manual, single-component analyses.

  5. Ependymoma and Carcinoid Tumor Associated with Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma in a Patient with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia I

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    Reed Spaulding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian teratomas rarely undergo new neoplastic transformation and account for a small percentage of malignant ovarian germ cell neoplasms. Here we report a case of a 51-year-old woman with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I who was found to have an ependymoma and neuroendocrine tumor (trabecular carcinoid associated with mature cystic teratoma of her left ovary. The ependymoma component displayed cells with round nuclei and occasional small nucleoli which were focally arranged in perivascular pseudorosettes and true rosettes. Rare mitoses were identified. No necrosis was present. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for S-100 and GFAP. The Ki67 proliferation index was very low (2-3%. In contrast, the endocrine tumor component was composed of small uniform cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, round nuclei, and speckled chromatin. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for synaptophysin and focally positive for chromogranin. This rare case illustrates that MEN I may have an influence on the pathogenesis of ovarian teratomas as they undergo malignant transformation.

  6. Tumor carcinoide de la apéndice cecal: Reporte de cuatro casos en la Clínica Carlos Ardila Lülle, Floridablanca, Colombia Carcinoid tumor of the cecal appendix: A report of four cases in the Clinica Carlos Ardila Lulle, Floridablanca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Mantilla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los tumores carcinoides son las neoplasias más frecuentes del apéndice cecal, se caracterizan por un crecimiento lento y curso clínico asintomático, su incidencia se calcula en 1-2 casos por cada 100,000 habitantes, se encuentran en menos del 1% de las apendicetomías y se presentan con mayor frecuencia en mujeres entre la cuarta a quinta época de la vida. Por lo general se trata de lesiones pequeñas que se diagnostican luego de la apendicetomía. Metodología El presente trabajo corresponde a una descripción de casos de tumor carcinoide del apéndice cecal, realizado en el laboratorio de patología MEGA, de la Clínica Ardila Lulle (CAL que incluye revisión de protocolos de especímenes quirúrgicos analizados entre enero 1 de 2000 y diciembre 31 de 2010. Resultados: Durante el periodo propuesto se encuentran cuatro casos de tumor carcinoide confinado al apéndice cecal en cuatro mujeres jóvenes. Tres de las lesiones presentan patrón histológico tipo A o insular y el restante un patrón tipo B o trabecular, en todos los casos se documentó reactividad con las sales de plata con la coloración de Fontana Masson y en los cuatro se encontró positividad con el marcador neuroendocrino cromogranina. Conclusión: Los tumores carcinoides de apéndice son lesiones de origen neuroendocrino, la mayoría circunscritas a la punta del órgano y de curso clínico indolente, sin embargo algunos de estos tumores tienen un comportamiento agresivo, que depende de su tamaño y de la actividad mitótica de sus células, por lo que se recomienda incluir en la evaluación diagnostica la cromogranina y el Ki67, marcadores neuroendocrino y de proliferación celular. Salud UIS 2011; 43 (2: 203-210Introduction: The carcinoids tumours are the most common neoplasm of the cecal appendix, are characterized by a slow growth and asymptomatic clinical course, its incidence is estimated at 1-2 cases per 100.000 inhabitants, are less than 1% of

  7. Successful application of technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy in the detection of ectopic adrenocorticotropin-producing bronchial carcinoid lung tumor: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fallahi Babak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy labeling with 111 indium in the localization of tumors has been assessed in a limited number of patients with contradictory outcomes. Here, we describe the case of a patient with an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid tumor diagnosed preoperatively using technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy. Case presentation A 29-year-old Asian man presented to our hospital with the typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, which he had had for a duration of 18 months. The results of a biochemical evaluation revealed he had adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome. The results of a spiral abdominal computed tomography scan showed he had bilateral adrenal hypertrophy. A magnetic resonance image of the patient's brain showed he had a normal hypophysis. Whole body technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy was performed to check for the presence of an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumor. The scan results showed a small focal increase in uptake in the lower lobe of our patient's right lung, just above his diaphragm. A spiral chest computed tomography scan also revealed a small non-specific lesion in the same region. A transthoracic biopsy was then performed. Pathological evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of a carcinoid tumor, of the adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing type. After surgical removal, the patient's symptoms resolved and significant clinical improvement was achieved. Conclusions This case report shows that technetium-99m-labeled octreotide acetate scintigraphy can effectively detect an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing bronchial carcinoid.

  8. Goblet cell carcinoid: Case report

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    Ulaş Alabalık

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The mixt endocrine-exocrine carcinoma of the appendix,being a rare tumor, makes up a very little part of all gastrointestinalsystem tumors. These tumors are thought tobe the intermediary tumors taking place between adenocarcinomasand endocrine tumors. Generally they areseen in the 5th -6th decades equally in males and females.Being very characteristic, the histomorphological pictureof goblet cell carcinoid consists of atypical epithelial cellswith conspicuous nucleoli that make small abortive glandsdemonstrating scattered nests under surface epitheliumand containing Goblet cells. The tumor exhibits transmuralspread producing mucin pools designating positiveimmunoreaction histochemically with musicarmenstain. In addition to CEA and keratin expressions, thereis neuroendocrine differentiation that may be illustratedboth immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. In ourcase, under the appendix epithelium we determined atumor that was formed by gland structures lined by mucinousepithelial cells with conspicuous nucleoli, growingforward to the muscle layer and seeming invasive. Weestablished that the tumor expressed PanCK, synaptophysin,chromogranin and CEA in immunohistochemicalstudy and stained positively with PAS, PAS-AB andmusicarmen in histochemical study. We considered thecase as goblet cell carcinoid when clinical, histopathological,histochemical and immunohistochemical data wereassessed together. In the time interval 2 years after theoperation, any recurrence and/or metastase was not determined.Key words: Goblet cell carcinoid, CEA, chromogranin A,PAS-AB, musicarmen

  9. Carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Saamir A; Banchs, Jose; Iliescu, Cezar; Dasari, Arvind; Lopez-Mattei, Juan; Yusuf, Syed Wamique

    2017-10-01

    Rare neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) that most commonly arise in the gastrointestinal tract can lead to carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease. Patients with carcinoid syndrome present with vasomotor changes, hypermotility of the gastrointestinal system, hypotension and bronchospasm. Medical therapy for carcinoid syndrome, typically with somatostatin analogues, can help control symptoms, inhibit tumour progression and prolong survival. Carcinoid heart disease occurs in more than 50% of these patients and is the initial presentation of carcinoid syndrome in up to 20% of patients. Carcinoid heart disease has characteristic findings of plaque-like deposits composed of smooth muscle cells, myofibroblasts, extracellular matrix and an overlying endothelial layer which can lead to valve dysfunction. Valvular dysfunction can lead to oedema, ascites and right-sided heart failure. Medical therapy of carcinoid heart disease is limited to symptom control and palliation. Valve surgery for carcinoid heart disease should be considered for symptomatic patients with controlled metastatic carcinoid syndrome. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to guide optimal management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Synchronous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon and Rectal Carcinoid

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    Vamshidhar Vootla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary colonic adenocarcinoma and synchronous rectal carcinoids are rare tumors. Whenever a synchronous tumor with a nonmetastatic carcinoid component is encountered, its prognosis is determined by the associate malignancy. The discovery of an asymptomatic gastrointestinal carcinoid during the operative treatment of another malignancy will usually only require resection without additional treatment and will have little effect on the prognosis of the individual. This article reports a synchronous rectal carcinoid in a patient with hepatic flexure adenocarcinoma. We present a case of a 46-year-old Hispanic woman with a history of hypothyroidism, uterine fibroids and hypercholesterolemia presenting with a 2-week history of intermittent abdominal pain, mainly in the right upper quadrant. She had no family history of cancers. Physical examination was significant for pallor. Laboratory findings showed microcytic anemia with a hemoglobin of 6.6 g/dl. CT abdomen showed circumferential wall thickening in the ascending colon near the hepatic flexure and pulmonary nodules. Colonoscopy showed hepatic flexure mass and rectal nodule which were biopsied. Pathology showed a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma of the colon (hepatic flexure mass and a low-grade neuroendocrine neoplasm (carcinoid of rectum. The patient underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and chemotherapy. In patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, carcinoids could be missed due to their submucosal location, multicentricity and indolent growth pattern. Studies suggest a closer surveillance of the GI tract for noncarcinoid synchronous malignancy when a carcinoid tumor is detected and vice versa.

  11. Colonic carcinoid tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 23 patients from a single institution Tumores carcinóides do cólon: estudo clinicopatológico de 23 doentes de uma única instituição

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reis Waisberg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Colonic carcinoids, excluding those arising in the appendix, have proved to be extremely rare. Due to their rarity, the characteristics and behavior of this unusual malignancy remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To review the clinicopathologic features of patients operated on carcinoid tumors of the colon. METHODS: Twenty-three patients (12 males and 11 females were operated on colonic carcinoids. The mean age of the patients was 63.0 ± 12.9 years (42 to 85 years. The clinical and histopathological data of patients who were pathologically diagnosed as having carcinoid tumors and submitted to surgical treatment over a 30-year period (1977-2007 were gathered. Actuarial patient survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with carcinoid-specific death as the outcome. RESULTS: The mean time elapsed between onset of symptoms and surgical treatment was 8.3 months (1.5 to 20 months. The most frequent symptoms or signs encountered were abdominal pain followed by anorexia or weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, and rectal bleeding. No carcinoid syndrome was noted. The lesion was located in the cecum in 16 (69.6% patients, in the sigmoid in 3 patients (13.0%, in the ascending colon in 3 patients (13.0%, and in the transverse colon in one patient (4.3%. Twenty-one (91.3% patients were operated on curative intent. Spreading of the disease to the liver and peritoneum was found in two (8.7% patients who submitted to intestinal bypass. The mean size of the largest mass was 3.7 ± 1.2 cm (1.5 to 6.2 cm. There were multiple (two or more lesions in three cases (13.0%. In the resected cases, the lymph nodes were compromised in 10 patients (47.6% and disease-free in 11 (52.4%. Venous invasion and neural infiltration were both present in five (23.8% patients. The tumors had penetrated the muscularis propria in all resected cases. Four (17.4% patients had a second non-carcinoid primary tumor. Three (13.0% patients died due

  12. Carcinoid Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015/10/Carcinoid-Syndrome-Guide-to-Understanding.pdf . New England Journal of Medicine Publishes Article on PRRT Clinical Study for Neuroendocrine ... prestigious medical journals in the United States, the New England Journal of Medicine , published an article (January 12, 2017 issue) about ...

  13. Goblet cell carcinoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ingrid Holst; Holt, Nanna; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs) exhibit neuroendocrine and adenocarcinoma features. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Analysis of demography, pathology, prognostic markers, treatment and survival in 83 GCC patients (f/m: 56/27) diagnosed 1992-2013. RESULTS: Median age for f/m was 59...

  14. Carcinoid of the Rectum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-01

    Jun 1, 1974 ... MacDonald' regarded all extra-appendiceal carcinoids as malignant and described a classification of invasiveness. CASE REPORT. A Black male aged 60 years was admitted to hospital in. January 1973 complaining of discomfort on defaecation. Department of Surgery and Gastro-intestinal Unit, University.

  15. Fibrosis and carcinoid syndrome: from causation to future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn; Rockall, Andrea; Grossman, Ashley B

    2009-05-01

    Carcinoid tumors are part of a heterogeneous group of gastrointestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors that are characterized by their capacity to produce and secrete hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine, tachykinins and other mediators. These substances are thought to be responsible for the collection of symptoms, which include diarrhea, flushing and wheezing, that is known as carcinoid syndrome. Fibrosis that occurs either local to or distant from the primary tumor is one of the hallmarks of carcinoid tumors that originate from the midgut. The fibrotic process can occur in the mesentery as a desmoplastic response and may lead to obstruction of the small bowel, but it can also occur in the lungs, skin or retroperitoneum. Importantly, up to one-third of patients develop cardiac valvulopathy. One or more products that are secreted by the tumor and enter into the circulation are likely to have a role in this process. This Review discusses the incidence and prevalence of fibrosis in carcinoid syndrome and explores evidence to date for causative agents, in particular the roles of 5-hydroxytryptamine and elements of the downstream signaling pathway. Improved understanding of the etiology of carcinoid-tumor-related fibrosis may lead to better treatments for this condition than those we currently have.

  16. Neoplasm carcinoid: Description of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, Luis; Abarca, Jaysoom; Penaherrera, Vicente; Legarda, Eduardo

    2004-01-01

    We describe a case of small bowel obstruction associated with a carcinoid neoplasm of the ileum in a 78 year old man who was presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, and a mass in right lower quadrant. Carcinoids are neuroendocrine neoplasm originating in multiple locations throughout the body human. About 75% of such neoplasm are located within the gastrointestinal tract and are capable of rpoducing various peptides. Their clinical course is often indolent but can also be aggressive and resistant to therapy. The incidence of these tumours is approximately 2.5 in 100.000 people per year. The former classification system of fore gut, midgut and hind gut tumors is still used in clinical routine. Determination of the histopathology of carcinoid tumors is of utmost importance and involves specific immunohistochemical staining for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, serotonin and gastrin. New localization procedures include somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and positron emission tomography. Surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment and provides the only chance of a cure. Other cytoreductive procedures include radiofrequency ablation, laser treatment and chemo embolization. New therapies, such as ling acting somatostatin analogs, together with further development of tumor targeted treatments, will come into clinical use in the near future. (The author)

  17. Carcinoid heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The images are of the tricuspid valve and the pulmonic valve from the autopsy of a patient with mid-gut neuroendocrine carcinoma, carcinoid pattern, extensively metastatic to the liver. The patient had typical “carcinoid syndrome,” including clinical evidence of tricuspid and pulmonic stenosis and insufficiency. The tricuspid valve (left shows slight retraction and distortion by the overlying endothelial deposition of plaque composed of acid mucopolysaccharide-rich matrix with varying amounts of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibers. The plaque material causes partial coalescence of chordae tendinae with effacement of the usual delicate strands. The pulmonic valve (right shows more marked distortion with shrinkage and obliteration of cusps and coalescence at the commissures. Beneath the plaque the valves are intact.

  18. Rectal carcinoids: a systematic review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Frank D

    2014-07-01

    Rectal carcinoids are increasing in incidence worldwide. Frequently thought of as a relatively benign condition, there are limited data regarding optimal treatment strategies for both localized and more advanced disease. The aim of this study was to summarize published experiences with rectal carcinoids and to present the most current data.

  19. Carcinoid Tumor: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatic enzyme replacement varies from 1-3 Viokase tablets with each meal and at bedtime, or 1- ... of choice in addition to CT scan and MRI. In appropriate cases, Neotect Scan, FDG PET scan ...

  20. Small-bowel carcinoid with no liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniku-Shkololli, Argjira; Haziri, Adem

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid is a slowly-growing tumor from the group of neuroendocrine or APUD tumors. Characteristic of these tumors is the production of biogene amins & polypeptide hormones. 90% of all carcinoids are located in the GI system. A female patient, 68 years old, comes for a visit with signs of diffuse abdominal pain, diarrhea, irregular bowel movements, weakness, dyspnea and pretibial edemas. The gastroenterologist gives her only symptomatic therapy at first, and starts the examinations after her hospitalization (initial dg: Enterocolitis). One month later she visits again with the same complains. CT scan result shows steatosis hepatica and lots of liquids in the small bowel and colon. She underwent operation--resection of 20 cm of the small bowel with tumor masses and part-time ileostoma. The biopsy of the resected segment of the bowel shows multiple carcinoids. Our patient had no flushing of the skin and therefore couldn't be suspected clinically for this diagnosis. The intestinal carcinoid does not usually produce the carcionid syndrome unless hepatic metastases have occurred. The infiltration of the mesentery provokes an intense fibrotic reaction resulting in kinking of the bowel segments, which causes intestinal obstruction as it happened in this patient. As long as in our clinic we don't have this technique, it is much harder to make an early diagnosis. Fortunately our patient was diagnosed before liver metastases occurred, and therefore her treatment was successful.

  1. Primary Renal Carcinoid - A Case Report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Sullivan, M

    2018-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours in the abdomen are uncommon, but typically occur in the gastrointestinal tract. Primary renal carcinoid is an extremely rare tumour, poorly described in the literature. We describe an unusual case where an atypical renal mass on imaging led to a preoperative diagnosis of renal carcinoid on imaging guiding biopsy.

  2. Mucinous carcinoid of the ovary: report of a case with metastasis in the contralateral ovary after ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia C. Ewing

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monodermal teratomas of the ovary can take the form of carcinoid tumors of which there are several types, mucinous carcinoid being the least common. Very few cases of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary have been reported in the literature and the behavior of these tumors over the long term is unclear. We describe a case of primary mucinous carcinoid of the ovary in a 39-year-old woman treated with unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, where a metastasis occurred in the contralateral ovary ten years later. This case demonstrates that mucinous carcinoid of the ovary can metastasize even after a long interval, and careful follow-up of patients, particularly those treated conservatively, is appropriate.

  3. Carcinoid of the ampulla of Vater: Morphologic features and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George A Poultsides; Wayne AI Frederick

    2006-01-01

    Carcinoids involving the ampulla of Vater are rare lesions that may produce painless jaundice. The published data indicate that these tumors, in contrast to their midgut counterparts, metastasize in approximately half of cases irrespective of primary tumor size. Therefore,radical excision in the form of pancreaticoduodenectomy is recommended regardless of tumor size. As with other gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, biological treatment with octreotide analogues can be applied to symptomatic patients. Tumor-targeted radioactive therapy is a newly emerging treatment option. We here report case of a carcinoid tumor of the ampulla of Vater presenting as painless jaundice in a 65-year old man and review the relevant literature, giving special attention to the morphologic features, clinical characteristics, and treatment modalities associated with this disease process.

  4. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC DIAGNOSTICS OF CARCINOID HEART DISEASE

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    Janez Ravnik

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carcinoid heart disease is a rare heart disease which affects endocard and heart valves on the right side of heart. It affects only patients with manifested carcinoid syndrome, which is thought to be the consequence of secretory active metastases of carcinoid tumour. The carcinoid endocardial plaques cause structural changes of tricuspid and pulmonic valve and later on their stenosis and/or insufficiency.Patients and methods. In this article we introduce a carcinoid valve heart disease (CVHD scoring system for easier end exact echocardiographic diagnostics. Four echocardiographic parameters are beeing estimated: structural changes of tricuspid valve, tricuspid valve regurgitation, stenosis of pulmonic valve and pulmonic valve regurgitation.Conclusions. The scoring system allows us to make an early diagnosis and evaluation of progression of carcinoid heart disease, which is very important for planning the treatment process. Our experiences confirm the usefulness of this scoring system in echocardiographic follow–up of patients with carcinoid syndrome.

  5. Carcinoid Tumour of the Ovary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. A case of bilateral carcinoid tumour of the ovary, with benign cystic teratoma in one ovary, in a 38 year old woman is presented. She had total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingoophorectomy, infracolic omentectomy and appendectomy. There was no macroscopic tumour in the vermiform appendix and the ...

  6. Synchronous occult metastasising duodenal carcinoid and ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma- Multiple primary malignancies in the same patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devadass Clement W, Sridhar Honnappa, Aarathi R Rau, Sharat Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors are uncommon neuroendocrine tumours that may be associated with synchronous or metachronous primary tumours of other histological type, most frequently colorectal adenocarcinomas. Primary ovarian mucinous adenocarcinomas have been reported to coincide with few other ovarian tumours and minority of these tumours may occur in association with Lynch syndrome. However association of duodenal carcinoid with ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma is distinctly unusual and, to our knowledge, has not been previously described. We report a case of occult metastasising duodenal atypical carcinoid that was incidentally detected during surgical intervention performed for left ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a middle aged female. The carcinoid tumour was Stage IIIB with regional nodal metastasis and the ovarian tumour was Stage IA with low grade histology.

  7. Incidentally discovered goblet cell carcinoid clinically presenting as acute intestinal obstruction: A case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishat Afroz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC is a rare variant of carcinoid tumor that exclusively involves the appendix. It usually occurs in 5 th -6 th decade with the most common clinical presentation being acute appendicitis. The natural history of this tumor is intermediate between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas. We here report a case of GCC diagnosed incidentally in a patient presenting with acute intestinal obstruction. Ultrasonographic examination supported the clinical diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction, following which the patient underwent laparotomy and resection of ileum along with appendix was done. On gross pathological examination, a nodular growth was present on the tip and body of appendix that was yellow in color with a semi-solid to mucoid consistency on cut section. On microscopy, lakes of mucin with few acinar structures floating in them were seen. The submucosa as well as serosa were infiltrated by clusters of goblet cells and well-formed acini, with little atypia. Glands and nests were positive for per-iodic acid Schiff and immunohistochemistry showed focal chromogranin positivity in glandular structures, thereby confirming the diagnosis of GCC. Although the prognosis of GCC is better than adenocarcinomas, it is one of the carcinoids having a poorer outcome when compared with other variants of carcinoid tumor. Therefore, it is important to rule out other differential diagnoses of goblet cell carcinoid, the most important being mucinous adenocarcinomas.

  8. Progressive dyspnea due to pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Kallianos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case description of a female patient, 77 years-old, who presented with progressive dyspnea and cough. She had a mild hypoxemia in the arterial blood gases (PaO2 72 mmHg and normal spirometry. The chest computer tomography revealed diffuse “ground glass” opacities, segmental alveolitis, bronchiectasis, fibrotic lesions and numerous micronodules. A thoracoscopy was performed and the obtained biopsy showed carcinoid tumorlets, with positive CK8/18, CD56, TTF-1 and synaptophysin immunohistochemical markers. Pulmonary carcinoid tumorlets are rare, benign lesions and individuals with tumorlets are typically asymptomatic. Our report presents a symptomatic clinical case of carcinoid tumorlet.

  9. Phase III Prospective Randomized Comparison Trial of Depot Octreotide Plus Interferon Alfa-2b Versus Depot Octreotide Plus Bevacizumab in Patients With Advanced Carcinoid Tumors: SWOG S0518.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, James C; Guthrie, Katherine A; Moran, Cesar; Strosberg, Jonathan R; Kulke, Matthew H; Chan, Jennifer A; LoConte, Noelle; McWilliams, Robert R; Wolin, Edward M; Mattar, Bassam; McDonough, Shannon; Chen, Helen; Blanke, Charles D; Hochster, Howard S

    2017-05-20

    Purpose Treatment options for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) remain limited. This trial assessed the progression-free survival (PFS) of bevacizumab or interferon alfa-2b (IFN-α-2b) added to octreotide among patients with advanced NETs. Patients and Methods Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) S0518, a phase III study conducted in a US cooperative group system, enrolled patients with advanced grades 1 and 2 NETs with progressive disease or other poor prognostic features. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with octreotide LAR 20 mg every 21 days with either bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days or 5 million units of IFN-α-2b three times per week. The primary end point was centrally assessed PFS. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00569127. Results A total of 427 patients was enrolled, of whom 214 were allocated to bevacizumab and 213 to IFN-α-2b. The median PFS by central review was 16.6 months (95% CI, 12.9 to 19.6 months) in the bevacizumab arm and was 15.4 months (95% CI, 9.6 to 18.6 months) in the IFN arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.18; P = .55). By site review, the median PFS times were 15.4 months (95% CI, 12.6 to 17.2 months) for bevacizumab and 10.6 months (95% CI, 8.5 to 14.4 months) for interferon (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.12; P = .33). Time to treatment failure was longer with bevacizumab than with IFN (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89; P = .003). Confirmed radiologic response rates were 12% (95% CI, 8% to 18%) for bevacizumab and 4% (95% CI, 2% to 8%) for IFN. Common adverse events with bevacizumab and octreotide included hypertension (32%), proteinuria (9%), and fatigue (7%); with IFN and octreotide, they included fatigue (27%), neutropenia (12%), and nausea (6%). Conclusion No significant differences in PFS were observed between the bevacizumab and IFN arms, which suggests that these agents have similar antitumor activity among patients with advanced NETs.

  10. Cushing's like syndrome in typical bronchial carcinoid a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, Ilaria; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Scala, Giovanni; Sorrentino, Antonietta; Gravino, Gennaro; Patriciello, Pasquale; Zeppa, Pio; Di Crescenzo, Vincenzo; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome occurred in 1-5% of cases of bronchial carcinoids. In this paper we describe a case of typical bronchial carcinoid in a nonsmoker young male with clinical manifestations mimicking a Cushing's syndrome. The patient performed chest radiograph and computed tomography. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed the presence of an endobronchial mass occluding the bronchus intermedius. A rigid bronchoscopy was necessary for the conclusive diagnosis and for partial resection of the intraluminal tumor. Despite of the presence of Cushingoid features, the normal blood levels of ACTH and cortisol excluded the coexistence of a Cushing's syndrome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Perforated mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma in transverse colon and at gastroenterostomy site: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakaş Barış R

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Goblet cell carcinoid of the large intestine is a rare neoplasm, usually located in ascending colon and rectum. A 60-year-old male patient underwent surgery after the diagnosis of acute abdomen. Exploratory laparotomy revealed perforation with a diameter of 1 cm at the site of the previously performed gastroenterostomy and dilatation of the right colic flexure, secondary to a solid obstructive mass located in the mid-portion of transverse colon. Histopathological investigation of the biopsies, taken from the gastroenterostomy site and the tumor, revealed mixed carcinoid-adenocarcinoma with carcinoid component, predominantly composed of goblet cells. Three cycles of FOLFOX-4 protocol was administered. Following respiratory distress secondary to pulmonary metastasis, the patient's condition deteriorated and subsequently died in the fourth postoperative month. Our aim with this paper is to point out that more cases should be reported for more effective diagnosis, histopathological study, clinical investigation, treatment and prognosis of this specific neoplasm.

  12. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... body. Has not gotten better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Carcinoid heart disease secondary to ovarian tumour: a logical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Case Study: Carcinoid heart disease secondary to ovarian tumour: a logical sequence of management? 224. 2013 ... management priorities need to be different. .... and right heart failure.1 Carcinoid crisis can be precipitated.

  14. Role of hepatic resection for patients with carcinoid heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernheim, A.M.; Connolly, H.M.; Rubin, J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of resection of hepatic carcinoid metastases on progression and prognosis of carcinoid heart disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our database of 265 consecutive patients diagnosed as having carcinoid heart disease from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2005...... nonrandomized study, our data suggest that patients with carcinoid heart disease who undergo hepatic resection have decreased cardiac progression and improved prognosis. Eligible patients should be considered for hepatic surgery Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2...

  15. Cardiac metastasis from carcinoid tumour: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puvaneswary, M.; Thomson, D.; Bellamy, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    A case of myocardial metastasis from a gastrointestinal carcinoid is presented. The colon was the primary site. The patient did not manifest symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and had no echocardiographic or MRI evidence of carcinoid valvular heart disease. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Endoscopic resection of an ampullary carcinoid presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nooman Gilani; Francisco C Ramirez

    2007-01-01

    Ampullary carcinoid is a rare tumor that can present with gastrointestinal bleeding, obstructive jaundice or pancreatitis. Some of these tumors are associated with Von Recklinghausen disease. The usual surgical options are a biliary-enteric anastomosis, Whipple procedure or rarely a local resection. The mean survival dges not appear to be much different after a pancreaticoduodenectomy versus local surgical excision.We report a very rare case of a non-metastatic ampullary carcinoid causing upper gastrointestinal bleeding, which was managed by endoscopic ampullectomy.

  17. Karcinoide tumorer og gobletcelle-karcinoide tumorer i appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, Ulrich; Hansen, Carsten Palnaes

    2010-01-01

    Appendiceial carcinoid tumors (CAT) and goblet cell carcinoids (GCCAT) are rare. Most are asymptomatic and found after appendectomy. Metastases to regional nodes are seen in 10% of CATs larger than two cm. Ovarian or peritoneal metastases are seen in 20% of all GCCATs. Further surgical treatments...

  18. Carcinoid Syndrome and Carcinoid Heart Disease as Manifestations of Non-Metastatic Ovarian Neuroendocrine Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Simões-Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The carcinoid syndrome is rare but it is associated with carcinoid heart disease in more than a half of the cases. Carcinoid heart disease is typically characterised by morphological and functional modifications of right-sided valves. Its aetiology is probable multifactorial but serotonin appears to play a key role in the development of this valvular disease. Unlike gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumours, ovarian neuroendocrine tumours can present with carcinoid syndrome and carcinoid heart disease in the absence of liver metastases; such ovarian neuroendocrine tumours are a unique clinical entity. The additional burden of cardiac impairment in these patients represents a significant reduction in survival. Early recognition and surgical valve replacement before advanced heart failure is established may improve the clinical outcome. We report the case of a woman with an ovarian neuroendocrine tumour and highly symptomatic carcinoid heart disease who was submitted to tumour resection followed by valvuloplasty. She demonstrated an outstanding clinical improvement and has remained free of tumour and symptomatology.

  19. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of carcinoid syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaczmarska-Turek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background . Carcinoid syndrome (CS is a rare syndrome, most commonly associated with neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN s of the small intestine. Carcinoid syndrome consists of diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cutaneous flushing, teleangiectasias, bronchoconstriction and increased perspiration. Diagnosis of carcinoid syndrome remains a challenge and it is often delayed. Objectives . The aim of this study was to characterize patients with CS and define the most sensitive, primary diagnostic tools for CS . Material and methods. 26 consecutive patients admitted to the Department because of carcinoid-like symptoms. Diagnosis of CS was based on clinical findings and laboratory data (levels of 5-hydroxyindoloacetic acid. Diagnosis of NEN was based on laboratory findings, imaging studies (US , CT , Gallium-68-DOTA TATE PET -CT and histopathological analysis. CS due to NEN was diagnosed in 16 subjects (NEN –CS . Results . The most common symptoms in non-NEN were increased perspiration, flushes and diarrhea. CgA was elevated (40%; n = 4 in this group. However, elevated levels of 5-HIAA and liver lesions were not presented. In the NEN –CS symptoms were reported more often: flush (93.7%; n = 15, diarrhea (87.5%; n = 14, abdominal pain and teleangiectasis (81.2%; n = 13. Elevated CgA and 5-HIAA were noted in 87.5% (n = 14 and 81.2% (n = 13 respectively. US and CT revealed liver metastases in all patients. The mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 28.6 months. Conclusions . The combination of several symptoms of carcinoid syndrome and liver lesion in easily available abdominal imaging (US and/or CT should prompt physicians to quick referral to centres specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of NEN.

  20. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea re-stricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has not ...

  1. Combination of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, and sulforaphane, reduces the viability and growth of bronchial carcinoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Reza Bayat; Kumar, Sushil; Islam, Syed S; Yazdanpanah, Mehrdad; Adeli, Khosrow; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoids are pulmonary neuroendocrine cell-derived tumors comprising typical (TC) and atypical (AC) malignant phenotypes. The 5-year survival rate in metastatic carcinoid, despite multiple current therapies, is 14-25%. Hence, we are testing novel therapies that can affect the proliferation and survival of bronchial carcinoids. In vitro studies were used for the dose–response (AlamarBlue) effects of acetazolamide (AZ) and sulforaphane (SFN) on clonogenicity, serotonin-induced growth effect and serotonin content (LC-MS) on H-727 (TC) and H-720 (AC) bronchial carcinoid cell lines and their derived NOD/SCID mice subcutaneous xenografts. Tumor ultra structure was studied by electron microscopy. Invasive fraction of the tumors was determined by matrigel invasion assay. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to study the effect of treatment(s) on proliferation (Ki67, phospho histone-H3) and neuroendocrine phenotype (chromogranin-A, tryptophan hydroxylase). Both compounds significantly reduced cell viability and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner (0–80 μM, 48 hours and 7 days) in H-727 and H-720 cell lines. Treatment of H-727 and H-720 subcutaneous xenografts in NOD/SCID mice with the combination of AZ + SFN for two weeks demonstrated highly significant growth inhibition and reduction of 5-HT content and reduced the invasive capacity of H-727 tumor cells. In terms of the tumor ultra structure, a marked reduction in secretory vesicles correlated with the decrease in 5-HT content. The combination of AZ and SFN was more effective than either single agent. Since the effective doses are well within clinical range and bioavailability, our results suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoids

  2. A Rare Combination of Ovarian and Uterine Leiomyomas with Goblet Cell Carcinoid of the Appendix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman F. Al-Shaikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of the rare combination of unilateral ovarian leiomyoma, uterine leiomyoma, and goblet cell carcinoid tumor of the appendix in a premenopausal woman who presented with right iliac pain. Immunohistochemistry study for desmin (muscle marker and chromogranin and synaptophysin (neuroendocrine markers confirmed immunophenotyping origin. Interestingly, both tumors showed positive reaction for estrogen receptor. To our knowledge, such a combination has not been reported previously in the literature. In this paper, the pathogenesis and differential diagnosis of both types of tumors are discussed.

  3. Valvular Disorders in Carcinoid Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    Full Text Available Abstract Carcinoid heart disease is a rare but important cause of intrinsic right heart valve disorders leading to right heart failure. Occasionally, left-sided heart valves may also be involved. The characteristic cardiac pathological findings of carcinoid heart disease are endocardial thickening as a result of fibrous deposits on the endocardium. Echocardiographic examination and right heart catheterization are very useful for the diagnosis of the lesion. If more cardiac valves are affected, multiple valve replacement should be considered. The management of the pulmonary valve lesion depends on the extent of the diseased valve, either by valvulotomy, valvectomy, or valve replacement. Percutaneous valve implantations in the pulmonary and in the inferior vena cava positions have been advocated for high-risk patients.

  4. Primary combined carcinoid and adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with transitional carcinoma of the bladder. Single case report Causa infrecuente de disfagia en el postoperatorio tardío de la cirugía de la hernia de hiato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Venizelos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Composite neoplasms, carcinoid and adenocarcinoma have been reported to occur in several parts of the body, including the stomach, ampulla of Vater, large bowel, lung, and urinary bladder. Here we report a case of a 74-year-old male with a composite carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with a transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. The microscopical examination of the composite tumor showed an admixture of typical carcinoid tumor and moderately a differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemically, the two components showed clear-cut differentiations. A review of the literature revealed that this is the first reported case of composite carcinoid-adenocarcinoma of the ileum associated with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.Las neoplasias compuestas, el carcinoide y el adenocarcinoma se ha observado que aparecen en varias partes del organismo, como el estómago, la ampolla de Vater, el intestino grueso, el pulmón y la vejiga urinaria. Publicamos aquí el caso de un varón de 74 años con un tumor compuesto de tipo carcinoide-adenocarcinoma del íleon asociado a un carcinoma vesical de células transicionales. El examen macroscópico del tumor compuesto mostró una mezcla de tumor carcinoide típico y adenocarcinoma moderadamente diferenciado. Desde el punto de vista inmunohistoquímico, los dos componentes estaban claramente diferenciados. Una revisión de la bibliografía reveló que este es el primer caso que se publica de un tumor compuesto de tipo carcinoide-adenocarcinoma del íleon asociado a un carcinoma de células transicionales de la vejiga urinaria.

  5. Ectopic ACTH secretion due to a bronchopulmonary carcinoid localized by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, G; Pfohl, M; Dörr, U; Weiss, E M; Seif, F J

    1994-11-01

    We present the case of a 65-year-old woman with an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting bronchopulmonary carcinoid. This patient showed the typical long history of Cushing's syndrome, including hypokaliemia, impaired glucose tolerance, high levels of ACTH and beta-endorphin, and coproduction of other peptides. At the onset of clinical symptoms in 1979 an adrenal adenoma was suspected, and left-sided adrenalectomy was performed. The symptoms soon recurred, and the diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome was made. As no ACTH-secreting tumor was found, the right adrenal was resected, and the patient was followed up regularly. Fourteen years later chest roentgenography and computed tomography revealed a para-aortic pulmonary lesion, which was suspicious for a bronchopulmonary carcinoid. ACTH and beta-endorphin were excessively, pancreatic polypeptide slightly elevated at that time. The final diagnosis was made using somatostatin receptor scintigraphy which confirmed the hormonal activity of the suspicious lesion; no additional focus was found. This method turned out to be not only a useful additional localization technique but also a promising tool for characterization and staging of a suspected ACTH-producing carcinoid. The tumor was resected curatively, and the diagnosis was confirmed histologically.

  6. Comparison of somatostatin analogue and metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy for the detection of carcinoid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocaudie-Calzada, M.; Huglo, D.; Carnaille, B.; Proye, C.; Marchandise, X.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the ability of radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (RSA) and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy to display carcinoid tumours. Forty patients were studied after radiological assessment based on clinical symptomatology. These patients had radiologically demonstrated tumours (n=28), resected tumours discovered to be of the carcinoid type (n=5) or clinically and biologically suspected carcinoid tumours (n=7). They underwent indium-111 DTPA-pentetreotide or iodine-123-Tyr-3-octreotide and 131 I-MIBG scintigraphy. The results were compared with those of complementary surgical or morphological examinations and analysed according to the site of the tumour and the symptomatology. In the case of 31 patients with a total of 55 tumoral sites, the sensitivity of the initial radiological assessment, of RSA and of MIBG was 96%, 86% and 64%, respectively, for the detection of at least one tumour per patient, but 51%, 85% and 51%, respectively, for the total number of sites. No site was detected solely by MIBG. The concordance between RSA and MIBG was better when all sites were considered (kappa index+0.44) than for only extrahepatic abdominal tumoral sites (kappa index+0.095). Abdominal, thoracic or bone marrow tumours were more easily detected with RSA than with MIBG. Hepatic invasion (21 cases) was more easily detected by radiology (sensitivity 100%) than by RSA and MIBG, both of which displayed a sensitivity of 80%, but with differences in uptake intensity. Tumour detection using MIBG was more significantly linked with flush (P 0.10). In the assessment of carcinoid tumours, RSA scintigraphy should be carried out initially (just after hepatic ultrasonography) and supplemented by MIBG, as comparison of the studies serves to guide therapeutic options and might be valuable for prognosis. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Ripple/Carcinoid pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misago, Noriyuki; Narisawa, Yutaka

    2011-02-01

    Sebaceoma is a benign sebaceous neoplasm, which has been reported to show characteristic growth patterns, such as, ripple, labyrinthine/sinusoidal, and carcinoid-like patterns. Another recent finding regarding in sebaceoma is the observation of apocrine differentiation within the sebaceoma lesion. This report describes a case of carcinoid (a partial ripple and labyrinthine) pattern sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation with a literature review and immunohistochemical studies. The various characteristic growth patterns in sebaceoma were suggested to simply be variations of the same growth pattern arranged in cords, namely, a unified term "ripple/carcinoid pattern." The primitive sebaceous germinative cells in sebaceoma may still have the ability to undergo apocrine differentiation. Most of the reports so far on sebaceoma with apocrine differentiation, including the present case, describe a ripple/carcinoid pattern, thus suggesting that ripple/carcinoid pattern sebaceoma is composed of more primitive sebaceous germinative cells than conventional sebaceoma.

  8. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  9. Presentation of a salivary tumour si mil primitive lung with metastases of carcinoid tumour of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldi, S.; Ximenez; Carzoglio, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Colon carcinoid tumors are primary tumors in the colon, a rare histology. The lung tumour Si mil - Amyloid is within primary lung tumours, infrequent histology and often behaves like a benign tumour. In this paper we present the case of a patient with a history of having undergone colon surgery for a malignant carcinoid. Two years after developing a lung salivary tumour simile initially presented as metastasis Colonic carcinoid lung tumour. Clinical case: It is about a female patient of 64 years, who in September 2008 he makes a right hemicolectomy extended by an occlusive syndrome sub. Anatomic Pathology (A P) accounted for Carcinoid Tumor Malignant one that committed the entire wall and 50 lymph nodes are resected, all free metastasis. The patient does not receive complementary treatments and an imaging over in December 2009 is evident in a tomographic study a bulky upper lobe pulmonary parenchymal process right. The fiberoptic bronchoscopy (Fob) showed complete obstruction of the right upper lobe bronchus by a vegetating process whose biopsy reported a malignant lung tumor commitment carcinoid support primitive colonic confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). The March 23, 2010 takes place the right upper lobectomy with lymphadenectomy. The A P and IHC study confirmed adenosquamous carcinoma with stroma simile amiloide low degree of malignancy. This injury can be approved to a salivary tumour early lung simile. Bronchial compromised by tumor margin and 22 negative lymph nodes. The patient is referred for additional radiation treatment. Discussion: Tumours of salivary gland type of primitive lung is a very rare condition and diagnosis is a r arity . Usually they originate in the bronchial epithelium submucosal gland. Endo luminal lesions usually occur as infrequently and develop in outlying areas. The development of lung tumours unrelated bronchial structure has been explained by a possible origin from a primitive stem cell that can differentiate a

  10. Chemoembolization in the treatment of metastatic ileocolic carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diculescu, Mircea; Atanasiu, Călina; Arbănaş, Tudor; Croitoru, Adina; Mihalcea, Adela; Becheanu, Gabriel; Costinean, Stefan; Gheorghe, Liana; Capşa, Răzvan

    2002-06-01

    Carcinoid tumours are enigmatic, slow growing malignancies, which occur most frequently (74%) in the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of the carcinoid syndrome (flushing and diarrhoea) are infrequent, occurring in approximately 10% of the patients with small bowel carcinoid. A 45-year-old patient with multiple liver metastases, diagnosed in 1994 with nonHodgkin's lymphoma after undergoing surgery for a distal ileal tumour, was referred to us by the Department of Haematology. At that moment the issue of a differential diagnosis with a carcinoid tumour arose, due to the long evolution and lack of evidence to support the initial diagnosis. The carcinoid syndrome was in fact present (the patient experiencing flush after small amounts of alcohol and emotions) and also we identified elevated values of 5HIAA. Reevaluation of the histologic sections of the ileal tumour as well as an ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration of an intrahepatic lesion confirmed the diagnosis of "carcinoid tumour". This conclusion lead to new therapeutic options for this patient. One of the main therapeutic options used in treating multiple liver metastases from a carcinoid tumour is chemoembolization and this case offered an excellent opportunity to present this therapy.

