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Sample records for carcinogenic gastric pathogen

  1. Comparative genomics and proteomics of Helicobacter mustelae, an ulcerogenic and carcinogenic gastric pathogen

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Paul W

    2010-03-10

    Abstract Background Helicobacter mustelae causes gastritis, ulcers and gastric cancer in ferrets and other mustelids. H. mustelae remains the only helicobacter other than H. pylori that causes gastric ulceration and cancer in its natural host. To improve understanding of H. mustelae pathogenesis, and the ulcerogenic and carcinogenic potential of helicobacters in general, we sequenced the H. mustelae genome, and identified 425 expressed proteins in the envelope and cytosolic proteome. Results The H. mustelae genome lacks orthologs of major H. pylori virulence factors including CagA, VacA, BabA, SabA and OipA. However, it encodes ten autotransporter surface proteins, seven of which were detected in the expressed proteome, and which, except for the Hsr protein, are of unknown function. There are 26 putative outer membrane proteins in H. mustelae, some of which are most similar to the Hof proteins of H. pylori. Although homologs of putative virulence determinants of H. pylori (NapA, plasminogen adhesin, collagenase) and Campylobacter jejuni (CiaB, Peb4a) are present in the H. mustelae genome, it also includes a distinct complement of virulence-related genes including a haemagglutinin\\/haemolysin protein, and a glycosyl transferase for producing blood group A\\/B on its lipopolysaccharide. The most highly expressed 264 proteins in the cytosolic proteome included many corresponding proteins from H. pylori, but the rank profile in H. mustelae was distinctive. Of 27 genes shown to be essential for H. pylori colonization of the gerbil, all but three had orthologs in H. mustelae, identifying a shared set of core proteins for gastric persistence. Conclusions The determination of the genome sequence and expressed proteome of the ulcerogenic species H mustelae provides a comparative model for H. pylori to investigate bacterial gastric carcinogenesis in mammals, and to suggest ways whereby cag minus H. pylori strains might cause ulceration and cancer. The genome sequence was

  2. Human gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori and bracken carcinogens: A connecting hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros-Bastidas, Alberto; Calcagno-Pissarelli, María Pía; Naya, Marlene; Ávila-Núñez, Jorge Luis; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2016-03-01

    Long term infection of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) virulent strains is a key factor in the genesis of human gastric cancer, and so are certain dietary proinflammatory and genotoxic compounds. Carcinogenic bracken fern (Pteridium spp.) is one of these. Toxins from this plant are consumed as bracken culinary preparations, through milk and meat of bracken-exposed livestock, and drain waters from bracken swards. Bracken toxin ptaquiloside (PtQ), a suspected human carcinogen, elicits complex responses in animals leading to death. PtQ and Hp might cooperate in gastric pathologies. This paper presents an hypothesis on PtQ-Hp association leading to the enhancement of carcinogenesis in the human gastric environment that might explain the high gastric cancer incidence and death rates among Hp-infected people living in bracken zones at two levels: (1) The macroscopic scale comprising the flow of PtQ in the human diet. (2) the microscopic scale encompassing (A) gastric luminal medium; (B) gastric mucus structure and mucin degradation elicited by Hp; (C) bacterial pH gradient modification of the gastric mucosa that favors PtQ survival and its penetration into epithelial tissue; (D) combined PtQ/Hp effects on gastric immune and inflammatory responses; (E) PtQ-Hp complementary activity at selected cell signaling cascades and genome disturbance. PMID:26632203

  3. Association between selected oral pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R Salazar

    Full Text Available We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus. There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87-2.12, P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67-1.88 and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83-2.12 measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13-5.56 among those with ≥ median of percent tooth sites with PD ≥ 3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43-1.72. A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03-0.06. Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.

  4. DNA transfer in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Esther; Backert, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse bacteria. Recombination and DNA transfer contribute to its genetic variability and enhance host adaptation. Among the strategies described to increase genetic diversity in bacteria, DNA transfer by conjugation is one of the best characterized. Using this mechanism, a fragment of DNA from a donor cell can be transferred to a recipient, always mediated by a conjugative nucleoprotein complex, which is evolutionarily related to type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). Interestingly, the H. pylori chromosomes can encode up to four T4SSs, including the cagPAI, comB, tfs3, and tfs4 genes, some of which are known to promote chronic H. pylori infection. The T4SS encoded by the cagPAI mediates the injection of the effector protein CagA and proinflammatory signaling, and the comB system is involved in DNA uptake from the environment. However, the role of tfs3 and tfs4 is not yet clear. The presence of a functional XerD tyrosine recombinase and 5'AAAGAATG-3' border sequences as well as two putative conjugative relaxases (Rlx1 and Rlx2), a coupling protein (TraG), and a chromosomal region carrying a putative origin of transfer (oriT) suggest the existence of a DNA transfer apparatus in tfs4. Moreover, a conjugation-like DNA transfer mechanism in H. pylori has already been described in vitro, but whether this occurs in vivo is still unknown. Some extrachromosomal plasmids and phages are also present in various H. pylori strains. Genetic exchange among plasmids and chromosomes, and involved DNA mobilization events, could explain part of H. pylori's genetic diversity. Here, we review our knowledge about the possible DNA transfer mechanisms in H. pylori and its implications in bacterial adaptation to the host environment.

  5. Pan-Genome Analysis of Human Gastric Pathogen H. pylori: Comparative Genomics and Pathogenomics Approaches to Identify Regions Associated with Pathogenicity and Prediction of Potential Core Therapeutic Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Amjad; Naz, Anam; Soares, Siomar C.;

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human gastric pathogen implicated as the major cause of peptic ulcer and second leading cause of gastric cancer (similar to 70%) around the world. Conversely, an increased resistance to antibiotics and hindrances in the development of vaccines against H. pylori are observed...

  6. Plant extracts, spices, and essential oils inactivate E. coli O157:H7 pathogens and reduce formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in grilled beef patties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meats need to be sufficiently heated to inactivate foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-temperature heat treatment used to prepare well-done meats could, however, increase the formation of potentially carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs). The objective of this study was to ...

  7. Analysis of Pathogenic Factors of Helicobacter Pylori in a High Prevalence Area of Gastric Cancer in Xinin,Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuanzhiXiong; WeihongYang; YingcaiMa; GuiyingYang; YonggengYang; LiliMa

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze positive rates of the specific proteins CagA, VacA, UreA and UreB of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) in people in Xinin city Qinghai Province, a district with a high prevalence of gastric carcinoma, and to examine the relationship among the incidence, gross diagnosis and pathologic diagnosis. METHODS The gastric tissue biopsy specimens taken under endoscopy were examined by CLO,WS and Western Blot to judge the condition of the Hp infection. The positive rates of Hp CagA,VacA,UreA and UreB that had infected patients were evaluated. RESULTS The positive rate of UreA was markedly lower in chronic superficial gastritis (CSG) than in duodenal ulcer (DU) and compound ulcer, and also lower than in chronic atrophic gastritis(CAG), gastric ulcer(GU) and gastric cancinoma. However the positive rate of UreB was notably lower in duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer than in chronic superficial gastritis and atrophic gastritis. The rates of UreB found in intestinal epithelial metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma were notably lower than in other diseases, however, it was markedly increased in chronic superficial gastritis, No differences were found among CagA and VacA of specimens with different endoscopic diagnosis or pathologic diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS The UreA in Hp may be relevant to the pathogenic mechanism of severe gastric diseases. However, UreB may have some protective effect on severe gastric diseases.

  8. Surviving the acid barrier: responses of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae to simulated gastric fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atheesha; Barnard, Tobias G

    2016-01-01

    When bacteria are subjected to low acidic pHs of the gastric environment, they may enter the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of survival. In this state, bacteria cannot be cultured on solid media, still exhibit signs of metabolic activity (viability). In this study, the response of pathogenic Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 to low pH-simulated environments of the human stomach was evaluated for their survival by culturability (plate count) and viability (flow cytometry-FC) assays. Bacteria were acid challenged with simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 over a period of 180 min. Exposure to SGF up to 120 min increased acid tolerance of the Vibrios up to pH 3.5 with acid challenge occurring at pH 4.5. Bacteria were culturable from pH 2.5 to 4.5 up to 60 min SGF exposure. The stationary-phase cultures of Vibrio were able to survive SGF at all pHs in an 'injured' state with FC. This could possibly mean that the bacteria have entered the VBNC stage of survival. This is a worrying public health concern due to the fact that once favourable conditions arise (intestines), these Vibrios can change back to an infectious state and cause disease.

  9. Helicobacter pylori cag-Pathogenicity island-dependent early immunological response triggers later precancerous gastric changes in Mongolian gerbils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Wiedemann

    Full Text Available Infection with Helicobacter pylori, carrying a functional cag type IV secretion system (cag-T4SS to inject the Cytotoxin associated antigen (CagA into gastric cells, is associated with an increased risk for severe gastric diseases in humans. Here we studied the pathomechanism of H. pylori and the role of the cag-pathogenicity island (cag-PAI for the induction of gastric ulcer and precancerous conditions over time (2-64 weeks using the Mongolian gerbil model. Animals were challenged with H. pylori B128 (WT, or an isogenic B128DeltacagY mutant-strain that produces CagA, but is unable to translocate it into gastric cells. H. pylori colonization density was quantified in antrum and corpus mucosa separately. Paraffin sections were graded for inflammation and histological changes verified by immunohistochemistry. Physiological and inflammatory markers were quantitated by RIA and RT-PCR, respectively. An early cag-T4SS-dependent inflammation of the corpus mucosa (4-8 weeks occurred only in WT-infected animals, resulting in a severe active and chronic gastritis with a significant increase of proinflammatory cytokines, mucous gland metaplasia, and atrophy of the parietal cells. At late time points only WT-infected animals developed hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia in parallel to gastric ulcers, gastritis cystica profunda, and focal dysplasia. The early cag-PAI-dependent immunological response triggers later physiological and histopathological alterations towards gastric malignancies.

  10. Structure of the proton-gated urea channel from the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugatsky, David; McNulty, Reginald; Munson, Keith; Chen, Chiung-Kuang; Soltis, S Michael; Sachs, George; Luecke, Hartmut

    2013-01-10

    Half the world's population is chronically infected with Helicobacter pylori, causing gastritis, gastric ulcers and an increased incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its proton-gated inner-membrane urea channel, HpUreI, is essential for survival in the acidic environment of the stomach. The channel is closed at neutral pH and opens at acidic pH to allow the rapid access of urea to cytoplasmic urease. Urease produces NH(3) and CO(2), neutralizing entering protons and thus buffering the periplasm to a pH of roughly 6.1 even in gastric juice at a pH below 2.0. Here we report the structure of HpUreI, revealing six protomers assembled in a hexameric ring surrounding a central bilayer plug of ordered lipids. Each protomer encloses a channel formed by a twisted bundle of six transmembrane helices. The bundle defines a previously unobserved fold comprising a two-helix hairpin motif repeated three times around the central axis of the channel, without the inverted repeat of mammalian-type urea transporters. Both the channel and the protomer interface contain residues conserved in the AmiS/UreI superfamily, suggesting the preservation of channel architecture and oligomeric state in this superfamily. Predominantly aromatic or aliphatic side chains line the entire channel and define two consecutive constriction sites in the middle of the channel. Mutation of Trp 153 in the cytoplasmic constriction site to Ala or Phe decreases the selectivity for urea in comparison with thiourea, suggesting that solute interaction with Trp 153 contributes specificity. The previously unobserved hexameric channel structure described here provides a new model for the permeation of urea and other small amide solutes in prokaryotes and archaea.

  11. Stimulation of growth of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori by atmospheric level of oxygen under high carbon dioxide tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Na

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a human pathogen that is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer, has been considered a microaerophile, but there is no general consensus about its specific O2 requirements. A clear understanding of Hp physiology is needed to elucidate the pathogenic mechanism(s of Hp infection. Results We cultured Hp under a range of O2 levels with or without 10% CO2 and evaluated growth profiles, morphology, intracellular pH, and energy metabolism. We found that, in the presence of 10% CO2, the normal atmospheric level of O2 inhibited Hp growth at low density but stimulated growth at a higher density. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy of Hp cells cultured under 20% O2 tension revealed live spiral-shaped bacteria with outer membrane vesicles on a rugged cell surface, which became smooth during the stationary phase. Fermentation products including acetate, lactate, and succinate were detected in cell culture media grown under microaerobic conditions, but not under the aerobic condition. CO2 deprivation for less than 24 h did not markedly change cytoplasmic or periplasmic pH, suggesting that cellular pH homeostasis alone cannot account for the capnophilic nature of Hp. Further, CO2 deprivation significantly increased intracellular levels of ppGpp and ATP but significantly decreased cellular mRNA levels, suggesting induction of the stringent response. Conclusions We conclude, unlike previous reports, that H. pylori may be a capnophilic aerobe whose growth is promoted by atmospheric oxygen levels in the presence of 10% CO2. Our data also suggest that buffering of intracellular pH alone cannot account for the CO2 requirement of H. pylori and that CO2 deprivation initiates the stringent response in H. pylori. Our findings may provide new insight into the physiology of this fastidious human pathogen.

  12. Association between cag-pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori isolates from peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and nonulcer dyspepsia subjects with histological changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahaboob Ali; Aleem A Khan; Santosh K Tiwari; Niyaz Ahmed; L Venkateswar Rao; CM Habibullah

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of the cay-pathogenicity island and the associated histological damage caused by strains with complete cay-PAI and with partial deletions in correlation to the disease status.METHODS: We analyzed the complete cag-PAI of 174representative Helicobacter pylori (H pylori ) clinical isolates obtained from patients with duodenal ulcer,gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, and non-ulcer dyspepsia using eight different oligonucleotide primers viz cagA1,cagA2, cagAP1, cagAP2, cagE, cagT, LEC-1, LEC-2spanning five different loci of the whole cag-PAI by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).RESULTS: The complete screening of the genes comprising the cag-PAI showed that larger proportions of subjects with gastric ulcer (97.8%) inhabited strains with complete cag-PAI, followed by gastric cancer (85.7%),non-ulcer dyspepsia (7.1%), and duodenal ulcer (6.9%),significant differences were found in the percentagedistribution of the genes in all the clinical groups studied.It was found that strains with complete cag-PAI were able to cause severe histological damage than with the partially deleted ones.CONCLUSION: The cay-PAI is a strong virulent marker in the disease pathogenesis as it is shown that a large number of those infected with strain with complete cag-PAI had one or the other of the irreversible gastric pathologies and interestingly 18.5% of them developed gastric carcinoma. The presence of an intact cayPAI correlates with the development of more severe pathology, and such strains were found more frequently in patients with severe gastroduodenal disease. Partial deletions of the cag-PAI appear to be sufficient to render the organism less pathogenic.

  13. Global regulation of virulence and the stress response by CsrA in the highly adapted human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnard, F.M.; Loughlin, M.F.; Fainberg, H.P.;

    2004-01-01

    to environmental stimuli, and may be important in facilitating adaptation to the different environments encountered during colonization of the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, CsrA appears to mediate its effects in H. pylori at the post-transcriptional level by influencing the processing and translation of target......Although successful and persistent colonization of the gastric mucosa depends on the ability to respond to changing environmental conditions and co-ordinate the expression of virulence factors during the course of infection, Helicobacter pylori possesses relatively few transcriptional regulators....... We therefore investigated the contribution of the regulatory protein CsrA to global gene regulation in this important human pathogen. CsrA was necessary for full motility and survival of H. pylori under conditions of oxidative stress. Loss of csrA expression deregulated the oxidant...

  14. Helicobacter pylori-infected animal models are extremely suitable for the investigation of gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaaki Kodama; Kazunari Murakami; Ryugo Sato; Tadayoshi Okimoto; Akira Nishizono; Toshio Fujioka

    2005-01-01

    Although various animal models have been developed to clarify gastric carcinogenesis, apparent mechanism of gastric cancer was not clarified in recent years. Since the recognition of the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori (Hpylori), several animal models with Hpylori infection have been developed to confirm the association between Hpylori and gastric cancer. Nonhuman primate and rodent models were suitable for this study. Japanese monkey model revealed atrophic gastritis and p53mutation after long-term infection of Hpylori. Mongolian gerbil model showed the development of gastric carcinoma with H pylori infection alone, as well as with combination of chemical carcinogens, such as N-methylN-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine.The histopathological changes of these animal models after Hpylori inoculation are closely similar to those in human beings with Hpylori infection. Eradication therapy attenuated the development of gastric cancer in Hpyloriinfected Mongolian gerbil. Although several features of animal models differ from those seen in human beings,these experimental models provide a starting point for further studies to clarify the mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis as a result of Hpylori infection and assist the planning of eradication therapy to prevent gastric carcinoma.

  15. Helicobacter pylori and gastric acid: an intimate and reciprocal relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldum, Helge L.; Kleveland, Per M.; Sørdal, Øystein F.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the main cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. There are still unanswered questions related to the interaction between Hp and man, like what determines the susceptibility for the initial infection and the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effect. The initial infection seems to require a temporal gastric hypoacidity. For Hp to survive in the gastric mucous layer, some acidity is necessary. Hp itself is probably not directly carcinogenic. Only when inducing oxyntic mucosal inflammation and atrophy with hypoacidity, Hp predisposes for gastric cancer. Gastrin most likely plays a central role in the Hp pathogenesis of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer.

  16. A potential role for Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 in gastric tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori has been found to promote the malignant process leading to gastric cancer. Heat shock protein 60 of H. pylori (HpHSP60) was previously been identified as a potent immunogene. This study investigates the role of HpHSP60 in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. The effect of HpHSP60 on cell proliferation, anti-death activity, angiogenesis and cell migration were explored. The results showed that HpHSP60 enhanced migration by gastric cancer cells and promoted tube formation by umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); however, HpHSP60 did not increase cell proliferation nor was this protein able to rescue gastric cancer cells from death. Moreover, the results also indicated HpHSP60 had different effects on AGS gastric cancer cells or THP-1 monocytic cells in terms of their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important to cancer development. We propose that HpHSP60 may trigger the initiation of carcinogenesis by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine release and by promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. Thus, this extracellular pathogen-derived HSP60 is potentially a vigorous virulence factor that can act as a carcinogen during gastric tumorigenesis.

  17. A potential role for Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 in gastric tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chen-Si [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); He, Pei-Juin [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Nu-Man [School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Li, Chi-Han; Yang, Shang-Chih; Hsu, Wei-Tung [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China); Wu, Ming-Shiang [Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chang-Jer [Department of Food Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tain-Lu [Department of Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Liao, Kuang-Wen, E-mail: kitchhen@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao-Tung University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-05

    Helicobacter pylori has been found to promote the malignant process leading to gastric cancer. Heat shock protein 60 of H. pylori (HpHSP60) was previously been identified as a potent immunogene. This study investigates the role of HpHSP60 in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. The effect of HpHSP60 on cell proliferation, anti-death activity, angiogenesis and cell migration were explored. The results showed that HpHSP60 enhanced migration by gastric cancer cells and promoted tube formation by umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); however, HpHSP60 did not increase cell proliferation nor was this protein able to rescue gastric cancer cells from death. Moreover, the results also indicated HpHSP60 had different effects on AGS gastric cancer cells or THP-1 monocytic cells in terms of their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to be important to cancer development. We propose that HpHSP60 may trigger the initiation of carcinogenesis by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine release and by promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. Thus, this extracellular pathogen-derived HSP60 is potentially a vigorous virulence factor that can act as a carcinogen during gastric tumorigenesis.

  18. Food derived carcinogenic amnoimidazoazaarenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik

    Carcinogenic aminoimidazoazaarenes are formed during cooking of meat and fish. Important factors for the formation of these compounds are meat type, cooking temperature and time. The compounds are genotoxic in bacterial and mammalian cells. In animal feeding studies the compounds tested so far we...... of the exocyclic amino group. Estimations of human cancer risk have indicated that ingestion of food containing aminoimidazoazaarenes are of importance....... found to be multiple organ carcinogens. The aminoimidazoazaarenes are metabolically activated by hydroxylation of the exocyclic aminogroup to the N-hydroxyamino derivative. The resultant proximate mutagens often need further activation by phase II transferases for formation of reactive species that form...

  19. [Role of animal gastric Helicobacter species in human gastric pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdeev, O K; Pozdeeva, A O; Pozdnyak, A O; Saifutdinov, R G

    2015-01-01

    Animal Helicobacter species other than Helicobacter pylori are also able to cause human gastritis, gastric ulcers, and MALT lymphomas. Animal Helicobacter species are presented with typical spiral fastidious microorganisms colonizing the gastric mucosa of different animals. Bacteria initially received their provisional name Helicobacter heilmannii, and out of them at least five species colonizing the gastric mucosa of pigs, cats, and dogs were isolated later on. A high proportion of these diseases are shown to be zoonotic. Transmission of pathogens occurs by contact. The factors of bacterial pathogenicity remain little studied.

  20. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies. PMID:21401890

  1. Carcinogen risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes the methods by which risk factors for carcinogenic hazards are determined and the limitations inherent in the process. From statistical and epidemiological studies, the major identifiable factors related to cancer in the United States were determined to be cigarette smoking, diet, reproductive and sexual behavior, infections, ultraviolet and ionizing radiation, and alcohol consumption. The incidence of lung cancer due to air pollutants was estimated to be less than 2%. Research needs were discussed

  2. The carcinogenicity of chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Norseth, Tor

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of chromium compounds is reviewed with specific attention to the gaps in knowledge for risk estimation and research needs. The most important problems at present are whether trivalent chromium compounds cause cancer, and whether there is a difference in cancer causing effects between the soluble and the slightly soluble hexavalent compounds in the practical exposure situation. Dose estimates for risk estimation based on epidemiological investigations are also lacking. Pres...

  3. Chemistry of carcinogenic metals.

    OpenAIRE

    Martell, A E

    1981-01-01

    The periodic distribution of known and suspected carcinogenic metal ions is described, and the chemical behavior of various types of metal ions is explained in terms of the general theory of hard and soft acids and bases. The chelate effect is elucidated, and the relatively high stability of metal chelates in very dilute solutions is discussed. The concepts employed for the chelate effect are extended to explain the high stabilities of macrocyclic and cryptate complexes. Procedures for the us...

  4. Gastric giardiasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Doglioni, C; De Boni, M.; Cielo, R.; Laurino, L.; Pelosio, P.; P. Braidotti; Viale, G

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the prevalence of gastric giardiasis in patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and to define the clinicopathological correlates of gastric Giardia lamblia infection. METHODS: Consecutive gastric biopsy specimens (n = 15,023) from 11,085 patients, taken at Feltre City Hospital (north eastern Italy) from January 1986 to December 1991, were histologically and immunocytochemically examined for the occurrence of G lamblia trophozoites. Three gastric biopsy specimens ...

  5. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyo; Jun; Ahn; Dong; Soo; Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to theoccurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cag A and vac A are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.

  6. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Wanibuchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P450 inducers, such as phenobarbital, a-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  7. Oxidative Stress in the Carcinogenicity of Chemical Carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakehashi, Anna; Wei, Min [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Shoji [Japan Bioassay Research Center, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2445 Hirasawa, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0015 (Japan); Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pathology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-Ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan)

    2013-10-28

    This review highlights several in vivo studies utilizing non-genotoxic and genotoxic chemical carcinogens, and the mechanisms of their high and low dose carcinogenicities with respect to formation of oxidative stress. Here, we survey the examples and discuss possible mechanisms of hormetic effects with cytochrome P{sub 450} inducers, such as phenobarbital, α-benzene hexachloride and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane. Epigenetic processes differentially can be affected by agents that impinge on oxidative DNA damage, repair, apoptosis, cell proliferation, intracellular communication and cell signaling. Non-genotoxic carcinogens may target nuclear receptors and induce post-translational modifications at the protein level, thereby impacting on the stability or activity of key regulatory proteins, including oncoproteins and tumor suppressor proteins. We further discuss role of oxidative stress focusing on the low dose carcinogenicities of several genotoxic carcinogens such as a hepatocarcinogen contained in seared fish and meat, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline, arsenic and its metabolites, and the kidney carcinogen potassium bromate.

  8. Epidemiologic research progress of pathogenic site changes of gastric cancer%胃癌发生部位变化的流行病学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪平; 惠起源

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the stomach cancer's location in many areas of China has a tendency to change: the proxi-mal stomach cancer incidence has increased, distal gastric cancer incidence has declined. There are kinds of factors lead to this phenomenon. This paper mainly summarizes the research progress that the changes of gastric cancer's lo-cation are related to diets, region, gender, age, histological types and helicobacter pylori infection of the stomach can-cer patients.%近年来我国很多地区胃癌发生部位有改变的趋势院近端胃癌发病率有所增加,远端胃癌发病率有所下降,对于造成这一现象的因素多种多样,本文主要综述了胃癌患者饮食、所处的地域、性别、年龄、组织学类型、幽门螺杆菌感染与胃癌发生部位之间关系的研究进展。

  9. Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer in Wuwei City an Endemic Region of Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denghai Mi; Chengyu Su; Haozeng Luo; Jilin Yi; Tianzhong Jing; Qing Xu; Wangsheng Yang; Guoquan Yang; Shuzhen Wang; Gonghan Liu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have shown that risk factors of gastric cancer include living habits, eating moldy pickled food, dystrophy, lack of nutrients, and genetics, etc. This study explores the prevalence of these factors in Wuwei, a city in northwest China with a high incidence of gastric cancer.METHODS Family histories of the residents in Wuwei City were investigated with a case-control method. Segregation ratio and heredity degree of gastric cancer were calculated using theLi-Mantel-Cart and Falconer's regression methods. Chronic gastritis patients were followed-up by home visits, gastroscopy, and pathology. Carcinogenic fungi and volatilile N-nitroso compounds were noted in the residents' meals. Helicobactor pylori (Hp) was assessed in their gastric mucosa and the total content of serum vitamin C in 293 healthy adults was determined.RESULTS In Wuwei City, the segregation ratio of gastric cancer was 0.077. The heredity degree of first-degree relatives was 22.91%. The incidence rate of cancer per year in people in an atrophic gastritis group was 1.09%. Eight kinds of nitrosamines and 14 kinds of carcinogenic fungi were detected in the residents' food. Total average vitamin C in the serum of the 293 healthy adults in the summer was 5.74±2.79 mg/L. The positive rate of Hp in gastric mucosa of the residents was 67%.CONCLUSION The majorextrinsic factors include infection of Hp, atrophic gastritis (especially atrophic hyperplasia), and genetic susceptibility.

  10. Carcinogenicity of hair dye components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duuren, B L

    1980-03-01

    The available animal carcinogenicity data on hair dye components was reviewed. From this review it became clear that certain hair dye components, some of which are still in hair dye formulations now on the market, are animal carcinogens. The compounds of concern that are still in use are: 3-amino-4-methoxyaniline, 2-nitro-4-aminoaniline and 3-nitro-4-hydroxyaniline. Certain azo dyes formerly used, and related compounds still in use, contain the benzidine moiety. Two of these compounds, Direct Blue 6 and Direct Black 38, have been shown to be metabolized in animals to the human carcinogen benzidine. Furthermore, skin absorption studies carried out with radiolabeled hair dye components applied to animal or human skin have conclusively shown that these compounds are systemically absorbed and excreted. Known cocarcinogens such as catechol and pyrogallol, which enhance benzo(a)pyrene carcinogenicity on mouse skin, are used as hair dye components. It is not known whether such compounds will enhance the carcinogenicity of substituted aniline hair dye chemicals. The available epidemiologic data are not sufficient to link hair dye use with an increased incidence in human cancer.

  11. Gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ismail Gomceli; Baris Demiriz; Mesut Tez

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths.Despite complete resection of gastric cancer and lymph node dissection,as well as improvements in chemotherapy and radiotherapy,there are still 700 000 gastric cancer-related deaths per year worldwide and more than 80% of patients with advanced gastric cancer die of the disease or recurrent disease within 1 year after diagnosis.None of the treatment modalities we have been applying today can influence the overall survival rates:at present,the overall 5-year relative survival rate for gastric cancer is about 28%.Cellular metaplasia due to chronic inflammation,injury and repair are the most documented processes for neoplasia.It appears that chronic inflammation stimulates tumor development and plays a critical role in initiating,sustaining and advancing tumor growth.It is also evident that not all inflammation is tumorigenic.Additional mutations can be acquired,and this leads to the cancer cell gaining a further growth advantage and acquiring a more malignant phenotype.Intestinalization of gastric units,which is called "intestinal metaplasia";phenotypic antralization of fundic units,which is called "spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia"; and the development directly from the stem/progenitor cell zone are three pathways that have been described for gastric carcinogenesis.Also,an important factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancers is peritumoral stroma.However,the initiating cellular event in gastric metaplasia is still controversial.Understanding gastric carcinogenesis and its precursor lesions has been under intense investigation,and our paper attempts to high-light recent progress in this field of cancer research.

  12. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...

  13. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Shogo

    2002-01-01

    Findings in epidemiological studies of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer have been inconsistent: many studies have yielded a positive relationship, whereas several studies have shown no relationship. The inconsistency arises because of the occurrence of seroreversion during the period between the time that H. pylori exerts a carcinogenic effect and the time of blood sampling. When this seroreversion is taken into account, there is an epidemiologically positive association between H. pylori status and the risk for gastric cancer. In addition to the epidemiological evidence, experimental studies using Mongolian gerbils have shown that H. pylori infection elevates the risk for gastric cancer. It is concluded that H. pylori is a causal factor for gastric cancer. In the creation of preventive strategies against gastric cancer by the eradication of H. pylori, determination of the time at which H. pylori plays a role as a carcinogen is important. Three hypotheses have been proposed in regard to this timing: that H. pylori infection in childhood or the teenage years acts as a factor that produces precancerous lesions with irreversible damage in the gastric mucosa, that in adulthood it acts as an initiator, and also in adulthood, that it acts as a promoter. As these hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, the extent to which each hypothesis plays a part in explaining gastric carcinogenesis should be evaluated. Only a small proportion of subjects infected with H. pylori have gastric cancer during their lifetime. Interleukin-1 polymorphism, a host factor, and CagA, a virulence factor of H. pylori, are suspected to be risk factors for gastric cancer in subjects with H. pylori infection. Dietary factors, especially vitamin C, and patterns of precancerous lesions also seem to influence the relationship between H. pylori and gastric cancer. H. pylori seems to reduce the risk for esophageal and for some gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. This finding, as

  14. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model. PMID:27573785

  15. Gastric Banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyclophosphamide is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B1 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a).Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "...

  17. Differential Expression of Motility-Related Protein-1 Gene in Gastric Cancer and Its Premalignant Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YaoXu; JieZheng; WentianLiu; JunXing; YanyunLi; XinGeng; WeimingZhang

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify genes related to gastric cancer and to analyze their expression profiles in different gastric tissues. METHODS The differentially expressed cDNA bands were assayed by fluorescent differential display from gastric cancer specimens, matched with normal gastric mucosa and premalignant lesions. The motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) gene expression was studied by Northern blots and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in different kinds of gastric tissue. RESULTS A differentially expressed cDNA fragment showed lower expression in all gastric cancers compared to the normal gastric mucosa and premalignant lesions; and it was found to be homologous to the MRP-1/CD9 gene. Northern blot analysis confirmed the differential expression. RT-PCR analysis showed that the MRP-1/CD9 gene was expressed at a much lower rate in gastric cancers (0.31 +0.18) compared to the matched normal gastric tissue (0.49+0.24) and premalignant lesions (0.47+0.18)(P<0.05). Furthermore, its expression in intestinal-type of gastric cancer (0.38+0.16) was higher than that expressed in a diffuse-type of gastric cancer (0.22±0.17)(P<0.05). CCONCLUSION The MRP-1/CD9 gene expression was down-regulated in gastric cancer and its expression may be related to the carcinogenic process and histological type of gastric cancer.

  18. [Gastric Acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  19. Immune Homeostasis of Human Gastric Mucosa in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, I V; Yamamoto, T; Vershinina, S S; Reva, G V

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of electron microscopic, microbiological, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic studies of gastric biopsy specimens taken for diagnostic purposes according by clinical indications during examination of patients with gastrointestinal pathology. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa against the background of infection with various pathogen strains of Helicobacter pylori was studied in patients of different age groups with peptic ulcer, gastritis, metaplasia, and cancer. Some peculiarities of Helicobacter pylori contamination in the gastric mucosa were demonstrated. Immune homeostasis of the gastric mucosa in different pathologies was analyzed depending on the Helicobacter pylori genotype.

  20. Gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Patrick H; Kang, Young S; Cahill, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Gastric infarction is an extremely rare occurrence owing to the stomach’s extensive vascular supply. We report an unusual case of gastric infarction following gastric bypass surgery. We describe the imaging findings and discuss possible causes of this condition. PMID:27200168

  1. A model of gastric precancerous lesions for rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Xiang Yan; Zhi Yun Chen; Bai Kang Xiang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To establish an ideal model of gastric precancerous lesions for rats.METHODS Fifty rats were fed with carcinogen MNNG for 35 wk and heat-plaste at 60C for 20 wk, thepathological changes were observed. Data in the groups were analyzed by Ridit test.RESULTS The occurrence rate of dysplasia in rats due to MNNG and heat-damage was 65%, which wasobviously higher than that due to MNNG only. The differences between the two groups were significant.CONCLUSION The animal model made by MNNG and heat-damage was an ideal one which could be usedto investigate the pathologic mechanism of gastric precancerous lesions.

  2. The EPIYA-ABCC motif pattern in CagA of Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcer and gastric cancer in Mexican population

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán-Anaya, Fredy Omar; Poblete, Tomás Manuel; Román-Román, Adolfo; Reyes, Salomón; de Sampedro, José; Peralta-Zaragoza, Oscar; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; del Moral-Hernández, Oscar; ILLADES-AGUIAR, BERENICE; Fernández-Tilapa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori chronic infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA)-positive H. pylori strains increase the risk of gastric pathology. The carcinogenic potential of CagA is linked to its polymorphic EPIYA motif variants. The goals of this study were to investigate the frequency of cagA-positive Helicobacter pylori in Mexican patients with gastric pathologies and to assess the association of cagA EPIYA moti...

  3. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  4. Prophylactic total gastrectomy in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Linda; Hansen, Thomas V O; Gerdes, Anne-Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Inactivating mutations in the CDH1 (E-cadherin) gene are the predisposing cause of gastric cancer in most families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). The lifetime risk of cancer in mutation positive members is more than 80 % and prophylactic total gastrectomy is recommended. Not all...... mutations in the CDH1 gene are however pathogenic and it is important to classify mutations before this major operation is performed. Probands from two Danish families with gastric cancer and a history suggesting HDGC were screened for CDH1 gene mutations. Two novel CDH1 gene mutations were identified....... Hospital stay was 6-8 days and there were no complications. Small foci of diffuse gastric cancer were found in all patients-intramucosal in six and advanced in one. Preoperative endoscopic biopsies had revealed a microscopic cancer focus in two of the patients. Our data confirmed the pathogenic nature...

  5. Carcinogenic effects of benzene: Cesare Maltoni's contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, Myron A

    2002-12-01

    Cesare Maltoni's contributions to understanding, identifying, and characterizing widely used commercial chemicals in experimental animals are among the most important methods developed in the history of toxicology and serve to protect working men and women, the general population, and our environment from hazardous substances. Maltoni developed experimental methods that have reached the "platinum standard" for protection of public health. Benzene was among the 400 or more chemicals that Maltoni and his associates tested for carcinogenicity. In 1976, Maltoni reported that benzene is a potent experimental carcinogen. Maltoni's experiments clearly demonstrated that benzene is carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats, Wistar rats, Swiss mice, and RF/J mice when administered by inhalation or ingestion. Benzene caused carcinomas of the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, nasal cavities; cancers of the skin, forestomach, mammary glands, and lungs; angiosarcomas and hepatomas of the liver; and hemolymphoreticular cancers. Thus, benzene was shown to be a multipotential carcinogen that produced cancers in several species of animals by various routes of administration. On November 2, 1977, Chemical Week reported that Maltoni provided a "bombshell" when he demonstrated the "first direct link" between benzene and cancer. In this paper, I shall summarize early experiments and human studies and reports; Maltoni's experimental contribution to understanding the carcinogenicity of benzene in humans and animals; earlier knowledge concerning benzene toxicity; and benzene standards and permissible exposure levels.

  6. Cancer stem cells in Helicobacter pylori infection and aging: Implications for gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edi; Levi; Paula; Sochacki; Nabiha; Khoury; Bhaumik; B; Patel; Adhip; PN; Majumdar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrated the combined effects of aging and carcinogen treatment on cancer stem/stem-like cells(CSCs) of gastric mucosa in an animal model. METHODS: In this study we investigated the effects of aging and Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) inflammation as a model for inflammation induced carcinogenesis in human and rat gastric mucosa samples. In aging studies, we compared 4-mo old(young) with 22 mo(aged) old Fischer-344 rats. For human studies, gastric biop-sies and resection specimens representing normal mucosa or different stages of H. pylori gastritis and gastric adenocarcinomas were used for determining the expression of stem cell markers CD166, ALDH1 and LGR5. In addition we performed immunofluorescent double labeling for B-catenin and Lgr5 in both rat and human gastric tissues to examine the status of Wnt signaling in these cells. RESULTS: CSC markers ALDH1, LGR5, and CD166 were expressed in very low levels in normal human gastric mucosa or young rat gastric mucosa. In contrast, level of expression for all three markers significantly increased in H. pylori gastritis and gastric adenocarcinomas as well as in normal gastric mucosa in aged rats. We also observed cytoplasmic B-catenin staining in both aged rat and human H. pylori inflamed gastric mucosa, which were found to be colocalized with Lgr5 immunoreactive cells. The increased number of ALDH1, CD166 and LGR5 positive cells in H. pylori gastritis indicates that increased number of stem-like cells in gastric mucosa is an early event, and may constitute an important step in the progression to neoplasia. CONCLUSION: Our observation of the age-related increase in cancer stem/stem-like cells in the gastric mucosa may explain the increased incidence of gastric cancer during aging. Combination of aging and H. pylori infection may have additive effects in progression to neoplasia.

  7. Dietary proteins extend the survival of salmonella dublin in a gastric Acid environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Kristensen, Kim; Harboe, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    The pH of the human stomach is dynamic and changes over time, depending on the composition of the food ingested and a number of host-related factors such as age. To evaluate the number of bacteria surviving the gastric acid barrier, we have developed a simple gastric acid model, in which we...... of bovine serum albumin, indicating that protection could be protein specific. The simple gastric acid model was validated against a more laborious and complex fermenter model, and similar survival of Salmonella Dublin was observed in both models. Our gastric acid model allowed us to evaluate the influence...... of food components on survival of pathogens under gastric conditions, and the model could contribute to a broader understanding of the impact of specific food components on the inactivation of pathogens during gastric passage....

  8. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Clyne

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial adhesion to the intestinal epithelium is a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of many enteric diseases. Helicobacter pylori is a duodenal pathogen that adheres to the gastric epithelium and causes gastritis and peptic ulceration. The mechanism by which H pylori causes disease has not yet been elucidated but adherence to the gastric mucosa is thought to be an important virulence determinant of the organism. What is known about adherence of H pylori to the gastric mucosa is summarized. Topics discussed are the mechanism of H pylori adherence; in vitro and in vivo models of H pylori infection; and adherence and potential adhesins and receptors for H pylori.

  9. [Leather azo dyes: mutagenic and carcinogenic risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonfero, E; Venier, P; Granella, M; Levis, A G

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity data on azo dyes used in the leather industry. Two water soluble benzidine-based dyes were classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). No other dyes have been evaluated by the IARC. Of the 48 azo dyes assayed in the Salmonella/microsome test, 20 gave positive results. Attention is drawn to the important role of the in vivo metabolism of azo compounds, which includes a preliminary reduction of the azo bonds and subsequent release of the aromatic amines of the dye. A useful assay (Prival test) for evaluating the mutagenic properties of azo dyes involves a reductive step that permits the release of any genotoxic agents present in the compounds. A list of leather azo dyes is furnished that are considered as potentially harmful due to the presence of a carcinogenic aromatic amine (benzidine, p-aminobenzene and derivatives) in their formulae.

  10. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of beryllium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, A; Lauwerys, R

    1987-07-01

    The carcinogenicity of a number of beryllium compounds has been confirmed in experiments on laboratory animals and this metal has to be treated as a possible carcinogenic threat to man. These carcinogenic properties are associated with mutagenic activity as shown by the results of short-term tests performed in vitro with beryllium chloride and beryllium sulfate. These soluble beryllium compounds can produce some infidelity of in vitro synthesis, forward gene mutations in microorganisms and in mammalian cells. They are also able to induce cell transformation. In addition to the positive results obtained in several short-term assays beryllium compounds have been found to bind to nucleoproteins, to inhibit certain enzymes needed for DNA synthesis, to bind nucleic acids to cell membranes and to inhibit microtubule polymerization. The teratogenicity of beryllium salts is relatively unknown and needs additional investigation.

  11. In Silico Methods for Carcinogenicity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbamaki, Azadi; Benfenati, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Screening compounds for potential carcinogenicity is of major importance for prevention of environmentally induced cancers. A large sequence of alternative predictive models, ranging from short-term biological assays (e.g. mutagenicity tests) to theoretical models, have been attempted in this field. Theoretical approaches such as (Q)SAR are highly desirable for identifying carcinogens, since they actively promote the replacement, reduction, and refinement of animal tests. This chapter reports and describes some of the most noted (Q)SAR models based on the human expert knowledge and statistically approach, aiming at predicting the carcinogenicity of chemicals. Additionally, the performance of the selected models has been evaluated and the results are interpreted in details by applying these prediction models to some pharmaceutical molecules.

  12. The ISS Carcinogens Data Bank (BDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Ceccarelli, Federica; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; D'Angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Ferri, Maurizio; Riva, Giovanni; Roazzi, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniela; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The Data Bank on Carcinogens (Banca Dati Cancerogeni, BDC) is a factual data bank, available on the Istituto Superiore di Sanità website, aimed at supporting the risk management decision making of central and local administrators. It can also represent a valuable tool for industry. The available information on carcinogenicity evaluations/classifications produced by European Union and by other institutions (IARC, USEPA, NTP, CCTN) is presented in a concise form accompanied by bibliographic references enabling the users to consult the original sources and, in some cases, to be directly connected to the relevant website. The classifications carried out by each organization in accordance with its own criteria assign the examined agents to specific qualitative categories and do not include quantitative assessment. BDC intends to provide an easy tool for experts, researchers and risk managers dealing with carcinogenic agents. PMID:18469374

  13. Lack of genetic influence on the innate inflammatory response to Helicobacter infection of the gastric mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Nedrud, John G.; Czinn, Steven J.; Hua eDing; Brandon M. Zagorski; Redline, Raymond W.; William eTwaddell; Blanchard, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterial pathogen that resides at the gastric mucosa and has a world-wide prevalence of over 50%. Infection usually lasts for the life of the host, and although all infected individuals will develop histologic gastritis only a subset will develop symptomatic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric MALT lymphoma, or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterial and host factors that determine clinical outcome and influence the development of widely varying dise...

  14. Helicobacter pylori-infected animal models are extremely suitable for the investigation of gastric carcinogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kodama, Masaaki; Murakami, Kazunari; Sato, Ryugo; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Nishizono, Akira; Fujioka, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    Although various animal models have been developed to clarify gastric carcinogenesis, apparent mechanism of gastric cancer was not clarified in recent years. Since the recognition of the pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), several animal models with H pylori infection have been developed to confirm the association between H pylori and gastric cancer. Nonhuman primate and rodent models were suitable for this study. Japanese monkey model revealed atrophic gastritis and p53 mutation...

  15. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Sztefko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10, the second including patients with superficial gastritis caused by pathogens other than H. pylori (non-HPG; n = 14 and the control group including healthy adolescents (n = 14. Activity of HGL was measured in gastric juice collected during endoscopy. Plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP were measured in all adolescents. Activity of HGL in the non-HPG group was significantly lower than in the HPG group (p < 0.005 and the control group (p < 0.005. Mean plasma GIP levels in the control group were lower than in the non-HPG group (p < 0.003 and the HPG group (p < 0.01. We conclude that the regulation of HGL secretion by GLP-1 and CCK is altered in patients with gastritis. Moreover, GIP is a potent controller of HGL activity, both in healthy subjects and in patients with gastritis.

  16. What makes pathogens pathogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hiller, N.Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

    2008-01-01

    Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

  17. Occupational exposures to carcinogens in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, N; Matos, E; Boffetta, P; Kogevinas, M; Vainio, H

    1994-09-01

    There have been very few studies of exposure to occupational carcinogens in developing countries, and even fewer studies of the health consequences of such exposures. However, all industrial chemicals, occupations and industrial processes classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1 or Group 2A (carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans) have been described in developing countries, and there is growing concern that the health impact of many chemicals used in the developing world has been underestimated. In all regions a very large workforce is employed in the construction industry, in which substantial exposure to asbestos may occur, and there has been a rapid increase in production in countries such as Brazil and India. There is, for instance, a similar pattern for tyre production with a large increase in production in developing countries in the 1980s. Thus, the number of workers in industries entailing a carcinogenic risk is increasing in developing countries, partly as a result of the transfer of hazardous industry from industrialized countries. There is much that could be achieved in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries, and there have been a number of successful initiatives. However, the greatest progress in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries is most likely to come from political and economic changes. PMID:7847748

  18. Carcinogenic compounds in alcoholic beverages: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Hausler, Thomas; Baumung, Claudia; Ackermann, Svenja; Kuballa, Thomas; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-10-01

    The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been classified as carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 1988. More recently, in 2010, ethanol as the major constituent of alcoholic beverages and its metabolite acetaldehyde were also classified as carcinogenic to humans. Alcoholic beverages as multi-component mixtures may additionally contain further known or suspected human carcinogens as constituent or contaminant. This review will discuss the occurrence and toxicology of eighteen carcinogenic compounds (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, glyphosate, lead, 3-MCPD, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, pulegone, ochratoxin A, safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages as identified based on monograph reviews by the IARC. For most of the compounds of alcoholic beverages, quantitative risk assessment provided evidence for only a very low risk (such as margins of exposure above 10,000). The highest risk was found for ethanol, which may reach exposures in ranges known to increase the cancer risk even at moderate drinking (margin of exposure around 1). Other constituents that could pose a risk to the drinker were inorganic lead, arsenic, acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate, for most of which mitigation by good manufacturing practices is possible. Nevertheless, due to the major effect of ethanol, the cancer burden due to alcohol consumption can only be reduced by reducing alcohol consumption in general or by lowering the alcoholic strength of beverages.

