... to determine the bacteria causing the infection (bacterial culture). The test result helps your provider determine the ... Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015: ...
deeper reason that one ought to pay attention to the sim- plified carbuncle problem. ... that, when solving the Riemann problem, explicitly take into account the presence ... y) and is divided into N В N cells (we follow the literature in taking 25 В ...
Full Text Available Background: Atypical mycobacterium infection occurs under certain skin conditions, namely the disruption of skin integrity and mucous membranes accompanied by the reduction of cellular immunity. However, atypical mycobacterial infection in elderly patients is rarely reported. Case: A 64 years old male patient, complained of red lumps on the upper-backfor a month, accompanied by mild fever and minimal pain. Three months before, the patient had accupuncture on the neck and upper back. Physical examination showed multiple miliar to lenticular sized papules and pustules on an erythematous-violaceus base with hard and immobile palpable nodes and infiltrate. After clinical and laboratory workup, the patient was diagnosed withcarbuncle with Candida spp colonization. The treatment consisted of systemicantibiotics and topical antifungals. There was no clinical improvement after 3 weeks. Histopathology and laboratory results suggested atypical mycobacterium infection. Discussion: Atypical mycobacterium infection should be considered in elderly patients with skin and soft tissue infections that show no clinical improvement tostandard therapy.
Lower Back Pain Muscle Pain Osteoporosis Sprain Strain Tendonitis Contracture Other (list): SKIN Abscess / Carbuncle...Vital Signs (if applicable) Assessment: Yes No Abscess ...Gingivitis/ Periodontal Oral Ulcers Pericoronitis Other
Superficial bacterial infections of the skin are very common. With the increasing burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), this is likely to worsen. Examples of such infections include impetigo, erysipelas, cellulitis, ecthyma, furuncles, carbuncles and subcutaneous abscesses. Common causative organisms are ...
associated with SSTI: 680.x (carbuncle and furuncle), 681.x (cel- lulitis and abscess of fi nger and toe), and 682.x (other cellulitis and abscess...cephalexin plus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus cephalexin alone for treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis : a randomized controlled trial
disorders 106 12.3 Epilepsy 96 11.1 Migraine 75 8.7 Other conditions of brain 41 4.8 Skin and subcutaneous tissue (ICD-9: 680–709) 933 Other cellulitis ...and abscess 694 74.4 Pilonidal cyst 65 7.0 Cellulitis and abscess of fi nger and toe 57 6.1 Contact dermatitis and other eczema 22 2.4 Disorders...ICD-10: L00–L99) 258 Cellulitis and acute lymphangitis of other parts of limb 109 42.2 Cutaneous abscess, furuncle and carbuncle of limb 16 6.2
Runyan, W R
As times change so do the things we use and what we call them. W.R. Runyan has compiled a fascinating collection of words and phrases that, once common everywhere in America, are little known today. This book is a celebration of our linguistic past that will be a treat from word lovers everywhere. Do you know any of these: Snaffle, Steelie, Gully Washer, Cabriolet, Calk, Hardpan, Carbuncle, Pie Bird, Fid, or Hame? Did you know that a "Horse Apple" is actually an orange? Or that "Rolley Holley" is a marble game? With over one hundred illustrations, this is a book that will take you on a walk back in time and give you a chance to hear from generations past-in their own voice, with their own words.
Maregesi, Sheila M; Hermans, Nina; Dhooghe, Liene; Cimanga, Kanyanga; Ferreira, Daneel; Pannecouque, Christophe; Vanden Berghe, Dirk A; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis; Vlietinck, Arnold J; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc
Elaeodendron schlechteranum (Loes.) Loes. is a shrub or tree belonging to the family Celastraceae. In Tanzania, in addition to ethnopharmacological claims in treating various non-infectious diseases, the root and stem bark powder is applied on septic wounds, and the leaf paste is used for treatment of boils and carbuncles. The aim of this study was to identify the putative active constituents of the plant. Dried and powdered root bark was extracted and subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation, based on antibacterial, antiparasitic and anti-HIV activity. Isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods, and evaluated for biological activity. Bioassay-guided isolation led to the identification of tingenin B (22beta-hydroxytingenone) as the main antibacterial constituent. It was active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (IC(50)8)-4'-O-methylepigallocatechin. However, none of these showed anti-HIV activity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akhtar, R.P.; Khan, J.S.; Abid, A.R.; Gardezi, S.J.R.