  11. 111In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT in Pulmonary Carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Spanu, Angela; Danieli, Roberta; Dore, Francesca; Piras, Bastiana; Falchi, Antonio; Tavolozza, Mario; Madeddu, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Orazio

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) with (111)In-pentetreotide incremental value in pulmonary carcinoid (PC) diagnosis compared to contrast enhanced Computed Tomography (ceCT). We enrolled 81 patients with ascertained PC, 39 at initial staging and 42 in follow-up; the primary tumor had already been excised in 68 cases. Single Photon emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) images were reconstructed with the iterative method and fused with non-enhanced Computed tomography (CT) images. Primary PC or metastatic lesions were ascertained in 55/81 patients and SPECT/CT was positive in 50/55 cases, while ceCT was positive in 44/55. Comparing SPECT/CT with ceCT results, we found a sensitivity of 96 vs. 87.5%, and specificity of 92% vs. 97% for the detection of primary lesion or recurrent disease. A total of 198 lesions were ascertained at SPECT/CT, while 161 at ceCT, with values of sensitivity and specificity of 85.5% and 84.6% for SRS and 75.2% and 90.5% respectively. (111)In-Pentetreotide SPECT/CT proved to be more sensitive and accurate than ceCT, thus enhancing its role in evaluating patients with PC. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Pre-treatment and follow-up examinations of carcinoid metastases using indium-111-octreotide - rational application of Sandostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, R.W.; Hammer, H.F.; Passath, A.; Dobnig, H.; Ramschak-Schwarzer, S.; Stiegler, C.; Leb, G.; Krejs, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Carcinoids may express somatostatin receptors. Therefore, a somatostatin-analogue, In-111 octreotide (OctreoScan), was used for their demonstration. A total of 6 patients who presented radiologically verified carcinoid-metastases was examined. In order to control tumor progress, 4 of these patients were reexamined within a period of 3 to 11 months. All of the radiological findings were confirmed scintigraphically, except some small retroperitoneally located lymph nodes. The follow-up examinations of 2 patients revealed additional metastases by scintigraphy only. There were no false positive results. These results of OctreoScan-scintigraphy may be used for predicting the success of receptor-specific therapies and therefore, permit the rational and efficient application of Sandostatin. Note: Sandostatin and OctreoScan are registered trademarks. (authors)

  13. About the case of a bronchi carcinoma tumor treated by Cyberknife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delourme, J.; Prevost, B.; Lacornerie, T.; Dansin, E.; Lartigau, E.

    2009-01-01

    The carcinoid tumors represent less than 2% of bronchi cancers. The best treatment of resectable tumors is surgery. The chemotherapy is inefficient. the part of radiotherapy is currently controverted, these tumors being generally considered as little radiosensitive with classical techniques. We report the case of a sixty three years patients treated by stereotactic irradiation for a recurrence of a carcinoid bronchi tumor. As conclusion: the typical or atypical character of the tumor is important to consider. The atypical carcinoid tumors have a reserved prognosis because of the frequent existence of ganglions metastases and a recurrence rate higher than the typical carcinoid tumors. The stereotactic and hypo fractionated radiotherapy can constitute an interesting therapy option in case of unresectable tumor or incomplete surgical resection, because of an increased equivalent biological dose. (N.C.)

  14. Malignant Transformation of a Mature Cystic Ovarian Teratoma into Thyroid Carcinoma, Mucinous Adenocarcinoma, and Strumal Carcinoid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary D. Hinshaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant transformation of a mature cystic teratoma (MCT is an infrequent, often asymptomatic event. We report the first example of a struma ovarii with a focus of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (a, mucinous adenocarcinoma (b, and strumal carcinoid tumor (c—all three arising in one mature cystic teratoma of the ovary. From our reviews, we found limited data to guide management when these malignant foci occur within an MCT. Consideration should be given to thyroidectomy followed by total-body scanning and serum studies for foci of thyroid carcinoma and adjuvant therapy with thyroidectomy and radioablation if residual disease is identified (a. Additionally, extrapolating from data for mucinous adenocarcinomas, consideration could be given to adjuvant chemotherapy after appropriate staging (b. Strumal carcinoid tumors should be treated as tumors of low malignant potential. Observation is appropriate if after complete staging, no invasive implants are noted (c.

  15. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... breast and ascending colon. KEYWORDS: Carcinoid, colorectal cancer, metachronous, synchronous. Multiple Primary Tumors. MA Adeyanju, AA Ilori. Address for correspondence: Dr. MA Adeyanju,. Department of Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Ebute Metta,. Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: mbadeyanju@yahoo.

  16. Review article: Pathogenesis and management of gastric carcinoid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, M D; Pritchard, D M

    2006-11-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumours are rare, but are increasing in incidence. To discuss tumour pathogenesis and outline current approaches to patient management. Review of published articles following a Pubmed search. Although interest in gastric carcinoids has increased since it was recognized that they are associated with achlorhydria, to date there is no definite evidence that humans taking long-term acid suppressing medication are at increased risk. Type I tumours are associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II are associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and hypergastrinaemia and sporadic type III carcinoids are gastrin-independent and carry the worst prognosis. Careful investigation of these patients is required, particularly to identify the tumour type, the source of hypergastrinaemia and the presence of metastases. Treatment can be directed at the source of hypergastrinaemia if type I or II tumours are still gastrin responsive and not growing autonomously. Type III tumours should be treated surgically. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoids have led to recent improvements in investigation and management. Challenges remain in identifying the genetic and environmental factors, in addition to hypergastrinaemia, that are responsible for tumour development in susceptible patients.

  17. Tumor do apêndice vermiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascêncio Garcia Lopes Júnior

    Full Text Available Appendiceal tumors are rare and usually presented as acute appendicitis. They are incidentally discovered at an emergency surgery, in which case the decision-making is very difficult. The purpose of this report is discuss to the most appropriate management for appendiceal tumors. A retrospective analysis of one case treated at HU-UEL was undertaken and the literature was reviewed. The conclusion is that frozen section should be done whenever the appendiceal findings are atypical. For appendiceal carcinoids greater than 2 cm and adenocarcinomas, a right hemicolectomy is recommended. Appendectomy is apropriate for patients whose carcinoid tumors are 1 cm in diameter or less and for carcinoid tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm without extensive lymphatic permeation and mesenteric invasion. Every case should be searched for synchronous tumors.

  18. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  19. Multicenter comparison of 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT for pulmonary carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lococo, Filippo; Perotti, Germano; Cardillo, Giuseppe; De Waure, Chiara; Filice, Angelina; Graziano, Paolo; Rossi, Giulio; Sgarbi, Giorgio; Stefanelli, Antonella; Giordano, Alessandro; Granone, Pierluigi; Rindi, Guido; Versari, Annibale; Rufini, Vittoria

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to retrospectively evaluate and compare the detection rate (DR) of 68Ga-DOTA-peptide and 18F-FDG PET/CT in the preoperative workup of patients with pulmonary carcinoid (PC) and to assess the utility of various functional indices obtained with the 2 tracers in predicting the histological characterization of PC, that is, typical versus atypical. Thirty-three consecutive patients with confirmed PC referred for 18F-FDG and 68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT in 2 centers between January 2009 and April 2013 were included. The semiquantitative evaluation included the SUV max, the SUV of the tumor relative to the maximal liver uptake for 18F-FDG (SUV T/L) or the maximal spleen uptake for 68Ga-DOTA-peptides (SUV T/S), the ratio between SUV max of 68Ga-DOTA-peptides PET/CT, and the SUV max of 18F-FDG PET/CT (SUV max ratio). Histology was used as reference standard. Definitive diagnosis consisted of 23 typical carcinoids (TCs) and 10 atypical carcinoids. 18F-FDG PET/CT was positive in 18 cases and negative in 15 (55% DR). 68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT was positive in 26 cases and negative in 7 (79% DR). In the subgroup analysis, 68Ga-DOTA-peptide PET/CT was superior in detecting TC (91% DR; P DOTA-peptide PET/CT findings. In the subgroup analysis, the SUV max ratio seems to be the most accurate index in predicting TC. Both methods should be performed when PC is suspected or when the histological subtype is undefined.

  20. Fourteen-year-old girl with endobronchial carcinoid tumour presenting with asthma and lobar emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie Bjerglund; Mortensen, Jann; Damgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoid tumours seldom occur in children, and represent a rare cause of pulmonary obstruction. Because of low clinical suspicion and the variable ways of presentation, diagnosis may be delayed.......Bronchial carcinoid tumours seldom occur in children, and represent a rare cause of pulmonary obstruction. Because of low clinical suspicion and the variable ways of presentation, diagnosis may be delayed....

  1. Goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix : a specific type of carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Hart, A. A. M.; Boerrigter, L.; Nederlof, P. M.; Porter, E.; van Velthuysen, M-L F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: Goblet cell carcinoid is a poorly understood tumour of the appendix. The aim of this study was to determine whether it should be regarded as a separate entity or as a variant of classical carcinoid. Methods and results: The immunohistochemical expression pattern of 21 markers and the mutation

  2. Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinomas ex-goblet cell carcinoid are genetically distinct from primary colorectal-type adenocarcinoma of the appendix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jesinghaus, Moritz; Konukiewitz, Björn; Foersch, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    The appendix gives rise to goblet cell carcinoids, which represent special carcinomas with distinct biological and histological features. Their genetic background and molecular relationship to colorectal adenocarcinoma is largely unknown. We therefore performed a next-generation sequencing analysis...... a morphomolecular entity, histologically and genetically distinct from appendiceal colorectal-type adenocarcinomas and its colorectal counterparts. Altered Wnt-signaling associated genes, apart from APC, may act as potential drivers of these neoplasms. The absence of KRAS/NRAS mutations might render some....../adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (n=2, respectively). Mutations in colorectal cancer-related genes (eg, TP53, KRAS, APC) were rare to absent in both, goblet cell carcinoids and adenocarcinomas ex-goblet cell carcinoid, but frequent in primary colorectal-type adenocarcinomas of the appendix. Additional large...

  3. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract: Case reports and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; J; Salyers; Kenneth; J; Vega; Juan; Carlos; Munoz; Bruce; W; Trotman; Silvio; S; Tanev

    2014-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors(NET)previously called carcinoid tumors are neoplasms of enterochromaffin/neuroendocrine cell origin which display neurosecretory capacity that may result in the carcinoid syndrome.The annual incidence of patients with NET is 8.4 per 100000;yet many NET remain asymptomatic and clinically undetected.A majority of NET follows a benign course;however,some will display malignant characteristics.NET most commonly occur in the gastrointestinal tract(67%)and bronchopulmonary system(25%).Gastrointestinal NET occur within the stomach,small intestine,liver,and rectum.We report a retrospective study of 11 subjects:Eight with benign carcinoid tumors:duodenal bulb(n=2),terminal ileum(n=1),sigmoid colon(n=2),and rectum(n=3);three with malignant carcinoid:liver(n=1)and intra-abdominal site(n=2).The diagnosis,endoscopic images,outcome,treatment and review of the literature are presented.

  4. The components of somatostatin and ghrelin systems are altered in neuroendocrine lung carcinoids and associated to clinical-histological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Gahete, Manuel D; Sánchez-Sánchez, Rafael; Salas, Rosa Ortega; Serrano-Blanch, Raquel; Salvatierra, Ángel; Hofland, Leo J; Luque, Raúl M; Gálvez-Moreno, María A; Castaño, Justo P

    2017-07-01

    Lung carcinoids (LCs) are rare tumors that comprise 1-5% of lung malignancies but represent 20-30% of neuroendocrine tumors. Their incidence is progressively increasing and a better characterization of these tumors is required. Alterations in somatostatin (SST)/cortistatin (CORT) and ghrelin systems have been associated to development/progression of various endocrine-related cancers, wherein they may become useful diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. We aimed to evaluate the expression levels of ghrelin and SST/CORT system components in LCs, as well as to explore their putative relationship with histological/clinical characteristics. An observational retrospective study was performed; 75 LC patients with clinical/histological characteristics were included. Samples from 46 patients were processed to isolate mRNA from tumor and adjacent non-tumor region, and the expression levels of SST/CORT and ghrelin systems components, determined by quantitative-PCR, were compared to those of 7 normal lung tissues. Patient cohort was characterized by mean age 53±15 years, 48% males, 34% with tobacco exposure; 71.4/28.6% typical/atypical carcinoids, 21.7% incidental tumors, 4.3% functioning tumors, 17.7% with metastasis. SST/CORT and ghrelin system components were expressed at variable levels in a high proportion of tumors, as well as in adjacent non-tumor tissues, while a lower proportion of normal lung samples also expressed these molecules. A gradation was observed from normal non-neoplastic lung tissues, non-tumor adjacent tissue and LCs, being SST, sst4, sst5, GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b overexpressed in tumor tissue compared to normal tissue. Importantly, several SST/CORT and ghrelin system components displayed significant correlations with relevant clinical parameters, such as necrosis, peritumoral and vascular invasion, or metastasis. Altogether, these data reveal a prominent, widespread expression of key SST/CORT/ghrelin system components in LCs, where they display

  5. Fourteen-year-old girl with endobronchial carcinoid tumour presenting with asthma and lobar emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie Bjerglund; Mortensen, Jann; Damgaard, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoid tumours seldom occur in children, and represent a rare cause of pulmonary obstruction. Because of low clinical suspicion and the variable ways of presentation, diagnosis may be delayed....

  6. Regional Gastrointestinal Transit Times in Patients With Carcinoid Diarrhea: Assessment With the Novel 3D-Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Tine; Haase, Anne-Mette; Schlageter, Vincent; Gronbaek, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-07-30

    The paucity of knowledge regarding gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors and carcinoid diarrhea re-stricts targeted treatment. 3D-Transit is a novel, minimally invasive, ambulatory method for description of gastrointestinal motility. The system has not yet been evaluated in any group of patients. We aimed to test the performance of 3D-Transit in patients with carcinoid diarrhea and to compare the patients' regional gastrointestinal transit times (GITT) and colonic motility patterns with those of healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy volunteers and seven patients with neuroendocrine tumor and at least 3 bowel movements per day were inves-tigated with 3D-Transit and standard radiopaque markers. Total GITT assessed with 3D-Transit and radiopaque markers were well correlated (Spearman's rho = 0.64, P = 0.002). Median total GITT was 12.5 (range: 8.5-47.2) hours in patients versus 25.1 (range: 13.1-142.3) hours in healthy (P = 0.007). There was no difference in gastric emptying (P = 0.778). Median small intestinal transit time was 3.8 (range: 1.4-5.5) hours in patients versus 4.4 (range: 1.8-7.2) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.044). Median colorectal transit time was 5.2 (range: 2.9-40.1) hours in patients versus 18.1 (range: 5.0-134.0) hours in healthy subjects (P = 0.012). Median frequency of pansegmental co-lonic movements was 0.45 (range: 0.03-1.02) per hour in patients and 0.07 (range: 0-0.61) per hour in healthy subjects (P = 0.045). Three-dimensional Transit allows assessment of regional GITT in patients with diarrhea. Patients with carcinoid diarrhea have faster than normal gastrointestinal transit due to faster small intestinal and colorectal transit times. The latter is caused by an increased frequency of pansegmental colonic movements.

  7. Sphenoid sinus carcinoid tumour causing ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Sanjaya; Taha, Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    A thirty-eight year old patient presented with a gradual increase in weight and Cushingoid facies of two years duration. He also had orbital congestion, with puffy eyelids and corkscrew conjunctival vessels, associated with painful eye movements. An endocrine evaluation revealed raised cortisol and ACTH. Head imaging was performed which showed an enhancing tumour arising from the sphenoid sinus, with osseous erosion of the sphenoid sinus, extending to the nasopharynx, sellar and a small amount extending intracranially. He underwent an endoscopic endonasal resection of the tumour and histology revealed a low-grade carcinoid tumour with ACTH staining. The patient also underwent radiotherapy for the intracranial extension. He is currently in his fourth year of follow-up and imaging has showed a small, stable intracranial remnant. His anterior pituitary hormonal profile remains normal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids in atrophic gastritis during prospective long-term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Purchiaroni, Flaminia; Corleto, Vito D; Di Giulio, Emilio; Annibale, Bruno

    2015-07-01

    Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a risk condition for gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids. Recent studies assessing the overall risk of gastric cancer and carcinoids in AG at long-term follow up are lacking. This study aimed to investigate in a prospective cohort of AG patients the occurrence of gastric cancer and carcinoids at long-term follow up. A total of 200 AG patients from a prospective cohort (67% female, median age 55 years) with a follow up of 7.5 (range: 4-23.4) years were included. Inclusion criteria were presence of AG and at least one follow-up gastroscopy with biopsies at ≥4 years after AG diagnosis. Follow-up gastroscopies at 4-year intervals were performed. Overall, 22 gastric neoplastic lesions were detected (crude incidence 11%). Gastric cancer was diagnosed in four patients at a median follow up of 7.2 years (crude incidence 2%). Eleven type I gastric carcinoids were detected at a median follow up of 5.1 years (crude incidence of 5.5%). In seven patients, six low-grade and one high-grade dysplasia were found. The annual incidence rate person-year were 0.25% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.067-0.63%), 0.43% (95% CI: 0.17-0.89%), and 0.68% (95% CI: 0.34-1.21%) for gastric cancer, dysplasia, and type I-gastric carcinoids, respectively. The incidence rates of gastric cancer and carcinoids were not different (p = 0.07). This study shows an annual incidence rate of 1.36% person-year for gastric neoplastic lesions in AG patients at long-term follow up. AG patients are similarly exposed to gastric cancer and type I gastric carcinoids.

  9. Can C-arm cone-beam CT detect a micro-embolic effect after TheraSphere radioembolization of neuroendocrine and carcinoid liver metastasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Olivier; Lin, MingDe; Bhagat, Nikhil; Shao, Wenbo; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Radioembolization with yttrium-90 microspheres is a therapy that is used for hepatic tumors. 20-30 μm microspheres loaded with Y90 are supposedly occluding tumor vessels at the capillary level. Then, these spheres deliver high-dose radiation to the tumor. However, this theoretical embolic effect has never been appreciated in imaging. Dual-Phase cone-beam computed tomography (DPCBCT) is a multi-phasic intra-procedural scan that uses only one contrast media injection to visualize early (feeding vessel) and delayed (capillary level) tumor enhancement. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a micro-embolic effect induced by TheraSpheres® (MDS Nordion, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) at the capillary level by using DPCBCT imaging. 14 patients with 72 carcinoid or neuroendocrine tumors were treated with radioembolization, and all underwent DPCBCT (Allura Xper, Philips Healthcare) imaging before and immediately after radioembolization with TheraSpheres®. Tumor enhancement was measured in each phase by drawing a region of interest within the tumors. 72 tumors were evaluated: average tumor density in the early arterial phase was 241 and 230 Hounsfield units (HU) (pTheraSpheres® injection indicates that there is an appreciable microembolic effect at the tumor capillary bed level.

  10. Cardiac carcinoid: tricuspid delayed hyperenhancement on cardiac 64-slice multidetector CT and magnetic resonance imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martos, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Carcinoid heart disease is a rare condition in adults. Its diagnosis can be easily missed in a patient presenting to a primary care setting. We revised the advantages of using coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a 65-year-old patient with carcinoid heart disease and right heart failure using transthoracic Doppler-echocardiogram, cardiac MDCT and MRI. Cardiac echocardiogram revealed marked thickening and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with dilated right atrium and ventricle. Cardiac MDCT and MRI demonstrated fixation and retraction of the tricuspid leaflets with delayed contrast hyperenhancement of the tricuspid annulus. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates fascinating imaging findings of cardiac carcinoid disease and highlights the increasing utility of contrast-enhanced MRI and cardiac MDCT in the diagnosis of this interesting condition.

  11. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of carcinoid heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmann, H.; Pakkal, M. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steeds, R. [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rick.steeds@uhb.nhs.uk

    2009-08-15

    Carcinoid disease arises from a low-grade neuroendocrine tumour derived from serotonin-producing enterochromaffin cells. It is the most common tumour affecting the small bowel. The majority of patients who progress to carcinoid syndrome develop cardiac disease selectively involving the right side of the heart, whereas left heart disease is unusual. The most common cause of death is dilatation and dysfunction of the right ventricle. Right ventricular dysfunction is largely secondary to pathological endocardial fibrosis of the tricuspid and pulmonary valves, presenting with regurgitation and stenosis. Average survival falls to only 11 months with the onset of symptoms, but recent evidence suggests that survival can be improved by early surgery in selected individuals. This article reviews the particular role that cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has in the management of carcinoid heart disease.

  12. A case of pulmonary carcinoid tumour in a pregnant woman successfully treated with bronchoscopic (electrocautery) therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, Fariba; Samet, Mohammad; Bovanlu, Taghi Roshan

    2013-01-01

    We present an uncommon case of a carcinoid tumour of the bronchus that was diagnosed during pregnancy in a 28-year-old woman. The patient was admitted at the emergency department with massive haemoptysis. Owing to the patient's critical condition, she underwent urgent flexible bronchoscopy. Bleeding was controlled by local injection of 500 mg tranexamic acid and electrocautery. After the bleeding has stopped, multiple specimens were taken. Histological examination confirmed typical carcinoid tumour. Owing to repeated haemoptysis, she was treated with bronchoscopic (electrocautery) therapy, and, after delivery, she underwent pulmonary lobectomy. Only a few similar cases were found in the literature reporting bronchopulmonary carcinoid tumour during pregnancy and we could not find any similar case which was treated by electrocautery. PMID:23608865

  13. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate in detection of atypical bronchial carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A; Fröss-Baron, K; Gołkowski, F; Sowa-Staszczak, A; Mikołajczak, R; Huszno, B

    2007-01-01

    Pulmonary carcinoids cause serious difficulties in imaging diagnostics in all stages of the disease. SRS holds great promise for detecting occult primary tu and metastatic lesions. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate, a new scintigraphic agent, should significantly improve sensitivity of the diagnostics of carcinoids due to better affinity to SSR2 than (111)In-Octreoscan and the higher count rate obtained from (99m)Tc over (111)In. We present a case of a 40-year-old women operated on because of lung carcinoid tumour in 2002. The symptoms did not resolve after the operation and 5-OHIAA was still elevated. The thorax spiral CT revealed the focal lesion beneath carina. (111)In-Octreoscan and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate SRS revealed two focal lesions in the mediastinum. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate detected two additional lesions in the lower part of the right lung. Target/non-target count ratios of the lesions were as follows: (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scans - 2,9, (111)In-Octreoscan- 2,1. PET-FDG examination revealed no pathology. Owing to severe bone pains and carcinoid symptoms the patient was referred for the 90Y-DOTA-octreotate treatment. SRS with a new 99mTc marked somatostatin analogue - octreotate allows for a more sensitive detection of metastatic leasions in carcinoid tumours. The usefulness of 18F-FDG PET, widely used as a powerful imaging technique in clinical oncology, is limited in detection of carcinoid tumours due to the low proliferative activity.

  14. Synchronous association of rectal adenocarcinoma and three ileal carcinoids: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, Seamus M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Synchronous midgut carcinoids with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma are a rare but recognised association. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient, a 74 year old woman, underwent anterior resection for a low rectal adenocarcinoma. Intra-operatively 3 serosal deposits of tumour were noted in the distal ileum. Histology revealed these to be ileal carcinoids. CONCLUSION: During resection of a gastrointestinal tumour, a thorough inspection of the abdominal cavity should be undertaken to investigate the possibility of metastatic secondaries or a synchronous tumour as is reported in this case.

  15. Synchronous association of rectal adenocarcinoma and three ileal carcinoids: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Donnell Jill

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synchronous midgut carcinoids with gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma are a rare but recognised association. Case presentation The patient, a 74 year old woman, underwent anterior resection for a low rectal adenocarcinoma. Intra-operatively 3 serosal deposits of tumour were noted in the distal ileum. Histology revealed these to be ileal carcinoids. Conclusion During resection of a gastrointestinal tumour, a thorough inspection of the abdominal cavity should be undertaken to investigate the possibility of metastatic secondaries or a synchronous tumour as is reported in this case.

  16. Chromogranins - new sensitive markers for neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, B.; Arnberg, H.; Oeberg, K.; Hellman, U.; Lundqvist, G.; Wernstedt, C.; Wilander, E.; Uppsala Hospital; Uppsala Hospital

    1989-01-01

    Chromogranins A, B and C, proteins that are costored and coreleased with peptides and amines, have been identified in a variety of endocrine and nervous tissues, both normal and neoplastic. We examined the secretion of chromogranin A and chromogranin A+B by hormone-producing tumors in patients with endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPT), carcinoid tumors, pheochromocytomas and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of the plasma/serum concentrations of chromogranin A+B showed a greater sensitivity than RIA of chromogranin A alone. All patients with EPT, carcinoids and pheochromocytomas had increased levels of chromogranin A+B, whereas a small number of the patients (5/18 with EPT and 1/3 with pheochromocytomas) had normal levels of chromogranin A. Also in immunocytochemical stainings, our polyclonal antiserum detecting both chromogranin A and B showed a greater sensitivity than other available antisera against chromogranin A, B and C. (orig.)

  17. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette, E-mail: Annette.Fisseler-Eckhoff@hsk-wiesbaden.de; Demes, Melanie [Department of Pathology und Cytology, Dr. Horst-Schmidt-Kliniken (HSK), Wiesbaden 65199 (Germany)

    2012-07-31

    Neuroendocrine tumors may develop throughout the human body with the majority being found in the gastrointestinal tract and bronchopulmonary system. Neuroendocrine tumors are classified according to the grade of biological aggressiveness (G1–G3) and the extent of differentiation (well-differentiated/poorly-differentiated). The well-differentiated neoplasms comprise typical (G1) and atypical (G2) carcinoids. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas as well as small cell carcinomas (G3) are poorly-differentiated. The identification and differentiation of atypical from typical carcinoids or large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell carcinomas is essential for treatment options and prognosis. Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are characterized according to the proportion of necrosis, the mitotic activity, palisading, rosette-like structure, trabecular pattern and organoid nesting. The given information about the histopathological assessment, classification, prognosis, genetic aberration as well as treatment options of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors are based on own experiences and reviewing the current literature available. Most disagreements among the classification of neuroendocrine tumor entities exist in the identification of typical versus atypical carcinoids, atypical versus large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas versus small cell carcinomas. Additionally, the classification is restricted in terms of limited specificity of immunohistochemical markers and possible artifacts in small biopsies which can be compressed in cytological specimens. Until now, pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors have been increasing in incidence. As compared to NSCLCs, only little research has been done with respect to new molecular targets as well as improving the classification and differential diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung.

  18. ADDITIVE VALUE OF TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY IN THE VISUALIZATION OF CARCINOID HEART-DISEASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANVELDHUISEN, DJ; HAMER, JPM; ANDRIESSEN, MPHM; DEVRIES, EGE; LIE, KI

    A 65-yr-old woman with atypical complaints and a tricuspid insufficiency murmur underwent transthoracic echocardiography, which showed right-sided abnormalities, but did not allow clear visualization of the valves. Subsequent transoesophageal imaging, however, raised the suspicion of carcinoid heart

  19. Carcinoid tumour of the appendix: An analysis of 1,485 consecutive emergency appendectomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K-H. in 't Hof (Klaas); H.C. van der Wal; G. Kazemier (Geert); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAim: The aim of this study is to conduct a retrospective analysis of the incidence and long-term results of carcinoid tumours of the appendix in emergency appendectomies. Methods: A retrospective review of 1,485 appendectomies was performed in two centres from January 2000 until January

  20. Long-term results of PRRT in advanced bronchopulmonary carcinoid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariniello, Annapaola; Bodei, Lisa; Baio, Silvia Melania; Gilardi, Laura; Colandrea, Marzia; Papi, Stefano; Grana, Chiara Maria [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Tinelli, Carmine [IRCCS Foundation Policlinico San Matteo, Epidemiology and Biometric Unit, Pavia (Italy); Valmadre, Giuseppe [Presidio Ospedaliero E. Morelli AOVV, Sondalo (Italy); Fazio, Nicola [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology and Neuroendocrine Tumors, Milan (Italy); Galetta, Domenico [European Institute of Oncology, Thoracic Surgery Division, Milan (Italy); Paganelli, Giovanni [Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine and Radiometabolic Units, Meldola (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NET) has been explored for almost two decades, but there are still few trials that have exclusively investigated well-differentiated and moderately differentiated NET arising from the respiratory tree. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the outcome in patients affected by bronchopulmonary carcinoid (BPC) following PRRT. We retrospectively analysed 114 patients with advanced stage BPC consecutively treated with PRRT at the European Institute of Oncology, Milan, from 1997 to 2012 and followed until October 2014. The objective responses, overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were rated, and three different PRRT protocols ({sup 90}Y-DOTATOC vs. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE vs. {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE) were compared with regard to their efficacy and tolerability. The median OS (evaluated in 94 of the 114 patients) was 58.8 months. The median PFS was 28.0 months. The {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol resulted in the highest 5-year OS (61.4 %). Morphological responses (partial responses + minor responses) were obtained in 26.5 % of the cohort and were associated with longer OS and PFS. The {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC + {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE protocol provided the highest response rate (38.1 %). Adverse events were mild in the majority of patients. However, haematological toxicity negatively affected survival. No severe (grade 3/4) serum creatinine increase was observed. Patients treated with {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC alone more frequently showed a mild/moderate decrease in renal function. In patients treated with chemotherapy before PRRT had a shorter OS and PFS, and a higher risk of developing nephrotoxicity. In a large cohort of patients with advanced BPC treated in a ''real-world'' scenario and followed up for a median of 45.1 months (range 2 - 191 months), PRRT proved to be promising in prolonging survival and delaying disease progression. Despite

  1. ACTH overexpressing pituitary hyperplasia in a patient with ectopic ACTH-syndrome due to carcinoid of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Konstantinovna Dzeranova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic ACTH-syndrome is the most diagnostically challenging  variant of endogenous hypercortisolism. Particularly difficult differential diagnosis of this syndrome is from Cushing's disease (CD, as currently there is no single test sufficiently accurate to differentiate accurately ectopic ACTH production from the pituitary. The main functional tests are based on the fact that the vast majority of ectopic ACTH production is autonomous and suppresses one from pituitary. But in some cases this is not observed, and then the data obtained all necessary laboratory and instrumental research evidence in favor of central genesis of CD in a patient with ACTH ectopic secretion, which can lead to inappropriate treatment. If you confirm the ectopic ACTH-syndrome, it may take quite a long time of searching for the pathological focus, as there is no sufficiently precise imaging and diagnostic method for determining the localization of ectopic source of ACTH production. Thus, the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism and localization of the ectopic tumor is the cornerstone of early and radical treatment of patients. We present a difficult clinical case of a patient having a pituitary hyperplasia with excessive ACTH expression with primary ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by lung carcinoid.

  2. Study on histogenesis of enterochromaffin-like carcinoid in autoimmune atrophic gastritis associated with pernicious anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mačukanović-Golubović Lana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Autoimmune atrophic fundic gastritis induces the pernicious anemia (PA, as well as the changes in both epithelium and endocrine cells of gastric mucosa. The most important complications are: achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia, gastric cancer and enterochromaffin-like ( ECL carcinoid. The aim of this study was to examine ECL carcinoid histogenesis in A-gastritis associated with PA. Methods. During the period from 2000−2006, 65 patients with PA and 30 patients of the control group were examined. Histopathological examination was done in endoscopical biopsies of gastric mucosa fixed in 10% formaldehyde. Paraffin sections were stained with classic hematoxylin-eosin (HE; histochemical AB-PAS (pH 2.5, cytochemical argyrophilic Servier-Munger′s and immunocytochemical PAP methods for G cell identification and chromogranin A antibodies - specific marker for neuroendocrine ECL cells. Both G and ECL cells were counted per 20 fields, of surface 0.0245312 mm2 by a field. Basal gastrin serum levels were also examined by using radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The obtained results were statisticaly calculated by using Student΄s t test. Results. Marked antral G cell hyperplasia associated with corporal ECL hyperplasia was found. ECL cell hyperplasia was of simplex, linear, adenomatoid type to the pattern of intramucous ECL cell carcinoid. An average number of G cells was statistically significant in the patients with PA as compared to the control group (p < 0.05 as well as an average number of ECL cells. Conclusion. We concluded that antral G cell hyperplasia accompanied by gastrinemia induces ECL hyperplasia and ECL corporal carcinoid in A-gastritis and that their histogenesis develops trough simple, linear and adenomatoide hyperplasia. .

  3. The complicated management of a patient following transarterial chemoembolization for metastatic carcinoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Manisha H

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE has been recognized as a successful way of managing symptomatic and/or progressive hepatic carcinoid metastases not amenable to surgical resection. Although it is a fairly safe procedure, it is not without its complications. Case presentation This is a case of a 53 year-old woman with a patent foramen ovale (PFO and mild pulmonary hypertension who underwent TACE for progressive carcinoid liver metastases. She developed acute heart failure, due to a severe inflammatory response; this resulted in pneumatosis intestinalis due to non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia. We describe the successful non-operative management of her pneumatosis intestinalis and the role of a PFO in this patient's heart failure. Conclusion TACE remains an effective and safe treatment for metastatic carcinoid not amenable to resection, this case illustrates the complexity of complications that can arise. A multi-disciplinary approach including ready access to advanced critical care facilities is recommended in managing such complex patients.

  4. Veliparib, Capecitabine, and Temozolomide in Patients With Advanced, Metastatic, and Recurrent Neuroendocrine Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Malignant Somatostatinoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Metastatic Carcinoid Tumor; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2A; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B; Neuroendocrine Neoplasm; Non-Functional Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor; Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Pancreatic Insulinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Recurrent Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Recurrent Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Somatostatin-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Stage III Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIB Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Stage IV Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Thymic Carcinoid Tumor; VIP-Producing Neuroendocrine Tumor; Well Differentiated Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Zollinger Ellison Syndrome

  5. Somatostatin-receptor imaging in the localization of endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, S.W.; Bakker, W.H.; Reubi, J.C.; Krenning, E.P.

    1990-01-01

    A number of different tumors have receptors for somatostatin. We evaluated the efficacy of scanning with 123 I-labeled Tyr3-octreotide, a somatostatin analogue, for tumor localization in 42 patients with carcinoid tumors, pancreatic endocrine tumors, or paragangliomas. We then evaluated the response to octreotide therapy in some of these patients. Primary tumors or metastases, often previously unrecognized, were visualized in 12 of 13 patients with carcinoid tumors and in 7 of 9 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors. The endocrine symptoms of these patients responded well to therapy with octreotide. Among 20 patients with paragangliomas, 8 of whom had more than one tumor, 10 temporal (tympanic or jugular), 9 carotid, and 10 vagal tumors could be visualized. One small tympanic tumor and one small carotid tumor were not seen on the scan. The 123 I-labeled Tyr3-octreotide scanning technique is a rapid and safe procedure for the visualization of some tumors with somatostatin receptors. A positive scan may predict the ability of octreotide therapy to control symptoms of hormonal hypersecretion

  6. Central bronchial carcinoid: Management of a case and anesthetic perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructing lesions of the central airways present with a variety of symptoms and are often associated with pneumonia or asthma-like states. Anesthesia to these patients often presents challenges right from the preoperative stabilization of underlying lung condition, mask ventilation in the supine position to maintaining oxygenation and ventilation in the intraoperative and postoperative period. We present here a case of a young woman with a central bronchial tumor with significant airway obstruction with potential for major bleeding and subsequent anesthetic management without lung sacrificing measures and cardiopulmonary bypass assistance.

  7. Validation of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, S.W.J.; Reubi, J.C.; Krenning, E.P.

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin analogs are used in the control of hormonal hypersecretion and tumor growth of patients with acromegaly, islet cell carcinomas and carcinoids. Recently we showed that somatostatin receptor positive tumors can be visualized in vivo after the administration of radionuclide-labeled somatostatin analogs. Receptor imaging was positive in 18/21 islet cell tumors, 32/37 carcinoids, 26/28 paragangliomas, 9/14 medullary thyroid carcinomas, and 5/7 small cell lung cancers. Somatostatin receptor imaging is an easy, harmless and painless diagnostic method. It localizes multiple and/or metastatic tumors, predicts the successful control of hormonal hypersecretion by octreotide and seems to be of prognostic value in certain types of cancer. This scintigraphic method might help in patient selection for clinical trials with somatostatin analogs in the treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. (orig.)

  8. Validation of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in the localization of neuroendocrine tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberts, S.W.J. (Depts. of Medicine and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands) Div. of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institution of Pathology, Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Reubi, J.C. (Depts. of Medicine and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands) Div. of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institution of Pathology, Bern Univ. (Switzerland)); Krenning, E.P. (Depts. of Medicine and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands) Div. of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institution of Pathology, Bern Univ. (Switzerland))

    1993-01-01

    Somatostatin analogs are used in the control of hormonal hypersecretion and tumor growth of patients with acromegaly, islet cell carcinomas and carcinoids. Recently we showed that somatostatin receptor positive tumors can be visualized in vivo after the administration of radionuclide-labeled somatostatin analogs. Receptor imaging was positive in 18/21 islet cell tumors, 32/37 carcinoids, 26/28 paragangliomas, 9/14 medullary thyroid carcinomas, and 5/7 small cell lung cancers. Somatostatin receptor imaging is an easy, harmless and painless diagnostic method. It localizes multiple and/or metastatic tumors, predicts the successful control of hormonal hypersecretion by octreotide and seems to be of prognostic value in certain types of cancer. This scintigraphic method might help in patient selection for clinical trials with somatostatin analogs in the treatment of neuroendocrine cancers. (orig.).

  9. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale and usefulness of percutaneous closure device in carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansencal, Nicolas; Mitry, Emmanuel; Pillière, Rémy; Lepère, Céline; Gérardin, Benoît; Petit, Jérôme; Gandjbakhch, Iradj; Rougier, Philippe; Dubourg, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess (1) the incidence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in carcinoid syndrome (CS) and (2) the feasibility of percutaneous closure procedure in selected patients with CS. One hundred eight patients were prospectively studied: 54 with CS and an age- and gender-matched control group. All patients underwent conventional and contrast echocardiography. Patients with clinical signs of dyspnea (New York Heart Association class > or =III), cyanosis, carcinoid heart disease (CHD), and severe PFO were referred for the percutaneous closure of PFO. The prevalence of PFO was 41% in patients with CS and 22% in the control group (p = 0.03) and was significantly higher in patients with CHD (59%, p = 0.009). Four patients (14% of those with CHD) were referred for the percutaneous closure of PFO, and 3 patients ultimately underwent PFO closure (using Amplatzer septal occluders). At 6-month follow-up, New York Heart Association class was improved in all patients, as well as arterial blood gas results (p = 0.04) and 6-minute walking distance (p = 0.03), but all patients presented residual right-to-left shunts. In conclusion, this prospective study demonstrates that in patients with CHD, the prevalence of PFO is high and that percutaneous closure of PFO is feasible, with a reduction in symptoms but with residual shunting.

  10. Beyond the GIST: Mesenchymal Tumors of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menias, Christine O.; Gaballah, Ayman H.; Shroff, Stuti; Taggart, Melissa W.; Garg, Naveen; Elsayes, Khaled M.

    2013-01-01

    Intramural gastric masses arise in the wall of the stomach (generally within the submucosa or muscularis propria), often with intact overlying mucosa. These tumors are typically mesenchymal in origin and have overlapping radiologic appearances. A combination of features such as location, attenuation, enhancement, and growth pattern may suggest one diagnosis over another. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for the majority of intramural tumors and can vary widely in appearance, from small intraluminal lesions to exophytic masses that protrude into the peritoneal cavity, commonly with areas of hemorrhage or necrosis. A well-circumscribed mass measuring −70 to −120 HU is a lipoma. Leiomyomas usually manifest as low-attenuation masses at the gastric cardia. Homogeneous attenuation is a noteworthy characteristic of schwannomas, particularly for larger lesions that might otherwise be mistaken for GISTs. A hypervascular mass in the antrum is a common manifestation of glomus tumors. Hemangiomas are also hypervascular but often manifest in childhood. Inflammatory fibroid polyps usually arise as a polypoid mass in the antrum. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are infiltrative neoplasms with a propensity for local recurrence. Plexiform fibromyxomas are rare, usually antral tumors. Carcinoid tumors are epithelial in origin, but often submucosal in location, and therefore should be distinguished from other intramural lesions. Multiple carcinoid tumors are associated with hypergastrinemia, either in the setting of chronic atrophic gastritis or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Sporadic solitary carcinoid tumors not associated with hypergastrinemia have a higher rate of metastasis. Histopathologic analysis, including immunohistochemistry, is usually required for diagnosis of intramural masses. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24108557

  11. Endocrine and gonadial tumors among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Usefulness of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as a biomarker of the presence of carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Toumpanakis, Christos; Caplin, Martyn Evan; Davar, Joseph

    2008-10-01

    We sought to investigate whether N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) can be used as a biomarker for the detection of carcinoid heart disease (CHD); 200 patients with carcinoid syndrome were screened for CHD using transthoracic echocardiography. A carcinoid score was formulated to quantify severity of CHD. NT-pro-BNP was measured in all patients before echocardiography. Patients were categorised into New York Heart Association class. CHD was present in 39 patients (19.5%). NT-pro-BNP was significantly higher in those with CHD (median 1,149 pg/ml) than in those without CHD (median 101 pg/ml, p pro-BNP at a cut-off level of 260 pg/ml for detection of CHD were 0.92 and 0.91, respectively. NT-pro-BNP positively correlated both with carcinoid score (r = 0.81, p pro-BNP seems to be an excellent biomarker of CHD. A high negative predictive value may allow it to provide a screening test for CHD.