  19. Carcinogenic effects of radiation-introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weight of experimental evidence reviewed indicates that UV damage to DNA, probably pyrimidine dimers, is the best molecular candidate for the initiating damage that leads to skin cancer. It is postulated that the carcinogenic action spectrum should be similar to the DNA action spectrum filtered through the upper layer of skin

  20. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  1. Predictions for the outcome of rodent carcinogenicity bioassays: identification of trans-species carcinogens and noncarcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant, R W; Spalding, J.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty chemicals or substances currently undergoing long-term carcinogenicity bioassays in rodents have been used in a project to further evaluate methods and information that may have the capability of predicting potential carcinogens. In our predictions the principal information used includes structural alerts and in vitro test results for Salmonella mutagenicity, relative subchronic toxicity, and the sites and types of pathology found in subchronic (90-day) studies. This group of chemicals...

  2. Emissions and air exposure of carcinogens and co-carcinogens in four Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauser, Patrik; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Ketzel, Matthias;

    . A list of carcinogenic andco-carcinogenic pollutants (particles, heavy metals and organic compounds) emittedfrom energy production, industrial activities, road transport, navigation, agriculture, residential heating and product use was compiled. Pollutant emissions levels for 2010and trends for 1990...... sources, traffic and residential wood combustion. An overview of local studies on exposure for cities or communities with emphasis on wood combustion and traffic and a discussion of existing epidemiological studies on cancer and environment were given...

  3. Glycophenotypic alterations induced by Pteridium aquilinum in mice gastric mucosa: synergistic effect with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Gomes

    Full Text Available The bracken fern Pteridium aquilinum is a plant known to be carcinogenic to animals. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bracken fern exposure and gastric cancer development in humans. The biological effects of exposure to this plant within the gastric carcinogenesis process are not fully understood. In the present work, effects in the gastric mucosa of mice treated with Pteridium aquilinum were evaluated, as well as molecular mechanisms underlying the synergistic role with Helicobacter pylori infection. Our results showed that exposure to Pteridium aquilinum induces histomorphological modifications including increased expression of acidic glycoconjugates in the gastric mucosa. The transcriptome analysis of gastric mucosa showed that upon exposure to Pteridium aquilinum several glycosyltransferase genes were differently expressed, including Galntl4, C1galt1 and St3gal2, that are mainly involved in the biosynthesis of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens. Concomitant treatment with Pteridium aquilinum and infection with Helicobacter pylori also resulted in differently expressed glycosyltransferase genes underlying the biosynthesis of terminal sialylated Lewis antigens, including Sialyl-Lewis(x. These results disclose the molecular basis for the altered pattern of glycan structures observed in the mice gastric mucosa. The gene transcription alterations and the induced glycophenotypic changes observed in the gastric mucosa contribute for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of Pteridium aquilinum in the gastric carcinogenesis process.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient,". and the evidence rom human studies is "S...

  5. Studies on the Mutagenicity and Teratogenicity of Kuianchun and Its Potential Carcinogenicity Prediction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jian-ping; ZHANG Li; CAO Sui-zhong; ZHOU Li-xia; ZHOU Xue-hui; LIU Zong-ping; WEI Chun-mei; MIAO Xiao-lin; WEI Zeng-quan

    2002-01-01

    Kuianchun is a newly synthesized antibacterial and growth-promoting drug. This paper selected a battery of three short-term tests, including Ames test, micronucleus test and sperm abnormality test, to detect the mutagenicity of Kuianchun. The carcinogenicity prediction and battery selection method (CPBS method) was used to determine the probability of carcinogenicity of Kuianchun based upon the results of shortterm tests mentioned above. In addition, traditional teratogenic test was selected to study teratogenicity of Kuianchun. In Ames test, Kuianchun showed mutagenic for Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 in the absence and presence of microsomal metabolic activation system (S9-mix). However, the mutagenicity was reduced by the addition of S9-mix. In micronucleus test, Kuianchun was administered intra-peritoneally to male mouse 30 hours and 6 hours before they were killed respectively. The result indicated that there was no significant difference on the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in the mouse bone marrow induced by Kuianchun compared with the negative contrast (50% DMSO) (P > 0.05). In sperm abnormality test, Kuianchun was administered through a gastric incubation to male mouse as a suspension in 2% Tween-80. The dosage levels were 450, 750, 1000 and 1500mg/kg per day for 5 days. The result indicated that the percentage of abnormal sperms induced by Kuianchun was not significant compared with the negative contrast (P>0.05). In traditional teratogenic test, Kuianchun was given orally to pregnant mouse at 1/30,1/20 and 1/15 LDs0 during 6 - 15days of pregnancy period (the LD50 = 9000mg/kg). No toxicity was found either on mother and embryo in mouse, and teratogenic effects were also not observed at all tested dosages. The probability of carcinogenicity of Kuianchun is 23.8 % (θ = 0.238). The result demonstrated that Kuianchun is a non-carcinogen.

  6. [Salmonella pathogenicity islands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sırıken, Belgin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria. They can invade macrophages, dendritic and epithelial cells. The responsible virulence genes for invasion, survival, and extraintestinal spread are located in Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). SPIs are thought to be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Some of the SPIs are conserved throughout the Salmonella genus, and some of them are specific for certain serovars. There are differences between Salmonella serotypes in terms of adaptation to host cell, virulence factors and the resulting infection according to SPA presence and characteristics. The most important Salmonella virulence gene clusters are located in 12 pathogenicity islands. Virulence genes that are involved in the intestinal phase of infection are located in SPI-1 and SPI-2 and the remaining SPIs are required for intracellular survival, fimbrial expression, magnesium and iron uptake, multiple antibiotic resistance and the development of systemic infections. In addition SPIs, Sigma ss (RpoS) factors and adaptive acid tolerance response (ATR) are the other two important virulence factors. RpoS and ATR found in virulent Salmonella strains help the bacteria to survive under inappropriate conditions such as gastric acidity, bile salts, inadequate oxygen concentration, lack of nutrients, antimicrobial peptides, mucus and natural microbiota and also to live in phagosomes or phagolysosomes. This review article summarizes the data related to pathogenicity islands in Salmonella serotypes and some factors which play role in the regulation of virulence genes.

  7. Epidemiology of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katherine D Crew; Alfred I Neugut

    2006-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer have fallen dramatically in US and elsewhere over the past several decades. Nonetheless, gastric cancer remains a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Demographic trends differ by tumor location and histology. While there has been a marked decline in distal, intestinal type gastric cancers, the incidence of proximal, diffuse type adenocarcinomas of the gastric cardia has been increasing, particularly in the Western countries. Incidence by tumor sub-site also varies widely based on geographic location, race, and socioeconomic status. Distal gastric cancer predominates in developing countries, among blacks, and in lower socioeconomic groups, whereas proximal tumors are more common in developed countries, among whites, and in higher socio-economic classes. Diverging trends in the incidence of gastric cancer by tumor location suggest that they may represent two diseases with different etiologies. The main risk factors for distal gastric cancer include Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection and dietary factors, whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity play important roles in the development of proximal stomach cancer. The purpose of this review is to examine the epidemiology and risk factors of gastric cancer, and to discuss strategies for primary prevention.

  8. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Roux-en-Y; Weight-loss surgery - gastric bypass; Obesity surgery - gastric bypass ... bypass surgery is not a quick fix for obesity. It will greatly change your lifestyle. After this surgery, you must eat healthy foods, control portion sizes of ...

  9. [Carcinogenic activity of the pesticide propoxur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylev, L N; Vasil'eva, L A; Smirnova, O V; Khrustalev, S A; Trukhina, G M

    2010-01-01

    Wistar rats were fed propoxur in their diet at 0, 500, 3000, and 8000 ppm during throughout their life. The number of tumors was equal in the control and experimental groups. These were hemoblastoses and breast and uterine tumors. All tumors occurred spontaneously in the rats. A few experimental animals were found to have bladder epithelial hyperplasia that might be pretumorous; however, no bladder tumors were detected. It is concluded that the investigations revealed no carcinogenic activity of propoxur.

  10. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  11. The multitude and diversity of environmental carcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Belpomme, Dominique; Irigaray, Philippe; Hardell, Lennart; Clapp, Richard; Montagnier, Luc; Epstein, Slava; Sasco, Annie

    2007-01-01

    We have recently proposed that lifestyle-related factors, screening and aging cannot fully account for the present overall growing incidence of cancer. In order to propose the concept that in addition to lifestyle related factors, exogenous environmental factors may play a more important role in carcinogenesis than it is expected, and may therefore account for the growing incidence of cancer, we overview herein environmental factors, rated as certainly or potentially carcinogenic by the Inter...

  12. The evolving definition of carcinogenic human papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castle Philip E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thirteen human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes have been judged to be carcinogenic or probably carcinogenic, and the cause of virtually all cervical cancer worldwide. Other HPV genotypes could possibly be involved. Although the inclusion of possibly carcinogenic HPV genotypes may hurt test specificity, it may indirectly increase the reassurance following a negative HPV test (i.e. the negative predictive value of an HPV test for cervical precancer and cancer. The future of cervical cancer screening in low-resource setting, however, may include once-in-a-lifetime, low-cost and rapid HPV testing. However, the tradeoff of more false positives for greater reassurance may not be acceptable if the local infrastructure cannot manage the screen positives. Now is the time for the community of scientists, doctors, and public health advocates to use the data presented at the 100th International Agency for Research on Cancer monograph meeting to rationally decide the target HPV genotypes for the next generation of HPV tests for use in high-resource and low-resource settings. The implications of including possibly HPV genotypes on HPV test performance, also for guidance on the use of these tests for cervical cancer prevention programs, are discussed.

  13. Impact and compliance: OSHA Carcinogen Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.F. Jr.; Crowder, C.; Wisniewski, S.; Russell, T.; Senn, K.

    1980-06-26

    This document provides an examination of various aspects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)Carcinogen Policy. To satisfy the dimensions of the Policy's broad, general nature, a two-fold approach was taken. Throughout, the focus is on the possible effects of the Policy's implementation, but this is first approached as it generally will effect research and compliance activities across broad industry sectors, while specific impacts on DOE are addressed separately. To overview and integrate these approaches, and to provide a quick reference for further information, an outline of information is presented. General or industry-wide applications are addressed both in the Summary and Overview of the Policy (Chapters I and II) and in the discussion of the Model Standard (Chapter V). Also included is a copy of the Policy itself in the General Industry Standards and interpretations Change 10. Sections specifically addressed to the major concerns of DOE and its contractors are a discussion of implications for action regarding the synthetic fuels program, a comparison of the OSHA Model Regulations and the FE OSH Manual Standards for Carcinogens, and finally, a list of known carcinogens in coal gasification/liquefaction. Together, these elements illustrate the broad scope of the policy's impact, which economic and other constraining consequences begin to become visible. Measures to minimize these consequences are a common underlying theme to each of the sections.

  14. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer: advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenbo; Bai, Bing; Sheng, Liang; Li, Yan; Yue, Ping; Li, Xun; Qiao, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers of digestive system globally and Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is believed to be a major risk factor. HP can be classified into different types based on the presence and expression level of CagA and VacA, and, when exposed to adverse environment, HP changes its phenotype from helical type to coccoid type, with each having different pathogenicity. The mechanisms of HP-induced gastric carcinogenesis and progression are complicated, including DNA nitration and oxidation induced by mutagenic factors, HP-induced epigenetic modifications, HP-induced disruption of the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis, and HP-induced cancer cell invasion and metastasis. HP may also affect the biological function of cancer stem cells and induction of cell autophagy. The lipopolysaccharide produced by HP can act through toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) to induce gastric mucosal inflammation and is thereby linked to the development of gastric cancer.

  15. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  16. Tests of gastric neuromuscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkman, Henry P; Jones, Michael P

    2009-05-01

    Tests of gastric neuromuscular function are used to evaluate patients with symptoms referable to the upper digestive tract. These symptoms can be associated with alterations in the rates of gastric emptying, impaired accommodation, heightened gastric sensation, or alterations in gastric myoelectrical function and contractility. Management of gastric neuromuscular disorders requires an understanding of pathophysiology and treatment options as well as the appropriate use and interpretation of diagnostic tests. These tests include measures of gastric emptying; contractility; electrical activity; regional gastric motility of the fundus, antrum, and pylorus; and tests of sensation and compliance. Tests are also being developed to improve our understanding of the afferent sensory pathways from the stomach to the central nervous system that mediate gastric sensation in health and gastric disorders. This article reviews tests of gastric function and provides a basic description of the tests, the methodologies behind them, descriptions of the physiology that they assess, and their clinical utility. PMID:19293005

  17. The frequency of Helicobacter pylor infection and cagA expression in the Korean patients with gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori infection had been approved as a group 1 carcinogen by the international agency for research on cancer. However the association between H.pylori infection and gastric carcinoma was not so definite in South Asia including Korea, and the role of cagA gene of H.pylori in gastric carcinogenesis was a controversial issue. The aims of this study were firstly to study in vivo expression frequency of 16S rRNA and cagA gene of H.pylori, secondly to study the association between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer, the association between cagA expression and gastric cancer in Korean patients. In vivo expression rate of 16S rRNA was 74 % of gastric carcinoma patients and cagA expression rate was 51 % of gastric carcinoma patients with H.pylori infection. Although 90 % of gastric carcinoma patients had H.pylori infection, the association between H.pylori infection and gastric carcinoma was not significant. And there was no significant association between cagA expression and gastric carcinoma. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  18. The frequency of Helicobacter pylor infection and cagA expression in the Korean patients with gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Sook Hyang; Kim, Yoo Chul [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection had been approved as a group 1 carcinogen by the international agency for research on cancer. However the association between H.pylori infection and gastric carcinoma was not so definite in South Asia including Korea, and the role of cagA gene of H.pylori in gastric carcinogenesis was a controversial issue. The aims of this study were firstly to study in vivo expression frequency of 16S rRNA and cagA gene of H.pylori, secondly to study the association between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer, the association between cagA expression and gastric cancer in Korean patients. In vivo expression rate of 16S rRNA was 74 % of gastric carcinoma patients and cagA expression rate was 51 % of gastric carcinoma patients with H.pylori infection. Although 90 % of gastric carcinoma patients had H.pylori infection, the association between H.pylori infection and gastric carcinoma was not significant. And there was no significant association between cagA expression and gastric carcinoma. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. Familial gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bresciani Cláudio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Familial aggregation of gastric cancer has pointed out to a possible hereditary and genetic factor involved in the carcinogenesis of this disease. The diffuse type gastric cancer patients are frequently younger and the tumor has locally infiltrative growth pattern early in its development. Observation of families with frequent early onset gastric cancer has led to the identification of a novel gene implicated in gastric cancer susceptibility: CDH1/E-cadherin. Diffuse familiar gastric cancer is defined as any family presenting: two first-degree relatives with diffuse gastric cancer, one of them with age under 50 years or at least 3 first-degree relatives irrespective age of onset. CASE REPORT: The family reported by us does not fit in any of the classification proposed. The precise identification of these families by clinical and molecular tools is of great importance. The case reported is an example of a family that probably is a form of hereditary gastric cancer not yet fully understood. CONCLUSION: Soon there will be new criteria, possibly including genetic and molecular characteristics.

  20. Gastric conduit perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Nilesh; Kaushal, Arvind; Jain, Amit; Saluja, Sundeep Singh; Mishra, Pramod Kumar

    2014-08-16

    As patients with carcinoma of the esophagus live longer, complications associated with the use of a gastric conduit are increasing. Ulcers form in the gastric conduit in 6.6% to 19.4% of patients. There are a few reports of perforation of a gastric conduit in the English literature. Almost all of these were associated with serious complications. We report a patient who developed a tension pneumothorax consequent to spontaneous perforation of an ulcer in the gastric conduit 7 years after the index surgery in a patient with carcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction. He responded well to conservative management. Complications related to a gastric conduit can be because of multiple factors. Periodic endoscopic surveillance of gastric conduits should be considered as these are at a higher risk of ulcer formation than a normal stomach. Long term treatment with proton pump inhibitors may decrease complications. There are no guidelines for the treatment of a perforated gastric conduit ulcer and the management should be individualized.

  1. Concomitant gastric adenocarcinoma and stromal tumor in a woman with polymyalgia rheumatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Panteleimon Kountourakis; Niki Arnogiannaki; Ilias Stavrinides; Nikiforos Apostolikas; Gerasimos Rigatos

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms (1%) of the gastrointestinal tract and to our knowledge only rare cases of synchronous presentation of gastric carcinomas and GISTs are reported in the literature.A 72-year-old female with a simultaneous presentation of gastric adenocarcinoma and GIST is presented.Moreover,due to polymyalgia rheumatica the patient received corticosteroids as treatment for the last 3 years.The concomitant occurrence of these neoplasms may involve common carcinogenic factors and there could be an association with polymyalgia rheumatica either as a paraneoplastic presentation or due to its treatment with corticosteroids.

  2. Gastric Duplication Cyst Causing Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Al Shehi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a newborn baby with gastric duplication cyst presented with non-bilious vomiting and upper abdominal distension. The diagnosis was suspected clinically and established by ultrasonography and computed tomography. The cyst was completely excised with uneventful recovery.

  3. Genomics Study of Gastric Cancer and Its Molecular Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Siu Tsan; Leung, Suet Yi

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease encompassing diverse morphological (intestinal versus diffuse) and molecular subtypes (MSI, EBV, TP53 mutation). Recent advances in genomic technology have led to an improved understanding of the driver gene mutational profile, gene expression, and epigenetic alterations that underlie each of the subgroups, with therapeutic implications in some of these alterations. There have been attempts to classify gastric cancers based on these genomic features, with an aim to improve prognostication and predict responsiveness to specific drug therapy. The eventual aims of these genomic studies are to develop deep biological insights into the carcinogenic pathway in each of these subtypes. Future large-scale drug screening strategies may then be able to link these genomic features to drug responsiveness, eventually leading to genome-guided personalized medicine with improved cure rates. PMID:27573784

  4. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published...

  5. Diet after gastric banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric banding surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after banding; Weight loss - diet after banding ... about any problems you are having with your diet, or about other issues related to your surgery ...

  6. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima;

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects...

  7. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  8. Diet and gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Janković Slavenka M.; Marinković Jelena M.; Maksimović Jadranka M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years), gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, fol...

  9. Accuracy of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Testing Criteria and Outcomes in Patients With a Germline Mutation in CDH1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Post, Rachel S.; Vogelaar, Ingrid P.; Manders, Peggy; van der Kolk, Lizet E.; Cats, Annemieke; van Hest, Liselotte P.; Sijmons, Rolf; Aalfs, Cora M.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Wagner, Anja; Hes, Frederik J.; Arts, Neeltje; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; van Krieken, J. Han; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Germline mutations in the cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin gene (CDH1) cause a predisposition to gastric cancer. We evaluated the ability of the internationally accepted hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) criteria to identify individuals with pathogenic mutations in CDH1, and

  10. Accuracy of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Testing Criteria and Outcomes in Patients With a Germline Mutation in CDH1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Post, Rachel S.; Vogelaar, Ingrid P.; Manders, Peggy; Van Der Kolk, Lizet E.; Cats, Annemieke; Van Hest, Liselotte P.; Sijmons, Rolf; Aalfs, Cora M.; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Gómez García, Encarna B.; Wagner, Anja; Hes, Frederik J.; Arts, Neeltje; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Van Krieken, J. Han; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Germline mutations in the cadherin 1, type 1, E-cadherin gene (CDH1) cause a predisposition to gastric cancer. We evaluated the ability of the internationally accepted hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) criteria to identify individuals with pathogenic mutations in CDH1, and a

  11. Indoor air-assessment: Indoor concentrations of environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the report, indoor concentration data are presented for the following general categories of air pollutants: radon-222, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), asbestos, gas phase organic compounds, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and inorganic compounds. These pollutants are either known or suspect carcinogens (i.e., radon-222, asbestos) or more complex mixtures or classes of compounds which contain known or suspect carcinogens. Concentration data for individual carcinogenic compounds in complex mixtures are usually far from complete. The data presented for complex mixtures often include compounds which are not carcinogenic or for which data are insufficient to evaluate carcinogenicity. Their inclusion is justified, however, by the possibility that further work may show them to be carcinogens, cocarcinogens, initiators or promotors, or that they may be employed as markers (e.g., nicotine, acrolein) for the estimation of exposure to complex mixtures

  12. Comparison of rat olfactory mucosal responses to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chloracetanilides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genter, M.B.; Warner, B.M.; Medvedovic, M.; Sartor, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Alachlor and butachlor are chloracetanilide herbicides that induce olfactory tumors in rats, whereas propachlor does not. The mechanism by which alachlor induces tumors is distinct from many other nasal carcinogens, in that alachlor induces a gradual de-differentiation of the olfactory mucosa (OM) to a more respiratory-like epithelium, in contrast to other agents that induce cytotoxicity, followed by an aberrant regenerative response. We studied biochemical and genomic effects of these compounds to identify processes that occur in common between alachlor- and butachlor-treated rats. Because we have previously shown that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) is activated in OM by alachlor, in the present studies we evaluated both MMP2 activation and changes in OM gene expression in response to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chloracetanilide treatments. All three chloracetanilides activated MMP2, and > 300 genes were significantly up- or downregulated between control and alachlor-treated rats. The most significantly regulated gene was vomeromodulin, which was dramatically upregulated by alachlor and butachlor treatment (>60-fold), but not by propachlor treatment. Except for similar gene responses in alachlor- and butachlor-treated rats, we did not identify clear-cut differences that would predict OM carcinogenicity in this study. PMID:19425180

  13. CT of Gastric Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guniganti, Preethi; Bradenham, Courtney H; Raptis, Constantine; Menias, Christine O; Mellnick, Vincent M

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are common presenting symptoms among adult patients seeking care in the emergency department, and, with the increased use of computed tomography (CT) to image patients with these complaints, radiologists will more frequently encounter a variety of emergent gastric pathologic conditions on CT studies. Familiarity with the CT appearance of emergent gastric conditions is important, as the clinical presentation is often nonspecific and the radiologist may be the first to recognize gastric disease as the cause of a patient's symptoms. Although endoscopy and barium fluoroscopy remain important tools for evaluating patients with suspected gastric disease in the outpatient setting, compared with CT these modalities enable less comprehensive evaluation of patients with nonspecific complaints and are less readily available in the acute setting. Endoscopy is also more invasive than CT and has greater potential risks. Although the mucosal detail of CT is relatively poor compared with barium fluoroscopy or endoscopy, CT can be used with the appropriate imaging protocols to identify inflammatory conditions of the stomach ranging from gastritis to peptic ulcer disease. In addition, CT can readily demonstrate the various complications of gastric disease, including perforation, obstruction, and hemorrhage, which may direct further clinical, endoscopic, or surgical management. We will review the normal anatomy of the stomach and discuss emergent gastric disease with a focus on the usual clinical presentation, typical imaging appearance, and differentiating features, as well as potential imaging pitfalls.

  14. Occurrence, uses, and carcinogenicity of arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King-Thom

    2015-01-01

    Arylamines are chemically synthesized and contained in oxidants, epoxy polymers, explosives, fungicides, pesticides, colorants, polyurethanes, and used in rubber, pharmacology, cosmetics, and other chemical industries. Many arylamines are ubiquitously present in cigarette smoke, cooking fume hoods, foods, automobile exhaust, industrial sites, etc. Some arylamines can be generated through azo reduction by intestinal, skin, and environmental microorganisms from azo dyes that are widely used. Arylamines can also be generated by reduction of the nitro-group containing polyhydrated hydrocarbons including muntions. Some arylamines are released by burning nitrogen containing organic materials at high temperatures. Some medical drugs are also arylamines. Furthermore, many arylamines are essential constituents of normal metabolism or the result of abnormal metabolism or dietary sources. Some arylamines are mutagenic, carcinogenic or the cause of other kinds of maladies. Some arylamine are considered the major etiological agents of bladder tumors in humans and animals but may also induce other types of cancers in various organs. The organ, tissue, and species specificity of the arylamine-inducing carcinogenesis may be determined by their availability, distribution, and the presence of metabolic activation/detoxicification enzymes of each organ or tissue of different species. The ubiquitous arylamines, therefore, pose serious hazards to human health and environment. This article will address the occurrence, uses, carcinogenicity, and other arylamines-induced diseases.

  15. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  16. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  17. The gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelayo Correa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer ranks fourth in incidence and second in mortality among all cancers worldwide. Despite the decrease in incidencein some regions of the world, gastric cancer continues to present a major clinical challenge due to most cases beingdiagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The development of gastric cancer is acomplex and multi-factored process involving a number of etiological factors and multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations.Among the predisposing factors are: Helicobacter pylori infection, high salt intake, smoking, and, in a small percentage ofpatients, a family genetic component. More than 90% of stomach cancers are adenocarcinomas, which are classified intotwo major histological groups: intestinal and diffuse. Intestinal adenocarcinoma is preceded by a sequence of gastric lesionsknown as Correa´s cascade. According to the anatomical position, adenocarcinomas are classified as proximal (originatingin the cardia and distal (originating in the body and antrum. This is a classification that recognizes two different clinicalentities. In general, the only possible cure for the disease is resection of the tumor in an early stage for which the identificationand monitoring of at-risk patients play a significant role. With the exception of Japan, no effective early detection programsexist. Anti-H. pylori has been shown to be an effective measure in the prevention of gastric cancer.

  18. Researchers exploring faster alternatives to 2-year test for carcinogenicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: Animals;Animals,Laboratory;biomarkers of exposure & effect: validation;Carcinogenicity Tests;Carcinogens;Female;metabolism;methods;Male;Mice;Pharmaceutical Preparations;Predictive Value of Tests;Prognosis;Rats;standards;Species Specificity;trends;Time Factors;Tumor Markers,Biological;United States;United States Environmental Protection Agency;United States Food and Drug Administration.

  19. Environmental carcinogenic agents and cancer prevention. Risk assessment and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many agents in our environment have been established as being carcinogenic, and in most cases, the carcinogenic properties of these agents were identified because of high-dose occupational or accidental exposure. Risk characterization, taking into account the dose-response relationship, and exposure assessment are essential for risk assessment and subsequent cancer prevention. Based on scientific risk assessment, risk management should be conducted practically by considering the economic, social, political, and other technical issues and by balancing the risks and benefits. Asbestos and environmental tobacco smoke are typical examples of established carcinogenic agents in the general environment, contributing to low-dose exposure. Further epidemiological studies are required to investigate the carcinogenicity of low-dose exposure to known carcinogenic agents such as arsenic and cadmium through dietary intake, radiation via medical and natural exposure, and air pollution due to diesel exhaust. In contrast, occupational chemical exposure to 1,2-dichloropropane and/or dichloromethane, whose carcinogenicity had not been established, was suggested to cause cholangiocarcinoma among workers involved in offset color proof-printing only after a rare situation of high-dose exposure was unveiled. Continuous monitoring of unusual cancer occurrences in target populations such as workers in occupational and regional settings as well as exposure reduction to suspected carcinogenic agents to levels as low as reasonably achievable is essential for reducing the risk of cancer due to environmental carcinogens. (author)

  20. Carcinogens in the Workplace: A Scientific, Political and Social Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Atherley, Gordon; Whiting, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Investigation, assessment, and management of carcinogenic risks are not only scientific but also political responsibilities. In Canada, this becomes cumbersome, since local, provincial and federal policies are involved. The process also involves workers and management. This article outlines Canadian legislative experience, the principles involved, the methods of risk assessment, and the classification of carcinogens in the workplace.

  1. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  2. Gene expression profiling reveals sequential changes in gastric tubular adenoma and carcinoma in situ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Hee Lee; Seung-Hyun Bang; Seung-Koo Lee; Kyu-Young Song; In-Chul Lee

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the expression profiles of premalignant and/or preclinical lesions of gastric cancers.METHODS: We analyzed the expression profiles of normal gastric pit, tubular adenoma and carcinoma in situ using microdissected cells from routine gastric biopsies. For the DNA microarray analysis of formalin-fixed samples,we developed a simple and reproducible RNA extraction and linear amplification procedure applying two polymerasebinding sites. The amplification procedure took only 8 h and yielded comparable DNA microarray data between formalin-fixed tissues and unfixed controls.RESULTS: In comparison with normal pit, adenoma/carcinoma showed 504 up-regulated and 29 down-regulated genes at the expected false significance rate 0.15%. The differential expression between adenoma and carcinoma in situ was subtle: 50 and 22 genes were up-, and down-regulated in carcinomas at the expected false significance rate of 0.61%, respectively. Differentially expressed genes were grouped according to patterns of the sequential changes for the 'tendency analysis' in the gastric mucosaadenoma-carcinoma sequence.CONCLUSION: Groups of genes are shown to reflect the sequential expression changes in the early carcinogenic steps of stomach cancer. It is suggested that molecular carcinogenic pathways could be analyzed using routinely processed biopsies.

  3. Carcinogenic risk of copper gluconate evaluated by a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Masayoshi; Usuda, Koji; Hayashi, Seigo; Ogawa, Izumi; Furukawa, Satoshi [Nissan Chemical Industries Limited, Toxicology and Environmental Science Department, Biological Research Laboratories, Saitama (Japan); Igarashi, Maki [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Laboratory of Protection of Body Function, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Nakae, Dai [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Laboratory of Protection of Body Function, Department of Food and Nutritional Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Carcinogenic risk and molecular mechanisms underlying the liver tumor-promoting activity of copper gluconate, an additive of functional foods, were investigated using a rat medium-term liver carcinogenicity bioassay protocol (Ito test) and a 2-week short-term administration experiment. In the medium-term liver bioassay, Fischer 344 male rats were given a single i.p. injection of N-nitrosodiethylamine at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. as a carcinogenic initiator. Starting 2 weeks thereafter, rats received 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in diet for 6 weeks. All rats underwent 2/3 partial hepatectomy at the end of week 3, and all surviving rats were killed at the end of week 8. In the short-term experiment, rats were given 0, 10, 300 or 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate for 2 weeks. Numbers of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive lesions, single GST-P-positive hepatocytes and 8-oxoguanine-positive hepatocytes, and levels of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the liver were significantly increased by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate in the medium-term liver bioassay. Furthermore, hepatic mRNA expression of genes relating to the metal metabolism, inflammation and apoptosis were elevated by 6,000 ppm of copper gluconate both in the medium-term liver bioassay and the short-term experiments. These results indicate that copper gluconate possesses carcinogenic risk toward the liver at the high dose level, and that oxidative stress and inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling statuses may participate in its underlying mechanisms. (orig.)

  4. Lymphocyte reactivity of workers exposed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S.; Taylor, G; Hurst, W; Wilson, P.; Costello, C B

    1981-01-01

    Immunological studies have shown an increased lymphocyte reactivity in patients with early stage bladder cancer and individuals with pre-stage T1 exposed to bladder carcinogens (2-naphthylamine and industrial 1-naphthylamine containing 4-8% 2-naphthylamine) before 1952-that is, those at high risk of developing bladder cancer. Because of the close chemical similarity of Tobias acid (2-naphthylamine-1 sulphonic acid) to 2-naphthylamine, the lymphocytotoxicity of workers exposed to this chemical...

  5. Helicobacter pylori: recent advances in the study of its pathogenicity and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Germán R.; Ayala Guadalupe; Fierros-Zárate Geny

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has acquired great importance during the last two decades, after being recognized as an important pathogen that infects a great portion of the human population. This microorganism is recognized as the main causal agent of chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcers, and it is associated with the subsequent development of gastric carcinoma. The pathogenic mechanisms of H. pylori and their relation to gastric ailments have not been clearly defined. However, at present it is well e...

  6. Helicobacter pylori: Recent advances in the study of its pathogenicity and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Germán R. Aguilar; Guadalupe Ayala; Geny Fierros

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has aquired great importance during the last two decades, after being recognized as an important pathogen that infects a great proportion of the human population. This microorganism is recognized as the main causal agent of chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcers, and it is asociated with the subsequent development of gastric carcinoma. The pathogenic mechanisms of H. pylori and their relation to gastric aliments have not been clearly defined. However, at present it is well...

  7. ANTIGEN MG7 IN GASTRIC CANCER AND GASTRIC PRECANCEROUS LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭冬丽; 宁佩芳; 袁媛

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the dynamic change and its diagnostic significance of MG7 expression in the process of gastric cancer development. Methods: The expression level of antigen MG7 was determined by immunohistochemistry method in 406 cases of gastric mucosa. The classification of intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa was determined by histochemistry method in 82 cases. Results: The positive rate of MG7 expression in normal gastric mucosa, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia of gastric mucosa and gastric cancer were increased gradually (P<0.01). The positive rate of MG7 expression in superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer were increased on sequence (P<0.01). The positive rate of antigen MG7 expression in type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa had significant difference,compared with that in type Ⅰ an Ⅱ intestinal metaplasia (P<0.05). Conclusion: MG7 antigen had close relationship with gastric cancer. Type Ⅲ intestinal metaplasia, atrophic gastritis and dysplasia should be followed up in order to improve the early detection of gastric cancer. MG7 antigen had great clinical value in the dynamic follow-up of gastric precursors.

  8. Effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yang; Dian-Chun Fang; Qian-Wei Li; Nian-Xu Sun; Qing-Lin Long; Jian-Feng Sui; Lu Gan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To invertigate the effects of gastric pacing on gastric emptying and plasma motilin level in a canine model of gastric motility disorders and the correlation between gastric emptying and plasma motilin level.METHODS: Ten healthy Mongrel dogs were divided into:experimental group of six dogs and control group of four dogs. A model of gastric motility disorders was established in the experimental group undergone truncal vagotomy combined with injection of glucagon. Gastric half-emptying time (GEt1/2) was monitored with single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and the half-solid test meal was labeled with an isotope-99m Tc sulfur colloid. Plasma motilin concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit. Surface gastric pacing at 1.1-1.2 times the intrinsic slow-wave frequency and a superimposed series of high frequency pulses (10-30 Hz) was performed for 45 min daily for a month in conscious dogs.RESULTS: After surgery, GEt1/2 in dogs undergone truncal vagotomy was increased significantly from 56.35±2.99 min to 79.42±l.91 min (P<0.001), but surface gastric pacing markedly accelerated gastric emptying and significantly decreased GEt1/2 to 64,94±l.75 min (P<0.001) in animals undergone vagotomy. There was a significant increase of plasma level of motilin at the phase of IMCⅢ (interdigertive myoelectrical complex, IMCⅢ) in the dogs undergone bilateral truncal vagotomy (baseline vs vagotomy, 184.29±9.81 pg/ml vs 242.09±17,22 pg/ml; P<0.01). But plasma motilin concentration (212.55±11.20 pg/ml; P<0.02) was decreased significantly after a long-term treatment with gastric pacing.Before gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and plasma motilin concentration of the dogs undergone vagotomy showed a positive correlation (r=0.867, P<0.01), but after a long-term gastric pacing, GEt1/2 and motilin level showed a negative correlation (r=-0.733, P<0,04).CONCLUSION: Surface gastric pacing with optimal pacing parameters can improve gastric emptying

  9. Gastric and non-gastric signals in electrogastrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiho, T; Shimoyama, I; Nakajima, Y; Ochiai, T

    2000-02-14

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is the cutaneous recording of gastric myoelectrical activity, and the dominant frequency reflects the rhythm of the gastric slow wave. Ambulatory EGG is contaminated with a large amount of motion artifacts, and it is unclear how much of the signals comprising the dominant frequency originates from non-gastric sources. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pattern of gastric and non-gastric signals in the dominant frequency histogram (DFH) obtained from long-term ambulatory EGG recordings. Ten normal controls and five post-gastrectomy patients participated in the present study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory EGG was recorded under normal daily conditions. The DFH of normal controls showed two distinctive peaks, and that of the post-gastrectomy patients, a single peak. The common peak at approximately 1.5 cpm was seen in both DFHs, and the peak at 3 cpm was seen only in the DFH of normal controls. Thus, the common peak was thought to be a product of non-gastric origin. In conclusion, the dominant frequency consists of gastric and non-gastric components which have a specific distribution pattern in the DFH. These findings quantified the contribution of gastric and non-gastric signals to the dominant frequencies in long-term ambulatory EGG.

  10. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  11. Identification and monitoring of non-radiological carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the feasibility of identifying and monitoring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in the workplace at Canadian nuclear establishments (Whiteshell Laboratories, Pickering Nuclear Generating Station, Cameco Limited and Canadian General Electric Company Limited). Recent epidemiological studies recommended that potential confounding factors of a non-radiological nature be identified and analyzed, particularly non-radiological carcinogens that may be present in the workplace at nuclear facilities. The feasibility of identifying and measuring occupational exposures to non-radiological carcinogens in Canadian nuclear facilities is examined. Also, the report describes the problem of chemical carcinogens and the mechanisms involved in chemical carcinogenesis; the epidemiology related to the problem, followed by a description of the analytical aspects of detection, monitoring and analysis of carcinogens, as well as a discussion on the regulatory aspects and the regulations in place; and the findings, recommendations and concluding remarks of this study. Several problem areas became apparent as the study proceeded. For example, the classification of a chemical as a human carcinogen is a difficult problem, as is its adequate monitoring and analysis. This situation reflects, in turn, the regulatory aspects in the workplace. A list of chemical carcinogens used industrially at the four Canadian nuclear facilities has been identified. The list includes arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, beryllium, nickel, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead and trichloroethylene. Several recommendations are made in relation to the need for practical and efficient monitoring methods for chemical carcinogens, the definition of radiation and chemical dose equivalencies, and the classification of human chemical carcinogens, as well as their disposal. (author). 122 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  12. Towards incorporating epigenetic mechanisms into carcinogen identification and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zdenko; Lambert, Marie-Pierre; van Veldhoven, Karin; Demetriou, Christiana; Vineis, Paolo; Smith, Martyn T; Straif, Kurt; Wild, Christopher P

    2013-09-01

    Remarkable progress in the field of epigenetics has turned academic, medical and public attention to the potential applications of these new advances in medicine and various fields of biomedical research. The result is a broader appreciation of epigenetic phenomena in the a etiology of common human diseases, most notably cancer. These advances also represent an exciting opportunity to incorporate epigenetics and epigenomics into carcinogen identification and safety assessment. Current epigenetic studies, including major international sequencing projects, are expected to generate information for establishing the 'normal' epigenome of tissues and cell types as well as the physiological variability of the epigenome against which carcinogen exposure can be assessed. Recently, epigenetic events have emerged as key mechanisms in cancer development, and while our search of the Monograph Volume 100 revealed that epigenetics have played a modest role in evaluating human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs so far, epigenetic data might play a pivotal role in the future. Here, we review (i) the current status of incorporation of epigenetics in carcinogen evaluation in the IARC Monographs Programme, (ii) potential modes of action for epigenetic carcinogens, (iii) current in vivo and in vitro technologies to detect epigenetic carcinogens, (iv) genomic regions and epigenetic modifications and their biological consequences and (v) critical technological and biological issues in assessment of epigenetic carcinogens. We also discuss the issues related to opportunities and challenges in the application of epigenetic testing in carcinogen identification and evaluation. Although the application of epigenetic assays in carcinogen evaluation is still in its infancy, important data are being generated and valuable scientific resources are being established that should catalyse future applications of epigenetic testing.

  13. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R.M.; Brenner, D.; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L.; Smith, S.; Warburton, D.; Young, T.L.; Tsai, W.Y.; Brandt-Rauf, P. (Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)); Hemminki, K. (Finnish School of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment.

  14. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment

  15. The role of gastric mucins in interactions with Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Radziejewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium which colonizes the stomach of over 50�0of the world’s population. The pathogen is responsible for many diseases including gastritis, ulcers and also gastric cancers. It is said that adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells plays a key role in infection development. Two gastric mucins, components of mucus, are assumed to have an important role in protection against adhesion and in this way in progression of infection. These are a secretory MUC5AC mucin, produced by mucous epithelial cells, and a membrane-bound MUC1 mucin, expressed by epical surfaces of epithelial cells. Interactions with bacteria occur between carbohydrate antigens of mucins and specific adhesins of the Helicobacter pylori surface. In this paper we present the latest knowledge about these intriguing interactions of both mucins and their interplay with the pathogen providing protection against infection.

  16. The gastric microbial community, Helicobacter pylori colonization, and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Miriam E.; Solnick, Jay V.

    2014-01-01

    Long thought to be a sterile habitat, the stomach contains a diverse and unique community of bacteria. One particular inhabitant, Helicobacter pylori, colonizes half of the world’s human population and establishes a decades-long infection that can be asymptomatic, pathogenic, or even beneficial for the host. Many host and bacterial factors are known to influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, but another potentially important determinant has recently come to light: the host microbio...

  17. Pathogen intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behavior, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behavior, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies. PMID:24551600

  18. Erythropoietin -induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Kazuro; Sawasaki, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Kato, Shingo; Imai, Nobuhiro; Kato, Yoichiro; Shibata, Noriyuki; KOBAYASHI, MAKIO; Moriguchi, Yoshiyuki; Higuchi, Masato; Ishihata, Fumio; Sudoh, Yushi; Miura, Soichiro

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model.

  19. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  20. Non-microbial approach for Helicobacter pylori as faster track to prevent gastric cancer than simple eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang-Ho; Kangwan, Napapan; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as a definite human carcinogen in 1994, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research only recently (February 2013) adopted the position that H. pylori infection should be considered as an indication for either amelioration of chronic gastritis or for decreasing gastric cancer mortality. Japanese researchers have found that H. pylori eradication halts progressive mucosal damage and that successf...

  1. Carcinogenicity and co-carcinogenicity studies on propoxur in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Y; Baqar, S M; Mehrotra, N K

    1998-12-01

    Propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) is a widely used broad spectrum carbamate insecticide mainly used to control household pests. Propoxur exposure is reported to inhibit cholinesterase activity in rodents. Apart from other toxic effects, propoxur was found to possess tumorigenic activity in rats after oral administration. Propoxur does not produce tumours in mice or hamsters, or bladder hyperplasia in dogs and monkeys following oral feeding. In this set of investigations the complete carcinogenic, tumour initiating and promoting potential of propoxur was evaluated in male and female Swiss albino mice, since no information was available following dermal exposure of propoxur. The animals were exposed to propoxur through topical painting on the interscapular region at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. The results revealed that propoxur has tumour promoting potential on mouse skin following a two-stage initiation-promotion protocol, but it failed to induce the tumour(s) at a significant level, when tested for tumour initiating and complete carcinogenic property.

  2. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, Epidemiologic and Other Supporting Evidence of Carcinogenic Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lawrence H. Lash; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2013-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studies, bioassays in experimental animals, and toxicity and mechanism of action studies was used to conclude that TCE is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). This article summarizes the key evidence formin...

  3. Critical analysis of carcinogenicity study outcomes. Relationship with pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Kasper, Peter; Silva Lima, Beatriz; Jones, David R; Pasanen, Markku

    2016-08-01

    Predicting the outcome of life-time carcinogenicity studies in rats based on chronic (6-month) toxicity studies in this species is possible in some instances. This should reduce the number of such studies and hence have a significant impact on the total number of animals used in safety assessment of new medicines. From a regulatory perspective, this should be sufficient to grant a waiver for a carcinogenicity study in those cases where there is confidence in the outcome of the prediction. Pharmacological properties are a frequent key factor for the carcinogenic mode of action of some pharmaceuticals, but data-analysis on a large dataset has never been formally conducted. We have conducted an analysis of a dataset based on the perspective of the pharmacology of 255 compounds from industrial and regulatory sources. It is proposed that a pharmacological, class-specific, model may consist of an overall causal relationship between the pharmacological class and the histopathology findings in rats after 6 months treatment, leading to carcinogenicity outcome after 2 years. Knowledge of the intended drug target and pathway pharmacology should enhance the prediction of either positive or negative outcomes of rat carcinogenicity studies. The goal of this analysis is to review the pharmacological properties of compounds together with the histopathology findings from the chronic toxicity study in rodents in order to introduce an integrated approach to estimate the risk of human carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals. This approach would allow scientists to define conditions under which 2-year rat carcinogenicity studies will or will not add value to such an assessment. We have demonstrated the possibility of a regulatory waiver for a carcinogenicity study in rats, as currently discussed in the International Council for Harmonization (ICH) - formerly known as the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH), by applying the proposed prediction approach in a number of case studies

  4. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R. M.; Brenner, D; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L; Smith, S.; Warburton, D; Young, T. L.; Tsai, W. Y.; Hemminki, K; Brandt-Rauf, P

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers h...

  5. Gastric Cancer Epidemiology in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer has been the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Korea although the age-standardized mortality and incidence has decreased gradually during last two decades. Helicobacter pylori infection and cigarette smoking are well-established risk factors, and the role of dietary factors, such as salted foods, fresh vegetables and fruits, soy foods, and processed or grilled meats on gastric carcinogenesis has been suggested. In this review, we review national and international gastric cancer...

