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Sample records for carboxylase intrinsically located

  1. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Harris Steven D; Nickerson Kenneth W; Strope Pooja K; Moriyama Etsuko N

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green al...

  2. Crystal Structures of Human and Staphylococcus aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase and Molecular Insights into the Carboxyltransfer Reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang,S.; Tong, L.

    2008-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the biotin-dependent production of oxaloacetate and has important roles in gluconeogenesis, lipogenesis, insulin secretion and other cellular processes. PC contains the biotin carboxylase (BC), carboxyltransferase (CT) and biotin-carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains. We report here the crystal structures at 2.8-Angstroms resolution of full-length PC from Staphylococcus aureus and the C-terminal region (missing only the BC domain) of human PC. A conserved tetrameric association is observed for both enzymes, and our structural and mutagenesis studies reveal a previously uncharacterized domain, the PC tetramerization (PT) domain, which is important for oligomerization. A BCCP domain is located in the active site of the CT domain, providing the first molecular insights into how biotin participates in the carboxyltransfer reaction. There are dramatic differences in domain positions in the monomer and the organization of the tetramer between these enzymes and the PC from Rhizobium etli.

  3. Molecular evolution of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase in fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Steven D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urea amidolyase breaks down urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide in a two-step process, while another enzyme, urease, does this in a one step-process. Urea amidolyase has been found only in some fungal species among eukaryotes. It contains two major domains: the amidase and urea carboxylase domains. A shorter form of urea amidolyase is known as urea carboxylase and has no amidase domain. Eukaryotic urea carboxylase has been found only in several fungal species and green algae. In order to elucidate the evolutionary origin of urea amidolyase and urea carboxylase, we studied the distribution of urea amidolyase, urea carboxylase, as well as other proteins including urease, across kingdoms. Results Among the 64 fungal species we examined, only those in two Ascomycota classes (Sordariomycetes and Saccharomycetes had the urea amidolyase sequences. Urea carboxylase was found in many but not all of the species in the phylum Basidiomycota and in the subphylum Pezizomycotina (phylum Ascomycota. It was completely absent from the class Saccharomycetes (phylum Ascomycota; subphylum Saccharomycotina. Four Sordariomycetes species we examined had both the urea carboxylase and the urea amidolyase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two enzymes appeared to have gone through independent evolution since their bacterial origin. The amidase domain and the urea carboxylase domain sequences from fungal urea amidolyases clustered strongly together with the amidase and urea carboxylase sequences, respectively, from a small number of beta- and gammaproteobacteria. On the other hand, fungal urea carboxylase proteins clustered together with another copy of urea carboxylases distributed broadly among bacteria. The urease proteins were found in all the fungal species examined except for those of the subphylum Saccharomycotina. Conclusions We conclude that the urea amidolyase genes currently found only in fungi are the results of a horizontal

  4. The genes encoding the biotin carboxyl carrier protein and biotin carboxylase subunits of Bacillus subtilis acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, the first enzyme of fatty acid synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    P. Marini(GANIL); Li, S J; Gardiol, D; Cronan, J E; De Mendoza, D

    1995-01-01

    The genes encoding two subunits of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and biotin carboxylase have been cloned from Bacillus subtilis. DNA sequencing and RNA blot hybridization studies indicated that the B. subtilis accB homolog which encodes biotin carboxyl carrier protein, is part of an operon that includes accC, the gene encoding the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.

  5. Interaction Between the Biotin Carboxyl Carrier Domain and the Biotin Carboxylase Domain in Pyruvate Carboxylase from Rhizobium etli†

    OpenAIRE

    Lietzan, Adam D.; Menefee, Ann L.; Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Kumar, Sudhanshu; Attwood, Paul V.; Wallace, John C.; Cleland, W. Wallace; Maurice, Martin St.

    2011-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) catalyzes the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in mammalian tissues. To effect catalysis, the tethered biotin of PC must gain access to active sites in both the biotin carboxylase domain and the carboxyl transferase domain. Previous studies have demonstrated that a mutation of threonine 882 to alanine in PC from Rhizobium etli renders the carboxyl transferase domain inactive and favors the positioning of bioti...

  6. Structural analysis, plastid localization, and expression of the biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase from tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, B S; Roesler, K R; Shintani, D; van de Loo, F J; Ohlrogge, J B

    1995-06-01

    Acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase, EC 6.4.1.2) catalyzes the synthesis of malonyl-coenzyme A, which is utilized in the plastid for de novo fatty acid synthesis and outside the plastid for a variety of reactions, including the synthesis of very long chain fatty acids and flavonoids. Recent evidence for both multifunctional and multisubunit ACCase isozymes in dicot plants has been obtained. We describe here the isolation of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow 2 [NT1]) cDNA clone (E3) that encodes a 58.4-kD protein that shares 80% sequence similarity and 65% identity with the Anabaena biotin carboxylase subunit of ACCase. Similar to other biotin carboxylase subunits of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the E3-encoded protein contains a putative ATP-binding motif but lacks a biotin-binding site (methionine-lysine-methionine or methionine-lysine-leucine). The deduced protein sequence contains a putative transit peptide whose function was confirmed by its ability to direct in vitro chloroplast uptake. The subcellular localization of this biotin carboxylase has also been confirmed to be plastidial by western blot analysis of pea (Pisum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and castor (Ricinus communis L.) plastid preparations. Northern blot analysis indicates that the plastid biotin carboxylase transcripts are expressed at severalfold higher levels in castor seeds than in leaves. PMID:7610168

  7. Location, Location, Location!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdell, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    Of prime importance in real estate, location is also a key element in the appeal of romances. Popular geographic settings and historical periods sell, unpopular ones do not--not always with a logical explanation, as the author discovered when she conducted a survey on this topic last year. (Why, for example, are the French Revolution and the…

  8. Acetyl CoA Carboxylase 2 Is Dispensable for CD8+ T Cell Responses.

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    Jang Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Differentiation of T cells is closely associated with dynamic changes in nutrient and energy metabolism. However, the extent to which specific metabolic pathways and molecular components are determinative of CD8+ T cell fate remains unclear. It has been previously established in various tissues that acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2 regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO by inhibiting carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, a rate-limiting enzyme of FAO in mitochondria. Here, we explore the cell-intrinsic role of ACC2 in T cell immunity in response to infections. We report here that ACC2 deficiency results in a marginal increase of cellular FAO in CD8+ T cells, but does not appear to influence antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cell responses during infection with listeria or lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. These results suggest that ACC2 is dispensable for CD8+ T cell responses.

  9. Regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in PVYNTN-infected tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, Karel; Doubnerová, V.; Synková, Helena; Čeřovská, Noemi; Ryšlavá, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 390, č. 3 (2009), s. 245-251. ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0310; GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : biotic stress * Nicotiana tabacum * phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.732, year: 2009

  10. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of 35S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author)

  11. Covalent dimerization of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase subunits by UV radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.M.B. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia]|[Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal). Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica; Franco, E.; Teixeira, A.R.N. [Universidade Tecnica, Lisbon (Portugal). Inst. Superior de Agronomia

    1996-08-15

    The effect of UV radiation (UV-A, UV-B and UV-C) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from a variety of plant species was examined. The exposition of plant leaves or the pure enzyme to UV radiation produced a UV-dependent accumulation of a 65 kDa polypeptide (P65). Different approaches were utilized to elucidate the origin and structure of P65: electrophoretic and fluorographic analyses of {sup 35}S-labelled ribulose biphosphate carboxylase exposed to UV radiation and immunological experiments using antibodies specific for P65, for the large and small subunits of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase and for high-molecular-mass aggregates of the enzyme. These studies revealed that P65 is a dimer, formed by the covalent, non-disulphide linkage of one small subunit with one large subunit of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. For short periods of time (<1 h), the amount of P65 formed increased with the duration of the exposure to the UV radiation and with the energy of the radiation applied. Prolonged exposure to UV radiation (1-6 h) resulted in the formation of high-molecular-mass aggregates of ribulose biphosphate carboxylase. Formation of P65 was shown to depend on the native state of the protein, was stimulated by inhibitors of enzyme activity, and was inhibited by activators of enzyme activity. A UV-independent accumulation of P65 was also achieved by the in vitro incubation of plant crude extracts. However, the UV-dependent and the UV-independent formation of P65 seemed to occur by distinct molecular mechanisms. The UV-dependent accumulation of P65 was immunologically detected in all species examined, including Lemna minor, Arum italicum, Brassica oleracea, Triticum aestivum, Zea mays, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris, suggesting that it may constitute a universal response to UV radiation, common to all photosynthetic tissues. (Author).

  12. Active site histidine in spinach ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase modified by diethyl pyrocarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [3H] Diethyl pyrocarbonate was synthesized from [3H] ethanol prepared by the reduction of acetaldehyde by NaB3H4. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) from spinach was inactivated with this reagent at pH 7.0 the presence of 20 mM Mg2+, and tryptic peptides that contained modified histidine residues were isolated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Labeling of the enzyme was conducted in the presence and absence of the competitive inhibitor sedoheptulose 1,7-bisphosphate. The amount of one peptide that was heavily labeled in the absence of this compound was reduced 10-fold in its presence. The labeled residue was histidine-298. This result, in combination with earlier experiments, suggests that His-298 in spinach RuBisCO is located in the active site domain and is essential to enzyme activity. This region of the primary structure is strongly conserved in seven other ribulosebisphosphate carboxylases from divergent sources

  13. Chemical Genetics of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases

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    Xuyu Zu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical genetic studies on acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs, rate-limiting enzymes in long chain fatty acid biosynthesis, have greatly advanced the understanding of their biochemistry and molecular biology and promoted the use of ACCs as targets for herbicides in agriculture and for development of drugs for diabetes, obesity and cancers. In mammals, ACCs have both biotin carboxylase (BC and carboxyltransferase (CT activity, catalyzing carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. Several classes of small chemicals modulate ACC activity, including cellular metabolites, natural compounds, and chemically synthesized products. This article reviews chemical genetic studies of ACCs and the use of ACCs for targeted therapy of cancers.

  14. really intrinsic

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    Goldsmith Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic algebraic entropy ent(ɸ of an endomorphism ɸ of an Abelian group G can be computed using fully inert subgroups of ɸ-invariant sections of G, instead of the whole family of ɸ-inert subgroups. For a class of groups containing the groups of finite rank, aswell as those groupswhich are trajectories of finitely generated subgroups, it is proved that only fully inert subgroups of the group itself are needed to comput ent(ɸ. Examples show how the situation may be quite different outside of this class.

  15. Mechanisms of Inhibition of Rhizobium etli Pyruvate Carboxylase by l-Aspartate

    OpenAIRE

    Sirithanakorn, Chaiyos; Adina-Zada, Abdussalam; Wallace, John C.; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Attwood, Paul V.

    2014-01-01

    l-Aspartate is a regulatory feedback inhibitor of the biotin-dependent enzyme pyruvate carboxylase in response to increased levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Detailed studies of l-aspartate inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase have been mainly confined to eukaryotic microbial enzymes, and aspects of its mode of action remain unclear. Here we examine its inhibition of the bacterial enzyme Rhizobium etli pyruvate carboxylase. Kinetic studies demonstrated that l-aspartate binds to ...