  13. Acromegaly caused by a growth hormonereleasing hormone secreting carcinoid tumour of the lung : the effect of octreotide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Heide, L. J. M.; Van den Berg, G.; Wolthuis, A.; Van Schelven, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    in acromegaly, the overproduction of growth hormone is usually caused by a pituitary adenoma. We report a 74-year-old woman with acromegaly caused by ectopic overproduction of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a rare diagnosis. The GHRH appeared to be produced by a carcinoid tumour of the

  14. [Diagnosis and surgical management in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomulescu, V; Stănciulea, O; Dima, S; Herlea, V; Stoica Mustafa, E; Dumitraşcu, T; Pechianu, C; Popescu, I

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors, known as carcinoid tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They secrete peptides and neuroamines that cause specific clinical syndromes. Assessment of specific or general tumors markers offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis and they also have prognostic significance. Management strategies include curative surgery, whenever possible-that can be rarely achieved, palliative surgery, chemotherapy, radiologic therapy, such as radiofrequency ablation and chemoembolisations and somatostatin analogues therapy in order to control the symptoms. The aim of this paper is to review recent publications in this field and to give recommendations that take into account current advances in order to facilitate improvement in management and outcome.

  15. Bronchoplasty for Primary Broncho-Pulmonary Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDEL RAHMAN, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Parenchyma-sparing procedures are widely used in patients with low-grade malignancies of the airway when anatomically suited lesions exist. This study was conducted to evaluate the short-term and the long-term results of bronchoplastic procedures for patients with centrally located primary bronchopulmonary tumors. Methods: Between 2000 and 2009, 36 patients with primary lung tumors required bronchoplasty were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative assessment included computed tomography (CT) of the chest, bronchoscopy, and spirometry. Pre operative diagnosis was achieved by bronchoscopy for all patients, mediastinoscopy was done for patients with primary lung cancer. Neo adjuvant chemotherapy was given for 6 patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results: We had 15 males and 21 female, the mean age was 37 years and the mean hospital stay was 7.2 days. Operative procedures performed were:Sleeve lobectomy in 30 patients (13 right, 17 left), partial sleeve right pneumonectomy in 3 and bronchial resection with re-anastomosis in 3 (2 left, 1 right). Twelve patients (33.3%) suffered post-operative problems. There was one operative related mortality. Post operative pathology revealed: 27 patients with typical carcinoid, 2 with atypical carcinoid, 4 with squamous cell carcinoma, 2 with adenocarcifioma and one with hamartoma. Pathological TNM staging revealed: 17 patients with stage 1A, 11 with IB, 5 with IIA and 2 with stage IIIA. Follow-up data were available for all patients except two. Two patients died with disseminated disease 1.5 year and 2 years after surgery. The patient with hamartoma developed local recurrence 5 years later and re-excision was done. One patient with lung cancer developed bone metastases and was alive with disease, while the remaining 30 patient's were alive and disease free. The overall 5 years survival was 83.3%. Conclusion: Bronchoplastic resections achieve local control and long-term survival comparable to the standard resections in

  16. Twin Rectal Tonsils Mimicking Carcinoid or Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Masanori; Muguruma, Naoki; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2017-09-01

    The rectal tonsil is a rare polypoid lesion exclusively found in the rectum and is considered a reactive proliferation of the lymphoid tissue. Although this lesion is benign, we recommend that it should be differentiated from carcinoid or polypoid type of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, based on gross findings. In this case report, we describe a case of rectal lesions with a unique appearance in a 41-year-old man. Colonoscopy revealed two 5-mm-sized nodules located opposite from each other on the left and right sides of the lower rectum. Endoscopic mucosal resection was conducted. Histopathologically, both lesions were mainly located in the submucosa and consisted of prominent lymphoid follicles with germinal centers of various sizes. No immunoreactivity of Bcl-2 was seen in the germinal centers. Immunohistochemical staining for kappa and lambda light chains revealed a polyclonal pattern. Therefore, these lesions were diagnosed as rectal tonsils.

  17. Cost reduction from resolution/improvement of carcinoid syndrome symptoms following treatment with above-standard dose of octreotide LAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Lynn; Totev, Todor; Vekeman, Francis; Neary, Maureen P; Duh, Mei S; Benson, Al B

    2017-09-01

    To calculate the cost reduction associated with diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement following treatment with above-standard dose octreotide-LAR from the commercial payor's perspective. Diarrhea and flushing are two major carcinoid syndrome symptoms of neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Previously, a study of NET patients from three US tertiary oncology centers (NET 3-Center Study) demonstrated that dose escalation of octreotide LAR to above-standard dose resolved/improved diarrhea/flushing in 79% of the patients within 1 year. Time course of diarrhea/flushing symptom data were collected from the NET 3-Center Study. Daily healthcare costs were calculated from a commercial claims database analysis. For the patient cohort experiencing any diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement, their observation period was divided into days of symptom resolution/improvement or no improvement, which were then multiplied by the respective daily healthcare cost and summed over 1 year to yield the blended mean annual cost per patient. For patients who experienced no diarrhea/flushing symptom improvement, mean annual daily healthcare cost of diarrhea/flushing over a 1-year period was calculated. The economic model found that 108 NET patients who experienced diarrhea/flushing symptom resolution/improvement within 1 year had statistically significantly lower mean annual healthcare cost/patient than patients with no symptom improvement, by $14,766 (p = .03). For the sub-set of 85 patients experiencing resolution/improvement of diarrhea, their cost reduction was more pronounced, at $18,740 (p = .01), statistically significantly lower than those with no improvement; outpatient costs accounted for 56% of the cost reduction (p = .02); inpatient costs, emergency department costs, and pharmacy costs accounted for the remaining 44%. The economic model relied on two different sources of data, with some heterogeneity in the prior treatment and disease status of patients

  18. Nuclear medicine technology for diagnosisof neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ryzhkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the review of issues of the literature for the past 10 years and is dedicated to the analysis of the radiopharmaceuticals and efficacy of the novel nuclear medicine technologies for the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of neuroendocrine tumors. Diagnostic efficacy of a scintigraphy and a positron emission tomography for detection of gastroenteropancreatic and lung carcinoid, medullary thyroid cancer, pheochromocytoma and haraganglioma and choice of radiopharmaceuticals were demonstrated by the results of the clinical studies. The causes of false positive and falce negative results were specified.

  19. Early and Late Outcomes of Surgical Treatment in Carcinoid Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Heidi M; Schaff, Hartzell V; Abel, Martin D; Rubin, Joseph; Askew, J Wells; Li, Zhuo; Inda, Jacob J; Luis, Sushil A; Nishimura, Rick A; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2015-11-17

    Symptoms and survival of patients with carcinoid syndrome have improved, but development of carcinoid heart disease (CaHD) continues to decrease survival. This study aimed to analyze patient outcomes after valve surgery for CaHD during a 27-year period at 1 institution to determine early and late outcomes and opportunities for improved patient care. We retrospectively studied the short-term and long-term outcomes of all consecutive patients with CaHD who underwent valve replacement at our institution between 1985 and 2012. The records of 195 patients with CaHD were analyzed. Pre-operative New York Heart Association class was III or IV in 125 of 178 patients (70%). All had tricuspid valve replacement (159 bioprostheses, 36 mechanical), and 157 underwent a pulmonary valve operation. Other concomitant operations included mitral valve procedure (11%), aortic valve procedure (9%), patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect closure (23%), cardiac metastasectomies or biopsy (4%), and simultaneous coronary artery bypass (11%). There were 20 perioperative deaths (10%); after 2000, perioperative mortality was 6%. Survival rates (95% confidence intervals) at 1, 5, and 10 years were 69% (63% to 76%), 35% (28% to 43%), and 24% (18% to 32%), respectively. Overall mortality was associated with older age, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and tobacco use; 75% of survivors had symptomatic improvement at follow-up. Presymptomatic valve operation was not associated with late survival benefit. Operative mortality associated with valve replacement surgery for CaHD has decreased. Symptomatic and survival benefit is noted in most patients when CaHD is managed by an experienced multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung: major radiologic findings in a series of 22 histopathologically confirmed cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcel Koenigkam, E-mail: marcelk46@yahoo.com.br [Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP-USP), SP (Brazil); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg University (Germany); Barreto, Andre Rodrigues Facanha [Clinica Radius, Clinica Sao Carlos Imagem and Santa Casa de Misericordia de Fortaleza, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Chagas Neto, Francisco Abaete [Program of Health Sciences Applied to the Locomotor System - Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Elias Junior, Jorge [Division of Radiology, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto da Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRPUSP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    Objective: To describe key imaging findings in a series of cases of primary neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NTLs), with emphasis on computed tomography changes. Materials And Methods: Imaging studies of 22 patients (12 men, mean age 60 years) with histopathologically confirmed diagnosis, evaluated in the author's institution during the last five years were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists, with findings being consensually described focusing on changes observed at computed tomography. Results: The authors have described five typical carcinoids, three atypical carcinoids, three large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNCs), and 11 small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs). Only one typical carcinoid presented the characteristic appearance of central endobronchial nodule with distal pulmonary atelectasis, while the others were pulmonary nodules or masses. The atypical carcinoids corresponded to peripheral heterogeneous masses. One out of the three LCNCs was a peripheral homogeneous mass, while the others were ill-defined and heterogeneous. The 11 SCLCs corresponded to central, infiltrating and heterogeneous masses with secondary pleuropulmonary changes. Calcifications were absent both in LGNCs and SCLCs. Metastases were found initially and also at follow-up of all the cases of LCNCs and SCLCs. Conclusion: Although some imaging features may be similar, radiologic findings considered together with clinical information may play a relevant role in the differentiation of histological types of NTLs. (author)

  1. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy, an efficient method for the detection and staging of carcinoid tumours: results of 3 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A; Fröss-Baron, K; Mikołajczak, R; Maecke, H R; Huszno, B; Pach, D; Sowa-Staszczak, A; Janota, B; Szybiński, P; Kulig, J

    2006-10-01

    At all stages of the disease, serious difficulties are encountered in the imaging diagnosis of carcinoids. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) holds great promise for detecting primary tumours and metastases. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate should significantly improve the diagnosis of carcinoids in comparison with 111In-Octreoscan owing to the better affinity for SSR2 and the higher count rate. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy in the detection and staging of carcinoid tumours. The study population comprised 75 patients (age 48.5+/-15.5 years): 46 with histological confirmation of carcinoid and 29 with suspected disease. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate (740 MBq) SRS and CT were performed in all patients. Fifteen patients were examined with 111In-Octreoscan. High-quality 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate images were obtained in all cases, with maximum tumour tracer accumulation 4 h p.i. The mean target/non-target ratios for whole body (WB) and SPECT scans were, respectively, as follows: primary lesions: 4.5 and 10.2; metastases: liver, 3.1 and 12.3; abdominal focal lesions, 2.7 and 5.8; lung, 2.7 and 8.3; mediastinum, 3.4 and 7.6; bones, 6.8 and 19.0. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate WB scans revealed more metastases than 111In-Octreoscan, with better individual separation. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate SRS revealed new metastatic lesions in seven patients with confirmed carcinoid, and in four with dissemination the primary focus was found. Five patients qualified for radioguided surgery and 11 were referred to 90Y-DOTA-TATE therapy. The sensitivity of SRS in comparison with CT was higher for primary lesions and liver and abdominal lymph node metastases. In the subgroup of patients with suspected neuroendocrine tumours, two duodenal carcinoids, one thymic carcinoid and one ileal carcinoid were found. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate, with high imaging quality, is an excellent alternative to 111In-Octreoscan for

  2. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy, an efficient method for the detection and staging of carcinoid tumours: results of 3 years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A.; Froess-Baron, K.; Huszno, B.; Pach, D.; Sowa-Staszczak, A.; Mikolajczak, R.; Janota, B.; Maecke, H.R.; Szybinski, P.; Kulig, J.

    2006-01-01

    At all stages of the disease, serious difficulties are encountered in the imaging diagnosis of carcinoids. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) holds great promise for detecting primary tumours and metastases. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate should significantly improve the diagnosis of carcinoids in comparison with 111 In-Octreoscan owing to the better affinity for SSR2 and the higher count rate. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic efficiency of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy in the detection and staging of carcinoid tumours. The study population comprised 75 patients (age 48.5±15.5 years): 46 with histological confirmation of carcinoid and 29 with suspected disease. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate (740 MBq) SRS and CT were performed in all patients. Fifteen patients were examined with 111 In-Octreoscan. High-quality 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate images were obtained in all cases, with maximum tumour tracer accumulation 4 h p.i. The mean target/non-target ratios for whole body (WB) and SPECT scans were, respectively, as follows: primary lesions: 4.5 and 10.2; metastases: liver, 3.1 and 12.3; abdominal focal lesions, 2.7 and 5.8; lung, 2.7 and 8.3; mediastinum, 3.4 and 7.6; bones, 6.8 and 19.0. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate WB scans revealed more metastases than 111 In-Octreoscan, with better individual separation. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate SRS revealed new metastatic lesions in seven patients with confirmed carcinoid, and in four with dissemination the primary focus was found. Five patients qualified for radioguided surgery and 11 were referred to 90 Y-DOTA-TATE therapy. The sensitivity of SRS in comparison with CT was higher for primary lesions and liver and abdominal lymph node metastases. In the subgroup of patients with suspected neuroendocrine tumours, two duodenal carcinoids, one thymic carcinoid and one ileal carcinoid were found. 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate, with high imaging quality, is an excellent alternative to 111 In

  3. An analysis of peripheral small lung carcinomas less than 20 mm in diameter in non-adenocarcinomas and carcinoids. Computed tomographic findings based on radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gaku; Yamada, Kouzo; Oshita, Fumihiro; Nomura, Ikuo; Noda, Kazumasa; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Mitsuda, Aki; Kameda, Youichi; Yamakido, Michio

    2000-01-01

    With the introduction of computed tomography (CT) for chest screening in recent years, more cases of resected peripheral small lung carcinomas have been reported. Many of these were adenocarcinomas. To focus on CT findings of peripheral non-adenocarcinoma nodules, we performed a retrospective analysis based on radiographic-pathologic correlations. We analyzed CT findings based on the pathology of peripheral small lung carcinomas, excluding the histological type of adenocarcinomas. We compared our findings with those observed in adenocarcinomas. We reviewed 28 peripheral small lung carcinoma nodules less than 20 mm in diameter, including 13 squamous cell carcinomas, 4 small cell carcinomas, 2 adeno- squamous cell carcinomas, 1 large cell carcinoma, and 8 carcinoids. The carcinomas were classified into two different patterns; non-adenocarcinomas excluding carcinoids, and carcinoids. Both were solid-density types on high-resolution CT (HR-CT) images. The HR-CT findings regarding the shape and number of notching, and the presence or absence of ground glass opacity (GGO) were different between non-adenocarcinomas excluding carcinoids and adenocarcinomas. On the other hand, the HR-CT findings regarding spiculations, GGO and pleural indentations, and the absence of bronchial compression were different between carcinoids and adenocarcinomas. The shape characteristics and internal and marginal analysis on HR-CT images can contribute to the differential diagnosis of the histological type of peripheral small lung carcinomas. (author)

  4. Identification of deregulation of apoptosis and cell cycle in neuroendocrine tumors of the lung via NanoString nCounter expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Robert Fred Henry; Werner, Robert; Ting, Saskia; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Theegarten, Dirk; Christoph, Daniel Christian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Mairinger, Fabian Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung comprise typical (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC), large-cell neuroendocrine cancer (LCNEC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Cell cycle and apoptosis are key pathways of multicellular homeostasis and deregulation of these pathways is associated with cancerogenesis. Materials and Methods Sixty representative FFPE-specimens (16 TC, 13 AC, 16 LCNEC and 15 SCLC) were used for mRNA expression analysis using the NanoString technique. Eight genes related to apoptosis and ten genes regulating key points of cell cycle were investigated. Results ASCL1, BCL2, CASP8, CCNE1, CDK1, CDK2, CDKN1A and CDKN2A showed lower expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. In contrast, CCNE1 and CDK6 showed elevated expression in carcinoids compared to carcinomas. The calculated BCL2/BAX ratio showed increasing values from TC to SCLC. Between SCLC and LCNEC CDK2, CDKN1B, CDKN2A and PNN expression was significantly different with higher expression in SCLC. Conclusion Carcinoids have increased CDK4/6 and CCND1 expression controlling RB1 phosphorylation via this signaling cascade. CDK2 and CCNE1 were increased in carcinomas showing that these use the opposite way to control RB1. BAX and BCL2 are antagonists in regulating apoptosis. BCL2 expression increased over BAX expression with increasing malignancy of the tumor from TC to SCLC. PMID:26008974

  5. A Primary Pulmonary Glomus Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ariizumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a glomus tumor originating from the lung is reported. A 43-year-old female had undergone resection of a right lung tumor following a clinical diagnosis of carcinoid, sclerosing hemangioma, or other sarcoma. Histologically, the tumor comprised uniform small round to oval cells with centrally located nucleus, a clear cytoplasm, and apparent cell borders. The tumor also showed a focally hemangiopericytomatous pattern with irregularly branching or dilated vessels. Electron microscopy revealed smooth muscle differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunostaining further revealed that the tumor cells expressed smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon, muscle specific actin (HHF-35, but not cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, synaptophysin, or chromogranin A. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary glomus tumor was established. Glomus tumors of the lung are very rare and only 21 cases have been reported to date. The histological features of the present tumor and the relevant literature are discussed.

  6. [Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract: the paradigm that lasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelović, Milos M; Babić, Tamara D

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the tumors that were morphologically different and clinically less agressive than the more common gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas were clasified under carcinoid tumors. However, the development of molecular biology tehniques revealed the heterogeneity of these tumors on cellular and subcellular level and ther different biological behaviour. Neuroendocrine tumors of gastrointestinal tract originated from neuroendocrine cells scaterred across the gastrointestinal mucosa. As a result these tumors were capable of secreting many different neurotransmiters, which may or may not be biologically active. The incidence of gastrointestinal NETs has been incresing over the last 2 to 3 decades. Patients often presented with vague, nonspecific symptoms which resulted in delayed diagnosis and adequate treatment. In this article, we discuss the nature of gastrointestinal NETs, clinical presentation, treatment options and prognosis.

  7. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  8. Amidated joining peptide in the human pituitary, gut, adrenal gland and bronchial carcinoids. Immunocytochemical and immunochemical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjartell, A; Fenger, M; Ekman, R

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of the proopiomelanocortin-derivated amidated joining peptide (JP-N) was examined in the human pituitary gland, adrenal gland, gut and in three bronchial carcinoids. Double immunostaining showed coexistence of immunoreactive JP-N and other proopiomelanocortin derivatives, e......-N, respectively, but under reduced conditions most of the immunoreactive material appeared as of low molecular weight in both extracts. In conclusion, immunoreactive JP-N is a major product from the processing of proopiomelanocortin in human extrapituitary tissues. The molecular forms of immunoreactive JP......-N correspond to previous findings in the human pituitary gland....

  9. Goblet cell carcinoid neoplasm of the appendix: Clinical and CT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Tang, L.H.; Shia, J.; Paty, P.B.; Weiser, M.R.; Guillem, J.G.; Temple, L.K.; Nash, G.M.; Reidy, D.; Saltz, L.; Gollub, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the clinical and CT imaging features of goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) neoplasm of the appendix. Methods and materials: A computer search of pathology and radiology records over a 19-year period at our two institutions was performed using the search string “goblet”. In the patients with appendiceal GCC neoplasms who had abdominopelvic CT, imaging findings were categorized, blinded to gross and surgical description, as: “Appendicitis”, “Prominent appendix without peri-appendiceal infiltration”, “Mass” or “Normal appendix”. The CT appearance was correlated with an accepted pathological classification of: low grade GCC, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC group. Results: Twenty-seven patients (age range, 28–80 years; mean age, 52 years; 15 female, 12 male) with pathology-proven appendiceal GCC neoplasm had CT scans that were reviewed. Patients presented with acute appendicitis (n = 12), abdominal pain not typical for appendicitis (n = 14) and incidental finding (n = 1). CT imaging showed 9 Appendicitis, 9 Prominent appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration, 7 Masses and 2 Normal appendices. Appendicitis (8/9) usually correlated with typical low grade GCC on pathology. In contrast, the majority of Masses and Prominent Appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration were pathologically confirmed to be signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex GCC. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC was seen in only a small minority of patients. Hyperattenuation of the appendiceal neoplasm was seen in a majority of cases. Conclusions: GCC neoplasm of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with primary appendiceal malignancy. Our cases demonstrated close correlation between our predefined CT pattern and the pathological classification

  10. Goblet cell carcinoid neoplasm of the appendix: Clinical and CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.S., E-mail: kyungmouklee@alum.mit.edu [Department of Radiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Tang, L.H., E-mail: tangl@mskc.org [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Shia, J., E-mail: shiaj@mskcc.org [Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Paty, P.B., E-mail: patyp@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Weiser, M.R., E-mail: weiser1@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Guillem, J.G., E-mail: guillemj@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Temple, L.K., E-mail: temple@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Nash, G.M., E-mail: nashg@mskcc.org [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Reidy, D., E-mail: reidyd@mskcc.org [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Saltz, L., E-mail: saltzl@mskcc.org [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Gollub, M.J., E-mail: gollubm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiology Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To describe the clinical and CT imaging features of goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) neoplasm of the appendix. Methods and materials: A computer search of pathology and radiology records over a 19-year period at our two institutions was performed using the search string “goblet”. In the patients with appendiceal GCC neoplasms who had abdominopelvic CT, imaging findings were categorized, blinded to gross and surgical description, as: “Appendicitis”, “Prominent appendix without peri-appendiceal infiltration”, “Mass” or “Normal appendix”. The CT appearance was correlated with an accepted pathological classification of: low grade GCC, signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex, and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC group. Results: Twenty-seven patients (age range, 28–80 years; mean age, 52 years; 15 female, 12 male) with pathology-proven appendiceal GCC neoplasm had CT scans that were reviewed. Patients presented with acute appendicitis (n = 12), abdominal pain not typical for appendicitis (n = 14) and incidental finding (n = 1). CT imaging showed 9 Appendicitis, 9 Prominent appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration, 7 Masses and 2 Normal appendices. Appendicitis (8/9) usually correlated with typical low grade GCC on pathology. In contrast, the majority of Masses and Prominent Appendices without peri-appendiceal infiltration were pathologically confirmed to be signet ring cell adenocarcinoma ex GCC. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma ex GCC was seen in only a small minority of patients. Hyperattenuation of the appendiceal neoplasm was seen in a majority of cases. Conclusions: GCC neoplasm of the appendix should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with primary appendiceal malignancy. Our cases demonstrated close correlation between our predefined CT pattern and the pathological classification.

  11. Laser application in tracheobronchial tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, B. Krishna; Krishna, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    Ninety three patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors were treated with Neodymium: Yttrium - Aluminum - Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser photocoagulation over a period of six years. There were sixty seven Males and 26 Females with a mean age of 44.3 years (range 6- 79 years). 21 benign and 72 malignant lesions were treated with a total 212 sessions of laser photocoagulation (mean 2.4 sessions). The anatomical distribution of lesions were as follows; larynx 9 (three benign and 6 malignant) trachea 39 (27 benign and 12 malignant) left main bronchus 27 (14 malignant) right main bronchus 24 (14 malignant) and vocal cords - 9 (three malignant). There were 21 patients with squamous cell carcinoma, two adenocarcinomas, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, 7 cases of locally infiltrating tumors from thyroid and esophagus, 6 cases of carcinoid tumor and 16 benign lesions. Twenty one patients had a tracheostomy tube in place when treatment was started. Eighteen of the 21 patients with tracheostomy were weaned off the tube in a mean of 5.5 days from the start of treatment. Lumen was restored in 31 (79.4%) patients. In the other eight (20.6%), lumen was achieved, but not sustained. Complications included bleeding in three cases which were managed conservatively, two cases of pneumothorax, and four cases of bronchospasm. There were six deaths during the follow up but none attributable to the procedure. Laser photocoagulation offered effective treatment in the majority of patients with obstructing tracheobronchial tumors, with acceptable morbidity.

  12. Plasma CCN2/connective tissue growth factor is associated with right ventricular dysfunction in patients with neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aakhus Svend

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcinoid heart disease, a known complication of neuroendocrine tumors, is characterized by right heart fibrotic lesions. Carcinoid heart disease has traditionally been defined by the degree of valvular involvement. Right ventricular (RV dysfunction due to mural involvement may also be a manifestation. Connective tissue growth factor (CCN2 is elevated in many fibrotic disorders. Its role in carcinoid heart disease is unknown. We sought to investigate the relationship between plasma CCN2 and valvular and mural involvement in carcinoid heart disease. Methods Echocardiography was performed in 69 patients with neuroendocrine tumors. RV function was assessed using tissue Doppler analysis of myocardial systolic strain. Plasma CCN2 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare groups where appropriate. Linear regression was used to evaluate correlation. Results Mean strain was -21% ± 5. Thirty-three patients had reduced RV function (strain > -20%, mean -16% ± 3. Of these, 8 had no or minimal tricuspid and/or pulmonary regurgitation (TR/PR. Thirty-six patients had normal or mildly reduced RV function (strain ≤ -20%, mean -25% ± 3. There was a significant inverse correlation between RV function and plasma CCN2 levels (r = 0.47, p Conclusions Elevated plasma CCN2 levels are associated with RV dysfunction and valvular regurgitation in NET patients. CCN2 may play a role in neuroendocrine tumor-related cardiac fibrosis and may serve as a marker of its earliest stages.

  13. Goblet cell carcinoids: characteristics of a Danish cohort of 83 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Holst Olsen

    Full Text Available Appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids (GCCs exhibit neuroendocrine and adenocarcinoma features.Analysis of demography, pathology, prognostic markers, treatment and survival in 83 GCC patients (f/m: 56/27 diagnosed 1992-2013.Median age for f/m was 59/58 years, respectively, and similar for localized and disseminated disease. At diagnosis 54 patients had localized appendiceal disease (f/m: 29/25. According to TNM 24% had Stage I, 70% had Stage II and 6% had Stage III. Twenty-nine patients had disseminated disease (f/m: 27/2. Chromogranin A, synaptophysin and p53 were positive in >90%. Serotonin was positive in 70%. Median Ki67 index was 32% (6-75% and higher in Tang group C (50% compared to group A (30%; p<0.0001, and group B (30%; p<0.004. All patients had surgery. Sixty-three (76% had radical resections including all patients with localized disease. Median OS was 83 months. The 1-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 90%, 58%, and 38%, respectively. For localized disease OS was 164 months and 1-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 100%, 80%, and 55%, respectively. For disseminated disease OS was 19 months and 1-, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 73%, 18% and 6%, respectively. The 1-, 5- and 10 year-survival rates for f/m were 87%/96%, 49%/76% and 31%/57%, respectively (p = 0.02. According to the Tang classification group A, B, and C OS was 118, 83 and 20 months, respectively (p = 0.0002.The Tang classification was found to be a significant prognostic factor, while the Ki67 index was not. Localized GCCs occurred equally in males and females, while disseminated GCCs were mostly seen in females. Median age of patients with localized disease and disseminated disease was identical. Cox regression analysis found Stage IV, focally positive synaptophysin and non-radical surgery as strongest negative prognostic factors.

  14. Liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech C Blonski; K Rajender Reddy; Abraham Shaked; Evan Siegelman; David C Metz

    2005-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are divided into gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. The WHO has updated the classification of these lesions and has abandoned the term "carcinoid". Both types of tumors are divided into functional and non-functional tumors. They are characterized by slow growth and frequent metastasis to the liver and may be limited to the liver for long periods. The therapeutic approach to hepatic metastases should consider the number and distribution of the liver metastases as well as the severity of symptoms related to hormone production and tumor bulk. Surgery is generally considered as the first line therapy. In patients with unresectable liver metastases,alternative treatments are dependent on the type and the growth rate. Initial treatments consist of long acting somatostatin analogs and/or interferon. Streptozocinbased chemotherapy is usually reserved for symptomatic patients with rapidly advancing disease, but generally the therapy is poorly tolerated and its effects are short-lived.Locoregional therapy directed such as hepatic-artery embolization and chemoembolization, radiofrequency thermal ablation and cryosurgery, is often used instead of systemic therapy, if the disease is limited to the liver.However, liver transplantation should be considered in patients with neuroendocrine metastases to the liver that are not accessible to curative or cytoreductive surgery and if medical or locoregional treatment has failed and if there are life threatening hormonal symptoms. We report a case of liver transplantation for metastatic neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary source and provide a detailed review of the world literature on this controversial topic.

  15. Appendiceal Goblet Cell Carcinoids: Management Considerations from a Reference Peritoneal Tumour Service Centre and ENETS Centre of Excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, Angela; Nonaka, Daisuke; Lopez Escola, Cristina; Hubner, Richard A; O'Dwyer, Sarah; Chakrabarty, Bipasha; Fulford, Paul; Valle, Juan W

    2016-01-01

    Appendix goblet cell carcinoids are known to share histological features of adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours. Due to their low incidence, quality evidence is lacking for the management of these patients. We performed a single-centre retrospective study of patients with a confirmed diagnosis of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoid (GCC; 1996-2014). Patients were divided into curative intent (CI) and palliative intent (PI) cohorts. Our primary end point was overall survival (OS). Seventy-four patients were eligible; 76% were treated with CI [surgery only (36%), cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intra-peritoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC; 36%), adjuvant chemotherapy (20%) and a combination of CRS and HIPEC followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (9%)], and 23% had advanced-stage disease amenable to palliative treatment (chemotherapy or supportive care) only. Completion right hemicolectomy, performed in 64% of the CI cohort, did not impact on the relapse rate or disease-free survival. FOLFOX chemotherapy was used in both the adjuvant and palliative settings; safety was as expected, and we observed a high rate (60%) of disease control in the palliative cohort. The estimated median OS (all patients), disease-free survival (CI patients) and progression-free survival (PI patients) were 52.1 (95% CI 29.4-90.3), 75.9 (26.6-not reached) and 5.3 (0.6-5.7) months, respectively. Age and stage were independent factors associated with OS in the multivariable analysis. Tang classification showed a trend for impact on OS. No benefit from specific adjuvant approach was identified; however, selection bias for treatment approach was observed. Prospective trials are needed to define optimal approaches in GCC. All GCC patients should be managed by specialized centres due to their esoteric behaviour; we provide management considerations based on our experience and conclusions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Effects of the single and combined treatment with dopamine agonist, somatostatin analog and mTOR inhibitors in a human lung carcinoid cell line: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivonello, Claudia; Rousaki, Panagoula; Negri, Mariarosaria; Sarnataro, Maddalena; Napolitano, Maria; Marino, Federica Zito; Patalano, Roberta; De Martino, Maria Cristina; Sciammarella, Concetta; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Rocco, Gaetano; Franco, Renato; Kaltsas, Gregory A; Colao, Annamaria; Pivonello, Rosario

    2017-06-01

    Somatostatin analogues and mTOR inhibitors have been used as medical therapy in lung carcinoids with variable results. No data are available on dopamine agonists as treatment for lung carcinoids. The main aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the combined treatment of somatostatin analogue octreotide and the dopamine agonist cabergoline with mTOR inhibitors in an in vitro model of typical lung carcinoids: the NCI-H727 cell line. In NCI-H727 cell line, reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence were assessed to characterize the expression of the somatostatin receptor 2 and 5, dopamine receptor 2 and mTOR pathway components. Fifteen typical lung carcinoids tissue samples have been used for somatostatin receptor 2, dopamine receptor 2, and the main mTOR pathway component p70S6K expression and localization by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and western blot have been assessed to test the pharmacological effects of octreotide, cabergoline and mTOR inhibitors, and to evaluate the activation of specific cell signaling pathways in NCI-H727 cell line. NCI-H727 cell line expressed somatostatin receptor 2, somatostatin receptor 5 and dopamine receptor 2 and all mTOR pathway components at messenger and protein levels. Somatostatin receptor 2, dopamine receptor 2, and p70S6K (non phosphorylated and phosphorylated) proteins were expressed in most typical lung carcinoids tissue samples. Octreotide and cabergoline did not reduce cell viability as single agents but, when combined with mTOR inhibitors, they potentiate mTOR inhibitors effect after long-term exposure, reducing Akt and ERK phosphorylation, mTOR escape mechanisms, and increasing the expression DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4, an mTOR suppressor. In conclusion, the single use of octreotide and cabergoline is not sufficient to block cell viability but the combined approach of these agents with mTOR inhibitors

  17. Endocrine tumor of the digestive tract - clinical case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwedziak, K.; Olejniczak, W.; Brichkovkiy, V.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Endocrine tumors of the digestive tract (ETDT) are neoplasms which stem from the APUD (amine precursors uptake and decarboxylation) cells. There are neuroendocrine pancreatic and gastroenteral carcinoid tumors which stand for 2% of digestive tract tumors, 0,5% of all human malignant neoplasms. All of them have secretion granulations in the cytoplasm. That is why a number of immune histochemic techniques is used in search for biogenic amines and hormones such as gastrin, CCK, GIP, VIP, motilin, glucagon, GRP, PP, GHRH and the others. In the majority of cases neuroendocrine tumors of the rectum are described as dysfunctional, which means that specific clinical symptoms are not connected with their hormonal overproduction. Material and methods: We describe a case of fifty seven years old male patient admitted to the Department of General and Transplant Surgery for the diagnosis and treatment of the rectal tumor. Per rectum examination revealed hard tumor. The pathologic examination of the biopsy taken from the lesion and CT scanning confirmed the presence of endocrine tumor of the digestive tract. Results: Anterior resection of the rectum was performed, the postoperative course was uneventful. At present patient is subjected to complementary treatment with the use of somatostatin analogue of the prolonged action. Conclusion: The endocrine tumors of the rectum are extremely rare, they occur in this localization in 0,26-0,52 out of 100.000 all rectal tumors. Diagnosis is usually made upon the microscopic examination and the immune histochemic reactions. (author)

  18. Retrospective review of 21 cases of neuroendocrine tumors and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Alonso, S.; Cordoba, A.; Vazquez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: literature review and case histories. Neuroendocrine tumors (Nets) are considered rare and comprise a group very heterogeneous with different prognosis and evolution. They represent less than 1% of all malignant tumors and most originate from the gastrointestinal tract in enterocromoafines cells are widely distributed in the same: in the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, small, colon and rectum. Carcinoid tumors Gastrointestinal represent over 70% of all tumors (Nets) in humans. And frequently they are finding their debut as disseminated disease, coinciding our review. 21 records were retrospectively analyzed between 1995 and June 2010. No significant difference in gender, of these 9 patients were 12 female and male sex. Ages ranged from 36 years to 83 years, with an average of 63 years. The locations were distributed as follows: 6 patients with small bowel tumor, 2 with blind tumor, 2 esophageal tumor , 1 patient with pancreatic tumor, 1 patient with stomach tumor, 2 patients with retroperitoneal disease in which failed to define the primary, 2 patients with tumor in breast, 3 patients with lung tumor, 1 patient with piriform sinus tumor and 1 patient with parotid tumor. Of the 21 patients, only 4 sometime had functional syndrome characterized by diarrhea and flushing. The treatments that received these patients were also very heterogeneous. From these patients, only one died in 2008 and the others are still alive, some in control and other treatment. Because of the number of patients seen and the therapeutic variability the statistical analysis no was done

  19. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezi Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors are extremely rare, representing 0.2% of all neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis is incidental in most cases. Case presentation We describe the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the evaluation of a gallbladder polyp that had been incidentally detected by ultasonography. Histologically, his lesion was composed of monomorphic cells that contained small round nuclei and that were organized in small nodular, trabecular, and acinar structures. His cells were positive for chromogranin A and synaptophysin, and a diagnosis of "typical" carcinoid of the gallbladder was made. His post-operative computerized axial tomography, 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy, and hormone-specific marker results were negative. He is disease-free 45 months after surgical treatment. Conclusions Characteristic pathological findings of the gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors predict the prognosis. Whereas classical carcinoids of the gallbladder only rarely have a metastatic or invasive phenotype, the "atypical" variants are more aggressive and are associated with a poorer prognosis. Given the difficulty in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions in the pre-surgical setting, we tend to consider each polypoid-like lesion of the gallbladder to be a high-risk lesion if it is larger than 1 cm and, as a result, to emphasize the need for cholecystectomy in all cases, relying on the pathological and immunohistochemistry analyses for the final diagnosis.

  1. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kyriakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient’s acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of acromegaly. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges differentiating between ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed.

  2. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  3. 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate - a new radiotracer for detection and staging of NET. A case of metastatic duodenal carcinoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, A.; Fross-Baron, K.; Huszno, B.; Sowa-Staszczak, A.; Szybinski, P.; Mikolajczak, R.

    2005-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) has become a routine imaging method for the diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). 99mT c-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate (Polatom, Poland) is a new radiotracer with high affinity for SSTR2 and similar physiological biodistribution to 111I n-Octreoscan. We present a case of a 47-year-old man with disseminated duodenal carcinoid. The patient had been operated due to the tumour mass detected in pancreatic head area. Histopathology revealed carcinoid of the duodenal wall with local lymph node and liver metastases. The patient was qualified for chemotherapy stopped due to severe leucopenia. 99mT c EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy was performed for staging and to determine SSTR status of the tumour before planned 90Y -DOTATATE therapy. The multiple metastatic lesions were detected all over the body. The high quality images with high target/non target ratio were obtained. 99mT c-MDP scintigraphy confirmed multiple bone metastases. On the basis of SRS result the patient was qualified for 90Y -DOTA-TATE therapy. In conclusion, 99mT c EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate can be regarded as a promising tracer for staging and to determine SSTR status of NET. (author)

  4. (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate - a new radiotracer for detection and staging of NET: a case of metastatic duodenal carcinoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Szybiński, Piotr; Fröss-Baron, Katarzyna; Mikolajczak, Renata; Huszno, Bohdan; Sowa-Staszczak, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) has become a routine imaging method for the diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumours (NET). (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate (Polatom, Poland) is a new radiotracer with high affinity for SSTR2 and similar physiological biodistribution to (111)In-Octreoscan. We present a case of a 47-year-old man with disseminated duodenal carcinoid. The patient had been operated due to the tumour mass detected in pancreatic head area. Histopathology revealed carcinoid of the duodenal wall with local lymph node and liver metastases. The patient was qualified for chemotherapy stopped due to severe leucopenia. (99m)Tc EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate scintigraphy was performed for staging and to determine SSTR status of the tumour before planned 90Y-DOTATATE therapy. The multiple metastatic lesions were detected all over the body. The high quality images with high target/non target ratio were obtained. (99m)Tc-MDP scintigraphy confirmed multiple bone metastases. On the basis of SRS result the patient was qualified for 90Y-DOTA-TATE therapy. In conclusion, (99m)Tc EDDA/HYNIC-octreotate can be regarded as a promising tracer for staging and to determine SSTR status of NET.

  5. Advances in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Kunz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pamela L Kunz, George A FisherStanford University Medical Center, CA, USAAbstract: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs are a rare and heterogeneous class of neoplasms. While surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, non-surgical therapies play a role in the setting of unresectable and metastatic disease. The goals of medical therapy are directed both at alleviating symptoms of peptide release and shrinking tumor mass. Biotherapies such as somatostatin analogs and interferon can decrease the secretion of peptides and inhibit their end-organ effects. A second objective for treatment of unresectable GEP-NETs is limiting tumor growth. Options for limiting tumor growth include somatostatin analogs, systemic chemotherapy, locoregional therapies, ionizing radiation, external beam radiation, and newer targeted agents. In particular, angiogenesis inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and mTOR inhibitors have shown early promising results. The rarity of these tumors, their resistance to standard chemotherapy, and the excellent performance status of most of these patients, make a strong argument for consideration of novel therapeutic trials.Keywords: neuroendocrine, gastroenteropancreatic, carcinoid, somatostatin

  6. Budgetary Impact of Telotristat Ethyl, a Novel Treatment for Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome Diarrhea: A US Health Plan Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joish, Vijay N; Frech, Feride; Lapuerta, Pablo

    2017-12-01

    Telotristat ethyl (TE) was recently approved for carcinoid syndrome diarrhea (CSD) in patients not adequately controlled with somatostatin analog long-acting release (SSA LAR) therapy alone. A budget impact model was developed to determine the short-term affordability of reimbursing TE in a US health plan. A budget impact model compared health care costs when CSD is managed per current treatment patterns (SSA LAR, reference drug scenario) versus when TE is incorporated in the treatment algorithm (SSA LAR + TE, new drug scenario). Prevalence of CSD, proportion of patients not adequately controlled on SSA LAR, monthly treatment costs (pharmacy and medical), and treatment efficacy were derived from the literature. In the reference drug scenario, an escalated monthly dose of SSA LAR therapy of 40 mg was assumed to treat patients with CSD not adequately controlled on the labeled dose of SSA LAR. In the new drug scenario, TE was added to the maximum labeled monthly dose of SSA LAR therapy of 30 mg. The incremental budget impact was calculated based on an assumed TE market uptake of 28%, 42%, and 55% during Years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test model assumptions. A hypothetical health plan of 1 million members was estimated to have 42 prevalent CSD patients of whom 17 would be inadequately controlled on SSA LAR therapy. The monthly medical cost per patient not adequately controlled on SSA LAR in addition to pharmacotherapy was estimated to be $3946 based on the literature. Based on the observed treatment response in a clinical trial of 20% and 44% for the base case reference and new drug scenarios, total per patient per month costs were estimated to be $7563 and $11,205, respectively. Total annual costs in the new drug scenario were estimated to be $2.3 to $2.5 million during the first 3 years. The overall incremental annual costs were estimated to be $154,000 in Year 1, $231,000 in Year 2, and $302,000 in Year 3. This

  7. Nivolumab and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Rare Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-14

    Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma; Adrenal Gland Pheochromocytoma; Anal Canal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Anal Canal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Appendix Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Bartholin Gland Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Bladder Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cholangiocarcinoma; Chordoma; Colorectal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis; Endometrial Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Esophageal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Esophageal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Fallopian Tube Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Fibromyxoid Tumor; Gastric Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Gastric Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Giant Cell Carcinoma; Intestinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Lung Sarcomatoid Carcinoma; Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Malignant Odontogenic Neoplasm; Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor; Malignant Testicular Sex Cord-Stromal Tumor; Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma; Metastatic Malignant Neoplasm of Unknown Primary Origin; Minimally Invasive Lung Adenocarcinoma; Mixed Mesodermal (Mullerian) Tumor; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Adenocarcinoma; Nasal Cavity Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Ovarian Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Acinar Cell Carcinoma; Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Paraganglioma; Paranasal Sinus Adenocarcinoma; Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma; Parathyroid Gland Carcinoma; Pituitary Gland Carcinoma; Placental Choriocarcinoma; Placental-Site Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor; Primary Peritoneal High Grade Serous Adenocarcinoma

  8. Tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, R A; Nesland, J M

    1994-01-01

    For the sake of discussion, the markedly diversified tumors of the endocrine/neuroendocrine system are classified as those originating in classic epithelial endocrine organs (eg, adrenal cortical adenomas), from the diffuse endocrine cells (eg, jejunal carcinoid tumors), or from clusters of these cells (eg, islet cell tumors); and those arising from neurosecretory neurons (eg, neuroblastoma) or paraganglia (eg, carotid body tumor). Although traditional transmission electron microscopy is useful for identifying neurosecretory or endosecretory granules as such, with few exceptions (eg, insulin-containing granules with a complex paracrystalline core) it is not possible to ascribe a granule type (size, shape, or ultrastructure) to a distinct nosologic entity or secretory product because of their overlapping fine structures in different cell types. Immunoelectron microscopy methods utilizing colloidal gold-labeled secondary antibodies can be used to localize virtually any antigen (peptide or neuroamine) to a specific neurosecretory or endosecretory granule or other cell structure. General endocrine/neuroendocrine cell markers such as neuron-specific enolase, the chromogranins, and synaptophysin are useful in identifying neuroendocrine differentiation in a neoplasm using routine immunohistochemical procedures. The current relevance of the APUD concept of Pearse as well as the biologic importance of endocrine/neuroendocrine secretory products such as bombesin and insulinlike growth factors also are discussed.