  6. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  7. Epigenetic alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In-Seon CHOI; Tsung-Teh WU

    2005-01-01

    Gastric cancer is believed to result in part from the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations leading to oncogene overexpression and tumor suppressor loss. Epigenetic alterations as a distinct and crucial mechanism to silence a variety of methylated tissue-specific and imprinted genes, have been extensively studied in gastric carcinoma and play important roles in gastric carcinogenesis. This review will briefly discuss the basic aspects of DNA methylation and CpG island methylation, in particular the epigenetic alterations of certain critical genes implicated in gastric carcinogenesis and its relevance of clinical implications.

  8. Gastric Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takaishi, Shigeo; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Timothy C Wang

    2008-01-01

    Cancer stem cells are defined as the unique subpopulation in the tumors that possess the ability to initiate tumor growth and sustain self-renewal as well as metastatic potential. Accumulating evidence in recent years strongly indicate the existence of cancer stem cells in solid tumors of a wide variety of organs. In this review, we will discuss the possible existence of a gastric cancer stem cell. Our recent data suggest that a subpopulation with a defined marker shows spheroid colony format...

  9. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, Carlo; Franceschi, Silvia

    2000-01-01

    The reasons for the worldwide decline in stomach cancer incidence and mortality rates are not fully understood, but dietary changes are clearly implicated. While the possible mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the impact of Helicobacter pylori eradication remain open to debate, at least two practical recommendations – to increase fruit and vegetable intake, and to reduce consumption of salt – are already supported by epidemiological evidence. These dietary recommendations may also be be...

  10. Induction of active melanocytes in mouse skin by carcinogens: a new method for detection of skin carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, K; Inui, N; Takeuchi, T

    1981-01-01

    Application of potent skin carcinogens, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, 3-methylcholanthrene, benzo[a]pyrene and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, induced numerous dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-positive cells in the interfollicular epidermis of C57BL/6 mice in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Chrysene, a weak skin carcinogen, and croton oil, a tumor promoter, also induced 3--4 times more dopa-positive cells than acetone. Liver carcinogens, such as 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and N-2-acetylaminofluorene, and non-carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and pyrene, did not induce increase in these cells. These results indicate that increase in the number of dopa-positive cells after application of chemicals is well correlated with the abilities of these compounds to induce skin carcinogenesis and suppress sebaceous glands. PMID:7273337

  11. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  12. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  13. Chemotherapy for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Sastre; Jose Angel García-Saenz; Eduardo Díaz-Rubio

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic gastric cancer remains a non-curative disease.Palliative chemotherapy has been demonstrated to prolong survival without quality of life compromise. Many single-agents and combinations have been confirmed to be active in the treatment of metastatic disease. Objective response rates ranged from 10-30% for single-agent therapy and 30-60% for polychemotherapy. Results of phase Ⅱ and Ⅲ studies are reviewed in this paper as well as the potential efficacy of new drugs. For patients with localized disease, the role of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy is discussed.Most studies on adjuvant chemotherapy failed to demonstrate a survival advantage, and therefore, it is not considered as standard treatment in most centres. Adjuvant immunochemotherapy has been developed fundamentally in Korea and Japan. A meta-analysis of phase Ⅲ trials with OK-432 suggested that immunochemotherapy may improve survival of patients with curatively resected gastric cancer. Based on the results of US Intergroup 0116study, postoperative chemoradiation has been Accepted as standard care in patients with resected gastric cancer in North America. However, the results are somewhat confounded by the fact that patients underwent less than a recommended D1 lymph node dissection and the pattern of recurrence suggested a positive effect derived from local radiotherapy without any effect on micrometastatic disease.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy remains experimental, but several phase Ⅱstudies are showing promising results. Phase Ⅲ trials are needed.

  14. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  15. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Hung [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chou, Pei-Hsin [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Jen, E-mail: chenpj@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-30

    Highlights: • We assess ecotoxicological impact of azole fungicides in the aquatic environment. • Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic azoles show different CYP activities in medaka. • We compare azole-induced CYP expression and carcinogenesis between fish and rodents. • Liver CYP-enzyme induction is a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. • We suggest toxicity evaluation methods for azole fungicides using medaka fish. - Abstract: Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish

  16. Two azole fungicides (carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil) exhibit different hepatic cytochrome P450 activities in medaka fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hung; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Chen, Pei-Jen

    2014-07-30

    Conazoles are a class of imidazole- or triazole-containing drugs commonly used as fungicides in agriculture and medicine. The broad application of azole drugs has led to the contamination of surface aquifers receiving the effluent of municipal or hospital wastewater or agricultural runoff. Several triazoles are rodent carcinogens; azole pollution is a concern to environmental safety and human health. However, the carcinogenic mechanisms associated with cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) of conazoles remain unclear. We exposed adult medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) to continuous aqueous solutions of carcinogenic triadimefon and non-carcinogenic myclobutanil for 7 to 20 days at sub-lethal or environmentally relevant concentrations and assessed hepatic CYP activity and gene expression associated with CYP-mediated toxicity. Both triadimefon and myclobutanil induced hepatic CYP3A activity, but only triadimefon enhanced CYP1A activity. The gene expression of cyp3a38, cyp3a40, pregnane x receptor (pxr), cyp26b, retinoid acid receptor γ1 (rarγ1) and p53 was higher with triadimefon than myclobutanil. As well, yeast-based reporter gene assay revealed that 4 tested conazoles were weak agonists of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We reveal differential CYP gene expression with carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic conazoles in a lower vertebrate, medaka fish. Liver CYP-enzyme induction may be a key event in conazole-induced tumorigenesis. This information is essential to evaluate the potential threat of conazoles to human health and fish populations in the aquatic environment. PMID:24962053

  17. Cytochrome P450 2E1 genetic polymorphism and gastric cancer in Changle, Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Shun-Zhang Yu; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Genetic polymorphism in enzymes of carcinogen metabolism has been found to have the influence on the susceptibility to cancer. Cytochrome P450 2E1 ( CYP2 E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitroscoamines and Iow molecular weight organic compounds. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CYP450 2Elpolymorphisms are associated with risk s of gastric cancer. METHODS: We conducted a population based case-control study in Changle county, Fujian Province, a high-risk region of gastric cancer in China. Ninety-one incident gastric cancer patients and ninety-four healthy controls were included in our study. Datas including dsmographic characteristcs, diet intake, and alcohol and tobacco consumption of indivduals in our study were completed by a standardized questionnaire. PCR-RFLP revealed three genotypes: heterozygote (C1/C2) and two homozygotes (C1/C1 and C2/C2) in CYP2E1. RESULTS: The frequency of variant genotypes (C1/C2 and C2/C2) in gastric cancer cases and controls was 36.3% and 24.5%, respectively. The rare homozygous C2/C2 genotype was found in 6 indivduals in gastric cancer group(6.6%),whereas there was only one in the control group (1.1%).However, there was no statistically significan difference between the two groups (two-tailed Fisher′s exact test, P =0.066). Indivduals in gastric cancer group were more likely to carry genotype C1/C2 (odds ratio, OR = 1.50) and C2/C2(OR = 7.34) than indivduals in control group (X2 = 4.597, for trend P=0.032). The frequencies of genofypes with the C2allele ( C1/C2 and C2/C2 genotypes) were compared with those of genotypes without C2 allele ( C1/C1 genotype )among indivduals in gastric cancer group and control group according to the pattern of gastric cancer risk factors. The results show that indivduals who exposed to these gastric cancer risk factors and carry the C2 allele seemed to have a higher risk of developing gastric cancer. CONCLUSION

  18. The role of duodenogastric reflux in formation of precarcinogenic gastric lesions: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatić Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Duodenogastric reflux, commonly encountered as an aftermath of gastroenteroanastomosis, with or without gastric resection (Billroth I, Billroth II, vagotomy and pyloroplastic surgery, is known to cause inflammatory-dystrophic-metaplastic lesions of gastric mucosa. Our objective was to determine the effects of surgery-induced duodenogastric reflux on the development of precarcinogenic lesions or carcinoma in correlation with the reflux duration. Material and Methods. The experiment was performed on three groups of Wistar rats with 1 Billroth II-induced reflux surgery, 2 resection of the Roux-en-Y type reconstruction, and 3 control group with no resection. The aim of the experiment was to study the effects of duodenogastric reflux on the rat gastric mucosa in correlation with two different types of gastroenteroanastomosis 8, 16 and 24 weeks after the surgery. Results. In Billroth II group, hyperplastic changes were observed as early as in week 16. Statistically significant results were recorded in week 24, with 6.7% of metaplastic alterations, including dysplasia of all three degrees, dominantly severe dysplasia in 66.67%, early carcinoma in 20% and gastric carcinoma in 6.67%. In the Roux-en-Y group, gastric mucosa remained predominantly normal (60%, with somewhat increased frequency of gastritis and dysplasia in week 24. In the control group, the finding of normal gastric mucosa was constant. Conclusion. The experiment confirms that direct contact of duodenal juice with gastric mucosa associated with Billroth II resection causes precarcinogenic lesions. Development of adenocarcinoma caused solely by duodenogastric reflux, excluding a carcinogenic agent is possible 20 weeks after the experiment - earlier than suggested by previous researchers.

  19. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  20. MYCOPLASMA HYORHINIS IN GASTRIC CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季加孚; 张霁; 寿成超; 王怡; 徐光炜

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hyorhinis in archived paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue. Methods: The antigen recognized by anti-tumor monoclonal antibody PD4 was identified as P40 (a specific Mycoplasma hyorhinis protein). We constructed a tissue-microarray of high density containing 105 gastric cancer samples, 101 non-tumor margin samples and 62 benign gastric disease samples for detecting Mycoplasma hyorhinis using Immunohistochemistry. Results: The infection rate of M. hyorhinis was 54.1%(53/98) in gastric cancer samples, 51.7%(45/87) in non-tumor margin samples and 15.8%(9/57) in benign disease samples. The difference in infection rate between gastric cancer and benign gastric disease has statistical significance (P=0.001). Highly differentiated adenocarcinomas have a greater chance (84.6%) to be infected with M. hyorhinis than poorly differentiated ones (45.5%)(P<0.05. Conclusion: The infection rate of M. yorhinis was higher in gastric cancer than in other tastric diseases, which suggests the association between Mycoplasma infection and gastric cancer. Whether M. hyorhinis has oncogenic potential needs to be elucidated.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  2. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  3. Food Additives of Public Concern for their Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Gultekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No-Observed-Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL of food additives has been long determined on the basis of toxicological studies. Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI levels of food additives for human are derived from these NOAEL, and their legal limits are then established for the food products, intentionally added with food additives. However, recent studies demonstrated that consumption of some processed food containing certain food additives might have increased the risk of cancer in human although the legal limits of these additives in processed foods are well respected by the manufacturers. Possible reasons for increased carcinogenicity risk in processed foods containing these additives can be due to various factors: -interaction of additives with some food ingredients, -food processing may change the chemical formula of food additive to a formula to be acting similarly as carcinogenic compound, -a negative synergistic effects when combined with other additives, -improper storage conditions, and -unknown carcinogenic by-products occurring during the food processing. Due to the above mentioned factors we recommend that an additive, intentionally added to the food during processing must be traced officially for its carcinogenicity. In this review, we overviewed all of the food additives authorized in European Union. Therefore, the traceability issues of processed foods containing certain food additives, which have a negligible probability of carcinogenicity in legal limits, must be reinforced in the perspective of public health concerns.

  4. Recent advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwon; Lee, Yejin; Lee, J Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed remarkable technological advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The development of proteomics techniques has enabled the reliable analysis of complex proteomes, leading to the identification and quantification of thousands of proteins in gastric cancer cells, tissues, and sera. This quantitative information has been used to profile the anomalies in gastric cancer and provide insights into the pathogenic mechanism of the disease. In this review, we mainly focus on the advances in mass spectrometry and quantitative proteomics that were achieved in the last five years and how these up-and-coming technologies are employed to track biochemical changes in gastric cancer cells. We conclude by presenting a perspective on quantitative proteomics and its future applications in the clinic and translational gastric cancer research. PMID:27729735

  5. What exists beyond cagA and vacA? Helicobacter pylori genes in gastric diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Débora Menezes; Pereira, Eliane dos Santos; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is present in more than half the world's population and has been associated with several gastric disorders, such as gastritis, peptic ulceration, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The clinical outcome of this infection depends on host and bacterial factors where H. pylori virulence genes seem to play a relevant role. Studies of cagA and vacA genes established that they were determining factors in gastric pathogenesis. However, there are gastric cancer cases that are cagA-negative. Several other virulence genes have been searched for, but these genes remain less well known that cagA and vacA. Thus, this review aimed to establish which genes have been suggested as potentially relevant virulence factors for H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal diseases. We focused on the cag-pathogenicity island, genes with adherence and motility functions, and iceA based on the relevance shown in several studies in the literature.

  6. Culturable bacterial microbiota of the stomach of Helicobacter pylori positive and negative gastric disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Yalda; Dieye, Yakhya; Poh, Bee Hoon; Ng, Chow Goon; Loke, Mun Fai; Goh, Khean Lee; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2014-01-01

    Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.

  7. Culturable Bacterial Microbiota of the Stomach of Helicobacter pylori Positive and Negative Gastric Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Khosravi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human stomach is the only known natural habitat of Helicobacter pylori (Hp, a major bacterial pathogen that causes different gastroduodenal diseases. Despite this, the impact of Hp on the diversity and the composition of the gastric microbiota has been poorly studied. In this study, we have analyzed the culturable gastric microbiota of 215 Malaysian patients, including 131 Hp positive and 84 Hp negative individuals that were affected by different gastric diseases. Non-Hp bacteria isolated from biopsy samples were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry based biotyping and 16SrRNA sequencing. The presence of Hp did not significantly modify the diversity of the gastric microbiota. However, correlation was observed between the isolation of Streptococci and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, as a first report, Burkholderia pseudomallei was also isolated from the gastric samples of the local population. This study suggested that there may be geographical variations in the diversity of the human gastric microbiome. Geographically linked diversity in the gastric microbiome and possible interactions between Hp and other bacterial species from stomach microbiota in pathogenesis are proposed for further investigations.

  8. Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using a gastric band cutter. PMID:23256012

  9. Primary Gastric Chorioadenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraka, Bahaaeldin A; Al Kharusi, Suad S; Al Bahrani, Bassim J; Bhathagar, Gunmala

    2016-09-01

    Primary gastric chorioadenocarcinoma (PGC) is a rare and rapidly invasive tumor. Choriocarcinoma is usually known to be of endometrial origin and gestational; however, it has been reported in other extragenital organs, such as the gall bladder, prostate, lung, liver, and the gastrointestinal tract. Human chorionic gonadotropin related neoplasms of the stomach are seldom discussed in the literature. We report a case of PGC in a 56-year-old man treated with a standard non-gestational choriocarcinoma chemotherapy regimen, EMA/CO (etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, vincristine), with a complete response and good tolerability. PMID:27602194

  10. MRI for the evaluation of gastric physiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwart, Ingrid M. de; Roos, Albert de [C2-S Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    Evaluation of gastric physiology (gastric emptying and motility) is important for the diagnosis of disturbances such as functional dyspepsia. MRI is a non-invasive technique that allows simultaneous registration of gastric emptying and motility. To provide an overview of the literature of studies that used MRI as a tool for evaluation of gastric function in both research and clinical settings. A MEDLINE search was performed (1990-2008) directed at the radiology and gastroenterology literature on gastric physiology. Key words that were used included: functional tests, gastric emptying, gastric motility, gastric physiology and MRI. Twenty-five articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Over the last decade, MRI has developed as a reliable, non-invasive method for detailed evaluation of gastric emptying and motility without the disadvantages of ionizing radiation and without the use of intragastric catheters that influence gastric physiology. (orig.)

  11. Regulation of RKIP function by Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Moen

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that infects more than half of the world's population and is a major cause of gastric adenocarcinoma. The mechanisms that link H. pylori infection to gastric carcinogenesis are not well understood. In the present study, we report that the Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP has a role in the induction of apoptosis by H. pylori in gastric epithelial cells. Western blot and luciferase transcription reporter assays demonstrate that the pathogenicity island of H. pylori rapidly phosphorylates RKIP, which then localizes to the nucleus where it activates its own transcription and induces apoptosis. Forced overexpression of RKIP enhances apoptosis in H. pylori-infected cells, whereas RKIP RNA inhibition suppresses the induction of apoptosis by H. pylori infection. While inducing the phosphorylation of RKIP, H. pylori simultaneously targets non-phosphorylated RKIP for proteasome-mediated degradation. The increase in RKIP transcription and phosphorylation is abrogated by mutating RKIP serine 153 to valine, demonstrating that regulation of RKIP activity by H. pylori is dependent upon RKIP's S153 residue. In addition, H. pylori infection increases the expression of Snail, a transcriptional repressor of RKIP. Our results suggest that H. pylori utilizes a tumor suppressor protein, RKIP, to promote apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.

  12. Studies in vitro to discern the structural requirements for carcinogenicity in analogues of the carcinogen 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, J; Styles, J A; Paton, D

    1980-01-01

    4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (butter yellow, DAB), is the parent member of a large family of 'azo-carcinogens'. Experiments have been conducted in vitro to determine the key structural requirements for carcinogenic activity in this chemical class, and it is suggested, based on the activity observed for 4-cyano-N,N-dimethylaniline, that the 4-phenylazo group of DAB is not an essential structural feature per se. The N-oxide derivative of DAB has been evaluated in vitro and the positive response observed related to its metabolic activation. It is concluded that cyclic amines, such as pyrrolidine, can replace the N-dimethyl group of DAB with a retention of biological activity. The confusion that exists in the literature concerning the chemical identity and carcinogenic status of 2-dimethylaminobenzo[c]cinnoline has been investigated, and it is concluded that it is a potential animal carcinogen. This observation also indicates that the phenylazo group of DAB can be incorporated within an aromatic ring system with a retention of biological activity. As observed earlier with a mixture of azobenzene and DAB, azobenzene also potentiates the cell transforming properties of the above cinnoline derivative in vitro. Two charts are presented. The first attempts to integrate DAB within a much larger family of carcinogens, and the second illustrates the usefulness of structure-activity studies in general.

  13. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Wang; Jun Zhang; Mingdeng Cai; Zhenggang Zhu; Wenjie Gu; Yingyan Yu; Xiaoyan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated...

  14. Current issues in carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of publications dealing with study of radiation sources and biological evaluation of increasing doses of people irradiation under occupational and usual living conditions is presented. The existing natural and artifial irradiation sources are considered. It is noted that all types of ionizing radiations are characterized by high carcinogenic efficiency and can induce benign and malignant tumors practically in all organs. Statistically reliable data in experimental and epidemiological investigations were recorded under the effect of large and mean doses. Minor radiation doses not responsible for visible functional and morphological changes in early periods can cause pathological changes in delayed periods. The data on carcinogenic effect of relatively small radiation doses are available

  15. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  16. Environmental carcinogens in human target tissues in culture: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have accumulated more experimental evidences that demonstrated the comparative approaches with human cells will allow us to predict human risk with good accuracy following exposure to toxic chemicals. We also synthesized several carcinogenic DNA adducts, i.e., the major benzo[a]pyrene DNA adduct, 06-methyldeoxyguanosine, 7-methyl- deoxyguanosine and 2-methyl-deoxyguanosine to be used as standards for quantitating DNA adduct formation in carcinogen exposed cells. A simple synthetic method was developed for preparation of the major B[a]p DNA adduct with yields better than those reported. The main accomplishments related to the originally stated objectives are summarized. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  18. Promoter hypermethylation of CDH1, FHIT, MTAP and PLAGL1 in gastric adenocarcinoma in individuals from Northern Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariana Ferreira Leal; Eleonidas Moura Lima; Patrícia Natália Oliveira Silva; Paulo Pimentel Assumpc(a)o; Danielle Queiroz Calcagno; Spencer Luiz Marques Pay(a)o; Rommel Rodríguez Burbano; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the methylation status of CDH1, FHIT,MTAP and PLAGL1 promoters and the association of these findings with clinico-pathological characteristics.METHODS: Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay was performed in 13 nonneoplastic gastric adenocarcinoma,30 intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma and 35 diffusetype gastric adenocarcinoma samples from individuals in Northern Brazil. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test to assess associations between methylation status and clinicopathological characteristics.RESULTS: Hypermethylation frequencies of CDH1, FHIT,MTAP and PLAGL1 promoter were 98.7%, 53.9%, 23.1% and 29.5%, respectively. Hypermethylation of three or four genes revealed a significant association with diffuse-type gastric cancer compared with nonneoplastic cancer. A higher hypermethylation frequency was significantly associated with H pylori infection in gastric cancers, especially with diffuse-type. Cancer samples without lymph node metastasis showed a higher FHIT hypermethylation frequency. MTAP hypermethylation was associated with H pylori in gastric cancer samples, as well as with diffuse-type compared with intestinal-type.In diffuse-type, MTAP hypermethylation was associated with female gender.CONCLUSION: Our findings show differential gene methylation in tumoral tissue, which allows us to conclude that hypermethylation is associated with gastric carcinogenesis. MTAP promoter hypermethylation can be characterized as a marker of diffuse-type gastric cancer, especially in women and may help in diagnosis,prognosis and therapies. The H pylori infectious agent was present in 44.9% of the samples. This infection may be correlated with the carcinogenic process through the gene promoter hypermethylation, especially the MTAP promoter in diffuse-type. A higher H pylori infection in diffuse-type may be due to greater genetic predisposition.

  19. Serological assessment of gastric mucosal atrophy in gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bornschein Jan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-invasive tools for gastric cancer screening and diagnosis are lacking. Serological testing with the detection of pepsinogen 1 (PG1, pepsinogen 2 (PG2 and gastrin 17 (G17 offers the possibility to detect preneoplastic gastric mucosal conditions. Aim of this study was to assess the performance of these serological tests in the presence of gastric neoplasia. Methods Histological and serological samples of 118 patients with gastric cancer have been assessed for tumor specific characteristics (Laurén type, localisation, degree of mucosal abnormalities (intestinal metaplasia, atrophy and serological parameters (PG1, PG2, PG1/2-ratio, G17, H. pylori IgG, CagA status. Association of the general factors to the different serological values have been statistically analyzed. Results Patients with intestinal type gastric cancer had lower PG1 levels and a lower PG1/2-ratio compared to those with diffuse type cancer (p = 0.003. The serum levels of PG2 itself and G17 were not significantly altered. H. pylori infection in general had no influence on the levels of PG1, PG2 and G17 in the serum of gastric cancer patients. There was a trend towards lower PG1 levels in case of positive CagA-status (p = 0.058. The degree of both intestinal metaplasia and atrophy correlated inversely with serum levels for PG1 and the PG1/2-ratio (p Conclusions Glandular atrophy and a positive CagA status are determinant factors for decreased pepsinogen 1 levels in the serum of patients with gastric cancer. The serological assessment of gastric atrophy by analysis of serum pepsinogen is only adequate for patients with intestinal type cancer.

  20. Gastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking primary gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ji Kim; Ji Hyung Hong; Eun Su Park; Jae Ho Byun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric metastases from lung adenocarcinoma arerare. Because gastric metastasis grossly resemblesadvanced gastric cancer, it is difficult to diagnose gastricmetastasis especially when the histology of the primarylung cancer is adenocarcinoma. We describe a case ofgastric metastasis from primary lung adenocarcinomamimicking Borrmann type Ⅳ primary gastric cancer.A 68-year-old man with known lung adenocarcinomawith multiple bone metastases had been experiencingprogressive epigastric pain and dyspepsia over one year.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed linitis plasticalikelesions in the fundus of the stomach. Pathologicexamination revealed a moderately differentiatedadenocarcinoma with submucosal infiltration. Positiveimmunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcriptionfactor-1 (TTF-1) and napsin A (Nap-A) confirmed thatthe metastasis was pulmonary in origin. The patienthad been treated with palliative chemotherapy for thelung cancer and had lived for over fifteen months afterthe diagnosis of gastric metastasis. Clinicians should beaware of the possibility of gastric metastasis in patientswith primary lung adenocarcinoma, and additionalimmunohistochemical staining for Nap-A as well as TTF-1may help in differentiating its origin.

  1. Chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity study of erythritol in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lina, B.A.R.; Bos-Kuijpers, M.H.M.; Til, H.P.; Bär, A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential toxicity and carcinogenicity of erythritol, a low-calorie sugar substitute, were examined in Wistar Crl:(WI) WU BR rats. Groups of 50 rats of each sex consumed diets with 0, 2, 5, or 10% erythritol, or 10% mannitol, for a period of 104-107 weeks. To each of these main groups, two satel

  2. Flavonoids and alkenylbenzenes: mechanisms of mutagenic action and carcinogenic risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Woude, van der H.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Schutte, M.E.; Alink, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present review focuses on the mechanisms of mutagenic action and the carcinogenic risk of two categories of botanical ingredients, namely the flavonoids with quercetin as an important bioactive representative, and the alkenylbenzenes, namely safrole, methyleugenol and estragole. For quercetin a

  3. Binding of chemical carcinogens to macromolecules in cultured human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    Metabolic activation of different chemical classes of carcinogens was studied in cultured human colon epithelia. Human colon epithelia were maintained in explant culture up to 4 days. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, and 1,2- dimethylhydrazine was found in both cell DNA and protein...

  4. Occurrence of the carcinogenic compound ptaquiloside in the soil environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Kroghsbo, Stine; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2003-01-01

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) is a common fern found on all continents except Antarctica. It is under suspicion of causing cancer among people who utilizes it as food. The main carcinogenic compound is thought to be the water-soluble compound ptaquiloside. Ptaquiloside-uptake may occur...

  5. Modern Electrochemical Methods for Monitoring of Chemical Carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Zima, J; Moreira, J.; J. Barek

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on our presentation at the 1st International Symposium on Sensor Science, Paris, 16-20 June 2003. It presents recent results regarding the electrochemical determination of submicromolar and nanomolar concentrations of various carcinogenic substances (nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, azo compounds, aromatic amino compounds, etc.) using both traditional (classical dropping mercury electrode, static mercury drop electrode, hanging merc...

  6. Trichloroethylene: Mechanistic, epidemiologic and other supporting evidence of carcinogenic hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusyn, Ivan; Chiu, Weihsueh A.; Lash, Lawrence H.; Kromhout, Hans; Hansen, Johnni; Guyton, Kathryn Z.

    2014-01-01

    The chlorinated solvent trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. The carcinogenic hazard of TCE was the subject of a 2012 evaluation by a Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Information on exposures, relevant data from epidemiologic studie

  7. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pearce, Neil E; Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M; Armstrong, Bruce K; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Beland, Frederick A; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier A; Birnbaum, Linda S; Brownson, Ross C; Bucher, John R; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W; Christiani, David C; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A; Dement, John M; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A; Engel, Lawrence S; Fenske, Richard A; Fleming, Lora E; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H; Lynch, Charles F; Lynge, Elsebeth; 't Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J; McLaughlin, John R; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Kristian; Olshan, Andrew F; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P; Perry, Melissa J; Pesatori, Angela C; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandler, Dale P; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Seniori Constantini, Adele; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silvermann, Debra T; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H; Smith, Martyn T; Spinelli, John J; Spitz, Margaret R; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W; Stewart, Patricia A; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G; Ward, Elizabeth M; Weinberg, Clarice R; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that IARC Working Groups' fa

  8. Non—Genotoxic Carcinogens.Approaches to Their Rish Assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.A.CASTRO; M.I.DiazGomez; 等

    1993-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support the idea that most human cancers are related to chemicals present in the human environment.In turn,chemicals are believed to cause cancer via either genotoxic or non-genotoxic mechanisms.There were described in literature several simple rapid and inexpensive short term ests to reasonably predict the genotoxic nature of chemicals but in contrast,there is no reliable test or battery of tests available to predict the carcinogenicity of non-genotoxic compounds and this poses a major problem to their rish assessment.In addition,there are conflictive opinions about rish assessment needs for both classes of carcinogens.Some workers elieve that for non-genotoxic carcinogens,thresholds for exposure can be drawn while others do not.In this review,the reasons behind both of these opinions and the present hypotheses about the mechanism of action of non-genotoxic carcinogens are described and analyzed in relation to future needs.

  9. 18. Adduct detection in human monitoring for carcinogen exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Determination of the covalently bound products (adducts) of carcinogens with DNA or proteins may be used for the monitoring of exposure to these compounds. Protein adducts are generally stable and are not enzymatically repaired, and the use of these for cxposure monitoring is normally carried out with globin or albumin, because

  10. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer. PMID:17266028

  11. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer.

  12. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter pylori , the bacteria that can cause stomach ulcers Normal Results A ...

  13. Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk assessment of DNA-reactive carcinogens in food requires knowledge of the extent of DNA damage in the target organ which results from the competition between DNA adduct formation and repair. Estimates of DNA adduct levels can be made by direct measurement or indirectly as a consequence of their presence, for example, by tumor formation in animal models or exposed populations epidemiologically. Food-borne DNA-reactive carcinogens are present from a variety of sources. They are generally not intrinsically DNA-reactive but require bioactivation to DNA-reactive metabolites a process which may be modulated by the compound itself or the presence of other xenobiotics. A single DNA reactant may form several distinct DNA adducts each undergoing different rates of repair. Some DNA reactants may be photochemically activated or produce reactive oxygen species and thus indirect oxidative DNA damage. The levels of DNA adducts arising from exposures influenced by variations in the doses, the frequency with which an individual is exposed, and rates of DNA repair for specific adducts. Each adduct has a characteristic efficiency with which it induces mutations. Based on experience with the well-studied DNA-reactive food carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a limit of 20 ppb or ∼30 μg/day has been set and is considered a tolerable daily intake (TDI). Since AFB1 is considered a potent carcinogen, doses of 32P-postlabeling or the use of surrogates such as hemoglobin adducts, together with approaches to evaluate the results. A discussion of approaches to estimating possible threshold effects for DNA-reactive carcinogens is made

  14. Lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlewska-Roberts, Katarzyna M; Teitel, Candee H; Lay, Jackson O; Roberts, Dean W; Kadlubar, Fred F

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase, an enzyme secreted from the human mammary gland, plays a host defensive role through antimicrobial activity. It has been implicated in mutagenic and carcinogenic activation in the human mammary gland. The potential role of heterocyclic and aromatic amines in the etiology of breast cancer led us to examination of the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of the most commonly studied arylamine carcinogens: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP), benzidine, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). In vitro activation was performed with lactoperoxidase (partially purified from bovine milk or human milk) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and calf thymus DNA. Products formed during enzymatic activation were monitored by HPLC with ultraviolet and radiometric detection. Two of these products were characterized as hydrazo and azo derivatives by means of mass spectrometry. The DNA binding level of 3H- and 14C-radiolabeled amines after peroxidase-catalyzed activation was dependent on the hydrogen peroxide concentration, and the highest levels of carcinogen binding to DNA were observed at 100 microM H2O2. Carcinogen activation and the level of binding to DNA were in the order of benzidine > ABP > IQ > MeIQx > PhIP. One of the ABP adducts was identified, and the level at which it is formed was estimated to be six adducts/10(5) nucleotides. The susceptibility of aromatic and heterocyclic amines for lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation and the binding levels of activated products to DNA suggest a potential role of lactoperoxidase-catalyzed activation of carcinogens in the etiology of breast cancer.

  15. Gastric control of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, P H; McHugh, P R; Moran, T H; Stephenson, J D

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of gastric emptying leads to enhanced satiety and this mechanism may contribute to the undereating observed after administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) and fenfluramine, and in patients with anorexia nervosa. Pyloric smooth muscle bears specific CCK receptors and the evidence suggests that a major site of action for CCK satiety is in the periphery. CCK receptors are widespread in the neonatal rat stomach but not in the brain and over the first two weeks of life binding in the stomach decreases and that in the brain increases. This and the finding that independent ingestion as well as gastric emptying are inhibited by CCK at birth suggest the stomach as its likely site of action in the neonatal rat. Fenfluramine inhibits feeding in animals and in patients with bulimia nervosa. In monkeys, fenfluramine inhibits gastric emptying and this action correlates with its feeding inhibition. Patients with anorexia nervosa who are acutely starving and rats maintained on a restricted diet have delayed gastric emptying. Anorexic patients showed abnormal reporting of both hunger and satiety, and, together with those with bulimia nervosa, often associated gastric contents with symptoms of eating disorder, indicating disturbed interpretation of gastric signals. PMID:3065484

  16. Recurrent gastric dilatation and intestinal dysmotility possibly resulting from autonomic neuropathy in a Great Dane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoo, Joseph W; Shelton, G Diane

    2014-01-01

    A 5 yr old female spayed Great Dane was presented for recurrent episodes of gastric dilatation, intestinal dysmotility, and one episode of gastric rupture. Numerous hematologic, radiographic, and endocrine diagnostic tests were performed with no identifiable underlying cause. Many risk factors have been identified for gastric dilatation and most were present in this Great Dane. A number of symptomatic treatments, aimed primarily at altering the gastrointestinal tract flora and motility were tried, but failed to influence the clinical course of the disease. The dog continued to worsen, experienced more frequent episodes of gastric dilatation, and developed generalized muscle atrophy. Biopsies were collected from the biceps femoris and triceps brachii muscles. A pattern of denervation atrophy was evident in both muscles, consistent with polyneuropathy. The owners elected humane euthanasia and a necropsy was performed. A striking finding at necropsy was severe loss of myelinated fibers with extensive endoneurial fibrosis in the vagus nerve, consistent with an autonomic neuropathy. Autonomic neuropathy is a previously unexplored cause of gastric dilatation and intestinal dysmotility in dogs. These findings should open new directions for exploring pathogenic mechanisms for gastric dilatation in this species.

  17. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  18. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  19. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-06-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

  20. Gastric band migration following laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB): two cases of endoscopic management using a gastric band cutter

    OpenAIRE

    Rogalski, Pawel; Hady, Hady Razak; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Fabian; Dadan, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is one of the most frequently used minimally invasive and reversible procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity. Migration of the gastric band into the gastric lumen is a rare late complication of LAGB. Previous attempts at endoscopic removal of migrated bands have included the use of endoscopic scissors, laser ablation and argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report two cases of successful endoscopic management of gastric band migration using ...

  1. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over the past 10 years. Absolutely. The gold standard is the laparoscopic roux-en-y gastric bypass, ... an alternative to the other two. The gold standard is the roux-en-y gastric bypass. The ...

  2. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5- ...

  3. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bariatrics over the past 10 years. Absolutely. The gold standard is the laparoscopic roux-en-y gastric ... as an alternative to the other two. The gold standard is the roux-en-y gastric bypass. ...

  4. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed ...

  5. [Carcinogenic N-nitrosamines in the tire industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol?kaia, N N; Krivosheeva, L V; Khesing, A Ia; Piven, V A; Kavun, S M

    1993-01-01

    The level of volatile carcinogenic N-nitrosamines (NA) was studied in the air of various technological sites of tyre production. Reported total levels of NA in air exceeded MACs set in certain countries for the same enterprises. For example, German total MAC for 12 carcinogenic NA is 1 g/m3. N-nitrosomorpholine appeared to have the highest level (91 g/m3), probably, because its derivatives are used as raw material for technological process. Relative rate of volatile NA release from rubber samples containing 4-nitrosodiphenylamine (modifier) was studied. The parameter was reported to have no influence on NA outlet in conditions simulating technological process. NA was detected by means of gas chromatography with thermal energy detector TEA 502A provided by Thermo Electron Corporation, USA. The article necessitates regulation of NA in tyre production and better rubber mixtures to control the pollution of atmosphere. PMID:8069502

  6. 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzenes: carcinogenicities and reductive cleavage by microsomal azo reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambooy, J P; Koffman, B M

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-four 4-dimethylaminoazobenzenes (DABs) in which systematic structural modifications have been made in the prime ring have been studied for substrate specificity for microsomal azo reductase. The DABs were also evaluated for carcinogenicity and it was found that there was no correlation between carcinogenicity and extent of azo bond cleavage by azo reductase. While any substituent in the prime ring reduces the rate of cleavage of the azo bond relative to the unsubstituted dye, there is a correlation between substituent size and susceptibility to the enzyme. Substituent size was also found to be a significant factor in the induction of hepatomas by the dyes. Preliminary studies have shown that there appears to be a positive correlation between microsomal riboflavin content and the activity of the azo reductase.

  7. Overexpression of neuritin in gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ming; Li, Yongjun; Zhong, Chen; LI, YONGKANG; NIU, JIANHUA; Gong, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of neuritin in gastric cancer tissues, in order to explore the association between the expression of neuritin and the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Tissue specimens were collected from 58 patients with gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the expression of neuritin in the gastric cancer and corresponding adjac...

  8. Immature Gastric Teratoma in an Infant

    OpenAIRE

    Anilkumar, M. G.; K Jagadishkumar; Girish, G. N.; Sunila,

    2013-01-01

    Gastric teratomas are very rare tumors accounting for less than 1 % of all teratomas of infants and children. Little more than 100 cases of gastric teratomas are reported in the literature; out of which, very few of them are of immature variety. Complete excision of the gastric teratoma carries a good prognosis. We hereby report a case of immature gastric teratoma in a 3-month-old baby.

  9. Embolotherapy for Gastric Variceal Bleeding from Pseudoaneurysm of Short Gastric Artery: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Han; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Dong Hyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    The complications of pancreatitis, such as pseudocyst or abscesses, are well known to radiologists. Yet formation of a pseudoaneurysm of the short gastric artery is an uncommon complication of acute pancreatitis. It is also very rare for a psuedoaneurysm of the short gastric artery to cause splenic vein occlusion and the final result is gastric varices. We report here on a case that showed the dramatic effect of embolotherapy for a pseudoaneurysm of the short gastric artery that caused gastric variceal bleeding

  10. REDOX-SENSITIVE TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS EGR-1 AND SP1 IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF EXPERIMENTAL GASTRIC ULCER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beregovyi, S M; Chervinska, T M; Dranitsina, A S; Szabo, S; Tolstanova, G M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in redox status of gastric mucosa cells are the main pathogenic factor of gastric erosion and gastric ulcer development. Pro-oxidants can affect cell transcription activity via changes in redox-sensitive transcription factors. Egr-1 and Sp-1 may regulate the transcription of genes that are associated with the pathogenesis of gastric ulcer (growthfactors, cell cycle regulators, etc.). The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible involvement of zinc-finger transcriptionfactors Egr-1 & Sp-1 in the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric lesions caused by aspirin administration and stress. Gastric ulcer was induced in male rats (180-220 g) by immobilization stress combined with water-immersion (IMO-WI) or aspirin gavage (10 mg/100 g). The rats were euthanized 20 min, 1 hour, or 3 hours following the ulcerogenic factor exposure. Protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR; levels of SH-groups of proteins were determined by method of Ellman et al. Development of gastric ulcer lesions was associated with twofold (P gastric mucosa. These changes were accompanied by significant (P gastric ulcer models, and the changes in IMO-WI were more profound. Increased levels of Egr-1 were associated with the decrease in SpI protein levels. We showed for the first time the competitive interaction between redox-sensitive transcription factors Egr-1 and Sp1 in the early phases of gastric ulcer development, which might facilitate inducible transcriptional activity of Egr-1 at the expense of reduction in Sp1 activity.

  11. [Gastric cancer in Lima].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilco, Paul; Payet, Eduardo; Cáceres, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be one of the most common malignant neoplasias in the world. Despite the decreasing incidence of this disease in developed countries, Eastern Europe and Latin America show the highest incidences. It accounted for 8.6% of all new cases of cancer in 2002. In Peru it has increased between 1990 and 1997 amounting to 24.3/100000 in men and 17.6/100000 in women, during the last period studied, thus it is considered a high risk area. Mortality: it is still the leading cause of death for both sexes, in men it is 19.3/100000 and in women 14.2/100000. Incidence is directly proportional to the place of origin in Metropolitan Lima, a city of almost 8 million inhabitants, and the districts with the highest incidences are Puente Piedra and Lince followed by Villa El Salvador, El Augustino, Breña and Rimac among others. These are districts with medium-low socioeconomic levels, whereas the lowest incidences are found in districts with high socioeconomic levels, such as San Isidro and Miraflores, among others. PMID:17211488

  12. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  13. Endoscopic Aspects of Gastric Syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Souza Varella Frazão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Considered as a rare event, gastric syphilis (GS is reported as an organic form of involvement. Low incidence of GS emphasizes the importance of histopathological analysis. Objective. We aim to characterize GS endoscopic aspects in an immunocompetent patient. Case Report. A 23-year-old man presented with epigastric pain associated with nausea, anorexia, generalized malaise and 11 kg weight loss that started 1 month prior to his clinical consultation. Physical examination was normal except for mild abdominal tenderness in epigastrium. Endoscopy observed diminished gastric expandability and diffuse mucosal lesions, from cardia to pylorus. Gastric mucosa was thickened, friable, with nodular aspect, and associated with ulcers lesions. Gastric biopsies were performed, and histopathological analysis resulted in dense inflammatory infiltration rich in plasmocytes. Syphilis serologies were positive for VDRL and Treponema pallidum reagents. Immunohistochemical tests were positive for Treponema pallidum and CD138. The patient was treated with penicillin, leading to resolution of his clinical complaints and endoscopic findings. Conclusion. Diagnosis suspicion of GS is important in view of its nonspecific presentation. Patients with gastric symptoms that mimic neoplastic disease should be investigated thoroughly based on the fact that clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings can easily be mistaken for lymphoma or plastic linitis.

  14. Gene therapy for gastric cancer: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Zhan-Kui Liu

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is common in China, and its early diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In recent years great progress has been achieved in gene therapy, and a wide array of gene therapy systems for gastric cancer has been investigated. The present article deals with the general principles of gene therapy and then focuses on how these principles may be applied to gastric cancer.

  15. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice [Hopital Lapeyronie, Department of Radiology, Montpellier (France); Guillon, Francoise [University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Montpellier (France)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  16. Some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R. K.; Kumar, Pardeep; Ram, R. S.; Zaidi, Zahid H.

    1999-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted spectroscopists, astrophysicts and environmentalist because of their importance in our day to day life. It is well known that epoxides are produced during the metabolism of PAHs and have the requisite chemical reactivity to qualify them for the role as an ultimate carcinogenic form of PAHs. Several carcinogenic PAHs such as 3.4-benzopyrene, 1.2,3.4-dibenzopyrene, 3.4,9.10- dibenzopyrene etc. are found to be present in tobacco smoke and among air pollutants. Although PAH molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy but no systematic attempt has been made to study non-radiative transitions. In our laboratory, we have studied many PAH molecules by a non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity, known as Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. PA spectroscopy is an analytical and research tool to get information about non-radiative transitions and singlet-triplet electronic transitions, where the conventional spectroscopic technique fails. The study of electronic transitions of some carcinogenic molecules are reported using PA and optical absorption spectra in boric acid glass in the region 250 - 400 nm. The electronic transitions of these molecules observed experimentally, have been interpreted using the optimized geometries and CNDO/S-CI method. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results. Assignments of observed electronic transitions are made on the basis of singlet-triplet electronic transitions. Vibrations attached to these electronic transitions are attributed to the ground state vibrational modes.

  17. Linearity of dose-response relationships for human carcinogenic exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.H. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

    The shape of dose-response relationships is a critical factor in considering cancer risks for the work place and environmental exposure to carcinogens. Markedly different risk estimates result from assumptions of linearity versus sublinear and threshold assumptions. This paper presents evidence that the relationship between the relative risk of development of cancer and the dose rate to carcinogenic exposures is frequently linear with no evidence for thresholds. Dose-response relationships from four studies of asbestos and lung cancer were examined, all of which were consistent with a linear relationship. Analysis of the relationship between the relative risk of lung cancer and exposure to nickel in a smelter study, selected because of relatively good exposure data, demonstrated a close agreement with a linear relationship. The relationship between the level of arsenic in drinking wter and the prevalence of skin cancer also was linear for males in the highest prevalence age group in Taiwan, although there was some evidence of sublinearity for females and younger persons. Also, the relationships between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the relative risk of lung cancer was very close to linear in many studies. The analysis of these and other studies involving human exposure to carcinogens provides empirical evidence for linearity when the response variable is a rate ratio measure, rather than a risk difference measure. Linearity in dose-response is biologically plausible, without invoking a one-hit model. Except in special circumstances. the epidemiological evidence supports linear extrapolation of cancer relative risks.

  18. Artificial sweeteners--do they bear a carcinogenic risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihrauch, M R; Diehl, V

    2004-10-01

    Artificial sweeteners are added to a wide variety of food, drinks, drugs and hygiene products. Since their introduction, the mass media have reported about potential cancer risks, which has contributed to undermine the public's sense of security. It can be assumed that every citizen of Western countries uses artificial sweeteners, knowingly or not. A cancer-inducing activity of one of these substances would mean a health risk to an entire population. We performed several PubMed searches of the National Library of Medicine for articles in English about artificial sweeteners. These articles included 'first generation' sweeteners such as saccharin, cyclamate and aspartame, as well as 'new generation' sweeteners such as acesulfame-K, sucralose, alitame and neotame. Epidemiological studies in humans did not find the bladder cancer-inducing effects of saccharin and cyclamate that had been reported from animal studies in rats. Despite some rather unscientific assumptions, there is no evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. Case-control studies showed an elevated relative risk of 1.3 for heavy artificial sweetener use (no specific substances specified) of >1.7 g/day. For new generation sweeteners, it is too early to establish any epidemiological evidence about possible carcinogenic risks. As many artificial sweeteners are combined in today's products, the carcinogenic risk of a single substance is difficult to assess. However, according to the current literature, the possible risk of artificial sweeteners to induce cancer seems to be negligible. PMID:15367404

  19. Relevance of MUC1 mucin variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism in H pylori adhesion to gastric epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natália R Costa; Nuno Mendes; Nuno T Marcos; Celso A Reis; Thomas Caffrey; Michael A Hollingsworth; Filipe Santos-Silva

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the influence of MUC1 mucin variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) variability on H pylori adhesion to gastric cells.METHODS:Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based adhesion assays were performed to measure the adhesion of different H pylori strains (HP26695 and HPTx30a) to gastric carcinoma cell lines (GP202 and MKN45) and GP202 clones expressing recombinant MUC1 with different VNTR lengths.RESULTS:Evaluation of adhesion results shows that H pylori pathogenic strain HP26695 has a significantly higher (P<0.05) adhesion to all the cell lines and clones tested,when compared to the non-pathogenic strain HPTx30a.Bacteria showed a significantly higher (P<0.05)adhesion to the GP202 cell line,when compared to the MKN45 cell line.Furthermore,both strains showed a significantly higher (P<0.05) adhesion to GP202 clones with larger MUC1 VNTR domains.CONCLUSION:This work shows that MUC1 mucin variability conditions H pylori binding to gastric cells.The extent of bacterial adhesion depends on the size of the MUC1 VNTR domain.The adhesion is further dependent on bacterial pathogenicity and the gastric cell line.MUC1 mucin variability may contribute to determine H pylori colonization of the gastric mucosa.