  16. Novel Mutations in the PC Gene in Patients with Type B Pyruvate Carboxylase Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Duno, Morten; Møller, Lisbeth Birk;

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated seven patients with the type B form of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) deficiency. Mutation analysis revealed eight mutations, all novel. In a patient with exon skipping on cDNA analysis, we identified a homozygous mutation located in a potential branch point sequence, the first...... possible branch point mutation in PC. Two patients were homozygous for missense mutations (with normal protein amounts on western blot analysis), and two patients were homozygous for nonsense mutations. In addition, a duplication of one base pair was found in a patient who also harboured a splice site...... mutation. Another splice site mutation led to the activation of a cryptic splice site, shown by cDNA analysis.All patients reported until now with at least one missense mutation have had the milder type A form of PC deficiency. We thus report for the first time two patients with homozygous missense...

  17. Structural and Biochemical Studies on the Regulation of Biotin Carboxylase by Substrate Inhibition and Dimerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chi-Yuan; Tong, Liang (Columbia)

    2012-06-19

    Biotin carboxylase (BC) activity is shared among biotin-dependent carboxylases and catalyzes the Mg-ATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin using bicarbonate as the CO{sub 2} donor. BC has been studied extensively over the years by structural, kinetic, and mutagenesis analyses. Here we report three new crystal structures of Escherichia coli BC at up to 1.9 {angstrom} resolution, complexed with different ligands. Two structures are wild-type BC in complex with two ADP molecules and two Ca{sup 2+} ions or two ADP molecules and one Mg{sup 2+} ion. One ADP molecule is in the position normally taken by the ATP substrate, whereas the other ADP molecule occupies the binding sites of bicarbonate and biotin. One Ca{sup 2+} ion and the Mg{sup 2+} ion are associated with the ADP molecule in the active site, and the other Ca{sup 2+} ion is coordinated by Glu-87, Glu-288, and Asn-290. Our kinetic studies confirm that ATP shows substrate inhibition and that this inhibition is competitive against bicarbonate. The third structure is on the R16E mutant in complex with bicarbonate and Mg-ADP. Arg-16 is located near the dimer interface. The R16E mutant has only a 2-fold loss in catalytic activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments showed that the mutation significantly destabilized the dimer, although the presence of substrates can induce dimer formation. The binding modes of bicarbonate and Mg-ADP are essentially the same as those to the wild-type enzyme. However, the mutation greatly disrupted the dimer interface and caused a large re-organization of the dimer. The structures of these new complexes have implications for the catalysis by BC.

  18. The dynamic organization of fungal acetyl-CoA carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkeler, Moritz; Stuttfeld, Edward; Hagmann, Anna; Imseng, Stefan; Maier, Timm

    2016-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCs) catalyse the committed step in fatty-acid biosynthesis: the ATP-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA. They are important regulatory hubs for metabolic control and relevant drug targets for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Eukaryotic ACCs are single-chain multienzymes characterized by a large, non-catalytic central domain (CD), whose role in ACC regulation remains poorly characterized. Here we report the crystal structure of the yeast ACC CD, revealing a unique four-domain organization. A regulatory loop, which is phosphorylated at the key functional phosphorylation site of fungal ACC, wedges into a crevice between two domains of CD. Combining the yeast CD structure with intermediate and low-resolution data of larger fragments up to intact ACCs provides a comprehensive characterization of the dynamic fungal ACC architecture. In contrast to related carboxylases, large-scale conformational changes are required for substrate turnover, and are mediated by the CD under phosphorylation control.

  19. Studies on biotin dependent carboxylases and the properties of carboxybiotin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biotin dependent carboxyl-transfer reactions have been studied using biotin and pyruvate carboxylases. The pH profile for the Mg2+ and MgATP dependent carboxylation of biotin by bicarbonate shows that an enzymic base with a pK of 6.5 must be unprotonated for catalysis to occur. The pH profiles for the carboxyl-transfer reaction of pyruvate carboxylase have been obtained by studying the decarboxylation of oxalacetate stimulated by the presence of oxamate. Similarly, 13C and 2H isotope effects have been measured for the decarboxylation of oxalacetate by both enzymic and nonenzymic means. From these studies the authors can conclude that carboxyl-transfer between biotin and oxalacetate is at least partially rate-limiting and is not concerted with proton-transfer. The lack of any apparent enzymic acid-base catalyst (the V/K profile for oxalacetate is pH independent) suggests that proton transfer may occur directly between biotin and the carbanion formed when oxalacetate is decarboxylated. The pH profile for the nonenzymatic decarboxylation of carboxybiotin shows a plateau below pH 4 (k = 0.012 min-1 at 20C), and a lower plateau above pH 8 (k = 0.005 min-1 at 250C). A proton inventory at low pH is linear, while at high pH it is curved. These data suggest that two different mechanisms operate at high and low pH

  20. Intrinsic n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO typifies a class of materials that can be doped via native defects in only one way: either n type or p type. We explain this asymmetry in ZnO via a study of its intrinsic defect physics, including ZnO, Zni, VO, Oi, and VZn and n-type impurity dopants, Al and F. We find that ZnO is n type at Zn-rich conditions. This is because (i) the Zn interstitial, Zni, is a shallow donor, supplying electrons; (ii) its formation enthalpy is low for both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, so this defect is abundant; and (iii) the native defects that could compensate the n-type doping effect of Zni (interstitial O, Oi, and Zn vacancy, VZn), have high formation enthalpies for Zn-rich conditions, so these ''electron killers'' are not abundant. We find that ZnO cannot be doped p type via native defects (Oi,VZn) despite the fact that they are shallow (i.e., supplying holes at room temperature). This is because at both Zn-rich and O-rich conditions, the defects that could compensate p-type doping (VO,Zni,ZnO) have low formation enthalpies so these ''hole killers'' form readily. Furthermore, we identify electron-hole radiative recombination at the VO center as the source of the green luminescence. In contrast, a large structural relaxation of the same center upon double hole capture leads to slow electron-hole recombination (either radiative or nonradiative) responsible for the slow decay of photoconductivity

  1. Biotin Responsive Multiple Carboxylase Deficiency Presenting as Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

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    Jia-Woei Hou

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple carboxylase deficiency (MCD is a rare inherited metabolic disease of biotindependency due to deficiency of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS or biotinidase deficiency.A 30-month-old female patient who presented with the initial features of diabeticketoacidosis (severe metabolic acidosis, ketosis, and hyperglycemia, lactic acidemia, moderatehyperammonemia, and generalized organic aciduria is described. Associated symptomsand signs included erythematous skin rashes, alopecia and developmental delay. The patientresponded dramatically to treatment with biotin (10 mg/day showing normalization of clinicalsymptoms and most biochemical abnormalities. Based on the urine organic profile bygas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS, the diagnosis of MCD was made. A plasmatandem mass study confirmed this diagnosis. The biotinase activity in serum was normal,indicating that this was a rare case of late-onset HCS deficiency.

  2. Decreased renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase activity in calcium oxalate calculi patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊汇; 刘继红; 章咏裳; 叶章群; 王少刚

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the activity of vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase in patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis compared with healthy individuals and to assess its relationship to the renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Methods Renal parenchymas were harvested from urolithic patients and renal tumor patients undergoing nephrectomy. The renal carboxylase activity was evaluated as the radioactivity of [14C] labeled sodium bicarbonate in carboxylic reactions in vitro using β-liquid scintillation counting. Results Significantly reduced activity of renal vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase was observed in the urolithic group as compared with normal controls (P<0.01). Conclusion It suggests that the reduced carboxylase activity observed in the urolithic patients may play an important role in the course of renal calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

  3. Effect of Pyruvate Carboxylase Overexpression on the Physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Koffas, Mattheos A. G.; Jung, Gyoo Yeol; Aon, Juan C.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase was recently sequenced in Corynebacterium glutamicum and shown to play an important role of anaplerosis in the central carbon metabolism and amino acid synthesis of these bacteria. In this study we investigate the effect of the overexpression of the gene for pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) on the physiology of C. glutamicum ATCC 21253 and ATCC 21799 grown on defined media with two different carbon sources, glucose and lactate. In general, the physiological effects of pyc overe...

  4. Crystallization and structure of a recombinant ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gunter; Lindqvist, Ylva; Brändén, Carl-Ivar; Lorimer, George

    1988-07-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is the key enzyme in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and photorespiration. The dimeric carboxylase from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme has been crystallized in a number of different crystal forms. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme has been determined by X-ray crystallographic methods to 2.9Åresolution.

  5. Transcriptional activation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase by phosphorus deficiency in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Kentaro; Koizumi, Nozomu; Sato, Fumihiko

    2003-03-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), which catalyses the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate using HCO(3)(-) to generate oxaloacetic acid, is an important enzyme in the primary metabolism of plants. Although the PEPC genes (ppc) comprise only a small gene family, the function of each gene is not clear, except for roles in C(4) photosynthesis and CAM. Three PEPC genes (Nsppc1-3) from the C(3) plant Nicotiana sylvestris were used to investigate their roles and regulation in a C(3) plant, and their regulation by phosphorus depletion in particular. First, the induction of PEPC by phosphorus depletion was confirmed. Next, Nsppc1 was determined to be mainly responsive to phosphorus deficiency at the transcriptional level. Further studies using transgenic tobacco harbouring a chimeric gene consisting of the 2.0 kb promoter region of Nsppc1 and the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter showed that PEPC is transcriptionally induced. It was also found that sucrose had a synergistic effect on the induction of PEPC by phosphorus deficiency. A series of transgenic tobacco containing 5'-deletion mutants of Nsppc1 promoter::GUS fusion revealed that the -539 to -442 bp Nsppc1 promoter region, relative to the translation start site, was necessary for the response to phosphorus deficiency. Gain-of-function analysis using a construct containing three tandem repeats of the -539 to -442 bp region confirmed that this region was sufficient to induce the phosphorus-deficiency response in tobacco. PMID:12598567

  6. Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency: An underestimated cause of lactic acidosis

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    F. Habarou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is a biotin-containing mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, thereby being involved in gluconeogenesis and in energy production through replenishment of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle with oxaloacetate. PC deficiency is a very rare metabolic disorder. We report on a new patient affected by the moderate form (the American type A. Diagnosis was nearly fortuitous, resulting from the revision of an initial diagnosis of mitochondrial complex IV (C IV defect. The patient presented with severe lactic acidosis and pronounced ketonuria, associated with lethargy at age 23 months. Intellectual disability was noted at this time. Amino acids in plasma and organic acids in urine did not show patterns of interest for the diagnostic work-up. In skin fibroblasts PC showed no detectable activity whereas biotinidase activity was normal. We had previously reported another patient with the severe form of PC deficiency and we show that she also had secondary C IV deficiency in fibroblasts. Different anaplerotic treatments in vivo and in vitro were tested using fibroblasts of both patients with 2 different types of PC deficiency, type A (patient 1 and type B (patient 2. Neither clinical nor biological effects in vivo and in vitro were observed using citrate, aspartate, oxoglutarate and bezafibrate. In conclusion, this case report suggests that the moderate form of PC deficiency may be underdiagnosed and illustrates the challenges raised by energetic disorders in terms of diagnostic work-up and therapeutical strategy even in a moderate form.

  7. Genes encoding biotin carboxylase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative genomics is a useful tool to investigate gene and genome evolution. Biotin carboxylase (BC), an important subunit of heteromeric ACCase that is a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, catalyzes ATP, biotin-carboxyl-carrier protein and CO2 to form carboxybiotin-carbo...

  8. Characterization of three protein components required for functional reconstitution of the epoxide carboxylase multienzyme complex from Xanthobacter strain Py2.