  9. 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT-PET imaging for monitoring everolimus effect on tumor-growth in neuroendocrine tumors: studies in human tumor xenografts in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Bardram Johnbeck

    Full Text Available The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has shown promising results in some but not all neuroendocrine tumors. Therefore, early assessment of treatment response would be beneficial. In this study, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro treatment effect of everolimus in neuroendocrine tumors and evaluated the performance of 18F-FDG and the proliferation tracer 18F-FLT for treatment response assessment by PET imaging.The effect of everolimus on the human carcinoid cell line H727 was examined in vitro with the MTT assay and in vivo on H727 xenograft tumors. The mice were scanned at baseline with 18F-FDG or 18F-FLT and then treated with either placebo or everolimus (5 mg/kg daily for 10 days. PET/CT scans were repeated at day 1,3 and 10.Everolimus showed significant inhibition of H727 cell proliferation in vitro at concentrations above 1 nM. In vivo tumor volumes measured relative to baseline were significantly lower in the everolimus group compared to the control group at day 3 (126±6% vs. 152±6%; p = 0.016, day 7 (164±7% vs. 226±13%; p<0.001 and at day 10 (194±10% vs. 281±18%; p<0.001. Uptake of 18F-FDG and 18F-FLT showed little differences between control and treatment groups, but individual mean uptake of 18F-FDG at day 3 correlated with tumor growth day 10 (r2 = 0.45; P = 0.034, 18F-FLT mean uptake at day 1 correlated with tumor growth day 7 (r2 = 0.63; P = 0.019 and at day 3 18F-FLT correlated with tumor growth day 7 (r2 = 0.87; P<0.001 and day 10 (r2 = 0.58; P = 0.027.Everolimus was effective in vitro and in vivo in human xenografts lung carcinoid NETs and especially early 18F-FLT uptake predicted subsequent tumor growth. We suggest that 18F-FLT PET can be used for tailoring therapy for neuroendocrine tumor patients through early identification of responders and non-responders.

  10. ERCC1 and Ki67 in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Other Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung Distribution and Impact on Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Birgit Guldhammer; Holm, B.; Erreboe, A.

    2010-01-01

    .001). The difference between TC and AC was significant (p = 0.02), as was the difference between low grade (TC + AC) and high grade NE (LCNEC + SCLC) (p ... with platinum-based chemotherapy has no impact on survival. High expression of ERCC1 in TC might represent a clue to the failure of platinum-based therapy in these patients. ERCC1 expression has prognostic impact in lung carcinoids. Ki 67 might be considered as a supplementary test to the histopatologic...... classification of NE tumors...

  11. Focal adhesion kinase, a downstream mediator of Raf-1 signaling, suppresses cellular adhesion, migration, and neuroendocrine markers in BON carcinoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Chen, Herbert; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2010-05-01

    We have recently reported that activation of the Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/ERK1/2 signaling cascade in gastrointestinal carcinoid cell line (BON) alters cellular morphology and neuroendocrine phenotype. The mechanisms by which Raf-1 mediates these changes in carcinoid cells are unclear. Here, we report that activation of the Raf-1 signaling cascade in BON cells induced the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein, suppressed the production of neuroendocrine markers, and resulted in significant decreases in cellular adhesion and migration. Importantly, inactivation of MEK1/2 by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene or abolition of FAK induction in Raf-1-activated BON cells by targeted siRNA led to reversal of the Raf-1-mediated reduction in neuroendocrine markers and cellular adhesion and migration. Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies detected the phosphorylated FAK(Tyr407), but not FAK(Tyr397), in these Raf-1-activated cells, indicating that FAK(Tyr407) may be associated with changes in the neuroendocrine phenotype. Overexpression of constitutively active FAK plasmids (wild-type FAK or FAK(Tyr397) mutant) into BON cells reduced neuroendocrine markers, whereas the FAK(Tyr407) mutant plasmid did not show any decrease in the levels of neuroendocrine markers, indicating that phosphorylation of FAK at the Tyr(407) residue may be important for these effects. Our results showed for the first time that FAK is an essential downstream effector of the Raf-1/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 signaling cascade and negatively regulated the neuroendocrine and metastatic phenotype in BON cells. (c)2010 AACR.

  12. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  13. Specific targeting for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    For the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors three ways of specific targeting of radionuclides prevail: by 131 I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG), which is taken up by an active uptake-1 mechanism and stored in neurosecretory granules of neural crest tumor cells, by radiolabeled peptides, in particular the somatostatin analogs octreotide and lanreotide, targeting the peptide receptors, and by radiolabeled antibodies, which target tumor cell surface antigens. The choice depends on the indication, the results of diagnostic imaging using tracer amounts of these agents, the availability and feasibility of radionuclide therapy and of other treatment modalities. The applications, clinical results and developments for the major indications are reviewed. 131 I-MIBG therapy has a cumulative response rate of 50%, associated with little toxicity, in metastatic pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and neuroblastoma, whereas its role is primarily palliative in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid tumors. Treatment using 90 Y- or 177 Lu-labeled octreotide/lanreotide is mostly used in neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumors and paraganglioma, attaining stabilization of disease anti-palliation in the majority of patients. As this treatment is specific for the receptor rather than for the tumor type, it may also be applicable to other, non-neuroendocrine tumors. Radioimmunotherapy is applied in medullary thyroid carcinoma, in which a phase I/II study using bi-specific anti-DTPA/anti-CEA immuno-conjugates followed by 131 I-hapten has proven some degree of success, and may be used in neuroblastoma more effectively than before, once chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies become available for therapy. Integration of these specific and noninvasive therapies at an optimal moment into the treatment protocols of these diseases may enhance their effectiveness and acceptance. (author)

  14. Pancreatic endocrine tumors or apudomas Tumores endocrinos o apudomas pancreáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Varas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET are difficult to diagnose. Their accurate localization using imaging techniques is intended to provide a definite cure. The goal of this retrospective study was to review a PET series from a private institution. Patients and methods: the medical records of 19 patients with PETs were reviewed, including 4 cases of MEN-1, for a period of 17 years (1994-2010. A database was set up with ten parameters: age, sex, symptoms, imaging techniques, size and location in the pancreas, metastasis, surgery, complications, adjuvant therapies, definite diagnosis, and survival or death. Results: a total of 19 cases were analyzed. Mean age at presentation was 51 years (range: 26-67 y (14 males, 5 females, and tumor size was 5 to 80 mm (X: 20 mm. Metastatic disease was present in 37% (7/19. Most underwent the following imaging techniques: ultrasounds, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Fine needle aspiration punction (FNA was performed for the primary tumor in 4 cases. Non-functioning: 7 cases (37%, insulinoma: 2 cases [1 with possible multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN], Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES from gastrinoma: 5 (3 with MEN-1, glucagonoma: 2 cases, 2 somatostatinomas; carcinoid: 1 case with carcinoide-like syndrome. Most patients were operated upon: 14/19 (73%. Four (4/14: 28% has postoperative complications following pancreatectomy: pancreatitis, pseudocyst, and abdominal collections. Some patients received chemotherapy (4, somatostatin (3 and interferon (2 before or after surgery. Median follow-up was 48 months. Actuarial survival during the study was 73.6% (14/19. Conclusions: age was similar to that described in the literature. Males were predominant. Most cases were non-functioning (37%. Most patients underwent surgery (73% with little morbidity (28% and an actuarial survival of 73.6% at the time of the study.Introducción y objetivo: los tumores endocrinos pancre

  15. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  16. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  17. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  18. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  19. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  20. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in a case of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor presenting with liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Khare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH syndrome is an uncommon disorder and comprises about 15% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS. Duodenal carcinoids are rare, indolent tumors usually associated with a benign progression. We hereby report a rare case of CS resulting from ectopic ACTH secretion from a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET presenting with liver metastasis. A 37-year-old female presented with abdominal discomfort and dyspepsia of 1-month duration. Ultrasound abdomen suggested a well-defined hypoechoic lesion in the left lobe of the liver, suggestive of neoplasia. On clinical examination, she had Cushingoid features and persistent hypokalemia. Midnight ACTH and cortisol levels were grossly elevated at 1027 pg/ml (n < 46 pg/ml and 87.56 μg/dl (n < 7.5 μg/ml, respectively. Both overnight and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test confirmed nonsuppressed cortisol levels - 86.04 and 84.42 μg/dl (n < 1.8 μg/ml, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed a structurally normal pituitary gland. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed hepatic lesion with bilateral adrenal enlargement. A diagnosis of ectopic ACTH-dependent CS was made. Intraoperatively, a duodenal lesion of 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm was identified alongside an 8 cm × 6 cm exophytic lesion in segment IV of the liver. Frozen section of the duodenal lesion was positive for NET. She underwent a Whipple's surgery, cholecystectomy, and left hepatic lobectomy. Postoperatively, she showed clinical and biochemical remission. Herewith, we report the third case of duodenal carcinoid tumor presenting as ectopic ACTH syndrome and the first with liver metastasis.

  2. Contemporary nuclear medicine diagnostics of neuroendocrine tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Tirnanić Mila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new positron emission tomography (PET/CT methods for neuroendocrine tumors detection are presented and compared with classic, conventional methods. Conventional methods use a gamma scintillation camera for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of one of the following radiopharmaceuticals: 1 somatostatin analogues labeled with indium-111 (111In-pentetreotide or technetium-99m (99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC; 2 noradrenaline analogue labeled with iodine-131 or -123 (131I/123I-MIBG; or 3 99mTc(V-DMSA. Contemporary methods use PET/CT equipment for patients with neuroendocrine tumor imaging, after intravenous injection of pharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters [fluorine-18 (18F, galium-68 (68Ga, or carbon-11 (11C]: 1 glucose analogue (18FDG; 2 somatostatin analogue (68Ga-DOTATOC/68Ga-DOTATATE/68Ga-DOTANOC; 3 aminoacid precursors of bioamines: [a dopamine precursor 18F-DOPA (6-18F-dihydroxyphenylalanine, b serotonin precursor 11C-5HTP (11C-5-hydroxytryptophan]; or 4 dopamine analogue 18F-DA (6-18F-fluorodopamine. Conventional and contemporary (PET/ CT somatostatin receptor detection showed identical high specificity (92%, but conventional had very low sensitivity (52% compared to PET/CT (97%. It means that almost every second neuroendocrine tumor detected by contemporary method cannot be discovered using conventional (classic method. In metastatic pheochromocytoma detection contemporary (PET/ CT methods (18F-DOPA and 18F-DA have higher sensitivity than conventional (131I/123I-MIBG. In medullary thyroid carcinoma diagnostics contemporary method (18F-DOPA is more sensitive than conventional 99mTc(V-DMSA method, and is similar to 18FDG, computed tomography and magnetic resonance. In carcinoid detection contemporary method (18F-DOPA shows similar results with contemporary somatostatin receptor detection, while for gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors it is worse. To conclude, contemporary (PET/CT methods for

  3. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. Salvage treatment after r-interferon α-2a in advanced neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilembo, N.; Buzzoni, R.; Bajetta, E.; Di Bartolomeo, M.; De Braud, F.; Castellani, R.; Maffioli, L.; Celio, L.; Villa, E.; Lorusso, V.; Fosser, V.; Buzzi, F.

    1993-01-01

    The use of interferon (IFN) in neuroendocrine advanced tumors has achieved control of hormonal symptoms but low objective tumor response rate. In patients resistant to, or failing on, IFN a second line treatment may be required. Seventeen patients having received recombinant IFN α-2a as last treatment entered the study. There were 12 carcinoids, 3 medullary thyroid carcinomas, one Merkel cell carcinoma, and one neuroendocrine pancreatic tumor. Two different treatments were used: one radiometabolic therapy with metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in 3 patients with high MIBG uptake and one polychemotherapy regimen, including streptozotocin 500 mg/m 2 intravenously days 1, 2, 3 and epirubicin 75 mg/m 2 intravenously day 1, in the remaining 14 patients. Stable disease with relief of symptoms and tumor marker reduction was obtained in two patients receiving MIGB therapy, whereas the third patient had progressive disease. In the chemotherapy group only one partial response was obtained and neither tumor marker reduction nor subjective improvement were seen. Our second-line treatment was not especially effective but may be considered for rapidly progressive and/or symptomatic disease. The radiometabolic therapy appears promising in symptomatic patients with small tumor burden whereas our chemotherapy regimen appears ineffective. (orig.)

  5. Tumores gástricos malignos en el Hospital San Juan de Dios y la Clínica Carlos Lleras Restrepo de Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana L. Arias; Mauricio A. Paláu; Juan José Yunis; Diana Palacios; Orlando Ricaurte

    2001-01-01

    Se revisaron 9.349 informes de estudios de especímenes quirúrgicos del archivo del Departamento de Patología del Hospital San Juan de Dios y la Clínica Carlos Lleras Restrepo de Bogotá en el tiempo comprendido entre enero 1 de 1999 y mayo 31 de 2000. Se seleccionaron los especímenes con diagnóstico de tumores gástricos que correspondieron al 8,61% de los casos; 2,41% fueron tumores benignos y 6,2% malignos De éstos 91,67% fueron adenocarcinomas, 2,78 % linfomas, 1,85% tumores carcinoides y 1,...

  6. Clinical relevance of F-18 FDG PET for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Baum, R.P.; Hoer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are characterized immunocytochemically by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. Hormones induce their biological action by binding to and stimulating specific membrane-associated receptors for e.g. somatostatin. The presence of somatostatin receptors (SR) has been described mainly in endocrine glands and the central nervous system. Interestingly, a large variety of human tumors, including gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) also express a high density of SR and can be imaged with [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 ]-pentetreotide. Cell proliferative activity is an important indicator of the growth of various malignant tumors associated with a poorer prognosis and Ki-67 expression. 18 F-FDG is a marker of tumor viability, based upon the increased glycolysis that is associated with malignancy as compared with normal tissue. SR-containing neuroendocrine tumors are well-differentiated and tend to grow slowly. Furthermore, these tumors demonstrate inverse relationship between in vivo SR expression, cell proliferation (low Ki-67 expression) and FDG uptake (normal biodistribution). In comparison, less differentiated tumors, e.g. atypical carcinoids or MTC with increasing CEA levels show mitotic activity (high levels of Ki-67 immunoreactivity and increased FDG uptake) and often lack of SR. In conclusion, SR scintigraphy has been shown to localize well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. In contrast, PET imaging is valuable for predicting malignancy only in less differentiated tumors with increased glucose metabolism. Therefore, an additional F-18 FDG PET should be performed if SR scintigraphy (GEP tumors) or combined imaging using [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 ]-pentetreotide and 99m Tc(V)-DMSA (MTC) is negative. (orig.) [de

  7. [Categorization of uterine cervix tumors : What's new in the 2014 WHO classification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, S F; Horn, L-C; Löning, T

    2016-11-01

    In the 2014 WHO classification, squamous cell precursor lesions are classified as low-grade and high-grade intraepithelial lesions. LSIL corresponds to CIN1, HSIL includes CIN2 and CIN3. Only adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is accepted as precursor of adenocarcinoma and includes the stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE). Although relatively rare, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma can be mixed with a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma. Most cervical adenocarcinomas are low grade and of endocervical type. Mucinous carcinomas show marked intra- and extracellular mucin production. Almost all squamous cell carcinomas, the vast majority of adenocarcinomas, and many rare carcinoma types are HPV related. For low grade endocervical adenocarcinomas, the pattern-based classification according to Silva should be reported. Neuroendocrine tumors are rare and are classified into low-grade and high-grade, whereby the term carcinoid is still used.

  8. The Contrasting Role of p16Ink4A Patterns of Expression in Neuroendocrine and Non-Neuroendocrine Lung Tumors: A Comprehensive Analysis with Clinicopathologic and Molecular Correlations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Fusco

    Full Text Available Lung cancer encompasses a constellation of malignancies with no validated prognostic markers. p16Ink4A expression has been reported in different subtypes of lung cancers; however, its prognostic value is controversial. Here, we sought to investigate the clinical significance of p16Ink4A immunoexpression according to specific staining patterns and its operational implications. A total of 502 tumors, including 277 adenocarcinomas, 84 squamous cell carcinomas, 22 large cell carcinomas, 47 typical carcinoids, 12 atypical carcinoids, 28 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 32 small cell carcinomas were reviewed and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for p16Ink4A and Ki67. The spectrum of p16Ink4A expression was annotated for each case as negative, sporadic, focal, or diffuse. Expression at immunohistochemical level showed intra-tumor homogeneity, regardless tumor histotype. Enrichments in cells expressing p16Ink4A were observed from lower- to higher-grade neuroendocrine malignancies, whereas a decrease was seen in poorly and undifferentiated non-neuroendocrine carcinomas. Tumor proliferation indices were higher in neuroendocrine tumors expressing p16Ink4A while non-neuroendocrine malignancies immunoreactive for p16Ink4A showed a decrease in Ki67-positive cells. Quantitative statistical analyses including each histotype and the p16Ink4A status confirmed the independent prognostic role of p16Ink4A expression, being a high-risk indicator in neuroendocrine tumors and a marker of good prognosis in non-neuroendocrine lung malignancies. In this study, we provide circumstantial evidence to suggest that the routinary assessment of p16Ink4A expression using a three-tiered scoring algorithm, even in a small biopsy, may constitute a reliable, reproducible, and cost-effective substrate for a more accurate risk stratification of each individual patient.

  9. Prognostic value of PET/CT in lung cancer. Study of survival and tumor metabolic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Fuentes Anibal; Farina, Ciro; Corral, Camilo; Pefaur, Raul

    2013-01-01

    PET/CT (Positron emission tomography/computed tomography) is a hybrid image modality widely used in oncology, for staging, therapy evaluation or follow up. Aim: To evaluate the prognostic value of PET/CT in lung cancer. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of PET/CT records, selecting 51 patients with a lung malignancy, mass or nodule referred for PET/CT between December 2008 and December 2010. All had pathological confirmation of malignancy and had not been treated previously. Age, gender, body mass index, radiological features of lung tumor and metastases, and lung tumor 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake using the SUV (Standardized uptake value) index were recorded. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional regression analysis. Results: Pathology confirmed the presence of lung cancer in 47 patients aged 30 to 88 years. Four patients (7.8%) had other type of tumors such as carcinoid or lymphoma. Fifty percent of lung cancer patients died during a mean observation lapse of 18 months (range: 2-34 months). Patients with metastases, local lymph node involvement, a lung tumor size ≥ 3 cm and high tumor uptake (SUVmax > 6) had significantly lower survival. Occurrence of metastases was the only independent prognostic factor in the Cox regression. A lung lesion with a SUVmax ≥ 12 was always associated to hilar/mediastinal lymph node involvement. Conclusions: PET/CT imaging gives important prognostic information in lung cancer patients

  10. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  11. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  12. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  13. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  14. SSAT State-of-the-Art Conference: Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Jeffrey A; Kim, Teresa; Kim, Joseph; McCarter, Martin D; Kelly, Kaitlyn J; Wong, Joyce; Sicklick, Jason K

    2018-01-01

    The current era of gastric surgery is marked by low morbidity and mortality rates, innovative strategies to approach resections with a minimally invasive fashion or hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), as well as improved understanding of the biology of sporadic and hereditary stromal, neuroendocrine, and epithelial malignancies. In 2017, the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract convened a State-of-the-Art Conference on Current Surgical Management of Gastric Tumors with both international experts and emerging leaders in the field of gastric surgery. Martin D. McCarter, MD of the University of Colorado discussed the current management of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Kaitlyn J. Kelly, MD of the University of California, San Diego discussed the management of gastric carcinoid tumors. Jeffrey A. Norton of Stanford University discussed recent advances in the management of gastric adenocarcinoma including a focus on hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). Joseph Kim, MD of Stony Brook University discussed a systematic approach to minimally invasive gastrectomy for cancer. Joyce Wong, MD of Pennsylvania State University discussed the role for cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and HIPEC for gastric adenocarcinoma. This review provides gastrointestinal surgeons with a concise update on the current surgical management of gastric tumors.

  15. Usefulness of [18F]FDG-PET in diagnosis of 18 tumors unapproved in health insurance. Study with multi-center survey by questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torizuka, Kanji; Ito, Kengo

    2008-01-01

    Usefulness of [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) diagnosis of the title tumors is practically realized and their approval in the health insurance might be awaited. The actual state of the diagnosis to confirm its usefulness was studied by questionnaire to facilities, where PET had been conducted for those tumors in the period July, 2005-February, 2006. Major questions concerned the purpose and finding of PET, findings by other imaging means and by tumor markers, and judgment of PET effectiveness compared with other imaging (more useful, equally or less, and its reason). In 30 facilities that gave answers, subjects were 133 cases (3-86 years old) in 18 diseases, which involved 3 cases of neuroblastoma, 13 of pheochromocytoma, 2 of carcinoid, 12 malignant pleural mesothelioma, 2 of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, 13 of renal cell carcinoma, 2 of ureteral cancer, 4 of bladder cancer, 1 of Wilms' tumor, 24 of prostate cancer, 16 of testis tumor, 17 of mediastinal tumor, 5 of adrenal tumor, 5 of cutaneous tumor, 5 of extra-mammary Paget's disease, 7 of multiple myeloma, 1 of malignant fibrous histiocytoma and 1 of splenic hemangioma. Obtained were the judgments of highly useful in 10 diseases, fairly useful in 5, and useful in 3. Urological and cutaneous cancers above were subjected ones to their diagnosis of recurrence or metastasis postoperation, having given highly useful results, and thus FDG-PET was thought to be also highly useful in the postoperative follow-up. (R.T.)

  16. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  17. Patient-reported Symptom Experiences in Patients With Carcinoid Syndrome After Participation in a Study of Telotristat Etiprate: A Qualitative Interview Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Kulke, Matthew H; O'Dorisio, Thomas; Yang, Qi M; Jackson, Jessica; Jackson, Shanna; Boehm, Kristi A; Law, Linda; Kostelec, Jacqueline; Auguste, Priscilla; Lapuerta, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Telotristat etiprate, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was previously evaluated in a Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) and diarrhea not adequately controlled by octreotide. The objective of the current study was to characterize the symptom experiences of patients participating in that trial. Consenting patients participated in one-on-one, qualitative interviews focused on eliciting symptoms they had experienced in association with their CS diagnosis and recollection of symptom changes they experienced while participating in the Phase II trial. Among the 23 patients who participated in the previous 4-week dose-escalation study, 16 were eligible for interviews and 11 participated in the present study. The median time from study completion to the interview was 31 months; 4 of 11 patients were receiving telotristat etiprate in a follow-up, open-label trial at the time of interview. All of the patients (100%) described diarrhea as a symptom of CS, with effects on the emotional, social, and physical aspects of their lives. Improvement in diarrhea during the study was described by 82% of participants, and was very impactful in several patients. Results led to the design and implementation of a larger interview program in Phase III and helped to establish a definition of clinically meaningful change for the clinical development program. The diarrhea associated with CS can have a large impact on daily lives, and patient interviews can characterize and capture clinically meaningful improvements with treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00853047. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  19. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  20. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  1. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  2. Effects of Sandostatin LAR on gastrointestinal motility in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Tine; Grønbæk, Henning; Worsøe, Jonas; Schlageter, Vincent; Laurberg, Søren; Krogh, Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Diarrhea is part of the carcinoid syndrome and a significant clinical problem in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients. Somatostatin analog (SA) treatment usually alleviates carcinoid diarrhea, but little is known about the objective effects of SA on gastrointestinal transport. To compare gastrointestinal motility in healthy subjects and NET patients before and during SA treatment. Twelve NET patients were studied before and during 4 weeks of SA treatment and were compared with 12 healthy controls. Radio-opaque markers were used for the assessment of total gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). Gastric and small intestinal (SI) transit patterns were described via the external tracking of a small magnetic pill ingested by the subjects. Compared with controls, NET patients had a significantly shorter GITT (0.7 days (0.5-1.5) vs. 1.9 days (1.0-2.3)), a shorter SI transit time (184 min (74-307) vs. 322 min (131-376)), and a faster SI velocity (2.16 cm/min (0.91-3.66) vs. 1.29 cm/min (0.76-2.60)) (all p < 0.05) but a similar gastric emptying time. SA treatment was followed by a reduction in bowel movements (five per day (3-12) vs. four per day (1-7; p < 0.02)) as well as an increase in GITT (1.4 days (0.5-2.2; p < 0.05)). Further, a trend was observed toward increased SI transit time (253 min (145-344; p = 0.08)). Gastric emptying time increased during SA treatment (19 min (4-200) vs. 179 min (5-389; p < 0.02)). Elevated chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (U-5HIAA) levels decreased during SA treatment. NET patients have faster than normal total GITT and SI transit times. SA treatment prolongs gastric emptying and GITT, thereby reducing the number of bowel movements.

  3. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  4. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  5. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  6. Therapy of metastatic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). Recent insights and advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Jensen, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) [carcinoids, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs)] are becoming an increasing clinical problem because not only are they increasing in frequency, but they can frequently present with advanced disease that requires diagnostic and treatment approaches different from those used in the neoplasms that most physicians are used to seeing and treating. In the past few years there have been numerous advances in all aspects of NETs including: an understanding of their unique pathogenesis; specific classification systems developed which have prognostic value; novel methods of tumor localization developed; and novel treatment approaches described. In patients with advanced metastatic disease these include the use of newer chemotherapeutic approaches, an increased understanding of the role of surgery and cytoreductive methods, the development of methods for targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents, and the development of targeted medical therapies (everolimus, sunitinib) based on an increased understanding of the disease biology. Although pNETs and gastrointestinal NETs share many features, recent studies show they differ in pathogenesis and in many aspects of diagnosis and treatment, including their responsiveness to different therapies. Because of limited space, this review will be limited to the advances made in the management and treatment of patients with advanced metastatic pNETs over the past 5 years. (author)

  7. Trans-catheter arterial chemoembolization as first-line treatment for hepatic metastases from endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Alain; Girish, Baragur V.; de Baere, Thierry; Baudin, Eric; Schlumberger, Martin; Boige, Valerie; Ducreux, Michel; Elias, Dominique; Lasser, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to report the outcome in patients with liver metastasis from endocrine tumors who underwent transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as first-line non-surgical treatment. From January 1990 to December 2000, 14 patients with progressive unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumor were treated with TACE (mean of 3.6 sessions) before any non-surgical treatment (somatostatin analogue, chemotherapy or interferon). Liver involvement was less than 50% in 11 patients. Size of the largest lesion ranged from 1.5 to 10 cm. Ten patients presented with carcinoid symptoms. The TACE was performed with Doxorubicin emulsified in Lipiodol and gelatin sponge particles. Symptomatic response upon flushes and/or diarrhea was complete in 7 of 10 cases and partial in 2 of 10 cases. An objective morphologic response was noted in 12 of 14 cases. The 5- and 10-year survival rate from diagnosis was 83 and 56%, respectively. Six patients were alive at the end of the study after 27-100 months from first TACE and 38-142 months from diagnosis. Three of them were successfully palliated for 55, 69, and 100 months with only TACE as treatment. Long-term palliation is possible in unresectable liver metastases from digestive neuroendocrine tumors with a few sessions of TACE as first-line and eventually exclusive treatment. (orig.)

  8. Acromegaly in a patient with a pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor: case report and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Sebastian; Boch, Michael; Rexin, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Gress, Thomas; Michl, Patrick; Rinke, Anja

    2016-06-27

    Pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NET) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. In these tumors, paraneoplastic syndromes have been described to drive the course of the disease, among them acromegaly induced by paraneoplastic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). We report the case of a 43 years old patient initially diagnosed with acromegaly accompanied by weight gain and acral enlargement. Subsequently, further diagnostic work-up identified a solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Laboratory tests revealed markedly increased growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) without GHRH elevation in the absence of pituitary pathologies confirming the paraneoplastic origin of clinical presentation with acromegaly. Curative surgery was performed leading to normalization of the elevated hormone levels and improvement of the clinical symptoms. Immunohistochemically, a typical carcinoid (TC) was seen with low proliferation index and abundant IGF-1 expression. The association of acromegaly and pulmonary NET has only rarely been reported. We present an individual case of paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion in a patient with pulmonary NET. Based on their rarity, the knowledge of paraneoplastic syndromes occurring in patients with pulmonary NET such as acromegaly due to paraneoplastic GH- and IGF-1 secretion is mandatory to adequately diagnose and treat these patients.

  9. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EXPRESSION OF SOMATOSTATIN RECEPTORS TYPES 1, 2A, 3 AND 5 IN NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS OF VARIOUS LOCALIZATION AND GRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Gurevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediction of clinical benefits of somatostatin analogues in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET is very important prior to their administration. Data on immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of somatostatin receptors (SSR of various types, obtained from large samples of NET with various localization, functional activity and degree of malignancy, are scarce; therefore, the study was aimed at assessment of the latter.Materials and methods: We performed an immunohistochemical study with antibodies to SSR1, 2A, 3 and 5  types on tissue samples obtained during diagnostic and intra-operative biopsies from 399 NETs: 168 from pancreas, 120 from gastrointestinal tract (stomach, 48, from small intestine, 39, 14 of which being from duodenum; appendix, 6, colon and the rectum, 15 and 12, respectively, 84 from lung, 6 from thymus/mediastinum, and 21 from NET metastases of unknown primary localization.Results: Very high levels expression of receptors SSR2A preferentially binding to somatostatin analogues, which are currently used in clinical practice, were detected in the small intestine NETs (22/25, 88%, appendix (5/6, 83.3%, colon (10/15, 66.7%, thymus (4/6, 66.7%, atypical carcinoids of the lung (10/15, 66.7%, stomach (27/41, 65.8% and pancreas (105/165, 63.6%. The lowest expression was found in rectal NETs (5/12, 41.7% and small and large cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (20, 11.1%. Among functioning NETs, the highest level of SSR2A was found in gastrinomas (18/19, 94.7%, glucagonomas (15/16, 93.8%, small intestine carcinoids (31/35, 88.6%, and somatostatinomas (2/3, 66.7%. The lowest expression was detected in ACTH secreting tumors with Cushing's syndrome (11/12, 50%, and in insulinomas (34/69, 49.3%. SSR2A expression in functionally inactive pancreatic NETs was significantly higher than in insulinomas (57/82, 34/69 vs 69.5 and 49.3%, respectively. SSR2A expression was associated with the degree of malignancy and is

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  13. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  14. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  15. Five year remission of GHRH secreting bronchial neuroendocrine tumor with symptoms of acromegaly. Utility of chromogranin A in the monitoring of the disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolanowski, M.; Zatonska, K.; Kos-Kudla, B.; Rzeszutko, M.; Marciniak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Acromegaly is usually caused by excess GH (growth hormone) secretion by pituitary adenoma. Extremely rare (< 1% of cases) acromegaly can be a result of ectopic GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) secretion by bronchial tubes, lung, pancreatic or intestinal tumor. The aim of this description is to present the case of successfully treated acromegaly caused by ectopic GHRH secretion by bronchial neuroendocrine tumor and the usefulness of chromogranin A assay in the disease monitoring. The diagnosis of acromegaly in 61-year old woman was based on typical clinical picture and elevated GH and IGF-1(insulin-like growth factor-1) levels. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) images revealed no tumor in the pituitary but only the pituitary enlargement. Moreover, the right lung tumor (10 cm size) and elevated GHRH level were documented. The secretion of GH, IGF-1 and GHRH were normalized and progression of acromegaly was stopped after the carcinoid tumor surgery. Currently, 5 year after surgery, acromegaly is still in the remission, as the normal levels of GH, IGF-1, chromogranin A and normal chest and pituitary images confirm. The authors emphasize usefulness of measurement of chromogranin A concentration for the evaluation of the tumor remission in case the routine GHRH assay is not accessible. (authors)

  16. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  17. Small neuroendocrine tumor of the duodenal bulb: Endoscopic submucosal dissection, laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery or surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos V Chrysanthos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastric tube are less common than adenocarcinomas. Topography includes stomach, small intestine, Vater ampulla, and gross intestine. They are graded as neuroendocrine tumors grade I and II (NETs GI and GII and neuroendocrine carcinomas GIII based on Ki-67 index and mitotic count. [1] Endoscopic treatment for GI NETs ≤1 cm that does not extend beyond the submucosal layer and does not demonstrate lymph node metastasis is recommended. Tumors ≥2 cm, with lymph node metastasis, are indicated for surgical treatment. The treatment strategy for tumors between 10 and 20 mm in size remains controversial. [2] We present a rare case of a 60-year-old male patient with end-stage renal failure who underwent a screening pretransplantation endoscopic control. Colonoscopy had no pathological findings. Gastroscopy reveals an abnormal mucosa in the anterior upper part of the duodenal bulb that was described as a micronodular mucosa and a central nodule of 6 mm with erythematous mucosa. Histology of the micronodular mucosa reveals a heterotopic gastric mucosa and a small hyperplastic polyp. Biopsies from the nodule reveal a carcinoid tumor (NET GI. Immunohistochemistry: Positive chromogranin levels, low mitotic index (1/10 HPF, and Ki-67 index 2 cm and those of the duodenal bulb with histological extensions and the lack of assessing depth invasion.

  18. Testis tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.L.; Maier, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical trials are evaluating new combinations of drugs with the goal of diminishing the toxicity associated with the current regimens while not compromising the chance for cure. The evolution of information and staging studies such as tumor markers, CT scanning and MR scanning has made possible the detection of residual metastatic disease while obviating the need for surgical staging procedures. This has made less treatment possible for a large number of patients. The regularity of follow-up studies has made early detection of recurrences a possibility, so that effective and curative treatment is generally possible

  19. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  20. Tumor Macroenvironment and Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S.; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organ...

  1. Carcinoid syndrome diagnosed by echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Scot; Bourantas, Christos V; Nair, Rajesh K; Alamgir, Farqad

    2011-02-17

    Right heart failure is a common presentation to both general physicians and cardiologists. Echocardiography is a useful investigation, and usually imaging of the liver is confined to helping estimate the right atrial pressure. We report a case of right heart failure where incidental imaging of the liver architecture during transoesophageal echocardiography helped in establishing the final diagnosis. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Specific targeting for the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors; Ciblage specifique pour le traitement des tumeurs neuro-endocrines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A. [Netherlands Cancer Institute 1066 CX Amsterdam, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    For the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors three ways of specific targeting of radionuclides prevail: by {sup 131}I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG), which is taken up by an active uptake-1 mechanism and stored in neurosecretory granules of neural crest tumor cells, by radiolabeled peptides, in particular the somatostatin analogs octreotide and lanreotide, targeting the peptide receptors, and by radiolabeled antibodies, which target tumor cell surface antigens. The choice depends on the indication, the results of diagnostic imaging using tracer amounts of these agents, the availability and feasibility of radionuclide therapy and of other treatment modalities. The applications, clinical results and developments for the major indications are reviewed. {sup 131}I-MIBG therapy has a cumulative response rate of 50%, associated with little toxicity, in metastatic pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma and neuroblastoma, whereas its role is primarily palliative in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma and carcinoid tumors. Treatment using {sup 90}Y- or {sup 177}Lu-labeled octreotide/lanreotide is mostly used in neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumors and paraganglioma, attaining stabilization of disease anti-palliation in the majority of patients. As this treatment is specific for the receptor rather than for the tumor type, it may also be applicable to other, non-neuroendocrine tumors. Radioimmunotherapy is applied in medullary thyroid carcinoma, in which a phase I/II study using bi-specific anti-DTPA/anti-CEA immuno-conjugates followed by {sup 131}I-hapten has proven some degree of success, and may be used in neuroblastoma more effectively than before, once chimeric and humanized monoclonal antibodies become available for therapy. Integration of these specific and noninvasive therapies at an optimal moment into the treatment protocols of these diseases may enhance their effectiveness and acceptance. (author)

  3. Tumor carcinóide do timo – Caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os tumores neuroendócrinos primários representam cerca de 4% do total dos tumores do mediastino anterior, incluindo o timo, afectando mais homens que mulheres numa razão de 3:1 e apresentando uma maior incidência entre os 40 e os 60 anos. Antigamente classificados como timomas, desde 1972 são considerados um grupo distinto de neoplasias tímicas, podendo ser biologicamente activos, estando sobretudo associados à síndroma NEM-1 (19 a 25% dos doentes, sendo nestes casos mais agressivos.São descritos como tendo grande progressão local, recorrência e metástases em elevada percentagem de casos, o que determina um mau prognóstico. O estadiamento é o parâmetro mais importante para determinar a sobrevida. Tumores detectados em fase precoce e capsulados associam-se a um excelente prognóstico, enquanto em estádios avançados, localmente invasivos, têm prognóstico relativamente pobre.A remoção cirúrgica completa, para todos os tumores tímicos, é a base da terapêutica e o factor crítico para a sobrevivência a longo prazo, independentemente do tipo histológico. São uma causa de morte importante, nomeadamente os tumores associados a NEM-1 e síndroma de Cushing, e há autores que defendem a realização de timectomia profiláctica nestes doentes.Rev Port Pneumol 2010; XVI (1: 177-185 Abstract: Primary neuroendocrine tumours (carcinoid tumours account for about 4% of anterior mediastinal tumours concerning thymus localization. They appear to have a male predilection (3:1 ratio and occur mostly between 40 and 60 years of age. Classified primarily as thymomas, they have been considered a different group of thymic neoplasia since 1972. They can be biologically active, mostly associated with MEN-1 (19-25% of patients and more aggressive in these cases.As a locally invasive disease, with recurrence and metastasis in a high percentage of cases, it correlates

  4. Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... navigate their brain tumor diagnosis. WATCH AND SHARE Brain tumors and their treatment can be deadly so ... Pediatric Central Nervous System Cancers Read more >> Pediatric Brain Tumor Foundation 302 Ridgefield Court, Asheville, NC 28806 ...

  5. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Brain Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Brain Tumors What's in ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  6. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  7. Malignant bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    Clinicoroentgenologic semiotics of malignant bone tumors as well as metastatic bone tumors are presented. Diagnosis of malignant and metastatic bone tumors should be always complex, representing a result of cooperation of a physician, roentgenologist, pathoanatomist

  8. Tumors and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumors during pregnancy are rare, but they can happen. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. The most common cancers in pregnancy are breast cancer, cervical cancer, lymphoma, and melanoma. ...

  9. Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 01/ ... the body. It is important to remember that statistics on the survival rates for people with a ...

  10. Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente Glomic tumor: Presentation of an infrequent case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Sousa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores glómicos são tumores perivasculares cujas células se assemelham a células musculares lisas modificadas do corpo glómico. São mais frequentes na região subungueal e raros no pulmão. Os autores apresentam um caso de uma doente de 62 anos, com toracalgia esquerda e dispneia para grandes esforços. Apresentava nódulo solitário localizado ao segmento basal-externo do LIE, com 1,9 cm de diâmetro, de limites bem definidos, consistência firme e superfície de secção nodular e branco-rosada. Os tumores glómicos são geralmente benignos. Podem ter origem em células glómicas ectópicas ou diferenciarem-se a partir de células não glómicas. Devem ser classificados em tumor glómico, glomangioma ou glomangiomioma de acordo com a abundância relativa de células glómicas, do componente vascular e muscular. Estão descritas metástases pulmonares de tumores glómicos malignos, sendo necessário excluir origem primária extra-pulmonar nesses casos. O diagnóstico diferencial dos tumores glómicos do pulmão inclui o carcinóide, hemangiopericitoma, tumores musculares lisos (leiomioma epitelióide e o paraganglioma.Glomic tumours are perivascular tumours whose cells resemble modified smooth muscular cells of the glomic body. They are more frequent in the subungueal region and rare in the lung. The authors present a case of a 62 year old women with left thoracic pain and great enforces dyspnoea. She presented a solitary nodule in the external basal segment of the LLL, 1.9 cm diameter, circumscribed, firm and with nodular whitish rose cut surface. Glomic tumours are generally benign. They may origin in ectopic glomic cells or be differentiated from non glomic cells. They should be classified as glomic tumor, glomangioma and glomangiomioma according to the relative abundance of glomic cells and of the vascular and muscular components. Pulmonary metastasis of malignant glomic tumours have been described. In these cases an extra

  11. Peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carzoglio, J.; Tancredi, N.; Capurro, S.; Ravecca, T.; Scarrone, P.