To study patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgery and their anticoagulation management during these procedures. Patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgical operation during this period, were included. Their anticoagulation was monitored and anticoagulation related complications were recorded. In this study, 507 consecutive patients with a mechanical heart valve replacement were followed-up. Forty two (8.28%) patients underwent non-cardiac surgical operations of which 24 (57.1%) were for abdominal and non-abdominal surgeries, 5 (20.8%) were emergency and 19 (79.2%) were planned. There were 18 (42.9%) caesarean sections for pregnancies. Among the 24 procedures, there were 7(29.1%) laparotomies, 7(29.1%) hernia repairs, 2 (8.3%) cholecystectomies, 2 (8.3%) hysterectomies, 1(4.1%) craniotomy, 1(4.1%) spinal surgery for neuroblastoma, 1(4.1%) ankle fracture and 1(4.1%) carbuncle. No untoward valve or anticoagulation related complication was seen during this period. Patients with mechanical valve prosthesis on life-long anticoagulation, if managed properly, can undergo any type of noncardiac surgical operation with minimal risk. (author)
Akhtar, Raja Parvez; Abid, Abdul Rehman; Zafar, Hasnain; Gardezi, Syed Javed Raza; Waheed, Abdul; Khan, Jawad Sajid
To study patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgery and their anticoagulation management during these procedures. It was a cohort study. The study was conducted at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore and Department of Surgery, Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore, from September 1994 to June 2006. Patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing non-cardiac surgical operation during this period, were included. Their anticoagulation was monitored and anticoagulation related complications were recorded. In this study, 507 consecutive patients with a mechanical heart valve replacement were followed-up. Forty two (8.28%) patients underwent non-cardiac surgical operations of which 24 (57.1%) were for abdominal and non-abdominal surgeries, 5 (20.8%) were emergency and 19 (79.2%) were planned. There were 18 (42.9%) caesarean sections for pregnancies. Among the 24 procedures, there were 7(29.1%) laparotomies, 7(29.1%) hernia repairs, 2 (8.3%) cholecystectomies, 2 (8.3%) hysterectomies, 1(4.1%) craniotomy, 1(4.1%) spinal surgery for neuroblastoma, 1(4.1%) ankle fracture and 1(4.1%) carbuncle. No untoward valve or anticoagulation related complication was seen during this period. Patients with mechanical valve prosthesis on life-long anticoagulation, if managed properly, can undergo any type of non-cardiac surgical operation with minimal risk.
Choe, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
The kidney scan and the excretory urography of 21 cases in kidney disease proved clinically or pathologically at Yonsei University, Severance Hospital were reviewed and analysed briefly. Following were the results: 1. In all except 2 cases of pyelonephritis, changes on the kidney scan were noted with generalized motted density and cold area in the kidney, and with diffuse poor or non uptake density and various size or shape of the kidney. 2. On the excretory urogram, the demonstrable findings in the kidney parenchyma were discribed on the only 7 of 21 cases, hypernephroma, tuberculosis kidney, necrotizing papillits, medullary sponge kidney, and stenosis of renal artery. 3. Three of all cases, renal carbuncle, retroperitoneal hematoma with aberrant vessel and angiolipomyoma were no appreciable finding on the pyelography, but on the view of kidney scanning, there were apparently demonstrated abnormal cold area and some enlargement of kidney size. We concluded that the close correlation of the two techniques, kidney scanning and excretory urography on the kidney disease leads to more improved diagnostic accuracy.
Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ma, Choong Je
Dianthus superbus (D. superbus) is a traditional crude drug used for the treatment of urethritis, carbuncles and carcinomas. The objective of this study was to confirm the cognitive enhancing effect of D. superbus in memory impairment induced mice and to elucidate the possible potential mechanism. Effect of D. superbus on scopolamine induced memory impairment on mice was evaluated using the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. We also investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) expression in scopolamine-induced mice. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to identify active compounds in D. superbus. The results revealed that D. superbus attenuated the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine. D. superbus also inhibited AChE levels in the hippocampi of the scopolamine-injected mice. Moreover, D. superbus increased BDNF expression in the hippocampus. Eight compounds were identified using HPLC-DAD analysis. The content of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid was higher than contents of other compounds. These results indicated that D. superbus improved memory functioning accompanied by inhibition of AChE and upregulation of BDNF, suggesting that D. superbus may be a useful therapeutic agent for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Increased US emergency department visits for skin and soft tissue infections, and changes in antibiotic choices, during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Pallin, Daniel J; Egan, Daniel J; Pelletier, Andrea J; Espinola, Janice A; Hooper, David C; Camargo, Carlos A
Test the hypotheses that emergency department (ED) visits for skin and soft tissue infections became more frequent during the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and that antibiotics typically active against community-associated MRSA were chosen increasingly. From merged National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data for 1993-2005, we identified ED visits with diagnosis of cellulitis, abscess, felon, impetigo, hidradenitis, folliculitis, infective mastitis, nonpurulent mastitis, breast abscess, or carbuncle and furuncle. Main outcomes were change over time in rate of ED visits with such a diagnosis and proportion of antibiotic regimens including an agent typically active against community-associated MRSA. We report national estimates derived from sample weights. We tested trends with least squares linear regression. In 1993, infections of interest were diagnosed at 1.2 million visits (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96 to 1.5 million) versus 3.4 million in 2005 (95% CI 2.8 to 4.1 million; P for trend trend trend skin and soft tissue infections increased markedly from 1993 to 2005, contemporaneously with the emergence of community-associated MRSA. ED clinicians prescribed more antibiotics typically active against community-associated MRSA, especially trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Possible confounders are discussed, such as increasing diabetes or shifts in locus of care.
Yang, Ching-Ping; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Guh, Jinn-Yuh; Chen, Hung-Chun
Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a side effect of pancytopenia. However, only a few cases of severe pancytopenia caused by low-dose MTX therapy have been reported, and the condition is rarely reported in uremic patients on dialysis therapy. We thereby report a hemodialysis patient who developed severe pancytopenia after oral treatment with low-dose MTX for RA. A 55-year-old woman who had been on regular hemodialysis treatment for 7 yr suffered from RA for 10 yr. She was regularly treated with celecoxib, prednisolone, and sulfasalazine in the past year. Because of the increasing arthralgia, 7.5 mg per week MTX was prescribed 3 months before admission. Stomatitis, fever, general fatigue, multiple skin carbuncles, and easy bruising developed after a cumulative dose of 90 mg. Pancytopenia was found at admission and the nadir of white blood cell count was 250/microL with 28% neutrophils, hematocrit was 22%, and platelet count was 6000/microL. Eosinophil counts increased from 11.5% initially to 26.1% on the sixth admission day. Transfusion with red blood cells and platelets, and appropriate antibiotics and folic acid were prescribed. She continued receiving regular hemodialysis and eventually recovered within 3 weeks.
Ohwada, Taku; Shibata, Yuki; Kato, Takuma; Nakamura, Taichi
Developed is a high-order accurate shock-capturing scheme for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations; the formal accuracy is 5th order in space and 4th order in time. The performance and efficiency of the scheme are validated in various numerical tests. The main ingredients of the scheme are nothing special; they are variants of the standard numerical flux, MUSCL, the usual Lagrange's polynomial and the conventional Runge-Kutta method. The scheme can compute a boundary layer accurately with a rational resolution and capture a stationary contact discontinuity sharply without inner points. And yet it is endowed with high resistance against shock anomalies (carbuncle phenomenon, post-shock oscillations, etc.). A good balance between high robustness and low dissipation is achieved by blending three types of numerical fluxes according to physical situation in an intuitively easy-to-understand way. The performance of the scheme is largely comparable to that of WENO5-Rusanov, while its computational cost is 30-40% less than of that of the advanced scheme.