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, J. R.; Ensign, S A

    1997-01-01

    Epoxide carboxylase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 catalyzes the reductant- and NAD+-dependent carboxylation of aliphatic epoxides to beta-keto acids. Epoxide carboxylase from Xanthobacter strain Py2 has been resolved from cell extracts by anion-exchange chromatography into three protein components, designated I, II, and III, that are obligately required for functional reconstitution of epoxide carboxylase activity. Component II has been purified to homogeneity on the basis of its ability to co...

  9. Increased expression of pyruvate carboxylase and biotin protein ligase increases lysine production in a biotin prototrophic Corynebacterium glutamicum strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhihao; Moslehi-Jenabian, Soloomeh; Solem, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    -CoA (or pimeloyl-Acyl Carrier Protein [ACP]) formation. Pyruvate carboxylase (pycA), a biotin-dependent enzyme needed for lysine biosynthesis and biotin ligase (birA), which is responsible for attaching biotin to pyruvate carboxylase, were overexpressed by replacing the native promoters with the strong...

  10. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek M Galka

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid ((+-ABA is a phytohormone involved in the modulation of developmental processes and stress responses in plants. A chemical proteomics approach using an ABA mimetic probe was combined with in vitro assays, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC, x-ray crystallography and in silico modelling to identify putative (+-ABA binding-proteins in crude extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco was identified as a putative ABA-binding protein. Radiolabelled-binding assays yielded a Kd of 47 nM for (+-ABA binding to spinach Rubisco, which was validated by ITC, and found to be similar to reported and experimentally derived values for the native ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP substrate. Functionally, (+-ABA caused only weak inhibition of Rubisco catalytic activity (Ki of 2.1 mM, but more potent inhibition of Rubisco activation (Ki of ~ 130 μM. Comparative structural analysis of Rubisco in the presence of (+-ABA with RuBP in the active site revealed only a putative low occupancy (+-ABA binding site on the surface of the large subunit at a location distal from the active site. However, subtle distortions in electron density in the binding pocket and in silico docking support the possibility of a higher affinity (+-ABA binding site in the RuBP binding pocket. Overall we conclude that (+-ABA interacts with Rubisco. While the low occupancy (+-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation.

  11. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  12. Characterization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from mature maize seeds: Properties of phosphorylated and dephosphorylated forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, M.; Doubnerová, V.; Müller, Karel; Ryšlavá, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 10 (2010), s. 1362-1370. ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase * Phosphorylation * Seed Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.787, year: 2010

  13. Isolation of Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase from Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a multi-functional enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and photorespiration, respectively. As the rate-limiting step in photosynthesis, improving the catalytic properties of Rubisco has long been viewed as a...

  14. Isolation, identification, and synthesis of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate, a diurnal regulator of ribulase-bisphosphate carboxylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diurnal change in activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (Rbu-1,5-P2) carboxylase [3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxy-lyase (dimerizing); EC 4.1.1.39] of leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris is regulated (in part) by mechanisms that control the level of an endogenous inhibitor that binds tightly to the activated (carbamoylated) form of Rbu-1,5-P2 carboxylase. This inhibitor was extracted from leaves and copurified with the Rbu-1,5-P2 carboxylase of the leaves. Further purification by ion-exchange chromatography, adsorption to purified Rbu-1,5-P2 carboxylase, barium precipitation, and HPLC separation yielded a phosphorylated compound that was a strong inhibitor of Rbu-1,5-P2 carboxylase. The compound was analyzed by GC/MS, 13C NMR, and 1H NMR and shown to be 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate [(2-C-phosphohydroxymethyl)-D-ribonic acid]. The structure of the isolated compound differs from the Rbu-1,5-P2 carboxylase transition-state analogue 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate only by the lack of the C-5 phosphate group. This difference results in a higher binding constant for the monophosphate compared with the bisphosphate. The less tightly bound compound acts in a light-dependent, reversible regulation of Rbu-1,5-P2 carboxylase activity in vivo

  15. Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Shuichi

    2005-01-01

    A brief review is given on the spin Hall effect, where an external electric field induces a transverse spin current. It has been recognized over 30 years that such effect occurs due to impurities in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. Meanwhile, it was proposed recently that there is also an intrinsic contribution for this effect. We explain the mechanism for this intrinsic spin Hall effect. We also discuss recent experimental observations of the spin Hall effect.

  16. Intrinsic Prices Of Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Truc Le

    2014-01-01

    We review the nature of some well-known phenomena such as volatility smiles, convexity adjustments and parallel derivative markets. We propose that the market is incomplete and postulate the existence of intrinsic risks in every contingent claim as a basis for understanding these phenomena. In a continuous time framework, we bring together the notion of intrinsic risk and the theory of change of measures to derive a probability measure, namely risk-subjective measure, for evaluating contingen...

  17. Reaction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with (Z)-3-bromophosphoenolpyruvate and (Z)-3-fluorophosphoenolpyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (Z)-3-Bromophosphoenolpyruvate inactivates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from maize in the presence of HCO3- and either Mg2+ or Mn2+. The inactivation rate follows saturation kinetics. Inactivation is slower in the presence of phospholactate or epoxymaleate, both of which are inhibitors of the enzyme, or dithiothreitol. Inactivation is completely prevented by the presence of lactate dehydrogenase and NADH, and 3-bromolactate is formed during this treatment. If the reaction is conducted by using HC18O3-, the inorganic phosphate produced contains 18O. This and other evidence indicate that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase catalyzes conversion of bromophosphoenolpyruvate into bromopyruvate by way of the usual carboxyphosphate-enolate intermediate, and bromopyruvate is the species responsible for enzyme inactivation. (Z)-3-fluorophosphoenolpyruvate is transformed by the enzyme into a 6:1 mixture of 3-fluoropyruvate and 3-fluorooxalacetate, presumably by the same mechanism. The enzyme is not inactivated during this treatment

  18. Reaction of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase with (Z)-3-bromophosphoenolpyruvate and (Z)-3-fluorophosphoenolpyruvate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, E.; O' Laughlin, J.T.; O' Leary, M.H.

    1988-02-23

    (Z)-3-Bromophosphoenolpyruvate inactivates phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from maize in the presence of HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and either Mg/sup 2 +/ or Mn/sup 2 +/. The inactivation rate follows saturation kinetics. Inactivation is slower in the presence of phospholactate or epoxymaleate, both of which are inhibitors of the enzyme, or dithiothreitol. Inactivation is completely prevented by the presence of lactate dehydrogenase and NADH, and 3-bromolactate is formed during this treatment. If the reaction is conducted by using HC/sup 18/O/sub 3//sup -/, the inorganic phosphate produced contains /sup 18/O. This and other evidence indicate that phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase catalyzes conversion of bromophosphoenolpyruvate into bromopyruvate by way of the usual carboxyphosphate-enolate intermediate, and bromopyruvate is the species responsible for enzyme inactivation. (Z)-3-fluorophosphoenolpyruvate is transformed by the enzyme into a 6:1 mixture of 3-fluoropyruvate and 3-fluorooxalacetate, presumably by the same mechanism. The enzyme is not inactivated during this treatment.

  19. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by cystamine may mediate the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, M F

    2001-03-01

    Pantethine is a versatile and well-tolerated hypolipidemic agent whose efficacy in this regard appears to be mediated by its catabolic product cystamine, a nucleophile which avidly attacks disulfide groups. An overview of pantethine research suggests that the hypotriglyceridemic activity of pantethine reflects cystamine-mediated inhibition of the hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which can be expected to activate hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase as well as a more distal enzyme in the cholesterol synthetic pathway may account for pantethine's hypocholesterolemic effects. If pantethine does indeed effectively inhibit hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase, it may have adjuvant utility in the hepatothermic therapy of obesity. As a safe and effective compound of natural origin, pantethine merits broader use in the management of hyperlipidemias. PMID:11359352

  20. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: possible role of the substrate "propeptide" as an intracellular recognition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttie, J W; Hoskins, J A; Engelke, J; Hopfgartner, A; Ehrlich, H; Bang, N U; Belagaje, R M; Schoner, B; Long, G L

    1987-01-01

    The liver microsomal vitamin K-dependent carboxylase catalyzes the posttranslational conversion of specific glutamate residues to gamma-carboxyglutamate residues in a limited number of proteins. A number of these proteins have been shown to contain a homologous basic amino acid-rich "propeptide" between the leader sequence and the amino terminus of the mature protein. Plasmids encoding protein C, a vitamin K-dependent protein, containing or lacking a propeptide region were constructed and the protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. The protein products were assayed as substrates in an in vitro vitamin K-dependent carboxylase system. Only proteins containing a propeptide region were substrates for the enzyme. These data support the hypothesis that this sequence of the primary gene product is an important recognition site for this processing enzyme. PMID:3543932

  1. Expression, purification and crystallization of an archaeal-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction analysis of an archaeal-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase are described. Complete highly redundant X-ray data have been measured from a crystal diffracting to 3.13 Å resolution. An archaeal-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PepcA) from Clostridium perfringens has been expressed in Escherichia coli in a soluble form with an amino-terminal His tag. The recombinant protein is enzymatically active and two crystal forms have been obtained. Complete diffraction data extending to 3.13 Å resolution have been measured from a crystal soaked in KAu(CN)2, using radiation at a wavelength just above the Au LIII edge. The asymmetric unit contains two tetramers of PepcA

  2. Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jia; Tong, Liang

    2015-10-29

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) has crucial roles in fatty acid metabolism and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACC (ScACC) is crucial for the production of very-long-chain fatty acids and the maintenance of the nuclear envelope. ACC contains biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT) activities, and its biotin is linked covalently to the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP). Most eukaryotic ACCs are 250-kilodalton (kDa), multi-domain enzymes and function as homodimers and higher oligomers. They contain a unique, 80-kDa central region that shares no homology with other proteins. Although the structures of the BC, CT and BCCP domains and other biotin-dependent carboxylase holoenzymes are known, there is currently no structural information on the ACC holoenzyme. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length, 500-kDa holoenzyme dimer of ScACC. The structure is remarkably different from that of the other biotin-dependent carboxylases. The central region contains five domains and is important for positioning the BC and CT domains for catalysis. The structure unexpectedly reveals a dimer of the BC domain and extensive conformational differences compared to the structure of the BC domain alone, which is a monomer. These structural changes reveal why the BC domain alone is catalytically inactive and define the molecular mechanism for the inhibition of eukaryotic ACC by the natural product soraphen A and by phosphorylation of a Ser residue just before the BC domain core in mammalian ACC. The BC and CT active sites are separated by 80 Å, and the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis. PMID:26458104

  3. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase: possible role of the substrate "propeptide" as an intracellular recognition site.

    OpenAIRE

    Suttie, J W; Hoskins, J A; Engelke, J; Hopfgartner, A; Ehrlich, H.; Bang, N U; Belagaje, R M; Schoner, B; Long, G L

    1987-01-01

    The liver microsomal vitamin K-dependent carboxylase catalyzes the posttranslational conversion of specific glutamate residues to gamma-carboxyglutamate residues in a limited number of proteins. A number of these proteins have been shown to contain a homologous basic amino acid-rich "propeptide" between the leader sequence and the amino terminus of the mature protein. Plasmids encoding protein C, a vitamin K-dependent protein, containing or lacking a propeptide region were constructed and the...