    2006-01-01

    A new case of peripheral epithelial odontogenic tumor (Pindborg tumor) is reported. It is localized in the superior right gingival region, a less frequent site, and has the histopathological features previously reported. Immunochemical studies were performed, revealing a differential positive stain to cytokeratins in tumor cells deeply seated in the tumor mass, probably related to tumoral cell heterogeneity.Interestingly, in this particular case S-100 protein positive reactivity was also detected in arborescent cells intermingled with tumoral cells, resembling Langerhans cells. Even though referred in the literature in central Pindborg tumors, no references were found about their presence in peripheral tumors, like the one that is presented here

  12. Radiological diagnostics of skeletal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, M.; Herget, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    The book contains contributions concerning the following topics: 1. introduction and fundamentals: WHO classification of bone tumors, imaging diagnostics and their function; localization, typical clinical and radiological criteria, TNM classification and status classification, invasive tumor diagnostics; 2. specific tumor diagnostics: chondrogenic bone tumors, osseous tumors, connective tissue bony tumors, osteoclastoma, osteomyelogenic bone tumors, vascular bone tumors, neurogenic bone tumors, chordoma; adamantinoma of the long tubular bone; tumor-like lesions, bony metastases, bone granulomas, differential diagnostics: tumor-like lesions

  13. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  14. Endocrine tumors other than thyroid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Norio; Dohi, Kiyohiko

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the tendency for the occurrence of tumors in the endocrine glands, other than the thyroid gland, in A-bomb survivors using both autopsy and clinical data. ABCC-RERF sample data using 4136 autopsy cases (1961-1977) revealed parathyroid tumors in 13 A-bomb survivors, including 3 with the associated hyperparathyroidism, with the suggestion of dose-dependent increase in the occurrence of tumors. Based on clinical data from Hiroshima University, 7 (46.7%) of 15 parathyroid tumors cases were A-bomb survivors. Data (1974-1987) from the Tumor Registry Committee (TRC) in Hiroshima Prefecture revealed that a relative risk of parathyroid tumors was 5.6 times higher in the entire group of A-bomb survivors and 16.2 times higher in the group of heavily exposed A-bomb survivors, suggesting the dose-dependent increase in their occurrence. Adrenal tumors were detected in 47 of 123 cases from the TRC data, and 15 (31.5%) of these 47 were A-bomb survivors. Particularly, 11 cases of adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome included 6 A-bomb survivors (54.5%). The incidence of multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT) tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses; and the 1-9 rad group, the 10-99 rad group, and the 100 or more rad group had a risk of developing MEGT of 4.1, 5.7, and 7.1, respectively, relative to both the not-in the city group and the 0 rad group. These findings suggested that there is a correlation between A-bomb radiation and the occurrence of parathyroid tumors (including hyperparathyroidism), adrenal tumors associated with Cushing syndrome and MEGT (especially, the combined thyroid and ovarian tumors and the combined thyroid and parathyroid tumors). (N.K.)

  15. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  16. Treatment of Gastrin-Secreting Tumor With Sustained-Release Octreotide Acetate in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangho; Hosoya, Kenji; Takagi, Satoshi; Okumura, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old, intact male Shiba Inu was presented with loose stool, polydipsia, hematuria, vomiting, and anorexia. On abdominal ultrasonography, numerous nodules were detected in the hepatic parenchyma distributed diffusely throughout all lobes. Excisional biopsy of one of the nodules was performed via exploratory laparotomy. A histopathological diagnosis of the lesion was carcinoid, and the tumor cells stained positive to chromogranin A and gastrin. The serum gastrin level of the dog was 45,613 pg/mL (reference range: 160-284). In addition to medical treatment with omeprazole(c) and famotidine(e), suppression of gastrin secretion was attempted with octreotide acetate. A test dose of octreotide acetate significantly decreased the serum gastrin level to approximately one third of the baseline in 2 hr and the effect lasted approximately for 6 hr. On day 21, treatment with sustained-release formulation of octreotide acetate(a) (5 mg intramuscular, q 4 wk) was initiated. The serum gastrin concentration gradually decreased over 32 days and then progressively increased in parallel with the progression of the hepatic nodules. The dog gradually developed recurrence of initial clinical signs, and was lost to follow-up on day 510.

  17. Tumor macroenvironment and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zoughbi, Wael; Al-Zhoughbi, Wael; Huang, Jianfeng; Paramasivan, Ganapathy S; Till, Holger; Pichler, Martin; Guertl-Lackner, Barbara; Hoefler, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    In this review we introduce the concept of the tumor macroenvironment and explore it in the context of metabolism. Tumor cells interact with the tumor microenvironment including immune cells. Blood and lymph vessels are the critical components that deliver nutrients to the tumor and also connect the tumor to the macroenvironment. Several factors are then released from the tumor itself but potentially also from the tumor microenvironment, influencing the metabolism of distant tissues and organs. Amino acids, and distinct lipid and lipoprotein species can be essential for further tumor growth. The role of glucose in tumor metabolism has been studied extensively. Cancer-associated cachexia is the most important tumor-associated systemic syndrome and not only affects the quality of life of patients with various malignancies but is estimated to be the cause of death in 15%-20% of all cancer patients. On the other hand, systemic metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are known to influence tumor development. Furthermore, the clinical implications of the tumor macroenvironment are explored in the context of the patient's outcome with special consideration for pediatric tumors. Finally, ways to target the tumor macroenvironment that will provide new approaches for therapeutic concepts are described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's Brain Tumor Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Family Donate Volunteer Justin's Hope Fund Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...

  19. Metaphyseal giant cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L.F.; Hemais, P.M.P.G.; Aymore, I.L.; Carmo, M.C.R. do; Cunha, M.E.P.R. da; Resende, C.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Three cases of metaphyseal giant cell tumor are presented. A review of the literature is done, demostrating the lesion is rare and that there are few articles about it. Age incidence and characteristics of the tumor are discussed. (Author) [pt

  20. Testicular germinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresco, R.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of testicular germinal tumors. The presumed diagnosis is based in the anamnesis, clinical examination, testicular ultrasound and tumor markers. The definitive diagnosis is obtained through the inguinal radical orchidectomy

  1. Tissue engineered tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Techy, G B; Ward, B R; Imam, S A; Atkinson, R; Ho, H; Taylor, C R

    2010-08-01

    Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type spheroids, however, do not model the stromal-epithelial interactions that have an important role in controlling tumor growth and development in vivo. We describe here a method for generating, reproducibly, more realistic 3-D tumor models that contain both stromal and malignant epithelial cells with an architecture that closely resembles that of tumor microlesions in vivo. Because they are so tissue-like we refer to them as tumor histoids. They can be generated reproducibly in substantial quantities. The bioreactor developed to generate histoid constructs is described and illustrated. It accommodates disposable culture chambers that have filled volumes of either 10 or 64 ml, each culture yielding on the order of 100 or 600 histoid particles, respectively. Each particle is a few tenths of a millimeter in diameter. Examples of histological sections of tumor histoids representing cancers of breast, prostate, colon, pancreas and urinary bladder are presented. Potential applications of tumor histoids include, but are not limited to, use as surrogate tumors for pre-screening anti-solid tumor pharmaceutical agents, as reference specimens for immunostaining in the surgical pathology laboratory and use in studies of invasive properties of cells or other aspects of tumor development and progression. Histoids containing nonmalignant cells also may have potential as "seeds" in tissue engineering. For drug testing, histoids probably will have to meet certain criteria of size and tumor cell content. Using a COPAS Plus flow cytometer, histoids containing fluorescent tumor cells were analyzed successfully and sorted using such criteria.

  2. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  3. Tumor penetrating peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambet eTeesalu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-homing peptides can be used to deliver drugs into tumors. Phage library screening in live mice has recently identified homing peptides that specifically recognize the endothelium of tumor vessels, extravasate, and penetrate deep into the extravascular tumor tissue. The prototypic peptide of this class, iRGD (CRGDKGPDC, contains the integrin-binding RGD motif. RGD mediates tumor homing through binding to αv integrins, which are selectively expressed on various cells in tumors, including tumor endothelial cells. The tumor-penetrating properties of iRGD are mediated by a second sequence motif, R/KXXR/K. This C-end Rule (or CendR motif is active only when the second basic residue is exposed at the C-terminus of the peptide. Proteolytic processing of iRGD in tumors activates the cryptic CendR motif, which then binds to neuropilin-1 activating an endocytic bulk transport pathway through tumor tissue. Phage screening has also yielded tumor-penetrating peptides that function like iRGD in activating the CendR pathway, but bind to a different primary receptor. Moreover, novel tumor-homing peptides can be constructed from tumor-homing motifs, CendR elements and protease cleavage sites. Pathologies other than tumors can be targeted with tissue-penetrating peptides, and the primary receptor can also be a vascular zip code of a normal tissue. The CendR technology provides a solution to a major problem in tumor therapy, poor penetration of drugs into tumors. The tumor-penetrating peptides are capable of taking a payload deep into tumor tissue in mice, and they also penetrate into human tumors ex vivo. Targeting with these peptides specifically increases the accumulation in tumors of a variety of drugs and contrast agents, such as doxorubicin, antibodies and nanoparticle-based compounds. Remarkably the drug to be targeted does not have to be coupled to the peptide; the bulk transport system activated by the peptide sweeps along any compound that is

  4. Epilepsy and Brain Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-yi Sha

    2009-01-01

    @@ Epidemiology It is estimated 61,414 new cases of primary brain tumors are expected to be diagnosed in 2009 in the U.S. The incidence statistic of 61,414 persons diagnosed per year includes both malignant (22,738) and non-malignant (38,677) brain tumors. (Data from American Brain Tumor Association). During the years 2004-2005, approximately 359,000 people in the United States were living with the diagnosis of a primary brain or central nervous system tumor. Specifically, more than 81,000 persons were living with a malignant tumor, more than 267,000 persons with a benign tumor. For every 100,000 people in the United States, approximately 131 are living following the diagnosis of a brain tumor. This represents a prevalence rate of 130.8 per 100,000 person years[1].

  5. Flushing Disorders Associated with Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Part 1, Neuroendocrine Tumors, Mast Cell Disorders and Hyperbasophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Singh, Devina; Mazza, Joseph J; Yang, Dennis; Parajuli, Dipendra; Yale, Steven H

    2018-04-12

    Flushing is the subjective sensation of warmth accompanied by visible cutaneous erythema occurring throughout the body with a predilection for the face, neck, pinnae, and upper trunk where the skin is thinnest and cutaneous vessels are superficially located and in greatest numbers. Flushing can be present in either a wet or dry form depending upon whether neural-mediated mechanisms are involved. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in wet flushing, accompanied by diaphoresis, due to concomitant stimulation of eccrine sweat glands. Wet flushing is caused by certain medications, panic disorder and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD). Vasodilator mediated flushing due to the formation and release of a variety of biogenic amines, neuropeptides and phospholipid mediators such as histamine, serotonin and prostaglandins respectively, typically presents as dry flushing where sweating is characteristically absent. Flushing occurring with neuroendocrine tumors accompanied by gastrointestinal symptoms is generally of the dry flushing variant, which may be an important clinical clue to the differential diagnosis. A number of primary diseases of the gastrointestinal tract cause flushing, and conversely extra-intestinal conditions are associated with flushing and gastrointestinal symptoms. Gastrointestinal findings vary and include one or more of the following non-specific symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. The purpose of this review is to provide a focused comprehensive discussion on the presentation, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation and management of those diseases that arise from the gastrointestinal tract or other site that may cause gastrointestinal symptoms secondarily accompanied by flushing. The paper is divided into two parts given the scope of conditions that cause flushing and affect the gastrointestinal tract. Part 1 covered is neuroendocrine tumors, (carcinoid, pheochromocytomas, vasoactive

  6. [Immune system and tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terme, Magali; Tanchot, Corinne

    2017-02-01

    Despite having been much debated, it is now well established that the immune system plays an essential role in the fight against cancer. In this article, we will highlight the implication of the immune system in the control of tumor growth and describe the major components of the immune system involved in the antitumoral immune response. The immune system, while exerting pressure on tumor cells, also will play a pro-tumoral role by sculpting the immunogenicity of tumors cells as they develop. Finally, we will illustrate the numerous mechanisms of immune suppression that take place within the tumoral microenvironment which allow tumor cells to escape control from the immune system. The increasingly precise knowledge of the brakes to an effective antitumor immune response allows the development of immunotherapy strategies more and more innovating and promising of hope. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Imaging of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Juchems, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Ductal adenocarcinoma is the most frequent solid tumor of the pancreas. This tumor has distinct features including early obstruction of the pancreatic duct, diminished enhancement after administration of contrast material due to desmoplastic growth, high propensity to infiltrate adjacent structures and to metastasize into the liver and the peritoneum. Hormone active endocrine tumors cause specific clinical symptoms. Imaging is aimed at localization of these hypervascular tumors. Non hormone active tumors are most frequently malignant and demonstrate very varying features. Cystic pancreatic tumors are increasingly detected by means of cross sectional imaging. Exact classification can be achieved with knowledge of the macropathology and considering clinical presentation as well as age and gender of the patients. (orig.)

  8. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, W.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intrinsic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a particularly challenging problem to practicing oncologists. These tumors rarely metastasize outside the CNS, yet even histologically benign tumors can be life-threatening due to their local invasiveness and strategic location. The surrounding normal tissues of the nervous system is often incapable of full functional regeneration, therefore prohibiting aggressive attempts to use either complete surgical resection or high doses of irradiation. Despite these limitations, notable achievements have recently been recorded in the management of these tumors

  9. Management of CNS tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The treatment of tumors of the CNS has undergone a number of changes based on the impact of CT. The use of intraoperative US for the establishment of tumor location and tumor histology is demonstrated. MR imaging also is beginning to make an impact on the diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the CNS. Examples of MR images are shown. The authors then discuss the important aspects of tumor histology as it affects management and newer concepts in surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy on tumor treatment. The role of intraoperative placement of radioactive sources, the utilization of heavy particle radiation therapy, and the potential role of other experimental radiation therapy techniques are discussed. The role of hyperfractionated radiation and of neutrons and x-ray in a mixed-beam treatment are discussed in perspective with standard radiation therapy. Current chemotherapy techniques, including intraarterial chemotherapy, are discussed. The complications of radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy in the management of primary brain tumors, brain metastases, and leukemia are reviewed. A summary of the current management of pituitary tumors, including secreting pituitary adenomas and chromophobe adenomas, are discussed. The treatment with heavy particle radiation, transsphenoidal microsurgical removal, and combined radiotherapeutic and surgical management are considered. Tumor metastasis management of lesions of the brain and spinal cord are considered

  10. The Role of Chemotherapy in Well-Differentiated Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, Jonathan; Goldman, Jamie; Costa, Frederico; Pavel, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Even though the neuroendocrine tumor (NET) field has entered the era of 'targeted therapy', the role of cytotoxic chemotherapy continues to be debated. High response rates, ranging from 30 to 70% depending on the line of therapy, are consistently observed in the treatment of pancreatic NETs, with lesser evidence of activity in other foregut tumors. Activity in midgut carcinoid tumors appears to be negligible. Unfortunately, placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials using modern response criteria are lacking: the bulk of the literature consists of small phase II trials and retrospective series. There are also no completed trials comparing modern chemotherapy regimens, and therefore little data exist to favor the use of streptozocin- versus temozolomide- versus oxaliplatin-based therapies. Due to the absence of high-level evidence, it is difficult to generate data-based guidelines on the appropriate sequencing of cytotoxic drugs versus targeted agents. Although conventional wisdom holds that targeted agents such as everolimus or sunitinib are more tolerable than cytotoxic drugs, there is no evidence to support this perception. As a general principle, chemotherapy may be more appropriate as early-line therapy in patients with bulky and/or symptomatic and/or rapidly progressive tumors, particularly of pancreatic origin. In patients with low-volume disease or slow-growing tumors, noncytotoxic drugs may be preferable in early lines of therapy, reserving chemotherapy for the salvage setting. Validation of predictive factors is imperative in order to appropriately match patients with optimal treatment. Methyl-guanine-methyl-transferase (MGMT) deficiency is likely to be a positive predictive factor for alkylating agents, but needs to be evaluated prospectively. It is also unclear whether immunostaining for MGMT expression, which can be somewhat subjective, is superior to PCR-based techniques, which assess MGMT methylation status. Other basic predictive factors, such

  11. An exceptional collision tumor: gastric calcified stromal tumor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors report an exceptional case of collision tumor comprised of a gastric calcified stromal tumor and a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The pancreatic tumor was detected fortuitously on the histological exam of resection specimen. Key words: Collision tumor, stromal tumor, adenocarcinoma ...

  12. Pituitary gland tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [de

  13. [Pituitary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesser, J; Schlamp, K; Bendszus, M

    2014-10-01

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15% of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65% of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50% secrete prolactin, 10% secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6% secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10% of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland.

  14. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao; Hurtig, Monica; Elgue, Graciela; Li, Su-Chen; Veronesi, Giulia; Essaghir, Ahmed; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Öberg, Kjell; Giandomenico, Valeria

    2010-12-30

    Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2) as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC), to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA) for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  15. Ewing tumors in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Dirksen, Uta; Ranft, Andreas; Jürgens, Heribert

    2008-01-01

    Malignancies in infancy are extremely rare. Ewing tumors are hardly ever noted in these children. Since it is generally assumed that malignancies in infancy have an extremely poor outcome, we wanted to investigate whether this was also the case in Ewing tumors. We identified in the Munster data

  16. GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pavel M.E., Baum U., Hahn E.G., Hensen J. Doxorubucin and streptozocin after failed biotherapy of Neuroendocrine tumors. Int J. Gastrointest Cancer 2005; 35 179-185. 33. Yao J.C., Phan A., Hoff P.M., et al. Targeting vas- cular endothelial growth factor in advanced carci- noid tumors: a random assignment phase II study.

  17. Atypically localized glomus tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meric Ugurlar

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: When a painful mass is found in the body, glomus tumors should be kept in mind. The consideration of symptoms, including pain, temperature sensitivity, point tenderness, and discoloration, common characteristics of glomus tumors, may aid diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(3.000: 112-117

  18. Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, S T; Jensen, C; Bagi, P

    2007-01-01

    Renal inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare soft-tissue tumor of controversial etiology with a potential for local recurrence after incomplete surgical resection. The radiological findings in renal IMT are not well described. We report two cases in adults with a renal mass treated...

  19. Pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Won-Jong [Uijongbu St. Mary Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyunggido, 480-821 (Korea); Mirra, Joseph M. [Orthopaedic Hospital, Orthopedic Oncology, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2004-11-01

    To discuss the concept of pseudoanaplastic tumors of bone, which pathologically show hyperchromatism and marked pleomorphism with quite enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei, but with no to extremely rare, typical mitoses, and to propose guidelines for their diagnosis. From a database of 4,262 bone tumors covering from 1971 to 2001, 15 cases of pseudoanaplastic bone tumors (0.35% of total) were retrieved for clinical, radiographic and pathologic review. Postoperative follow-up after surgical treatment was at least 3 years and a maximum of 7 years. There were eight male and seven female patients. Their ages ranged from 10 to 64 years with average of 29.7 years. Pathologic diagnoses of pseudoanaplastic variants of benign bone tumors included: osteoblastoma (4 cases), giant cell tumor (4 cases), chondromyxoid fibroma (3 cases), fibrous dysplasia (2 cases), fibrous cortical defect (1 case) and aneurysmal bone cyst (1 case). Radiography of all cases showed features of a benign bone lesion. Six cases, one case each of osteoblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, giant cell tumor and osteoblastoma, were initially misdiagnosed as osteosarcoma. The remaining cases were referred for a second opinion to rule out sarcoma. Despite the presence of significant cytologic aberrations, none of our cases showed malignant behavior following simple curettage or removal of bony lesions. Our observation justifies the concept of pseudoanaplasia in some benign bone tumors as in benign soft tissue tumors, especially in their late evolutionary stage when bizarre cytologic alterations strongly mimic a sarcoma. (orig.)

  20. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M V Vimal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented.

  1. Vanishing tumor in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, M. V.; Budyal, Sweta; Kasliwal, Rajeev; Jagtap, Varsha S.; Lila, Anurag R.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A patient with microprolactinoma, who had two successful pregnancies, is described for management issues. First pregnancy was uneventful. During the second pregnancy, the tumor enlarged to macroprolactinoma with headache and blurring of vision which was managed successfully with bromocriptine. Post delivery, complete disappearance of the tumor was documented. PMID:23226664

  2. CLINICAL VALUE OF CHROMOGRANIN A IN GASTROENTEROPANCREATIC NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Lyubimova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NET is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms characterized by hypersecretion of biologically active sub- stances that manifests by specific syndromes and determines the clinical course of the disease. The most common NET types are those of gastrointestinal tract. The obligatory biochemical marker used in the examination of NET patients is chromogranin A (CgA.Aim: Evaluation of the CgA value for diagnostics and monitoring of gastrointestinal NETs.Materials and methods: A comparative study of plasma CgA levels was performed in 146 patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tu- mors and 66 healthy individuals using the enzyme immunoassay “Chromogranin A ELISA kit” (Dako A/S, Denmark.Results: CgA levels were significantly higher in patients with NETs of all localizations, such as pancreas, stomach, gut, small and large bowel, than in the healthy subjects (р < 0.000001. In NET patients, CgA secretion was highly variable, with the highest value in the group of patients with gastric NETs (102000 U/l. The highest CgA medians were detected in patients with small intestinal (183.9 U/l, colon (148.4 U/l and pancreatic (135.9 U/l NETs. There was an association between CgA secretion and extension or activity of NETs, with the highest median values in patients with hepatic metastases (395 U/l and those with carcinoid syndrome (352 U/l. The clinical significance of CgA as a NET marker was assessed using the cut-off value of 33 U/l, calculated according to the results in the control group. Overall diagnostic sensitivity of CgA in NET patients was high (85.8% with a specificity of 98.5%. Conclusion: The results obtained confirm a high sensitivity of CgA as a NET marker whose determination helps to improve accuracy of diagnostics and to assess NET prevalence.

  3. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Kee; Phi, Ji Hoon; Park, Sung-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemical studies for neuronal differentiation in glial tumors revealed subsets of tumors having both characteristics of glial and neuronal lineages. Glial tumors with neuronal differentiation can be observed with diverse phenotypes and histologic grades. The rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle and papillary glioneuronal tumor have been newly classified as distinct disease entities. There are other candidates for classification, such as the glioneuronal tumor without pseudopapillary architecture, glioneuronal tumor with neuropil-like islands, and the malignant glioneuronal tumor. The clinical significance of these previously unclassified tumors should be confirmed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  5. Tumors of peripheral nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Michael; Lutz, Amelie M.

    2017-01-01

    Differentiation between malignant and benign tumors of peripheral nerves in the early stages is challenging; however, due to the unfavorable prognosis of malignant tumors early identification is required. To show the possibilities for detection, differential diagnosis and clinical management of peripheral nerve tumors by imaging appearance in magnetic resonance (MR) neurography. Review of current literature available in PubMed and MEDLINE, supplemented by the authors' own observations in clinical practice. Although not pathognomonic, several imaging features have been reported for a differentiation between distinct peripheral nerve tumors. The use of MR neurography enables detection and initial differential diagnosis in tumors of peripheral nerves. Furthermore, it plays an important role in clinical follow-up, targeted biopsy and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  6. Wilm's tumor in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, B.P.; Bukharkin, B.V.; Gotsadze, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa. Ten adult patients (aged 16-29) with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0.9 per cent of the total number of kidney tumor patients. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long. Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3. Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died 7-19 months after the beginning of treatment

  7. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  8. Parallel evolution of tumor subclones mimics diversity between tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumor adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicines approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumor (intratumor heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumors (intertumor heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, ...

  9. Tumor control probability after a radiation of animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urano, Muneyasu; Ando, Koichi; Koike, Sachiko; Nesumi, Naofumi

    1975-01-01

    Tumor control and regrowth probability of animal tumors irradiated with a single x-ray dose were determined, using a spontaneous C3H mouse mammary carcinoma. Cellular radiation sensitivity of tumor cells and tumor control probability of the tumor were examined by the TD 50 and TCD 50 assays respectively. Tumor growth kinetics were measured by counting the percentage of labelled mitosis and by measuring the growth curve. A mathematical analysis of tumor control probability was made from these results. A formula proposed, accounted for cell population kinetics or division probability model, cell sensitivity to radiation and number of tumor cells. (auth.)

  10. The Tumor Macroenvironment: Cancer-Promoting Networks Beyond Tumor Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Melanie R; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the macroenvironment and the primary tumor will enable the design of specific therapies that have the potential to prevent dissemination and metastatic spread. This chapter will summarize recent findings detailing how the primary tumor and systemic tumor macroenvironment coordinate malignant progression. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiofrequency Ablation of Lung Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) / Microwave Ablation (MWA) of Lung Tumors ... and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? What are Radiofrequency and Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors? Radiofrequency ablation, ...

  12. The PCa Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sottnik, Joseph L; Zhang, Jian; Macoska, Jill A; Keller, Evan T

    2011-12-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a very complex niche that consists of multiple cell types, supportive matrix and soluble factors. Cells in the TME consist of both host cells that are present at tumor site at the onset of tumor growth and cells that are recruited in either response to tumor- or host-derived factors. PCa (PCa) thrives on crosstalk between tumor cells and the TME. Crosstalk results in an orchestrated evolution of both the tumor and microenvironment as the tumor progresses. The TME reacts to PCa-produced soluble factors as well as direct interaction with PCa cells. In return, the TME produces soluble factors, structural support and direct contact interactions that influence the establishment and progression of PCa. In this review, we focus on the host side of the equation to provide a foundation for understanding how different aspects of the TME contribute to PCa progression. We discuss immune effector cells, specialized niches, such as the vascular and bone marrow, and several key protein factors that mediate host effects on PCa. This discussion highlights the concept that the TME offers a potentially very fertile target for PCa therapy.

  13. Epilepsy and brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGLOT, DARIO J.; CHANG, EDWARD F.; VECHT, CHARLES J.

    2016-01-01

    Seizures are common in patients with brain tumors, and epilepsy can significantly impact patient quality of life. Therefore, a thorough understanding of rates and predictors of seizures, and the likelihood of seizure freedom after resection, is critical in the treatment of brain tumors. Among all tumor types, seizures are most common with glioneuronal tumors (70–80%), particularly in patients with frontotemporal or insular lesions. Seizures are also common in individuals with glioma, with the highest rates of epilepsy (60–75%) observed in patients with low-grade gliomas located in superficial cortical or insular regions. Approximately 20–50% of patients with meningioma and 20–35% of those with brain metastases also suffer from seizures. After tumor resection, approximately 60–90% are rendered seizure-free, with most favorable seizure outcomes seen in individuals with glioneuronal tumors. Gross total resection, earlier surgical therapy, and a lack of generalized seizures are common predictors of a favorable seizure outcome. With regard to anticonvulsant medication selection, evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of focal epilepsy should be followed, and individual patient factors should also be considered, including patient age, sex, organ dysfunction, comorbidity, or cotherapy. As concomitant chemotherapy commonly forms an essential part of glioma treatment, enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants should be avoided when possible. Seizure freedom is the ultimate goal in the treatment of brain tumor patients with epilepsy, given the adverse effects of seizures on quality of life. PMID:26948360

  14. CNS tumors: postoperative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayanir, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Imaging assessment of brain tumors following surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including the location of the tumor, the surgical procedure and the disease process for which it was performed. Depending upon these factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities may be required to demonstrate any clinically relevant situation, to assist the surgeon in deciding if repeat surgery is necessary. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the shape, size, signal intensity, and enhancement of a brain tumor. It has been widely used to diagnose and differentiate brain tumors and to assess the surgery outcomes. Longitudinal MRI scans have also been applied for the assessment of treatment and response to surgery. The newly developed MRI techniques, including diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have the potential to provide the molecular, functional and metabolic information of preoperative and postoperative brain tumors. Postoperative diffusion and perfusion magnetic resonance imaging are especially useful in predicting early functional recovery from new deficits after brain tumor surgery.This lecture will stress the principles, applications, and pitfalls of conventional as well as newly developing functional imaging techniques following operation of brain tumors

  15. Tumor cell surface proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, S.J.; Braslawsky, G.R.; Flynn, K.; Foote, L.J.; Friedman, E.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Huang, A.H.L.; Lankford, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Cell surface proteins mediate interaction between cells and their environment. Unique tumor cell surface proteins are being identified and quantified in several tumor systems to address the following questions: (i) how do tumor-specific proteins arise during cell transformation; (ii) can these proteins be used as markers of tumor cell distribution in vivo; (iii) can cytotoxic drugs be targeted specifically to tumor cells using antibody; and (iv) can solid state radioimmunoassay of these proteins provide a means to quantify transformation frequencies. A tumor surface protein of 180,000 M/sub r/ (TSP-180) has been identified on cells of several lung carcinomas of BALB/c mice. TSP-180 was not detected on normal lung tissue, embryonic tissue, or other epithelial or sarcoma tumors, but it was found on lung carcinomas of other strains of mice. Considerable amino acid sequence homology exists among TSP-180's from several cell sources, indicating that TSP-180 synthesis is directed by normal cellular genes although it is not expressed in normal cells. The regulation of synthesis of TSP-180 and its relationship to normal cell surface proteins are being studied. Monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) to TSP-180 have been developed. The antibodies have been used in immunoaffinity chromatography to isolate TSP-180 from tumor cell sources. This purified tumor antigen was used to immunize rats. Antibody produced by these animals reacted at different sites (epitopes) on the TSP-180 molecule than did the original MoAb. These sera and MoAb from these animals are being used to identify normal cell components related to the TSP-180 molecule

  16. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; Fike, J.R.; Hoopes, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  17. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border, and surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stoch...

  18. Uterine mesenchymal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil A Sangle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine mesenchymal tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can frequently be diagnostically challenging. Differentiation between the benign and malignant counterparts of mesenchymal tumors is significant due to differences in clinical outcome, and the role of the surgical pathologist in making this distinction (especially in the difficult cases cannot be underestimated. Although immunohistochemical stains are supportive toward establishing a final diagnosis, the morphologic features trump all the other ancillary techniques for this group of neoplasms. This review therefore emphasizes the key morphologic features required to diagnose and distinguish uterine mesenchymal tumors from their mimics, with a brief description of the relevant immunohistochemical features.

  19. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  20. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors.

  1. [Indication for limited surgery on small lung cancer tumors measuring 1cm or less in diameter on preoperative computed tomography and long-term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, K; Koike, T; Emura, I; Usuda, H

    2008-07-01

    Non-invasive lung cancers showed a good prognosis after limited surgery. But it is still uncertain about invasive lung cancers. We investigated the indications for limited surgery for small lung cancer tumors measuring 1 cm or less in diameter on preoperative computed tomography (CT). This study retrospectively analyzed of 1,245 patients who underwent complete resection of lung cancer between 1989 and 2004 in our hospital. Sixty-two patients (5%) had tumors measuring 1 cm or less in diameter. The probability of survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All diseases were detected by medical checkup, 52 % of the patients were not definitively diagnosed with lung cancer before surgery. Adenocarcinoma was histologically diagnosed in 49 patients (79%). Other histologic types included squamous cell carcinoma (8), large cell carcinoma (1), small cell carcinoma (1), carcinoid (2), and adenosquamous cell carcinoma (1). Fifty-seven patients (92%) showed pathologic stage IA. The other stages were IB (2), IIA (1), and IIIB (2). There were 14 bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (25% of IA diseases). The 5-year survival rates of IA patients were 90%. The 5-year survival rate of patients with tumors measuring 1cm or less diameter was 91% after lobectomy or pneumonectomy, and 90% after wedge resection or segmentectomy. There were 3 deaths from cancer recurrence, while there were no deaths in 14 patients with bronchioloalveolar carcinoma After limited surgery, non-invasive cancer showed good long-term results, while invasive cancer showed a recurrence rate of 2.3% to 79% even though the tumor measured 1 cm or less in diameter on preoperative CT.

  2. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  3. Overview of Heart Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors By Siddique A. Abbasi, MD, MSc, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Attending Cardiologist, Director of Heart Failure, and Director of Cardiac MRI, Providence VA Medical ...

  4. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  5. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  6. GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMOR (GIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eTornillo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are the most frequent mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. The discovery that these tumors, formerly thought of smooth muscle origin, are indeed better characterized by specific activating mutation in genes coding for the receptor tyrosine kinases CKIT and PDGFRA and that these mutations are strongly predictive for the response to targeted therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors has made GISTs the typical example of the integration of basic molecular knowledge in the daily clinical activity. The information on the mutational status of these tumors is essential to predict (and subsequently to plan the therapy. As resistant cases are frequently wild-type, other possible oncogenic events, defining other entities, have been discovered (e.g. succinil dehydrogenase mutation/dysregulation, insuline growth factor expression, mutations in the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway. The classification of disease must nowadays rely on the integration of the clinico-morphological characteristics with the molecular data.

  7. Allogeneic tumor cell vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina M; Bozeman, Erica N; Imasuen, Imade E; He, Sara; Daniels, Danielle; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2014-01-01

    The high mortality rate associated with cancer and its resistance to conventional treatments such as radiation and chemotherapy has led to the investigation of a variety of anti-cancer immunotherapies. The development of novel immunotherapies has been bolstered by the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), through gene sequencing and proteomics. One such immunotherapy employs established allogeneic human cancer cell lines to induce antitumor immunity in patients through TAA presentation. Allogeneic cancer immunotherapies are desirable in a clinical setting due to their ease of production and availability. This review aims to summarize clinical trials of allogeneic tumor immunotherapies in various cancer types. To date, clinical trials have shown limited success due potentially to extensive degrees of inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity found among cancer patients. However, these clinical results provide guidance for the rational design and creation of more effective allogeneic tumor immunotherapies for use as monotherapies or in combination with other therapies. PMID:24064957

  8. Multiple Primary Tumors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... Multiple primary tumors occur in clinical practice causing diagnostic dilemma. It is not very .... was estrogen receptor negative, progesterone receptor negative, and ... cervical, ovarian, and urinary bladder cancers. Multiple.

  9. Pituitary Tumors: Condition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hormones. They can press on or damage the pituitary gland and prevent it from secreting adequate levels of hormones. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2010). NINDS pituitary tumors information page . ...

  10. Antibody tumor penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M.; Schmidt, Michael M.; Wittrup, K. Dane

    2009-01-01

    Antibodies have proven to be effective agents in cancer imaging and therapy. One of the major challenges still facing the field is the heterogeneous distribution of these agents in tumors when administered systemically. Large regions of untargeted cells can therefore escape therapy and potentially select for more resistant cells. We present here a summary of theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze and improve antibody penetration in tumor tissue. PMID:18541331

  11. Pituitary tumors containing cholecystokinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, J F; Lindholm, J; Andersen, B N

    1987-01-01

    We found small amounts of cholecystokinin in the normal human adenohypophysis and therefore examined pituitary tumors from 87 patients with acromegaly, Cushing's disease, Nelson's syndrome, prolactinoma, or inactive pituitary adenomas. Five adenomas associated with Nelson's syndrome contained......'s disease and 7 acromegaly with adenomas containing ACTH. The cholecystokinin peptides from the tumors were smaller and less sulfated than cholecystokinin from normal pituitary glands. We conclude that ACTH-producing pituitary cells may also produce an altered form of cholecystokinin....

  12. Perlecan and tumor angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) of basement membranes (BMs) and connective tissues. The core protein of perlecan is divided into five domains based on sequence homology to other known proteins. Commonly, the N-terminal domain I of mammalian perlecan is substituted with thr...... have unwanted promoting effects on tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. Understanding of these attributes at the molecular level may offer opportunities for therapeutic intervention....

  13. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  14. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  15. THE TUMOR MACROENVIRONMENT: CANCER-PROMOTING NETWORKS BEYOND TUMOR BEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Melanie R.; Svoronos, Nikolaos; Puchalt, Alfredo Perales; Conejo-Garcia, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    During tumor progression, alterations within the systemic tumor environment, or macroenvironment, result in the promotion of tumor growth, tumor invasion to distal organs, and eventual metastatic disease. Distally produced hormones, commensal microbiota residing within mucosal surfaces, and myeloid cells and even the bone marrow impact the systemic immune system, tumor growth, and metastatic spread. Understanding the reciprocal interactions between the cells and soluble factors within the mac...

  16. Tumor detection using feature extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, A.S.; Amudhavalli, N.; Sivakolundu, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The assistance system for brain tumor detection helps the doctor to analyse the brain tumor in MRI image and help to make decision. The manual detection system takes 3 -5 hours time to analyse the tumor. Doctors are in a position to analyze the tumor faster and make a correct decision with an assistance system

  17. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Segers (Heidi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years,

  18. Pituitary gland tumors; Hypophysentumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesser, J.; Schlamp, K.; Bendszus, M. [Radiologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    This article gives an overview of the most common tumors of the pituitary gland and the differential diagnostics with special emphasis on radiological diagnostic criteria. A selective search of the literature in PubMed was carried out. Pituitary adenomas constitute 10-15 % of all intracranial tumors and are the most common tumors of the sellar region. Tumors smaller than 1 cm in diameter are called microadenomas while those larger than 1 cm in diameter are called macroadenomas. Approximately 65 % of pituitary gland adenomas secrete hormones whereby approximately 50 % secrete prolactin, 10 % secrete growth hormone (somatotropin) and 6 % secrete corticotropin. Other tumors located in the sella turcica can also cause endocrinological symptoms, such as an oversecretion of pituitary hormone or pituitary insufficiency by impinging on the pituitary gland or its stalk. When tumors spread into the space cranial to the sella turcica, they can impinge on the optic chiasm and cause visual disorders. A common differential diagnosis of a sellar tumor is a craniopharyngeoma. In children up to 10 % of all intracranial tumors are craniopharyngeomas. Other differential diagnoses for sellar tumors are metastases, meningiomas, epidermoids and in rare cases astrocytomas, germinomas or Rathke cleft cysts As these tumors are located in an anatomically complex region of the skull base and are often very small, a highly focused imaging protocol is required. The currently favored modality is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the administration of a contrast agent. The sellar region should be mapped in thin slices. In cases of suspected microadenoma the imaging protocol should also contain a sequence with dynamic contrast administration in order to assess the specific enhancement characteristics of the tumor and the pituitary gland. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit ist eine Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten Hypophysentumoren und deren Differenzialdiagnosen mit Augenmerk auf die

  19. Tumor scintigram, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Shimura, Kazuo; Ifuka, Keijiro

    1975-01-01

    In various cases of malignant tumors, especially those of lung cancer and liver cancer, scans were made with 57 Co-bleomycin(BLM), and its diagnostic significance was evaluated. Tumors were visualized with 57 Co-BLM in 22 of the 26 cases of lung cancer (84.6%). Concentrations of the RI were noted in all of the cases of squamous epithelium cancer, adenoid cancer and cellule-type undifferentiated cancer. The smallest tumor that could be detected was a 2 x 2 cm adenoid cancer. Tumors were imaged in 19 of the 27 cases of liver cancer (70.4%). This detection rate was increased by a combination of 57 Co-BLM and 198 Au-colloid scanning. The authors believe that 57 Co-BLM will help to establish the diagnosis of lung cancer or liver cancer. Tumors were also imaged in 6 of the 15 cases of breast cancer, but no distinct concentration was noted in the 7 cases of thyroid cancer. (Ueda, J.)

  20. Parotid hybrid tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo C, Gustavo; Seymour M, Camila; Fernandez R, Lara; Villanueva I, Maria Elena; Scott C, Carlos; Celedon L, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands represent 33%-10% of head and neck neoplasms. The most common location is the parotid gland, accounting for 50%-85% of the cases, with 20%-30% of them being malignant. The following are known to be indicative of a malignant tumor: fast growing, painless mass, associated facial paralysis and lymphadenopathy. Most parotid neoplasm derive from a single histological type but eventually the development of more than one type on the same gland can occur. This paper presents a case of a parotid neoplasm with two different histological tumors, with uncharacteristic clinical presentation. The patient presented initially with ear pain and otorrhoea, in the clinical examination highlighted an external auditory canal tumor. The complementary study revealed a parotid neoplasm and a total resection of the gland was performed. The biopsy revealed an adenoid-cystic carcinoma with differentiated basaloid areas. Adjuvant radio-chemotherapy was administered, and the imaging control with PET-CT showed no evidence of recurrence or dissemination of the tumor

  1. Tumor radiation responses and tumor oxygenation in aging mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, S.

    1989-01-01

    EMT6 mouse mammary tumors transplanted into aging mice are less sensitive to radiation than tumors growing in young adult animals. The experiments reported here compare the radiation dose-response curves defining the survivals of tumor cells in aging mice and in young adult mice. Cell survival curves were assessed in normal air-breathing mice and in mice asphyxiated with N 2 to produce uniform hypoxia throughout the tumors. Analyses of survival curves revealed that 41% of viable malignant cells were severely hypoxic in tumors in aging mice, while only 19% of the tumor cells in young adult animals were radiobiologically hypoxic. This did not appear to reflect anaemia in the old animals. Treatment of aging animals with a perfluorochemical emulsion plus carbogen (95% O 2 /5% CO 2 ) increased radiation response of the tumors, apparently by improving tumor oxygenation and decreasing the number of severely hypoxic, radiation resistant cells in the tumors. (author)

  2. The role of 68Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT in evaluating neuroendocrine tumors: real-world experience from two large neuroendocrine tumor centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Mohamad; Shamseddine, Ali; Panagiotidis, Emmanouil; Jreige, Mario; Mukherji, Deborah; Assi, Rita; Abousaid, Rayan; Ibrahim, Toni; Haddad, Marwan M; Vinjamuri, Sobhan

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to assess the role of Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT as a tool for the management of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), evaluating the clinical impact on patients from two large NET centers in different geopolitical settings. This is a retrospective study of patients with NETs who underwent Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT at Royal Liverpool University Hospital (UK) and at Mount Lebanon Hospital (Lebanon). Indications for imaging and findings of the PET/CT along with demographic and clinical outcome data were recorded and evaluated. Four hundred and forty-five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a median age at the time of diagnosis of 56 (range: 3-90) years; 248 (55.7%) patients were male.Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT was indicated for staging in 193 (43.4%) patients, for diagnosis in 124 (27.9%) patients, for follow-up in 97 (21.7%) patients, and for identification of a primary NET site in 31 (7%) patients.One hundred and four (27.9%) patients underwent Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT for the primary diagnosis of NET, of whom 66 (52.7%) patients presented with a clinical suspicion of NET, 10 (8.3%) patients presented with a biochemical suspicion of NET only, and 48 (38.8%) patients presented with a suspicious NET lesion discovered on another imaging modality. The most common clinical presentation was typical carcinoid syndrome [4 (33%) patients].Results on the basis of histology were used as the gold standard for the diagnosis in 57% of patients and the remaining on the basis of follow-up as per established clinical consensus. Sensitivity, specificity, negative-predictive value, and positive-predictive value of PET/CT were 87.1, 97.7, 79.6, and 98.7%, respectively, for the entire sample. Accuracy was measured using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with an area under the curve of 0.924 (95% confidence interval: 0.874-0.974). Ga-DOTA-NOC PET/CT is a highly sensitive and specific study for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. These results

  3. Radiology of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hako, R.; Hakova, H.; Gulova, I.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors arise in the bronchopulmonary or gastrointestinal tract, but they can arise in almost any organ. The tumors have varied malignant potential depending on the site of their origin. Metastases may be present at the time of diagnosis, which often occurs at a late stage of the disease. Most NETs have nonspecific imaging characteristics. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the localization and staging of neuroendocrine tumors and in monitoring the treatment response. Imaging should involve multi-phase computed tomography, contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and other one. Hepatic metastatic disease in particular lends itself to a wide range of interventional treatment options. Transcatheter arterial embolization may be used alone or in combination with chemo embolization. Ablative techniques, hepatic cryotherapy and percutaneous ethanol injection may then be undertaken. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment and follow-up is important. (author)

  4. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor

  5. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  6. Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Lim Suh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNT is a benign glioneuronal neoplasm that most commonly occurs in children and young adults and may present with medically intractable, chronic seizures. Radiologically, this tumor is characterized by a cortical topography and lack of mass effect or perilesional edema. Partial complex seizures are the most common presentation. Three histologic subtypes of DNTs have been described. Histologically, the recognition of a unique, specific glioneuronal element in brain tumor samples from patients with medically intractable, chronic epilepsy serves as a diagnostic feature for complex or simple DNT types. However, nonspecific DNT has diagnostic difficulty because its histology is indistinguishable from conventional gliomas and because a specific glioneuronal element and/or multinodularity are absent. This review will focus on the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features as well as the molecular genetics of all three variants of DNTs. The histological and cytological differential diagnoses for this lesion, especially the nonspecific variant, will be discussed.