Full Text Available The aerial parts of Artemisia frigida Willd. are used to treat joint swelling, renal heat, abnormal menstruation, and sore carbuncle. The anti-inflammatory effects of A. frigida have been well-known in folk medicine, suggesting that components extracted from A. frigida could potentially treat inflammatory disease. With the aim of discovering bioactive compounds, in this study, we extracted total flavonoids from the aerial parts of A. frigida and investigated their anti-inflammatory effects against inflammation induced by carrageenan and egg albumin in rats. At the doses studied, total flavonoids (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 400 mg/kg and some isolated compounds (30 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects. According to the high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total flavonoids from A. frigida, there are five major compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′-dimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F1, 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (F2, 5,7,3′-trihydroxy-6,4′-dimethoxyflavone (F3, 5,3′-dihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (F4, and 5,3′-dihydroxy-3,6,7,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (F5, which may explain the anti-inflammatory activity.
Lopatkin, N.A.; Gleizer, J.J.; Jarmolinskij, J.S.; Darenkov, A.F.
Dynamic scintigraphy with computer renography ( 131 I-hippuran, 125 I-hippuran, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA), indirect angiography (sup(99m)Tc-albumin), static scintigraphy ( 197 Hg-promeran, sup(99m)Tc-citrate, sup(99m)Tc-calcium-gluconate, sup(99m)Tc-sulphuric colloid) and RIA determination of plasma renin activity were carried out in 105 patients with complications after renal transplantation. In the diagnosis of the specific complications the most valuable methods were the following: indirect angiography in the diagnosis of renal arterial thrombosis; dynamic scintigraphy in the case of ureteral occlusion; static scintigraphy ( 197 Hg-promeran) in infarction, carbuncle or abscess of the transplantatum. The methods applied provided ''good'' information in the following cases: indirect angiography in venous thrombosis and acute tubular necrosis; dynamic scintigraphy in venous and arterial thrombosis, ureteral occlusion, and acute renal failure; static scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-citrate in infarction and abscessus, with sup(99m)Tc-calcium-gluconate in ureteral occlusion, with sup(99m)Tc-sulphuric colloid in acute tubular necrosis; RIA determination of plasma renin activity in acute tubular necrosis. In the different pathological conditions the examinations not mentioned above gave poor or negative results. (L.E.)
Kim, S S; Rho, O H; Kyu-Hong, S
This paper deals with the development of an improved Roe scheme that is free from the shock instability and still preserves the accuracy and efficiency of the original Roe's Flux Difference Splitting (FDS). Roe's FDS is known to possess good accuracy but to suffer from the shock instability, such as the carbuncle phenomenon. As the first step towards a shock-stable scheme, Roe's FDS is compared with the HLLE scheme to identify the source of the shock instability. Through a linear perturbation analysis on the odd-even decoupling problem, damping characteristic is examined and Mach number-based functions f and g are introduced to balance damping and feeding rates, which leads to a shock-stable Roe scheme. In order to satisfy the conservation of total enthalpy, which is crucial in predicting surface heat transfer rate in high-speed steady flows, an analysis of dissipation mechanism in the energy equation is carried out to find out the error source and to make the proposed scheme preserve total enthalpy. By modif...
Choe, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chung Kyu; Choi, Byung Sook
The kidney scan and the excretory urography of 21 cases in kidney disease proved clinically or pathologically at Yonsei University, Severance Hospital were reviewed and analysed briefly. Following were the results: 1. In all except 2 cases of pyelonephritis, changes on the kidney scan were noted with generalized motted density and cold area in the kidney, and with diffuse poor or non uptake density and various size or shape of the kidney. 2. On the excretory urogram, the demonstrable findings in the kidney parenchyma were discribed on the only 7 of 21 cases, hypernephroma, tuberculosis kidney, necrotizing papillits, medullary sponge kidney, and stenosis of renal artery. 3. Three of all cases, renal carbuncle, retroperitoneal hematoma with aberrant vessel and angiolipomyoma were no appreciable finding on the pyelography, but on the view of kidney scanning, there were apparently demonstrated abnormal cold area and some enlargement of kidney size. We concluded that the close correlation of the two techniques, kidney scanning and excretory urography on the kidney disease leads to more improved diagnostic accuracy
4.91 Cellulitis 44 12 0.72 6 0.36 15 0.90 3 0.18 1 0.06 7 0.42 2.53 Contact dermatitis 49 14 0.84 4 0.24 25 1.50 6 0.36 – 0.00 – 0.00 3.34 Dermatitis...n % n % n % N % Abscess 12 2.60 13 1.70 57 4.00 0 0.00 16 2.20 5 1.90 2 0.60 1 0.20 31 2.50 137 2.40 Cellulitis 24 5.30 33 4.40 29 2.00 0 0.00 25...Unknown Row Total n % n % n % n % n % n % n % Abscess/carbuncle 45 1.73 19 0.73 46 1.77 14 0.54 13 0.50 13 0.50 150 5.76 Cellulitis 12 0.46 14
Harch, Susan A J; MacMorran, Eleanor; Tong, Steven Y C; Holt, Deborah C; Wilson, Judith; Athan, Eugene; Hewagama, Saliya