  20. Gastric atrophy, diagnosing and staging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hala MT El-Zimaity

    2006-01-01

    H pylori is now accepted as the cause of gastritis and gastritis-associated diseases, such as duodenal ulcer,gastric ulcer, gastric carcinoma, and gastric MALT lymphoma. The natural history of H pylori gastritis includes inflammation progressing from the antrum into the adjacent corpus resulting in an atrophic front of advancing injury leading to a reduction in acid secretion and eventual loss of parietal cells and development of atrophy. Sub-typing intestinal metaplasia has no clinical value to the patient, the pathologist, or the endoscopist.The pattern, extent, and severity of atrophy, with or without intestinal metaplasia, is a far more important predictor than is intestinal metaplasia subtype. The challenge remains to identify a reliable marker that relates to pre-malignant potential.

  1. Carcinogenicity of azo colorants: influence of solubility and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golka, Klaus; Kopps, Silke; Myslak, Zdislaw W

    2004-06-15

    In the past, azo colorants based on benzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine (o-tolidine), and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (o-dianisidine) have been synthesized in large amounts and numbers. Studies in exposed workers have demonstrated that the azoreduction of benzidine-based dyes occurs in man. The metabolic conversion of benzidine-, 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine- and 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine-based dyes to their (carcinogenic) amine precursors in vivo is a general phenomenon that must be considered for each member of this class of chemicals. Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of the benzidine-based dyes has caused bladder cancer in humans. However, in contrast to water-soluble dyes, the question of biological azoreduction of (practically insoluble) pigments has been a matter of discussion. As a majority of azo pigments are based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, much of the available experimental data are focused on this group. Long-term animal carcinogenicity studies performed with pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine did not show a carcinogenic effect. The absence of a genotoxic effect has been supported by mutagenicity studies with the 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine-based Pigment Yellow 12. Studies in which azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine had been orally administered to rats, hamsters, rabbits and monkeys could generally not detect significant amounts of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine in the urine. It, therefore, appears well established that the aromatic amine components from azo pigments based on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine are practically not bioavailable. Hence, it is very unlikely that occupational exposure to insoluble azo pigments would be associated with a substantial risk of (bladder) cancer in man. According to current EU regulations, azo dyes based on benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine and 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine have been classified as carcinogens of category 2 as "substances which should be regarded as if they are carcinogenic

  2. Vitamin C, gastritis, and gastric disease: a historical review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditi, Anupam; Graham, David Y

    2012-10-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori as the cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers ushered in the modern era of research into gastritis and into acid-peptic diseases and rekindled interest in the role of ascorbic acid in the pathophysiology and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Here, we review historic and modern studies on ascorbic acid and gastric diseases with an emphasis on H. pylori gastritis and its sequelae. The relationship of ascorbic acid and gastritis and peptic ulcer and its complications was extensively studied during the 1930s through the 1950s. Much of this extensive literature has been effectively "lost." Ascorbic acid deficiency was associated with all forms of gastritis (e.g., autoimmune, chemical, and infectious) due in varying degrees to insufficient intake, increased metabolic requirements, and destruction within the GI tract. Importantly, gastritis-associated abnormalities in gastric ascorbic acid metabolism are reversed by H. pylori-eradication and potentially worsened by proton pump inhibitor therapy. Diets rich in naturally occurring ascorbic acid are associated with protection of the gastric corpus from atrophy and a reduction in the incidence of gastric cancer possibly through the ability of ascorbic acid to reduce oxidative damage to the gastric mucosa by scavenging carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and free radicals and attenuating the H. pylori-induced inflammatory cascade. Ascorbic acid supplementation was possibly associated with a decreased incidence of bleeding from peptic ulcer disease. Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid also may improve the effectiveness of H. pylori-eradication therapy. Occasionally, looking back can help plot the way forward. PMID:22543844

  3. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  4. Gastric adenocarcinoma with prostatic metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, S; Anoop, Tm; Preethi, Tr; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, Al

    2014-06-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  5. Gastric Adenocarcinoma with Prostatic Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshni, S; Preethi, TR; Shubanshu, G; Lijeesh, AL

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma to the prostate gland is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in a 56-year-old man with prostatic metastasis diagnosed through the analysis of biopsy specimens from representative lesions in the stomach and prostate gland. Immunohistochemistry of the prostatic tissue showed positive staining for cytokeratin 7 and negative staining for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), whereas the serum PSA level was normal, confirming the diagnosis of prostatic metastasis from carcinoma of the stomach. PMID:25061542

  6. Radiological features in paediatric primary gastric MALT lymphoma and association with Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant tumours of the stomach are very rare in children, most being lymphomas and sarcomas. The majority of primary gastric lymphomas are high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are of B-cell origin. However, a significant number are low-grade B-cell lymphomas that are derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) that is not found in the normal stomach. Helicobacter pylori infection predisposes to the development of MALT in the stomach and provides the pathogenic background for MALT-type lymphomagenesis. To our knowledge, only eight paediatric cases of primary gastric lymphoma have been described. The diagnosis and follow-up of gastric lymphoma are mainly made by endoscopy. Nevertheless, radiologists must be aware of this disease because it may be observed on radiological examinations that are performed for non-specific upper digestive symptoms in children. (orig.)

  7. Radiological features in paediatric primary gastric MALT lymphoma and association with Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurugoglu, Sebuh; Mihmanli, Ismail; Aksoy, Hilmi; Korman, Ugur [Department of Radiology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty (Turkey); Celkan, Tiraje [Department of Paediatric Oncology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey); Aki, Hilal [Department of Pathology, University of Istanbul, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-02-01

    Primary malignant tumours of the stomach are very rare in children, most being lymphomas and sarcomas. The majority of primary gastric lymphomas are high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and are of B-cell origin. However, a significant number are low-grade B-cell lymphomas that are derived from mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) that is not found in the normal stomach. Helicobacter pylori infection predisposes to the development of MALT in the stomach and provides the pathogenic background for MALT-type lymphomagenesis. To our knowledge, only eight paediatric cases of primary gastric lymphoma have been described. The diagnosis and follow-up of gastric lymphoma are mainly made by endoscopy. Nevertheless, radiologists must be aware of this disease because it may be observed on radiological examinations that are performed for non-specific upper digestive symptoms in children. (orig.)

  8. Molecular cross-talk between Helicobacter pylori and human gastric mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vittorio Ricci; Marco Romano; Patrice Boquet

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) has co-evolved with humans to be transmitted from person to person and to colonize the stomach persistently. A well-choreographed equilibrium between the bacterial effectors and host responses permits microbial persistence and health of the host, but confers a risk for serious diseases including gastric cancer. During its long coexistence with humans, H. pylori has developed complex strategies to limit the degree and extent of gastric mucosal damage and inflammation, as well as immune effector activity. The present editorial thus aims to introduce and comment on major advances in the rapidly developing area of H. pylori /human gastric mucosa interaction (and its pathological sequelae), which is the result of millennia of co-evolution of, and thus of reciprocal knowledge between, the pathogen and its human host.

  9. Epithelial cell kinetics of the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Susanne; Holm, I.L.; Holck, P.P.;

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen in major gastroduodenal diseases, including inflammation with ulceration and gastric malignancies. Alterations in H. pylori associated cell turnover in gastric epithelial cells are examined in relation to inflammatory activity, bacteria load...... and cytokines which may improve knowledge concerning the outcome of gastric diseases caused by H. pylori. Antral biopsies from 42 dyspeptic patients including 27 H. pylori-positive and 15 H. pylori-negative patients were tested for apoptotic activity by the TUNEL assay, and immuno-histochemically for p53...... and the proliferative marker Ki-67. H. pylori infection, bacteria load and inflammatory activity were associated with increased cell turnover as judged by enhanced activities of TUNEL, p53 and Ki-67. Only p53 was significantly correlated to IFN-gamma, IL-8 and IL-10. The H. pylori-positive state was furthermore...

  10. Stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto Mitsuaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric ulcers, and Helicobacter pylori eradication drastically reduces ulcer recurrence. It has been reported, however, that severe physical stress is closely associated with gastric ulceration even in Helicobacter pylori -negative patients. Case presentation We report the cases of a 47-year-old Japanese man and a 69-year-old Japanese man who developed psychological stress-induced hemorrhagic gastric ulcers, in both of whom Helicobacter pylori had been successfully eradicated. Conclusion Our cases strongly suggest that not only physical but also psychological stress is still an important pathogenic factor for peptic ulceration and accordingly that physicians should pay attention to the possible presence of psychological stress in the management of patients with peptic ulcers.

  11. Gastric tumor induction by 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats with intestinal metaplasia caused by X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five-week-old male Wistar rats were X-irradiated with a total of 20 Gy in 2 equal fractions at a 3-day interval. 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH) solution was injected i.m. into the back musculature at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight weekly for 10 weeks, beginning 20 weeks after the final irradiation. Twelve months after the initial carcinogen treatment, tumors in the fundus of the glandular stomach were observed in 5 of 23 animals receiving both X-irradiation and DMH treatment. No tumors of the glandular stomach were observed in the DMH and X-ray alone or nontreatment groups. It is concluded that the presence of intestinal metaplasia may increase sensitivity to the induction of gastric tumors by carcinogens like DMH. (author)

  12. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  13. Genetic Determinants of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResults show that gastric cancer risk is increased by the inheritance of the variant alleles of the metabolic genes SULT1A1 and CYP2E1 *6, especially among smokers and drinkers, respectively. An additional increased risk is conferred by the inheritance of GSTT1 null variant, especially i

  14. Gastric emptying measured by ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    @@ A number of different methods have been used to estimate gastric emptying in humans, and all have their advantages and disadvantages. The method of choice will depend on whether solid or liquid meals are studied, the level of precision required, the degree of invasiveness that the subject or patient will tolerate, ethical considerations, and not at least the facilities available.

  15. Germline mutations in MAP3K6 are associated with familial gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gaston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While heritable forms of gastric cancer are relatively rare, identifying the genes responsible for such cases can inform diagnosis and treatment for both hereditary and sporadic cases of gastric cancer. Mutations in the E-cadherin gene, CDH1, account for 40% of the most common form of familial gastric cancer (FGC, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC. The genes responsible for the remaining forms of FGC are currently unknown. Here we examined a large family from Maritime Canada with FGC without CDH1 mutations, and identified a germline coding variant (p.P946L in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 6 (MAP3K6. Based on conservation, predicted pathogenicity and a known role of the gene in cancer predisposition, MAP3K6 was considered a strong candidate and was investigated further. Screening of an additional 115 unrelated individuals with non-CDH1 FGC identified the p.P946L MAP3K6 variant, as well as four additional coding variants in MAP3K6 (p.F849Sfs*142, p.P958T, p.D200Y and p.V207G. A somatic second-hit variant (p.H506Y was present in DNA obtained from one of the tumor specimens, and evidence of DNA hypermethylation within the MAP3K6 gene was observed in DNA from the tumor of another affected individual. These findings, together with previous evidence from mouse models that MAP3K6 acts as a tumor suppressor, and studies showing the presence of somatic mutations in MAP3K6 in non-hereditary gastric cancers and gastric cancer cell lines, point towards MAP3K6 variants as a predisposing factor for FGC.

  16. A changing gastric environment leads to adaptation of lipopolysaccharide variants in Helicobacter pylori populations during colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skoglund

    Full Text Available The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression.

  17. Rare case of Helicobacter pylori-related gastric ulcer: malignancy or pseudomorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting-Ting; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Sun, Lu; Wan, Jun

    2013-03-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogen and the most frequent cause of gastric ulcers. There is also a close correlation between the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer. We present the case of a 38-year-old woman referred by her primary care physician for screening positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT), which showed a nodular strong accumulation point with standardized uptake value 5.6 in the gastric fundus. Gastroscopy was then performed, and a single arched ulcer, 12 mm in size, was found in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and H. pylori infection. There was an obvious mitotic phase with widespread lymphoma. Formal anti-H. pylori treatment was carried out. One month later, a gastroscopy showed a single arched ulcer, measuring 10 mm in size in the gastric fundus. Histopathological examination revealed chronic mucosal inflammation with acute inflammation and a very small amount of H. pylori infection. The mitotic phase was 4/10 high power field, with some heterotypes and an obvious nucleolus. Follow-up gastroscopy 2 mo later showed the gastric ulcer in stage S2. The mucosal swelling had markedly improved. The patient remained asymptomatic, and a follow-up PET-CT was performed 6 mo later. The nodular strong accumulation point had disappeared. Follow-up gastroscopy showed no evidence of malignant cancer. H. pylori-associated severe inflammation can lead to neoplastic changes in histiocytes. This underscores the importance of eradicating H. pylori, especially in those with mucosal lesions, and ensuring proper follow-up to prevent or even reverse early gastric cancer.

  18. A Changing Gastric Environment Leads to Adaptation of Lipopolysaccharide Variants in Helicobacter pylori Populations during Colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Christina; Björkholm, Britta; Normark, Staffan; Engstrand, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomachs of half of the human population, and causes development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG) with loss of the acid-producing parietal cells, is correlated with an increased risk for development of gastric adenocarinoma. The majority of H. pylori isolates produce lipopolysaccharides (LPS) decorated with human-related Lewis epitopes, which have been shown to phase-vary in response to different environmental conditions. We have characterized the adaptations of H. pylori LPS and Lewis antigen expression to varying gastric conditions; in H. pylori isolates from mice with low or high gastric pH, respectively; in 482 clinical isolates from healthy individuals and from individuals with ChAG obtained at two time points with a four-year interval between endoscopies; and finally in isolates grown at different pH in vitro. Here we show that the gastric environment can contribute to a switch in Lewis phenotype in the two experimental mouse models. The clinical isolates from different human individuals showed that intra-individual isolates varied in Lewis antigen expression although the LPS diversity was relatively stable within each individual over time. Moreover, the isolates demonstrated considerable diversity in the levels of glycosylation and in the sizes of fucosylated O-antigen chains both within and between individuals. Thus our data suggest that different LPS variants exist in the colonizing H. pylori population, which can adapt to changes in the gastric environment and provide a means to regulate the inflammatory response of the host during disease progression. PMID:19517017

  19. Evaluation of the role of H pylori infection in pathogenesis of gastric cancer by immunoblot assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuo-Ching Yang; Alexander Chu; Chao-Sheng Liao; Yu-Min Lin; Gen-Min Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the different serological reactions to H pylori using the immunoblotting technique for further understanding of its pathogenic role in gastric cancer.METHODS: A total of 54 patients were divided into two groups after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: normal control group (25 patients) and gastric cancer group (29 patients). Both groups were further divided into H pylori (+) and H pylori (-) subgroups based on the results of CLO test, Giemsa staining and culture. Sera were further analyzed with the immunoblotting technique (HelicoBlot 2.0, Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore).RESULTS: The positive rate of the immunoblotting test was as high as 88.9% in the H pylori (-) gastric cancer group and only 14.3% in the H pylori (-) normal control group with a statistically significant difference.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection is higher in gastric cancer patients than in the normal controls, suggesting that H pylori may play a role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer.

  20. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001 and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection.

  1. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer

  2. Expression of ATP7B in human gastric cardiac carcinomas in comparison with distal gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Long Wu; Hui-Xing Yi; Feng-Ying Sui; Xiao-Hong Jiang; Xiao-Ming Jiang; Ying-Ying Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze expression of ATP7B in gastric cardiac adenocarcinomas, its clinicopathologic significance, in comparison with distal gastric adenocarcinomas.METHODS: Immunohistochemical avidin-biotin peroxidase complex method was applied to detect the expression of ATP7B in 49 cases of cardiac carcinomas,the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium and 55 cases of distal gastric carcinomas.RESULTS: The proportion of ATP7B positive samples in gastric cardiac carcinomas (51.0%, 25 of 49) was significantly higher than that in the corresponding adjacent non-neoplastic epithelium (22.4%, 11 of 49)(P = 0.003). ATP7B expression in poorly differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas was significantly higher than that in well/moderately differentiated gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.030). ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas was independent of age, tumor size, nodal stage and metastasis status. ATP7B protein was detected in 30.9% (17/55 cases) of distal gastric carcinomas, markedly lower than that in gastric cardiac carcinomas (P = 0.037).CONCLUSION: ATP7B protein is frequently overexpressed in gastric cardiac carcinomas, and correlated with the differentiation of cardiac carcinoma. ATP7B expression in gastric cardiac carcinomas is significantly higher than that in distal gastric carcinomas, which might partially explain the difference of chemotherapy response and prognosis between these two gastric carcinomas.

  3. EP4 agonist alleviates indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promotes chronic gastric ulcer healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Liang Jiang; Wha Bin Im; Yariv Donde; Larry A Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate EP4-selective agonist effect on indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and on the spontaneous healing of chronic gastric ulcers. METHODS: In a mouse model of gastric bleeding with high dose of indomethacin (20 mg/kg), an EP4-selective agonist was administered orally. Stomach lesions and gastric mucous regeneration were monitored. In a mouse model of chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid, EP4 agonist effect on the healing of chronic gastric ulcer was evaluated in the presence or absence of low dose indomethacin (3 mg/kg). In cultured human gastric mucous cells, EP4 agonist effect on indomethacininduced apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The EP4-selective agonist reduced high dose indomethacin-induced acute hemorrhagic damage and promoted mucous epithelial regeneration. Low-dose indomethacin aggravated ulcer bleeding and inflammation, and delayed the healing of the established chronic gastric ulcer. The EP4 agonist, when applied locally, not only offset indomethacin-induced gastric bleeding and inflammation, but also accelerated ulcer healing. In the absence of indomethacin, the EP4 agonist even accelerated chronic gastric ulcer healing and suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration in the granulation tissue. In vitro , the EP4 agonist protected human gastric mucous cells from indomethacin-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSION: EP4-selective agonist may prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions and promote healing of existing and indomethacin-aggravated gastric ulcers, via promoting proliferation and survival of mucous epithelial cells.

  4. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  5. Chronic exposure to pulsed low-intensity microwaves is carcinogenic and tumorogenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Marjorie

    2004-03-01

    To study health effects of lifetime exposure to low-intensity pulsed radiation >890 MHz, one controlled laboratory study of SPF* rats[1-3] and two of mice[4,5] were conducted, but only one[4] reported that its data showed an association between irradiation and cancer; reports of the other two studies minimized or denied such association. Critical review of these identified data evaluation errors; their correction enables a conclusion of microwave carcinogenicity from each study (the rat study also shows an association with endocrine-system primary malignancies and with a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla), enhancing the credibility of an epidemiological study[6] reporting a brain cancer risk for users of both analog and digital cellular phones. [1] J. Raloff. Science News 126(7):103(1984). [2] K. R. Foster & A. W. Guy. Sci Am 255(3):32-39(1986). [3] C.-K. Chou et al. Bioelectromagnetics 13:469-496(1992). [4] M. H. Repacholi et al. Radiat Res 147:631-640(1990)SPF\\. [5] T. D. Utteridge et al. Radiat Res 158:357-364(2002)non-SPF\\. [6] L. Hardell et al. Int J Oncol 22:399-407(2003). * SPF = specific-pathogen-free

  6. Results of screening NCI/NTP nongenotoxic carcinogens and genotoxic noncarcinogens with the ke test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interdependence of the electrophilic and carcinogenic properties of chemicals that was demonstrated two decades ago rekindled interest in the somatic mutation theory of carcinogenesis. Interest in this theory grew with the development of a reverse-mutation bacterial assay in the laboratory of B.N. Ames that permitted the mutagenic properties of the chemicals to be determined quickly and yielded results which indicated that ''carcinogens are mutagens.'' Subsequent validation studies of this bioassay, the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome or ''Ames test,'' by Ames' group and others provided additional support for the correlation between mutagenicity and carcinogenicity which led to the worldwide deployment of the Ames test in thousands of laboratories and to the development of more than 100 other short-term tests that continue to be used to identify potential carcinogens via various end-points of genotoxicity. This document discusses electrophilicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity relationships as well as carcinogen-screening of chemicals. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  7. [A Case of Gastro-Gastric Intussusception Secondary to Primary Gastric Lymphoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeong Ho; Kang, Sun Mi; Kim, Si Hye; Ra, Moni; Park, Byeong Kyu; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Jung, Jin Tae; Kim, Ho Gak; Ryoo, Hun Mo; Kang, Ung Rae

    2016-07-25

    In adults, most intussusceptions develop from a lesion, usually a benign or malignant neoplasm, and can occur at any site in the gastrointestinal tract. Intussusception in the proximal gastrointestinal tract is uncommon, and gastro-gastric intussusception is extremely rare. We present a case of gastro-gastric intussusception secondary to a primary gastric lymphoma. An 82-year-old female patient presented with acute onset chest pain and vomiting. Abdominal CT revealed a gastro-gastric intussusception. We performed upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, revealing a large gastric mass invaginated into the gastric lumen and distorting the distal stomach. Uncomplicated gastric reposition was achieved with endoscopy of the distal stomach. Histological evaluation of the gastric mass revealed a diffuse large B cell lymphoma that was treated with chemotherapy.

  8. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. METHODS: Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological charact...

  9. Comparison of nuclear matrix proteins between gastric cancer and normal gastric tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin-Xian Zhang; Yi Ding; Zhuo Li; Xiao-Ping Le; Wei Zhang; Ling Sun; Hui-Rong Shi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alteration of nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) in gastric cancer.METHODS: The NMPs extracted from 22 cases of gastric cancer and normal gastric tissues were investigated by SDS-PAGE technique and the data were analyzed using Genetools analysis software.RESULTS: Compared with normal gastric tissue, the expression of 30 ku and 28 ku NMPs in gastric cancer decreased significantly (P=0.002, P=0.001, P<0.05). No significant difference was found in the expression of the two NMPs between the various differentiated grades (P=0.947, P=0.356) and clinical stages of gastric cancer (P=0.920, P=0.243, P>0.05).CONCLUSION: The results suggested that the alteration of NMPs in gastric cancer occurred at the early stage of gastric cancer development.

  10. KEYNOTE LECTURES-KL1 New development in risk assessment of genotoxic carcinogens in foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-Shi

    2006-01-01

    @@ The no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in a study of carcinogenicity for compounds that are both genotoxic and carcinogenic represents the limit of detection in that bioassay, rather than an estimate of a possible threshold. Therefore, for those genotoxic and carcinogenic contaminants (e.g. acrylamides, PAHs, etc.) in foods it is not possible to develop health-based guidance values (e.g. ADI or PTWI) using the traditional NOEL and safety/uncertainty factors.

  11. Discrimination of Carcinogens by Hepatic Transcript Profiling in Rats Following 28-day Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Matsumoto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at discriminating carcinogens on the basis of hepatic transcript profiling in the rats administrated with a variety of carcinogens and non-carcinogens. We conducted 28-day toxicity tests in male F344 rats with 47 carcinogens and 26 non- carcinogens, and then investigated periodically the hepatic gene expression profiles using custom microarrays. By hierarchical cluster analysis based on significantly altered genes, carcinogens were clustered into three major groups (Group 1 to 3. The formation of these groups was not affected by the gene sets used as well as the administration period, indicating that the grouping of carcinogens was universal independent of the conditions of both statistical analysis and toxicity testing. Seventeen carcinogens belonging to Group 1 were composed of mainly rat hepatocarcinogens, most of them being mutagenic ones. Group 2 was formed by three subgroups, which were composed of 23 carcinogens exhibiting distinct properties in terms of genotoxicity and target tissues, namely nonmutagenic hepatocarcinogens, and mutagenic and nonmutagenic carcinogens both of which are targeted to other tissues. Group 3 contained 6 carcinogens including 4 estrogenic substances, implying the group of estrogenic carcinogens. Gene network analyses revealed that the significantly altered genes in Group 1 included Bax, Tnfrsf6, Btg2, Mgmt and Abcb1b, suggesting that p53-mediated signaling pathway involved in early pathologic alterations associated with preceding mutagenic carcinogenesis. Thus, the common transcriptional signatures for each group might reflect the early molecular events of carcinogenesis and hence would enable us to identify the biomarker genes, and then to develop a new assay for carcinogenesis prediction.

  12. Carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption: an epigenetic viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavaty, Abbas

    2015-08-08

    Circadian rhythms refer to the endogenous rhythms that are generated to synchronize physiology and behavior with 24-h environmental cues. These rhythms are regulated by both external cues and molecular clock mechanisms in almost all cells. Disruption of circadian rhythms, which is called circadian disruption, affects many biological processes within the body and results in different long-term diseases, including cancer. Circadian regulatory pathways result in rhythmic epigenetic modifications and the formation of circadian epigenomes. Aberrant epigenetic modifications, such as hypermethylation, due to circadian disruption may be involved in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. Several studies have indicated an epigenetic basis for the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption. In this review, I first discuss some of the circadian genes and regulatory proteins. Then, I summarize the current evidence related to the epigenetic modifications that result in circadian disruption. In addition, I explain the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption and highlight its potential role in different human cancers using an epigenetic viewpoint. Finally, the importance of chronotherapy in cancer treatment is highlighted.

  13. Formaldehyde in dentistry: a review of mutagenic and carcinogenic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.B.; Chestner, S.B.

    1981-09-01

    For many years there has been controversy over the value of antimicrobial drugs for intracanal dressings in endodontics. Formocresol, a formaldehyde compound, has evolved as the preferred drug for routine endodontic procedures, as well as pediatric endodontics. The increase in the use of formaldehyde has been complicated by the introduction of paraformaldehyde pastes for filling root canals. Neither of these formulas has ever been standardized. The doses are arbitrary, and the common dose of formocresol has been shown to be many times greater than the minimum dose needed for effect. The efficacy of paraformaldehyde pastes is questionable and remains clouded by inconclusive evidence, conflicting research, inadequate terminology, and a lack of convincing statistical evidence. The clinical use and delivery of formocresol and paraformaldehyde pastes remain arbitrary and unscientific. Formaldehyde has a known toxic mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Many investigations have been conducted to measure the risk of exposure to formaldehyde; it is clear that formaldehyde poses a carcinogenic risk in humans. There is a need to reevaluate the rationale underlying the use of formaldehyde in dentistry particularly in light of its deleterious effects.

  14. The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus: biology, epidemiology and carcinogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakharukova, Mariya Y; Mordvinov, Viatcheslav A

    2016-01-01

    The liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is a member of the triad of epidemiologically important liver fluke species belonging to the family Opisthorchiidae and the major agent causing opisthorchiasis over a vast territory, covering Russia, Kazakhstan and several European countries. The similarity between the diseases caused by O. felineus and other liver flukes, O. viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis, in clinical manifestations and course suggests that the scenarios of their development and, possibly, complications have much in common. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified O. viverrini and C. sinensis as group 1 agents and the major factors inducing cholangiocarcinoma in endemic regions. However, a carcinogenic potential of O. felineus is poorly studied. This review characterizes O. felineus, briefs the epidemiological situation in Western Siberia, the world's largest opisthorchiasis focus, and assesses the carcinogenic potential of this liver fluke. The review is based on a comprehensive analysis of the published medical data on opisthorchiasis and its complications in Western Siberia. Results of performed analysis reflect the actual epidemiological situation in opisthorchiasis focus and suggest an association of this disease with bile duct cancer. PMID:26740360

  15. Carcinogenic effects ofcircadian disruption:an epigenetic viewpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Salavaty

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms refer to the endogenous rhythms that are generated to synchronize physiology and behavior with 24-h environmental cues. These rhythms are regulated by both external cues and molecular clock mechanisms in almost all cells. Disruption of circadian rhythms, which is called circadian disruption, affects many biological processes within the body and results in different long-term diseases, including cancer. Circadian regulatory pathways result in rhythmic epigenetic modiifcations and the formation of circadian epigenomes. Aberrant epigenetic modiifcations, such as hypermethylation, due to circadian disruption may be involved in the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. Several studies have indicated an epigenetic basis for the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption. In this review, I ifrst discuss some of the circadian genes and regulatory proteins. Then, I summarize the current evidence related to the epigenetic modiifcations that result in circadian disruption. In addition, I explain the carcinogenic effects of circadian disruption and highlight its potential role in different human cancers using an epigenetic view-point. Finally, the importance of chronotherapy in cancer treatment is highlighted.

  16. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen; Roger William de Labio; Luciano Lobo Gatti; Luiz Carlos da Silva; Valdeir Fagundes de Queiroz; Marília de Arruda Cardoso Smith; Spencer Luiz Marques Payão

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine th...

  17. [Effects of aloe extracts, aloctin A, on gastric secretion and on experimental gastric lesions in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, H; Imanishi, K; Okabe, S

    1989-05-01

    Effect of aloctin A, glycoprotein isolated from leaves of Aloe arborescens MILL, on gastric secretion and on acute gastric lesions in rats were examined. Aloctin A given intravenously dose-dependently inhibited the volume of gastric juice, acid and pepsin output in pylorus-ligated rats. Aloctin A given intravenously significantly inhibited the development of Shay ulcers and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. It also inhibited water-immersion stress lesions induced in pylorus-ligated rats. PMID:2625663

  18. Predicting carcinogenicity of diverse chemicals using probabilistic neural network modeling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kunwar P., E-mail: kpsingh_52@yahoo.com [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India); Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi (India); Environmental Chemistry Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Post Box 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226 001 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Robust global models capable of discriminating positive and non-positive carcinogens; and predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals in rodents were developed. The dataset of 834 structurally diverse chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) was used which contained 466 positive and 368 non-positive carcinogens. Twelve non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index and Brock–Dechert–Scheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the carcinogenicity end point in rat. Validation of the models was performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. PNN constructed using five descriptors rendered classification accuracy of 92.09% in complete rat data. The PNN model rendered classification accuracies of 91.77%, 80.70% and 92.08% in mouse, hamster and pesticide data, respectively. The GRNN constructed with nine descriptors yielded correlation coefficient of 0.896 between the measured and predicted carcinogenic potency with mean squared error (MSE) of 0.44 in complete rat data. The rat carcinogenicity model (GRNN) applied to the mouse and hamster data yielded correlation coefficient and MSE of 0.758, 0.71 and 0.760, 0.46, respectively. The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals. Both the PNN and GRNN (inter-species) models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the carcinogenicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) shows classification accuracies (positive and non-positive carcinogens) in rat, mouse, hamster, and pesticide data yielded by optimal PNN model. Figure (b) shows generalization and predictive

  19. Gastric partitioning gastrojejunostomy in unresectable distal gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sung Joon; Lee, Ha Gyoon

    2004-04-01

    The main purpose of bypass surgery in patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer is to improve their quality of life (QoL). However, the result of conventional gastroenterostomy is dismal including continuous bleeding due to the contact of food material on the tumor surface and early obstruction of the stoma by tumor growth. Developing more effective surgery is warranted to improve the QoL of these patients. Among the 1158 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery from March 1993 to July 2002 at Hanyang University Medical Center, 54 (4.7%) had unresectable cancers. Various types of gastrojejunostomy (G-Jstomy), including conventional G-Jstomy (CGJ) (n = 18), antral exclusion G-Jstomy (n = 7), and gastric partitioning G-Jstomy (GPGJ) (n = 17), as well as exploratory laparotomy only (n = 12) were performed in these unresectable cases. In this study, survival and postoperative QoL were compared for the CGJ and GPGJ groups. The median survivals were 120 and 209 days for the CGJ and GPGJ groups, respectively (p = 0.046). The rates of postoperative body weight loss compared to the preoperative weight were 9.3% and 3.1% in the CGJ and GPGJ groups, respectively; the difference showed borderline significance (p = 0.067). The volume of blood transfusion was much less during the postoperative period than during the preoperative period in the GPGJ group but not in the CGJ group. The GPGJ procedure minimized food contact on the tumor surface, which was confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal barium meal series. GPGJ can be recommended as the procedure of choice for bypass surgery in patients with unresectable distal gastric cancer considering their improved survival and postoperative QoL compared to those who underwent CGJ. PMID:14994143

  20. Correlation of Helicobacter pylori and gastric carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna A

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Difference of opinion about the prevalence of H. pylori association with gastric cancer exists in the literature. AIMS: To study the correlation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori to gastric carcinoma. METHODS: 50 proved cases of gastric cancer were studied by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and ELISA test for H. pylori IgG. RESULTS: 68% of cases of gastric cancer were found to be positive for H. pylori infection as compared to 74% of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence rate of H. pylori infection in our patients of gastric cancer was lower than in the control population though statistically not significant, suggesting that H. pylori may not be responsible for gastric carcinogenesis in this population.

  1. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  2. [Intra-gastric penetration of an adjustable gastric band].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablassmaier, B; Opitz, I; Jacobi, C A; Müller, J M

    2001-07-01

    Between November 1995 and August 2000 we performed adjustable silicone gastric banding laparoscopically in 252 patients. The body mass index varied from 37 to 86 kg/m2. We report on a 38-year-old woman who was operated on in 1997 with a body mass index of 47 kg/m2 (167 cm, 132 kg). The postoperative follow-up was uneventful until January 2000. The patient lost weight until she weighed 78 kg. Then she complained of diffuse epigastric pain. Gastroscopy revealed gastritis. Omeprazol was prescribed. No amelioration occurred. Endoscopic control showed partial intragastric migration of the band. After laparoscopic removal of the band, the patient was free of symptoms. Band erosion is a possible complication of adjustable gastric banding. As is known from intragastric penetration of the Angelchik prosthesis, the clinical symptoms of this complication may be mild. Since the follow-up of most patients with gastric banding is less than 5 years, more complications similar to that one described may be diagnosed in the future. PMID:11490764

  3. The Incidence of Gastric Metaplasia in Patients with Duodenal Ulcer *

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Young II; LEE, BYOUNG WOOK; Chang, Young Woon; Chi, Hyun Sook; Lee, Jung Kook

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the incidence of duodenal gastric metaplasia and its underlying gastric or duodenal diseases, the authors obtained endoscopic biopsy specimens from the duodenal bulb at random sites during endoscopy from 19 normal subjects, 11 patients with gastric ulcer, 18 with duodenal and/or prepyloric ulcer (s), 7 with duodenitis and 8 with gastric erosions. The biopsy specimens were assessed with PAS staining to confirm gastric metaplasia. The incidence of duodenal gastric metaplasia was ...

  4. Gastric cryptococcal infection as an initial presentation of AIDS:a rare case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rupashree Sundar; Lakshmi Rao; Geetha Vasudevan; Pruthvi Baise Chandrappa Gowda; Rau Neeleshwar Radhakrishna

    2011-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans has been recognized as a human pathogen over centuries. This has achieved new prominence in the recent years as it is an opportunistic fungi causing fatal, deep mycotic infections in immunocompromised states. Although cryptococcus is principally a pathogen of central nervous system, wide variety of other organs may also be involved. Gastrointestinal cryptococcosis is rarely reported either as an isolated finding or in a disseminated disease. However, even with the strikingly increased incidence of the disease, occurrence of obvious gastrointestinal symptoms directly attributable to cryptococcosis is outstandingly rare. We report a case of gastric cryptococcal infection with esophageal herpes as an initial presentation in an AIDS patient.

  5. Early-onset gastric cancers have a different molecular expression profile than conventional gastric cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N.A. Milne; R. Carvalho; F.M. Morsink; A.R. Musler; W.W.J. de Leng; A. Ristimaki; G.J.A. Offerhaus

    2006-01-01

    Many studies examine the molecular genetics of gastric cancer, but few look at young patients in particular and there is no comparison of molecular expression between early-onset gastric cancer (<= 45 years old) and conventional gastric cancers. Expression of cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is elevated in g

  6. Gastric leptin and Helicobacter pylori infection

    OpenAIRE

    Azuma, T; Suto, H.; Ito, Y.; Ohtani, M.; Dojo, M; Kuriyama, M; Kato, T.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Leptin regulates feeding behaviour and therefore may be a mediator of anorexia associated with acute and chronic inflammation. Recently, leptin mRNA and leptin protein were found in the gastric epithelium.
AIM—The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric leptin expression to investigate the pathophysiological role of gastric leptin.
METHODS—Surgically resected human stomach tissues were subjected to immunohistochemistry and reve...

  7. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K;

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  8. HER 2 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenal Alikanoðlu

    2013-01-01

        Aim: Even though gastric cancer incidence decline in many countries, it is still among the mostly witnessed cancers in the world. Gastric cancer is a biologically  heterogeneous disease with many genetic and epigenetic variations. Despite this heterogeneity of the illness, patients in same stages received similar treatments. This changes as transtuzumab shows survival advantages in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Therefore it is important to know the rate of H...

  9. Gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan İnce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Gastric schwannoma is a benign neoplasm that originates from sheet of nerve cell in stomach. Differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, (GISTs which have malign potential, than these tumors, which definite diagnosis is determined by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods have clinical significance due to gastric schwannomas have excellent progress after surgical resection. We presented a case of gastric schwannoma coexists with peptic ulcer perforation with guide of literature in this study.

  10. Motility and chemotaxis mediate the preferential colonization of gastric injury sites by Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitaro Aihara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a pathogen contributing to peptic inflammation, ulceration, and cancer. A crucial step in the pathogenic sequence is when the bacterium first interacts with gastric tissue, an event that is poorly understood in vivo. We have shown that the luminal space adjacent to gastric epithelial damage is a microenvironment, and we hypothesized that this microenvironment might enhance H. pylori colonization. Inoculation with 106 H. pylori (wild-type Sydney Strain 1, SS1 significantly delayed healing of acetic-acid induced ulcers at Day 1, 7 and 30 post-inoculation, and wild-type SS1 preferentially colonized the ulcerated area compared to uninjured gastric tissue in the same animal at all time points. Gastric resident Lactobacillus spp. did not preferentially colonize ulcerated tissue. To determine whether bacterial motility and chemotaxis are important to ulcer healing and colonization, we analyzed isogenic H. pylori mutants defective in motility (ΔmotB or chemotaxis (ΔcheY. ΔmotB (10(6 failed to colonize ulcerated or healthy stomach tissue. ΔcheY (10(6 colonized both tissues, but without preferential colonization of ulcerated tissue. However, ΔcheY did modestly delay ulcer healing, suggesting that chemotaxis is not required for this process. We used two-photon microscopy to induce microscopic epithelial lesions in vivo, and evaluated accumulation of fluorescently labeled H. pylori at gastric damage sites in the time frame of minutes instead of days. By 5 min after inducing damage, H. pylori SS1 preferentially accumulated at the site of damage and inhibited gastric epithelial restitution. H. pylori ΔcheY modestly accumulated at the gastric surface and inhibited restitution, but did not preferentially accumulate at the injury site. H. pylori ΔmotB neither accumulated at the surface nor inhibited restitution. We conclude that bacterial chemosensing and motility rapidly promote H. pylori colonization of injury sites

  11. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.;

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...... investigations on gastric emptying have to be performed with phase related meal ingestion and a double radionuclide technique....... that liquid lag phase (min) and was significantly shorter in Phase II than in Phase I (1 vs. 4, P = 0.007). The half emptying time of solid linear phase (min) was reproduced with nearly identical median and range values in the three series (I[1]: 67[51-87]; I[2]: 63[47-80]; 61[47-76]). With meal ingestion...

  12. Gastric Osteoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Kye, J. S. Park, S. K. Ku1, S. H. Yun, T. H. Oh, K.W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old female dog was referred with anorexia, nervousness and emaciation. At the point of time, severe lifelessness was the only symptom. Then euthanasia was done according to the owner’s decision. As a result of postmortem examination, thin white matters were found on the gastric mucosa of the greater curvature and there were no other significant gross findings. Tissue specimens were collected from the gastric wall, esophagus, gall bladder, aorta, heart, kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph node, lungs, urinary bladder and spleen and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the masses of stomach were consisted of well-differentiated osteoid tissues, the compact bone-osteocytes and the matured lamellated bone with Haversian system. It was diagnosed as osteoma of the stomach. Other organs were free on such histological findings.

  13. Gastric distension in neonatal necrotising enterocolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odita, J.C.; Omene, J.A.; Okolo, A.A.

    1987-03-01

    Nine cases of neonatal necrotising enterocolitis with a combination of gastric distension, paucity of bowel gas and bowel wall oedema are presented. It is postulated that the gastric distension may either be a result of a temporary obstruction at the pyloric canal from oedema or a direct effect of bacterial toxins on ischaemic gastric mucosa. Six (66%) of the 9 infants were term and it is suggested that any newborn infant presenting with isolated gastric distension with bloody stools should be treated as a case of necrotising enterocolitis.

  14. Cross-sectional imaging of gastric neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargunani, R. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rikin@doctors.org.uk; Maclachlan, J. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Kaniyur, S. [Lister Hospital, East and North Hertfordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Power, N. [Barts and The London NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Pereira, S.P. [University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Malhotra, A. [Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    The detection of gastric neoplasia has traditionally been limited to barium examination and direct visualization at endoscopy. The rapid development of techniques such as multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has resulted in more accurate diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplasia. In this review we describe the normal anatomy of the stomach with multi-modality illustrations and review the imaging manifestations of gastric neoplasia, including adenocarcinoma, lymphoma, neuroendocrine and gastro-intestinal stromal tumours. We also describe the optimal techniques for up-to-date and accurate gastric imaging, outlining the role of MDCT and EUS.

  15. Gastric blow-out: komplikation efter fedmekirurgi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrens, Ayoe Sabrina; Born, Pernille Wolder; Naver, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric bypass is the most common type of surgery for morbid obesity in Denmark. The most frequent late complications after gastric bypass are ulcer, internal hernia and stenosis. Two cases of stenosis of the bileopancreatic limb with gastric blow-out are described. Urgent diagnosis...... with computed tomography and acute surgical treatment is vital as the complication can lead to gastric necrosis, pancreatitis, biliary stasis, sepsis and multi-organ failure within a very short time. Prompt contact to specialized surgeons is advocated. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Nov...

  16. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Daher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  17. Nucleus accumbens receives gastric vagal inputs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sangeeta MEHENDALE; Jing-tian XIE; Han H AUNG; Xiong-Fei GUAN; Chun-Su YUAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To localize and characterize the response of single accumbal neurons to electrical stimulation of the gastric vagal fibers. METHODS: Unitary responses to electrical stimulation of the ventral and dorsal gastric vagal fibers which serve the proximal stomach were recorded extracellularly in the nucleus accumbens in anesthetized cats.RESULTS: The evoked units recorded in the nucleus accumbens consisted of phasic and tonic responses, with a mean latency of (396±43) ms. Convergence of ventral and dorsal gastric vagal inputs onto single phasic and tonic accumbal units was observed. For tonic inhibitory responses, convergence was exhibited when stimulation applied to both the ventral and dorsal gastric vagal branches resulted in a significantly longer inhibitory period than did stimulation of a single gastric vagal branch. Comparing the gastric vagally evoked accumbal unitary responses to the neuronal responses recorded in the nucleus tractus solitarius, parabrachial nucleus and hypothalamus in our previous studies, our data showed a higher percentage of single spike responses and shorter response duration's in the nucleus accumbens than in the other nuclei. This suggests that the synaptic drive from the gastric vagal inputs to the nucleus accumbens is less powerful than in the other structures. CONCLUSION: The present study localized and characterized gastric vagally evoked responses in the nucleus accumbens, which suggest that the nucleus accumbens may process gastric signals concerned with the ingestive process.

  18. D2 Lymphadenectomy in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyu Deng; Han Liang

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide. Surgery is the most widely utilized treatment for resectable gastric cancer. Evidence indicates that lymph node involvement and depth of invasion of the primary tumor are the most important prognostic factors for gastric cancer patients. Therefore, lymph node clearance is deemed a key procedure in gastric cancer surgery for the prognostic value to patients. Although the appropriate lymphadenectomy during gastrectomy for cancer still remains controversial, extended lymph node dissection (D2 lymphadenectomy) should be recommended in high volume hospitals.

  19. Gastric emptying: a comparison of three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Henning; Bluhme, Henrik; Villadsen, Gerda Elisabeth;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the clinical relevance of delayed gastric emptying (e.g. in diabetes) requires a simple, easily accessible and inexpensive method for measuring it. Two "new" methods for measuring gastric emptying of liquids (the paracetamol absorption test and the 13C......-acetate breath test) are compared with the gold standard (gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES)). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three techniques were used simultaneously in 10 healthy subjects. A gastric emptying time-retention curve was drawn for each technique and the results were compared at the 75%, 50% and 25...