  7. Mediastinal tumors. Update 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Thomas, C.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This volume represents the premier work devoted solely to the complex myriad of mediastinal tumors. The contributors to the state-of-the-art text are clinical investigators of international renown. The diagnosis, natural history, and therapeutic strategies in respect of all mediastinal tumors are thoroughly addressed in a concise and logical manner. An emphasis on the multidisciplinary nature of mediastinal tumors is thematic throughout the text. Moreover, the combined-modality treatment schemes that have been increasingly developed worldwide are analyzed. This textbook will prove of value to all general surgeons, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pulmonologists, and endocrinologists, as well as to nursing and medical students, residents and fellows-in training. (orig.). 55 figs., 21 tabs

  8. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Florenzano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome clinically characterized by bone pain, fractures and muscle weakness. It is caused by tumoral overproduction of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23 that acts primarily at the proximal renal tubule, decreasing phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25 hydroxyvitamin D, thus producing hypophosphatemia and osteomalacia. Lesions are typically small, benign mesenchymal tumors that may be found in bone or soft tissue, anywhere in the body. In up to 60% of these tumors, a fibronectin-1(FN1 and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1 fusion gene has been identified that may serve as a tumoral driver. The diagnosis is established by the finding of acquired chronic hypophosphatemia due to isolated renal phosphate wasting with concomitant elevated or inappropriately normal blood levels of FGF23 and decreased or inappropriately normal 1,25-OH2-Vitamin D (1,25(OH2D. Locating the tumor is critical, as complete removal is curative. For this purpose, a step-wise approach is recommended, starting with a thorough medical history and physical examination, followed by functional imaging. Suspicious lesions should be confirmed by anatomical imaging, and if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23. If the tumor is not localized, or surgical resection is not possible, medical therapy with phosphate and active vitamin D is usually successful in healing the osteomalacia and reducing symptoms. However, compliance is often poor due to the frequent dosing regimen and side effects. Furthermore, careful monitoring is needed to avoid complications such us secondary/tertiary hyperparathyroidism, hypercalciuria, and nephrocalcinosis. Novel therapeutical approaches are being developed for TIO patients, such as image-guided tumor ablation and medical treatment with the anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibody KRN23 or anti FGFR medications. The case of a patient with TIO is presented to

  9. Tumors of germinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plazas, Ricardo; Avila, Andres

    2002-01-01

    The tumors of germinal cells (TGC) are derived neoplasia of the primordial germinal cells that in the life embryonic migrant from the primitive central nervous system until being located in the gonads. Their cause is even unknown and they represent 95% of the testicular tumors. In them, the intention of the treatment is always healing and the diagnostic has improved thanks to the results of the handling multidisciplinary. The paper includes topics like their incidence and prevalence, epidemiology and pathology, clinic and diagnoses among other topics

  10. Tumor Heterogeneity and Drug Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerova, L.; Skolekova, S.; Kozovska, Z.

    2015-01-01

    New generation of sequencing methodologies revealed unexpected complexity and genomic alterations linked with the tumor subtypes. This diversity exists across the tumor types, histologic tumor subtypes and subsets of the tumor cells within the same tumor. This phenomenon is termed tumor heterogeneity. Regardless of its origin and mechanisms of development it has a major impact in the clinical setting. Genetic, phenotypic and expression pattern diversity of tumors plays critical role in the selection of suitable treatment and also in the prognosis prediction. Intratumoral heterogeneity plays a key role in the intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance to cytotoxic and targeted therapies. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of intratumoral and inter tumoral heterogeneity and their relationship to the drug resistance. Understanding of the mechanisms and spatiotemporal dynamics of tumor heterogeneity development before and during the therapy is important for the ability to design individual treatment protocols suitable in the given molecular context. (author)

  11. Stochastic models for tumoral growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Strong experimental evidence has indicated that tumor growth belongs to the molecular beam epitaxy universality class. This type of growth is characterized by the constraint of cell proliferation to the tumor border and the surface diffusion of cells at the growing edge. Tumor growth is thus conceived as a competition for space between the tumor and the host, and cell diffusion at the tumor border is an optimal strategy adopted for minimizing the pressure and helping tumor development. Two stochastic partial differential equations are reported in this paper in order to correctly model the physical properties of tumoral growth in (1+1) and (2+1) dimensions. The advantage of these models is that they reproduce the correct geometry of the tumor and are defined in terms of polar variables. An analysis of these models allows us to quantitatively estimate the response of the tumor to an unfavorable perturbation during growth.

  12. Surgery for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamah, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the presentation, localization, pathology, surgical management and outcome of surgery for adrenal gland tumors. Design: Prospective clinico epidemiological study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of General Surgery, University Unit, Riyadh medical Complex Kingdom of Saudi Rabia from June, 1991 to may, 2001. Subjects and Methods: A total of 21 cases with adrenal tumors were studied for demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup, localization, surgical management, pathology and outcome. The outcome of these patients was followed prospectively. Results: The study included 12 female and 9 male patients. The mean age at surgery was 36.7 years. Hypertension (69.%) was the commonest presentation in hypersecretory functional tumors. The localization accuracy for ultrasonography, computerized tomography, MRI and MIBG scan was 95.2%, 98.3% 87.8% and 83.6% respectively. Pheochromocytoma was the most common adrenal pathology observed in 14 (66.6%) cases. The overall morbidity was 19% with no hospital mortality. Complete follow-up of available 19 patients (90.5 %) revealed no tumor recurrence and persistent hypertension in 14.3% cases. Conclusion: surgery on adrenal glands is safe in experienced hands and is recommended in institutes with all backup facilities. (author)

  13. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  14. Tumor-induced osteomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, William H; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Chen, Clara C; Collins, Michael T

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare and fascinating paraneoplastic syndrome in which patients present with bone pain, fractures, and muscle weakness. The cause is high blood levels of the recently identified phosphate and vitamin D-regulating hormone, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In TIO, FGF23 is secreted by mesenchymal tumors that are usually benign, but are typically very small and difficult to locate. FGF23 acts primarily at the renal tubule and impairs phosphate reabsorption and 1α-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, leading to hypophosphatemia and low levels of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. A step-wise approach utilizing functional imaging (F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and octreotide scintigraphy) followed by anatomical imaging (computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging), and, if needed, selective venous sampling with measurement of FGF23 is usually successful in locating the tumors. For tumors that cannot be located, medical treatment with phosphate supplements and active vitamin D (calcitriol or alphacalcidiol) is usually successful; however, the medical regimen can be cumbersome and associated with complications. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and provides guidance in evaluating and treating these patients. Novel imaging modalities and medical treatments, which hold promise for the future, are also reviewed. PMID:21490240

  15. Imaging findings of sacral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Hong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Ja Young; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Choi, Jung Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

    2003-01-01

    The various pathologic conditions detected at CT and MRI and subsumed by the term 'sacral tumor' include primary bone tumors, sacral canal tumors and metastases. Among these, metastases are much more common than primary bone tumors, of which chordoma is the most common. Although the imaging findings of sacral tumors are nonspecific, a patient's age and sex, and specific findings such as calcification or fluid-fluid levels, can help radiologists in their differential diagnosis. We describe the imaging findings of primary sacral tumors, emphasizing the MRI findings

  16. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure

  17. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of brain tumors for benign and malignant tumors combined is 18.71 per 100,000 persons/year. The most common benign brain tumor in adults is meningioma, which is most present in women, and the most common malignant tumor is glioblastoma, which is most present in adult men. Due to high mortality, especially in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma and significant brain tumor morbidity, there is a constant interest in understanding its etiology in order to possibly prevent tumor occurrence in future and enable more efficient treatment strategies for this fatal brain disease. Despite the continuously growing number of epidemiological studies on possible factors of tumor incidence, the etiology remains unclear. The only established environmental risk factor of gliomas is ionizing radiation exposure. Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields via cell phone use has gained a lot of attention as a potential risk factor of brain tumor development. However, studies have been inconsistent and inconclusive, so more definite results are still expected.

  18. Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Sousa

    2006-05-01

    have been described. In these cases an extra pulmonary primary origin must be excluded. The differential diagnosis of glomic tumours of the lung includes the carcinoid, hemangioperycitoma, smooth muscle tumours (epithelioid leyomioma and the paraganglioma.Rev Port Pneumol 2006; XII (3: 269-274 Palavras-chave: Tumores do pulmão, tumores perivasculares, tumores glómicos, Key-words: Lung tumours, perivasculars tumours, glomic tumours

  19. Tumor glómico do pulmão: Apresentação de um caso pouco frequente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Sousa

    2006-05-01

    an extra pulmonary primary origin must be excluded. The differential diagnosis of glomic tumours of the lung includes the carcinoid, hemangioperycitoma, smooth muscle tumours (epithelioid leyomioma and the paraganglioma. Palavras-chave: Tumores do pulmão, tumores perivasculares, tumores glómicos, Key-words: Lung tumours, perivasculars tumours, glomic tumours

  20. Biopsy in Musculoskeletal Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharehdaghi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of bone tumors is based on careful evaluation of clinical, imaging and a pathologic findings. So the biopsy of bone and soft tissue sarcomas is the final step in evaluation and a fundamental step in the diagnosis of the lesion. It should not be performed as a shortcut to diagnosis (1. The biopsy should be performed in order to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate among few diagnoses after careful staged studies. Real and artificial changes in imaging studies will be superimposed after performing biopsy, which may alter the interpretation if done after biopsy is taken (1. The correct management of a sarcoma depends on the accurate diagnosis. Inadequate, inapprppriate, or inaccurate non-representative biopsy leads to poorer outcome in terms of survivorship and limb salvage. An incorrect, unplanned incision and biopsy may unnecessarily contaminate uninvolved compartments which may convert a salvageable limb to amputation. Anatomic approach along with the proper biopsy techniques may lead to success or catastrophe. It is clear that in patients with inappropriate biopsy, the chance of the need to change the treatment to more radical than would originally be expected is significantly higher. Also it is more probable to need to  convert curative to palliative treatment and to require adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with inappropriate biopsies. Patients with sarcoma are best served by early referral to a specialized center where staged investigations and biopsy can be performed with minimal morbidity (3. Open biopsy is still considered the gold standard; however, recent studies suggest comparable results with percutaneous core needle biopsy. Our study on 103 consecutive CNB and open biopsy showed comparable results as well. Surgeons need to answer to two questions prior to performing a biopsy: 1-          Where is the best part of the lesion to be biopsied? 2-          What is the safest route without contaminating

  1. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2009-04-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  2. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davies, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of pancreatic malignancies. They are broadly classified into either functioning tumors (insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, VIPomas, and somatostatinomas) or nonfunctioning tumors. The diagnosis of these tumors is difficult and requires a careful history and examination combined with laboratory tests and radiologic imaging. Signs and symptoms are usually related to hormone hypersecretion in the case of functioning tumors and to tumor size or metastases with nonfunctioning tumors. Surgical resection remains the treatment of choice even in the face of metastatic disease. Further development of novel diagnostic and treatment modalities offers potential to greatly improve quality of life and prolong disease-free survival for patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors.

  3. Tumor Biology and Microenvironment Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI's Division of Cancer Biology's research portfolio, research in this area seeks to understand the role of tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) in driving cancer initiation, progression, maintenance and recurrence.

  4. Bednar Tumor: An Uncommon Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amonkar, Gayathri P; Rupani, Asha; Shah, Ajay; Deshpande, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Bednar tumor is an uncommon variant of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Also known as pigmented dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, this tumor is of intermediate grade. It is seen in adults and has a predisposition to affect the shoulder region. We report a rare case of Bednar tumor in a 40-year-old female patient. The diagnosis of Bednar tumor must be considered while reporting pigmented subcutaneous spindle cell lesions.

  5. Determinates of tumor response to radiation: Tumor cells, tumor stroma and permanent local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wende; Huang, Peigen; Chen, David J.; Gerweck, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: The causes of tumor response variation to radiation remain obscure, thus hampering the development of predictive assays and strategies to decrease resistance. The present study evaluates the impact of host tumor stromal elements and the in vivo environment on tumor cell kill, and relationship between tumor cell radiosensitivity and the tumor control dose. Material and methods: Five endpoints were evaluated and compared in a radiosensitive DNA double-strand break repair-defective (DNA-PKcs −/− ) tumor line, and its DNA-PKcs repair competent transfected counterpart. In vitro colony formation assays were performed on in vitro cultured cells, on cells obtained directly from tumors, and on cells irradiated in situ. Permanent local control was assessed by the TCD 50 assay. Vascular effects were evaluated by functional vascular density assays. Results: The fraction of repair competent and repair deficient tumor cells surviving radiation did not substantially differ whether irradiated in vitro, i.e., in the absence of host stromal elements and factors, from the fraction of cells killed following in vivo irradiation. Additionally, the altered tumor cell sensitivity resulted in a proportional change in the dose required to achieve permanent local control. The estimated number of tumor cells per tumor, their cloning efficiency and radiosensitivity, all assessed by in vitro assays, were used to predict successfully, the measured tumor control doses. Conclusion: The number of clonogens per tumor and their radiosensitivity govern the permanent local control dose

  6. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  7. Intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, J.M.; Caceres, J.; Prat, J.; Lopez, J.I.; Velilla, O.

    1991-01-01

    In 1975 Dail and Liebow described the clinical and pathological characteristics of a pulmonary tumor which they dominated intravascular bronchio-alveolar tumor (IVBAT). Our aim is to acquaint radiologists with the existence of this tumor by describing the radiologic findings in 2 patients with IVBAT, 1 with hepatic involvement ant the other with pulmonary osteoarthropathy. (author). 7 refs.; 2 figs

  8. Neonatal umbilical inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antenatal scan. The preferred treatment option is resection of the tumor. Spontaneous regression has been described. Ann Pediatr Surg 13:160–162 c 2017 Annals of Pediatric. Surgery. ... Keywords: inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, neonatal tumor, surgical resection ... Other anatomical regions were the brain, the.

  9. Notch Signaling and Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stockhausen, Marie; Kristoffersen, Karina; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2011-01-01

    Human brain tumors are a heterogenous group of neoplasms occurring inside the cranium and the central spinal cord. In adults and children, astrocytic glioma and medulloblastoma are the most common subtypes of primary brain tumors. These tumor types are thought to arise from cells in which Notch...

  10. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1983-01-01

    A 18-year-old man had a painless swelling in the right anterior portion of maxilla for 2 years. On radiographic examination, a radiolucent region that was not associated with an unerupted tooth was seen. Small scattered radiopaque foci were seen in the cystic lumen. At second case, a 16-year-old girl had a painless swelling in the anterior portion of maxilla for 3 years. On radio graphic examination, a radiolucent region that associated with an unerupted tooth was seen. Multiple scattered radiopaque foci were seen in the radiolucent cystic lumen. With the patient under local anesthesia, well encapsulated tumors were enucleated. The diagnosis made in the pathologist's report was Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor, benign lesion often having distinct clinical and radiographic features.

  11. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  12. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Palaskar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon lesion of unknown cause. It encompasses a spectrum of myofibroblastic proliferation along with varying amount of inflammatory infiltrate. A number of terms have been applied to the lesion, namely, inflammatory pseudotumor, fibrous xanthoma, plasma cell granuloma, pseudosarcoma, lymphoid hamartoma, myxoid hamartoma, inflammatory myofibrohistiocytic proliferation, benign myofibroblatoma, and most recently, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The diverse nomenclature is mostly descriptive and reflects the uncertainty regarding true biologic nature of these lesions. Recently, the concept of this lesion being reactive has been challenged based on the clinical demonstration of recurrences and metastasis and cytogenetic evidence of acquired clonal chromosomal abnormalities. We hereby report a case of inflammatory pseudotumor and review its inflammatory versus neoplastic behavior.

  13. Tumor of small bowel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Lobo, Elmer Jair; Rubio Vargas, Romulo; Cecilia Hani, Albis

    2009-01-01

    Young woman who is having episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding that requires transfusions. The endoscopic study consists of 2 endoscopies of the upper digestive system and two colonoscopies. The tests do not find the cause of the digestive hemorrhage. A double-balloon enteroscopy is performed and it is found that the Ileum has an ulcerate subepithelial lesion with neoplasia appearance which is marked with Chinese ink and biopsies are taken from the tissue which are not diagnosed. Studies of staging are performed ant the result is negative. A laparotomy is performed for diagnosis and treatment which includes the intestinal resection of ileum where the tumor is placed. The result of the test shows to be a neuroendocrine carcinoma of high degree of large cells undifferentiated. One appears in addition a revision to overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and neuroendocrine tumor of small

  14. CT findings of parotid gland tumors: benign versus malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Ok; Han, Chun Hwan; Kim, Mie Young; Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Kyung Joo; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Bae, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jeung Sook

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of parotid gland tumors to help in the differentiation between benign and malignant lesions. The CT findings of 22 patients with surgically proven parotid gland tumors were reviewed. Analysis was focused on the density and margin characteristics of the tumors, and the relationship between the tumor and surrounding structures. Those tumors were pleomorphic adenoma (n = 8), Warthin's tumor (n = 5), basal cell adenoma (n = 1), lipoma (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n 1), epidermoid carcinoma (n = 1), and carcinoma in pleomorphic adenoma (n 1). Most of benign and malignant tumors were heterogeneous in density on contrast enhanced CT scans. In 5 of 6 malignant cases, the tumors had irregular or ill-defined margin and a tendancy to involve or cross the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia with obliteration of subcutaneous fat. Two malignant tumors invaded surrounding structures. Although the heterogeneous density of tumor is not a specific finding for malignancy at CT, following findings, such as, irregular or blurred margin of the lesion, the involvement of fascial plane, and the infiltration of surrounding structures may suggest the possibility of malignant parotid tumor

  15. Bone tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, R.A.; Berquist, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the contribution of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the care of patients with bone neoplasms. These modalities are emphasized because of their relative newness and not because they are considered more significant than the other more established examinations. Routine radiographs remain the most informative and essential imaging procedures for the diagnosis of bone tumors

  16. Stereotactic irradiation of tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbacher, L.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal German Cancer Research Center in Heidelberg, a specific brain tumor localization system has been developed. The system offers precise and easy manipulation, and pin-pointed application for diagnostic evaluation and therapy. The radiation source for radiotherapy are 125 J-seeds. The method so far is applied primarily for treatment of astrocytomas in children. The article reviews applications and results. (MG) [de

  17. Stromal gastrointestinal tumors (GIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balev, B.; Boykova, K.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: GIST are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract with varying tumor grade and frequency of 1: 100 000 per year. Mazur and Clark introduced the term for the first time in 1983. GIST constitute approximately 2% of the tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. The average age is 60 years. The most common locations are the stomach (60%), small intestine (30%), esophagus (1%), and rectum (5%). Learning objective: to demonstrate the imaging characteristics of the disease according to the current ESMO guidelines and to present the diagnostic accuracy of different imaging modalitiesnbased on review of literature and on own observations. GIST originate from interstitial cells (of Cajal) in the GIT wall, belonging to the autonomic nervous system, which is responsible for motility. 90% of GIST show overexpression of the KIT receptor, also known as CD117 or stem cell factor receptor. those that do not express c-KIT mutations, activate mutations in PDGFRA gene. Tumor’s macromorphology determines the imaging features on different modalities. Most of these tumors are exophytic, subepithelial, reach large size and enhance inhomogeneous due to necrosis. They usually do not cause obstruction. Ultrasound as the initiation method shows low sensitivity and specificity in GIST detection, CT with intravenous contrast is the gold standard. MRI contributes with assessing the vascularisation, cellularity and pH. FDG-PET/CT registers the metabolism of intratumoral acidosis. CT is the method of choice in the early diagnosis and determination of resectability of GIST. MRI is an additional method. PET FDG-CT is useful for the monitoring of patients treated with Imatinib

  18. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrba, H.

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs [de

  19. Neuroendocrine Tumor, diagnostic difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH secretion is a rare disease. A 51 years old woman, with a Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion, diagnosed in 2009, with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, whose biopsy was compatible with lung small cell carcinoma, staged as IIIB using TNM classification. No other lesions were found in patient study. The patient was submitted to chemotherapy, associated to ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily, with partial remission of both conditions. Three years later was admitted with an aggravation of Cushing syndrome. There was no evidence of progression of pulmonary disease. A cystic lesion in the pancreatic uncinated process was found by abdominal CT scan and with avid uptake by DOTANOC PET discreet in anterior mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy of pancreatic mass revealed a neuroendocrine tumor. Pulmonary masses were biopsied again and was in favor of neuroendocrine tumor. It was assumed the diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with mediastinal metastasis. The patient initiated lanreotid (120 mg, monthly, subcutaneous in association with ketoconazole. After 5 months of therapy, patient died with sepsis secondary to pneumonia. Neuroendocrine tumours are rare, difficult to diagnose and with poor prognosis when associated with ectopic ACTH secreting Cushing syndrome.

  20. MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)]. E-mail: ytanaka@md.tsukuba.ac.jp; Saida, Tsukasa Sasaki [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tsukuba University Hospital (Japan); Minami, Rie [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yagi, Takako [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tsukuba University Hospital (Japan); Tsunoda, Hajime [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kanto Medical Center, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corporation (Japan); Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Minami, Manabu [Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8575 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions.

  1. MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Saida, Tsukasa Sasaki; Minami, Rie; Yagi, Takako; Tsunoda, Hajime; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Minami, Manabu

    2007-01-01

    Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity. However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations. Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen. In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity. We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions

  2. Tumor regression patterns in retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.N.; Siddique, S.N.; Zaheer, N.

    2016-01-01

    To observe the types of tumor regression after treatment, and identify the common pattern of regression in our patients. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, from October 2011 to October 2014. Methodology: Children with unilateral and bilateral retinoblastoma were included in the study. Patients were referred to Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, for chemotherapy. After every cycle of chemotherapy, dilated funds examination under anesthesia was performed to record response of the treatment. Regression patterns were recorded on RetCam II. Results: Seventy-four tumors were included in the study. Out of 74 tumors, 3 were ICRB group A tumors, 43 were ICRB group B tumors, 14 tumors belonged to ICRB group C, and remaining 14 were ICRB group D tumors. Type IV regression was seen in 39.1% (n=29) tumors, type II in 29.7% (n=22), type III in 25.6% (n=19), and type I in 5.4% (n=4). All group A tumors (100%) showed type IV regression. Seventeen (39.5%) group B tumors showed type IV regression. In group C, 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type II regression and 5 tumors (35.7%) showed type IV regression. In group D, 6 tumors (42.9%) regressed to type II non-calcified remnants. Conclusion: The response and success of the focal and systemic treatment, as judged by the appearance of different patterns of tumor regression, varies with the ICRB grouping of the tumor. (author)

  3. Intrapontine malignant nerve sheath tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozić, Dusko; Nagulić, Mirjana; Samardzić, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    . On pathological examination, the neoplasm appeared to be an intrapontine nerve sheath tumor originating most likely from the intrapontine segment of one of the cranial nerve fibres. The tumor showed exophytic growth, with consequent spread to adjacent subaracnoid space. MR spectroscopy revealed the presence......The primary source of malignant intracerebral nerve sheath tumors is still unclear We report the imaging and MR spectroscopic findings in a 39-year-old man with a very rare brain stem tumor MR examination revealed the presence of intraaxial brain stem tumor with a partial exophytic growth...

  4. Epidemiological features of brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Nenad; Mihailović Goran; Marković Marko; Berisavac Iva; Spaić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Brain tumors account for 1.4% of all cancers and 2.4% of all cancer-related deaths. The incidence of brain tumors varies and it is higher in developed countries of Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. In Serbia, according to data from 2009, malignant brain tumors account for 2. 2 of all tumors, and from all cancer­related deaths, 3.2% is caused by malignant brain tumors. According to recent statistical reports, an overall incidence of b...

  5. Bilateral granulosa cell tumors: a novel malignant manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 syndrome found in a patient with a rare menin in-frame deletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall MJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Hall,1 Julie Innocent,2 Christina Rybak,1 Colleen Veloski,3 Walter J Scott,4 Hong Wu,5 John A Ridge,4 John P Hoffman,4 Hossein Borghaei,2 Aruna Turaka,6 Mary B Daly1 1Department of Clinical Genetics, 2Department of Medical Oncology, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Pathology, 6Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Introduction: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1 is a cancer syndrome resulting from mutations of the MEN1 gene. The syndrome is characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid and pituitary glands, and malignant tumors of the endocrine pancreas. Other manifestations include benign lipomas, angiofibromas, and carcinoid tumors commonly originating in the colon, thymus, and lung. This is the first report of MEN1 syndrome manifesting as bilateral granulosa cell ovarian tumors, and which is associated with a rare intronic mutation of the MEN1 gene. Case report: A 41-year-old woman presented with abdominal pain, increasing abdominal girth, and dysmenorrhea. Ultrasound demonstrated enlarged ovaries and uterine fibroids. After an exploratory laparotomy, she subsequently underwent bilateral salpingo–oophorectomy with hysterectomy where the pathology revealed bilateral cystic granulosa cell tumors of the ovaries. Additional workup including computed tomography imaging discovered a thymic mass, which the pathology showed was malignant, along with a pancreatic mass suspicious for a neuroendocrine tumor. Hyperparathyroidism was also discovered and was found to be secondary to a parathyroid adenoma. Genetic testing revealed an exceedingly rare mutation in the MEN1 gene (c.654 + 1 G>A. Discussion: Mutations of the menin gene leading to MEN1 syndrome are classically nonsense or missense mutations producing a dysfunctional protein product. Recently, researchers described a novel mutation of MEN1 (c.654 + 1 G>A in a male proband meeting the criteria

  6. Brain tumor and CT, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Nobuyuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Shinomiya, Youichi; Sano, Hirotoshi; Kanno, Tetsuo

    1981-01-01

    It is very important for a neurosurgeon to know the consistency of a brain tumor preoperatively, since the information which is of much use in indicating the likely difficulty of the operation, which operative tools should be selected, the amount of bleeding to be expected from the tumor, and so on. The authors, therefore, tried to evaluate the consistency of brain tumors preoperatively 27 cases in which the margin of the tumor was made clear with a homogeneous stain were studied concerning the relationship between the tumor consistency and the CT findings. The results are as follows: 1) A higher CT number on a plain CT indicated a harder consistency of the tumor. 2) A lesser contrast index (CT number on enhancement CT/CT number on plain CT) showed a harder consistency of the tumor. (author)

  7. Tumors of the optic nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Heegaard, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A variety of lesions may involve the optic nerve. Mainly, these lesions are inflammatory or vascular lesions that rarely necessitate surgery but may induce significant visual morbidity. Orbital tumors may induce proptosis, visual loss, relative afferent pupillary defect, disc edema and optic...... atrophy, but less than one-tenth of these tumors are confined to the optic nerve or its sheaths. No signs or symptoms are pathognomonic for tumors of the optic nerve. The tumors of the optic nerve may originate from the optic nerve itself (primary tumors) as a proliferation of cells normally present...... in the nerve (e.g., astrocytes and meningothelial cells). The optic nerve may also be invaded from tumors originating elsewhere (secondary tumors), invading the nerve from adjacent structures (e.g., choroidal melanoma and retinoblastoma) or from distant sites (e.g., lymphocytic infiltration and distant...

  8. Experimental rat lung tumor model with intrabronchial tumor cell implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Neto, Antero; Simão, Antônio Felipe Leite; Miranda, Samuel de Paula; Mourão, Lívia Talita Cajaseiras; Bezerra, Nilfácio Prado; Almeida, Paulo Roberto Carvalho de; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rat lung tumor model for anticancer drug testing. Sixty-two female Wistar rats weighing 208 +/- 20 g were anesthetized intraperitoneally with 2.5% tribromoethanol (1 ml/100 g live weight), tracheotomized and intubated with an ultrafine catheter for inoculation with Walker's tumor cells. In the first step of the experiment, a technique was established for intrabronchial implantation of 10(5) to 5 x 10(5) tumor cells, and the tumor take rate was determined. The second stage consisted of determining tumor volume, correlating findings from high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with findings from necropsia and determining time of survival. The tumor take rate was 94.7% for implants with 4 x 10(5) tumor cells, HRCT and necropsia findings matched closely (r=0.953; p<0.0001), the median time of survival was 11 days, and surgical mortality was 4.8%. The present rat lung tumor model was shown to be feasible: the take rate was high, surgical mortality was negligible and the procedure was simple to perform and easily reproduced. HRCT was found to be a highly accurate tool for tumor diagnosis, localization and measurement and may be recommended for monitoring tumor growth in this model.

  9. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents.

  10. Modulating the Tumor Microenvironment to Enhance Tumor Nanomedicine Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing

    2017-01-01

    Nanomedicines including liposomes, micelles, and nanoparticles based on the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect have become the mainstream for tumor treatment owing to their superiority over conventional anticancer agents. Advanced design of nanomedicine including active targeting nanomedicine, tumor-responsive nanomedicine, and optimization of physicochemical properties to enable highly effective delivery of nanomedicine to tumors has further improved their therapeutic benefits. However, these strategies still could not conquer the delivery barriers of a tumor microenvironment such as heterogeneous blood flow, dense extracellular matrix, abundant stroma cells, and high interstitial fluid pressure, which severely impaired vascular transport of nanomedicines, hindered their effective extravasation, and impeded their interstitial transport to realize uniform distribution inside tumors. Therefore, modulation of tumor microenvironment has now emerged as an important strategy to improve nanomedicine delivery to tumors. Here, we review the existing strategies and approaches for tumor microenvironment modulation to improve tumor perfusion for helping more nanomedicines to reach the tumor site, to facilitate nanomedicine extravasation for enhancing transvascular transport, and to improve interstitial transport for optimizing the distribution of nanomedicines. These strategies may provide an avenue for the development of new combination chemotherapeutic regimens and reassessment of previously suboptimal agents. PMID:29311946

  11. Disentegrating lung tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedbekov, Eh.N.; Kyazimova, L.G.; Mamed''yarova, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical and roentgenological appearances of tuberculosis and tumoral lesions of bronchi and lungs are similar. It makes possible of wrong diagnosis of disease. Complications in diagnosis are connected with that fact that increase of frequency of pulmonary carcinoma both in patients with active tuberculosis and in persons with residual posttuberculous changes in respiratory organs is observed. Patients with specific processes in the lungs was presented. Additional X-ray examination was carried out on the base of clinical symptoms and results of X-ray examination. The diagnosis was established: disintegrating blastoma of the right lung with metastases to mediastinum lymph nodes

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuzo; Matsumoto, Satoshi

    1980-01-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief. (author)

  13. Radiation therapy of brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, K. J.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    One hundred and six cases of brain tumors were treated at the Yonsei Cancer Center from January 1972 to August 1978 by Co-60 teletherapy unit. We analyses their clinical findings, histopathological findings, treatment and results. In those cases which computerized tomography had been used before and after radiation therapy, changes in tumor size and the presence of edema or necrosis following treatment was evaluated. 1. Among 106 cases, 90 cases were primary brain tumors and 16 cases were metastatic brain tumors. Pituitary tumors (38), glioma (34) and pinealoma (10) composed of most of primary brain tumors. 2. Post treatment follow-up was possible in 38 cases more than 1 years. Four among 11 cases of giloma expired and survivors had considerable neurological symptoms except 2 cases. Sixty five percent (12/20) of pituitary tumors showed improvement of visual symptoms and all cases (7) of pinealoma which post treatment follow-up was possible, showed remarkable good response. 3. Findings of CT scan after radiation treatment were compatible with results of clinical findings and post treatment follow-up. It showed complete regression of tumor mass in one case of pinealoma and medulloblastoma. One case of pituitary tumor showed almost complete regression of tumor mass. It also showed large residual lesion in cases of glioblastoma multiforme and cystic astrocytoma.

  14. Imaging tumors of the patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadei, R., E-mail: roberto.casadei@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Kreshak, J., E-mail: j.kreshak@yahoo.com [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rinaldi, R. [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, E., E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, G., E-mail: giuseppe.bianchi@ior.it [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Alberghini, M., E-mail: marco.alberghini@ior.it [Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Ruggieri, P. [Department of Orthopaedic Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Vanel, D., E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Department of Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Department of Pathology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Background: Patellar tumors are rare; only a few series have been described in the literature and radiographic diagnosis can be challenging. We reviewed all patellar tumors at one institution and reviewed the literature. Materials and methods: In an evaluation of the database at one institution from 1916 to 2009, 23,000 bone tumors were found. Of these, 41 involved the patella. All had imaging studies and microscopic diagnostic confirmation. All medical records, imaging studies, and pathology were reviewed. Results: There were 15 females and 26 males, ranging from 8 to 68 years old (average 30). There were 30 benign tumors; eight giant cell tumors, eight chondroblastomas, seven osteoid osteomas, two aneurysmal bone cysts, two ganglions, one each of chondroma, exostosis, and hemangioma. There were 11 malignant tumors: five hemangioendotheliomas, three metastases, one lymphoma, one plasmacytoma, and one angiosarcoma. Conclusion: Patellar tumors are rare and usually benign. As the patella is an apophysis, the most frequent lesions are giant cell tumor in the adult and chondroblastoma in children. Osteoid osteomas were frequent in our series and easily diagnosed. Metastases are the most frequent malignant diagnoses in the literature; in our series malignant vascular tumors were more common. These lesions are often easily analyzed on radiographs. CT and MR define better the cortex, soft tissue extension, and fluid levels. This study presents the imaging patterns of the more common patellar tumors in order to help the radiologist when confronted with a lesion in this location.

  15. Intracerebral hemorrhage in brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K; Matsumoto, S [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-10-01

    A series of 16 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumors are described. The literature is reviewed and the incidence of these cases is reported to be low, but we had clinically encountered these cases more commonly than reported, since CT was introduced to the neurosurgical field as a diagnostic aid. The presenting symptoms were those of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor. The intracerebral hemorrhage associated with brain tumor may mask the cause of bleeding and confuse the diagnosis. The majority of the tumor causing the intracerebral hemorrhage are highly malignant as glioblastoma or metastatic brain tumor, but there are some benign tumors such as pituitary adenoma, hemangioblastoma, benign astrocytoma and meningioma, which would have good survival rates if discovered early. The mechanisms of massive hemorrhage with brain tumor are not clear. From pathological findings of our cases and other reports, the mechanism seems to be due to the vascular endothelial proliferation with subsequent obliteration of the lumen of the vessel. Thin walled, poorly formed vessels in tumor may also become distorted with growth of the tumor and these may easily rupture and bleed. Necrosis with subsequent loss of vessel support may be a factor in production of hemorrhage. Radiation therapy may be a predisposing factor. Children are rarely involved in these cases. The prognosis in the majority of cases would seen to be poor, since the majority of the tumor are highly malignant and most such patients are seen by the neurosurgeon some time after the hemorrhage has accomplished its fatal mischief.

  16. What is a pediatric tumor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaume Mora1,21Department of Oncology, 2Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Working together with medical oncologists, the question of whether a Ewing sarcoma in a 25-year-old is a pediatric tumor comes up repeatedly. Like Ewing's, some tumors present characteristically at ages that cross over what has been set as the definition of pediatrics (15 years, 18 years, or 21 years?. Pediatric oncology textbooks, surprisingly, do not address the subject of defining a pediatric tumor. They all begin with an epidemiology chapter defining the types of tumors appearing at distinct stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Describing the epidemiology of tumors in relation to age, it becomes clear that the disease is related to the phenomenon of aging. The question, however, remains: is there a biological definition of what pediatric age is? And if so, will tumors occurring during this period of life have anything to do with such biological definition? With the aim of finding an objective definition, the fundamental concepts of what defines "pediatrics" was reviewed and then the major features of tumors arising during development were analyzed. The tumors were explored from the perspective of a host immersed in the normal process of growth and development. This physiological process, from pluripotential and undifferentiated cells, makes possible the differentiation, maturation, organization, and function of tissues, organs, and apparatus. A biological definition of pediatric tumors and the infancy–childhood–puberty classification of developmental tumors according to the infancy–childhood–puberty model of normal human development are proposed.Keywords: growth and development, pediatric tumor, infant, childhood and adolescence, pubertal tumors

  17. Multiparametric classification links tumor microenvironments with tumor cell phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Gligorijevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While it has been established that a number of microenvironment components can affect the likelihood of metastasis, the link between microenvironment and tumor cell phenotypes is poorly understood. Here we have examined microenvironment control over two different tumor cell motility phenotypes required for metastasis. By high-resolution multiphoton microscopy of mammary carcinoma in mice, we detected two phenotypes of motile tumor cells, different in locomotion speed. Only slower tumor cells exhibited protrusions with molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics associated with invadopodia. Each region in the primary tumor exhibited either fast- or slow-locomotion. To understand how the tumor microenvironment controls invadopodium formation and tumor cell locomotion, we systematically analyzed components of the microenvironment previously associated with cell invasion and migration. No single microenvironmental property was able to predict the locations of tumor cell phenotypes in the tumor if used in isolation or combined linearly. To solve this, we utilized the support vector machine (SVM algorithm to classify phenotypes in a nonlinear fashion. This approach identified conditions that promoted either motility phenotype. We then demonstrated that varying one of the conditions may change tumor cell behavior only in a context-dependent manner. In addition, to establish the link between phenotypes and cell fates, we photoconverted and monitored the fate of tumor cells in different microenvironments, finding that only tumor cells in the invadopodium-rich microenvironments degraded extracellular matrix (ECM and disseminated. The number of invadopodia positively correlated with degradation, while the inhibiting metalloproteases eliminated degradation and lung metastasis, consistent with a direct link among invadopodia, ECM degradation, and metastasis. We have detected and characterized two phenotypes of motile tumor cells in vivo, which

  18. Tumor cell proliferation kinetics and tumor growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tubiana, M

    1989-01-01

    The present knowledge on the growth rate and the proliferation kinetics of human tumor is based on the measurement of the tumor doubling times (DT) in several hundred patients and on the determination of the proportion of proliferating cells with radioactive thymidine or by flow cytometry in large numbers of patients. The results show that the DT of human tumor varies widely, from less than one week to over one year with a median value of approximately 2 months. The DTs are significantly correlated with the histological type. They depend upon (1) the duration of the cell cycle whose mean duration is 2 days with small variations from tumor to tumor, (2) the proportion of proliferating cells and consequently the cell birth rate which varies widely among tumors and which is significantly correlated to the DT, (3) the cell loss factors which also vary widely and which are the greatest when proliferation is most intensive. These studies have several clinical implications: (a) they have further increased our understanding of the natural history of human tumor, (b) they have therapeutic implications since tumor responsiveness and curability by radiation and drugs are strongly influenced by the cell kinetic parameters of the tumor, (c) the proportion of proliferating cells is of great prognostic value in several types of human cancers. The investigation of the molecular defects, which are correlated with the perturbation of control of cell proliferation, should lead to significant fundamental and therapeutic advances. (orig.).