  4. Heterogeneity of holocarboxylase synthetase in patients with biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Burri, B J; Sweetman, L.; Nyhan, W L

    1985-01-01

    Holocarboxylase synthetase activity has been determined in fibroblasts of seven patients with the neonatal form of biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. The normal Km for biotin was 15 +/- 3 nmol/l, while in the patients the values ranged from 48 to 1,062 nmol/l. The mean maximum velocity was 27% of normal. Differences among the values obtained for the Km for biotin and the heat stability of holocarboxylase synthetase suggested that the patients studied represented at least four ...

  5. Deregulation of Feedback Inhibition of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase for Improved Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen; Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Frank, Doinita; Rappert, Sugima; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Allosteric regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) controls the metabolic flux distribution of anaplerotic pathways. In this study, the feedback inhibition of Corynebacterium glutamicum PEPC was rationally deregulated, and its effect on metabolic flux redistribution was evaluated. Based on rational protein design, six PEPC mutants were designed, and all of them showed significantly reduced sensitivity toward aspartate and malate inhibition. Introducing one of the point mutations ...

  6. Lorentz invariant intrinsic decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Milburn, G J

    2003-01-01

    Quantum decoherence can arise due to classical fluctuations in the parameters which define the dynamics of the system. In this case decoherence, and complementary noise, is manifest when data from repeated measurement trials are combined. Recently a number of authors have suggested that fluctuations in the space-time metric arising from quantum gravity effects would correspond to a source of intrinsic noise, which would necessarily be accompanied by intrinsic decoherence. This work extends a previous heuristic modification of Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics based on discrete time intervals with an intrinsic uncertainty. The extension uses unital semigroup representations of space and time translations rather than the more usual unitary representation, and does the least violence to physically important invariance principles. Physical consequences include a modification of the uncertainty principle and a modification of field dispersion relations, in a way consistent with other modifications suggested by quantum grav...

  7. Intrinsic time quantum geometrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-08-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl curvature hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational "arrows of time" point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's general relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of gravitation and quantum mechanics.

  8. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental canonical commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  9. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  10. Effect of Vitamin K-dependent Protein Precursor Propeptide, Vitamin K Hydroquinone, and Glutamate Substrate Binding on the Structure and Function of γ-Glutamyl Carboxylase*

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins-Gruber, Shannon L.; Mutucumarana, Vasantha P.; Lin, Pen-Jen; Jorgenson, James W.; Stafford, Darrel W.; Straight, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The γ-glutamyl carboxylase utilizes four substrates to catalyze carboxylation of certain glutamic acid residues in vitamin K-dependent proteins. How the enzyme brings the substrates together to promote catalysis is an important question in understanding the structure and function of this enzyme. The propeptide is the primary binding site of the vitamin K-dependent proteins to carboxylase. It is also an effector of carboxylase activity. We tested the hypothesis that binding of substrates cause...

  11. Collective Location

    OpenAIRE

    Jayet, Hubert

    1997-01-01

    We analyse location of a group whose members differ in their preference ordering among sites while collective action calls for a common location. The possible locations are Pareto-efficient and individually rational outcomes of a cooperative game with strategic combinations defined by the members' locations. Only members located on the same site engage in collective action. The solutions' set of this game is determined and the example of a small firm whose members leave in different places il...

  12. Partitioning of Nitrogen among Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase, Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase, and Pyruvate Orthophosphate Dikinase as Related to Biomass Productivity in Maize Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, T; Mizuno, M; Hayashi, M

    1984-07-01

    Maize (Zea mays L. cv Golden Cross Bantam T51) seedlings were grown under full sunlight or 50% sunlight in a temperature-controlled glasshouse at the temperatures of near optimum (30/25 degrees C) and suboptimum (17/13 degrees C) with seven levels of nitrate-N (0.4 to 12 millimolars). The contents of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPD), and ribulose-1,5-P(2) carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) were immunochemically determined for each treatment with rabbit antibodies raised against the respective maize leaf proteins (anti-PEPC and anti-PPD) or spinach leaf protein (anti-RuBisCO). The content of each enzymic protein increased with increasing N and raised under reduced temperature. The positive effect of light intensity on their contents was evident only at near optimal temperature. The relative increase in PEPC and PPD content with increasing N was significantly greater than that of RuBisCO irrespective of growth conditions. These enzymic proteins comprised about 8, 6, and 35% of total soluble protein, respectively, at near optimal growth condition. In contrast to significant increase in the proportion of soluble protein allocated to PEPC and PPD seen under certain conditions, the proportion allocated to RuBisCO decreased reciprocally with an increased biomass yield by N supply.These results indicated that the levels of PEPC and PPD parallel to maize biomass more tightly than that of RuBisCO at least under near optimal growth condition. PMID:16663684

  13. Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hoi Lai

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the s...

  14. Wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase complements an ACC1 null mutation in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Joachimiak, M.; Tevzadze, G.; Podkowinski, J; Haselkorn, R.; Gornicki, P.

    1997-01-01

    Spores harboring an ACC1 deletion derived from a diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, in which one copy of the entire ACC1 gene is replaced with a LEU2 cassette, fail to grow. A chimeric gene consisting of the yeast GAL10 promoter, yeast ACC1 leader, wheat cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) cDNA, and yeast ACC1 3′ tail was used to complement a yeast ACC1 mutation. The complementation demonstrates that active wheat ACCase can be produced in yeast. At low concentrations of galactose,...

  15. Isolation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Barta, Csengele; Salvucci, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the fixation of CO2 and O2 in photosynthesis and photorespiration, respectively. As the rate-limiting step in photosynthesis, improving the catalytic properties of Rubisco has long been viewed as a viable strategy for increasing plant productivity. Advances in biotechnology have made this goal more attainable by making it possible to modify Rubisco in planta. To properly evaluate the properties of Rubisco, it is necessary to isolate the enzyme in pure form. This chapter describes procedures for rapid and efficient purification of Rubisco from leaves of several species. PMID:20960141

  16. Cloning and Characterization of a Pyruvate Carboxylase Gene from Penicillium rubens and Overexpression of the Genein the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for Enhanced Citric Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ge-Yi; Lu, Yi; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Zhao, Shou-Feng; Jiang, Hong; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pyruvate carboxylase gene (PYC1) from a marine fungus Penicillium rubens I607 was cloned and characterized. ORF of the gene (accession number: KM397349.1) had 3534 bp encoding 1177 amino acids with a molecular weight of 127.531 kDa and a PI of 6.20. The promoter of the gene was located at -1200 bp and contained a TATAA box, several CAAT boxes and a sequence 5'-SYGGRG-3'. The PYC1 deduced from the gene had no signal peptide, was a homotetramer (α4), and had the four functional domains. After expression of the PYC1 gene from the marine fungus in the marine-derived yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, the transformant PR32 obtained had much higher specific pyruvate carboxylase activity (0.53 U/mg) than Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b (0.07 U/mg), and the PYC1 gene expression (133.8%) and citric acid production (70.2 g/l) by the transformant PR32 were also greatly enhanced compared to those (100 % and 27.3 g/l) by Y. lipolytica SWJ-1b. When glucose concentration in the medium was 60.0 g/l, citric acid (CA) concentration formed by the transformant PR32 was 36.1 g/l, leading to conversion of 62.1% of glucose into CA. During a 10-l fed-batch fermentation, the final concentration of CA was 111.1 ± 1.3 g/l, the yield was 0.93 g/g, the productivity was 0.46 g/l/h, and only 1.72 g/l reducing sugar was left in the fermented medium within 240 h. HPLC analysis showed that most of the fermentation products were CA. However, minor malic acid and other unknown products also existed in the culture. PMID:26470708

  17. Attempts to apply affinity labeling techniques to ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. [Comparison of spinach leaf and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, F. C.; Norton, I. L.; Stringer, C. D.; Schloss, J. V.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on carboxylases/oxygenases from different species may be necessary to confirm that a residue implicated as essential is indeed an active-site component. To provide an especially stringent test case for the identification of species invariant structural features the enzymes from two phylogenetically distant species, spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum, were compared. To date, the reactions of Br-butanone-P/sub 2/ and BrAcNHEtOP with the spinach enayme have been rather thoroughly characterized; only preliminary experiments have been completed with the R. rubrum enzyme. Both enzymes were isolated and assayed for carboxylase activity (spectrophotometrically or /sup 14/CO/sub 2/-fixation) and for oxygenase activity.

  18. Dark/light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu, J.C.V.; Allen, L.H. Jr.; Bowes, G.

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from light-exposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C/sub 3/); P. maximum (C/sub 4/ phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C/sub 3/); P. miliaceum (C/sub 4/ NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C/sub 4/ NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C/sub 3//C/sub 4/); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C/sub 3/ species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. 16 references, 2 tables.

  19. Dark/Light Modulation of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Plants from Different Photosynthetic Categories 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J. Cu V.; Allen, Leon H.; Bowes, George

    1984-01-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO3− and Mg2+ concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C3); P. maximum (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C3/C4); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C3); P. miliaceum (C4 NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C4 NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C3/C4); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C3 species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO2 and Mg2+ activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  20. Dark/Light modulation of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity in plants from different photosynthetic categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, J C; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1984-11-01

    Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) from several plants had substantially greater activity in extracts from lightexposed leaves than dark leaves, even when the extracts were incubated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+) concentrations. This occurred in Glycine max, Lycopersicon esculentum, Nicotiana tabacum, Panicum bisulcatum, and P. hylaeicum (C(3)); P. maximum (C(4) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase); P. milioides (C(3)/C(4)); and Bromelia pinguin and Ananas comosus (Crassulacean acid metabolism). Little or no difference between light and dark leaf extracts of RuBPCase was observed in Triticum aestivum (C(3)); P. miliaceum (C(4) NAD malic enzyme); Zea mays and Sorghum bicolor (C(4) NADP malic enzyme); Moricandia arvensis (C(3)/C(4)); and Hydrilla verticillata (submersed aquatic macrophyte). It is concluded that, in many plants, especially Crassulacean acid metabolism and C(3) species, a large fraction of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase in the dark is in an inactivatable state that cannot respond to CO(2) and Mg(2+) activation, but which can be converted to an activatable state upon exposure of the leaf to light. PMID:16663937

  1. A Symmetrical Tetramer for S. aureus Pyruvate Carboxylase in Complex with Coenzyme A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, L.; Xiang, S; Lasso, G; Gil, D; Valle, M; Tong, L

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a conserved metabolic enzyme with important cellular functions. We report crystallographic and cryo-electron microscopy (EM) studies of Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC) in complex with acetyl-CoA, an allosteric activator, and mutagenesis, biochemical, and structural studies of the biotin binding site of its carboxyltransferase (CT) domain. The disease-causing A610T mutation abolishes catalytic activity by blocking biotin binding to the CT active site, and Thr908 might play a catalytic role in the CT reaction. The crystal structure of SaPC in complex with CoA reveals a symmetrical tetramer, with one CoA molecule bound to each monomer, and cryo-EM studies confirm the symmetrical nature of the tetramer. These observations are in sharp contrast to the highly asymmetrical tetramer of Rhizobium etli PC in complex with ethyl-CoA. Our structural information suggests that acetyl-CoA promotes a conformation for the dimer of the biotin carboxylase domain of PC that might be catalytically more competent.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Nucleus-Encoded Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases Targeted at the Cytosol and Plastid of Algae.