  20. Gene therapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-tai; Guo Xue-gang; Pan Bo-rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction We have reviewed the gene therapy in gastrointestinal diseases[1]. Gastric cancer is common in China[2~20] ,and its early diagnosis andtreatment are still difficult up to now[13~36]. The expression of anexogenous gene introduced by gene therapy into patients with gliomascan be monitored non- invasively by positron- emission tomography[4]. In recent years, gene study in cancer is a hotspot, and great progress hasbeen achieved[33~41].

  1. The psyche and gastric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24732184

  2. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  3. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J., E-mail: n.hodges@bham.ac.uk

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  4. Glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 genotypes and the risk of gastric cancer: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Shun-Zhang Yu; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs are involved in the detoxification of many potential carcinogens and appear to play a critical role in the protection from the effects of carcinogens. The contribution of glutathione Stransferases M1 and T1 genotypes to susceptibility to the risk of gastric cancer and their interaction with cigarette smoking are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between genetic polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and gastric cancer. METHODS A population based case - control study was carried out in a high-risk area, Changle County, Fujian Province, China. The epidemiological data were collected by a standard questionnaire and blood samples were obtained from 95 incidence gastric cancer cases and 94 healthy controls. A polymerase chain reaction method was used to detect the presence or absence of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in genomic DNA. Logistic regression model was employed in the data analysis. RESULTS An increase in risk for gastric cancer was found among carriers of GSTM1 null genotype. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 2.63 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 1.17-5.88], after controlling for age,gender, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and fish sauce intake. The frequency of GSTT1 null genotype in cancer cases (43.16%) was not significantly different from that in controls (50.00%). However, the risk for gastric cancer in those with GSTM1 null and GSTT1 nonnull genotype was significantly higher than in those with both GSTM1 and GSTT1 non-null genotype (OR = 2.77,95% Cl 1.15- 6.77). Compared with those subjects who never smoked and had normal GSTM1 genotype, Ors were 1.60 (95% CI: 0.62- 4.19) for never smokers with GSTM1 null type, 2.33 (95% CI 0.88- 6.28) for smokers with normal GSTM1, and 8.06 (95% CI 2.83- 23.67) for smokers with GSTM1 null type. CONCLUSIONS GSTM1 gene polymorphisms may be associated with genetic susceptibility of stomach cancer and may modulate tobacco

  5. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal Stewart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  6. Carcinogenicity, allergenicity, and lupus-inducibility of arylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, King-Thom

    2016-01-01

    Arylamines are widely used in food, drugs, and cosmetics as well as other industries. These chemicals are present ubiquitously in cigarette smoke, smoke emitted from cooking fume hoods as well as are generated by diverse industries. Arylamines can be generated by cleavage of azo dyes by intestinal and skin microbiota. Some arylamines are used as drugs while others are constituents of human metabolism. Many of the arylamines are mutagenic and carcinogenic. They are generally recognized as the major cause of human bladder cancer, but arylamines can induce cancers of other organs in humans and animals. Some arylamines are allergenic, causing lupus like syndrome, or other maladies. In view of their unbiquitious nature and the diseases they cause, arylamines are probably the most important chemicals causing health problems.

  7. Screening tests for determination of cytotoxic agent, mutagens and carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegelberg, T.; Koerdel, W.; Goertz, T.; Thriemer, A.

    1983-01-01

    It is supposed that chemical substances are the primary factors responsible for the development of tumors and genetic damages. From this results the urgend demand to examine at least the frequently applied and suspicious substances on possibly health-affecting effects. The performance of these examinations with experimental animals requires a lot of time and financial support and has increasingly been criticised in public with regard to protection of animals. Experience gained in the U.S.A. revealed that the carcinogenicity test of one single substance performed with animal experiments takes approximately 3 years and costs about 300,000 Dollars. Therefore the application of cell cultures for such examinations and tests has been postulated and discussed for several years. Cell cultures require only little space and generally the observed effects develop after only a short time. Objectification and statistical assessment (due to high cell amounts per test) can be performed without any problems.

  8. Carcinogenic risks associated with radiation pollution. [UV radiation, sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latarjet, R.

    1976-01-01

    The cancerogenic pollution by non-ionizing radiations is limited to the case of solar ultraviolet, whose activity at ground level may be increased as a consequence of the stratospheric depletion of ozone, produced by certain chemical pollutants: nitrogen oxides from supersonic aircrafts, freon. As regards ionizing radiations, the discussion is focused on the fundamental problem of the threshold, and on the means by which one may obtain some quantitative data related to carcinogenesis by small radiation doses in man. A new concept, that of a practical threshold, is proposed. A theory which links radiocancerogenesis, as well as chemical cancerogenesis, to errors produced in the repair of lesions in the DNA is discussed. The rads-equivalent project for chemical mutagens and carcinogens is described.

  9. IARC Monographs: 40 Years of Evaluating Carcinogenic Hazards to Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Aaron; Vineis, Paolo; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Andersen, Aage; Anto, Josep M.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Beland, Frederick A.; Berrington, Amy; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Brownson, Ross C.; Bucher, John R.; Cantor, Kenneth P.; Cardis, Elisabeth; Cherrie, John W.; Christiani, David C.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Coggon, David; Comba, Pietro; Demers, Paul A.; Dement, John M.; Douwes, Jeroen; Eisen, Ellen A.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Fenske, Richard A.; Fleming, Lora E.; Fletcher, Tony; Fontham, Elizabeth; Forastiere, Francesco; Frentzel-Beyme, Rainer; Fritschi, Lin; Gerin, Michel; Goldberg, Marcel; Grandjean, Philippe; Grimsrud, Tom K.; Gustavsson, Per; Haines, Andy; Hartge, Patricia; Hansen, Johnni; Hauptmann, Michael; Heederik, Dick; Hemminki, Kari; Hemon, Denis; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hoppin, Jane A.; Huff, James; Jarvholm, Bengt; Kang, Daehee; Karagas, Margaret R.; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Kjuus, Helge; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kriebel, David; Kristensen, Petter; Kromhout, Hans; Laden, Francine; Lebailly, Pierre; LeMasters, Grace; Lubin, Jay H.; Lynch, Charles F.; Lynge, Elsebeth; ‘t Mannetje, Andrea; McMichael, Anthony J.; McLaughlin, John R.; Marrett, Loraine; Martuzzi, Marco; Merchant, James A.; Merler, Enzo; Merletti, Franco; Miller, Anthony; Mirer, Franklin E.; Monson, Richard; Nordby, Karl-Cristian; Olshan, Andrew F.; Parent, Marie-Elise; Perera, Frederica P.; Perry, Melissa J.; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Pirastu, Roberta; Porta, Miquel; Pukkala, Eero; Rice, Carol; Richardson, David B.; Ritter, Leonard; Ritz, Beate; Ronckers, Cecile M.; Rushton, Lesley; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Samet, Jonathan M.; Sandler, Dale P.; de Sanjose, Silvia; Schernhammer, Eva; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Seixas, Noah; Shy, Carl; Siemiatycki, Jack; Silverman, Debra T.; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Allan H.; Smith, Martyn T.; Spinelli, John J.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Stallones, Lorann; Stayner, Leslie T.; Steenland, Kyle; Stenzel, Mark; Stewart, Bernard W.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Symanski, Elaine; Terracini, Benedetto; Tolbert, Paige E.; Vainio, Harri; Vena, John; Vermeulen, Roel; Victora, Cesar G.; Ward, Elizabeth M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weisenburger, Dennis; Wesseling, Catharina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Zahm, Shelia Hoar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Programme for the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans has been criticized for several of its evaluations, and also for the approach used to perform these evaluations. Some critics have claimed that failures of IARC Working Groups to recognize study weaknesses and biases of Working Group members have led to inappropriate classification of a number of agents as carcinogenic to humans. Objectives: The authors of this Commentary are scientists from various disciplines relevant to the identification and hazard evaluation of human carcinogens. We examined criticisms of the IARC classification process to determine the validity of these concerns. Here, we present the results of that examination, review the history of IARC evaluations, and describe how the IARC evaluations are performed. Discussion: We concluded that these recent criticisms are unconvincing. The procedures employed by IARC to assemble Working Groups of scientists from the various disciplines and the techniques followed to review the literature and perform hazard assessment of various agents provide a balanced evaluation and an appropriate indication of the weight of the evidence. Some disagreement by individual scientists to some evaluations is not evidence of process failure. The review process has been modified over time and will undoubtedly be altered in the future to improve the process. Any process can in theory be improved, and we would support continued review and improvement of the IARC processes. This does not mean, however, that the current procedures are flawed. Conclusions: The IARC Monographs have made, and continue to make, major contributions to the scientific underpinning for societal actions to improve the public’s health. Citation: Pearce N, Blair A, Vineis P, Ahrens W, Andersen A, Anto JM, Armstrong BK, Baccarelli AA, Beland FA, Berrington A, Bertazzi PA, Birnbaum LS, Brownson RC, Bucher JR, Cantor KP

  10. Retraction: Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Bakir

    2010-11-01

    The Editor-in-chief of the Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences has decided to retract the article from Bayazit V et al. [1] entitled as: "Evaluation of carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF)" published in Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2010 Aug;10(3):245-50. After the editorial office was alerted of possible plagiarism in the article, it conducted thorough investigation and concluded that the article apparently represents plagiarized material from two World Health Organization reports, one European Commission report and other sources. Since this is considered scientific plagiarism and scientific misconduct, Editor-in-chief has decided to withdraw the article. The authors have agreed with the editorial office decision.

  11. [Thoughts on carcinogenic pollution caused by ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latarjet, R

    1976-01-01

    The pollution phenomenon groups the effects of small doses of radiation on large populations. These effects on Man are not directly accessible. One must: a) consider some epidemiological statistics (cosmic radiation at high altitudes; radioactivity from granitic surroundings); b) extrapolate from datas obtained with high doses; c) extrapolate from datas obtained with low doses in micro-organisms or mammalian cells in vitro. The interpolation scheme of Abrahamson et al. is so available for mutagenicity. The question of a threshold remains theoretical, although radiation-induced carcinogenesis often displays a dose-effects curve with a well market threshold. A new concept, that of a "practical threshold" is developped, which may be of great usefulness. The main genetic considerations are listed upon which the present international admissible doses are based. Finally, in order to establish quantitative comparisons between chemical and radiation carcinogenic pollution, the concept of "rad equivalents" for the main chemical mutagens is stressed.

  12. Rodent carcinogenicity with the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J R; Dethloff, L A; McGuire, E J; Parker, R F; Walsh, K M; Gough, A W; Masuda, H; de la Iglesia, F A

    2002-07-01

    Carcinogenic potential of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic troglitazone was assessed in 104-week studies in mice and rats. Mice were given 50, 400, or 800 mg/kg, male rats 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg, and female rats 25, 50, or 200 mg/kg. Vehicle and placebo controls were included. Survival was significantly decreased in both sexes of both species at high doses, but was adequate for valid evaluation of carcinogenicity. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue was observed in both species at all doses, and fatty change and hypocellularity of bone marrow was noted in mice at all doses and in female rats at 50 and 200 mg/kg. Hepatocellular vacuolation was observed in mice at 400 and 800 mg/kg, and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy occurred in rats at > or = 200 mg/kg. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial fibrosis, and atrial myocyte karyomegaly in male rats at 400 and 800 mg/kg and female rats at all doses were morphologically similar to spontaneous lesions, but incidence and severity were increased compared with controls. In mice, the incidence of hemangiosarcoma was increased in females at 400 mg/kg and in both sexes at 800 mg/kg. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was increased in female mice at 800 mg/kg. Troglitazone exposure [AUC((0-24))] at the lowest dose associated with increased tumor incidence in mice was 16 times human therapeutic exposure at 400 mg daily. No tumors of any type were increased in rats at exposures up to 47 times therapeutic exposure.

  13. A carcinogenicity study of sucralose in the CD-1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S W; Yuschak, M M; Amyes, S J; Aughton, P; Finn, J P

    2000-01-01

    The potential carcinogenicity of sucralose was evaluated by feeding groups of 52 male and 52 female CD-1 mice a diet containing sucralose at 0.3% (3000 ppm), 1.0% (10,000 ppm) or 3.0% (30,000 ppm) for 104 weeks. A group of 72 male and 72 female mice received diet without sucralose and served as controls. Week 1 achieved doses ranging from 543 to 5870mg/kg body weight/day in the low-dose males and high-dose females, respectively. Sucralose had no adverse effect on survival. No significant changes attributable to sucralose were found in the clinical condition or behaviour of the mice. Organ weights and the gross appearance of tissues were unaffected by treatment. The mean erythrocyte counts of females receiving the highest dietary concentration were slightly, but statistically significantly, lower than those of the controls after 104 weeks of treatment. Group mean body weight gain at the highest dietary concentration of sucralose was significantly less than that of the control in mice of both sexes. Food consumption, after correction for sucralose content, was lower for female mice, but not statistically significant. Water consumption for male mice receiving the highest dietary concentration was approximately 9% higher than that of the controls. There were statistically significant increases in the incidence of several non-neoplastic findings, but these were not considered to be related to sucralose administration. Treatment with sucralose did not increase the incidence of any tumour or influence the types of tumours observed. It was concluded that sucralose is not carcinogenic in CD-1 mice. The body weight gain and erythrocyte observations at the 3.0% dietary level were of limited biological significance as they were not accompanied by any histopathologic finding and had no impact on survival. The remaining dose levels were judged to have no effects. PMID:10882820

  14. Helicobacter pylori Pathogenic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salamina, M

    2014-01-01

    From 1994, Helicobacter pylori was classified by WHO (World Health Organization) as a class I carcinogen and its infection has been associated to gastroduodenal disease. It colonizes more than half of worldwide population, with a prevalent infection rate in developed countries. In spite of the majority of infected people are asymptomatic, around 20% develop severe pathologies like peptic ulcers and the 1% lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) and stomach cancer. This signif...

  15. Gastric Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Alekshun, Todd J.

    2010-01-01

    Case: A 63-year-old male presented with unintentional weight loss of 20 pounds over a 4-month duration. He reported loss of appetite, intermittent post-prandial nausea, bloating and early satiety. He also complained of dyspepsia and had been treated for reflux during the previous 2 years. He denied vomiting, dysphagia, odynophagia, abdominal pain, melena, hematochezia, or alterations in bowel habits. Additionally, he denied fevers, night sweats, cough, or dyspnea. He quit smoking 25 years ago, and denied alcohol use. His past medical history was significant for basal cell carcinoma treated with local curative therapy and he was without recurrence on surveillance. Pertinent family history included a paternal uncle with lung cancer at the age of 74. Physical examination was unremarkable except for occult heme-positive stools. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated liver enzymes (ALT-112, AST-81, AlkPhos-364). CT scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse heterogeneous liver with extensive nodularity, raising the concern for metastases. Serum tumor-markers: PSA, CEA, CA 19-9, and AFP were all within normal limits. Screening colonoscopy was normal, but esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a malignant-appearing ulcerative lesion involving the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric cardia. Pathology confirmed an invasive gastric large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a hepatic lesion revealed malignant cells with cytologic features consistent with large-cell type carcinoma and positive immunostaining for synaptophysin favoring neuroendocrine differentiation. A PET-CT demonstrated intense diffuse FDG uptake of the liver, suggesting diffuse hepatic parenchymal infiltration by tumor. There were multiple foci of intense osseous FDG uptake with corresponding osteolytic lesions seen on CT scan. The remaining intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic structures were unremarkable. The patient will receive palliative systemic therapy

  16. OVERVIEW OF DRINKING WATER MUTAGENICITY AND CARCINOGENICITY AND RISK FOR BLADDER CANCER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroacetic acid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of 2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxici...

  17. The carcinogenicity of dietary acrylamide intake: A comparative discussion of epidemiological and experimental animal research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Baars, B.-J.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Since 2002, it is known that the probable human carcinogen acrylamide is present in commonly consumed carbohydrate-rich foods, such as French fries and potato chips. In this review, the authors discuss the body of evidence on acrylamide carcinogenicity from both epidemiological and rodent studies, i

  18. Inter-laboratory comparison of turkey in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA) of hepatocarcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, H; Brunnemann, K; Iatropoulos, M; Shpyleva, S; Lukyanova, N; Todor, I; Moore, M; Spicher, K; Chekhun, V; Tsuda, H; Williams, G

    2013-09-01

    In three independent laboratories carcinogens (diethylnitrosamine, DEN, 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, NNK) and non-carcinogens (N-nitrosoproline, nicotine) were evaluated in turkey eggs for in ovo carcinogenicity assessment (IOCA). Compounds were injected into aseptic fertilized eggs. After incubation for 24 days, foci of altered hepatocytes (FAH), some with a pseudoglandular structure and/or signs of compression of the surrounding tissue were observed in the fetal liver. All laboratories were able to distinguish unequivocally the hepatocarcinogen-exposed groups from those exposed to non-carcinogens or the vehicle controls, based on the pre-specified evaluation parameters: tumor-like lesions, pseudoglandular areas and FAH. In addition to focal changes, only the carcinogens induced hepatocellular karyomegaly. Lower doses of the carcinogens, which did not induce FAH, were sufficient to induce hepatocellular karyomegaly. After exposure to 4 mg DEN, gall bladder agenesis was observed in all fetuses. The IOCA may be a valuable tool for early investigative studies on carcinogenicity and since it does not use rodents may complement chronic rat or mouse bioassays. Test substances that are positive in both rodents and fertilized turkey eggs are most probably trans-species carcinogens with particular significance for humans. The good concordance observed among the three laboratories demonstrates that the IOCA is a reliable and robust method.

  19. Experimental gastric dysrhythmias and its correlation with in vivo gastric muscle contractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhong Xing; Liwei Qian; Jiande Chen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the direct correlation between gastric dysrhythmias and in vivo gastric muscle tone.METHODS: Five healthy dogs were implanted with 4 pairs of electrodes along the greater curvature, with a strain gauge (SG) being sutured parallel to the distal electrodes (2 cm above the pylorus). Intravenous vasopressin was given to induce gastric dysrhythmia. The percentage of regular slow waves and SG energy were calculated.RESULTS: (1) the regularity of gastric myoelectric activity (GMA) was reduced during and after infusion of vasopressin; (2) SG energy was significantly decreased during the infusion of vasopressin; (3) the decrease in SG energy was well correlated with the reduction in GMA regularity; (4) SG energy was negatively correlated with bradygastria and tachygastria.CONCLUSION: Vasopressin inhibits gastric contractions and impairs gastric slow waves; gastric dysrhythmias are associated with the reduced antral muscle contractions,and are indicative of antral hypomotility.

  20. In vitro and in vivo studies on antitumor effects of gossypol on human stomach adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line and MNNG induced experimental gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunassekaran, G.R., E-mail: gunassekaran@yahoo.co.in [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600 113, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalpana Deepa Priya, D.; Gayathri, R.; Sakthisekaran, D. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Dr. ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600 113, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Gossypol is a well known polyphenolic compound used for anticancer studies but we are the first to report that gossypol has antitumor effect on MNNG induced gastric cancer in experimental animal models. {yields} Our study shows that gossypol inhibits the proliferation of AGS (human gastric adenocarcinoma) cell line. {yields} In animal models, gossypol extends the survival of cancer bearing animals and also protects the cells from carcinogenic effect. {yields} So we suggest that gossypol would be a potential chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agent for gastric cancer. -- Abstract: The present study has evaluated the chemopreventive effects of gossypol on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis and on human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line. Gossypol, C{sub 30}H{sub 30}O{sub 8}, is a polyphenolic compound that has anti proliferative effect and induces apoptosis in various cancer cells. The aim of this work was to delineate in vivo and in vitro anti-initiating mechanisms of orally administered gossypol in target (stomach) tissues and in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line. In vitro results prove that gossypol has potent cytotoxic effect and inhibit the proliferation of adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell line. In vivo results prove gossypol to be successful in prolonging the survival of MNNG induced cancer bearing animals and in delaying the onset of tumor in animals administrated with gossypol and MNNG simultaneously. Examination of the target (stomach) tissues in sacrificed experimental animals shows that administration of gossypol significantly reduces the level of tumor marker enzyme (carcino embryonic antigen) and pepsin. The level of Nucleic acid contents (DNA and RNA) significantly reduces, and the membrane damage of glycoprotein subsides, in the target tissues of cancer bearing animals, with the administration of gossypol. These data suggest that gossypol may create a beneficial effect in

  1. Dynamic expression of pepsinogen C in gastric cancer, precancerous lesions and Helicobacter pylori associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Fang Ning; Hui-Jie Liu; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between the expression of pepsinogen C (PGC) and gastric cancer, precancerous diseases, and Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection. METHODS: The expression of PGC was determined by immunohistochemistry method in 430 cases of gastric mucosa. H pylori infection was determined by HE staining, PCR and ELISA in 318 specimens.RESULTS: The positive rate of PGC expression in 54 cases of normal gastric mucosa was 100%. The positive rates of PGC expression in superficial gastritis or gastric ulcer or erosion, atrophic gastritis or gastric dysplasia and gastric cancer decreased significantly in sequence (P<0.05;100%/89.2% vs 14.3%/15.2% vs 2.4%). The overexpression rate of PGC in group of superficial gastritis with H pylori infection was higher than that in group without H pylori infection (P<0.05; χ2= 0.032 28/33 vs 15/25).The positive rate of PGC expression in group of atrophic gastritis with H pylori infection was lower than that in group without H pylori infection (P<0.01; χ2 = 0.003 4/61vs 9/30), and in dysplasia and gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: The level of PGC expression has a close relationship with the degree of malignancy of gastric mucosa and development of gastric lesions. There is a relationship between H pylori infection and expression of antigen PGC in gastric mucosa, the positive rate of PGC expression increases in early stage of gastric lesions with H pylori infection such as gastric inflammation and decreases during the late stage such as precancerous diseases and gastric cancer. PGC-negative cases with H pylori-positive gastric lesions should be given special attention.

  2. The in vivo rodent test systems for assessment of carcinogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Laan, Jan-Willem; Spindler, Per

    2002-01-01

    mouse models, the RasH2 and Tg.AC transgenic mouse models, and the neonatal mouse model. The "ICH Guideline S1B on Testing for Carcinogenicity of Pharmaceuticals" advocates that carcinogenicity testing of pharmaceuticals, when needed, might be carried out choosing one 2-year rodent carcinogenicity study...... (rat) plus one other study that supplements the 2-year study and providing additional information that is not readily available from the 2-year study: either (1) a short- or medium-term in vivo rodent test system or (2) a 2-year carcinogenicity study in a second rodent species (mouse). Another topic of...... end of 2001. The use of the short- and medium-term rodent test systems were not considered appropriate for the assessment of carcinogenic potential of biotechnology-derived medicinal products....

  3. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423

  4. Micro-total envelope system with silicon nanowire separator for safe carcinogenic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Ko, Dong-Hyeon; Vishwakarma, Niraj K.; Jang, Seungwook; Min, Kyoung-Ik; Kim, Dong-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Exploration and expansion of the chemistries involving toxic or carcinogenic reagents are severely limited by the health hazards their presence poses. Here, we present a micro-total envelope system (μ-TES) and an automated total process for the generation of the carcinogenic reagent, its purification and its utilization for a desired synthesis that is totally enveloped from being exposed to the carcinogen. A unique microseparator is developed on the basis of SiNWs structure to replace the usual exposure-prone distillation in separating the generated reagent. Chloromethyl methyl ether chemistry is explored as a carcinogenic model in demonstrating the efficiency of the μ-TES that is fully automated so that feeding the ingredients for the generation is all it takes to produce the desired product. Syntheses taking days can be accomplished safely in minutes with excellent yields, which bodes well for elevating the carcinogenic chemistry to new unexplored dimensions. PMID:26916423

  5. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2012-02-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  6. Microbial and viral pathogens in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Danielle

    2011-05-01

    The heterogenetic and sporadic nature of colorectal cancer has led to many epidemiological associations with causes of this disease. As our understanding of the underlying molecular processes in colorectal-cancer develops, the concept of microbial-epithelial interactions as an oncogenic trigger might provide a plausible hypothesis for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. By contrast with other cancers of the gastrointestinal tract (gastric carcinoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid-tissue lymphoma), a direct causal link between microbial infection (bacteria and viruses) and colorectal carcinoma has not been established. Studies support the involvement of these organisms in oncogenesis, however, in colorectal cancer, clinical data are lacking. Here, we discuss current evidence (both in vitro and clinical studies), and focus on a putative role for bacterial and viral pathogens as a cause of colorectal cancer.

  7. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth;

    2002-01-01

    kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h...

  8. Laparoscopic gastric band removal complicated by splenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gregory; Schoucair, Ramy; Shimlati, Rasha; Rached, Linda; Khoury, George

    2016-08-01

    In any patient, the occurrence of postsplenectomy splenosis can complicate the planning of further surgeries. In our case, the gastric sleeve procedure was aborted, as it would have put the patient's life in danger. Therefore, only the gastric band was removed, eliminating future erosion.

  9. Gastric Strongyloidiasis in a Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şafak ERSÖZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a common parasitic infection. Gastric location of the parasite is quite rare. Patients at risk are those undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, individuals with malignant hematologic disorders, transplantations, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, chronic renal failure, chronic alcohol consumption, patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and elderly people. We report an atypical presentation of strongyloidiasis with gastric involvement in a diabetic patient.

  10. Congenital paraesophageal hiatus hernia with gastric volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar Ashok

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraesophageal hiatus hernia is rarely seen in the neonatal period. An intrathoracic gastric volvulus complicating such a hernia is rarer. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is essential. It avoids lethal complications as gastric dilatation, gangrene and perforation, which in turn may lead to cardiopulmonary arrest.

  11. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  12. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens;

    2004-01-01

    . Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...... and one-way ANOVA. During the infusion, GIP rose to steady-state concentrations of 159 +/- 15 pmol/l for total and 34 +/- 4 pmol/l for intact GIP (P

  13. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  14. Cate's Story: Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Megan

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and is thought to be responsible for about 10% of cancer-related deaths across the globe. A small proportion of all gastric cancers arise because of a known hereditary syndrome, the most common of which is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). This is an autosomal dominant genetic disease characterized by an increased risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer at a young age. The gene responsible for HDGC is CDH1, also known as E-cadherin, a germline mutation conferring an 80% risk of developing gastric cancer during the lifetime of the carrier. Females with germline CDH1 mutations face an additional risk of developing lobular breast cancer, with a reported cumulative risk of 60% by the age of 80 years.
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  15. Diet, H pylori infection and gastric cancer: Evidence and controversies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alba Rocco; Gerardo Nardone

    2007-01-01

    Despite decreasing incidence and mortality rates, gastric cancer (GC) still remains the fourth most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Due to the limited treatment options,at present, prevention is likely to be the only effective means of controlling this disease. The success of a prevention strategy depends upon the understanding of etiological and pathogenic mechanisms underlying gastric carcinogenesis. The etiology of GC is multi-factorial,however, in the recent years, mounting evidence suggests that environmental factors play a key role. The most important environmental factors implicated in the pathogenesis of GC are diet and H pylori infection. Thus,modifications in lifestyle and dietary habit associated with eradication of H pylori infection could hypothetically represent the most promising potential targets for GC prevention. In this review we will address the evidence and the controversies on the role of these agents in noncardia GC by focusing on retrospective and prospective observational studies and interventional trials.

  16. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  17. Disorders of gastric emptying and the application of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a greatly increased understanding of the physiology of gastric emptying in normal subjects, and of the pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment of gastric empyting disorders associated with the development and application of methods to quantify gastric emptying in humans. The non-invasive measurement of gastric emptying by means of radionuclide-labelled food markers has widespread clinical and research applications

  18. Gastric emptying in the normal cat: a radiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid-phase gastric emptying times of cats have been documented, but not solid-phase gastric emptying times. Gastric transit times, gastric emptying times, and small intestine transit times were determined in eight normal cats. The mean values +/- SD were 42.5 +/- 15.6 min, 11.6 +/- 0.9 hrs, and 4.1 +/- 3.0 hrs respectively

  19. A New Approach in Modelling Gastric Emptying in Fish

    OpenAIRE

    SEYHAN, Kadir

    2003-01-01

    In this study, gastric emptying and factors affecting gastric emptying in fish are briefly reviewed. How stomach-sampling time affects gastric emptying curves in relation to realising the chyme in fish is presented. A new modelling approach describing gastric emptying in fishes is also given.

  20. Aegle Marmelos Enhances Gastric Mucosal Protection: Relevance for NSAIDS-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In order to study the gastroprotective effect of Aegle marmelos extract (AM, this study was undertaken on aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis in cannulated free-moving rats. Background: Most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs including aspirin (ASP cause gastric ulcer. The efficacy of several plants for the treatment of gastroduodenal disease is confirmed by clinical research, while basic scientific research helps us to uncover the mechanisms by which these plants exert their therapeutic effects. Method: To assess the possible antiulcer effect of AM, lesion index, gastric secretions glycoprotein levels and mucosal histopathology were determined in ASP induced gastric mucosal injury in cannulated free-moving rats. Results: Pretreatment with AM significantly prevented the development of gastric mucosal lesion and decreased the gastric toxicity produced by ulcerogen. In addition, ulcerated rats showed depletion of gastric wall mucus, glycoproteins and enhanced gastric acid secretion whereas treatment with AM prevented these ASP induced responses in cannulated free-moving rats. Histological studies confirmed the results. Conclusion: The present finding suggests that AM promotes ulcer protection by the decrease in ulcer index, gastric secretions and increase in the glycoprotein level, gastric mucin content and maintenance of mucosal epithelium. AM protects the gastric mucosa against ulceration by its antisecretory and cytoprotective property.

  1. Triple gastric peptic ulcer perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radojkovic, Milan; Mihajlovic, Suncica; Stojanovic, Miroslav; Stanojevic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Patients with advanced or metastatic cancer have compromised nutritional, metabolic, and immune conditions. Nevertheless, little is known about gastroduodenal perforation in cancer patients. Described in the present report is the case of a 41-year old woman with stage IV recurrent laryngeal cancer, who used homeopathic anticancer therapy and who had triple peptic ulcer perforation (PUP) that required surgical repair. Triple gastric PUP is a rare complication. Self-administration of homeopathic anticancer medication should be strongly discouraged when evidence-based data regarding efficacy and toxicity is lacking.

  2. Lactobacilli Reduce Helicobacter pylori Attachment to Host Gastric Epithelial Cells by Inhibiting Adhesion Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Nele; Maudsdotter, Lisa; Gebreegziabher, Hanna; Saroj, Sunil D; Eriksson, Beatrice; Eriksson, Olaspers Sara; Roos, Stefan; Lindén, Sara; Sjölinder, Hong; Jonsson, Ann-Beth

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, including the harsh environment of the stomach, harbors a large variety of bacteria, of which Lactobacillus species are prominent members. The molecular mechanisms by which species of lactobacilli interfere with pathogen colonization are not fully characterized. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of lactobacillus strains upon the initial attachment of Helicobacter pylori to host cells. Here we report a novel mechanism by which lactobacilli inhibit adherence of the gastric pathogen H. pylori In a screen with Lactobacillus isolates, we found that only a few could reduce adherence of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells. Decreased attachment was not due to competition for space or to lactobacillus-mediated killing of the pathogen. Instead, we show that lactobacilli act on H. pylori directly by an effector molecule that is released into the medium. This effector molecule acts on H. pylori by inhibiting expression of the adhesin-encoding gene sabA Finally, we verified that inhibitory lactobacilli reduced H. pylori colonization in an in vivo model. In conclusion, certain Lactobacillus strains affect pathogen adherence by inhibiting sabA expression and thereby reducing H. pylori binding capacity.

  3. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani; Labio, Roger William de; Gatti, Luciano Lobo; Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Queiroz, Valdeir Fagundes de; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2010-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection. PMID:20512249

  4. Helicobacter pylori strain-specific modulation of gastric inflammation in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ken Ohnita; Hajime Isomoto; Shoji Honda; Akihiro Wada; Chun-Yang Wen; Yoshito Nishi; Yohei Mizuta; Toshiya Hirayama; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is one of potential virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori. The Mongolian gerbil is a suitable experimental animal for the screening of virulence factors of H pylori.METHODS: Five-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with a standard H pylori strain (ATCC 43504)possessing the cag PAI or a clinical isolate lacking the genes' cluster (OHPC-0002). The animals were killed at 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 wk after inoculation (n = 5 each), and macroscopic and histopathological findings in the stomachs were compared.RESULTS: In gerbils infected with ATCC 43504, a more severe degree of infiltration of polynuclear and mononuclear cells and lymphoid follicles was observed from 4 wk after inoculation compared to gerbils infected with OHPC-0002 especially in the antrum and transitional zone from the fundic to pyloric gland area. In addition,glandular atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, gastric ulcer and hyperplastic polyps were noted in gerbils infected with ATCC 43504, whereas only mild gastric erosions occurred in those infected with OHPC-0002.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the cag PAI could be directly involved in gastric immune and inflammatory responses in the Mongolian gerbils, leading to a more advanced gastric disease.

  5. Human carcinogens: an evaluation study via the COMPACT and HazardExpert procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewi, D F V; Bird, M G; Jacobs, M N

    2002-03-01

    The results of computer-optimized molecular parametric analysis of chemical toxicity (COMPACT) and HazardExpert evaluations on 14 established human carcinogens are reported. The concordances between COMPACT and carcinogenicity (71%) and between HazardExpert and carcinogenicity (57%) are significantly improved when taken in combination, where all 14 carcinogens are correctly identified by the two systems used in conjunction. However, if a negative energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (E(HOMO)) value is regarded as evidence of electrophilic reactivity likely to give rise to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, then 13/14 (93%) of the carcinogens are correctly identified by combination with the COMPACT procedure alone. It is possible, therefore, to establish likely carcinogenicity arising from either P450 mediation (CYP1 and CYP2E) or compound electrophilicity via the employment of a straightforward approach to molecular and electronic structure calculation, a process that can be performed in a relatively short time frame (i.e., less than 1 hour per chemical) and at a low cost. PMID:12102536

  6. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Padovani, Michela; Tibaldi, Eva; Falcioni, Laura; Manservisi, Fabiana; Belpoggi, Fiorella

    2014-04-01

    Aspartame (APM) is an artificial sweetener used since the 1980s, now present in >6,000 products, including over 500 pharmaceuticals. Since its discovery in 1965, and its first approval by the US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) in 1981, the safety of APM, and in particular its carcinogenicity potential, has been controversial. The present commentary reviews the adequacy of the design and conduct of carcinogenicity bioassays on rodents submitted by G.D. Searle, in the 1970s, to the FDA for market approval. We also review how experimental and epidemiological data on the carcinogenic risks of APM, that became available in 2005 motivated the European Commission (EC) to call the European Food and Safety Authority (EFSA) for urgent re-examination of the available scientific documentation (including the Searle studies). The EC has further requested that, if the results of the evaluation should suggest carcinogenicity, major changes must be made to the current APM specific regulations. Taken together, the studies performed by G.D. Searle in the 1970s and other chronic bioassays do not provide adequate scientific support for APM safety. In contrast, recent results of life-span carcinogenicity bioassays on rats and mice published in peer-reviewed journals, and a prospective epidemiological study, provide consistent evidence of APM's carcinogenic potential. On the basis of the evidence of the potential carcinogenic effects of APM herein reported, a re-evaluation of the current position of international regulatory agencies must be considered an urgent matter of public health.

  7. Strategies of reducing the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic agents on the basis of bioassay evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, M R

    1991-01-01

    This article described strategies that can be used to reduce the carcinogenic risk of cytostatic chemotherapy and summarizes our recent experimental results. Reduction of neoplasms caused by the carcinogenic potency inherent in cytostatic agents can be obtained. (A) by chemical modifications such as: (1) exchanging a chlorine atom in N, N'-bis-(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea (BCNU) in the chloroethyl group at N'-position for a hydroxyl group to form the less carcinogenic analog N-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-nitrosourea (HECNU); (2) linking chlorambucil to the steroid prednisolone to obtain a conjugate (prednimustine) with distinctly lower carcinogenic potential than chlorambucil; (3) progressive ring halogenation of phenyl-triazenes to generate agents with decreased long-term toxic risk; (B) by replacing cyclophosphamide within the carcinogenic drug combination of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) by vincristine to form the combination VMF which has no detectable carcinogenic potential; (C) by coadministration of cyclophosphamide and mesna to achieve a dose-related reduction of cyclophosphamide-induced urinary bladder carcinomas; (D) by administration of dinaline, a compound which reduces the spontaneous incidence of malignant tumors in rats. These examples demonstrate that the carcinogenic risk of single agents and drug combinations used for antineoplastic chemotherapy has successfully been reduced, as assessed in long-term bioassays. Such strategies should be considered in the treatment of patients with long life expectancy following cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  8. Effects of phenylalaninol on centrally induced gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, H; Miyamae, T; Morikawa, T; Hagiwara, M

    1992-11-01

    The effects of phenylalaninol (D-isomer) on gastric acid secretion and gastric ulcer were studied in rats. The compound reduced the gastric acid secretion stimulated by intracisternal thyrotropin releasing hormone and intravenous 2-deoxy-D-glucose, but not that stimulated by subcutaneous carbachol or histamine. Phenylalaninol prevented stress- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers. We conclude that phenylalaninol inhibits ulcer formation mainly by central inhibition of gastric acid secretion. PMID:1477931

  9. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Avdyl Selmon; Hoxha, Faton Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptom...

  10. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, ...

  11. Variation at ABO histo-blood group and FUT loci and diffuse and intestinal gastric cancer risk in a European population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duell, Eric J; Bonet, Catalina; Muñoz, Xavier;

    2015-01-01

    ABO blood serotype A is known to be associated with risk of gastric cancer (GC), but little is known how ABO alleles and the fucosyltransferase (FUT) enzymes and genes which are involved in Lewis antigen formation [and in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) binding and pathogenicity] may be related...

  12. Is the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the Dental Plaque of Patients with Chronic Periodontitis a Risk Factor for Gastric Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al Asqah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is considered to be a pathogen responsible for gastritis and peptic ulcers, and a risk factor for gastric cancer. A periodontal pocket in the teeth of individuals with chronic periodontitis may function as a reservoir for H pylori.

  13. Urban air carcinogens and their effects on health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechner, J.F.

    1994-11-01

    Airborne carcinogens may be relevant especially in metropolitan regions with extreme smog as a primary cause of lung cancer. Lung cancer is most common in urban environs and the incidence directly correlates with the size of the city. In addition, several, but not all formal epidemiological studies also suggest a positive correlation between lung cancer incidence and the intensity of air pollution exposure. There is further support for a role of air pollution; as of 1993, 4.4% of all of the bronchogenic adenocarcinoma cancer cases among Mexicans living in industrialized cities are under 40 years of age. It is plausible that chronic inhalation of automobile combustion products, factory emissions, and/or radon is at least partially responsible for the higher incidence of lung cancer exemplified by the never-smoking urban residents. The exceptionally high incidence of lung cancer cases among never-smokers living in highly industrialized Mexican cities offers a unique opportunity to use molecular epidemiology to test whether chronic inhalation of atmospheric pollutants increases the risk for this disease. Overall, the analysis of the genetic alterations in two cancer genes, and possibly the hprt locus should give new insight as to whether the urban never-smokers developed their cancers because of exposure to environmental pollutants.

  14. [Urban air pollution by carcinogenic N-nitrosamines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khesina, A Ia; Krivosheeva, L V; Sokol'skaia, N N; Koliadich, M N

    1996-01-01

    Moscow is used as an example to discuss the problem of urban atmospheric pollution by carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. An analytical method is proposed, which is based on the use of a Russian gas chromatograph compatible with a chemiluminescence detector, that is a TEA thermal energy analyzer (USA) having some modifications to reduce the time of analysis and loss during sample pretreatment. The minimal detected concentration is 3 ng/m3 for 2-hour sampling. The method identifies and quantifies 7 volatile N-nitrosamines: N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosopiperidine, N-nitrosopyrrolidine, N-nitrosomorpholine. The pollution of the Moscow air was evaluated in the center of Moscow (30-60 ng/m3 for NDMA), in the industrial emission area (as high as several hundred ng/m3, and in the heavy traffic area (100 ng/m3 or more). It is proposed to study the working area for rubber and tire industries, to establish nitrosamine tolerances for these industries and maximum allowable discharge concentrations in the urban air and to monitor these parameters. PMID:8672956

  15. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial. The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H. pylori infection. About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H. pylori infection. Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H. pylori infection are under way. Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H. pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer; however, a population-based H. pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora. Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  16. Chemoprevention of gastric cancer: current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The development of gastric cancer is a multi-factor process. In addition to genetic factors, environmental factors including smoking, low gastric acidity, excessive intake of salt or salty food and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables all contribute to the development of gastric cancer. Of particular interest, epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is causally linked to gastric cancer. Most studies using micronutrient supplementation have failed to demonstrate any preventive effect against the development of gastric cancer. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has been consistently observed to protect against the development of gastric cancer. Recently, eradication of H. pylori infection by a chemopreventative approach is being studied in a number of trials. Studies using precancerous lesions as an end point of the treatment have produced conflicting and mostly negative results. Trials using cancer as an end point are being cautiously carried out in high-risk populations, and will provide the definitive answer to this important question. In the end, vaccination may be proven to be the optimal strategy in human for the management of H. pylori infection and prevention of gastric cancer.

  17. Expression of Telomerase Subunits in Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Fenghua; HU Lihua; LI Yirong; WANG Lin

    2005-01-01

    To detect the expression of telomerase subunits human telomerase reverse transcriptase, human telomerase associated protein 1 and human telomerase RNA) in gastric cancer and to examine the role that different telomerase subunits play in the gastric carcinogenesis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect telomerase subunits messenger RNA in 24 samples of gastric cancer and corresponding non-cancerous tissue. The results showed that the positive rate of hTERT mRNA from gastric cancer and corresponding non-cancerous tissues was 100 % and 25 %, respectively. The former was significantly higher than the latter (χ2 =26.4, P<0.01). The positive rate of hTEP1 mRNA from gastric cancer and corresponding non-cancerous tissues was 100 % and 91.7 %, respectively and no significant difference was found between them (χ2 =2.1, P>0.05). The positive rates of hTR for gastric cancer and corresponding non-cancerous tissues were both 100 % and no significant difference existed between them. It is concluded that in contrast to hTEP1 and hTR, the up-regulation of hTERT mRNA expression may play a more important role in the development of gastric cancer.

  18. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  19. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopicsubmucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy andendoscopy cooperative surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells inthe gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rarecase of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating fromthe heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) thatwas safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopycooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old manunderwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected asubmucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on thelesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumorcould not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopicultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Localresection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis.Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal welldifferentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negativelateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanesetreatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximalgastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a lessinvasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT,even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating fromthe HSG.

  20. Plant pathogen resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  1. Plant pathogen resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  2. Classification of weakly carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: addressing the limits of epidemiology at the borderline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonaguro Franco M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Virtually all cases of cervical cancer are caused by persistent infections with a restricted set of human papillomaviruses (HPV. Some HPV types, like HPV16 and HPV18, are clear and powerful carcinogens. However, the categorization of the most weakly carcinogenic HPV types is extremely challenging. The decisions are important for screening test and vaccine development. This article describes for open discussion an approach recently taken by a World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Monographs Working Group to re-assess the carcinogenicity of different HPV types.

  3. A case report of localized gastric amyloidosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Wu; Jian-Ying Lou; Jian Chen; Lun Fei; Gui-Jie Liu; Xiao-Yu Shi; Han-Ting Lin

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the clinical and laboratory features of localized gastric amyloidosis via a rare report along with a review of related literatures.METHODS: The clinical manifestations, laboratory results and surgical treatment of a female patient with localized gastric amyloidosis in our hospital were summarized. The relevant literatures were reviewed on the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this disease.RESULTS: The patient was lack of specific clinical manifestations and positive laboratory results. Prior to the treatment, she was suspected to be of malignization from gastric ulcer by both gastroscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography, which was denied by the gastric biopsy.The patient was treated with subtotal gastrectomy and clearance of perigastric lymph nodes. The postoperative pathological diagnosis determined the lesion to be the deposition of amyloid materials in the gastric mucosa,submucosa and blood vessel walls with intestinal metaplasia and atrophy of the gastric glands, in which no malignant tumor was found. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the AA type of amyloid in this case. Multiple biopsies from esophagus, remnant stomach, duodenum, colon and bone marrow in the followup survey showed no amyloidal deposition in these tissues and organs. Up to the present, no signs of recurrence have been found in this patient.CONCLUSION: Localized gastric amyloidosis, being rare in incidence, should be considered in the differentiation of gastric tumors, in which biopsy is the only means to confirm the diagnosis. Currently, surgical resection of pathological tissue and circumambient lymph nodes may be a preferable therapeutic strategy for the localized amyloidosis to prevent possible complications. Although with a benign prognosis,gastric amyloidosis possesses a recurrent tendency as suggested by the literatures.

  4. Gene expression profile differences in gastric cancer, pericancerous epithelium and normal gastric mucosa by gene chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Ding Yu; Shen-Hua Xu; Hang-Zhou Mou; Zhi-Ming Jiang; Chi-Hong Zhu; Xiang-Lin Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T), pericancerous epithelium (P) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen an associated novel gene in early gastric carcinogenesis by oligonudeotide microarray.METHODS: U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T, P and C, respectively. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS: When gastric cancer was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 766 genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 766 genes,530 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR]>2), and 236 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). When pericancerous epithelium was compared with normal gastric mucosa, 64genes were found, with a difference of more than four times in expression levels. Of the 64 genes, 50 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 14 were down-regulated (SLR<-2). Compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 143 genes with a difference in expression levels (more than four times, either in cancer or in pericancerous epithelium) were found in gastric cancer (T) and pericancerous epithelium (P). Of the 143 genes, 108 were up-regulated (SLR>2), and 35were down-regulated (SLR<-2).CONCLUSION: To apply a gene chip could find 143 genes associated with the genes of gastric cancer in pericancerous epithelium, although there were no pathological changes in the tissue slices. More interesting, six genes of pericancerous epithelium were up-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer and three genes were down-regulated in comparison with genes of gastric cancer. It is suggested that these genes may be related to the carcinogenesis and development of early gastric cancer.