  19. Skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikinis, R.; Matsumae, M.; Jolesz, F.A.; Black, P.M.; Cline, H.E.; Lorenson, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an image processing procedure for the planning of surgery of skull base tumors that can extract bone, vessels, tumor, and brain parenchyma and that permits resolution of cranial nerves. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions were generated from double-echo long TR interleaved conventional spin-echo and fast-spin-echo MR imaging data. Sixteen cases have been analyzed preoperatively. Image processing consisted of a multistep procedure combining a supervised multivariate analysis with neighborhood operations such as connectivity and erosion/dilation. 3D renderings of anatomic structures of interest were then generated. Cases were evaluated preoperatively and manipulated interactively with the computer-generated images by a team consisting of neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, and craniofacial surgeons. The preparation of 3D reconstructions required only a few hours and was performed mostly by a research assistant. The preoperative analysis of the 3D reconstructions was found to be a valuable tool, providing information complementing the surgeon's understanding of a case as derived from conventional imaging. The interactive manipulation of data proved to be a powerful way to evaluate alternative surgical approaches

  20. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Aghighi

    Full Text Available Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment.Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations.4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001. Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3 compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3. Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients showed similar findings with

  1. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2 as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC, to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. CONCLUSION: Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  2. Tumor markers in clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    The subtle differences between normal and tumor cells are exploited in the detection and treatment of cancer. These differences are designated as tumor markers and can be either qualitative or quantitative in their nature. That means that both the structures that are produced by tumor cells as well as the structures that are produced in excessive amounts by host tissues under the influence of tumor cells can function as tumor markers. Speaking in general, the tumor markers are the specific molecules appearing in the blood or tissues and the occurrence of which is associated with cancer. According to their application, tumor markers can be roughly divided as markers in clinical oncology and markers in pathology. In this review, only tumor markers in clinical oncology are going to be discussed. Current tumor markers in clinical oncology include (i) oncofetal antigens, (ii) placental proteins, (iii) hormones, (iv) enzymes, (v) tumor-associated antigens, (vi) special serum proteins, (vii) catecholamine metabolites, and (viii) miscellaneous markers. As to the literature, an ideal tumor marker should fulfil certain criteria - when using it as a test for detection of cancer disease: (1) positive results should occur in the early stages of the disease, (2) positive results should occur only in the patients with a specific type of malignancy, (3) positive results should occur in all patients with the same malignancy, (4) the measured values should correlate with the stage of the disease, (5) the measured values should correlate to the response to treatment, (6) the marker should be easy to measure. Most tumor markers available today meet several, but not all criteria. As a consequence of that, some criteria were chosen for the validation and proper selection of the most appropriate marker in a particular malignancy, and these are: (1) markers' sensitivity, (2) specificity, and (3) predictive values. Sensitivity expresses the mean probability of determining an elevated tumor

  3. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...

  4. Tumor cell-derived microparticles polarize M2 tumor-associated macrophages for tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ruihua; Ji, Tiantian; Chen, Degao; Dong, Wenqian; Zhang, Huafeng; Yin, Xiaonan; Ma, Jingwei; Liang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Guanxin; Qin, Xiaofeng; Huang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Despite identification of macrophages in tumors (tumor-associated macrophages, TAM) as potential targets for cancer therapy, the origin and function of TAM in the context of malignancy remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that microparticles (MPs), as a by-product, released by tumor cells act as a general mechanism to mediate M2 polarization of TAM. Taking up tumor MPs by macrophages is a very efficient process, which in turn results in the polarization of macrophages into M2 type, not only leading to promoting tumor growth and metastasis but also facilitating cancer stem cell development. Moreover, we demonstrate that the underlying mechanism involves the activation of the cGAS/STING/TBK1/STAT6 pathway by tumor MPs. Finally, in addition to murine tumor MPs, we show that human counterparts also possess consistent effect on human M2 polarization. These findings provide new insights into a critical role of tumor MPs in remodeling of tumor microenvironment and better understanding of the communications between tumors and macrophages.

  5. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  6. Desmoid tumor within lesser sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Radoje

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid tumors or fibromatoses comprise a number of benign fibrous proliferative lesions that have local infiltrative growth and tendency to recur after incomplete excision. They never metastasize. The authors present a 31-year old woman who, due to epigastric pain and palpable mass detected on presentation, underwent the excision of firm tumorous mass, 210x140x115mm in diameter, from the lesser sac. Compressing the splenic vein, the tumor caused left-sided portal hypertension which subsided after the mass was removed. The recovery was uneventful. The histological examination verified typical desmoid tumor. Twelve years after surgery, the patient remained symptom-free with no signs of recurrence.

  7. Histopathologic correlation of parotid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Valverde, Jose Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Malignization percentage of parotid pleomorphic adenoma is defined with fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), prior negative in patients operated by parotid tumor in the Hospital San Juan de Dios between 2008-2012. Patients diagnosed with pleomorphic adenoma by FNAB are described in time, place and person. The histological type of parotid tumors diagnosed are defined. Management offered to patients diagnosed with parotid tumors is understood in the Hospital San Juan de Dios. Complications associated with surgical procedure in patients are specified. A quarter part the of parotid tumors from the series analyzed have been malignant, a similar percentage described in the literature [es

  8. [Diagnostic aspects of pharyngeal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, A A; Kradinov, A I; Vasil'ev, A Iu; Rogozhin, V A; Ivankov, A P

    1999-01-01

    In the work there are summarized the results of the examination of the 28 patients suffering with the pharynx tumors (angiophybroma of the pharynx, tumor of rhinopharynx with spreading to the cells of ethmoidal labyrinth and maxillary sinus, tumor of the pharynx spreading upon the rhinopharynx and intracranially) aged from 14 till 62. There are described the methods of roentgenologic investigation, computed and magnetic resonance tomography. There are shown the possibilities of different diagnostic methods in pharynx tumors, in estimation of the localization specification, prevalence, structure, degree of invasion into the neoplasms gathering round the cells, as well as the definition of the bony destruction.

  9. Retrotransposon Targeting of Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Dongdong; DeVaux, George

    2005-01-01

    .... Cancer gene therapy techniques include oncogene inactivation, tumor suppressor gene replacement, inhibition of angiogenesis, immunopotentiation, molecular chemotherapy, and transfer of drug resistance genes...

  10. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  11. Skull base tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gragnaniello, Cristian; Nader, Remi; van Doormaal, Tristan; Kamel, Mahmoud; Voormolen, Eduard H J; Lasio, Giovanni; Aboud, Emad; Regli, Luca; Tulleken, Cornelius A F; Al-Mefty, Ossama

    2010-11-01

    Resident duty-hours restrictions have now been instituted in many countries worldwide. Shortened training times and increased public scrutiny of surgical competency have led to a move away from the traditional apprenticeship model of training. The development of educational models for brain anatomy is a fascinating innovation allowing neurosurgeons to train without the need to practice on real patients and it may be a solution to achieve competency within a shortened training period. The authors describe the use of Stratathane resin ST-504 polymer (SRSP), which is inserted at different intracranial locations to closely mimic meningiomas and other pathological entities of the skull base, in a cadaveric model, for use in neurosurgical training. Silicone-injected and pressurized cadaveric heads were used for studying the SRSP model. The SRSP presents unique intrinsic metamorphic characteristics: liquid at first, it expands and foams when injected into the desired area of the brain, forming a solid tumorlike structure. The authors injected SRSP via different passages that did not influence routes used for the surgical approach for resection of the simulated lesion. For example, SRSP injection routes included endonasal transsphenoidal or transoral approaches if lesions were to be removed through standard skull base approach, or, alternatively, SRSP was injected via a cranial approach if the removal was planned to be via the transsphenoidal or transoral route. The model was set in place in 3 countries (US, Italy, and The Netherlands), and a pool of 13 physicians from 4 different institutions (all surgeons and surgeons in training) participated in evaluating it and provided feedback. All 13 evaluating physicians had overall positive impressions of the model. The overall score on 9 components evaluated--including comparison between the tumor model and real tumor cases, perioperative requirements, general impression, and applicability--was 88% (100% being the best possible

  12. Tumor stem cells: A new approach for tumor therapy (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENG, MIN; ZHAO, XIN-HAN; NING, QIAN; HOU, LEI; XIN, GUO-HONG; LIU, LI-FENG

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of a minority of tumor cells possessing the stem cell properties of self-renewal and differentiation in leukemia and several solid tumors. However, these cells do not possess the normal regulatory mechanisms of stem cells. Following transplantation, they are capable of initiating tumorigenesis and are therefore known as ‘tumor stem cells’. Cellular origin analysis of tumor stem cells has resulted in three hypotheses: Embryonal rest hypothesis, anaplasia and maturation arrest. Several signaling pathways which are involved in carcinogenesis, including Wnt/β-catenin, Notch and Oct-4 signaling pathways are crucial in normal stem cell self-renewal decisions, suggesting that breakdown in the regulation of self-renewal may be a key event in the development of tumors. Thus, tumors can be regarded as an abnormal organ in which stem cells have escaped from the normal constraints on self-renewal, thus, leading to abnormally differentiated tumor cells that lose the ability to form tumors. This new model for maligancies has significance for clinical research and treatment. PMID:22844351

  13. Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)

  14. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-09-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated.

  15. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated. (orig.) [de

  16. Solid-pseudo papillary tumor of the pancreas: Frantz's tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Bruno Righi Rodrigues de; Moreira, Reni Cecilia Lopes; Campos, Marcelo Esteves Chaves

    2010-01-01

    The pseudo papillary solid tumor of the pancreas, also known as Frantz's tumor, is a rare disease, taking place in approximately 0.17% to 2.7% of non-endocrine tumors of the pancreas. Recently, the increase of its incidence has been noted with more than two-thirds of the total cases described in the last 10 years. A possible explanation is a greater knowledge of the disease and a greater uniformity of conceptualization in the last years. Generally, it affects young adult females. In most of the series, the tumor principally attacks the body and tail of the pancreas. The objective of the present report is to present the diagnostic and therapeutic option used in this rare pancreatic tumor of low-grade malignancy. (author)

  17. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  18. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  19. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  20. Mechanism of brain tumor headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lynne P

    2014-04-01

    Headaches occur commonly in all patients, including those who have brain tumors. Using the search terms "headache and brain tumors," "intracranial neoplasms and headache," "facial pain and brain tumors," "brain neoplasms/pathology," and "headache/etiology," we reviewed the literature from the past 78 years on the proposed mechanisms of brain tumor headache, beginning with the work of Penfield. Most of what we know about the mechanisms of brain tumor associated headache come from neurosurgical observations from intra-operative dural and blood vessel stimulation as well as intra-operative observations and anecdotal information about resolution of headache symptoms with various tumor-directed therapies. There is an increasing overlap between the primary and secondary headaches and they may actually share a similar biological mechanism. While there can be some criticism that the experimental work with dural and arterial stimulation produced head pain and not actual headache, when considered with the clinical observations about headache type, coupled with improvement after treatment of the primary tumor, we believe that traction on these structures, coupled with increased intracranial pressure, is clearly part of the genesis of brain tumor headache and may also involve peripheral sensitization with neurogenic inflammation as well as a component of central sensitization through trigeminovascular afferents on the meninges and cranial vessels. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  1. Controversies in presacral tumors management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidal Issa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Presacral tumors are rare lesions of the retrorectal space that can present diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty because of their anatomic location and the different tissue types and etiology. Although the diagnosis and management of these tumors has evolved in recent years, several points still to be addressed in order to improve perioperative diagnosis and treatment. In the upcoming we will try to highlight some controversial points; the pre-operative biopsies, neoadjuvant therapy, the necessity of surgery and the role of minimally invasive surgeries of presacral tumors. Resumo: Tumores pré-sacrais são lesões raras do espaço retrorretal que podem trazer dificuldades diagnósticas e terapêuticas por causa de sua localização anatômica e também pelos diferentes tipos de tecidos e etiologia. Embora nos últimos anos o diagnóstico e tratamento desses tumores tenham evoluído, diversos pontos ainda devem ser estudados com vistas à melhora do diagnóstico e tratamento no perioperatório. Mais adiante, tentaremos esclarecer alguns pontos controversos; biópsias pré-operatórias, terapia neoadjuvante, a necessidade de cirurgia e o papel das cirurgias minimamente invasivas para os tumores pré-sacrais. Keywords: Presacral tumor, Preoperative biopsy, Neoadjuvant therapy, Palavras-chave: Tumor pré-sacral, Biópsia pré-operatória, Terapia neoadjuvante

  2. Surgical strategies in endocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreinemakers, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine surgery has become more custom-made throughout the years. Endocrine tumors can be sporadic or develop as part of familial syndromes. Several familial syndromes are known to cause endocrine tumors. The most common are multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes type 1, 2A and 2B. This

  3. Focal midbrain tumors in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandertop, W. P.; Hoffman, H. J.; Drake, J. M.; Humphreys, R. P.; Rutka, J. T.; Amstrong, D. C.; Becker, L. E.

    1992-01-01

    The clinical and neuroradiological features of focal midbrain tumors in 12 children are described, and the results of their surgical management are presented. Patients with a focal midbrain tumor usually exhibit either symptoms and signs of raised intracranial pressure caused by an obstructive

  4. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, G.O. Jr.; Davis, P.C.; Patrick, L.E.; Winn, K.J.; Ball, T.I.; Wyly, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is an uncommon neoplasm occurring primarily in the child one year or less in age. Difficulty in deciding the cellular origin of this tumor has led to numerous names, including congenital melanocarcinoma, melanotic epithelial odontoma, melanotic ameloblastoma, and retinal anlage tumor, to list a few. Electron microscopy and histochemical studies, however, have now established the neural crest the most likely origin. The most frequent site of occurrence is the maxilla followed by the skull, the brain and the mandible. The genital organs are the most frequent extracranial site. Within the skull, there is a predilection for the anterior fontanel. The following is a case report of a young child with melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy arising at the anterior fontanel. Included is a discussion of magnetic resonance (MR) findings, which to our knowledge, have not been previously reported in this tumor. (orig.)

  5. Pathogenesis and progression of fibroepithelial breast tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, Arno

    2006-01-01

    Fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor are fibroepithelial breast tumors. These tumors are biphasic, i.e. they are composed of stroma and epithelium. The behavior of fibroadenomas is benign, whereas phyllodes tumors can recur and even metastasize. Classification criteria for both tumors show considerable

  6. Benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Suk Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasms of the lacrimal drainage system are uncommon, but potentially life-threatening and are often difficult to diagnose. Among primary lacrimal sac tumors, benign mixed tumors are extremely rare. Histologically, benign mixed tumors have been classified as a type of benign epithelial tumor. Here we report a case of benign mixed tumor of the lacrimal sac.

  7. [Desmoid tumors in three patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohos, E; Kovács, T; Brittig, F; Nagy, A

    2001-12-01

    Desmoids are rare tumors of the connective tissue. It develops about 1:1000 times more in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP, Gardner syndrome) compared to normal population. It has been shown in molecular genetic examinations, that different mutations of the APC gene are responsible for desmoid tumors in FAP. It means, that this disease is one of the extraintestinal manifestations of Gardner syndrome. This tumor has high recurrence rate and is growing rapidly, and as a result it is the second most common cause of death in FAP patients. That is why genetic examination for FAP patients is advised to decide if the patient has higher risk for desmoid formation. If the result of the genetic test is positive, it is advisable to try to slow the progression of polyposis with medical treatment, and so to delay the date of the colectomy because the surgical intervention--and connective tissue damage--can induce desmoid formation in these patients. At the same time it is reasonable to examine and regularly control patients with sporadic desmoid tumors searching for other manifestations of Gardner syndrome (colon, stomach and duodenum polyposis, tumor of papilla Vateri, retinopathy, etc.). Palliative surgery is not indicated in patients with inoperable intraabdominal desmoid tumors, because partial resections (R1, R2, debulking) result in further tumor progression. In these patients medical treatment (sulindac, tamoxifen), chemotherapy (doxorubicin, dacarbazin) and radiotherapy or combination of them can result tumor remission. We describe our three patients (an abdominal wall desmoid four years following Cesarean section; a desmoid tumor in the retroperitoneum and in the pelvis diagnosed three years after total colectomy; and a retroperitoneal and abdominal wall desmoid one year after total colectomy) and etiology, diagnosis and therapy of desmoid tumors are discussed.

  8. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  9. IMRT in hypopharyngeal tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, G.; Luetolf, U.M.; Davis, J.B.; Glanzmann, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-06-15

    Background and purpose: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) data on hypopharyngeal cancer (HC) are scant. In this study, the authors report on early results in an own HC patient cohort treated with IMRT. A more favorable outcome as compared to historical data on conventional radiation techniques was expected. Patients and methods: 29 consecutive HC patients were treated with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) IMRT between 01/2002 and 07/2005 (mean follow-up 16 months, range 4-44 months). Doses of 60-71 Gy with 2.0-2.2 Gy/fraction were applied. 26/29 patients were definitively irradiated, 86% received simultaneous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. 60% presented with locally advanced disease (T3/4 Nx, Tx N2c/3). Mean primary tumor volume measured 36.2 cm{sup 3} (4-170 cm{sup 3}), mean nodal volume 16.6 cm{sup 3} (0-97 cm{sup 3}). Results: 2-year actuarial local, nodal, distant control, and overall disease-free survival were 90%, 93%, 93%, and 90%, respectively. In 2/4 patients with persistent disease (nodal in one, primary in three), salvage surgery was performed. The mean dose to the spinal cord (extension of > 5-15 mm) was 26 Gy (12-38 Gy); the mean maximum (point) dose was 44.4 Gy (26-58.9 Gy). One grade (G) 3 dysphagia and two G4 reactions (laryngeal fibrosis, dysphagia), both following the schedule with 2.2 Gy per fraction, have been observed so far. Larynx preservation was achieved in 25/26 of the definitively irradiated patients (one underwent a salvage laryngectomy); 23 had no or minimal dysphagia (G0-1). Conclusion: excellent early disease control and high patient satisfaction with swallowing function in HC following SIB IMRT were observed; these results need to be confirmed based on a longer follow-up period. In order to avoid G4 reactions, SIB doses of < 2.2 Gy/fraction are recommended for large tumors involving laryngeal structures. (orig.)

  10. Clinical relevance of F-18 FDG PET for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors; Wertigkeit der F-18-FDG-PET bei neuroendokrinen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. [Klinikum der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum - Marienhospital, Herne (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum; Hoer, G. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are characterized immunocytochemically by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. Hormones induce their biological action by binding to and stimulating specific membrane-associated receptors for e.g. somatostatin. The presence of somatostatin receptors (SR) has been described mainly in endocrine glands and the central nervous system. Interestingly, a large variety of human tumors, including gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) also express a high density of SR and can be imaged with [{sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}]-pentetreotide. Cell proliferative activity is an important indicator of the growth of various malignant tumors associated with a poorer prognosis and Ki-67 expression. {sup 18}F-FDG is a marker of tumor viability, based upon the increased glycolysis that is associated with malignancy as compared with normal tissue. SR-containing neuroendocrine tumors are well-differentiated and tend to grow slowly. Furthermore, these tumors demonstrate inverse relationship between in vivo SR expression, cell proliferation (low Ki-67 expression) and FDG uptake (normal biodistribution). In comparison, less differentiated tumors, e.g. atypical carcinoids or MTC with increasing CEA levels show mitotic activity (high levels of Ki-67 immunoreactivity and increased FDG uptake) and often lack of SR. In conclusion, SR scintigraphy has been shown to localize well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. In contrast, PET imaging is valuable for predicting malignancy only in less differentiated tumors with incresed glucose metabolism. Therefore, an additional F-18 FDG PET should be performed if SR scintigraphy (GEP tumors) or combined imaging using [{sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}]-pentetreotide and {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA (MTC) is negative. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Tumoren werden durch die spezifische Produktion von Polypeptidhormonen und biogenen Aminen klassifiziert. Die Informationsuebertragung der

  11. Initiative action of tumor-associated macrophage during tumor metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Singh

    2017-06-01

    In this review article, we present an overview of mechanisms responsible for TAMs recruitment and highlight the roles of TAMs in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, immunosuppression, and chemotherapeutic resistance. We describe the interplay between Th17 cells and other immune cells in the tumor microenvironment, and we assess both the potential antitumorigenic and pro-tumorigenic activities of Th17 cells and their associated cytokines. Understanding the nature of Th17 cell responses in the tumor microenvironment will be important for the design of more efficacious cancer immunotherapies. Finally, we discuss TAM-targeting therapy as a promising novel strategy for an indirect cancer therapy.

  12. Essential contribution of tumor-derived perlecan to epidermal tumor growth and angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xinnong; Multhaupt, Hinke; Chan, En

    2004-01-01

    As a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan (PG) in basement membranes, perlecan has been linked to tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Here we produced epidermal tumors in immunocompromised rats by injection of mouse RT101 tumor cells. Tumor sections stained with species-specific perlecan...... factor. In vivo, antisense perlecan-transfected cells generated no tumors, whereas untransfected and vector-transfected cells formed tumors with obvious neovascularization, suggesting that tumor perlecan rather than host perlecan controls tumor growth and angiogenesis....

  13. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  14. Benign bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilday, D.L.; Ash, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    There is little information in the literature concerning the role of bone scanning in benign bone neoplasms except for sporadic reports. Since the advent of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate, bone imaging has proven feasible and useful in locating the cause of bone pain, such as in osteoid osteomas, which are not always radiologically apparent, and in evaluating whether or not a radiologic lesion is indeed benign and solitary. Blood-pool images are particularly important in neoplastic disease, since the absence of hyperemia in the immediate postinjection period favors the diagnosis of a benign neoplasm, as does low-grade uptake on the delayed study. The scan, including pinhole magnification images, is especially valuable in diagnosing lesions in the spine and pelvis, which are poorly seen radiologically. We have studied various types of benign bone tumors, including simple and aneurysmal bone cysts, fibrous cortical defects, and nonossifying fibromas, all of which had minimal or no increased uptake of the radiopharmaceutical, unless traumatized. Although osteochondromas and enchondromas showed varied accumulation of activity, the scan was useful in differentiating these from sarcomatous lesions. All osteoid osteomas demonstrated marked activity, and could be accurately located preoperatively, as could the extent of fibrous dysplasia. The bone scan in the reticuloses also showed abnormal accumulation of activity, and aided in arriving at the prognosis and treatment of histiocytic bone lesions

  15. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRENDA DE SOUZA MOURA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the frequency of keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KOT in the Oral Surgery Service (OSS of the University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (HUCFF / UFRJ, with respect to recurrence rate, gender, age of recurrence and location of the injury Methods: clinical records were reviewed and histopathological reports of KOT patients of the HUCFF/UFRJ between 2002 and 2012. Patients diagnosed with KOT were divided into two groups for the occurrence of relapse: positive (n=6 and negative (n=19 Results: regarding the location, there was a predilection for the mandible. In the average age of patients in the positive group was 40.5 and the negative group, 35.53. In the distribution by gender, positive group showed equal distribution, different from that observed in the negative group, which showed a predilection for males Conclusion: KOT was the second most frequent injury in our patients, recurrence was lower among males and had the jaw as most affected location

  16. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This is a report on the work of the joint research group of the Institute of Radiation Biology (Strahlenbiologisches Institut) of the university of Munich and the Department of Radiation Biology of the Society for Radiation and Environmental Research (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- u. Umweltforschung - GSF -) at Neuherberg. The presented results are not in all cases definitely confirmed or have, in part, merely provisional character. It is the target of the joint research to investigate problems of cancer therapy of practical impact in model form and to develop recommendations in discussions with therapists. Thus, the aim is not so much to examine mechanisms of action of certain radiations in detail but to look for the general rules they are governed by and to analyze the quantitative aspects of cancer therapy. To achieve this, a great variety of test models must be at hand. Numerous cell cultivies and tumors of mice resp. rats are therefore used. The acute reactions to irradiation are examined on the skin, the small intestine crypts, the bone marrow and spleen colonies of mice and the chronic reactions are tested on the colon and heart of rats and on the vascular connective tissue and kidneys of mice. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Wilms' Tumor: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Wilms tumor (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Wilms Tumor updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA After chemotherapy - discharge Wilms tumor Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  18. Cystic tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambs, H.J.; Juchems, M.

    2008-01-01

    Cystic lesions of the pancreas encompass a broad spectrum of benign, premalignant, and malignant tumors which are primarily cystic or result from cystic necroses of solid neoplasms. Because of the wide use of cross-sectional imaging techniques they are increasingly being identified in asymptomatic patients as well as in patients presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice or pancreatitis. Among these lesions, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms, serous cystic neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms represent the majority of cases. With increasing experience with these tumors, a refinement of our understanding of their morphology and of their natural course has emerged. It is important to be familiar with the CT and MR imaging features of these lesions to differentiate these tumors and to orient the diagnosis towards benign or malignant forms. Because characterization of cystic tumors of the pancreas can sometimes be difficult due to overlapping imaging features, additional criteria such as clinical symptoms, localization, age and gender have to be taken into account. If appropriately treated, these tumors can usually be cured by resection and the decreasing risk of pancreatic surgery has led to an increasing number of resections of pancreatic tumors. The management of cystic tumors of the pancreas has not yet been standardized and the correct evaluation and subsequent management of the disease in asymptomatic patients have not been fully defined. (orig.) [de

  19. Biomarkers of Pediatric Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Russell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Need for Novel Biomarkers: Brain tumors are the leading cause of death by solid tumors in children. Although improvements have been made in their radiological detection and treatment, our capacity to promptly diagnose pediatric brain tumors in their early stages remains limited. This contrasts several other cancers where serum biomarkers such as CA 19-9 and CA 125 facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Aim: The aim of this article is to review the latest literature and highlight biomarkers which may be of clinical use in the common types of primary pediatric brain tumor. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to identify studies reporting biomarkers in the bodily fluids of pediatric patients with brain tumors. Details regarding the sample type (serum, cerebrospinal fluid or urine, biomarkers analyzed, methodology, tumor type and statistical significance were recorded. Results: A total of 12 manuscripts reporting 19 biomarkers in 367 patients vs. 397 controls were identified in the literature. Of the 19 biomarkers identified, 12 were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid, 2 from serum, 3 from urine, and 2 from multiple bodily fluids. All but one study reported statistically significant differences in biomarker expression between patient and control groups.Conclusions: This review identifies a panel of novel biomarkers for pediatric brain tumors. It provides a platform for the further studies necessary to validate these biomarkers and, in addition, highlights several techniques through which new biomarkers can be discovered.

  20. Neurosurgical treatment of extracerebral tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, G.; Kretschmer, T.; Braun, V.; Rath, S.; Richter, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Extracerebral tumors represent 29-30% of the intracranial tumors. Meningiomas rank first in incidence with 13-19%, followed by neurinomas and pituitary adenomas, 6-8% each. Due to their slow growth rate, meningiomas in the initial stages do not produce symptoms. Complete recovery can be achieved by complete removal of the tumor, which in general is possible in case of tumor sites at the convexity. Meningiomas at the basis, or meningiomas spreading into the sinus sagittalis superior often cannot be totally removed, so that for treatment of remaining or recurrent tumors and anaplastic meningiomas, post-operative radiation therapy is recommended. Neurinomas of the nervus acusticus originate at the N. vestibularis and may spread from the Meatus acusticus internus into the brain stem. With the modern methods of microsurgery combined with intraoperative monitoring it is possible to preserve the Nn. facialis and cochlearis and their functions. As an alternative to surgery, radiosurgery techniques have been on trial in the last few years. Via transsphenoidal approach, intra- and suprasellar pituitary adenomas can be completely destroyed. Parasellar tumors can be resected by transcranial approach only. Remaining tumors in the Sinus cavernosus, or recurrent adenomas, should receive post-surgery radiation treatment. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Malignant Tumors Of The Heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, J.

    2007-01-01

    Autoptic prevalence of the heart tumors is 0,01 – 0,3 %. 12 – 25 % of them are malignant tumors and 75 – 88 % are benign. Malignancies are more frequently found in the right heart. Metastatic tumors occur 20 – 40-times more frequently than primary neoplasms. Even 94 % of primary malignant tumors are sarcomas. Most frequent of them are angio sarcomas. Heart metastases are only found in extensive dissemination. Highest prevalence of heart metastases is observed in melanoma, followed by malignant germ cell tumors, leukemia, lymphoma, lung cancer. The clinical presentation is due to the combination of heart failure, embolism, arrhythmias, pericardial effusion or tamponade. The symptoms depend on anatomical localization and the tumor size but not on the histological type. Prognosis of the heart malignancies is poor. Untreated patients die within several weeks to 2 years after the diagnosis was determined. Whenever possible the heart tumor should be resected, despite the surgery is usually neither definite nor sufficiently effective therapy. The patients with completely resectable sarcomas have better prognosis (median of survival 12 – 24 months) than the patients with incomplete resection (3 – 10 months). Complete excision is possible in only less than half of the patients. In some patients chemotherapy, radiotherapy, heart transplantation or combination of them prolonged the survival up to 2 years. Despite of this treatment median of the survival is only 1 year. (author)

  2. MRI diagnosis of tongue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Kazuyuki; Abe, Satoru; Ohmori, Keiichi; Hosokawa, Yoichirou; Yamasaki, Michio; Hirano, Masayasu.

    1992-01-01

    MRI studies were performed on 29 patients with tongue tumors. Twenty-six cases were fresh, others were recurrent. Signal intensity of tongue tumor was not characteristic and specific, and it was a low∼iso signal on T1 weighted image (WI), heterogeneously iso∼high signal intensity on T2 WI, heterogeneous enhancement on gadolinium-DTPA enhanced image compared to muscle signal intensity. In 3 of 29 patients, the tongue tumor invaded to the mandible. With regard to the grasping tumor invasion to the mandible, the STIR method was superior to T1, T2 WI of the spin echo method. Dynamic enhanced MR images were performed in 6 of 29 patients. Dynamic change of signal intensity after gadolinium-DTPA administration were assessed with fast low angle shot imaging. On dynamic study at about 20 seconds after gadolinium-DTPA injection, the first signal intensity in the periphery of the tumor gradually began to increase. Maximum signal intensity of the tumor showed at about 70 seconds after gadolinium-DTPA injection. In search from 0 to 5 minutes, after the tongue tumor showed maximum signal intensity, its signal maintain the maximum. Necrotic and peritumorous edema showed a significantly lower and more gradual increase in signal intensity than adjacent neoplastic tissue on dynamic enhanced MRI. (author)

  3. Malignant renal tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, C.; Torterolo, J.; Irigoyen, B.; Bel, M.; Elias, E.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals who work in pediatric oncology, we see childhood cancer as a common disease, but in fact constitutes about 2% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. Wilms tumor accounts for 6% of all childhood tumors and presentation bilateral accounts for 4-6% of all Wilms tumors diagnosed. Theoretical Framework: In the period between the year 1994-2003 period were attended in the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Center, a total of 29 cases of malignant renal tumors, corresponding to 86% (25 cases) to Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma tumor. The Wilms is of embryonic origin, capable of metastatic spread, (85% lungs 15% liver). Very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which confers high cure rates (85%); having a multidisciplinary treatment model, combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The role of nursing in comprehensive cancer care child is essential in the prevention and early detection of side effects or complications. Case report: S.D. currently 10 years old. In 10/1994, at 8 months of age, was diagnosed with bilateral Wilms tumor. On admission her weight was 8200gr with abdominal circumference 50cm. Conducted pre-operative MDT and 02/1995 nephrectomy of the left kidney and right kidney lumpectomy (tumor nodule 420gr. and a 250gr.). MDT begins in 03/1995 01/1996 ending. 09/2003 with abdominal pain and vomiting, and kidney failure. 10/2003 lumpectomy biopsy (sclerotic nodule associated with maturation nephroblastoma). Currently severe renal insufficiency plan enters dialysis. Nursing process: Objectives: 1) To prepare the child and family to the side effects and possible complications of chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy 2) Prevent and minimize related complications tumor and / or treatment. Care Plan comprises four stages: A) rating and customer income. B) Implement care chemotherapy C) post-operative Care D) Implement radiation care

  4. TUMORES CEREBRALES ASOCIADOS A EPILEPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Manuel G. Campos

    2017-01-01

    Entre el 20 a 40% de los tumores cerebrales pueden manifestarse primariamente con crisis epilépticas y un 20 a 45% pueden presentar epilepsia durante el curso de la enfermedad. Las crisis pueden ser causadas por el compromiso cortical tumoral, así como en áreas distantes por deaferentación. Las crisis pueden responder a fármacos antiepilépticos o presentarse como epilepsia refractaria a fármacos. Los tumores de más lento crecimiento se asocian a epilepsia de largo tiempo de evolución, pero ha...

  5. Tumor lysis syndrome in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Amaranto

    2004-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome is a metabolic emergency characterized by electrolyte alteration with or without acute renal failure. It occurs mainly in patients with malignant tumors that have a high growth fraction, or after cytotoxic therapy, as a result of the massive degradation of malignant cells and the release of high amounts of intracellular elements that exceed the capacity of renal excretion. The objective of the treatment is the prevention of nephropathy due to uric acid deposits, and the correction of metabolic acidosis and electrolyte alterations. This paper reviews the incidence, the physiopathology, and the treatment of tumor lysis syndrome in children

  6. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  7. Diagnostic evaluatuin of gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to surgery of gastrointestinal tumors exact information about tumor localization, extent and possible infiltration in adjacent structures are important. The task for radiological and scintigraphic methods is predominantly the preoperative tumor staging. The upper (esophagus, stomach, duodenum) and the lower (colon, rectum) gastrointestinal tract should be routinely investigated by endoscopy and endosonography. CT or MRI imaging may add information about tumor extent, infiltration in adjacent structures and pathologically enlarged lymph nodes. The latter may be detected with similar or higher sensitivity by PET as well. Furthermore, with PET it is possible to differentiate a tumor recurrence from postoperative scar tissue earlier than with conventional morphological imaging techniques, for example in colorectal cancer. Liver tumors should primarily be inspected sonographically followed by an MRI scan if dignity is uncertain. The receptor scintigraphy with radioactive ligands allows to further characterize a detected tumor. Benigne liver lesions can be distinguished from malignant tumors (metastasis, hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) by the neogalactoalbumin-(NGA-)scintigraphy, because NGA binds exclusively to the liver galactose receptors of normally functioning hepatocytes. For the differentiation between liver metastasis and HCC insulin scintigraphy can be used, since insulin binds significantly in HCC due to an overexpression of insulin receptors in these tumors. If a malignant process is suspected, additionally CT-arterioportography may be recommended, because this newer radiological technique is capable to visualize lesions smaller than 1 cm. In such cases PET is sensitive as well and due to increased glucose metabolism even small foci can be detected with comparably high sepcificity. The method of choice for the detection of a pancreatic tumor is endoscopic sonography. In most cases the dignity of the tumor can be verified by ERCP, but sometimes it is very

  8. Tumors of the sublingual gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Simon; Bjørndal, K; Agander, T K

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the salivary glands are a heterogeneous group of diseases most often originating in the major salivary glands. Only a minor proportion of mainly malignant tumors arise in the sublingual gland. Due to the rarity of sublingual gland tumors (SGTs), little is known about the clinicopathologic...... are malignant, most frequently ACC with a high rate of metastatic spread. The diagnostic value of FNAC in SGTs seems inferior to what is found for other major salivary glands. DSS is determined by stage and T-stage and not by histopathological parameters. International collaboration is warranted to confirm...

  9. A Rare Cutaneous Adnexal Tumor: Malignant Proliferating Trichilemmal Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Alici

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating trichilemmal tumors (PTTs are neoplasms derived from the outer root sheath of the hair follicle. These tumors, which commonly affect the scalp of elderly women, rarely demonstrate malignant transformation. Although invasion of the tumors into neighboring tissues and being accompanied with anaplasia and necrosis are accepted as findings of malignancy, histological features may not always be sufficient to identify these tumors. The clinical behavior of the tumor may be incompatible with its histological characteristics. Squamous-cell carcinoma should certainly be considered in differential diagnosis because of its similarity in morphological appearance with PTT. Immunostaining for CD34, P53, and Ki-67 is a useful adjuvant diagnostic method that can be used in differential diagnosis aside from morphological findings. In this study, we aimed to present the case of a 52-year-old female patient with clinicopathological features. We reported a low-grade malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor in this patient and detected no relapse or metastasis in a 24-month period of follow-up.

  10. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  11. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong

    1975-01-01

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  12. Tumor-like tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    It was known that some of the abdominal tuberculosis can produce tumor-like appearance clinically and radiologically. But these were mainly masses formed in mesenteric and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The author has experienced the gastrointestinal tuberculosis resembling to a neoplastic process. In the gastric tuberculosis, irregular narrowing and filling defect with mucosal distortion and occasional shoulder effect could be seen in pyloric antrum. Deformity of proximal portion of duodenum was noted in most cases. Difficulty in differential diagnosis from the gastric cancer might be encountered. If duodenum was not involved. No definite sign of mucosal destruction involved area and associated deformity of duodenum was suggestive of an inflammatory lesion. If there is any tuberculous changes in small bowel, than gastric tuberculosis is more likely. There was the tuberculosis of descending duodenum or pancreaticoduodenal group of lymph nodes revealed cancer-like appearance. Long irregular narrowing with nodular filling defect and mucosal distortion or inverted 3 sign was evident. Differential diagnosis from cancer in duodenum or pancreas could not be made radiographically. Short annular stenosis and nodular filling defect with shoulder effect in both ends of stenosis was noted in some of small bowel tuberculosis. The findings were very resemble to malignancy. There was a case of huge hepatoma-like tuberculosis formed a large irregular mass by lymph nodes and adjacent organs. Chest film was not much help in the differential diagnosis. In many cases of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis, radiological findings were resembled to a neoplastic process. Since none of radiologic findings are specific enough to allow one to make a definitive diagnosis of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis and since type of the gastrointestinal tuberculosis could be cured by chemotherapy, careful analyzation of clinical features is emphasized before surgery.

  13. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  14. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfarouk, Khalid O.; Muddathir, Abdel Khalig; Shayoub, Mohammed E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Most cancer cells shift their metabolic pathway from a metabolism reflecting the Pasteur-effect into one reflecting the Warburg-effect. This shift creates an acidic microenvironment around the tumor and becomes the driving force for a positive carcinogenesis feedback loop. As a consequence of tumor acidity, the tumor microenvironment encourages a selection of certain cell phenotypes that are able to survive in this caustic environment to the detriment of other cell types. This selection can be described by a process which can be modeled upon spite: the tumor cells reduce their own fitness by making an acidic environment, but this reduces the fitness of their competitors to an even greater extent. Moreover, the environment is an important dimension that further drives this spite process. Thus, diminishing the selective environment most probably interferes with the spite process. Such interference has been recently utilized in cancer treatment

  16. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, Konstantin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Gaertner, Florian C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) of the pancreas are rare entities. Functioning tumors tend to present early with specific symptoms and typical abnormalities in laboratory values. In contrast, non-functioning NET are often diagnosed with delay and become evident by tumor-related symptoms like pain, weight-loss or jaundice. The role of imaging is to localize and delineate the primary tumor and to detect metastases. In the diagnosis of NET radiologic techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are applied. In certain cases nuclear medicine techniques like somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) using radioactively labelled somatostatin analogues are used. The present article reviews characteristic imaging findings of both functioning and non-functioning NET of the pancreas. (orig.)

  17. Assisted Care Options (Brain Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you with relief from the symptoms, pain, and stress of your brain tumor, while improving quality of life for both you and your family. Palliative care specialists work together as a team to provide an extra ...

  18. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk [Kosin College, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings.

  19. Primary malignant small bowel tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Kyung Seung; Suh, Ho Jong; Kim, So Sun; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk

    1990-01-01

    Small bowel tumors are rarely detected unless there is intestinal obstruction or bleeding. In the seven years 1982-1988, at Kosin Medical Center, 25 primary malignant small bowel tumors were studied radiographically with barium and / or computed tomography (CT). CT revealed gastrointestinal abnormalities in 20 patients. In ten, lesion were identified by upper G-I series, in 15 by small bowel series, and in addition, in 3 by colon enema. The most common malignant small bowel tumor was adenocarcinoma (N=15) and was next common lymphoma (N=7). On barium study, primary adenocarcinoma appeared as an irregular stricture (66.7%) and polypoid mass with intussusception was most prominent finding in lymphoma. Leiomyosarcoma appeared as an exophytic mass with excavation or ulceration. CT was found to be accurate in detecting wall thickening, complications and other associated findings. In conclusion, barium study was useful in the diagnosis of primary malignant small bowel tumor and CT was more accurate in detecting secondary findings

  20. Geometrical approach to tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells and particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former paper [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (2006)], and in the present work we extend our analysis and try to shed light on the possible geometrical principles that drive tumor growth. We present two-dimensional models that reproduce the experimental observations, and analyze the unexplored three-dimensional case, for which interesting conclusions on tumor growth are derived.

  1. Tumor del estroma gastrointestinal Tumor of the gastrointestinal stroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Felipe Montero León

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal, conocidos según sus siglas en inglés como GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors, son tumores mesenquimales que aparecen en cualquier lugar a lo largo del tracto intestinal. Este trabajo tiene el propósito de presentar una paciente de 60 años de edad que asiste a la consulta de ginecología del Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología, por presentar dolor en el epigastrio, que se irradia al flanco derecho, con un aumento de volumen en la fosa iliaca derecha, y por ultrasonografía se plantea un tumor de ovario derecho, que se proyecta hacia el epigastrio y a hipocondrio derecho. Se describe la intervención quirúrgica y los hallazgos encontrados en estudios macro y microscópicos, así como en estudios posteriores por inmunohistoquímica de la lesión. Se concluye con un diagnóstico de tumor del estroma gastrointestinal y los resultados de las intervenciones quirúrgicas y medicamentosas realizadas. Se recomienda valorar la importancia de una estrecha relación entre cirujanos generales y ginecólogos frente a enfermedades inesperadas, por su difícil diagnóstico preoperatorio, que conllevan a un tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado, y que por la complejidad que requieren, necesitan de la competencia de ambas especialidades quirúrgicas.The tumors of the gastrointestinal stroma, known in English language as GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors appearing in any place throughout the intestinal tract. The objective of present paper is to present the case of a female patient aged 60 came to Genecology consultation of the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology due pain in epigastrium irradiating to right flank with increase of volume in the right iliac fossa and by ultrasonography it is a tumor of right ovarium projecting to epigastrium and the right hypochondrium. The surgical intervention is described as well as the findings noted in macro- and microscopic studies

  2. Tumors of the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gamboa, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses are performed to establish the cause of chronic abdominal pain in patients. Histological types are considered in patients with primary tumors of unknown origin. Benign and malignant neoplasms are described, including methods of diagnosis and treatment. Clinical manifestations are cited. Early and accurate diagnoses are important for an acceptable outcome in patients with malignant small bowel tumors. Recurrence is provoked many deaths, suggesting the importance of adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  3. Radiologic diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunderquist, A.