    KAUST Repository

    Huerlimann, Roger

    2015-07-01

    The understanding of algal phylogeny is being impeded by an unknown number of events of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and primary and secondary/tertiary endosymbiosis. Through these events, previously heterotrophic eukaryotes developed photosynthesis and acquired new biochemical pathways. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) is a key enzyme in the fatty acid synthesis and elongation pathways in algae, where ACCase exists in two locations (cytosol and plastid) and in two forms (homomeric and heteromeric). All algae contain nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase in the cytosol, independent of the origin of the plastid. Nucleus-encoded homomeric ACCase is also found in plastids of algae that arose from a secondary/tertiary endosymbiotic event. In contrast, plastids of algae that arose from a primary endosymbiotic event contain heteromeric ACCase, which consists of three nucleus-encoded and one plastid-encoded subunits. These properties of ACCase provide the potential to inform on the phylogenetic relationships of hosts and their plastids, allowing different hypothesis of endosymbiotic events to be tested. Alveolata (Dinoflagellata and Apicomplexa) and Chromista (Stramenopiles, Haptophyta and Cryptophyta) have traditionally been grouped together as Chromalveolata, forming the red lineage. However, recent genetic evidence groups the Stramenopiles, Alveolata and green plastid containing Rhizaria as SAR, excluding Haptophyta and Cryptophyta. Sequences coding for plastid and cytosol targeted homomeric ACCases were isolated from Isochrysis aff. galbana (TISO), Chromera velia and Nannochloropsis oculata, representing three taxonomic groups for which sequences were lacking. Phylogenetic analyses show that cytosolic ACCase strongly supports the SAR grouping. Conversely, plastidial ACCase groups the SAR with the Haptophyta, Cryptophyta and Prasinophyceae (Chlorophyta). These two ACCase based, phylogenetic relationships suggest that the plastidial homomeric ACCase was acquired by the

  3. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  4. Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hoi Lai

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the spatial dreibein and eight SU(3) generators which correspond to Klauder's momentric variables that characterize a free theory of quantum gravity. The commutation relations are not canonical, but have well defined group theoretical meanings. All fundamental entities are dimensionless; and the quantum wave functionals are preferentially in the dreibein representation. The successful quantum theory of gravity involves only broad spectrum of knowledge and deep insights but no exotic idea.

  5. Intrinsic anion oxidation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Anions of lithium battery salts have been investigated by electronic structure calculations with the objective to find a computational measure to correlate with the observed (in)stability of nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes vs oxidation often encountered in practice. Accurate prediction of intrinsic anion oxidation potentials is here made possible by computing the vertical free energy difference between anion and neutral radical (Delta Gv) and further strengthened by an empirical correction using only the anion volume as a parameter. The 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, the VSXC functional, and the C-PCM SCRF algorithm were used. The Delta Gv calculations can be performed using any standard computational chemistry software. PMID:17078600

  6. Immunochemical localization of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in the symbiont-containing gills of Solemya velum (Bivalvia : Mollusca)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanaugh, Colleen M.; Abbott, Marilyn S.; Veenhuis, Marten

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of the Calvin cycle enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RbuP2Case; EC 4.1.1.39) was examined by using two immunological methods in tissues of Solemya velum, an Atlantic coast bivalve containing putative chemoautotrophic symbionts. Antibodies elicited by the purified large

  7. Characterization of acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA carboxylases encoded by Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai: an initial biochemical study for leptospiral gluconeogenesis via anaplerotic CO2 assimilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nanqiu Peng; Yi Zhong; Qing Zhang; Mingyue Zheng; Wei Zhao; Hualiang Jiang; Chen Yang; Xiaokui Guo; Guoping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Leptospira interrogans is the causative agent of leptospirosis.The in vitro growth of L.interrogans requires CO2 and a partial 3-hydroxypropionate pathway involving two acyl-CoA carboxylases was suggested by genomic analysis to assimilate CO2.Either set of the candidate genes heterologously co-expressed in Escherichia coli was able to demonstrate both acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)and propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) activities.The trisubunit holoenzyme (LA_2736-LA_2735 and LA_3803),although failed to be purified,was designated ACC based on its substrate preference toward acetyl-CoA.The partially purified bi-subunit holoenzyme (LA_2432-LA_2433) has a considerably higher activity against propionyi-CoA as the substrate than that of acetyl-CoA,and thus,designated PCC.Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that this PCC has a molecular mass of around 669 kDa,suggesting an α4β4 quaternary structure and both structural homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis analysis of its carboxyltransferase subunit (LA_2433) indicated that the A431 residue located at the bottom of the putative substrate binding pocket may play an important role in substrate specificity determination.Both transcriptomic and proteomic data indicated that enzymes involved in the suggested partial 3-hydroxypropionate pathway were expressed in vivo in addition to ACC/PCC and the homologous genes in genomes of other Leptospira species were re-annotated accordingly.However,as the in vitro detected specific activity of ACC in the crude cell extract was too low to account for the growth of the bacterium in Ellinghausen-McCulloughJohnson-Harris minimal medium,further systematic analysis is required to unveil the mechanism of gluconeogenesis via anaplerotic CO2 assimilation in Leptospira species.

  8. Resolving the Activation Site of PositiveRegulators in Plant PhosphoenolpyruvateCarboxylase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Dear Editor, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC 4.1.1.31) islocated at an important branch point in the carbohydratemetabolism of plants. The enzyme is a homotetramer andcatalyzes the addition of bicarbonate to phosphoenolpyru-vate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate and phosphate. PEPC isregulated by metabolites and phosphorylation. AIIostericfeedback inhibition is mainly regulated by L-malate andL-aspartate which bind to a site separated from the activecenter (Kai et al., 1999; Paulus et al., 2013). Structure analy-sis of PEPC from Escherichia coli (Kai et al., 1999; Matsumuraet al., 2002), Zea rnays (Matsumura et al., 2002), Flaveria trin-ervia, and F. pringlei (Paulus et al., 2013) revealed that thesubstrate PEP and the feedback inhibitors bind to separatesites within each monomer.

  9. Is L-Carnitine Supplementation Beneficial in 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jákup Andreas; Lund, Allan Meldgaard; Olesen, Jess Have; Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: 3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3-MCCd) is an autosomal recessive disorder in the catabolism of leucine. In the present study, we investigated the current and prior medical condition of patients with 3-MCCd in the Faroe Islands and their carnitine levels in blood, urine and...... muscle tissue with and without L-carnitine supplementation to evaluate the current treatment strategy of not recommending L-carnitine supplementation to Faroese 3-MCCd patients. Methods: Blood and urine samples and muscle biopsies were collected from patients at inclusion and at 3 months. Eight patients...... received L-carnitine supplementation when recruited; five did not. Included patients who received supplementation were asked to stop L-carnitine, the others were asked to initiate L-carnitine supplementation during the study. Symptoms were determined by review of hospital medical records and questionnaires...

  10. Inhibition of E. coli P-enolpyruvate carboxylase by P-enol-3-bromopyruvate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generality of the mechanism based inhibition of P-enolpyruvate carboxylases (PEPCase) by P-enol-3-bromopyruvate (BrPEP) was tested by measuring its effects on the allosterically regulated enzyme from E. coli. In the presence of 1mM Mn2+, BrPEP appears to be a competitive inhibitor (K/sub i/ = 0.0087mM) of PEPCase. Incubation of 0.005mM PEPCase with 0.5mM (or 1.0mM)BrPEP along with H14CO3- and Mn2+, yielded, upon reduction with NaBH4, a protein containing radioactivity in an amount approximately proportional to that expected from the loss of catalytic activity. At both a 25- and a 50-fold excess (0.5mM and 1.0mM, respectively) of BrPEP to PEPCase subunits, first order loss of activity occurred with k values of 5.24 x 10-3 min-1 and 1.03 x 10-2 min-1, respectively. At the lower concentration of BrPEP the inactivation process appeared to be reversible after 40 min with no further inhibition occurring even up to two hours of incubation. At the higher concentration of BrPEP, the rate of inhibition slowed dramatically after 50 min and appeared insignificant over the next hour. These data suggest that BrPEP irreversibly inactivates the E. coli PEP carboxylase, but that there may be considerable dissociation of the product, Br-oxaloacetate, before irreversible binding occurs, and that the reduced rate of inactivation may be due to depletion of BrPEP

  11. Time generated by intrinsic observers

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, Karl

    2009-01-01

    We shortly review the construction of knowledge by intrinsic observers. Intrinsic observers are embedded in a system and are inseparable parts thereof. The intrinsic viewpoint has to be contrasted with an extrinsic, "God's eye" viewpoint, from which the system can be observed externally without in any way changing it. This epistemological distinction has concrete, formalizable consequences. One consequence is the emergence of "complementarity" for intrinsic observers, even if the underlying system is totally deterministic (computable). Another consequence is the appearence of time and inertial frames for intrinsic observers. The necessary operational techniques are developed in the context of Cellular Automata. We finish with a somewhat speculative question. Given space-time frames generated by clocks which use sound waves for synchronization; why could supersonic travel not cause time paradoxes?

  12. Intrinsic time geometrodynamics: explicit examples

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Huei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic time quantum geometrodynamics resolved `the problem of time' and bridged the deep divide between quantum mechanics and canonical quantum gravity with a Schrodinger equation which describes evolution in intrinsic time variable. In this formalism, Einstein's general relativity is a particular realization of a wider class of theories. Explicit classical black hole and cosmological solutions and the motion of test particles are derived and analyzed in this work in the context of constant three-curvature solutions in intrinsic time geometrodynamics; and we exemplify how this formalism yields results which agree with the predictions of Einstein's theory.

  13. Intrinsic Negative Mass from Nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mei, F.; Caramazza, P.; Pierangeli, D.; Di Domenico, G.; Ilan, H.; Agranat, A. J.; Di Porto, P.; DelRe, E.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and provide experimental evidence of a mechanism able to support negative intrinsic effective mass. The idea is to use a shape-sensitive nonlinearity to change the sign of the mass in the leading linear propagation equation. Intrinsic negative-mass dynamics is reported for light beams in a ferroelectric crystal substrate, where the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity leads to a negative-mass Schrödinger equation. The signature of inverted dynamics is the observation of beams repelled from strongly guiding integrated waveguides irrespective of wavelength and intensity and suggests shape-sensitive nonlinearity as a basic mechanism leading to intrinsic negative mass.

  14. Molecular cloning and characterization of the cDNA coding for the biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase: identification of the biotin carboxylase and biotin-carrier domains.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, J.; Wurtele, E S; Nikolau, B J

    1994-01-01

    Soybean genomic clones were isolated based on hybridization to probes that code for the conserved biotinylation domain of biotin-containing enzymes. The corresponding cDNA was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli through fusion to the bacterial trpE gene. The resulting chimeric protein was biotinylated in E. coli. Antibodies raised against the chimeric protein reacted specifically with an 85-kDa biotin-containing polypeptide from soybean and inhibited 3-methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase (...

  15. Intrinsic Depletion or Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Bruun, Sara; Hansen, Søren;

    in between he polymer cushion and bulk water the layer was attributed to water of reduced density and was called "depletion layer".  Impurities or preparative artefacts were excluded as its origin. Later on, the formation of nanobubbles from this vapour-like water phase was initiated by tipping the......  The presence of a depletion layer of water along extended hydrophobic interfaces, and a possibly related formation of nanobubbles, is an ongoing discussion. The phenomenon was initially reported when we, years ago, chose thick films (~300-400Å) of polystyrene as cushions between a crystalline...... carrier and biomimetic membranes deposited thereupon and exposed to bulk water. While monitoring the sequential build-up of the sandwiched composite structure by continuous neutron reflectivity experiments the formation of an unexpected additional layer was detected (1). Located at the polystyrene surface...