Superficial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are common among the Indigenous population of the desert regions of Central Australia. However, the overall burden of disease and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus complicated SSTIs has yet to be described in this unique population. Alice Springs Hospital (ASH) admission data was interrogated to establish the population incidence of SSTIs. A prospective observational study was conducted on a subset of S. aureus complicated SSTIs (carbuncles and furuncles requiring surgical intervention) presenting during a one month period to further characterize the clinical and molecular epidemiology. High resolution melting analysis was used for clonal complex discrimination. Real-time polymerase chain reaction identifying the lukF component of the Panton Valentine leucocidin (pvl) gene determined pvl status. Clinical and outcome data was obtained from the ASH medical and Northern Territory shared electronic health records. SSTIs represented 2.1% of ASH admissions during 2014. 82.6% occurred in Indigenous patients (n = 382) with an estimated incidence of 18.9 per 1, 000 people years compared to the non-Indigenous population of 2.9 per 1000, with an incident rate ratio of 6.6 (95% confidence interval 5.1-8.5). Clinical and molecular analysis was performed on 50 isolates from 47 patients. Community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) predominated (57% of isolates). The high burden of SSTIs is partly explained by the prevalence of pvl positive strains of S. aureus (90% isolates) for both CA-MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). ST93-MRSA and CC121-MSSA were the most prevalent clones. SSTIs due to ST93-MRSA were more likely to require further debridement (p = 0.039), however they also more frequently received inactive antimicrobial therapy (p population when antimicrobial therapy is indicated. Prompt surgical intervention remains the cornerstone of treatment.
Yun, Bo-Ra; Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je
Dianthus superbus, one of traditional herbal medicine, is widely used to treat urethritis, carbuncles and carcinoma. A simultaneous determination method was established for controlling the quality of D. superbus using the eight compounds, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1), diosmetin-7-O(2'',6''-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), vanillic acid (3), 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid (4), 4-methoxyphenyl acetic acid (5), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (6), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (7), and methyl hydroferulate (8) isolated from D. superbus. This analysis method was developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector with a Shishedo C18 column at a column temperature of 3°C. The mobile phase was composed of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid in water and acetonitrile. The flow rate was 1 ml/min and detection wavelength was set at 205 nm and 280 nm. Validation was performed in order to demonstrate selectivity, accuracy and precision of the method. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R (2) > 0.99). The limits of detection and limits of quantification were within the ranges 0.0159-0.6205 μg/ml and 0.3210-1.8802 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were both Dianthus superbus was established by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detectorDeveloped analysis method is validated with linearity, precious and accuracyThe newly established method was successfully evaluated contents of eight compounds in 12 D. superbus samples (D.1.D.12) from various regions and compared. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, LOD: Limits of detection, LOQ: Limits of quantification, RSD: Relative standard deviation.
Henry A. A. Ugboma
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18-50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were "ever taught about testicular self-examination." CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes.
Roslan, Nur Khairunnisa Hanisah; Ismail, Farzad
Perhaps most CFD simulations may yield good predictions of pressure and velocity when compared to experimental data. Unfortunately, these results will most likely not adhere to the second law of thermodynamics hence comprising the authenticity of predicted data. Currently, the test of a good CFD code is to check how much entropy is generated in a smooth flow and hope that the numerical entropy produced is of the correct sign when a shock is encountered. Herein, a shock capturing code written in C++ based on a recent entropy consistent Euler flux is developed to simulate 1D and 2D flows. Unlike other finite volume schemes in commercial CFD code, this entropy consistent flux (EC) function precisely satisfies the discrete second law of thermodynamics. This EC flux has an entropy-conserved part, preserving entropy for smooth flows and a numerical diffusion part that will accurately produce the proper amount of entropy, consistent with the second law. Several numerical simulations of the entropy consistent flux have been tested on two dimensional test cases. The first case is a Mach 3 flow over a forward facing step. The second case is a flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil while the third case is a hypersonic flow passing over a 2D cylinder. Local flow quantities such as velocity and pressure are analyzed and then compared with mainly the Roe flux. The results herein show that the EC flux does not capture the unphysical rarefaction shock unlike the Roe-flux and does not easily succumb to the carbuncle phenomenon. In addition, the EC flux maintains good performance in cases where the Roe flux is known to be superior.