    1989-01-01

    The radiologic work-up of a patient with a pancreatic endocrine tumor should follow a strict course. Ultrasonography as the first procedure should be followed by angiography, if possible. Negative ultrasonography should be followed by computed tomography (CT), which, whether positive or negative, is supplemented by angiography. Negative CT and angiography is followed by transhepatic venous sampling. In patients with suspected liver metastases from intestinal and pancreatic endocrine tumors, angiography may reveal more metastases than CT and ultrasonography. (orig.)

  4. Tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís César [UNIFESP; Matos, Delcio [UNIFESP

    2002-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a clinical entity of a persistent relevance in clinical practice and its early diagnosis is a determinant factor to obtain better therapeutic results. Tumor markers are helpful means for a better approach to individuals with such neoplasm. In the present review, the authors analyze the phases in which surgical-clinical treatment markers must be used: diagnosis, determination of tumor stage, establishment of prognosis and detection of recurrence. Current and future markers...

  5. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadali Attari; Sohrab Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with le...

  6. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilay Gözükara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature.

  7. Geometrical approach to tumor growth

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Tumor growth has a number of features in common with a physical process known as molecular beam epitaxy. Both growth processes are characterized by the constraint of growth development to the body border, and surface diffusion of cells/particles at the growing edge. However, tumor growth implies an approximate spherical symmetry that makes necessary a geometrical treatment of the growth equations. The basic model was introduced in a former article [C. Escudero, Phys. Rev. E 73, 020902(R) (200...

  8. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the application of aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in clinics, brain tumors are still a difficult health challenge due to their fast development and poor prognosis. Brain tumor-targeted drug delivery systems, which increase drug accumulation in the tumor region and reduce toxicity in normal brain and peripheral tissue, are a promising new approach to brain tumor treatments. Since brain tumors exhibit many distinctive characteristics relative to tumors growing in peripheral tissues, potential targets based on continuously changing vascular characteristics and the microenvironment can be utilized to facilitate effective brain tumor-targeted drug delivery. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological characteristics of brain tumors, including blood–brain/brain tumor barriers, the tumor microenvironment, and tumor stem cells. We also review targeted delivery strategies and introduce a systematic targeted drug delivery strategy to overcome the challenges.

  9. Systemic treatment of Krukenberg tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolak Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Of all ovarian tumors with distinct biological features, 10-25% are secondary ovarian tumors. Among the most common cancers that cause ovarian metastasis are breast cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrium, as well as gastric and lateral cancer. Krukenberg tumors remain asymptomatic until the tumor reaches a certain size, as in the case of primary ovarian cancer. Symptoms are non-specific: abdominal pain (42%, postmenopausal bleeding (18%, weight loss (6% and an increasing abdominal girth (15%. Diagnostic procedures should include physical examination, basic blood and biochemistry tests, radiographic imaging and endoscopy. There are currently no uniform guidelines to be followed in order to treat this cancer. However, the survival rate of selected subgroups of patients may be enhanced by means of cytoreductive surgery (performable among patients with good general health condition, where the metastases are limited only to the ovaries, where the primary tumor is derived from the colorectal cancer, and where there is the absence or minimal residual disease. It is still controversial to use adjuvant chemotherapy following the metastasectomy of Krukenberg tumors. Although this type of treatment seems to provide a survival benefit, there are currently no randomized prospective trials available so as to confirm or deny. Future research should, therefore, be focused on the potentially synergistic effect of surgery and perioperative administration of cytotoxic therapies targeted at high response rates. Studies on new molecularly targeted drugs can also be beneficial.

  10. Tumores malignos de pálpebra Malignant eyelid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Schneider Soares

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a incidência de tumores malignos de pálpebra no Hospital Banco de Olhos de Porto Alegre. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo dos casos de tumores malignos de pálpebra no período de 1985 a 1997, que tiveram diagnóstico confirmado por exame anátomopatológico. Resultados: Foram encontradas 54 neoplasias malignas, sendo 75,92% carcinoma basocelular, 12,96% carcinoma espinocelular, 7,40% melanoma e 1,85% lentigo maligna. A maioria dos pacientes apresentava mais de 40 anos e não houve prevalência de sexo. Conclusões: O tumor de pálpebra mais freqüente em nosso meio foi o carcinoma basocelular, seguido do carcinoma espinocelular. O melanoma foi o terceiro em freqüência mais encontrado em nossa pesquisa.Purposes: To study the incidence of eyelid malignant tumors in the Banco de Olhos Hospital of Porto Alegre from 1985 to 1997. Methods: We retrospectivelly analyzed clinical archives and in this study all cases of malignant eyelid tumors with histopathologic examination were included. Results: We found 54 eyelid tumors: 75.92% basal cell, 12.96% squamous cell, 7.40% melanoma, 1.85% undifferentiated carcinoma and 1.85% lentigo maligna. The majority of the patients was over 40 years old, 50% were male and 50% female. The diagnosis was confirmed in all cases through histopathologic examination. Conclusions: Basal cell carcinoma was the most frequent eyelid malignancy followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma was the third most frequently found tumor in our study.

  11. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  12. Malignant Solitary Fibrous Tumor Metastatic to Widely Invasive Hurthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma: A Distinct Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolson Kokohaare, Eva; Riva, Francesco M G; Bernstein, Jonathan M; Miah, Aisha B; Thway, Khin

    2018-04-01

    We illustrate a case of synchronous malignant solitary fibrous tumor of the thoracic cavity, and widely invasive thyroid Hurthle cell carcinoma. The Hurthle cell carcinoma was found to harbor distinct areas of malignant solitary fibrous tumor. This is a unique case of tumor-to-tumor metastasis that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously reported.

  13. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on gastric cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  14. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  15. Glomus tumor of penis- A rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S. Kate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomus tumors are rare, painful, and benign soft tissue tumors of the skin arising from the glomus body, an arteriovenous thermoregulatory structure. This lesion is usually found on the extremities. Glomus tumor involving the external genital organs including penis is extremely rare. Until now, only few cases have been reported in the available literature. A 22 year old male patient presented with a painful nodule over the penis. The pathologic diagnosis was glomus tumor of the glans penis. We report herewith a case of glomus tumor of penis diagnosed on histopathologic examination. Glomus tumor, being a benign neoplasm, complete extirpation of the glomus tumor is the treatment of choice.

  16. Age related changes in tumor vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loerelius, L.E.; Stridbeck, H.

    1984-01-01

    VX 2 tumors in the rabbit hind leg were investigated at one, two and three weeks of age. Angiograms were compared with vascular casts. The tumors grew rapidly the first two weeks of age. Large variations in vascularity were noted between tumors of different ages. With increasing age arteriovenous shunts at the tumor periphery and areas of avascularity of necrosis in the tumor center increased in size. Possible reasons for tumor necrosis are increased tissue pressure, anoxia caused by arteriovenous shunts and elevation in venous pressure. The natural history of the VX 2 tumor must be considered in every experimental study of the effect of any treatment. (orig.)

  17. Real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy for adrenal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Norio; Onimaru, Rikiya; Sakuhara, Yusuke; Abo, Daisuke; Shimizu, Shinichi; Taguchi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Shinohara, Nobuo; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shirato, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the three-dimensional movement of internal fiducial markers near the adrenal tumors using a real-time tumor-tracking radiotherapy (RTRT) system and to examine the feasibility of high-dose hypofractionated radiotherapy for the adrenal tumors. Materials and methods: The subjects considered in this study were 10 markers of the 9 patients treated with RTRT. A total of 72 days in the prone position and 61 treatment days in the supine position for nine of the 10 markers were analyzed. All but one patient were prescribed 48 Gy in eight fractions at the isocenter. Results: The average absolute amplitude of the marker movement in the prone position was 6.1 ± 4.4 mm (range 2.3-14.4), 11.1 ± 7.1 mm (3.5-25.2), and 7.0 ± 3.5 mm (3.9-12.5) in the left-right (LR), craniocaudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively. The average absolute amplitude in the supine position was 3.4 ± 2.9 mm (0.6-9.1), 9.9 ± 9.8 mm (1.1-27.1), and 5.4 ± 5.2 mm (1.7-26.6) in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Of the eight markers, which were examined in both the prone and supine positions, there was no significant difference in the average absolute amplitude between the two positions. No symptomatic adverse effects were observed within the median follow-up period of 16 months (range 5-21 months). The actuarial freedom-from-local-progression rate was 100% at 12 months. Conclusions: Three-dimensional motion of a fiducial marker near the adrenal tumors was detected. Hypofractionated RTRT for adrenal tumors was feasible for patients with metastatic tumors

  18. Recurrence of Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor: A Rare Pancreatic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Punch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP is a rare disease of young females that does not usually recur after resection. Here we report a case of an elderly female with history of SPTP ten years ago who presented with anorexia and a palpable left lower quadrant abdominal mass. Imaging revealed metastatic disease and US-guided biopsy of the liver confirmed the diagnosis of SPTP. Due to her advanced age and comorbidities, she elected to undergo hospice care. The objective of this case report is to increase awareness of this tumor and its possibility of recurrence, necessitating further guidelines for follow-up.

  19. Intrarenal neuroblastoma mimics Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Maria T. Cartaxo; Soares, Andrezza B.; Freitas, Elizabete M.; Araujo, Marcela; Pureza, Leda M.M.; Morais, Adriana; Antunes, Consuelo; Salles, Terezinha de J. Marques; Borges, Josenilda C.; Morais, Vera L.L. de; Romualdo Filho, Jose; Magalhaes, Mario H.

    2005-01-01

    This work reports the case history of a child with intrarenal neuroblastoma, initially diagnosed as Wilms' tumor. The patient, a one year and three months old girl, presented a hard abdominal mass on the left flank that extended to the meso gastric region, plus fever and paleness. The ultrasound of the entire abdomen revealed an intrarenal mass. Biopsy with fine needle in many points of the tumor revealed Wilms' tumor. The scarcely of the material, however, made immunohistoquemistry impossible at that moment. Because of the child's severe condition the SIOP protocol was started. As no clinical response was observed, an exploratory laparotomy was indicated with partial resection of the tumor and bone marrow aspiration (MO). The histopathologic study revealed a malignant neoplasia of small cells, poorly differentiated. IHQ was negative for WT-1 and positive for NB-84, synaptofisin, cromogranine. N-myc amplification was observed by molecular biology. The bone marrow aspiration identified metastatic small round cells infiltration. Intrarenal neuroblastoma is a rare entity that clinically and radiographically resembles Wilms' tumor. The objective of this case report is to show the importance of immunohistochemical and molecular analysis in the diagnosis of intrarenal neuroblastoma. (author)

  20. Fiber tracking for brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kei; Nakamura, Hisao; Ito, Hirotoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Kubota, Takao; Yuen, Sachiko; Kizu, Osamu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate an innovative scanning method for patients diagnosed with brain tumors. Using a 1.5 Tesla whole body magnetic resonance (MR) imager, 23 patients with brain tumors were scanned. The recorded data points of the diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) sequences were 128 x 37 with the parallel imaging technique. The parallel imaging technique was equivalent to a true resolution of 128 x 74. The scan parameters were repetition time (TR)=6000, echo time (TE)=88, 6 averaging with a b-value of 800 s/mm 2 . The total scan time for DTI was 4 minutes and 24 seconds. DTI scans and subsequent fiber tracking were successfully applied in all cases. All fiber tracts on the contralesional side were visualized in the expected locations. Fiber tracts on the lesional side had varying degrees of displacement, disruption, or a combination of displacement and disruption due to the tumor. Tract disruption resulted from direct tumor involvement, compression upon the tract, and vasogenic edema surrounding the tumor. This DTI method using a parallel imaging technique allows for clinically feasible fiber tracking that can be incorporated into a routine MR examination. (author)

  1. Tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisma, H.; Hilgers, J.

    1987-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor-associated antigens have been identified, but so far none of these are tumor specific. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have been used for imaging of a wide variety of tumors with success. Radiolabeling of antibody is usually done with iodine isotopes of which 123 I is the best candidate for radioimmunodetection purposes. The labeling of antibodies through chelates makes it possible to use metal radioisotopes like 111 In, which is the best radioisotope for imaging with monoclonal antibodies due to its favorable half-life of 2.5 days. Usually imaging cannot be performed within 24 h after injection, but clearance of antibody can be increased by using F(ab) 2 of Fab. Another approach is to clear non-bound antibody by a second antibody, directed against the first. The detection limit of immunoimaging is about 2 cm, but will be improved by tomography or SPECT. There is still a high false positive and false negative rate, which makes it impossible to use radioimmunodetection as the only technique for diagnosis of tumors. In combination with other detection techniques, tumor imaging with monoclonal antibodies can improve diagnosis. 44 refs.; 3 tabs

  2. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Mohammadali; Salimi, Sohrab

    2013-01-01

    Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with left-sided body hypoesthesia since last 3 months and a 25-year-old with severe headache of 1 month duration were operated under craniotomy for brain tumors resection. An awake craniotomy was planned to allow maximum tumor intraoperative testing for resection and neurologic morbidity avoidance. The method of anesthesia should offer sufficient analgesia, hemodynamic stability, sedation, respiratory function, and also awake and cooperative patient for different neurological test. Airway management is the most important part of anesthesia during awake craniotomy. Tumor surgery with awake craniotomy is a safe technique that allows maximal resection of lesions in close relationship to eloquent cortex and has a low risk of neurological deficit.

  3. Awake craniotomy for tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Attari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical treatment of brain tumors, especially those located in the eloquent areas such as anterior temporal, frontal lobes, language, memory areas, and near the motor cortex causes high risk of eloquent impairment. Awake craniotomy displays major rule for maximum resection of the tumor with minimum functional impairment of the Central Nervous System. These case reports discuss the use of awake craniotomy during the brain surgery in Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. A 56-year-old woman with left-sided body hypoesthesia since last 3 months and a 25-year-old with severe headache of 1 month duration were operated under craniotomy for brain tumors resection. An awake craniotomy was planned to allow maximum tumor intraoperative testing for resection and neurologic morbidity avoidance. The method of anesthesia should offer sufficient analgesia, hemodynamic stability, sedation, respiratory function, and also awake and cooperative patient for different neurological test. Airway management is the most important part of anesthesia during awake craniotomy. Tumor surgery with awake craniotomy is a safe technique that allows maximal resection of lesions in close relationship to eloquent cortex and has a low risk of neurological deficit.

  4. Self-scaling tumor growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We study the statistical properties of the star-shaped approximation of in vitro tumor profiles. The emphasis is on the two-point correlation structure of the radii of the tumor as a function of time and angle. In particular, we show that spatial two-point correlators follow a cosine law. Further......We study the statistical properties of the star-shaped approximation of in vitro tumor profiles. The emphasis is on the two-point correlation structure of the radii of the tumor as a function of time and angle. In particular, we show that spatial two-point correlators follow a cosine law....... Furthermore, we observe self-scaling behaviour of two-point correlators of different orders, i.e. correlators of a given order are a power law of the correlators of some other order. This power-law dependence is similar to what has been observed for the statistics of the energy-dissipation in a turbulent flow....... Based on this similarity, we provide a Lévy based model that captures the correlation structure of the radii of the star-shaped tumor profiles....

  5. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  6. Value of diffusion weighted MRI in differentiating benign from malignant bony tumors and tumor like lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zaki Kotb

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: DWI has been proven to be highly useful in the differentiation of benign, malignant bone tumors and tumor like bony lesions. Measurement of ADC values improves the accuracy of the diagnosis of bone tumors and tumor like lesions. Moreover, measurement of ADC values can be used in the follow up of tumors and their response to therapy.

  7. Malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    International histological classification and classification according to TNM systems, domestic clinical classification according to stages of carcinoma of stomach, large intestine and rectum are presented. Diagnosis of tumoral processes of the given localizations should be based on complex application of diagnostic methods: clinical, ultrasonic, radiological and others. Surgical method and variants of surgical method with preoperative radiotherapy play a leading role in treatment of mentioned tumors. Combined method of treatment-surgical intervention with postoperation intravenous injection of colloid 198 Au - is applied for preventing propagation of stomach cancer metastases. Advisability of combining operations with radiological and antitumoral medicamentous therapy is shown. Reliable results of treatment of malignant tumors of gastrointestinal tract are presented

  8. Liquid biopsy for brain tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ganesh M.; Balaj, Leonora; Stott, Shannon L.; Nahed, Brian; Carter, Bob S.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive methods will augment the clinical approach for establishing the diagnosis or monitoring treatment response of central nervous system tumors. Liquid biopsy by blood or cerebrospinal fluid sampling holds promise in this regard. Areas covered In this literature review, the authors highlight recent studies describing the analysis of circulating tumor cells, cell free nucleic acids, and extracellular vesicles as strategies to accomplish liquid biopsy in glioblastoma and metastatic tumors. The authors then discuss the continued efforts to improve signal detection, standardize the liquid biopsy handling and preparation, develop platforms for clinical application, and establish a role for liquid biopsies in personalized medicine. Expert commentary As the technologies used to analyze these biomarkers continue to evolve, we propose that there is a future potential to precisely diagnose and monitor treatment response with liquid biopsies. PMID:28875730

  9. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  10. Imaging of urinary bladder tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidekov, G.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Primary bladder neoplasms account for 2%-6% of all tumors, with urinary bladder cancer ranked as the fourth most common cancer in males. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common subtype of urothelial tumour accounting for approximately 90% of all urothelial cancers. It is typically observed in men aged 50-70 years with history of smoking or occupational exposure to carcinogens. Most urothelial neoplasms are low-grade papillary tumors, with high incidence of recurrence, requires rigorous follow-up but have a relatively good prognosis. Other bladder neoplasm include squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-15% mainly according to geographic location; adenocarcinoma - less than 2% /both occurring in the context of chronic bladder infection and irritation/; mesenchymal tumors in 5%, with the most common examples being rhabdomyosarcoma in children and leiomyosarcoma in adults. More rare mesenchymal tumors include paraganglioma, lymphoma, leiomyoma and solitary fibrous tumor which have no specific typical imaging findings to be differentiated. Multidetector computed tomography urography is an efficient tool for diagnosis and follow-up in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and it can be considered the primary radiologic method for detection, staging and assessment of the entire urothelium regarding the multicentric nature of TCC. MRI is rapidly expanding modality of choice especially in locally staging the tumor and in controversies. Accurate TNM staging is primordial in choosing treatment and prognosis for patients with bladder carcinoma. Correct interpretation and classification of the tumour is helpful for the urologists to determine further management in these cases. The learning objectives of the presentation are: to illustrate the spectrum of CT and MRI findings and to assess their clinical value in patients with transitional cell carcinoma and some other bladder neoplasm; to discuss the TNM staging based on the imaging findings; to be

  11. Computed tomography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, Nadir; Altehoefer, Carsten; Winterer, Jan; Schaefer, Oliver; Springer, Oliver; Kotter, Elmar; Langer, Mathias; Furtwaengler, Alex

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the imaging characteristics of primary and recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) in computed tomography with respect to the tumor size. Computed tomography was performed in 35 patients with histologically confirmed gastrointestinal stromal tumors and analyzed retrospectively by two experienced and independent radiologist. The following morphologic tumor characteristics of primary (n=20) and (n=16) recurrent tumors were evaluated according to tumor size, shape, homogeneity, density compared with liver, contrast enhancement, presence of calcifications, ulcerations, fistula or distant metastases and the anatomical relationship to the intestinal wall, and the infiltration of adjacent visceral organs. Small GIST ( 5-10 cm) demonstrated an irregular shape, inhomogeneous density on unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images, a combined intra- and extraluminal tumor growth with aggressive findings, and infiltration of adjacent organs in 9 primary diagnosed and 2 recurrent tumors. Large GIST (>10 cm), which were observed in 8 primary tumors and 11 recurrent tumors, showed an irregular margin with inhomogeneous density and aggressive findings, and were characterized by signs of malignancy such as distant and peritoneal metastases. Small recurrent tumors had a similar appearance as compared with large primary tumors. Computed tomography gives additional information with respect to the relationship of gastrointestinal stromal tumor to the gastrointestinal wall and surrounding organs, and it detects distant metastasis. Primary and recurrent GIST demonstrate characteristic CT imaging features which are related to tumor size. Aggressive findings and signs of malignancy are found in larger tumors and in recurrent disease. Computed tomography is useful in detection and characterization of primary and recurrent tumors with regard to tumor growth pattern, tumor size, and varied appearances of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and indirectly

  12. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Hitoshi; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro [Kawatetsu Chiba Hospital (Japan); Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira

    1998-11-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke`s cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke`s cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  13. MRI of cystic pituitary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Hitoshi; Hoshi, Seiichiro; Sunada, Souichi; Sunami, Kenro; Saeki, Naokatsu; Yamaura, Akira

    1998-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed MRI findings of 17 patients with 3 histologically proven cystic pituitary tumors. They consisted of 10 cystic pituitary adenomas, 4 craniopharyngiomas and 3 Rathke's cleft cysts. We analyzed the following MRI parameters such as cyst wall appearance, enhancement pattern of cyst wall, location of residual pituitary gland and location of tumor. They were clinically significant parameters for histological differentiation. Even though combinations of such MRI parameters helped for more accurate preoperative diagnosis, the differentiation between craniopharyngioma and Rathke's cleft cyst was difficult in some cases. (author)

  14. Tumores de los conductos biliares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Triana Cortés

    1955-02-01

    Los tumores benignos de los conductos biliares son relativamente raros. Christopher, que ha revisado recientemente este asunto, sólo pudo encontrar cuarenta y un casos publicados. Los papilomas parecen los más frecuentes, pero se les encuentra con menor frecuencia en los conductos que en la vesícula. Los adenomas son también tumores benignos de los más frecuentes en los conductos; en general, son múltiples y quísticos, y en algunos casos parecen derivar del epitelio de los conductos.

  15. Progress in radiotherapy of diencephalohypophyseal tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakura, Kintomo; Kubo, Osami [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan). Neurological Inst.

    1997-12-01

    The patients with hypophyseal adenoma (36 patients) were treated with peripheral irradiation (between 10 and 35 Gy) using gamma unit. The results are shown as follows: GH producing hypophyseal tumor (8 patients); tumor volume did not reduce rapidly. Growth hormone level fell, but it took more than 12 months to recover to normal level. PRL producing hypophyseal tumor (5 patients); five intractable patients were irradiated. Tumor contraction was not obvious, but the increase of tumor size was restrained. ACTH producing hypophyseal tumor (4 patients); ACTH level dropped gradually, and tumor size was reduced. However, there were 2 intractable cases. Non-functional hypophyseal tumor (19 patients); local tumor control rate was 100% in all patients and visual field was recovered. The size of craniopharyngioma was obviously reduced with peripheral irradiation of 10 Gy dimension about 10 months later. (K.H.)

  16. MR imaging of malignant ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kang, Heoung Keun; Moon, Woong Jae; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Ho Sun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate MRI findings of malignant ovarian tumors. MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed in 25 patients with surgically confirmed 30 malignant ovarian tumors(common epithelial tumor; 23, sex cord stromal tumor; 2, endo dermal sinus tumor; 1, metastatic tumor; 4). The findings evaluated were the lesion size, solid and/or cystic component, wall thickness, septal thickness, necrosis, invasion of adjacent organ, ascites, and adenopathy. MRI findings of the malignant ovarian tumors were as follow: Size of lesion was 5-35cm(mean 14cm); solid component was present in 80%(24/30); wall thickness was more than 3mm in 90%(27/30); septal thickness was more than 3mm in 70%(21/30); tumor necrosis was present in 40%(12/30%); invasion of adjacent organ was present in 76%(19/25); ascites was present in 56%(14/25); lymphadenopathy was present in 24% (6/25). MRI findings of absence of solid component(6/6), even wall and septal thickness(7/7, 19/19) were found only in epithelial tumors. Uneven septal thickness more than 3mm(7/11) was a predominant MRI findings of non-epithelial tumors. Well-defined cystic lesion within solid component was seen in Krukenberg tumors. Evaluation of the lesion size, internal architecture, invasion of adjacent organ, ascites, and lymphadenopathy in MRI would enable diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumors and could lead to possible differential diagnosis of epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors

  17. Tumor-reactive immune cells protect against metastatic tumor and induce immunoediting of indolent but not quiescent tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Kyle K; Keim, Rebecca C; Graham, Laura; Idowu, Michael O; Wan, Wen; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Toor, Amir A; Bear, Harry D; Manjili, Masoud H

    2016-09-01

    Two major barriers to cancer immunotherapy include tumor-induced immune suppression mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells and poor immunogenicity of the tumor-expressing self-antigens. To overcome these barriers, we reprogrammed tumor-immune cell cross-talk by combined use of decitabine and adoptive immunotherapy, containing tumor-sensitized T cells and CD25(+) NKT cells. Decitabine functioned to induce the expression of highly immunogenic cancer testis antigens in the tumor, while also reducing the frequency of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and the presence of CD25(+) NKT cells rendered T cells, resistant to remaining myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This combinatorial therapy significantly prolonged survival of animals bearing metastatic tumor cells. Adoptive immunotherapy also induced tumor immunoediting, resulting in tumor escape and associated disease-related mortality. To identify a tumor target that is incapable of escape from the immune response, we used dormant tumor cells. We used Adriamycin chemotherapy or radiation therapy, which simultaneously induce tumor cell death and tumor dormancy. Resultant dormant cells became refractory to additional doses of Adriamycin or radiation therapy, but they remained sensitive to tumor-reactive immune cells. Importantly, we discovered that dormant tumor cells contained indolent cells that expressed low levels of Ki67 and quiescent cells that were Ki67 negative. Whereas the former were prone to tumor immunoediting and escape, the latter did not demonstrate immunoediting. Our results suggest that immunotherapy could be highly effective against quiescent dormant tumor cells. The challenge is to develop combinatorial therapies that could establish a quiescent type of tumor dormancy, which would be the best target for immunotherapy. © The Author(s).

  18. TUMORES CEREBRALES ASOCIADOS A EPILEPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manuel G. Campos

    2017-05-01

    La Resonancia Magnética de cerebro es mandatoria en el estudio de todo paciente con epilepsia, para detectar lesiones estructurales, especialmente en epilepsia focal. Alrededor del 30% de los pacientes operados de epilepsia refractaria presentan tumores. En estos casos el control de crisis post-operatorio llega hasta un 70% en el seguimiento a largo plazo.

  19. Fever and abdominal tumoral masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustin C. Dima

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available 49 year-old man presented to our clinic for pain in the right hypochondrium, diarrhea, and fever. The clinical examination highlights a tumoral formation in the right side of the abdomen, with firm consistency, poorly defined margins, and present mobility in the deep structures. On biological exams, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, inflammatory syndrome, and hypoalbuminaemia were identified. The first computed tomography exam described parietal thickening of the ascending colon, with infiltrative aspect, and multiple local adenopathies, lomboaortic and interaortocave. Moreover, four nodular liver tumors, with hypodense image in native examination, were identified. The lab tests for infectious diseases were all inconclusives: three hemocultures, three stool samples, and three coproparasitological exams were all negatives. Interdisciplinary examinations, internal medicine and infectious diseases, sustained the diagnosis of colonic neoplasm with peritumoral abscess and liver pseudo-tumoral masses. The colonoscopy did not revealed any bowel lesions relevant for neoplasia. This result as well as the bio-clinical context imposed abstention from surgical intervention. Wide spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were initiated. But, ten days after hospitalization, the second computed tomography exam showed reduction of the ascending colon wall thickness associated with significant increases of the liver tumors is so revealed. The investigations for other possible etiologies were so continued.

  20. Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare cancer of the ovaries. The cancer cells produce and release a male sex hormone ... lead to cancer. SLCT starts in the female ovaries. The cancer cells release a male sex hormone. As a ...

  1. Ghrelin and gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang-Zhen; Liu, Dong; Kang, Wei-Ming; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Ye, Xin; Li, Kang

    2017-03-14

    Ghrelin, as a kind of multifunctional protein polypeptide, is mainly produced in the fundus of the stomach and can promote occurrence and development of many tumors, including gastrointestinal tumors, which has been proved by the relevant researches. Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs, about 80%), as the most common mesenchymal tumor, also develop in the fundus. Scientific research has confirmed that ghrelin, its receptors and mRNA respectively can be found in GISTs, which demonstrated the existence of a ghrelin autocrine/paracrine loop in GIST tissues. However, no reports to date have specified the mechanism whether ghrelin can promote the occurrence and development of GISTs. Studies of pulmonary artery endothelial cells in a low-oxygen environment and cardiac muscle cells in an ischemic environment have shown that ghrelin can activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) signaling pathway. Moreover, some studies of GISTs have confirmed that activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway can indeed promote the growth and progression of GISTs. Whether ghrelin is involved in the development or progression of GISTs through certain pathways remains unknown. Can we find a new target for the treatment of GISTs? This review explores and summaries the relationship among ghrelin, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and the development of GISTs.

  2. Phyllodes tumor of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubells, M.; Uixera, I.; Miranda, V.; Gil de Ramales, V.; Bulto, J. A.; Mendez, M.; Morcillo, E.

    1999-01-01

    To study the phyllodes tumors of the breast diagnosed in our hospital, assessing the clinical, mammographic, ultrasonographic and color Doppler ultrasound findings. A retrospective study was carried out of 20 histologically diagnosed cases of phyllodes tumor of the breast over a 20-year period, taking into account patient age, clinical signs, mammographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical treatment and recurrences. The clinical presentation was that of a palpable, usually painless, mass with a firm, elastic consistency. Mammographic images showed a lesion of homogeneous density and well-defined, round or lobulated margins. Two tumors contained large calcifications associated with previous fibroadenoma. Ultrasound revealed a slightly enhanced solid nodule of homogeneous echogenicity. Color Doppler ultrasound disclosed the presence of hypervascularization. The lesions were treated by surgical enucleation with follow-up examination every 6 months. Recurrences were treated by radical mastectomy. The phyllodes tumor of the breast is difficult to diagnose because of its similarity to the fibroadenoma. However, it should be suspected in the presence of a late-developing, rapidly growing mass. Mammography and breast ultrasound are of diagnostic utility, but the definitive diagnosis requires biopsy. (Author) 12 refs

  3. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  4. A case of mediastinum tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guariglia, S.N.; Schultz, R.; Funari, M.B.G.; Menezes Neto, J.R. de

    1989-01-01

    A patient with a tumor in the anterior mediastinum is presented. The patient ununderswent chest X-ray studies and thorax CT which demonstrated a large mass involving the heart and compressing the lungs. A malignant teratoma was eventually diagnosed by anatomopathologic examination. (author) [pt

  5. Desmoid Tumor of the Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerleman, Roxana; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Detlefsen, Sönke

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid tumors, also known as desmoid-type fibromatoses or aggressive fibromatoses, are clonal fibroblastic proliferations that arise in the deep soft tissues. They are characterized by infiltrative growth, a tendency toward local recurrence and the inability to metastasize. We present a case of ...

  6. Tumores de los anexos oculares Ocular adnexa tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara G. Gómez Cabrera

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de 211 pacientes, operados por presentar alguna tumoración de los anexos, con confirmación histológica en el período comprendido entre enero de 1993 hasta diciembre de 1997. El 53,5 % de los pacientes fueron del sexo femenino. El 48,4 % eran mestizos. El 13,3 % de los pacientes eran menores de 20 años, el 36 % entre 20 y 49 y el 50,7 % más de 50 años. El 61,1 % de los tumores se localizaron en los párpados. Los signos clínicos que prevalecieron fueron el aumento de volumen (56,9 %, aumento de la pigmentación (23,71 %, vascularización (21,8 % y ulceración (7,1 %. El 61,6 % de los casos fueron asintomáticos. Encontramos 14 tipos histológicos de tumores en los párpados y 15 en la conjuntiva. No encontramos diferencia significativa en cuanto a sexo y tipo de tumor. La raza mestiza presentó el mayor número de casos y el grupo de mayor incidencia fue el de pacientes mayores e iguales a 50 años de edad. Los párpados constituyeron la localización anatómica principal. El signo clínico más importante fue el aumento de volumen y la mayoría de los pacientes estaban asintomáticos. Los tumores palpebrales de mayor incidencia fueron los quistes de inclusión seguido por el carcinoma basocelular y el granuloma. En la conjuntiva se destacaron los nevus, el carcinoma espinocelular y el granuloma.A retrospective study of 211 patients that were operated on for presenting some adnexa tumors with histologic confirmation from January, 1993, to December, 1997, was made. 53.5 % of the patients were females. 48.4 % were black. 13.3 % were under 20, 36 % were between 20 and 49 and 50.7 % were over 50. 61.1 % of the tumors were localized in the eyelids. The prevailing clinical signs were volume increase (56.9 %, pigmentation increase (23.71 %, vascularization (21.8 % and ulceration (7.1 %. 61.6 % of the patients were asymptomatic. We found 14 histologic types of tumors in the eyelids and 15 in the conjunctiva

  7. Pediatric liver tumors - a pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Priyanka; Tavri, Sidhartha; Patel, Chirag; Gooding, Charles; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Chawla, Soni C.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatic masses constitute about 5-6% of all intra-abdominal masses in children. The majority of liver tumors in children are malignant; these malignant liver tumors constitute the third most common intra-abdominal malignancy in the pediatric age group after Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma. Only about one third of the liver tumors are benign. A differential diagnosis of liver tumors in children can be obtained based on the age of the child, clinical information (in particular AFP) and imaging characteristics. The purpose of this review is to report typical clinical and imaging characteristics of benign and malignant primary liver tumors in children. (orig.)

  8. Pediatric brain tumors; Kindliche Hirntumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Bodea, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muehl-Benninghaus, R.

    2017-09-15

    Brain tumors differ between children and adults both in histology and localization. Malignant gliomas and meningiomas predominate in adults while medulloblastomas and low-grade astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumors in children. More than one half (50-70%) of pediatric brain tumors have an infratentorial location but only approximately 30% in adults. Brain tumors can be recognized in sonography, cranial computed tomography (CCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by their space-consuming character and by their divergent density and intensity in comparison to normal brain parenchyma. They can grow extrusively, even infiltrate the parenchyma or originate from it. Besides clinical symptoms and diagnostics this article describes the most common pediatric brain tumors, i.e. astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, brainstem glioma, craniopharyngioma, neurofibromatosis and ganglioglioma. The most important imaging criteria are outlined. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Histologie als auch Lokalisation von Hirntumoren unterscheiden sich bei Kindern und Erwachsenen. Waehrend maligne Gliome und Meningeome bei Erwachsenen vorherrschen, kommen bei Kindern ueberwiegend Medulloblastome und niedriggradige Astrozytome vor. Mehr als die Haelfte (50-70 %) aller kindlichen Hirntumoren sind infratentoriell lokalisiert, dagegen sind es bei Erwachsenen nur etwa 30 %. Im Ultraschall, in der kranialen CT (CCT) oder MRT koennen Hirntumoren durch ihren raumfordernden Charakter und ihrer zum normalen Parenchym abweichenden Dichte oder Signalintensitaet erkannt werden. Sie koennen verdraengend wachsen, z. T. auch das Parenchym infiltrieren oder von diesem ausgehen. Neben der klinischen Symptomatik und Diagnostik werden im vorliegenden Artikel die haeufigsten kindlichen Hirntumoren, das Astrozytom, Medulloblastom, Hirnstammgliom, Kraniopharyngeom, die Neurofibromatose und das Gangliogliom beschrieben. Die wichtigsten bildgebende Kriterien werden dargestellt. (orig.)

  9. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Promotes Tumor Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bushman, Wade

    2007-01-01

    ... of the DOD New Investigator award indicate that Shh signaling promotes tumor growth. This proposal addresses the hypothesis that Sonic hedgehog signaling promotes tumor growth by activating stromal cell gene expression...

  10. Biological stoichiometry in tumor micro-environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kareva

    Full Text Available Tumors can be viewed as evolving ecological systems, in which heterogeneous populations of cancer cells compete with each other and somatic cells for space and nutrients within the ecosystem of the human body. According to the growth rate hypothesis (GRH, increased phosphorus availability in an ecosystem, such as the tumor micro-environment, may promote selection within the tumor for a more proliferative and thus potentially more malignant phenotype. The applicability of the GRH to tumor growth is evaluated using a mathematical model, which suggests that limiting phosphorus availability might promote intercellular competition within a tumor, and thereby delay disease progression. It is also shown that a tumor can respond differently to changes in its micro-environment depending on the initial distribution of clones within the tumor, regardless of its initial size. This suggests that composition of the tumor as a whole needs to be evaluated in order to maximize the efficacy of therapy.

  11. Application of PET in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2002-01-01

    The annual incidence of primary brain tumors is 7-19 cases per 100,000 people. The unique capacity of visualizing biochemical processes allows PET to determine functional metabolic activities of the brain tumors. Like other malignant tumors, F-18 FDG has been used commonly in the imaging of brain tumors. FDG PET is valuable in grading malignancy, predicting prognosis, monitoring treatment, differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation nucrosis, and detecting primary lesion in metastatric brain tumors. Among amino acids labeled with positron emitters, C-11 methionine is used clinically.Tumor delineation is much better with methionine PET than with FDG PET. Low grade gliomas, in particular, are better evaluated with methionine than with FDG. PET opens another dimension in brain tumor imaging. PET imaging has clearly entered the clinical area with a profound impact on patient care in many indications

  12. Patient-Derived Antibody Targets Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on an antibody derived from patients that killed tumor cells in cell lines of several cancer types and slowed tumor growth in mouse models of brain and lung cancer without evidence of side effects.

  13. Interaction of tumor cells with the microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert Hendrik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in tumor biology have revealed that a detailed analysis of the complex interactions of tumor cells with their adjacent microenvironment (tumor stroma is mandatory in order to understand the various mechanisms involved in tumor growth and the development of metastasis. The mutual interactions between tumor cells and cellular and non-cellular components (extracellular matrix = ECM of the tumor microenvironment will eventually lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and promote tumor development and progression. Thus, interactions of genetically altered tumor cells and the ECM on the one hand and reactive non-neoplastic cells on the other hand essentially control most aspects of tumorigenesis such as epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT, migration, invasion (i.e. migration through connective tissue, metastasis formation, neovascularisation, apoptosis and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. In this mini-review we will focus on these issues that were recently raised by two review articles in CCS.

  14. BPA and BSH accumulation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, H.; Sedgwick, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    The accumulation of boronated compounds into tumors is a critical component to the success of BNCT. To date, great variability has been demonstrated in the tumor:blood ratio achieved in samples both from different patients and within samples taken from the same patient. The factors that probably influence the level of uptake include the vascular perfusion within the tumor, the permeability of these vessels and the viability of the tumor cells themselves. These experiments were designed to measure these various factors in different experimental tumor models and to relate these measurements to the uptake of both BPA (Boronophenylalanine) and BSH (Sodiumborocaptate). They demonstrate that within different tumors there can be wide variations in the vascular parameters. In addition, the viability of the tumor cells may also be an important determinant of tumor uptake. (author)

  15. Tumor size and prognosis in patients with Wilms tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Oliveira Provenzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship of the tumor volume after preoperative chemotherapy (TVAPQ and before preoperative chemotherapy (TVBPQ with overall survival at two and at five years, and lifetime. METHODS: Our sample consisted of consecutive patients evaluated in the period from 1989 to 2009 in an Onco-Hematology Service. Clinical, histological and volumetric data were collected from the medical records. For analysis, chi-square, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank and Cox regression tests were used. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 32 patients, 53.1% were male with a median age at diagnosis of 43 months. There was a significant association between TVAPQ>500mL and the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ (p=0.015 and histologic types of risk (p=0.008. It was also verified an association between the difference between the TVBPQ and TVAPQ and the predominant stromal tumor (p=0.037. When assessing the TVAPQ of all patients, without a cutoff, there was an association of the variable with lifetime (p=0.013, i.e., for each increase of 10mL in TVAPQ there was an average increase of 2% in the risk of death. CONCLUSIONS: Although our results indicate that the TVAPQ could be considered alone as a predictor of poor prognosis regardless of the cutoff suggested in the literature, more studies are needed to replace the histology and staging by tumor size as best prognostic variable.

  16. Diagnostic Study of Tumor Characteristics in Patients With Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Localized Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Metastatic Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  17. Angiography in tumors of cartilaginous genesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Angiography was used for 122 patients with tumors and tumor-like processes of the cartilage. Angiography was carried out by the S. Seldinger method. Normal angioarchitecture was observed in 16 patients with benign tumors (20 patients), characters of malignant tumor are determined in 4 patients. Normal angioarchitecture is determined in 9.4% of patients with chondrosarcoma (102 patients). The examination carried out showed that angiographic symptotics in chondrosarcomas varied depending on the stage, localization and the degree of morphologic differentiation

  18. [Circulating tumor cells: cornerstone of personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, A; Vidal, F; Rathat, G; Alix-Panabières, C

    2014-11-01

    Cancer treatment has evolved toward personalized medicine. It is mandatory for clinicians to ascertain tumor biological features in order to optimize patients' treatment. Identification and characterization of circulating tumor cells demonstrated a prognostic value in many solid tumors. Here, we describe the main technologies for identification and characterization of circulating tumor cells and their clinical application in gynecologic and breast cancers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Fluorescent Nanoparticle Uptake for Brain Tumor Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Tréhin

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 µm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon and primary (Gli36 glioma brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.

  20. Colorectal cancer with venous tumor thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kensuke Otani; Soichiro Ishihara; Keisuke Hata; Koji Murono; Kazuhito Sasaki; Koji Yasuda; Takeshi Nishikawa; Toshiaki Tanaka; Tomomichi Kiyomatsu; Kazushige Kawai; Hiroaki Nozawa; Hironori Yamaguchi; Toshiaki Watanabe

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Colorectal cancer is seldom accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis, and little is known about the features of venous tumor thrombosis in colorectal cancer. However, some reports show that colorectal cancer patients can develop venous tumor thrombosis and warn clinicians not to overlook this complication. In this report, we perform a review of 43 previously reported cases and investigate the characteristics of colorectal cancer accompanied by venous tumor thrombosis. The histological ...