  5. Helicobacter pylori: recent advances in the study of its pathogenicity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar Germán R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has acquired great importance during the last two decades, after being recognized as an important pathogen that infects a great portion of the human population. This microorganism is recognized as the main causal agent of chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcers, and it is associated with the subsequent development of gastric carcinoma. The pathogenic mechanisms of H. pylori and their relation to gastric ailments have not been clearly defined. However, at present it is well established that urease, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, and the pathogenicity island (cag PAI gene products, are the main factors of virulence of this organism. Thus, individuals infected with strains that express these virulence factors probably develop a severe local inflammation that may induce the development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. The way the infection spreads throughout the world suggests the possibility that there are multiple pathways of transmission. Due to the importance that H. pylori has acquired as a human pathogen, laboratories worldwide are attempting to develop a vaccine that confers long-term immunological protection against infection by this microorganism. Hence, the objective of this review is to present the most relevant findings of the biology of H. Pylori and its interaction with the human host. The full version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  6. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie On-On Chan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing views of gastric cancer and the latest developments.

  7. Extraintestinal heterotopic gastric tissue simulating acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Bender; Steven P Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old otherwise healthy male who presented to our emergency room with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Exploratory surgery revealed a normal appendix. Further examination revealed an enlarged lymph node-like mass of tissue near the appendix, in the ileocecal mesentery. This mass was removed and was found to be inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue. Although reports of heterotopic gastric tissue in the literature are common, we believe that this case represents the first report of inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue simulating appendicitis.

  8. Neonatal Gastric Teratoma: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharga, Bikram; Kumar, Vijay; Prabhu, P. Santosh; P.T, Sundeep; John, Sijo K

    2014-01-01

    Gastric Teratoma is an extremely rare neoplasm seen in children. It is mostly benign and predominantly seen in males presenting with an abdominal mass. The lung and stomach are very unusual sites for teratoma. Gastric teratoma accounts for less than 1% of all teratomas, less than 100 cases are reported in literature. We report a case in a 20-day-old infant who presented with large abdominal mass; our case is an addition to the few limited known gastric teratomas reported in the world literature.

  9. Updates on esophageal and gastric cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy Gallo; Charles Cha

    2006-01-01

    Esophageal and gastric cancers are both common and deadly. Patients present most often after disease progression and survival is therefore poor. Due to demographic variability and recent changes in disease incidence, much emphasis has been placed on studying risk factors for both esophageal and gastric cancers.However, with increasing understanding of these diseases, low survival rates persist and continued intensive studies are necessary to optimize treatment plans. This review article discusses updates in the evolving epidemiology, clinical presentation, risk factors,and diagnostic and treatment modalities of esophageal and gastric cancers.

  10. Genomic research for important pathogenic bacteria in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG RuiFu; GUO XiaoKui; YANG Jian; JIANG YongQiang; PANG Bo; CHEN Chen; YAO YuFeng; QIN JinHong; LI QingTian

    2009-01-01

    Rapid accumulation of bacterial genomic data offered an unprecedented opportunity to understand bacterial biology from a holistic view of point. We can thus closely look at the way in which a pathogen is evolved, and these data has been applied to molecular epidemiology and microbial forensics, and screening of novel diagnostic, vaccine and drug targets. The newly developed high-throughput low-cost sequencing technologies, such as 454, Solexa and SOLiD, will promote the acquisition and application of genomic data in new research areas that we dared not imagine previously, such as the metagenomics of human gastric-intestinal tract, for better and comprehensive understanding of human health and disease.

  11. Gastric hyperplastic polyps coexisting with early gastric cancers, adenoma and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, K; Lewandowska, M; Białek, A; Ławniczak, M; Urasińska, E

    2016-03-01

    Gastric hyperplastic polyps (GHP) constitute up to 93% of all benign epithelial polyps of the stomach. The average probability of malignant transformation in GHP is 0.6-22% in large series. The aim of the study was to present the coexistence of GHP with early gastric cancer (EGC), gastric adenoma (GA), neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NH) and well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET G1). Three cases were studied to reveal clinical data and morphological changes and to assess the relationship between GHP and accompanying gastric neoplastic lesions. PMID:27179272

  12. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous catecholam......The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  13. Host Epithelial Interactions with Helicobacter Pylori: A Role for Disrupted Gastric Barrier Function in the Clinical Outcome of Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre G Buret

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori may develop into gastritis, ulceration, adenocarcinoma and mucosal lymphomas. The pathogenic mechanisms that determine the clinical outcome from this microbial-epithelial interaction remain poorly understood. An increasing number of reports suggests that disruptions of epithelial barrier function may contribute to pathology and postinfectious complications in a variety of gastrointestinal infections. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the implications of H pylori persistence on gastric disease, with emphasis on the role of myosin light chain kinase, claudins and matrix metalloproteinases in gastric permeability defects, and their contribution to the development of cancer. These mechanisms and the associated signalling events may represent novel therapeutic targets to control disease processes induced by H pylori, a microbial pathogen that colonizes the stomach of over 50% of the human population.

  14. How host regulation of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis protects against peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Poshmaal; Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip

    2016-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is the etiological agent of a range of gastrointestinal pathologies including peptic ulcer disease and the major killer, gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection with this bacterium induces a chronic inflammatory response in the gastric mucosa (gastritis). It is this gastritis that, over decades, eventually drives the development of H. pylori-associated disease in some individuals. The majority of studies investigating H. pylori pathogenesis have focused on factors that promote disease development in infected individuals. However, an estimated 85% of those infected with H. pylori remain completely asymptomatic, despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria that drive a chronic gastritis that lasts many decades. This indicates the presence of highly effective regulatory processes in the host that, in most cases, keeps a check on inflammation and protect against disease. In this minireview we discuss such known host factors and how they prevent the development of H. pylori-associated pathologies.

  15. A p53 genetic polymorphism of gastric cancer: Difference between early gastric cancer and advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Young Yi; Woon Jung Lee

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of the polymorphism of p53 codon 72 in early gastric cancer (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in Korean patients.METHODS:DNA was extracted from blood samples of gastric cancer patients (n = 291) and controls (n=216).tn the p53 codon 72 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP.RESULTS: Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency of the homozygous proline (Pro) allele than the control (P=0.032). Patients with AGC had a significantly higher frequency of the Arg/Arg (arginine)allele (P=0.038) than EGC and a similar Pro/Pro allele.The signet ring cell type had a higher frequency of the Pro/Pro allele than other types (P=0.031). The Pro/Pro genotype carries a 3.9-fold increased risk of developing gastric cancer (95% CI,1.3-15.4,P=0.039)when compared to Arg/Arg and Arg/Pro genotypes and to develop EGC is a 5.25 fold increased risk (95% CI,1.8-19.6,P=0.021).CONCLUSION: The Pro/Pro genotype of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism carries a higher risk for gastric cancer in general and is also associated with a much higher risk for EGC than AGC.

  16. Biomarkers for assessing potential carcinogenic effects of chronic arsenic exposure in Inner Mongolia, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment. Chronic arsenic exposure via drinking water has been associated. with carcinogenic, cardiovascular, neurological and diabetic effects in humans and has been of great public health concern worldwide. In 2001, U.S. Environmental Protection ...

  17. AI AND SAR APPROACHES FOR PREDICTING CHEMICAL CARCINOGENICITY: SURVEY AND STATUS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wide variety of artificial intelligence (AI) and structure-activity relationship (SAR approaches have been applied to tackling the general problem of predicting rodent chemical carcinogenicity. Given the diversity of chemical structures and mechanisms relative to this endpoin...

  18. 29 CFR 1990.131 - Priority lists for regulating potential occupational carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... List. The inclusion or exclusion of any substance on these lists shall not be subject to judicial... carcinogen which has not been placed on these lists. The inclusion of a substance on either of these...

  19. An investigation of carcinogenic agents at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes a study with the following results: 1. Three of the metals reported as carcinogens, arsenic, chromium, and nickel, were found within the...

  20. Carcinogenicity evaluation for the application of carbon nanotubes as biomaterials in rasH2 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Seiji; Hara, Kazuo; Aoki, Kaoru; Usui, Yuki; Shimizu, Masayuki; Haniu, Hisao; Ogihara, Nobuhide; Ishigaki, Norio; Nakamura, Koichi; Okamoto, Masanori; Kobayashi, Shinsuke; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sano, Kenji; Nishimura, Naoyuki; Tsutsumi, Hideki; Machida, Kazuhiko; Saito, Naoto

    2012-07-01

    The application of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as biomaterials is of wide interest, and studies examining their application in medicine have had considerable significance. Biological safety is the most important factor when considering the clinical application of CNTs as biomaterials, and various toxicity evaluations are required. Among these evaluations, carcinogenicity should be examined with the highest priority; however, no report using transgenic mice to evaluate the carcinogenicity of CNTs has been published to date. Here, we performed a carcinogenicity test by implanting multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) into the subcutaneous tissue of rasH2 mice, using the carbon black present in black tattoo ink as a reference material for safety. The rasH2 mice did not develop neoplasms after being injected with MWCNTs; instead, MWCNTs showed lower carcinogenicity than carbon black. Such evaluations should facilitate the clinical application and development of CNTs for use in important medical fields.

  1. Determination of potentially carcinogenic compounds in food : trace analysis of vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin and diethylpyrocarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lierop, van J.B.H.

    1979-01-01

    Toxicological evidence shows that some monomers present in packaging materials may be carcinogenic. These monomers, notably vinylchloride, vinylidenechloride, acrylonitrile and epichlorohydrin, may migrate from the packaging material into the food. Therefore, severe limits are set to the contents of

  2. 78 FR 15020 - Report on Carcinogens Webinar on Pentachlorophenol; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Report on Carcinogens Webinar on Pentachlorophenol; Notice of Public Webinar and Registration Information SUMMARY: The National Toxicology Program (NTP) announces a public webinar, ``Human cancer studies on exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP):...

  3. Correlation of levels of volatile versus carcinogenic particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air samples from smokehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Poulsen, O M; Christensen, J M

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, data on the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in air samples from fish smokehouses (Nordholm et al. 1986) and meat smokehouses (Hansen et al. submitted for publication) were used to analyze the extent to which six different volatile PAH compounds could...... carcinogenic PAH compounds in air samples from smokehouses, whereas fluoranthene and pyrene displayed the highest specificity. However, when the applicability of the six markers was tested on air samples from iron foundries, only naphthalene and pyrene were useful as markers for the carcinogenic compounds...... function as markers for the total concentration of six different carcinogenic particulate PAH compounds. Although a significant positive correlation was observed between the concentration of each of six volatile compounds and the total concentration of carcinogenic PAH compounds, a particularly good...

  4. 78 FR 57868 - Nominations to the Report on Carcinogens; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... RoC. 20 Substances Nominated to the RoC* Aloe vera whole leaf extract (Aloe barbadensis Miller) 2..., ongoing, or planned studies related to evaluating carcinogenicity; (3) scientific issues important...

  5. A microarray-based gastric carcinoma prewarning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Xiang Cui; Jin-Rong Zhao; Fen-Chan Han; Ju Zhang; Jia-Le Hu; Dai-Ming Fan; Hua-Jian Gao; Li Zhang; Xiao-Jun Yan; Ling-Xia Zhang; Jun-Rong Xu; Yan-Hai Guo; Gui-Qiu Jin; Giovani Gomez; Ding Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To develop a microarray-based prewarning system consisting of gastric cancer chip, prewarning data and analysissoftware for early detection of gastric cancer and pre-cancerous lesions.METHODS: Two high-density chips with 8 464 human cDNA sites were used to primarily identify potential genes specific for normal gastric mucosa, pre-cancerous lesion and gastric cancer. The low-density chips, composed of selected genes associated with normal gastric mucosa,precancerous lesion and gastric cancer, were fabricated and used to screen 150 specimens including 60 specimens of gastric cancer, 60 of pre-cancerous tissues and 30 of normal gastric mucosa. CAD software was used to screen out the relevant genes and their critical threshold values of expression levels distinguishing normal mucosa from pre-cancerous lesion and cancer. All data were stored in a computer database to establish a prewarning data library for gastric cancer. Two potential markers brcaa1 and ndr1were identified by Western blot and immunohistochemistry.RESULTS: A total of 412 genes associated with three stages of gastric cancer development were identified.There were 216 genes displaying higher expression in gastric cancer, 85 genes displaying higher expression in pre-cancerous lesion and 88 genes displaying higher expression in normal gastric mucosa. Also 15 genes associated with metastasis of gastric cancer and 8 genes associated with risk factors were screened out for target genes of diagnosis chip of early gastric cancer. The threshold values of 412 selected genes to distinguish gastric cancer, pre-cancerous lesion from normal gastric mucosa were defined as 6.01±2.40, 4.86±1.94 and 5.42±2.17, respectively. These selected 412 genes and critical threshold values were compiled into an analysis software, which can automatically provide reports by analyzing the results of 412 genes obtained by examining gastric tissues. All data were compiled into a prewarning database for gastric cancer by CGO

  6. Carcinogenicity of sublimed urethane in mice through the respiratory tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, T; Hayashi, T; Masuyama, T; Tanaka, S; Nakajima, H; Kurokawa, N; Isa, Y

    1990-08-01

    The carcinogenicity of sublimed urethane (ethyl carbamate) in air was examined with mice. JCL:ICR mice were nursed in a plastic cage inside a vinyl chamber which was ventilated 4 times per hour. The mice were exposed to urethane gas for various periods by passing air which contained a high concentration of sublimed urethane (1.29 micrograms/ml) into the vinyl chamber, or by placing a vessel containing crystalline urethane inside the vinyl chamber so that it was filled with spontaneously-sublimed urethane gas at a low concentration (0.25 microgram/ml). When female mice were killed 5 months after exposure, lung tumor frequency increased almost linearly with the number of days of exposure in the low concentration experiment, but increased in a non-linear manner in the high concentration experiment. In terms of nearly the same total dose, i.e., (concentration of urethane gas in air) X (days of inhalation), one day of exposure to urethane gas at the low concentration induced lung tumors at a significantly higher frequency than 1/4 day of exposure to urethane gas at the high concentration. When male mice were killed at 12 months after exposure to examine the progressive change of induced tumors, malignant, invasive and metastatic tumors were found to have been induced more frequently in the lung after exposure to urethane gas at the low concentration (0.25 microgram/ml for 10 days) than at the high concentration (1.29 microgram/ml for 4 days), although the total dose in the former group was about half of that in the latter. Continuous exposure to urethane gas for a longer period at the low concentration seems to be more efficient for the induction, promotion and/or progression of lung tumors than the exposure for a shorter period at the high concentration.

  7. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  8. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery Halifax Health Florida December 7, 2011 I chose to have bariatric surgery because I have struggled with yo-yo dieting for probably 25 years, and ...

  9. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can always make the hole bigger. With enough force - - (laughing). It’s going to come out one way ... y gastric bypass, you lose about three to five pounds a week, an average of about 70 ...

  10. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs;

    2009-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) are rare tumours that are divided into four subtypes depending on tumour characteristics. Patients with NECs are known to have an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers mainly located in the gastrointestinal tract. A case...... of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  11. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that using this gastric sleeve, and the stapling gun that we are going to demonstrate here in ... stapler, right here. Alright, and that’s the staple gun you’ve got around the stomach right now. ...

  12. Weighing the Options: Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of them, and it really depends on the companies. Some insurances will cover the gastric bypass and ... is the band, called the realized band, another product of J&J and Ethicon, correct? Same people ...

  13. Laparoscopic resection of bleeding gastric polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, W T; Leong, H T; Li, M K

    1997-03-01

    Gastric polyps account for a small proportion of gastric neoplasms. Many of them presented with acute or chronic bleeding. Endoscopic polypectomy is the preferred treatment modality. However, endoscopic polypectomy is often incomplete and impossible for large polyps. Large and intramural polyps require laparotomy and excision. From June to October 1995, four patients with bleeding gastric polyps received laparoscopic resection in our unit. All were women, aged 40-78, with polyps 2-6 cm in diameter. One patient underwent emergency surgery for active bleeding. The others received elective operations. Operating time ranged from 90 to 120 min. There was no perioperative morbidity or mortality. Full diet was resumed by the 4th postoperative day. The average postoperative hospital stay was 5. 3 days (4-7). Laparoscopic resection of gastric polyp is a preferable treatment option when endoscopic treatment fails.

  14. Gastric Emptying Rates for Selected Athletic Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Edward F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The intent of this research was to compare the rate of gastric emptying of three commercially available athletic drinks with water and, in doing so, to determine their relative contributions of water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate to the body. (JD)

  15. Hematogenous Gastric Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasajima, Junpei; Okamoto, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Masato

    2016-01-01

    While the gastric involvement of pancreatic cancer is occasionally observed as the result of direct invasion, hematogenous gastric metastasis is rare. A 72-year-old Japanese male presented with general fatigue, pollakiuria, and thirst. Computed tomography revealed a 4.6-cm solid mass in the pancreatic tail and a 4.2-cm multilocular cystic mass in the pancreatic head with multiple liver and lymphatic metastasis. Notably, two solid masses were detected in the gastric wall of the upper body and the antrum; both were separated from the primary pancreatic cancer and seemed to be located in the submucosal layer. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a submucosal tumor with a normal mucosa in the posterior wall of the upper body of the stomach, suggesting the gastric hematogenous metastasis of pancreatic cancer. The suspected diagnosis was unresectable pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases that was concomitant with the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas.

  16. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  17. Astragalus saponins induce apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells via a caspase 3-dependent pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOSHUA K S Ko; Kathy K W Auyeung

    2008-01-01

    Objective Many Asian countriea including China, Japan and Korea have very high incidence of gastric cancer, in which about 42 % cases occur in mainland China. The precise targets and underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Our previous study revealed that Astragalus saponins (AST) showed promising effects on the suppression of the growth of HT-29 human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft by inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the anti-carcinogenic effects of AST in AGS human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and attempted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Methods Growth inhibition of AGS cells was determined by using the MTT viability test. Involvement of different members of the apoptotic cascade and other growth-related factors was explored by assessment of their protein expression using Western blot analysis. Distribution of cells in different phases of the cell cycle was assessed by flow eytometry. Results Our data indicate that AST induced growth-inhibition and apoptosis in AGS cells by activating caspase 3 with subsequent poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase had been observed in AST-treated AGS cells. The anti-proliferative effect of AST was associated with modulation of eydin B1 and p21. We then demonstrate that AST could downregulate the expression of VEGF, of which interaction with its receptors is important for angiogenesis during tumor formation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that AST is an effective agent in gastric cancer treatment by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, of which anti-angiogenesis could be an alternative mode of action.

  18. Carcinogenic effects of the combined action of /sup 241/Am and. gamma. -radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippova, L.G.; Buldakov, L.A.; Nifatov, A.P. (Institut Biofiziki, Moscow (USSR))

    In experiments on Wistar rats a study was made of the carcinogenic effects of the combined exposure to /sup 241/Am administered intrapertioneally (6.7 to 229.4 kBq/kg body weight) and external ..gamma..-radiation (/sup 137/Cs, 175 cGy). The occurrence of osteosarcoma, leucosis, skin and mammary tumors increased in the exposed animals. The combined irradiation produced an additive carcinogenic effect.

  19. Analysis of carcinogenicity testing for regulatory purposes in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    MADIA FEDERICA; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The approaches for evaluating the carcinogenic potential of substances, including whether carcinogenicity studies should be conducted, differ substantially across sectors. Despite variations in testing schemes, the two-year bioassay study in rodents represents the standard element across all sectors. The validity of the two-year bioassay though has been questioned in the last decade. Uncertainty is associated with the extrapolation of data from rodents to humans. Furthermore, these stud...

  20. Recent developments in the multistage modeling of cohort data for carcinogenic risk assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, S; Redmond, C K; Costantino, J P; Patwardhan, R N; Zhou, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The modeling of cohort data based on the Armitage-Doll multistage model of the carcinogenic process has gained popular acceptance as a methodology for quantitative risk assessment for estimating the dose-related relationships between different occupational and environmental carcinogenic exposures and cancer mortality. The multistage model can be used for extrapolation to low doses relevant for setting environmental standards and also provides information regarding whether more than one stage ...

  1. In vivo transgenic bioassays and assessment of the carcinogenic potential of pharmaceuticals.

    OpenAIRE

    Contrera, J F; DeGeorge, J J

    1998-01-01

    There is general agreement in the scientific community on the need to improve carcinogenicity testing and the assessment of human carcinogenic risk and to incorporate more information on mechanisms and modes of action into the risk assessment process. Advances in molecular biology have identified a growing number of genes such as protooncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes that are highly conserved across species and are associated with a wide variety of human and animal cancers. In vivo transg...

  2. Giant trichobezoar mimicking gastric tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of giant gastric trichobezoar retrieved through a long gastrotomy in a 40 years old married women from rural Sindh with unreported psychological disturbance. Trichobezoar almost exclusively occur in females with an underlying psychiatric disorder. It has an insidious development of symptoms which accounts for its delayed presentation and large size at the time of diagnosis. They are associated with trichophagia (habit of compulsive hair eating) and are usually diagnosed on CT Scans or upper GI Endoscopy. They can give rise to complications like gastro-duodenal ulceration, haemorrhage, perforation, peritonitis or obstruction with a high rate of mortality. The treatment is endoscopic, laparoscopic or surgical removal and usually followed by psychiatric opinion. (author)

  3. "Gastric cytoprotection" is still relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Sandor

    2014-12-01

    Although Andre Robert's historic article on "gastric cytoprotection" in 1979 introduced this new name and concept, gastroprotective drugs (e.g. sofalcone, sucralfate), which prevent and/or accelerate healing of gastric ulcers without inhibiting acid secretion, were known in Japan before or around that time. But since Robert's studies were solely focused on prostaglandins (PG), they became the center of gastrointestinal research for more than 30 years. As endogenous products, PG were implicated in mediating the gastroprotective effect of other drugs such as sofalcone and sucralfate, despite that the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin diminished but never abolished gastroprotection by other drugs. Another group of endogenous substances, that is, sulfhydryls (SH), investigated in parallel with PG, also seem to play a mechanistic role in gastroprotection, especially since SH alkylators like N-ethylmaleimide counteract virtually any form of gastroprotection. In Robert's terms of "prevention of chemically induced acute mucosal lesions," so far no single mechanism could explain the beneficial effects of diverse protective agents, but I argue that these two endogenous substances (i.e. PG, SH), in addition to histamine, are the main mechanistic mediators of acute gastroprotection: PG and histamine, because as mediators of acute inflammation, they increase vascular permeability (VP), and SH scavenge free radicals. This is contrary to the search for a single mechanism of action, long focused on enhanced secretion of mucus and/or bicarbonate that may contribute but cannot explain all forms of gastroprotection. Nevertheless, based on research work of the last 30 years, in part from our lab, a new mechanistic explanation of gastroprotection may be formulated: it's a complex but orderly and evolution-based physiologic response of the gastric mucosa under pathologic conditions. Namely, one of the first physiologic defense responses of any organ is inflammation that starts with

  4. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors affecting gastric proton pump expression and acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles E; Beeson, Craig; Suarez, Giovanni; Peek, Richard M; Backert, Steffen; Smolka, Adam J

    2015-08-01

    Acute Helicobacter pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells and human gastric biopsies represses H,K-ATPase α subunit (HKα) gene expression and inhibits acid secretion, causing transient hypochlorhydria and supporting gastric H. pylori colonization. Infection by H. pylori strains deficient in the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI) genes cagL, cagE, or cagM, which do not transfer CagA into host cells or induce interleukin-8 secretion, does not inhibit HKα expression, nor does a cagA-deficient strain that induces IL-8. To test the hypothesis that virulence factors other than those mediating CagA translocation or IL-8 induction participate in HKα repression by activating NF-κB, AGS cells transfected with HKα promoter-Luc reporter constructs containing an intact or mutated NF-κB binding site were infected with wild-type H. pylori strain 7.13, isogenic mutants lacking cag PAI genes responsible for CagA translocation and/or IL-8 induction (cagA, cagζ, cagε, cagZ, and cagβ), or deficient in genes encoding two peptidoglycan hydrolases (slt and cagγ). H. pylori-induced AGS cell HKα promoter activities, translocated CagA, and IL-8 secretion were measured by luminometry, immunoblotting, and ELISA, respectively. Human gastric biopsy acid secretion was measured by microphysiometry. Taken together, the data showed that HKα repression is independent of IL-8 expression, and that CagA translocation together with H. pylori transglycosylases encoded by slt and cagγ participate in NF-κB-dependent HKα repression and acid inhibition. The findings are significant because H. pylori factors other than CagA and IL-8 secretion are now implicated in transient hypochlorhydria which facilitates gastric colonization and potential triggering of epithelial progression to neoplasia.

  5. Human gastric mucins differently regulate Helicobacter pylori proliferation, gene expression and interactions with host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma C Skoog

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori colonizes the mucus niche of the gastric mucosa and is a risk factor for gastritis, ulcers and cancer. The main components of the mucus layer are heavily glycosylated mucins, to which H. pylori can adhere. Mucin glycosylation differs between individuals and changes during disease. Here we have examined the H. pylori response to purified mucins from a range of tumor and normal human gastric tissue samples. Our results demonstrate that mucins from different individuals differ in how they modulate both proliferation and gene expression of H. pylori. The mucin effect on proliferation varied significantly between samples, and ranged from stimulatory to inhibitory, depending on the type of mucins and the ability of the mucins to bind to H. pylori. Tumor-derived mucins and mucins from the surface mucosa had potential to stimulate proliferation, while gland-derived mucins tended to inhibit proliferation and mucins from healthy uninfected individuals showed little effect. Artificial glycoconjugates containing H. pylori ligands also modulated H. pylori proliferation, albeit to a lesser degree than human mucins. Expression of genes important for the pathogenicity of H. pylori (babA, sabA, cagA, flaA and ureA appeared co-regulated in response to mucins. The addition of mucins to co-cultures of H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells protected the viability of the cells and modulated the cytokine production in a manner that differed between individuals, was partially dependent of adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric cells, but also revealed that other mucin factors in addition to adhesion are important for H. pylori-induced host signaling. The combined data reveal host-specific effects on proliferation, gene expression and virulence of H. pylori due to the gastric mucin environment, demonstrating a dynamic interplay between the bacterium and its host.

  6. The relationship between gastric motility and nausea: gastric prokinetic agents as treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Gareth J; Broad, John; Andrews, Paul L R

    2013-09-01

    Nausea is one of a cluster of symptoms described subjectively by patients with delayed gastric emptying. The mechanisms and treatments are unclear (anti-emetic drugs are not fully effective against nausea). Can nausea be relieved by stimulating gastric emptying? Physostigmine (together with atropine) has been shown experimentally to stimulate gastric motility, relieve nausea and restore normal gastric motility. Is this mimicked by gastric prokinetic drugs? The answer is complicated by mixed pharmacology. Metoclopramide increases gastric motility by activating myenteric 5-HT4 receptors but also directly inhibits vomiting via D2 and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism; relationships between increased gastric motility and relief from nausea are therefore unclear. Similarly, the D2 receptor antagonist domperidone has direct anti-emetic activity. Nevertheless, more selective 5-HT4 and motilin receptor agonists (erythromycin, directly stimulating gastric motility) inhibit vomiting in animals; low doses of erythromycin can also relieve symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. Ghrelin stimulates gastric motility and appetite mostly via vagus-dependent pathways, and inhibits vomiting in animals. To date, ghrelin receptor activation has failed to consistently improve gastric emptying or symptoms in patients with gastroparesis. We conclude that nausea can be relieved by gastric prokinetic drugs, but more clinical studies are needed using drugs with selective activity. Other mechanisms (e.g. ghrelin, vagal and central pathways, influencing a mechanistic continuum between appetite and nausea) also require exploration. These and other issues will be further explored in a forthcoming special issue of the European Journal of Pharmacology, which focusses on mechanisms of nausea and vomiting.

  7. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relativelynew research field, with convincing results mostlystemming from Asian countries. The use of the roboticsurgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure,which is also easier to learn, sets the background fora wider spread of minimally invasive technique in thetreatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover theliterature published so far, analyzing the pros and consof robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining studyquestions.

  8. [Gastric heterotopia of rectum: a rare entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jamira; Cabezuelo, Lourdes; Rodrigues, Adriano; Costa, Nascimento; Cipriano, Maria Augusta

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa is an extremely rare condition; in the anorectal region only a very few cases were described up to now. The authors report a case of a 46-year-old woman, asymptomatic, to whom a massive recess was discovered in the rectum, at 12 cm of the anal verge; a bottom flat lesion with 1.5 cm of diameter revealed a focus of normal appearing fundic-type gastric mucosa at histology.

  9. Totally Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Theodorous, Arianne N.; Train, William W.; Goldfarb, Michael A.; Borao, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Recent studies have supported minimally invasive techniques as a viable alternative to open surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer. The goal of this study is to review our institution's experience with totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of both early- and advanced-stage gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to examine the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy performed at Monmouth Medical Center between May 2003 a...

  10. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  11. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Ostadrahimi; Jabiz Modaresi; Abdolrasoul Safaiyan; Mohammad H Somi; Aida Ghaffari

    2012-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apop...

  12. Pathological characteristics of gastric leiomyoblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Feng Huang; Chun-Mei Wang; Bo-Rong Pan; Xiao-Wen Dai; Li Fang; Jia-Ji Yang; Hua Yu; Jun Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the pathological characteristics of gastric leiomyoblastoma.METHODS: All tissues were obtained during surgery or gastroscopy. Tissue specimens for examination by light microscope were 1 cm×1 cm×1 cm in size, fixed in 40 g/L neutral buffered formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The fresh tissues obtained for electron microscopy were 1 mm×1 mm×1 mm in size,and fixed in phosphate buffered 30 g/L glutaraldehyde,postfixed in 10 g/L osmium tetroxide and dehydrated in graded alcohol, embebbed in Epon 812. Ultrathin sections of 50 nm were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and examined under a JEM-2000 EX transmission electron microscope.RESULTS: The most important histopathological feature of leiomyoblastoma was the predominance of large, rounded or polygonal cells with characteristic perinuclear clear zone in cytoplasms. The tumor cells arranged in patch, cell junction or junctional complex could be found occasionally between cells under electron microscope. Most of the neoplastic cytoplasms were filled with myofilaments, dense bodies, and dense patches. Rough endoplasmic reticulum dilatated as lakes, and large quantities of protein secretions of intermediate electron density were found in the dilated cisternae. Intracisternal segregation could also be found.The nuclei were round or oval, and anomalous nuclei were found in part of cells.CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of gastric leiomyoblastoma can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The clear appearance of tumor cells is due to the dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, not fat droplets, glycogens or mucus in cytoplasm.

  13. Expression of gastric cancer—associated MG7 antigen in gastric cancer,precancerous lesions and H.pylori—associated gastric diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-LiGuo; MingDong; LanWang; Li-PingSun; YuanYuan

    2002-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between the antigen MG7 antigen expression and gastric cancer as well as precancerous condition;to study the relationship between the MG7 antigen expression and H.pyiori infection in benign gastric lesions in order to find out the effect of H.pylori infection on the process of gastric cancer development.

  14. Effect of DNA type on response of DNA biosensor for carcinogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nor Diyana bt. Md.; Heng, Lee Yook; Surif, Salmijah; Lazim, Azwani Mat

    2013-11-01

    Carcinogens are cancer causing chemicals that can bind to DNA and cause damage to the DNA. These chemicals are available everywhere including in water, air, soil and food. Therefore, a sensor that can detect the presence of these chemicals will be a very useful tool. Since carcinogens bind to DNA, DNA can be used as the biological element in a biosensor. This study has utilized different types of DNA in a biosensor for carcinogen detection. The DNAs include double stranded calf thymus DNA, single stranded calf thymus DNA and guanine rich single stranded DNA. The modified SPE was exposed to a carcinogen followed by interaction with methylene blue which acts as the electroactive indicator. The SPE was then analysed using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Optimization studies were conducted for MB concentration and accumulation time, DNA concentration, as well as effect of buffer concentration, buffer pH and ionic strength. The performance of the biosensor was tested on a group 1 carcinogen, formaldehyde. The results indicated that the usage of guanine rich single stranded DNA also gives higher response as carcinogens prefer to bind with guanine compared to other bases.

  15. A comprehensive review of the carcinogenic and anticarcinogenic potential of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bley, Keith; Boorman, Gary; Mohammad, Bashir; McKenzie, Donald; Babbar, Sunita

    2012-08-01

    Human exposure to capsaicin, the most abundant pungent chili pepper component, is ubiquitous. Evaluation of capsaicin's carcinogenic potential has produced variable results in in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity assays. The capsaicin tested in older studies was often from pepper plant extracts and included other capsaicinoids and diverse impurities. Recent studies utilizing high-purity capsaicin and standardized protocols provide evidence that the genotoxic and carcinogenic potential of capsaicin is quite low and that the purity of capsaicin is important. Several small epidemiological studies suggest a link between capsaicin consumption and stomach or gall bladder cancer, but contamination of capsaicin-containing foods with known carcinogens renders their interpretation problematic. The postulated ability of capsaicin metabolites to damage DNA and promote carcinogenesis remains unsupported. Anticancer activities of capsaicin have been widely reported, as it inhibits the activity of carcinogens and induces apoptosis in numerous cancer cell lines in vitro and explanted into rodents. Diverse mechanisms have been postulated for capsaicin's anticancer properties. One hypothesis is that inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes-particularly CYP2E1-retards carcinogen activation but is contradicted by the low potency of capsaicin for CYP inhibition. The potential for dietary capsaicin to act as a chemopreventative is now widely postulated. PMID:22563012

  16. Current practice of gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoon Young Choi; Ji Yeong An; Hyung-Il Kim; Jae-Ho Cheong; Woo Jin Hyung; Sung Hoon Noh

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this review was to overview the current practice of gastric cancer treatment including surgery and other adjuvant modalities.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and main guidelines in the East and West.Study selection Articles with high level of evidence or current best evidence in each issue were selected to be reviewed.Results Although varied adjuvant modalities have been proved to be benefit for treating gastric cancer,surgery is still the most important treatment strategy against gastric cancer.Actively adapting to new technology is important but it should be balanced with an effort to establish sound scientific rationale that adheres to oncologic principles.Conclusions Future treatment of gastric cancer will be focused on tailored,personalized therapy.For achieving it,collaboration across disciplines is essential.Also the philosophy of caring for the patients with gastric cancer should be rooted in the realization of true patient benefit regardless of who is providing the care.With these philosophies,we can shift the scientific and technological advances toward triumph over gastric cancer.

  17. Lymph Node Metastasis of Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Tomonori, E-mail: tomakagi@med.oita-u.ac.jp [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Shiraishi, Norio [Surgical division, Center for community medicine, Oita University, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Oita 879-5593 (Japan); Kitano, Seigo [Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, 1-1 Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Oita 879-5593 (Japan)

    2011-04-26

    Despite a decrease in incidence in recent decades, gastric cancer is still one of the most common causes of cancer death worldwide [1]. In areas without screening for gastric cancer, it is diagnosed late and has a high frequency of nodal involvement [1]. Even in early gastric cancer (EGC), the incidence of lymph node (LN) metastasis exceeds 10%; it was reported to be 14.1% overall and was 4.8 to 23.6% depending on cancer depth [2]. It is important to evaluate LN status preoperatively for proper treatment strategy; however, sufficient results are not being obtained using various modalities. Surgery is the only effective intervention for cure or long-term survival. It is possible to cure local disease without distant metastasis by gastrectomy and LN dissection. However, there is no survival benefit from surgery for systemic disease with distant metastasis such as para-aortic lymph node metastasis [3]. Therefore, whether the disease is local or systemic is an important prognostic indicator for gastric cancer, and the debate continues over the importance of extended lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. The concept of micro-metastasis has been described as a prognostic factor [4-9], and the biological mechanisms of LN metastasis are currently under study [10-12]. In this article, we review the status of LN metastasis including its molecular mechanisms and evaluate LN dissection for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  18. Quality of life in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ad A. Kaptein; Satoshi Morita; Junichi Sakamoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the empirical research on assessing quality of life (QOL) in patients with gastric carcinoma. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in MedLine from 1966 to February 2004. RESULTS: Twenty-six studies were identified. QOL was used as an outcome measure in virtually all identified studies, such as those examining the effects of gastric cancer and various medical or surgical treatments in the patients. QOL was assessed mainly with generic measures; the social dimensions of QOL were largely neglected. The lack of gastric cancer-specific QOL measures hampers QOL research up to now. The gastric cancer-specific EORTCQLQ-STO22 and the FACT-Ga are important additions to the arsenal of disease-specific QOL measures. In most of the studies, the label QOL is used for questionnaires, which only assess symptoms or performance status, or are physician-reported rather than patient-reported outcomes. CONCLUSION: QOL in patients with gastric cancer deserves more systematic studies, especially as one of the outcome measures in randomized clinical trials. Results of studies that include QOL in patients with gastric cancer should be applied in clinical care, which aims at improving QOL of these patients.

  19. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  20. Clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiing-Chyuan; Huo, Teh-Ia; Hou, Ming-Chih; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Li, Chung-Pin; Lin, Han-Chieh; Chang, Full-Young; Lee, Fa-Yauh

    2012-11-15

    Clopidogrel is not safe enough for the gastric mucosa in patients with high risk of peptic ulcer. This study aimed to explore if clopidogrel delays gastric ulcer healing and elucidate the involved mechanisms. Gastric ulcer was induced in rats and the ulcer size, mucosal epithelial cell proliferation of the ulcer margin, expression of growth factors [epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor] and their receptors, and signal transduction pathways for cell proliferation were measured and compared between the clopidogrel-treated group and untreated controls. For the in vitro part, rat gastric mucosal epithelial cell line (RGM-1 cells) was used to establish EGF receptor over-expressed cells. Cell proliferation and molecular change under EGF treatment (10ng/ml) with and without clopidogrel (10(-6)M) were demonstrated. Ulcer size was significantly larger in the clopidogrel-treated group compared to the control and mucosal epithelial cell proliferation of the ulcer margin was significantly decreased in the clopidogrel-treated group (Pulcer-induced gastric epithelial cell proliferation and ulcer-stimulated expressions of EGF receptor and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (PERK) at the ulcer margin (Pgastric ulcer healing in rats via inhibiting gastric epithelial cell proliferation, at least by inhibition of the EGF receptor-ERK signal transduction pathway.

  1. Synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mirko Muroni; Francesco D'Angelo; Massimo Pezzatini; Simone Sebastiani; Samantha Noto; Emanuela Pilozzi; Giovanni Ramacciato

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between gastric and pancreatic carcinoma is a relatively rare condition. In gastric carcinoma patients, the prevalence of second tumors varies 2.8% to 6.8% according to the reported statistics. Gastric cancer associated with pancreatic cancer is uncommon. METHODS: We report a case of a 73-year-old patient hospitalized for vomiting and weight loss. Esophagogastro-duodenoscopy demonstrated an ulcerative lesion of the gastric antrum. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance showed a gastric thickening in the antral and pyloric portion and a nodular mass (3×1.7 cm) in the uncinate portion of the pancreas. RESULTS: The patient underwent pancreaticoduoden-ectomy according to Whipple regional typeⅠFortner. Histological examination of the specimen demonstrated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach and a poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. CONCLUSIONS: Long survival is rare in patients with associated gastric and pancreatic cancer. Surgical resection remains the only potentially curative treatment.

  2. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Jun, E-mail: junnis@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi [Department of Microbiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enyacho, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro [Department of Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Oga, Atsunori [Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yanai, Hideo [Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1 Sotoura, Chofu, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-8510 (Japan); Sakaida, Isao [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  3. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation

  4. Pulmonary Resection for Metastatic Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hirohiko; Atari, Maiko; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Nakajima, Yuki; Kinosita, Hiroyasu; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary metastasectomy has come to be recognized as an effective treatment for selected patients with some malignancies. On the other hand, the role of pulmonary metastasectomy for gastric cancer is still unknown. Metastasectomy is rarely indicated in cases of pulmonary metastasis from gastric cancer, because in most cases, the metastasis occurs in the form of lymphangitic carcinomatosis and the lesions are numerous. The purpose of this study was to determine the surgical outcomes and prognostic factors for survival after pulmonary metastasectomy. Methods: From 1985 to 2012, 10 patients underwent pulmonary metastasectomy for gastric cancer at Saitama Cancer Center, Japan. The overall survival rate was examined by the Kaplan-Meier method and univariate analysis was carried out to identify prognostic factors. Results: The overall 3-year survival rate was 30.0%. The median follow-up period was 26.8 months (range, 6.5–96.6) after the pulmonary metastasectomy. Univariate analysis revealed an advanced pathological stage of the gastric cancer and occurrence of extrapulmonary metastasis before the pulmonary metastasectomy as unfavorable prognostic factors. Conclusion: Pulmonary metastasectomy should be considered in selected patients with lung metastasis from gastric cancer. An advanced pathological stage of gastric cancer and occurrence of extrapulmonary metastasis before the pulmonary metastasectomy are unfavorable prognostic factors. PMID:27118522

  5. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  6. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Horiguchi, Noriyuki; Kawamura, Tomohiko; Okubo, Masaaki; Ishizuka, Takamitsu; Nagasaka, Mitsuo; Nakagawa, Yoshihito; Ohmiya, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Background The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features. Methods A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs) diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored. Results The majority of EGCs (63/64) were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, Pgastric ulcers. Conclusions Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27706195

  7. Helicobacter pyloriin gastric corpus of patients 20 years after partial gastric resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Kirsch; Ahmed Madisch; Petja Piehler; Ekkehard Bayerd(o)rffer; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis in patients after partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer, and to compare the severity of H pylori-positive gastritis in the corpus mucosa between partial gastrectomy patients and matched controls.METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 57 patients after partial gastric resection for histological examination using hematoxylin/eosin and Warthin-Starry staining. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Severity of corpus gastritis was compared between H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients and H pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients matched for age and gender.RESULTS: In partial gastrectomy patients, surgery was performed 20 years (median) prior to evaluation. In 25 patients (43.8%) H pylori was detected histologically in the gastric remnant. Gastric atrophy was more common in H pylori-positive compared to H pylori-negative partial gastrectomy patients (P<0.05). The severity of corpus gastritis was significantly lower in H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the activity of gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The long-term prevalence of H pylorigastritis in the gastric corpus of patients who underwent partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer disease is comparable to the general population. The expression of H pylori gastritis in the gastric remnant does not resemble the gastric cancer phenotype.

  8. Synchronous and metachronous occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma: A review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erhan Hamaloglu; Serdar Topaloglu; Arif Ozdemir; Ahmet Ozenc

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of both primary gastric lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma in the same patient is a rare entity. The possible causative factors of synchronous or metachronous occurrence of both malignancies and varieties in the treatment modalities are reviewed according to published cases in English language medical literature.

  9. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    2009-01-01

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Sixte

  10. Acute gastric ulcer perforation in a 35 weeks' nulliparous patient with gastric banding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erez, Offer; Maymon, Eli; Mazor, Moshe

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of a primiparous patient at 35 weeks' gestation who had had laparoscopic gastric banding, and who presented to labor and delivery with protracted vomiting followed by an acute abdomen and fetal distress. An emergency surgery revealed acute gastric ulcer perforation. This complication, although rare, should be considered.

  11. Gastric bezoar after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertugrul, Ismail; Tardum Tardu, Ali; Tolan, Kerem; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Karagul, Servet; Kirmizi, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to present a patient with gastric pouch bezoar after having a bariatric surgery. Presentation of case Sixty-three years old morbid obese female had a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery 14 months ago. She has lost 88% of her excess body mass index; but started to suffer from nausea, abdominal distention and vomiting lately, especially for the last two months. The initial evaluation by endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) and an upper gastrointestinal contrast series overlooked the pathology in the gastric pouch and did not display any abnormality. However, a second endoscopy revealed a 5 cm in diameter phytobezoar in the gastric pouch which was later endoscopically removed. After the bezoar removal, her complaints relieved completely. Discussion The gastric bezoars may be confused with the other pathologies because of the dyspeptic complaints of these patients. The patients that had a bariatric surgery; are more prone to bezoar formation due to their potential eating disorders and because of the gastro-enterostomy made to a small gastric pouch after the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Conclusion Possibility of a bezoar formation should be kept in mind in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients who has nausea and vomiting complaints. Removal of the bezoar provides a dramatic improvement in the complaints of these patients. PMID:27107501

  12. Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Xinxin; Yang, Dan; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    The present study estimated the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic trace elements [mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As)] due to consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China, and the associated potential health risks posed by these contaminants. The health risks posed by the contaminants were assessed using a risk quotient of the fish consumption rate to the maximum allowable fish consumption rate considering the contaminants for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect endpoints. The results showed that fish consumption would not pose non-cancer risks. However, some species would cause a cancer risk. Relative risks of the contaminants were calculated to investigate the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. As a result, in view of the contaminants for carcinogenic effects, As was the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. However, when non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants were considered, Hg posed the highest risk. The risk caused by PBDEs was negligible. The results demonstrated that traditional contaminants, such as As, Hg, DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites), and PCBs, require more attention in Taihu Lake than the other target contaminants. PMID:24727049

  13. Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Xinxin; Yang, Dan; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    The present study estimated the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic trace elements [mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As)] due to consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China, and the associated potential health risks posed by these contaminants. The health risks posed by the contaminants were assessed using a risk quotient of the fish consumption rate to the maximum allowable fish consumption rate considering the contaminants for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect endpoints. The results showed that fish consumption would not pose non-cancer risks. However, some species would cause a cancer risk. Relative risks of the contaminants were calculated to investigate the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. As a result, in view of the contaminants for carcinogenic effects, As was the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. However, when non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants were considered, Hg posed the highest risk. The risk caused by PBDEs was negligible. The results demonstrated that traditional contaminants, such as As, Hg, DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites), and PCBs, require more attention in Taihu Lake than the other target contaminants.