  16. Electron spin resonance studies of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase: identification of activator cation ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miziorko, H M; Sealy, R C

    1984-01-31

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (RuBP carboxylase)forms a stable model complex containing stoichiometric amounts of enzyme sites, activator C0(2), divalent activator cation, and the transition-state analogue carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate (CABP). Incorporation of Mn(2+) in the model complex permits investigation of the environment of the activator cation by electron spin resonance (ESR)techniques. Measurements at 9 GHz on the Mn(2+)-containing complex prepared by using dimeric Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme produce a spectrum which indicates that the cation is bound in an anisotropic environment. Measurements at 9 GHz on the spinach enzyme model complex produce a spectrum in which several of the fine structure transitions are obvious. In contrast, the spectrum produced from Mn(2+) bound to R. rubrum enzyme exhibits an intense powder pattern for the central fine structure transition; the other four fine structure transitions produce powder patterns that are in homogeneously broadened and therefore are not as apparent.Low-temperature measurements at high field (35 GHz) result in substantially simplified spectra. The spectrum of Mn(2+) bound to the R. rubrum enzyme shows less fine structure than the spectrum of Mn(2+) bound in the octameric spinach enzyme complex, where substantial hyperfine splitting is resolved in three of the five fine structure transitions. Measurements at 35 GHz on Mn (2+) bound in the dimeric R. rubrum enzyme complex produce spectra in which only the central fine structure transition produces a prominent signal. However, these samples are characterized by several narrow spectral features which permit investigation of the identity of Mn(2+)ligands by 170 perturbation techniques. Preparation of the R. rubrum RuBP carboxylase model complex in (17)O-enriched water results in a sample which exhibits an obviously broadened 35-GHz Mn(2+) spectrum in comparison to unenriched samples. Removal of H(2)(17)O by gel filtration abolished the spectral

  17. Intrinsic motivation and learning dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of intrinsic motivation on the dynamics of learning processes. We construct a simple model of a single agent adapting to unknown environment. Performing a repeated choice between a number of initially unexplored alternatives, the agent gains rewards for each selected alternative and in doing so gradually comprehends the environment. In our model the agent choice is governed by two stimuli. The traditional extrinsic motive inclines the agent to maximize the cumulative payoff throughout the process, while the second, intrinsic one, biases the agent towards the novel options that she inherently likes. We show that the intrinsic motivation can induce an instability and periodic dynamics of the learning process which is always stationary in the case of selfish, rational agent. Interestingly, the opposite effect can arise as well: when the impact of intrinsic motivation on the agent choice is strong, the equiprobable choice equilibrium strategy becomes stable. Based on the presented resul...

  18. Intrinsically disordered proteins and biomineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Adele L; Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, biomineralization is controlled by the cell and the proteins they produce. A large number of these proteins are intrinsically disordered, gaining some secondary structure when they interact with their binding partners. These partners include the component ions of the mineral being deposited, the crystals themselves, the template on which the initial crystals form, and other intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides. This review speculates why intrinsically disordered proteins are so important for biomineralization, providing illustrations from the SIBLING (small integrin binding N-glycosylated) proteins and their peptides. It is concluded that the flexible structure, and the ability of the intrinsically disordered proteins to bind to a multitude of surfaces is crucial, but details on the precise-interactions, energetics and kinetics of binding remain to be determined. PMID:26807759

  19. Propeptide and glutamate-containing substrates bound to the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase convert its vitamin K epoxidase function from an inactive to an active state

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Isamu; Furie, Bruce; Walsh, Christopher T.; Furie, Barbara C.

    1997-01-01

    The vitamin K-dependent γ-glutamyl carboxylase catalyzes the posttranslational conversion of glutamic acid to γ-carboxyglutamic acid in precursor proteins containing the γ-carboxylation recognition site (γ-CRS). During this reaction, glutamic acid is converted to γ-carboxyglutamic acid while vitamin KH2 is converted to vitamin K 2,3-epoxide. Recombinant bovine carboxylase was purified free of γ-CRS-containing propeptide and endogenous substrate in a single-step immunoaffinity procedure. We sh...

  20. /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance study of the CO/sub 2/ activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase from Rhodospirillum rubrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, M.H. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison); Joworski, R.J.; Hartman, F.C.

    1979-02-01

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (3-phospho-D-glycerate carboxy-lyase (dimerizing), EC 4.1.1.39) from Rhodospirillum rubrum is activated by CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/. /sup 13/C NMR spectra were determined for the unactivated enzyme and for enzyme that had been activated by /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ and Mg/sup 2 +/. In addition to the expected resonance for H/sup 13/CO/sub 3//sup -//CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ at 161.8 ppM downfield from tetramethylsilane, the spectrum of the activated enzyme shows a broad resonance at 164.9 ppM. Analogy with previous NMR studies of /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ binding to hemoglobin suggests that the CO/sub 2/ activation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase involves formation of a carbamate between an enzyme amino group and CO/sub 2/.

  1. A Note on Intrinsic Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Songzi

    2008-01-01

    In this note we characterize the strategic implication of intrinsic correlation, introduced by Brandenburger and Friedenberg (2008), in the subjective correlated equilibrium setting of a complete information game. Intrinsic correlation restricts correlation devices to variables within the game, i.e. players's beliefs (and higher order beliefs) about each other's strategies, in contrast to signals or sunspots from the "outside." The characterization is a strengthening of best-response set wi...

  2. Insights into the carboxyltransferase reaction of pyruvate carboxylase from the structures of bound product and intermediate analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Lietzan, Adam D.; St. Maurice, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the MgATP- and bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in central metabolism. The carboxyltransferase (CT) domain of PC catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from carboxybiotin to the accepting substrate, pyruvate. It has been hypothesized that the reactive enolpyruvate intermediate is stabilized through a bidentate interaction with the metal ion in the CT doma...

  3. Biotin Uptake into Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Increases Early in the Cell Cycle, Increasing Carboxylase Activities1,2

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, J. Steven; Mock, Donald M.; Griffin, Jacob B.; Zempleni, Janos

    2002-01-01

    Cells respond to proliferation with increased accumulation of biotin, suggesting that proliferation enhances biotin demand. Here we determined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) increase biotin uptake at specific phases of the cell cycle, and whether biotin is utilized to increase biotinylation of carboxylases. Biotin uptake was quantified in human PBMC that were arrested chemically at specific phases of the cell cycle, i.e., biotin uptake increased in the G1 phase of the cycle...

  4. Soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit: Mechanisms and determinants of RNA turnover. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meagher, R.B. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Genetics

    1993-12-31

    An in vitro degradation system has been developed from petunia and soybean polysomes in order to investigate the mechanisms and determinants controlling RNA turnover in higher plants. This system faithfully degrades soybean ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS) mRNA into the same products observed in total RNA preparations. In previous years it was shown that the most stable products represent a nested constellation of fragments, which are shortened from their 3{prime} ends, and have intact 5{prime} ends. Exogenous rbcS RNA tagged with novel 5{prime} sequence 15 or 56 bp long were synthesized in vitro as Sp6 and T7 runoff transcripts, respectively. When added to the system they were degraded faithfully into constellation of products which were 15 or 56 bp longer than the endogenous products, respectively. Detailed kinetics on the appearance of these exogenous products confirmed degradation proceeds in an overall 3{prime} to 5{prime} direction but suggested that there are multiple pathways through which the RNA may be degraded. To further demonstrate a precursor product relationships, in vitro synthesized transcripts truncated at their 3{prime} ends were shown to degrade into the expected smaller fragments previously mapped in the 5{prime} portion of the rbcS RNA.

  5. 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: Clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and molecular studies in 88 individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünert Sarah C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of leucine metabolism caused by mutations in MCCC1 or MCCC2 encoding the α and β subunit of MCC, respectively. The phenotype is highly variable ranging from acute neonatal onset with fatal outcome to asymptomatic adults. Methods We report clinical, biochemical, enzymatic and mutation data of 88 MCC deficient individuals, 53 identified by newborn screening, 26 diagnosed due to clinical symptoms or positive family history and 9 mothers, identified following the positive newborn screening result of their baby. Results Fifty-seven percent of patients were asymptomatic while 43% showed clinical symptoms, many of which were probably not related to MCC deficiency but due to ascertainment bias. However, 12 patients (5 of 53 identified by newborn screening presented with acute metabolic decompensations. We identified 15 novel MCCC1 and 16 novel MCCC2 mutant alleles. Additionally, we report expression studies on 3 MCCC1 and 8 MCCC2 mutations and show an overview of all 132 MCCC1 and MCCC2 variants known to date. Conclusions Our data confirm that MCC deficiency, despite low penetrance, may lead to a severe clinical phenotype resembling classical organic acidurias. However, neither the genotype nor the biochemical phenotype is helpful in predicting the clinical course.

  6. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase content, assimilatory charge, and mesophyll conductance in leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelmann; Laisk

    1999-01-01

    The content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Et; EC 4.1.1.39) measured in different-aged leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and other plants grown under different light intensities, varied from 2 to 75 &mgr;mol active sites m-2. Mesophyll conductance (&mgr;) was measured under 1.5% O2, as well as postillumination CO2 uptake (assimilatory charge, a gas-exchange measure of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate pool). The dependence of &mgr; on Et saturated at Et = 30 &mgr;mol active sites m-2 and &mgr; = 11 mm s-1 in high-light-grown leaves. In low-light-grown leaves the dependence tended toward saturation at similar Et but reached a &mgr; of only 6 to 8 mm s-1. &mgr; was proportional to the assimilatory charge, with the proportionality constant (specific carboxylation efficiency) between 0.04 and 0.075 &mgr;M-1 s-1. Our data show that the saturation of the relationship between Et and &mgr; is caused by three limiting components: (a) the physical diffusion resistance (a minor limitation), (b) less than full activation of Rubisco (related to Rubisco activase and the slower diffusibility of Rubisco at high protein concentrations in the stroma), and (c) chloroplast metabolites, especially 3-phosphoglyceric acid and free inorganic phosphate, which control the reaction kinetics of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation by competitive binding to active sites. PMID:9880359

  7. Pyruvate carboxylase is critical for non-small-cell lung cancer proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Katherine; Fox, Matthew P; Bousamra, Michael; Slone, Stephen P; Higashi, Richard M; Miller, Donald M; Wang, Yali; Yan, Jun; Yuneva, Mariia O; Deshpande, Rahul; Lane, Andrew N; Fan, Teresa W-M

    2015-02-01

    Anabolic biosynthesis requires precursors supplied by the Krebs cycle, which in turn requires anaplerosis to replenish precursor intermediates. The major anaplerotic sources are pyruvate and glutamine, which require the activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1), respectively. Due to their rapid proliferation, cancer cells have increased anabolic and energy demands; however, different cancer cell types exhibit differential requirements for PC- and GLS-mediated pathways for anaplerosis and cell proliferation. Here, we infused patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with uniformly 13C-labeled glucose before tissue resection and determined that the cancerous tissues in these patients had enhanced PC activity. Freshly resected paired lung tissue slices cultured in 13C6-glucose or 13C5,15N2-glutamine tracers confirmed selective activation of PC over GLS in NSCLC. Compared with noncancerous tissues, PC expression was greatly enhanced in cancerous tissues, whereas GLS1 expression showed no trend. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of paired lung tissues showed PC overexpression in cancer cells rather than in stromal cells of tumor tissues. PC knockdown induced multinucleation, decreased cell proliferation and colony formation in human NSCLC cells, and reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Growth inhibition was accompanied by perturbed Krebs cycle activity, inhibition of lipid and nucleotide biosynthesis, and altered glutathione homeostasis. These findings indicate that PC-mediated anaplerosis in early-stage NSCLC is required for tumor survival and proliferation. PMID:25607840