Simultaneous Determination of Four Compounds, Campesterol, Emodin8-O-β-D-Glucopyranoside, Quercetin, and Isoquercitrin in Reynoutria sachalinensis by High-performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector
Eom, Min Rye; Weon, Jin Bae; Jung, Youn Sik; Ryu, Ga Hee; Yang, Woo Seung; Ma, Choong Je
Background: Reynoutria sachalinensis is a well-known and used herbal medicine to treatment of arthralgia, jaundice, amenorrhea, coughs, carbuncles, and sores. Objective: We have developed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis method for simultaneous determination of isolated four compounds, campesterol, emodin8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin from R. sachalinensis is. Materials and Methods: The four compounds were separated on Shiseido C18 column (S-5 μm, 4.6 mm I.D. ×250 mm) at a column temperature of 25°C. The mobile phase composed of water and methanol with gradient elution system, and flow rate is 1.0 ml/min. The detection wavelength was set at 205 nm. Results: Validation of this analytical method was evaluated by linearity, precision, and accuracy test. This established method had good linearity (R2 > 0.997). The relative standard deviation values of intra- and inter-day testing were indicated that <2%, and accuracy is 91.66%–103.31% at intraday and 91.69%–103.31% at intraday. The results of recovery test were 92.60%–108.99%. Conclusion: In these results, developed method was accurate and reliable to the quality evaluation of campesterol, emodin 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin, and isoquercitrin isolated from R. sachalinensis. SUMMARY We have developed high-performance liquid analysis method for simultaneous determination of 4 compounds of Reynoutria sachalinensis. Abbreviations used: HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, DAD: Diode array detector, LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantitation, ICH: International Conference on Harmonisation. PMID:28808389
Bilyayeva, Olga O; Neshta, Viacheslav V; Golub, Alexander A; Sams-Dodd, Frank
The purpose of this study was to determine the wound healing effects of Acapsil, a white, odorless powder based on micropore particle technology (MPPT) (Willingsford Ltd, Southampton, UK) by comparing it to Gentaxane (Gentaksan, Borshchagovsky CCP, Kyiv, Ukraine) (polydimethylsiloxane powder with gentamicin antibiotic) and Ioddicerin (Farmak, Kyiv, Ukraine) (iodine with dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]). The study included 266 patients with primarily trophic ulcers caused by pancreatic diabetes and venous insufficiency of the lower extremities, carbuncles, phlegmons, infected third- or fourth-degree heat burns, and infiltrations of postoperative wounds. The products were applied once daily to the wound until it was clean (ie, free from necrosis, pus, and fibrinogenous thickenings). The number of days (mean ± standard deviation) to a clean wound was 3.0 ± 0.9 for MPPT (n = 88) compared with 7.0 ± 1.2 and 8.0 ± 1.1 for Gentaxane (n = 90) and iodine/DMSO (n = 88), respectively. Thus, MPPT reduced the time to reach a clean wound by 57% and 62%, respectively. Products were used once daily until a clean wound was reached, which also reflects the number of applications. Days to onset of granulation for MPPT, Gentaxane, and iodine/DMSO were 4.5 ± 0.8, 9.2 ± 1.4, and 10.3 ± 1.5 days, respectively; and days to onset of epithelialization were 7.8 ± 1.1, 14.1 ± 1.9, and 16.4 ± 2.7 days, respectively. Subgroup analysis of patients with diabetic foot and venous leg ulcers found that each of these demonstrated the same pattern of healing as the overall study. The number of hospitalization days was 14.6 ± 5.6 for MPPT, 21.0 ± 10.7 for Gentaxane, and 24.0 ± 7.9 for iodine/DMSO. Compared with Gentaxane, patients receiving MPPT had a 31% reduction in hospitalization duration and a 39% reduction compared with iodine/DMSO. These findings demonstrate that MPPT represents a valuable new approach to wound care.