  14. Comparison of the expression profiles induced by genotoxic and nongenotoxic carcinogens in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger-Ziegelbauer, Heidrun [Bayer Healthcare AG, Department of Molecular and Genetic Toxicology, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal (Germany)]. E-mail: heidrun.ellinger-ziegelbauer@bayerhealthcare.com; Stuart, Barry [Bayer Crop Science, Department of Toxicology, Stilwell, KS (United States); Wahle, Brad [Bayer Crop Science, Department of Toxicology, Stilwell, KS (United States); Bomann, Werner [Bayer Crop Science, Department of Toxicology, Stilwell, KS (United States); Ahr, Hans Juergen [Bayer Healthcare AG, Department of Molecular and Genetic Toxicology, Aprather Weg 18a, 42096 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2005-08-04

    Application of recently developed gene expression techniques using microarrays in toxicological studies (toxicogenomics) facilitate the interpretation of a toxic compound's mode of action and may also allow the prediction of selected toxic effects based on gene expression changes. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated whether carcinogens at doses known to induce liver tumors in the 2-year rat bioassay deregulate characteristic sets of genes in a short term in vivo study and whether these deregulated genes represent defined biological pathways. Male Wistar rats were dosed with the four nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogens methapyrilene (MPy, 60 mg/kg/day), diethylstilbestrol (DES, 10 mg/kg/day), Wy-14643 (Wy, 60 mg/kg/day), and piperonylbutoxide (PBO, 1200 mg/kg/day). After 1, 3, 7, and 14 days, the livers were taken for histopathological evaluation and for analysis of the gene expression profiles on Affymetrix RG{sub U}34A arrays. The expression profile of the four nongenotoxic carcinogens were compared to the profiles of the four genotoxic carcinogens 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), dimethylnitrosamine (DMN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and aflatoxin B1 (AB1) from a similar study reported previously. By using statistical and clustering tools characteristically deregulated genes were extracted and functionally classified. Distinct cellular pathways were affected by the nongenotoxic carcinogens compared to the genotoxic carcinogens which at least partly correlated with the two-stage model of carcinogenesis. Characteristic to genotoxic carcinogens were a DNA damage response and the activation of proliferative and survival signaling. Nongenotoxic carcinogens showed responses to oxidative DNA or protein damage, as well as cell cycle progression and signs of regeneration. Many of the gene alterations found with the nongenotoxic carcinogens imply compound-specific mechanisms. Although neither a single gene nor a single pathway will be

  15. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  16. Inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of cobalt sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, J R; Hailey, J R; Roycroft, J R; Haseman, J K; Sills, R C; Grumbein, S L; Mellick, P W; Chou, B J

    1999-05-01

    Cobalt sulfate is a water-soluble cobalt salt with a variety of industrial and agricultural uses. Several cobalt compounds have induced sarcomas at injection sites in animals, and reports have suggested that exposure to cobalt-containing materials may cause lung cancer in humans. The present studies were done because no adequate rodent carcinogenicity studies had been performed with a soluble cobalt salt using a route relevant to occupational exposures. Groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to aerosols containing 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/m3 cobalt sulfate hexahydrate, 6 h/day, 5 days/week, for 104 weeks. Survival and body weights of exposed rats and mice were generally unaffected by the exposures. In rats, proteinosis, alveolar epithelial metaplasia, granulomatous alveolar inflammation, and interstitial fibrosis were observed in the lung in all exposed groups. Nonneoplastic lesions of the nose and larynx were also attributed to exposure to all concentrations of cobalt sulfate. In 3.0 mg/m3 male rats and in female rats exposed to 1.0 or 3.0 mg/m3, the incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms were increased over those in the control groups. Lung tumors occurred with significant positive trends in both sexes. The incidences of adrenal pheochromocytoma in 1.0 mg/m3 male rats and in 3.0 mg/m3 female rats were increased. Nonneoplastic lesions of the respiratory tract were less severe in mice than in rats. In mice, alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms in 3.0 mg/m3 males and females were greater than those in the controls, and lung tumors occurred with significantly positive trends. Male mice had liver lesions consistent with a Helicobacter hepaticus infection. Incidences of liver hemangiosarcomas were increased in exposed groups of male mice; however, because of the infection, no conclusion could be reached concerning an association between liver hemangiosarcomas and cobalt sulfate. In summary, exposure to cobalt sulfate by inhalation

  17. Diagnoses of gastric cancer and other gastric diseases by serum pepsinogen I and Ⅱ levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoZhi-Jian; ChengZhao-Ming; 等

    1998-01-01

    Serum pepsinogens I and Ⅱ(PGI,PGⅡ) levels were determined by PGI and PGⅡ-RIA kits in 84 healthy controls and 128 patients of gastric diseases including 42 patients with gastric cancer.The results showed peptic ulcer cases had elevated PGI and PGⅡ levels.The atrophic gastritis cases had low PGI levels and the gastric cancer cases had low PGI and low PGI/PGⅡ ratio.Using the cut-off values of PGI<35μg/L and PGI/PGⅡ<1.5 for clinical purpose,the sensitivity andspecificity of the test for gastric cancer was 73% and 78%,respectively.Combined with endoscope examination,the serum PGI and PGⅡ levels are valuable for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  18. Hydrogen Metabolism in Helicobacter pylori Plays a Role in Gastric Carcinogenesis through Facilitating CagA Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Benoit, Stéphane L.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Dominguez, Ricardo L.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Peek, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A known virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori that augments gastric cancer risk is the CagA cytotoxin. A carcinogenic derivative strain, 7.13, that has a greater ability to translocate CagA exhibits much higher hydrogenase activity than its parent noncarcinogenic strain, B128. A Δhyd mutant strain with deletion of hydrogenase genes was ineffective in CagA translocation into human gastric epithelial AGS cells, while no significant attenuation of cell adhesion was observed. The quinone reductase inhibitor 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO) was used to specifically inhibit the H2-utilizing respiratory chain of outer membrane-permeabilized bacterial cells; that level of inhibitor also greatly attenuated CagA translocation into AGS cells, indicating the H2-generated transmembrane potential is a contributor to toxin translocation. The Δhyd strain showed a decreased frequency of DNA transformation, suggesting that H. pylori hydrogenase is also involved in energizing the DNA uptake apparatus. In a gerbil model of infection, the ability of the Δhyd strain to induce inflammation was significantly attenuated (at 12 weeks postinoculation), while all of the gerbils infected with the parent strain (7.13) exhibited a high level of inflammation. Gastric cancer developed in 50% of gerbils infected with the wild-type strain 7.13 but in none of the animals infected with the Δhyd strain. By examining the hydrogenase activities from well-defined clinical H. pylori isolates, we observed that strains isolated from cancer patients (n = 6) have a significantly higher hydrogenase (H2/O2) activity than the strains isolated from gastritis patients (n = 6), further supporting an association between H. pylori hydrogenase activity and gastric carcinogenesis in humans. PMID:27531909

  19. Novel effects of Helicobacter pylori CagA on key genes of gastric cancer signal transduction: a comparative transfection study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaziri, Farzam; Peerayeh, Shahin N; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Maghsoudi, Nader; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Siadat, Seyed D; Zali, Mohammad R

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is now recognized as a worldwide problem. Helicobacter pylori CagA is the first bacterial oncoprotein to be identified in relation to human cancer. Helicobacter pylori CagA is noted for structural diversity in its C-terminal region (contains EPIYA motifs), with which CagA interacts with numerous host cell proteins. Deregulation of host signaling by translocated bacterial proteins provides a new aspect of microbial-host cell interaction. The aim of this study is to compare the cellular effects of two different CagA EPIYA motifs on identified signaling pathways involve in gastric carcinogenesis. To investigate the effects of CagA protein carboxyl region variations on the transcription of genes involved in gastric epithelial carcinogenesis pathways, the eukaryotic vector carrying the cagA gene (ABC and ABCCC types) was transfected into gastric cancer cell line. The 42 identified key genes of signal transduction involved in gastric cancer were analyzed at the transcription level by real-time PCR. The results of real-time PCR provide us important clue that the ABCCC oncoprotein variant can change the fate of the cell completely different from ABC type. In fact, these result proposed that the ABCCC type can induce the intestinal metaplasia, IL-8, perturbation of Crk adaptor proteins, anti-apoptotic effect and carcinogenic effect more significantly than ABC type. These data support our hypothesis of a complex interaction of host cell and these two different H. pylori effector variants that determines host cellular fate.

  20. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  1. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  2. Qualitative and quantitative approaches in the dose-response assessment of genotoxic carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Shoji; Gi, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Matsumoto, Michiharu

    2016-05-01

    Qualitative and quantitative approaches are important issues in field of carcinogenic risk assessment of the genotoxic carcinogens. Herein, we provide quantitative data on low-dose hepatocarcinogenicity studies for three genotoxic hepatocarcinogens: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN). Hepatocarcinogenicity was examined by quantitative analysis of glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) positive foci, which are the preneoplastic lesions in rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the endpoint carcinogenic marker in the rat liver medium-term carcinogenicity bioassay. We also examined DNA damage and gene mutations which occurred through the initiation stage of carcinogenesis. For the establishment of points of departure (PoD) from which the cancer-related risk can be estimated, we analyzed the above events by quantitative no-observed-effect level and benchmark dose approaches. MeIQx at low doses induced formation of DNA-MeIQx adducts; somewhat higher doses caused elevation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquanosine levels; at still higher doses gene mutations occurred; and the highest dose induced formation of GST-P positive foci. These data indicate that early genotoxic events in the pathway to carcinogenesis showed the expected trend of lower PoDs for earlier events in the carcinogenic process. Similarly, only the highest dose of IQ caused an increase in the number of GST-P positive foci in the liver, while IQ-DNA adduct formation was observed with low doses. Moreover, treatment with DEN at low doses had no effect on development of GST-P positive foci in the liver. These data on PoDs for the markers contribute to understand whether genotoxic carcinogens have a threshold for their carcinogenicity. The most appropriate approach to use in low dose-response assessment must be approved on the basis of scientific judgment.

  3. Evaluation of Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huanlong Qin; Chaohong Lin; Xiulong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the proper sites and doses of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) for gastric carcinoma and the effects of this treatment.METHODS A total of 106 cases of stage Ⅰ- Ⅳ gastric carcinoma who received a D2 or D3 radical resection operation combined with IORT were analyzed. Sixty-seven patients with gastric cancer of the antrum and body received distal gastrectomy. The sites of irradiation were at the celiac artery and hepatoduodenal ligament area. Another 39 patients with carcinoma of the cardia and upper part of the gastric body and whole stomach received proximal gastrectomy or total gastrectomy. The sites of irradiation for this group were the upper margin of the pancreas and the regional paraaorta.The therapeutic effects (including survival and complications) of these 106cases who received a combined operation IORT (IORT group) were compared with 441 cases treated during the same time period by a radical resection operation alone (operation group).RESULTS The radiation dose below 30 Gy was safe. The therapeutic method of the operation combined with IORT did not prolong the survival time of patients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅳ gastric cancer, but the 5-year survival rates of patients with stage Ⅱ and Ⅲ gastric cancers were significantly improved.While the 5-year survival rates of the stage Ⅲ cancer patients receiving D2 resection combined with IORT had marked improvement, for those receiving a D3 radical resection, only the postoperative survival rates at 3 and 4 years of those cases in stages Ⅲ cancers were improved (P<0.005-0.001). The 5-year survival rate for those patients was raised only 4.7%(P>0.05).CONCLUSION The 5-year survival rates of patients with stages Ⅱ and Ⅲ gastric carcinoma who received a D2 lymphadenectomy combined with IORT were improved and had no influence on the postoperative complications and mortality.

  4. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Li-Ya Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial.The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect.Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015.Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H.pylori infection.About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H.pylori infection.Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H.pylori infection are under way.Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H.pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer;however, a population-based H.pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora.Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  5. Challenges of deciphering gastric cancer heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudler, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Gastric cancer is in decline in most developed countries; however, it still accounts for a notable fraction of global mortality and morbidity related to cancer. High-throughput methods are rapidly changing our view and understanding of the molecular basis of gastric carcinogenesis. Today, it is widely accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumour, of gastric adenocarcinomas present significant obstacles in elucidating specific biomarkers for early detection of the disease. Although genome-wide sequencing and gene expression studies have revealed the intricate nature of the molecular changes that occur in tumour landscapes, the collected data and results are complex and sometimes contradictory. Several aberrant molecules have already been tested in clinical trials, although their diagnostic and prognostic utilities have not been confirmed thus far. The gold standard for the detection of sporadic gastric cancer is still the gastric endoscopy, which is considered invasive. In addition, genome-wide association studies have confirmed that genetic variations are important contributors to increased cancer risk and could participate in the initiation of malignant transformation. This hypothesis could in part explain the late onset of sporadic gastric cancers. The elaborate interplay of polymorphic low penetrance genes and lifestyle and environmental risk factors requires additional research to decipher their relative impacts on tumorigenesis. The purpose of this article is to present details of the molecular heterogeneity of sporadic gastric cancers at the DNA, RNA, and proteome levels and to discuss issues relevant to the translation of basic research data to clinically valuable tools. The focus of this work is the identification of relevant molecular changes that could be detected non-invasively. PMID:26457012

  6. HER 2 Expression in Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenal Alikanoðlu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available     Aim: Even though gastric cancer incidence decline in many countries, it is still among the mostly witnessed cancers in the world. Gastric cancer is a biologically  heterogeneous disease with many genetic and epigenetic variations. Despite this heterogeneity of the illness, patients in same stages received similar treatments. This changes as transtuzumab shows survival advantages in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. Therefore it is important to know the rate of HER 2 expression in patients with gastric cancer. In this study, we examined the rate of HER 2 expression in patients with gastric cancer by immunohistochemical method. Material and Method: A total of 50 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent diagnosed at Antalya  Education and Research Hospital from 2008 to 2011 were enrolled in this study. Results: HER 2 expression of the 50 gastric carcinoma in tissue samples, 25 (50% were scored as 0, 11 (22% as 1, 7 (14% as 2, and 7 (14% as 3. The positive rate was   approximately 14% (7/50. The HER-2 status was not correlated with the TNM stage, lymph node status, distant metastasis and age ( p:0.344, p:0.315, p:0.181, p:0.96. The HER-2 status was correlated with sex (p:0.041. All of the HER-2 positive patients were male. Discussion: In our study only IHC method was performed and patients who had a score of 2+ were considered to have negative HER 2 expression. It is known that  some of the patients with breast cancer with a score of 2+ established HER 2  expression by FISH method. Therefore, we think that HER 2 expression ratio may differ from the values we have obtained.  

  7. Virulence Factors of Helicobacter pylori Responsible for Gastric Diseases in Mongolian Gerbil

    OpenAIRE

    Ogura, Keiji; MAEDA, SHIN; Nakao, Masafumi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Tada, Mayumi; Kyutoku, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Shiratori, Yasushi; Omata, Masao

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces various gastroduodenal diseases. We examined the role of two genes, vacA and cagE, in the gastric pathogenesis induced by H. pylori using a long-term (62 wk) animal model. Reportedly, both genes are associated with the virulence of H. pylori: vacA encodes vacuolating cytotoxin, and cagE, with other genes in the cag pathogenicity islands, encodes a type IV secretion system. Mongolian gerbils were challenged in this study by a wild-type TN2 strain and its i...

  8. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasniqi, Avdyl Selmon; Hoxha, Faton Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed. PMID:18855998

  9. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Avdyl Selmon Krasniqi; Faton Tatil Hoxha; Besnik Xhafer Bicaj; Shemsedin Isuf Hashani; Shpresa Mehmet Hasimja; Sadik Mal Kelmendi; Lumturije Hasan Gashi-Luci

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma which was successfully managed with removal, enucleation of lipoma, explorative gastrotomy and edge resection for histology check of gastric wall. The incidence of gastric lipoma, advanced diagnostic possibilities and their role in treatment modalities are discussed.

  10. Erythropoietin-induced proliferation of gastric mucosal cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuro Itoh; Masato Higuchi; Fumio Ishihata; Yushi Sudoh; Soichiro Miura; Yoshio Sawasaki; Kyoko Takeuchi; Shingo Kato; Nobuhiro Imai; Yoichiro Kato; Noriyuki Shibata; Makio Kobayashi; Yoshiyuki Moriguchi

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the localization of erythropoietin receptor on gastric specimens and characterize the effects of erythropoietin on the normal gastric epithelial proliferation using a porcine gastric epithelial cell culture model.METHODS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected by RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochermistry.Growth stimulation effects of erythropoietin on cultured gastric mucosal cells were determined by ELISA using bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU).RESULTS: Erythropoietin receptor was detected on cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells.Erythropoietin receptor was also detected histochemically at the base of gastric mucosal epithelium. BrdU assay demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in growth potential of cultured porcine gastric mucosal epithelial cells by administration of erythropoietin, as well as these effects were inhibited by administration of antierythropoietin antibody (P< 0.01).CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that erythropoietin has a potential to proliferate gastric mucosal epithelium via erythropoietin receptor.

  11. Expression and Clinical Significance of REGy in Gastric Cancer Tissue and Variously Differentiated Gastric Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Li; Tian Tian; Xiaoyi Wang; Fan Li; Guosheng Ren

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the REGy expression in gastric cancer tissue and gastric cancer cell lines of various differentiation levels and its clinical significance.METHODS Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of REGy protein in 70 specimens of gastric cancer and 30 specimens of normal gastric mucosa. The relationship between the expression of REGy protein and the biological behaviors of gastric cancer was analyzed. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA level and the protein expression of REGγ in normal gastric cell line GES-1, well differentiated gastric cancer cell line MKN-28, moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 and poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line BGC-823.RESULTS The expression rate of REGγprotein in gastric cancer tissue (52/70, 74.29%) was significantly higher than that in normal gastric tissue (12/30, 40%) (P<0.01). The expression rate of REGywas correlated with tumor size (P<0.01), lymph node metastasis (P<0.05), differentiation degree (P<0.01), infiltration depth (P<0.01)and distant metastasis (P<0.05). RT-PCR analysis showed that theexpression of REGγ mRNA was 0.459±0.079 in the normal gastric mucosa cell line, 0.588±0.118 in the well differentiated gastric cancer cell line, 0.715±0.066 in the moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line, and 0.873±0.099 in the poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line, showing a negative correla- tion between REGγmRNA expression and differentiation level (P <0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the expression of REGy protein was 0.712±0.065 in the normal gastric mucosa cell line, 1.176±0.185 in the well differentiated gastric cancer cell line, 1.533 ±0.127 in the moderately differentiated gastric cancer cell line, and 2.061±0.398 in the poorly differentiated gastric cancer cell line, showing a negative correlation between REGγprotein expression and differentiation level (P<0.05).CONCLUSION REGγ is expressed in gastric cancer

  12. Carcinogenic risk after radioiodine ablation for early papillary thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Long-term survival curves after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation (RIA B) for the treatment of early papillary thyroid cancer (EPTC) are comparable to those for healthy population. However, potential harms of RAIB are still in question considering carcinogenesis as most significant late stochastic effect of radiation. Uncertainties exist with regard to the organ radio-sensitivity, age, sex, race, civilization differences, dose-rate, radiation quality etc. We accepted ICRP simplified pessimistic model to predict radiogenic cancer probability (RCP) after RIAB. 183 patients of cancer thyroid treated with iodine-131 to destroy remnant thyroid after nearly total thyroidectomy have been evaluated. The doses in nine organ and tissue at risk have been estimated by the dosimetric model of T. Smith and E. Edmonds for patients treated once with average activity of 3.1 GBq and twice with an average dose of 6.2 GBq. Incidence of major RCP following RIAB is 1.7-3.4 % for fatal stomach cancer, 0.5-0.9 % for fatal bladder cancer and 0.1-0.2 % for malignancies of salivary glands. RCP significantly goes down for secondary breast and ovarian cancer (0.05-0.03%). The number of predicted fatal and non-fatal cancer in the whole treated group of 183 patients is 6.6 cases with prediction of 4 gastric and 1 bladder cancer but none was observed during the follow-up period of 7 to 28 years. The overall risk for all other organs is below one case (0.8). One patient developed multiple myeloma and two salivary glands tumours observed 9-13 years after RIAB. Five synchronous and metachronous secondary breast cancer were also registered, but they could be non-radiogenic (collective RCP = 0.08 cases). Giving maximum radical treatment, we achieved 98% 20-years survival for patients of EPTC. Such a prognosis appears exaggerated, may be due to the use of very pessimistic ICRP model. We also evaluated the magnitude of the predicted lethality from radiogenic cancer and compared it with

  13. Pathogenicty and immune prophylaxis of cag pathogenicity island gene knockout homogenic mutants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-Jian Lin; Jing Xue; Yang Bai; Ji-De Wang; Ya-Li Zhang; Dian-Yuan Zhou

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the role of cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in the pathogenicity and immune prophylaxis of H pyloriinfection.METHODS: Three pairs of H pylori including 3 strains of cagPAI positive wildtype bacteria and their cagPAI knockout homogenic mutants were utilized. H pylori binding to the gastric epithelial cells was analyzed by flow cytometry assays.Apoptosis of gastric epithelial cells induced by H pylori was determined by ELISA assay. Prophylaxis effect of the wildtype and mutant strains was compared by immunization with the sonicate of the bacteria into mice model.RESULTS: No difference was found in the apoptasis between cagPAI positive and knockout H pylori strains in respective of the ability in the binding to gastric epithelial cells as well as the induction of apoptosis. Both types of the bacteria were able to protect the mice from the infection of H pylori after immunization, with no difference between them regarding to the protection rate as well as the stimulation of the proliferation of splenocytes of the mice.CONCLUSION: The role of cagPAI in the pathogenicity and prophylaxis of H pylori infection remains to be cleared.

  14. Changes of gastric and intestinal blood flow, serum phospholipase A2 and interleukin-1β in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Xin Zhang; Sheng-Chun Dang; Jian-Guo Qu; Xue-Qing Wang; Guo-Zuo Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relationship between gastric and intestinal microcirculatory impairment and inflammatory mediators released in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP).METHODS: A total of 64 rats were randomized into control group and ANP group. ANP model was induced by injection of 5% sodium taurocholate under the pancreatic membrane.Radioactive biomicrosphere technique was used to measure the gastric and intestinal tissue blood flow at 2 and 12 h after the induction of ANP, meanwhile serum phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities and interleukin-1β levels were determined. Pathologic changes in pancreas, gastric and intestinal mucosae were studied. RESULTS: The gastric blood flow in ANP group (0.62±0.06 (P<0.01) at 2 and 12 h after induction of ANP. The intestinal blood flow in ANP group (0.80±0.07 and (P<0.01). Serum PLA2 activities (94.29±9.96 and 103.71± 14.40) U/L and IL-1β levels (0.78±0.13 and 0.83±0.20) μg/L in ANP group were higher than those in control group (65.27±10.52 and 66.63±9.81) U/L, (0.32±0.06 and 0.33±0.07) μg/L (P<0.01). At 2 and 12 h after introduction of the model, typical pathologic changes were found in ANP. Compared with control group, the gastric and intestinal mucosal pathologic changes were aggravated significantly (P<0.01) at 12 h after induction of ANP. Gastric and intestinal mucosal necrosis, multiple ulcer and hemorrhage occurred.CONCLUSION: Decrease of gastric and intestinal blood flow and increase of inflammatory mediators occur simultaneously early in ANP, both of them are important pathogenic factors for gastric and intestinal mucosal injury in ANP.

  15. -------------Gastric malignancy : Clinicopathologic spectrum and relationship to helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satti Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper gastrointestinal cancer particularly of stomach is a relatively frequent form of cancer. Gastric H pylori infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of both gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Gastric carcinoma has been addressed by many articles in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and the Middle East, while only a few addressed gastric lymphoma. Aim of the study: To investigate the relative frequency of gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma and their association with H pylori infection in endoscoped patients. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of patients endoscoped at King Fahad Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA during the period 1983-1999 was performed. Endoscopy and pathology records were retrieved and reviewed. The histopathology slides were re-examined, applying immunohistochemical techniques on corresponding paraffin sections to classify the various tumors. H pylori were identified on routine histology and by utilizing Giemsa stain. Results: During the study period of 17 years (1983-1999, a total of 94 endoscopically-diagnosed, histologically-confirmed cases of gastric malignancy were identified. Of these, there were 55 gastric adenocarcinoma and 39 gastric lymphoma. H pylori was identified in the adjacent gastric mucosa in 18 of all cases of gastric adenocarcinoma and in 27 of the 39 cases of lymphoma. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the comparatively high frequency of gastric lymphoma in this population and confirms the intimate association of H-pylori infection to both gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT-lymphoma. Gastric lymphoma should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of gastric malignancy and the use of immunohistochemistry is essential for the differential diagnosis of some of these tumors

  16. Ki-67 Proliferation Index in Gastric Cancer - Biologic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Nabais, C.; Caldeira Fradique, A; Oliveira, M.; Quaresma, L.; Gualdino Silva, J; Vasconcelos, V.; Sacadura, J.; Costa, L; Cabrita, F; Mateus Marques, R; Esteves, J.; Fernandez, G.; Guedes da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives/Introdution: Ki-67 protein has been used as an indicator of proliferation activity in tumor cells. In gastric cancer the prognostic value has not been fully understood. This study was designed to assess the biologic significance of Ki-67 proliferation index (PI) in gastric cancer. Material/Methods: Seventy-two patients with gastric cancer were evaluated. These patients underwent gastric resection, and the tumor tissue was stained immunohistochemically. Ki-67 PI was defi...

  17. Adenoviral gene therapy in gastric cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Khalighinejad, Nima; Hariri, Hesammodin; Behnamfar, Omid; Yousefi, Arash; Momeni, Amir

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. With current therapeutic approaches the prognosis of gastric cancer is very poor, as gastric cancer accounts for the second most common cause of death in cancer related deaths. Gastric cancer like almost all other cancers has a molecular genetic basis which relies on disruption in normal cellular regulatory mechanisms regarding cell growth, apoptosis and cell division. Thus novel therapeutic approaches such as gene therapy promi...

  18. Practical Approach to Endoscopic Management for Bleeding Gastric Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Young Suk [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Bleeding from gastric varices is generally more severe than bleeding from esophageal varices, although it occurs less frequently. Recently, new endoscopic treatment options and interventional radiological procedures have broadened the therapeutic armamentarium for gastric varices. This review provides an overview of the classification and pathophysiology of gastric varices, an introduction to current endoscopic and interventional radiological management options for gastric varices, and details of a practical approach to endoscopic variceal obturation using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.

  19. Detection of genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens in Xpc−/−p53+/− mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accurate assessment of the carcinogenic potential of chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs is essential to protect humans and the environment. Therefore, substances are extensively tested before they are marketed to the public. Currently, the rodent two-year bioassay is still routinely used to assess the carcinogenic potential of substances. However, over time it has become clear that this assay yields false positive results and also has several economic and ethical drawbacks including the use of large numbers of animals, the long duration, and the high cost. The need for a suitable alternative assay is therefore high. Previously, we have proposed the Xpa*p53 mouse model as a very suitable alternative to the two-year bioassay. We now show that the Xpc*p53 mouse model preserves all the beneficial traits of the Xpa*p53 model for sub-chronic carcinogen identification and can identify both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Moreover, Xpc*p53 mice appear to be more responsive than Xpa*p53 mice towards several genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. Furthermore, Xpc*p53 mice are far less sensitive than Xpa*p53 mice for the toxic activity of DNA damaging agents and as such clearly respond in a similar way as wild type mice do. These advantageous traits of the Xpc*p53 model make it a better alternative for in vivo carcinogen testing than Xpa*p53. This pilot study suggests that Xpc*p53 mice are suited for routine sub-chronic testing of both genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens and as such represent a suitable alternative to possibly replace the murine life time cancer bioassay. Highlights: ► The Xpc*p53 mouse model is able to identify genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. ► Time, animals and cost can be significantly reduced compared to the 2-year bioassay. ► Xpc*p53 mice are more advantageous for carcinogen identification than Xpa*p53 mice. ► Xpc*p53 mice exhibit a wild type response upon exposure to genotoxicants.

  20. Bioterrorism: pathogens as weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter D; Bokor, Gyula

    2012-10-01

    Biowarfare has been used for centuries. The use of biological weapons in terrorism remains a threat. Biological weapons include infectious agents (pathogens) and toxins. The most devastating bioterrorism scenario would be the airborne dispersal of pathogens over a concentrated population area. Characteristics that make a specific pathogen a high-risk for bioterrorism include a low infective dose, ability to be aerosolized, high contagiousness, and survival in a variety of environmental conditions. The most dangerous potential bioterrorism agents include the microorganisms that produce anthrax, plague, tularemia, and smallpox. Other diseases of interest to bioterrorism include brucellosis, glanders, melioidosis, Q fever, and viral encephalitis. Food safety and water safety threats are another area of concern.

  1. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  2. Molecular classification of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, N-Y; Tan, P

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), a heterogeneous disease characterized by epidemiologic and histopathologic differences across countries, is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Treatment of GC patients is currently suboptimal due to patients being commonly treated in a uniform fashion irrespective of disease subtype. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, GCs are now being investigated in great detail at the molecular level. High-throughput technologies now allow a comprehensive study of genomic and epigenomic alterations associated with GC. Gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, differential gene expression and epigenetic alterations are some of the genetic/epigenetic influences on GC pathogenesis. In addition, integrative analyses of molecular profiling data have led to the identification of key dysregulated pathways and importantly, the establishment of GC molecular classifiers. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) network proposed a four subtype classification scheme for GC based on the underlying tumor molecular biology of each subtype. This landmark study, together with other studies, has expanded our understanding on the characteristics of GC at the molecular level. Such knowledge may improve the medical management of GC in the future. PMID:26861606

  3. Brainstem Circuits Regulating Gastric Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travagli, R. Alberto; Hermann, Gerlinda E.; Browning, Kirsteen N.; Rogers, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Brainstem parasympathetic circuits that modulate digestive functions of the stomach are comprised of afferent vagal fibers, neurons of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the efferent fibers originating in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). A large body of evidence has shown that neuronal communications between the NTS and the DMV are plastic and are regulated by the presence of a variety of neurotransmitters and circulating hormones as well as the presence, or absence, of afferent input to the NTS. These data suggest that descending central nervous system inputs as well as hormonal and afferent feedback resulting from the digestive process can powerfully regulate vago-vagal reflex sensitivity. This paper first reviews the essential “static” organization and function of vago-vagal gastric control neurocircuitry. We then present data on the opioidergic modulation of NTS connections with the DMV as an example of the “gating” of these reflexes, i.e., how neurotransmitters, hormones, and vagal afferent traffic can make an otherwise static autonomic reflex highly plastic. PMID:16460274

  4. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours.

  5. Giant gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Nishiyama, Noriko; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-09-01

    A 57-year-old man developed haematemesis and was referred to our institution. His discomfort had begun 3 weeks earlier and localised to the upper abdomen. Abdominal CT showed a defect of gastric mucosa and gastric wall thickening. Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that he had an active gastric ulcer, 40 mm in diameter, on the lesser curvature in the upper third of the corpus and the presence of a pancreatic body at the ulcer base, penetration to the pancreas. Open gastrectomy was performed with a preoperative diagnosis of localised peritonitis caused by penetration of the stomach into the pancreas. Histopathology of resected specimens showed a benign peptic ulcer, 40×40 mm in size, was found on the lesser curvature in the antrum, and this had penetrated through the pancreas. The most serious complications of PUD include haemorrhage, perforation, penetration, and gastric outlet obstruction. Approximately 7% of patients experience perforation, which occurs when an ulcer erodes through the wall and leaks air and digestive contents into the peritoneal cavity. Antral and duodenal ulcers can penetrate into the pancreas. We report a case of gastric ulcer penetrating into the pancreas.

  6. Quantitative structure carcinogenicity relationship for detecting structural alerts in nitroso-compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevention of environmentally induced cancers is a major health problem of which solutions depend on the rapid and accurate screening of potential chemical hazards. Lately, theoretical approaches such as the one proposed here - Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) - are increasingly used for assessing the risks of environmental chemicals, since they can markedly reduce costs, avoid animal testing, and speed up policy decisions. This paper reports a QSAR study based on the Topological Substructural Molecular Design (TOPS-MODE) approach, aiming at predicting the rodent carcinogenicity of a set of nitroso-compounds selected from the Carcinogenic Potency Data Base (CPDB). The set comprises nitrosoureas (14 chemicals), N-nitrosamines (18 chemicals) C-nitroso-compounds (1 chemical), nitrosourethane (1 chemical) and nitrosoguanidine (1 chemical), which have been bioassayed in male rat using gavage as the route of administration. Here we are especially concerned in gathering the role of both parameters on the carcinogenic activity of this family of compounds. First, the regression model was derived, upon removal of one identified nitrosamine outlier, and was able to account for more than 84% of the variance in the experimental activity. Second, the TOPS-MODE approach afforded the bond contributions - expressed as fragment contributions to the carcinogenic activity - that can be interpreted and provide tools for better understanding the mechanisms of carcinogenesis. Finally, and most importantly, we demonstrate the potentialities of this approach towards the recognition of structural alerts for carcinogenicity predictions

  7. Partial lipectomy reduces dimethylhydrazine-induced carcinogenic initiation in the colon of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated whether visceral adipose tissue directly modulates the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon of carcinogen-treated rats. Wistar rats (n = 64) were randomly assigned to 8 experimental groups in two experiments. In one experiment, 32 rats were exposed or not to either carcinogen treatment (dimethylhydrazine, DMH; 125 mg/kg) or high-fat diet (standard chow enriched with 14% lard) or both for 56 days. In a second experiment, 32 rats were exposed to a carcinogen or they underwent partial lipectomy or both for 30 days (partial lipectomy groups underwent ablation of mesenteric and parametrial fat pads, whereas sham groups did not; all rats were fed with standard chow). Colon was collected for histopathological analysis. After 56 experimental days a high-fat diet increased carcinogenic mutations in the colonic epithelia. Partial lipectomy reduced weight gain in carcinogen-exposed rats and decreased the de novo formation of mesenteric and parametrial fat pads. Partial lipectomy significantly inhibited the mutational process after 30 days: there were fewer colonic preneoplastic lesions and less proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation. These data suggest that visceral adipose tissue promotes colon carcinogenesis and enhances the establishment and expansion of genetically mutated cells in colonic epithelia

  8. Direct gastroscopy for detecting gastric cancer in the elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子其; 万军; 朱成; 王孟薇; 赵东海; 付永和; 张建萍; 王亚红; 吴本俨

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of direct gastroscopy for detecting gastric cancer. Methods Clinical screening by direct gastroscopy was performed for gastric cancer (GC) from September 1985 to July 1998. 3048 elderly people were screened. Their age ranged from 60 to 93 years, and 2034 of the 3084 were followed up. Results Ninety-two patients with gastric cancer were discovered by gastroscopy, representing 3.02% of the screened population. The rate of early gastric cancer (EGC) was 63.04% (58/92) of all gastric cancers detected. The rate was up to 79.59% (39/49) on follow-up, and was 74.14% (43/51) in asymptomatic patients with gastric cancer. The excision rate was 88.89% for patients with gastric cancer, and 100% for patients with early gastric cancer. The 5-year survival rate was 91.89% for patients with gastric cancer, and 96.30% for patients with early gastric cancer. Conclusion Clinical screening and follow-up by direct gastroscopy in persons over 60 years of age are a safe and effective method for raising the 5-year survival and detection rate of gastric cancer, especially early gastric cancer.

  9. Molecular and pro-inflammatory genetic profile in gastric carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a result from the combination of environmental factors and an accumulation of specific genetic alterations, and affects mainly the older population. It is known that genetic factors play a more important role in early onset gastric cancers than in conventional gastric cancer patien

  10. Expression of periostin and its clinicopathological relevance in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression and localization of periostin in gastric cancer and its clinical relevance.METHODS: Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to measure periostin mRNA expression. Western blotting was carried out to detect periostin protein expression. Immunohistochemistry was performed to localize and quantify the expression of periostin in benign gastric diseases and gastric cancer,and immunostaining results were correlated with gastric cancer pathological stages.RESULTS: Periostin expression was low at both mRNA and protein levels in normal gastric tissues,but was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues.Immunohistochemical staining revealed that periostin was overexpressed in primary gastric cancer, as well as in metastatic lymph nodes, but only faint staining was found in benign gastric ulcers. By quantitative analysis of the immunostaining results, periostin expression was increased 2.5-4-fold in gastric cancer, compared to that in benign gastric disease, and there was a trend toward increasing periostin expression with tumor stage.CONCLUSION: This observation demonstrated that periostin was overexpressed in gastric cancer and lymph node metastasis, which suggests that periostin plays an important role in the progression and metastasis of gastric cancer.

  11. Expression of Telomerase Activity in Gastric Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between telomerase activity and biological behavior in human gastric cells and appraise the clinical significance of detecting telomerase activity. Methods The telomerase activity in 47 gastric cancer tissue samples,their matched nomal tissues,7 gastric ulcer and 2 gastric cancer cell lines was detected using a PCR-based non-radioisotopic telomeric repeat amplification protocol(TRAP) assay. Results None of the 47 samples from normal gastric tissues expressed telomerase activity.The 41 of 47 cases of gastric cancer presented telomerase activity with an 87.2% positive rate (P<0.001). 2/2 gastric cancer cell lines and 0/7 gastric ulcer line were also positive for telmerase activity.The activity of telomerase was associated with the pathological differentiation of gastric cancer. Conclusion Telomerase activity may be related to the biological behavior of gastric cancer and can help in assessing the malignant poten-tial of gastric cancer.Telomerase activity will be a good diagnostic marker for the detection of gastric cancer.

  12. Familial gastric cancer : guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of > 80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting earl

  13. [Familial gastric cancer: diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R.H.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Vasen, H.F.; Cats, A.

    2011-01-01

    The only known genetic causes of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) are germline mutations in the CDH1 gene.- CDH1 mutation carriers have a lifetime risk of 70-80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early stages of HDGC, prop

  14. Right Gastric Venous Drainage: Angiographic Analysis in 100 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Nak Jong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang Bu [National Cancer Center, Ilsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Baik Hwan [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To evaluate the pattern of right gastric venous drainage by use of digital subtraction angiography. A series of 100 consecutive patients who underwent right gastric arteriography during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma were included in this study. Angiographic findings were retrospectively analyzed with respect to the presence or absence of the right and aberrant gastric veins, multiplicity of draining veins, aberrant right gastric venous drainage sites, and the termination pattern of aberrant right gastric veins (ARGVs). We also compared the relative size of the right and left gastric veins. A total of 49 patients collectively had 66 ARGVs. The common drainage sites for the ARGVs included the hepatic segment IV (n = 35) and segment I (n = 15). The termination pattern of ARGV could be classified into 4 different types. The most common type was termination as a superficial parenchymal blush formation in small areas without demonstrable portal branches. A statistically significant difference was found for the dominance of the right gastric vein in gastric venous drainage between the two groups with or without ARGV (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). In the group of patients without ARGV (n = 51), the right gastric vein was equal to (n = 9) or larger than (n = 17) the left gastric vein in 26 patients (26 of 51, 51%). The incidence of ARGV is higher than expected with four distinct types in its termination pattern. The right gastric vein may play a dominant role in gastric venous drainage.

  15. Unilateral Pulmonary Agenesis and Gastric Duplication Cyst: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halilbasic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung agenesis and gastric duplication cysts are both rare congenital anomalies. Gastric duplication cysts can present with nausea, vomiting, hematemesis, or vague abdominal pain. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis can present with respiratory distress which usually occurs due to retention of bronchial secretions and inflammations. We report the unique case of right pulmonary agenesis associated with gastric duplication cyst.

  16. The effect of polycarbophil on the gastric emptying of pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, R; Davis, S S

    1987-01-01

    The influence of the putative bioadhesive, polycarbophil, on the gastric emptying of a pellet formulation, has been investigated in three fasted subjects. The pellets were radiolabelled with technetium-99m. Gastric emptying was measured using the technique of gamma scintigraphy. The pellets emptied from the stomach rapidly and in an exponential manner. Polycarbophil did not retard the gastric emptying of the pellets.

  17. Targeting Btk with ibrutinib inhibit gastric carcinoma cells growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Dao; Chen, Xiao Ying; Ji, Ke Wei; Tao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Tec-family non-receptor tyrosine kinases family. It has previously been reported to be expressed in B cells and has an important role in B-cell malignancies. While the roles of Btk in the pathogenesis of certain B-cell malignancies are well established, the functions of Btk in gastric carcinoma have never been investigated. Herein, we found that Btk is over-expressed in gastric carcinoma tissues and gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of Btk expression selectively inhibits the growth of gastric cancer cells, but not that of the normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell, which express very little Btk. Inhibition of Btk by its inhibitor ibrutinib has an additive inhibitory effect on gastric cancer cell growth. Treatment of gastric cancer cells, but not immortalized breast epithelial cells with ibrutinib results in effective cell killing, accompanied by the attenuation of Btk signals. Ibrutinib also induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells as well as is a chemo-sensitizer for docetaxel (DTX), a standard of care for gastric carcinoma patients. Finally, ibrutinib markedly reduces tumor growth and increases tumor cell apoptosis in the tumors formed in mice inoculated with the gastric carcinoma cells. Given these promising preclinical results for ibrutinib in gastric carcinoma, a strategy combining Btk inhibitor warrants attention in gastric cancer. PMID:27508020

  18. Cytotoxic T Cells in H. pylori-Related Gastric Autoimmunity and Gastric Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathijs P. Bergman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastroduodenal pathologies, but only a minority of infected patients develop gastric B-cell lymphoma, gastric autoimmunity, or other life threatening diseases, as gastric cancer or peptic ulcer. The type of host immune response against H. pylori, particularly the cytolytic effector functions of T cells, is crucial for the outcome of the infection. T cells are potentially able to kill a target via different mechanisms, such as perforins or Fas-Fas ligand interaction. In H. pylori-infected patients with gastric autoimmunity cytolytic T cells, that cross-recognize different epitopes of H. pylori proteins and H+K+-ATPase autoantigen, infiltrate the gastric mucosa and lead to gastric atrophy via long-lasting activation of Fas ligand-mediated appotosis and perforin-induced cytotoxicity. On the other hand, gastric T cells from MALT lymphoma exhibit defective perforin- and Fas-Fas ligand-mediated killing of B cells, with consequent abnormal help for B-cell proliferation, suggesting that deregulated and exhaustive H. pylori-induced T cell-dependent B-cell activation can support both the onset and the promotion of low-grade B-cell lymphoma.

  19. Characteristics of Metachronous Gastric Tumors after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Intraepithelial Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Boda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD has become a standard treatment method for early gastric cancer and concurrent stomach preservation. However, metachronous recurrences have become a major problem. We evaluated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of and examined the risk factors for metachronous gastric tumors. Methods. A total of 357 patients who underwent ESD for gastric tumors (245 early gastric cancers and 112 adenomas and were followed up for more than 12 months without recurrence within the first 12 months were enrolled. We investigated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of metachronous tumors after ESD. We also analyzed the potential risk factors for metachronous tumors using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox’s proportional hazards model. Results. The annual incidence of metachronous tumors after ESD was 2.4%. The median period until discovery after initial ESD was 26.0 months, and the median observation period was 52.6 months. Male patients developed metachronous tumors more frequently (P=0.04, and the hazard ratio of female to male patients was 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.89. Conclusions. Patients with a previous history of gastric tumors have a high risk of subsequent gastric tumor development and male patients should be carefully followed up after ESD for gastric tumor.

  20. Expression of survivin in human gastric carcinoma and gastric carcinoma model of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Zhu; Geng-Jin Lin; Li-Ping Qian; Zhong-Qing Chen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein, in human gastric carcinomas and gastric carcinoma models of rats.METHODS: With the method of immunohistochemical staining, we studied the expression of survivin in 20 cases of chronic gastritis and 56 cases of gastric carcinomas. We used N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and high dose sodium-chloride diet to induce rat gastric carcinomas. Survivin expression was studied in glandular stomachs of normal rats, adenocarcinomas and tissues adjacent to the tumor, as well as in rats during the induction period.RESULTS: Survivin was expressed in 27 of 56 (48.2 %)cases of human gastric carcinoma tissues and 1 of 20 (5 %)cases of chronic gastritis. It was found that the expression of survivin had no relation with the elements of age, tumor depth, tumor size, and disease stage, but was significantly related to histological type. The positive rate of survivin expression in cases of intestinal type was significantly higher than that in cases of diffuse type (P<0.05). In animal experiments, survivin expression in glandular stomachs of normal rats, of rats in middle induction period, in adenocarcinomas and tissues adjacent to tumor were 0,40.0 %, 78.3 % and 38.9 %, respectively. Compared with the survivin expression in normal rats, the differences were significant.CONCLUSION: These data imply that survivin plays an important role in the onset of gastric carcinoma and that high survivin expression is an early event of gastric carcinoma.