  8. Relationship between NH4+ assimilation rate and in vivo phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of NH4+ assimilation by N-limited Selenastrum minutum (Naeg.) Collins cells in the dark was set as an independent variable and the relationship between NH4+ assimilation rate and in vivo activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) was determined. In vivo activity of PEPC was measured by following the incorporation of H14CO3- into acid stable products. A linear relationship of 0.3 moles C fixed via PEPC per mole N assimilated was observed. This value agrees extremely well with the PEPC requirement for the synthesis of the amino acids found in total cellular protein. Determinations of metabolite levels in vivo at different rates of N assimilation indicated that the known metabolite effectors of S. minutum PEPC in vitro (KA Schuller, WC Plaxton, DH Turpin, [1990] Plant Physiol 93: 1303-1311) are important regulators of this enzyme during N assimilation. As PEPC activity increased in response to increasing rates of N assimilation, there was a corresponding decline in the level of PEPC inhibitors (2-oxoglutarate, malate), an increase in the level of PEPC activators (glutamine, dihydroxyacetone phosphate), and an increase in the Gln/Glu ratio. Treatment of N-limited cells with azaserine caused an increase in the Gln/Glu ratio resulting in increased PEPC activity in the absence of N assimilation. We suggest glutamate and glutamine play a key role in regulating the anaplerotic function of PEPC in this C3 organism

  9. Improving polyketide and fatty acid synthesis by engineering of the yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Wook; Da Silva, Nancy A

    2014-10-10

    Polyketides and fatty acids are important in the production of pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and biofuels. The synthesis of the malonyl-CoA building block, catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1), is considered a limiting step to achieving high titers of polyketides and fatty acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acc1 is deactivated by AMP-activated serine/threonine protein kinase (Snf1) when glucose is depleted. To prevent this deactivation, the enzyme was aligned with the Rattus norvegicus (rat) Acc1 to identify a critical amino acid (Ser-1157) for phosphorylation and deactivation. Introduction of a S1157A mutation into Acc1 resulted in 9-fold higher specific activity following glucose depletion. The enzyme was tested in yeast engineered to produce the polyketide 6-methylsalisylic acid (6-MSA). Both 6-MSA and native fatty acid levels increased by 3-fold. Utilization of this modified Acc1 enzyme will also be beneficial for other products built from malonyl-CoA. PMID:25078432

  10. Cloning and characterization of cotton heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Heteromeric acetyl-coanzyme A(CoA)carboxylese(ACCase)catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA.It plays an essential role in fatty acid synthesis in prokaryotes and most of plants.The heteromeric ACCase is composed of four subunits:biotin carboxylase (BC),biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP),and α-and β-subunits of carboxyltransferese(α-andβ-CT).In this study,we cloned five novel genes encoding the subunits of heteromeric ACCese(one BC,BCCP and β-CT,and two α-CTs) from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum cv.zhongmian 35)by RACE-PCR.The deduced amino acid sequence of these cDNAs shares high similarity with other reported heteromeric ACCese subunits.The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the different subunits of heteromeric ACCase were grouped in a similar pattern.Southern blot analysis revealed the milti-copy patterns of these heteromeric ACCase genes in cotton genome.Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that heteromeric ACCese genes were constitutively expressed in all of the cotton tissues,but the transcripts accumulated at a relatively low level in roots.To our knowledge,this is the first report about characterization of the heteromeric ACCase genes in cotton.

  11. Deregulation of feedback inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase for improved lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Bommareddy, Rajesh Reddy; Frank, Doinita; Rappert, Sugima; Zeng, An-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Allosteric regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) controls the metabolic flux distribution of anaplerotic pathways. In this study, the feedback inhibition of Corynebacterium glutamicum PEPC was rationally deregulated, and its effect on metabolic flux redistribution was evaluated. Based on rational protein design, six PEPC mutants were designed, and all of them showed significantly reduced sensitivity toward aspartate and malate inhibition. Introducing one of the point mutations (N917G) into the ppc gene, encoding PEPC of the lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum LC298, resulted in ∼37% improved lysine production. In vitro enzyme assays and (13)C-based metabolic flux analysis showed ca. 20 and 30% increases in the PEPC activity and corresponding flux, respectively, in the mutant strain. Higher demand for NADPH in the mutant strain increased the flux toward pentose phosphate pathway, which increased the supply of NADPH for enhanced lysine production. The present study highlights the importance of allosteric regulation on the flux control of central metabolism. The strategy described here can also be implemented to improve other oxaloacetate-derived products. PMID:24334667

  12. Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity in Anther-Derived Plants of Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. Shag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, S; Smith, R H; Finer, J J

    1983-11-01

    Plants obtained from anther culture of the African violet, Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl. ;Shag' and vegetatively cloned copies of the parent anther donor plant were examined for their ploidy and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPcase) activity. The cloned parent plants were all diploid and did not vary much in their nuclear DNA, chlorophyll, and RuBPcase activity. Some of the anther-derived plants were similar to the parent plants while others were not. Different levels of ploidy were observed among the androgenetic plants. RuBPcase activities higher than that of the parent plants were found in some anther-derived plants. However, there was no direct correlation between ploidy and RuBPcase activity. Expression of nuclear genes from a single parent in the anther-derived plants and it's diploidization or plastid changes during early stages of microsporogenesis or androgenesis are suggested as possible reasons for the variations observed among them. This could be a useful technique to obtain physiological variants which could be agronomically desirable. PMID:16663273

  13. Pyruvate carboxylase as a sensitive protein biomarker for exogenous steroid chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing protein responses to endocrine disrupting chemicals is critical for understanding the mechanisms of chemical action and for the assessment of hazards. In this study, the response of the liver proteome of male rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) and females treated with 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) were analyzed. A total of 23 and 24 proteins were identified with differential expression in response to E2 and MT, respectively. Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) was the only common differentially expressed protein in both males and females after E2- and MT-treatments. The mRNA as well as the protein levels of PC were significantly down-regulated compared with that of the controls (p < 0.05). Our results suggest that endocrine disruptors interfere with genes and proteins of the TCA cycle and PC may be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to exogenous steroid chemicals in the liver of fish. - Highlights: • The hepatic proteomes of rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) exposed to E2 and MT were analyzed. • Differentially expressed proteins (23 and 24 respectively) were identified following E2 and MT exposure. • Four differentially expressed proteins associated with chemical stimulus were characterized. • PC was identified as a responsive biomarker for both estrogens and androgens. - Our results suggest PC may be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to exogenous steroid chemicals in the liver of fish

  14. Functional metagenomic selection of ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from uncultivated bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaljay, Vanessa A; Satagopan, Sriram; North, Justin A; Witte, Brian; Dourado, Manuella N; Anantharaman, Karthik; Arbing, Mark A; McCann, Shelley Hoeft; Oremland, Ronald S; Banfield, Jillian F; Wrighton, Kelly C; Tabita, F Robert

    2016-04-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is a critical yet severely inefficient enzyme that catalyses the fixation of virtually all of the carbon found on Earth. Here, we report a functional metagenomic selection that recovers physiologically active RubisCO molecules directly from uncultivated and largely unknown members of natural microbial communities. Selection is based on CO2 -dependent growth in a host strain capable of expressing environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), precluding the need for pure cultures or screening of recombinant clones for enzymatic activity. Seventeen functional RubisCO-encoded sequences were selected using DNA extracted from soil and river autotrophic enrichments, a photosynthetic biofilm and a subsurface groundwater aquifer. Notably, three related form II RubisCOs were recovered which share high sequence similarity with metagenomic scaffolds from uncultivated members of the Gallionellaceae family. One of the Gallionellaceae RubisCOs was purified and shown to possess CO2 /O2 specificity typical of form II enzymes. X-ray crystallography determined that this enzyme is a hexamer, only the second form II multimer ever solved and the first RubisCO structure obtained from an uncultivated bacterium. Functional metagenomic selection leverages natural biological diversity and billions of years of evolution inherent in environmental communities, providing a new window into the discovery of CO2 -fixing enzymes not previously characterized. PMID:26617072

  15. Multiple inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfers in the evolution of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yingmei; Cai, Jing; Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  16. Multiple inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfers in the evolution of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmei Peng

    Full Text Available Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought.

  17. Characterization of the distal promoter of the human pyruvate carboxylase gene in pancreatic beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansaya Thonpho

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in many biosynthetic pathways in various tissues including glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In the present study, we identify promoter usage of the human PC gene in pancreatic beta cells. The data show that in the human, two alternative promoters, proximal and distal, are responsible for the production of multiple mRNA isoforms as in the rat and mouse. RT-PCR analysis performed with cDNA prepared from human liver and islets showed that the distal promoter, but not the proximal promoter, of the human PC gene is active in pancreatic beta cells. A 1108 bp fragment of the human PC distal promoter was cloned and analyzed. It contains no TATA box but possesses two CCAAT boxes, and other putative transcription factor binding sites, similar to those of the distal promoter of rat PC gene. To localize the positive regulatory region in the human PC distal promoter, 5'-truncated and the 25-bp and 15-bp internal deletion mutants of the human PC distal promoter were generated and used in transient transfections in INS-1 832/13 insulinoma and HEK293T (kidney cell lines. The results indicated that positions -340 to -315 of the human PC distal promoter serve as (an activator element(s for cell-specific transcription factor, while the CCAAT box at -71/-67, a binding site for nuclear factor Y (NF-Y, as well as a GC box at -54/-39 of the human PC distal promoter act as activator sequences for basal transcription.

  18. Photosynthetic Characteristics and Heterosis in Transgenic Hybrid Rice with Maize Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase (pepc) Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ji-hang; XIANG Xun-chao; ZHOU Hua-qiang; HE Li-bin; ZHANG Kai-zheng; LI Ping

    2006-01-01

    Three F1 hybrids derived from the sterile rice lines Gang 46A, 776A and 2480A and the improved restorer line Shuhui 881 containing maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (pepc) gene were used to analyze the effect of pepc gene on the heterosis and photosynthetic characteristics, while the F1 obtained by crossing Shuhui 881 with the above three sterile lines served as controls. The dynamics of photosynthetic characteristics in leaves of three F1 with pepc gene and their controls were determined at the initial-tillering, maxium-tillering, elongation, initial-heading, heading, maturity stages, and other different times after flag leaf fully expanded. The PEPCase activities of the three F1 with pepc gene increased significantly as compared with control plants during the whole developmental stages. Moreover, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn) also increased to certain extent. The data showed that PEPCase activity was significantly correlated to Pn with a correlation coefficient of 0.6081**. The photosynthetic indexes of the three F1 with pepc gene were obviously superior with respective to controls in apparent quantum yield, light compensation point (LCP) and carboxylation efficiency (CE), while the CO2 compensation point (CCP) was lower than that of corresponding control. The Pn of the three F1 with pepc gene at light saturation point (LSP) and CO2 saturation point (CSP) was also higher than that of control plants. In addition, the three F1 with pepc gene had an average increase of 37.10% in grain yields per plant in comparison with control plants. The results indicated that the photosynthetic characteristics of hybrid rice containing pepc gene had been improved to some extent due to the introduction of pepc gene.