. Highly significant antimicrobial activity against medically important Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans by these ZNPs was also revealed. As S. aureus and C. albicans are responsible for many contagious dermal infections such as abscesses, furuncles, carbuncles, cellulitis, and candidiasis, we can postulate that our fabricated ZNPs may be useful as antimicrobial agents in antiseptic creams and lotions for the treatment of skin diseases. Keywords: antimicrobial activity, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, flower-shape zinc oxide nanoparticles, near-room temperature, sol–gel method, skin disease
Liu, Shi-Jun; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Cui, Chun-Li; Liu, Hong-Bo; Liang, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Dong-Bo; Zheng, Ya-Ting; Shi, Huan-Xian; Li, Shi-Ying
Ligularia przewalskii (Maxim.) Diels (LP) (called zhangyetuowu in Chinese), is generally found in moist forest areas in the western regions of China. The root, leaves and flower of LP are utilized as a common traditional medicine in China. It has been utilized conventionally in herbal remedies for the remedy of haemoptysis, asthma, pulmonary phthisis, jaundice hepatitis, food poisoning, bronchitis, cough, fever, wound healing, measles, carbuncle, swelling and phlegm diseases. The review aims to provide a systematic summary of LP and to reveal the correlation between the traditional uses and pharmacological activities in order to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information and identify the therapeutic potential for its use as a new medicine. The relevant data were searched by using the keywords "Ligularia przewalskii" "phytochemistry", "pharmacology", "Traditional uses", and "Toxicity" in "Scopus", "Scifinder", "Springer", "Pubmed", "Wiley", "Web of Science", "China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases (CNKI)", "Ph.D." and "M.Sc. dissertations", and a hand-search was done to acquire peer-reviewed articles and reports about LP. The plant taxonomy was validated by the databases "The Plant List", "Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae", "A Collection of Qinghai Economic Plants", "Inner Mongolia plant medicine Chi", Zhonghua-bencao and the Standard of Chinese herbal medicine in Gansu. Based on the traditional uses, the chemical nature and biological effects of LP have been the focus of research. In modern research, approximately seventy-six secondary metabolites, including thirty-eight terpenoids, nine benzofuran derivatives, seven flavonoids, ten sterols and others, were isolated from this plant. They exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-bacterial and anti-tumour effects, and so on. Currently, there is no report on the toxicity of LP, but hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (HPA) were first detected with LC/MS n in LP, and they have potential
Li Jiequan; Li Qibing; Xu Kun
The generalized Riemann problem (GRP) scheme for the Euler equations and gas-kinetic scheme (GKS) for the Boltzmann equation are two high resolution shock capturing schemes for fluid simulations. The difference is that one is based on the characteristics of the inviscid Euler equations and their wave interactions, and the other is based on the particle transport and collisions. The similarity between them is that both methods can use identical MUSCL-type initial reconstructions around a cell interface, and the spatial slopes on both sides of a cell interface involve in the gas evolution process and the construction of a time-dependent flux function. Although both methods have been applied successfully to the inviscid compressible flow computations, their performances have never been compared. Since both methods use the same initial reconstruction, any difference is solely coming from different underlying mechanism in their flux evaluation. Therefore, such a comparison is important to help us to understand the correspondence between physical modeling and numerical performances. Since GRP is so faithfully solving the inviscid Euler equations, the comparison can be also used to show the validity of solving the Euler equations itself. The numerical comparison shows that the GRP exhibits a slightly better computational efficiency, and has comparable accuracy with GKS for the Euler solutions in 1D case, but the GKS is more robust than GRP. For the 2D high Mach number flow simulations, the GKS is absent from the shock instability and converges to the steady state solutions faster than the GRP. The GRP has carbuncle phenomena, likes a cloud hanging over exact Riemann solvers. The GRP and GKS use different physical processes to describe the flow motion starting from a discontinuity. One is based on the assumption of equilibrium state with infinite number of particle collisions, and the other starts from the non-equilibrium free transport process to evolve into an