  1. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  2. Waterborne Pathogens: The Protozoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Waterborne diseases associated with polluted recreational and potable waters have been documented for more than a century. Key microbial protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are causative agents for gastrointestinal disease worldwide. Although not a first-line diagnostic approach for these diseases, medical imaging, such as radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and nuclear medicine technologies, can be used to evaluate patients with long-term effects. This article describes protozoan pathogens that affect human health, treatment of common waterborne pathogen-related diseases, and associated medical imaging. PMID:27601690

  3. Production of thymine glycols in DNA by radiation and chemical carcinogens as detected by a monoclonal antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Leadon, S A

    1987-01-01

    In order to understand the role in carcinogenesis of damage indirectly induced by chemical carcinogens, it is important to identify the primary DNA lesions. We have measured the formation and repair of one type of DNA modification, 5,6-dihydroxydihydrothymine (thymine glycol), following exposure of cultured human cells to the carcinogens N-hydroxy-2-naphthylamine or benzo(a)pyrene. The efficiency of production of thymine glycols in DNA by these carcinogens was compared to that by ionizing rad...

  4. Pathogen surveillance in wild bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaing, Crystal; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea; McLoughlin, Kevin; Slezak, Tom; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2015-10-16

    The number and prevalence of diseases is rapidly increasing in the marine ecosystem. Although there is an increase in the number of marine diseases observed world-wide, current understanding of the pathogens associated with marine mammals is limited. An important need exists to develop and apply platforms for rapid detection and characterization of pathogenic agents to assess, prevent and respond to disease outbreaks. In this study, a broad-spectrum molecular detection technology capable of detecting all sequenced microbial organisms, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array, was used to assess the microbial agents that could be associated with wild Atlantic dolphins. Blowhole, gastric, and fecal samples from 8 bottlenose dolphins were collected in Charleston, SC, as part of the dolphin assessment effort. The array detected various microbial agents from the dolphin samples. Clostridium perfringens was most prevalent in the samples surveyed using the microarray. This pathogen was also detected using microbiological culture techniques. Additionally, Campylobacter sp., Staphylococcus sp., Erwinia amylovora, Helicobacter pylori, and Frankia sp. were also detected in more than one dolphin using the microarray, but not in culture. This study provides the first survey of pathogens associated with 3 tissue types in dolphins using a broad-spectrum microbial detection microarray and expands insight on the microbial community profile in dolphins.

  5. Identifying carcinogenic activity of methylated and non-methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) through electronic and topological indices

    CERN Document Server

    Braga, R S; Barone, P M V B

    2000-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of planar molecules, abundant in urban environment, which can induce chemical carcinogenesis. Their carcinogenic power varies in a large range, from very strong carcinogens to inactive ones. In a previous study, we proposed a methodology to identify the PAHs carcinogenic activity exploring electronic and topological indices. In the present work, we show that it is possible to simplify that methodology and expand its applicability to include methylated PAHs compounds. Using very simple rules, we can predict their carcinogenic activity with high accuracy (approx 89%).

  6. Lack of genetic influence on the innate inflammatory response to Helicobacter infection of the gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Nedrud

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a bacterial pathogen that resides at the gastric mucosa and has a world-wide prevalence of over 50%. Infection usually lasts for the life of the host, and although all infected individuals will develop histologic gastritis only a subset will develop symptomatic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric MALT lymphoma, or gastric adenocarcinoma. The bacterial and host factors that determine clinical outcome and influence the development of widely varying diseases have not been elucidated. We compared disease in Helicobacter-infected SCID mice on different genetic backgrounds with their corresponding immunocompetent partners to determine if the genetics of the host significantly impacts the innate inflammatory outcome, independent of variations in bacterial virulence factors. BALB/c SCID and C57BL/6 SCID mice developed equivalent histologic gastritis by eight weeks of infection. Immunocompetent BALB/c mice and C57BL/6 mice developed significantly lower or higher degrees of inflammation respectively. Innate inflammation in immunodeficient mice on the C57BL/6 background remained low even in the absence of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. These results demonstrate that adaptive immunity is not required for the generation of low level inflammation in response to Helicobacter infection and that the degree of inflammation is consistent among different genetic backgrounds. Additionally, this inflammation is limited even in the absence of regulatory T cells.

  7. Combinatorial epigenetic deregulation by Helicobacter pylori and Epstein-Barr virus infections in gastric tumourigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, William Kk; Yu, Jun; Chan, Matthew Tv; To, Ka F; Cheng, Alfred Sl

    2016-07-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodelling and microRNAs, convert environmental signals to transcriptional outputs but are commonly hijacked by pathogenic microorganisms. Recent advances in cancer epigenomics have shed new light on the importance of epigenetic deregulation in Helicobacter pylori- and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven gastric tumourigenesis. Moreover, it is becoming apparent that epigenetic mechanisms interact through crosstalk and feedback loops, which modify global gene expression patterns. The SWI/SNF remodelling complexes are commonly involved in gastric cancers associated with H. pylori or EBV through different mechanisms, including microRNA-mediated deregulation and genetic mutations. While H. pylori causes epigenetic silencing of tumour-suppressor genes to deregulate cellular pathways, EBV-positive tumours exhibit a widespread and distinctive DNA hypermethylation profile. Given the early successes of epigenetic drugs in haematological malignancies, further studies are mandated to enrich and translate our understanding of combinatorial epigenetic deregulation in gastric cancers into interventional strategies in the clinic. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27102722

  8. Control study of arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer in treatment of advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the differences in effect of arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods:A total of 86 cases of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated in our hospital were selected as research subjects and randomly divided into two groups, observation group received arterial interventional chemotherapy combined with radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, control group received simple radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer, and then differences in prognosis-associated factors, MMP and Leptin contents as well as tumor marker and telomerase activity levels of two groups were compared.Results:Serum HER-2/neu ECD level of observation group was lower than that of control group, and serum DKK-1, TS and TP levels were higher than those of control group; at each point in time after treatment, serum CA72-4 and CA50 contents of observation group were lower than those of control group; intraoperative MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and Leptin levels in gastric cancer tissue of observation group were lower than those of control group; telomerase activity value in gastric cancer tissue of observation group after treatment was lower than that of control group, and both PGⅠ positive expression rate and PGⅠ/ PGⅡ ratio were higher than those of control group.Conclusion: Arterial interventional chemotherapy before radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer can lower tumor malignancy, promote the curative effect of radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer and improve long-term prognosis.

  9. Conversion to Gastric Bypass in Patients with Unsuccessful Weight Loss after Gastric Banding May Depend on Mental Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Zijlstra, H.; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A low quality of life has been regarded a cue to action. Some patients with unsuccessful weight loss after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) undergo a conversion of gastric banding to gastric bypass. This study examines whether patients who did or did not undergo conversion

  10. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer--An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurzu, Simona; Jung, Ioan; Orlowska, Janina; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Kadar, Zoltan; Turdean, Sabin; Bara, Tivadar

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of gastric cancer varies by up to ten fold throughout the world, and the geographic distribution of hereditary cases is not well explored. Familial clustering is seen in 10% of cases, and approximately 3% of all gastric cancers develop due to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In this review, the characteristics of HDGC are presented according to molecular particularities, geographic distribution, and other parameters. Based on our experience and the data from the literature, we discuss the possibility of applying a mutation signature (spectrum) study and adductomic approaches to a comparative carcinogenesis of HDGC. We also provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review of genetic counseling and criteria for screening and surveillance of eligible families.

  11. Does gastric atrophy exist in children?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georges Dimitrov; Frédéric Gottrand

    2006-01-01

    Several clinical reports confirmed that gastric atrophy is a pathology not only limited to adult patients. In pediatrics, it is most often described in association with a Hpylori infection but this bacteria does not seem to be the only etiological factor of this preneoplastic state in children. The frequency of gastric atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in children are unknown because they are not systematically sought during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The lack of specific histological classification of children's gastropathies makes their diagnosis difficult for pathologists. Based on our knowledge to date, we think that it is necessary to describe, in detail, the natural course of this lesion during childhood. A close and prolonged clinical and endoscopic follow-up is important for children with gastric atrophy.

  12. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jesús; Espinel; Eugenia; Pinedo; Vanesa; Ojeda; Maria; Guerra; del; Rio

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer(EGC). Endoscopic resection(ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection(EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with "standard" criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet "expanded" criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer.

  13. Methylation of GATA-4 and GATA-5 and development of sporadic gastric carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshimitsu; Akiyama

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To understand the implication of GATA-4 and GATA-5 methylation in gastric carcinogenesis.METHODS: Methylation status of GATA-4 and GATA-5 CpG islands in human gastric mucosa samples, including normal gastric biopsies from 45 outpatients, gastric dysplasia [low-grade gastric intraepithelial neoplasia (GIN), n = 30; indefinite, n = 77], and 80 paired spo- radic gastric carcinomas (SGC) as well as the adjacent non-neoplastic gastric tissues was analyzed by methylation specific polymerase chain reaction (MS...

  14. Factors modifying sensitivity to carcinogens and the problem of threshold in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum allowable concentrations of chemical carcinogens and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been under extensive study both experimentally and epidemiologically. The problem of the carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation is a very difficult one: in epidemiological studies it is hard to take into account the many factors (e.g. diseases, diet, genetic peculiarities) that may affect sensitivity to radiation; in experimental studies it is hard to extrapolate with accuracy from one species to another or from the individual threshold to that of the whole population. Age, enzyme activity, sex, and DNA repair capability also modify sensitivity to radiation; when factors such as these are better understood it is expected that epidemiological studies will give a solution that allows estimation of the carcinogenic risk from low-level radiation and hence establishment of a threshold dose. (author)

  15. [Mapping of carcinogens in the chemical production industry in the province of Ferrara].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldotti, M; Spagnolo, M R; Minisci, S; De Rosa, E

    2008-01-01

    This study consists in the reconnaissance of the carcinogenic risk in some processing in Ferrara. The main object is to know, to estimate and to verify the diffusion of the carcinogenic substances and to estimate the number of the exposed or potentially exposed workers. The study has interested the synthesis chemistry and polymer production, woodworking, welding on stainless steel and chromium conversion coating and chrome electroplating. The research has involved 54 factories and 436 workers estimated exposed or potentially exposed to carcinogenic substances. The survey has consisted of inspections in the working places, collection of exposure data, control of the precautionary measures and exposure determination in the case of stainless steel welding. The smallest factories had less knowledge of the risk and for this reason it is necessary to keep constant attention.

  16. Cell-mediated mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a cell-mediated mutagenesis assay in which cells with the appropriate markers for mutagenesis are co-cultivated with either lethally irradiated rodent embryonic cells that can metabolize carcinogenic hydrocarbons or with primary rat liver cells that can metabolize chemicals carcinogenic to the liver. During co-cultivation, the reactive metabolites of the procarcinogen appear to be transmitted to the mutable cells and induce mutations in them. Assays of this type make it possible to demonstrate a relationship between carcinogenic potency of the chemicals and their ability to induce mutations in mammalian cells. In addition, by simultaneously comparing the frequencies of transformation and mutation induced in normal diploid hamster cells by benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and one of its metabolites, it is possible to estimate the genetic target size for cell transformation in vitro

  17. Detection of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in unused and used motor oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, R; Monarca, S

    1983-12-15

    The discharge of used motor oils in the environment poses public health problems because of the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in them. Among these hazardous chemicals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are of particular interest since the carcinogenic properties of some of them are known. The authors have applied the Salmonella/microsome test, coupled with two preparation methods of samples, to motor oils of different brands, both before and after use in car petrol engines. A PAH determination method was also studied. The results showed the unused motor oils to be nonmutagenic and to contain traces of PAH, while the used motor oils of the samples taken according to both preparation methods were highly mutagenic and contained a much higher quantity of mutagenic/carcinogenic PAH.

  18. An Overview of Carcinogenic Heavy Metal: Molecular Toxicity Mechanism and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Yeo Jin; Seo, Young Rok

    2015-01-01

    Almost all heavy metals are serious toxicants as carcinogens. However, due to their chemical and physiological properties, heavy metals are useful in industrial areas including alloy, smelting and production of commercial products. Such applications increase the opportunity for heavy metal exposure. Waste from industrial processes is also a major source of environmental contamination and accumulation in the human body. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and nickel are classified as group 1 carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and are utilized commercially. In this review, we used molecular pathway analysis to understand the toxicity and carcinogenic mechanisms of these metals. Our analyzed data showed that above-mentioned metallic substances induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, and cell death processes, resulting in increase the risk of cancer and cancer-related diseases. Thus, we might think phytochelatin molecules and antioxidative phytochemical substances are helpful for prevention of heavy metal-induced cancer. PMID:26734585

  19. Embryonic turkey liver: activities of biotransformation enzymes and activation of DNA-reactive carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrone, Carmen E.; Duan, Jian Dong; Jeffrey, Alan M.; Williams, Gary M. [New York Medical College, Department of Pathology, Valhalla (United States); Ahr, Hans-Juergen; Schmidt, Ulrich [Bayer AG, Institute of Toxicology, Wuppertal (Germany); Enzmann, Harald H. [Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Avian embryos are a potential alternative model for chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity research. Because the toxic and carcinogenic effects of some chemicals depend on bioactivation, activities of biotransformation enzymes and formation of DNA adducts in embryonic turkey liver were examined. Biochemical analyses of 22-day in ovoturkey liver post-mitochondrial fractions revealed activities of the biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxycoumarin de-ethylase (ECOD), 7-ethoxyresorufin de-ethylase (EROD), aldrin epoxidase (ALD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and UDP-glucuronyltransferase (GLUT). Following the administration of phenobarbital (24 mg/egg) on day 21, enzyme activities of ECOD, EROD, ALD, EH and GLUT, but not of GST, were increased by two-fold or higher levels by day 22. In contrast, acute administration of 3-methylcholanthrene (5 mg/egg) induced only ECOD and EROD activities. Bioactivation of structurally diverse pro-carcinogens was also examined using {sup 32}P-postlabeling for DNA adducts. In ovoexposure of turkey embryos on day 20 of gestation to 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF), 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) resulted in the formation of DNA adducts in livers collected by day 21. Some of the DNA adducts had {sup 32}P-postlabeling chromatographic migration patterns similar to DNA adducts found in livers from Fischer F344 rats exposed to the same pro-carcinogens. We conclude that 21-day embryonic turkey liver is capable of chemical biotransformation and activation of genotoxic carcinogens to form DNA adducts. Thus, turkey embryos could be utilized to investigate potential chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. (orig.)

  20. Chemical carcinogenic and mutagenic agents in the workplace, Poland, 2008–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Konieczko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to present a concise but comprehensive information on the occurrence of carcinogenic or mutagenic agents in Polish enterprises and the number of workers exposed to those agents reported to the central register by employers. Objectives and responsibilities of the register, as well as the range and methods of data gathering are discussed. Material and Methods: Data concerning carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances and technological processes reported to central register in 2008-2010 were analyzed. Results: In 2008-2010 more than 300 carcinogenic or mutagenic chemical substances were reported to the register. Approximately 2500 plants reported above 150 000 per-person-exposures annually. Among all technological processes regarded as occupational carcinogens, hardwood dusts exposure (about 660 companies; 11 000-13 000 exposed workers each year and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs present in coal products (117-125 plantsl 3000 exposed per year were reported. Conclusions: The most widespread carcinogenic/mutagenic substances were: benzene, chromium(VI compounds: potassium dichromate and chromate, chromium(VI trioxide and other chromium compounds, ethylene oxide, asbestos, benzo[a]pyrene and gasoline. The highest number of men was exposed to particular PAHs and benzene , and the majority of women was exposed to benzene, potassium dichromate and chromate, acrylamide, ethylene oxide and gasoline. The lack of clear-cut definitione of occupational exposure to carcinogen creates a problem faced by employers in defining the accurate number of exposed workers. Med Pr 2013;64(2:181–192

  1. Carcinogen-induced DNA repair in nucleotide-permeable Escherichia coli cells. Induction of DNA repair by the carcinogens methyl and ethyl nitrosourea and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, H W; Vosberg, H P; Reygers, U

    1975-08-15

    Ether-permeabilized (nucleotide-permeable) cells of Escherichia coli show excision repair of their DNA after having been exposed to the carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MeNOUr), N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNOUr) and methyl methanesulfonate (MeSO2OMe) which are known to bind covalently to DNA. Defect mutations in genes uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, recA, recB, recC and rep did not inhibit this excision repair. Enzymic activities involved in this repair were identified by measuring size reduction of DNA, DNA degradation to acid-soluble nucleotides and repair polymerization. 1. In permeabilized cells methyl and ethyl nitrosourea induced endonucleolytic cleavage of endogenous DNA, as determined by size reduction of denatured DNA in neutral and alkaline sucrose gradients. An enzymic activity from E. coli K-12 cell extracts was purified (greater than 2000-fold) and was found to cleave preferentially methyl-nitrosourea-treated DNA and to convert the methylated supercoiled DNA duplex (RFI) of phage phiX 174 into the nicked circular form. 2. Degradation of alkylated cellular DNA to acid solubility was diminished in a mutant lacking the 5' leads to 3' exonucleolytic activity of DNA polymerase I but was not affected in a mutant which lacked the DNA polymerizing but retained the 5' leads 3' exonucleolytic activity of DNA polymerase I. 3. An easily measurable effect is carcinogen-induced repair polymerization, making it suitable for detection of covalent binding of carcinogens and potentially carcinogenic compounds. PMID:170107

  2. E-cadherin in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annie On On Chan

    2006-01-01

    Cadherin is an adhesion molecule and a superfamily of calcium-mediated membrane glycoproteins. E-cadherin is the prototype of the class E-cadherin that links to catenins to form the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence has shown that E-cadherin not only acts as an adhesive, but also plays important roles in growth development and carcinogenesis. It has been recently viewed as an invasion as well as a growth suppressor gene. This review summarizes the recent discoveries on E-cadherin and its role in gastric cancer. In particular, our work on E-cadherin in gastric cancer, including its relation with Helicobacter pylori and clinical applications, are described in detail.

  3. Epstein-Barr virus and gastric carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Takada, K

    2000-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in the tissue of about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In each case, 100% of carcinoma cells are infected with EBV. Analysis of EBV in carcinoma biopsies indicates that carcinoma is formed by the proliferation of a single EBV infected cell. These findings suggest that EBV plays an important role in the development of EBV positive gastric carcinomas. The EBV genes expressed are EBV determined nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), two small non...

  4. HER2 testing in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarello, Luca; Pecciarini, Lorenza; Doglioni, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Molecular therapies targeting HER2 are part of the established drug armamentarium in breast carcinoma. Now the ToGA trial, an international multicenter phase III clinical study, involving 24 countries globally, has shown that the anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody Trastuzumab is effective in prolonging survival in HER2-positive carcinoma of the stomach and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). Similarly to breast carcinoma, >20% of gastric cancers show HER2 overexpression and/or amplification, and this percentage increases to 33% in GEJ tumors. Thus, as in breast carcinoma, pathologists are now asked to evaluate HER2 status in gastric carcinoma samples. As validated in the ToGA trial, the HER2 testing criteria that must be used in evaluating both gastric carcinoma biopsies and surgical specimens significantly differ from those routinely applied in breast carcinoma. The main variations with regard to the pattern of reactivity in HER2-expressing cells are as follows: the completeness of membrane staining is not a "conditio sine qua non" and the number of stained cells necessary to consider a case as positive is different. We must also take note of the much more frequent heterogeneity of HER2 positivity in gastric cancer compared with breast carcinoma and the less stringent correlation between HER2 amplification and protein overexpression that is observed in gastric carcinoma, where more than 20% of cases may carry HER2 amplification, although of low level, without HER2 expression. In these patients, in the ToGA trial, there was no apparent benefit from adding Trastuzumab to chemotherapy: for this reason the European Medicines Agency, while approving usage of Trastuzumab for metastatic adenocarcinoma treatment, indicated HER2 testing by immunohistochemistry as first evaluation assay, followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization in 2+ equivocal cases. HER2 testing in gastric carcinoma is a new field, opening several opportunities: for patients with gastric cancer

  5. Brain neuropeptides in gastric mucosal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2014-12-01

    The centrally induced gastroprotective effect of neuropeptides has been intensively studied. Besides many similarities, however, differences can also be observed in their gastroprotective actions. The gastroprotective dose-response curve proved to be either sigmoid, or bell-shaped. Additional gastrointestinal effects of neuropeptides can contribute to their mucosal protective effect. Part of the neuropeptides induces gastroprotection by peripheral administration as well. Besides vagal nerve the sympathetic nervous system may also be involved in conveying the central effect to the periphery. Better understanding of the complex mechanism of the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity may result in the development of new strategy to enhance gastric mucosal resistance against injury.

  6. Gastric Perforation Associated with Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richdeep S. Gill

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric tuberculosis is a rare presentation of tuberculosis infection. Gastric perforation associated with tuberculosis is exceedingly rare with five previously published cases. We present a case of a male patient that developed presumed gastric tuberculosis secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis infection. He subsequently developed gastric perforation and sepsis, for which he was treated both surgically and medically. Despite ongoing antituberculosis treatment, the patient's condition worsened and the patient died secondary to multiorgan failure. This case highlights gastric perforation as a rare but devastating complication of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  7. Analysis of mutagenic and carcinogenic risks: nitrates, nitrites, N-Nitroso compounds. Comparison with radioactive risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report comes within the scope of the general studies on mutagenic and carcinogenic agents other than ionizing radiations. Through feeding, way of life and working activities, man is exposed to genotoxic risks of N-nitroso compounds (NNC). In spite of differences in the molecular modes of action, there exists some analogy between the effects of radiation exposures and those of NNC: DNA is the target in either instance. Unlike radiations, NNC are alkylating agents. The whole activation process of carcinogens arises from mechanisms leading to DNA repair

  8. Chemoprevention with Acetylsalicylic Acid, Vitamin D and Calcium Reduces Risk of Carcinogen-induced Lung Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, J;

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor.......Background/Aim: Research has shown that chemoprevention may be effective against the development of lung cancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral chemoprevention in a mouse model of tobacco carcinogen-induced lung tumor....

  9. Effect of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric mucosal pathologic change and level of nitric oxide and nitric oxide synthase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Fu Wang; Chun-Lin Guo; Li-Zhen Zhao; Guo-An Yang; Peng Chen; Hong-Kun Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme and its effect on gastric mucosal pathologic change in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), and to study the pathogenic mechanism of H pylori.METHODS: The mucosal tissues of gastric antrum were taken by endoscopy, then their pathology, H pylori and anti-CagA-IgG were determined. Fifty H pyloripositive cases and 35 H pylori negative cases were randomly chosen.Serum level of NO and NOS was detected.RESULTS: One hundred and seven cases (71.33%) were anti-CagA-IgG positive in 150 H pyloripositive cases. The positive rate was higher especially in those with preneoplastic diseases, such as atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia. The level of NO and NOS in positive group was higher than that in negative group, and apparently lower in active gastritis than in pre-neoplastic diseases such as atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia.CONCLUSION: H pyloriis closely related with chronic gastric diseases, and type Ⅰ Hpylorimay be the real factor for Hpylori-related gastric diseases. Infection with H pylori can induce elevation of NOS, which produces NO.

  10. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor stimulated by Helicobacter pyloriincreases proliferation of gastric epithelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry Hua-Xiang Xia; Shiu Kum Lam; Annie O.O. Chan; Marie Chia Mi Lin; Hsiang Fu Kung; Keiji Ogura; Douglas E. Berg; Benjamin Chun-Yu Wong

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is associated with increased gastric inflammatory and epithelial expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and gastric epithelial cell proliferation. This study aimed at determining whether H pylori directly stimulates release of MIF in monocytes, whether the cay pathogenicity island (PAI) is involved for this function, and whether MIF stimulated by H pylori increases gastric epithelial cell proliferation in vitro.METHODS: A cytotoxic wild-type H pylori strain (TN2),its three isogenic mutants (TN2△cag, TN2△cagA and TN2△cagE) were co-cultured with cells of a human monocyte cell line, THP-1, for 24 h at different organism/cell ratios. MIF in the supernatants was measured by an ELISA. Cells of a human gastric cancer cell line, MKN45,were then co-cultured with the supernatants, with and without monoclonal anti-MIF antibody for 24 h. The cells were further incubated for 12 h after addition of 3H-thymidine, and the levels of incorporation of 3H-thymidine were measured with a liquid scintillation counter.RESULTS: The wild-type strain and the isogenic mutants,TN2△cagA and TN2△cagE, increased MIF release at organism/cell ratios of 200/1 and 400/1, but not at the ratios of 50/1 and 100/1. However, the mutant TN2△cag did not increase the release of MIF at any of the four ratios.3H-thymidine readings for MKN-45 cells were significantly increased with supernatants derived from the wild-type strain and the mutants TN2△cagA and TN2△cagE, but not from the mutant TN2△cag. Moreover, in the presence of monoclonal anti-MIF antibody, the stimulatory effects of the wild-type strain on cell proliferation disappeared.CONCLUSION: H pylori stimulates MIF release in monocytes, likely through its cag PAI, but not related to cagA or cagE. H pylori-stimulated monocyte culture supernatant increases gastric cell proliferation, which is blocked by anti-MIF antibody, suggesting that MIF plays an important role in H pylori

  11. Coexpression of cholecystokinin-B/gastrin receptor and gastrin gene in human gastric tissues and gastric cancer cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Jiang Zhou; Man-Ling Chen; Qun-Zhou Zhang; Jian-Kun Hu; Wen-Ling Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the expression patterns of cholecystokininB (CCK-B)/gastrin receptor genes in matched human gastric carcinoma and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa of patients with gastric cancer, inflammatory gastric mucosa from patients with gastritis, normal stomachs from 2 autopsied patients and a gastric carcinoma cell line (SGC-7901), and to explore their relationship with progression to malignancy of human gastric carcinomas.METHODS: RT-PCR and sequencing were employed to detect the mRNA expression levels of CCK-B receptor and gastrin gene in specimens from 30 patients with gastric carcinoma and healthy bordering non-cancerous mucosa, 10 gastritis patients and normal stomachs from 2 autopsied patients as well as SGC-7901. The results were semi-quantified by normalizing it to the mRNA level of β-actin gene using Lab Image software. The sequences were analyzed by BLAST program. RESULTS: CCK-B receptor transcripts were detected in all of human gastric tissues in this study, including normal, inflammatory and malignant tissues and SGC-7901. However, the expression levels of CCK-B receptor in normal gastric tissues were higher than those in other groups (P<0.05),and its expressions did not correlate with the differentiation and metastasis of gastric cancer (P>0.05). On the other hand, gastrin mRNA was detected in SGC-7901 and in specimens obtained from gastric cancer patients (22/30) but not in other gastric tissues, and its expression was highly correlated with the metastases of gastric cancer (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Human gastric carcinomas and gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 cells coexpress CCK-B receptor and gastrin mRNA. Gastrin/CCK-B receptor autocrine or paracrine pathway may possibly play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer.

  12. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  13. Gastric LTi cells promote lymphoid follicle formation but are limited by IRAK-M and do not alter microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, J; Piazuelo, M B; Ding, H; Czinn, S J; Drakes, M L; Banerjee, A; Basappa, N; Kobayashi, K S; Fricke, W F; Blanchard, T G

    2015-09-01

    Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells are activated by accessory cell IL-23, and promote lymphoid tissue genesis and antibacterial peptide production by the mucosal epithelium. We investigated the role of LTi cells in the gastric mucosa in the context of microbial infection. Mice deficient in IRAK-M, a negative regulator of TLR signaling, were investigated for increased LTi cell activity, and antibody mediated LTi cell depletion was used to analyze LTi cell dependent antimicrobial activity. H. pylori infected IRAK-M deficient mice developed increased gastric IL-17 and lymphoid follicles compared to wild type mice. LTi cells were present in naive and infected mice, with increased numbers in IRAK-M deficient mice by two weeks. Helicobacter and Candida infection of LTi cell depleted rag1(-/-) mice demonstrated LTi-dependent increases in calprotectin but not RegIII proteins. However, pathogen and commensal microbiota populations remained unchanged in the presence or absence of LTi cell function. These data demonstrate LTi cells are present in the stomach and promote lymphoid follicle formation in response to infection, but are limited by IRAK-M expression. Additionally, LTi cell mediated antimicrobial peptide production at the gastric epithelium is less efficacious at protecting against microbial pathogens than has been reported for other tissues.

  14. Cure of peptic gastric ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Finnish Gastric Ulcer Study Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Seppälä, K; Pikkarainen, P.; Sipponen, P.; Kivilaakso, E.; Gormsen, M H

    1995-01-01

    The effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on ulcer healing and the relapse rate were investigated in a multicentre trial of 239 gastric ulcer patients. Patients with H pylori positive gastric ulcer were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (A) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole and eight weeks' treatment with colloidal bismuth subcitrate (CBS) (84 patients); (B) 10 days' treatment with metronidazole placebo and eight weeks with CBS (73 patients); or (C) ranitidine (82 patients). A...

  15. Detection of Helicobacter spp. in gastric, fecal and saliva samples from swine affected by gastric ulceration

    OpenAIRE

    Proietti, Patrizia Casagrande; BIETTA, Annalisa; Brachelente, Chiara; Lepri, Elvio; Davidson, Irit; FRANCIOSINI, Maria Pia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Helicobacter (H.) spp. in swine affected by gastric ulceration. Stomachs from 400 regularly slaughtered swine were subjected to gross pathological examination to evaluate the presence of gastric ulcers. Sixty-five samples collected from ulcerated pars esophagea and 15 samples from non-ulcerated pyloric portions were submitted to histopathological and molecular analyses, to detect Helicobacter spp., H. suis and H. pylori by PCR. Feces and s...

  16. Mucin phenotype of gastric cancer and clinicopathology of gastric-type differentiated adenocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsutomu; Namikawa; Kazuhiro; Hanazaki

    2010-01-01

    Differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach is classified into gastric or intestinal phenotypes based on mucus expression. Recent advances in mucin histochemistry and immunohistochemistry have highlighted the importance of such a distinction, and it is important clinically to distinguish between gastricand intestinal-type differentiated adenocarcinoma. However, a clinical and pathological diagnosis of this type is often difficult in early gastric cancer because of histological similarities between a hyperp...

  17. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushira Abdulaziz Enani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  18. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Alharthi, Bandar N; Dewanjee, Nancy; Bhat, Nadeem A; Fagih, Mosa

    2014-07-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  19. Krukenberg tumor after gastric bypass for morbid obesity: Bariatric surgery and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Menéndez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric by-pass is one of the most performed surgical procedure in bariatric surgery. Neoplasm within gastric remnant is a slightly frequent complication (only six cases have been described but with important survival consequences. We present a case of a patient who developed an adenocarcinoma in excluded stomach, after three years of bariatric surgery; the tumor was incidentally discovered after a gynecological surgery for uterine myomas. Different diagnostic modalities for the excluded stomach were analyzed.

  20. Inhibition of foodborne pathogens by pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghayeghi, Koorosh; Shetty, Kalidas; Labbé, Ronald

    2013-05-01

    Pomegranates have health-promoting benefits because of their polyphenol constituents. Previous studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and organic extracts of pomegranate components and by-products. We sought to determine the antimicrobial activity against 40 foodborne pathogens representing eight bacterial species using juice itself. In addition, we sought to determine the synergistic antimicrobial activity between pomegranate juice and other plant products displaying antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice was dependent on the test organism, which varied to highly susceptible (four Gram-positive species) to unaffected (Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Two Gram-negative species, which were inhibited were Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio parahemolyticus. No synergistic antimicrobial activity was seen between pomegranate and either barberry, oregano, or cranberry. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate juice is dependent on the test organism and extraction method. The sensitivity of H. pylori suggests that pomegranate juice may be an alternative or supplemental treatment for gastric ulcers caused by this organism.

  1. Gene Expression Profile Differences in Gastric Cancer and Normal Gastric Mucosa by Oligonucleotide Microarrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuanding Yu; Shenhua Xu; HangZhou Mou; Zhiming Jiang; Chihong Zhu; Xianglin Liu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the difference of gene expression in gastric cancer (T) and normal tissue of gastric mucosa (C), and to screen for associated novel genes in gastric cancers by oligonucleotide microarrays.METHODS U133A (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) gene chip was used to detect the gene expression profile difference in T and C. Bioinformatics was used to analyze the detected results.RESULTS When gastric cancers were compared with normal gastric mucosa, a total of 270 genes were found with a difference of more than 9times in expression levels. Of the 270 genes, 157 were up-regulated (Signal Log Ratio [SLR] ≥3), and 113 were down-regulated (SLR ≤-3).Using a classification of function, the highest number of gene expression differences related to enzymes and their regulatory genes (67, 24.8%),followed by signal-transduction genes (43,15.9%). The third were nucleic acid binding genes (17, 6.3%), fourth were transporter genes (15, 5.5%)and fifth were protein binding genes (12, 4.4%). In addition there were 50genes of unknown function, accounting for 18.5%. The five above mentioned groups made up 56.9% of the total gene number.CONCLUSION The 5 gene groups (enzymes and their regulatory proteins, signal transduction proteins, nucleic acid binding proteins, transporter and protein binding) were abnormally expressed and are important genes for further study in gastric cancers.

  2. The Gastric Remnant in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Challenges and Possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mala, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is widely applied in the treatment of morbid obesity. Health personnel meeting these patients should thus be familiar with the potential clinical consequences of the modified anatomy induced by the surgery. After a RYGB, the stomach is left in situ after the closure of the upper part of the organ. This blind-ended gastric remnant may cause complications and surgical emergencies, but also opportunities for diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. The present review focuses on complications related to the gastric remnant including bleeding and acute dilatation in the early postoperative period and later adverse events such as gastroduodenal peptic disease, tumors, gastrogastric fistulas, and late dilatation. Opportunities offered by the remnant, including minimal invasive or open access for enteral nutrition, and therapeutic and diagnostic access to the bile ducts, the duodenum, and the gastric remnant, which is challenged by the modified anatomy, are discussed. Reversal of the gastric bypass and gastrointestinal reconstruction after esophageal resection have been commented on. The review aims to improve the awareness of issues related to the gastric remnant for physicians involved in the treatment and the follow-up of patients after a RYGB. PMID:27203428

  3. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Prevents Metachronous Gastric Neoplasms after Endoscopic Resection of Gastric Dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hwan Shin

    Full Text Available There is insufficient data about the role of eradication of H. pylori after endoscopic resection (ER for gastric dysplasia. The aim was to investigate the benefit of H. pylori eradication after ER in patients with gastric dysplasia to prevent metachronous gastric neoplasms.We retrospectively reviewed 1872 patients who underwent ER of gastric dysplasia. We excluded patients with a follow-up period of <2 years or who had not undergone tests for active H. pylori infection. A total of 282 patients were enrolled. The patients were categorized into those without active H. pylori infection (H. pylori-negative group, n = 124, those who successfully underwent H. pylori eradication (eradicated group, n = 122, and those who failed or did not undergo H. pylori eradication (persistent group, n = 36.Metachronous recurrence was diagnosed in 36 patients, including 19 in the H. pylori-negative group, 10 in the eradicated group, and 7 in the persistent group. The cumulative incidence of metachronous recurrence was significantly lower in the H. pylori-eradicated group in comparison with either of the H. pylori-persistent (non-eradicated or failed groups (p = 0.039. Similarly, the incidence of metachronous recurrence was significantly lower in the H. pylori-eradicated group compared with the H. pylori-negative group (p = 0.041.Successful H. pylori eradication may reduce the development of metachronous gastric neoplasms after ER in patients with gastric dysplasia.

  4. Dynamic changes of body mass in patients with morbid obesity in the remote terms after gastric banding and gastric bypass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Nikolaevich Egiev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since January 2005 till December 2013 655 patients with morbid obesity were operated on, 457 (69,7% from which, had gastric banding with using different models of regulating bandages: AMI (AMI, Austria, SAGB (Ethicon, USA, Lap Band (ALLEGRAN, USA. Gastric bypass was made to 198 patients, that made 30,3%. The degree of lowering of overweight in general is more after gastric bypass, than after gastric banding. At the same time during the period of 1–1,5 year the degree of lowering of overweight with women is the same after both the operation. The degree of lowering of overweight with men after gastric bypass is a little higher. In the period of 2–4 years the degree of lowering of overweight both with men and women after gastric bypass is higher. In 5 years men after gastric bypass actually lose weight better than after gastric banding. The men older than 40 years having BMI more than 40 kg/m2 after gastric banding lose weight worst of all. In the period of more than 5 years the women in the age group of 30–39 years having BMI more than 40 kg/m2 had better results after gastric bypass. The women older than 50 years having BMI more than 40 kg/m2 after gastric banding had the worst results.

  5. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  6. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera...... analgesic treatment in LRYGB surgery....

  7. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  8. Multiple early gastric cancer with duodenal invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okino Tetsuya

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early gastric cancers with duodenal invasion are rare, and no previous case of multiple early gastric cancer, one invading the duodenal bulb, has been reported. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman was investigated for upper abdominal discomfort. Endoscopic examination revealed an irregular nodulated lesion in the antrum area, and a reddish aggregated-type semi-circumferential nodulated lesion extending from the prepyloric area to the duodenal bulb through the normal mucosa with the antrum lesion. Biopsy revealed a tubular adenoma for the antrum lesion and a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma for the prepyloric lesion. Distal gastrectomy with sufficient duodenal resection was performed. Microscopically, the antrum lesion appeared as a papillary adenocarcinoma, and the prepyloric lesion as a mainly papillary adenocarcinoma which partially invaded the submucosa without any sequential elongation for endoscopic findings. The lesion extended into the duodenal bulb, and was 12 mm in length from the oral end of Brunner's gland's area and limited within the duodenal mucosa. Conclusion Here, we present an unusual case of multiple early gastric cancer, one of which invaded the duodenum with relative wide mucosal spreading. This case illustrates that even early stage cancers located in the gastric antrum, particularly in the prepyloric area can invade the duodenum directly.

  9. Gastric electromechanical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krygowska-Wajs, A; Lorens, K; Thor, P; Szczudlik, A; Konturek, S

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate gastric myoelectrical and mechanical activities in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients. Twenty patients with IPD (14 male and 6 female, mean age 42 +/- 9 years) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: group A--early stage of disease (no. = 6) and group B--advanced IPD (no. = 14). Electrogastrography (EGG) was performed in fasting and postprandial conditions (Synectics system). The cross-sectional area of the gastric antrum was measured by sonography (Hitachi EUB-240). The antral area in fasting conditions was 2.1 +/- 0.4 and 4.2 +/- 1.2 cm2 and gastric emptying was 75 +/- 5 and 125 +/- 12 min in groups A and B respectively. EGG showed dysrhythmias (range 1-6 cycles per minute) in about 75% of both groups of IPD patients without increase in signal amplitude after a meal. Our results suggest that gastric motility is particularly impaired in patients with advanced IPD. It may be caused by the primary degenerative process in the autonomic nervous system of the gut. PMID:10842759

  10. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zilai; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Huang, Baisong; Chen, Kemin [Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Chao [Jiaotong University, Department of Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has been widely used to detect primary lesions and to evaluate TNM staging. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of dynamic MDCT in the preoperative determination of the resectability of gastric cancer. MDCT was used to image 350 cases of gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy before surgery. MDCT findings regarding TNM staging and resectability were correlated with surgical and pathological findings. The accuracy of MDCT for staging gastric cancer was high, especially for tumour stage T1 (94.3%), lymph node stage N2 (87.3%), and for predicting distant metastases (>96.6%). When resectability was considered to be the outcome, the total accuracy of MDCT was 87.4%, sensitivity was 89.7% and specificity was 76.7%. Results showed high sensitivity for identifying peritoneal seeding (90.0%) and for predicting liver metastasis (80.0%). Dynamic enhanced MDCT is useful for TNM staging of gastric cancers and for predicting tumour respectability preoperatively. (orig.)

  11. Cellular and molecular aspects of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malcolm G Smith; Georgina L Hold; Eiichi Tahara; Emad M El-Omar

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a global killer with a shifting burden from the developed to the developing world.The cancer develops along a multistage process that is defined by distinct histological and pathophysiological phases. Several genetic and epigenetic alterations mediate the transition from one stage to another and these include mutations in oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes and cell cycle and mismatch repair genes. The most significant advance in the fight against gastric caner came with the recognition of the role of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) as the most important acquired aetiological agent for this cancer. Recent work has focussed on elucidating the complex host/microbial interactions that underlie the neoplastic process. There is now considerable insight into the pathogenesis of this cancer and the prospect of preventing and eradicating the disease has become a reality. Perhaps more importantly, the study of H pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis offers a paradigm for understanding more complex human cancers. In this review, we examine the molecular and cellular events that underlie H pyloriinduced gastric cancer.

  12. PIVKA-II-producing advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Shigetsugu; Honda, Ichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Soda, Hiroaki; Nagata, Matsuo; Hoshino, Isamu; Takenouchi, Toshinao; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2004-08-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old man with primary advanced adenocarcinoma of the stomach, who displayed extremely high plasma levels of protein induced by vitamin K antagonist (PIVKA)-II (15 600 mAU/ml) and normal levels of alphafetoprotein (AFP) (4 ng/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative chemotherapy, pancreatico-spleno total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. Postoperatively, plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (29 mAU/ml). Microscopic examination revealed stomach adenocarcinoma showing various histological types, such as moderately to poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma, but hepatoid differentiation of gastric adenocarcinoma was not detected. Localization of PIVKA-II and AFP within tumor cells was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies. These results indicate that tumor cells from gastric cancer may produce PIVKA-II. Some cases of PIVKA-II- and AFP-producing advanced gastric cancer with liver metastasis have been reported, but this is the first report of gastric cancer without liver metastasis producing PIVKA-II alone.

  13. Rare Case of Immature Gastric Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ivascu M.; Bembea M.; Jurca Claudia; Moldovan Corina; Buicu F.

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare and complex tumors with components from more than one of the three germ cell layers. Teratomas range from benign, well-differentiated (mature) cystic lesions to those that are solid and malignant (immature). The incidence of all teratomas is estimated at 1:10,000-1:20,000 newborns. Gastric teratomas represent only 1-2% of all teratomas.

  14. Ultradian rhythms in walking gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, J F; Kripke, D F

    1975-01-01

    Ninety to 120 min ultradian rhythms have been described in physiologic and behavioral functions relating to biologic drives. Gastric contractility rhythms were examined in isolated fasting volunteers to supplement behavioral observations of "oral" drives. A clear ultradian rhythms was observed, indicating inherent physiologic oscillation in stomach contractions.

  15. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  16. Invasive mucormycosis in benign gastric ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rikabi, A C; Al-Dohayan, A D; Al-Boukai, A A

    2000-03-01

    Fungal elements are frequently noted overlying the base of chronic peptic ulcers of the stomach and it has been suggested that the fungi enhance the degree of necrosis and that these cases have protracted disease and deeper ulcers with more perforations. It has also been postulated that the number of fungal elements might be increased in the stomach of patients who are receiving potent medications such as H2-receptor antagonists to reduce gastric acidity, but there have not been adequate control studies, and the deleterious effects from the presence of the fungi in these cases have not been substantiated. We present a very rare case of invasive mucormycosis (phycomycosis) occurring in the base of a chronic gastric ulcer in a 55 years old diabetic male. This case was clinically and radiologically been mistaken for a gastric carcinoma. In addition, the ulcer was complicated by perforation and fungal septicemia with subsequent fatal outcome. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are described together with a literature review of other reported fungal gastric ulcers.

  17. Chitosan against cutaneous pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Champer, Jackson; Patel, Julie; Fernando, Nathalie; Salehi, Elaheh; Wong, Victoria; Kim, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus aureus are cutaneous pathogens that have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics. We sought to determine if chitosan, a polymer of deacetylated chitin, could be used as a potential treatment against these bacteria. We found that higher molecular weight chitosan had superior antimicrobial properties compared to lower molecular weights, and that this activity occurred in a pH dependent manner. Electron and fluorescence microscopy revealed that chi...

  18. The Keystone Pathogen Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Darveau, Richard P; Curtis, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the importance of the human microbiome in host health and disease. However, for the most part the mechanisms by which the microbiome mediates disease, or protection from it, remain poorly understood. The “keystone pathogen” hypothesis holds that certain low-abundance microbial pathogens can orchestrate inflammatory disease by remodelling a normally benign microbiota into a dysbiotic one. In this Opinion, we critically assess the available literature in support ...

  19. Determination of DNA adducts by combining acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and chromatographic analysis of the carcinogen-modified nucleobases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elvis M K; Deng, Kailin; Wong, Tin-Yan; Chan, Wan

    2016-01-01

    The commonly used method of analyzing carcinogen-induced DNA adducts involves the hydrolysis of carcinogen-modified DNA samples by using a mixture of enzymes, followed by (32)P-postlabeling or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses of carcinogen-modified mononucleotides/nucleosides. In the present study, we report the development and application of a new approach to DNA adduct analysis by combining the H(+)/heat-catalyzed release of carcinogen-modified nucleobases and the use of LC-based methods to analyze DNA adducts. Results showed that heating the carcinogen-modified DNA samples at 70 °C for an extended period of 4 to 6 h in the presence of 0.05% HCl can efficiently induce DNA depurination, releasing the intact carcinogen-modified nucleobases for LC analyses. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, DNA samples with C8- and N (2) -modified 2'-deoxyguanosine, as well as N (6) -modified 2'-deoxyadenosine, were synthesized by reacting DNA with 1-nitropyrene, acetaldehyde, and aristolochic acids, respectively. These samples were then hydrolyzed, and the released nucleobase adducts were analyzed using LC-based analytical methods. Analysis results demonstrated a dose-dependent release of target DNA adducts from carcinogen-modified DNA samples, indicating that the developed H(+)/heat-catalyzed hydrolysis method was quantitative. Comparative studies with enzymatic digestion method on carcinogen-modified DNA samples revealed that the two hydrolysis methods did not yield systematically different results.

  20. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.