  19. Carbon-13 and deuterium isotope effects on the catalytic reactions of biotin carboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C and 2H kinetic isotope effects have been used to investigate the mechanism of enzymic biotin carboxylation. /sup D/(V/K) is 0.50 in 80% D2O at pD 8.0 for the forward reaction and 0.57 at pD 8.5 for the phosphorylation of ADP by carbamoyl phosphate. These values approach the theoretical maximum limit for a reaction in which a proton is transferred from a sulfhydryl to a nitrogen or oxygen base. Therefore, it appears that this portion of the reaction is at or near equilibrium. 13(V/K) at pH 8 is 1.007; the small magnitude of this number suggests that the reaction is almost fully committed by the time the carbon-sensitive steps are reached. There does not appear to be a reverse commitment to the reaction under the conditions in which 13(V/K) was determined. A large forward commitment is consistent with the failure to observe positional isotope exchange from the βγ-bridge position to the β-nonbridge position in [18O4]ATP or washout of 18O from the γ-nonbridge positions. Transfer of 18O from bicarbonate to inorganic phosphate in the forward reaction was clearly observed, however. These observations suggest that biotin carboxylase exists in two distinct forms which differ in the protonation states of the two active-site bases, one of which is a sulfhydryl. Only when the sulfhydryl is ionized and the second base protonated can catalysis take place. Carboxylation of biotin is postulated to occur via a pathway in which carboxyphosphate is formed by nucleophilic attack of bicarbonate on ATP. Decarboxylation of carboxyphosphate in the active site generates CO2, which serves to carboxylate the isourea tautomer of biotin that is generated by the removal of the proton on N1' by the ionized sulfhydryl

  20. Effects of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase desensitization on glutamic acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masaru; Sawada, Kazunori; Ogura, Kotaro; Shimono, Yuta; Hagiwara, Takuya; Sugimoto, Masakazu; Onuki, Akiko; Yokota, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC13032, a glutamic-acid producing actinobacterium, is subject to feedback inhibition by metabolic intermediates such as aspartic acid and 2-oxoglutaric acid, which implies the importance of PEPC in replenishing oxaloacetic acid into the TCA cycle. Here, we investigated the effects of feedback-insensitive PEPC on glutamic acid production. A single amino-acid substitution in PEPC, D299N, was found to relieve the feedback control by aspartic acid, but not by 2-oxoglutaric acid. A simple mutant, strain R1, having the D299N substitution in PEPC was constructed from ATCC 13032 using the double-crossover chromosome replacement technique. Strain R1 produced glutamic acid at a concentration of 31.0 g/L from 100 g/L glucose in a jar fermentor culture under biotin-limited conditions, which was significantly higher than that of the parent, 26.0 g/L (1.19-fold), indicative of the positive effect of desensitized PEPC on glutamic acid production. Another mutant, strain DR1, having both desensitized PEPC and PYK-gene deleted mutations, was constructed in a similar manner using strain D1 with a PYK-gene deleted mutation as the parent. This mutation had been shown to enhance glutamic acid production in our previous study. Although marginal, strain D1 produced higher glutamic acid, 28.8 g/L, than ATCC13032 (1.11-fold). In contrast, glutamic acid production by strain DR-1 was elevated up to 36.9 g/L, which was 1.42-fold higher than ATCC13032 and significantly higher than the other three strains. The results showed a synergistic effect of these two mutations on glutamic acid production in C. glutamicum. PMID:26168906

  1. Epigenetic regulation of pyruvate carboxylase gene expression in the postpartum liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Henty, K M; Handley, R R; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; White, H M; Donkin, S S; Snell, R G; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Loor, J J; Mitchell, M D; Roche, J R

    2016-07-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential for maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis and glucose supply for mammary lactose synthesis in the dairy cow. Upregulation of the gluconeogenic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) during the transition period is vital in the adaptation to the greater glucose demands associated with peripartum lactogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine if PC transcription in hepatocytes is regulated by DNA methylation and if treatment with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) alters methylation of an upstream DNA sequence defined as promoter 1. Dairy cows were left untreated (n=20), or treated with a NSAID during the first 5 d postcalving (n=20). Liver was biopsied at d 7 precalving and d 7, 14, and 28 postcalving. Total PC and transcript specific gene expression was quantified using quantitative PCR and DNA methylation of promoter 1 was quantified using bisulfite Sanger sequencing. Expression of PC changed over the transition period, with increased expression postcalving occurring concurrently with increased circulating concentration of nonesterified fatty acids. The DNA methylation percentage was variable at all sites quantified and ranged from 21 to 54% across the 15 CpG dinucleotides within promoter 1. The DNA methylation at wk 1 postcalving, however, was not correlated with gene expression of promoter 1-regulated transcripts and we did not detect an effect of NSAID treatment on DNA methylation or PC gene expression. Our results do not support a role for DNA methylation in regulating promoter 1-driven gene expression of PC at wk 1 postcalving. Further research is required to determine the mechanisms regulating increased PC expression over the transition period. PMID:27085418

  2. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  3. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  4. Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase gene expression and diversity of Lake Erie planktonic microorganisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, H.H.; Tabita, F R

    1996-01-01

    Carbon dioxide fixation is carried out primarily through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate cycle, in which ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is the key enzyme. The primary structure of the large subunit of form I RubisCO is well conserved; however, four distinct types, A, B, C, and D, may be distinguished, with types A and B and types C and D more closely related to one another. To better understand the environmental regulation of RubisCO in Lake E...

  5. A Novel Approach to Functional Analysis of the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Small Subunit Gene by Agrobacterium-Mediated Gene Silencing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Fu Zhou; Peng-Da Ma; Ren-Hou Wang; Bo Liu; Xing-Zhi Wang

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach to virus-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing for studying the function of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunlt (rbcS) gene was established and optimized using potato virus X vector and Nicotiana benthamiana as experimental material. The analysis of silencing phenomena,transcriptional level, protein expression, and pigment measurement showed that the expression of the rbcS endogenous gene was inactivated by the expression of a 500-bp homologous cDNA fragment carried in the virus vector.

  6. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    OpenAIRE

    Florencio ePazos; Natalia ePietrosemoli; García-Martín, Juan A.; Roberto eSolano

    2013-01-01

    To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional) form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disor...

  7. Decoherence: Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Environmental

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Environmental decoherence times have been difficult to predict in solid-state systems. In spin systems, environmental decoherence is predicted to arise from nuclear spins, spin-phonon interactions, and long-range dipolar interactions [1]. Recent experiments have confirmed these predictions quantitatively in crystals of Fe8 molecules [2]. Coherent spin dynamics was observed over macroscopic volumes, with a decoherence Q-factor Qφ= 1.5 x10^6 (the upper predicted limit in this system being Qφ= 6 x10^7). Decoherence from dipolar interactions is particularly complex, and depends on the shape and the quantum state of the system. No extrinsic ``noise'' decoherence was observed. The generalization to quantum dot and superconducting qubit systems is also discussed. We then discuss searches for ``intrinsic'' decoherence [3,4], coming from non-linear corrections to quantum mechanics. Particular attention is paid to condensed matter tests of such intrinsic decoherence, in hybrid spin/optomechanical systems, and to ways of distinguishing intrinsic decoherence from environmental and extrinsic decoherence sources. [4pt] [1] Morello, A. Stamp, P. C. E. & Tupitsyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 207206 (2006).[0pt] [2] S. Takahashi et al., Nature 476, 76 (2011).[0pt] [3] Stamp, P. C. E., Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys. 37, 467 (2006). [0pt] [4] Stamp, P.C.E., Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A (to be published)

  8. Demonstration of a functional requirement for the carbamate nitrogen of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by chemical rescue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase is reversibly activated by the reaction of Co2 with a specific lysyl residue to form a carbamate that coordinates an essential Mg2+ cation. Surprisingly, the Lys191→Cys mutant protein, in the presence of Co2 and Mg2+ exhibits tight binding of the reaction intermediate analogue 2-carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate a property normally equated with effective coordination of the Mg2+ by the carbamate. Catalytic ineptness of the Cys191 mutant protein, despite its ability to coordinate Mg2+ properly, might be due to the absence of the carbamate nitrogen. To investigate this possibility, the authors have evaluated the ability of exogenous amines to restore catalytic activity to the mutant protein. Significantly, the Cys191 protein manifests ribulose bisphosphate dependent fixation of 14CO2 when incubated with aminomethanewsulfonate but not ethanesulfonate. This novel activity reflects a Km value for ribulose bisphosphate which is not markedly perturbed relative to wild-type enzyme, a Km for Mg2+ which is in fact decreased 10-fold, and rate saturation with respect to aminomethanesulfonate. Chromatographic and spectrophotometric analyses reveal the product of CO2 fixation to be D-3-phosphoglycerate while turnover of [1-3H]ribulose bisphosphate into [3H]phosphoglycolate confirms oxygenase activity. The authors conclude that aminomethanesulfonate restored ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activities to the Cys191 mutant protein by providing a nitrogenous function which satisfies a catalytic demand normally met by the carbamate nitrogen of Lys191

  9. Job Assignments, Intrinsic Motivation and Explicit Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  10. Intrinsic stability of technical superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the operation of technical superconductors under high current density conditions, the superconducting wires composing high current cables should be intrinsically stabilized. In this report the various important stability criteria are derived and investigated on their validity. An experimental set up is made to check the occurrence of magnetic instabilities if the different applicable criteria are violated. It is found that the observed instabilities can be predicted on the basis of the model given in this report. Production of high current cables based upon composites made by the ECN technique seems to be possible. (Auth.)

  11. Presymplectic structures and intrinsic Lagrangians

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a Lagrangian induces a compatible presymplectic form on the equation manifold (stationary surface, understood as a submanifold of the respective jet-space). Given an equation manifold and a compatible presymplectic form therein, we define the first-order Lagrangian system which is formulated in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the equation manifold. It has a structure of a presymplectic AKSZ sigma model for which the equation manifold, equipped with the presymplectic form and the horizontal differential, serves as the target space. For a wide class of systems (but not all) we show that if the presymplectic structure originates from a given Lagrangian, the proposed first-order Lagrangian is equivalent to the initial one and hence the Lagrangian per se can be entirely encoded in terms of the intrinsic geometry of its stationary surface. If the compatible presymplectic structure is generic, the proposed Lagrangian is only a partial one in the sense that its stationary surface contains the...

  12. Intrinsic Alignments in the Illustris Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Peter; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We study intrinsic alignments (IA) of galaxy image shapes within the Illustris cosmic structure formation simulations. We investigate how IA correlations depend on observable galaxy properties such as stellar mass, apparent magnitude, redshift, and photometric type, and on the employed shape measurement method. The correlations considered include the matter density-intrinsic ellipticity (mI), galaxy density-intrinsic ellipticity (dI), gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI), and intrinsic ellipticity-intrinsic ellipticity (II) correlations. We find stronger correlations for more massive and more luminous galaxies, as well as for earlier photometric types, in agreement with observations. Moreover, shape measurement methods that down-weight the outer parts of galaxy images produce much weaker IA signals on intermediate and large scales than methods employing flat radial weights. Thus, the expected contribution of intrinsic alignments to the observed ellipticity correlation in tomographic cosmic shear sur...

  13. Simple determination of the CO2/O2 specificity of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase by the specific radioactivity of [14C] glycerate 3-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is presented for measurement of the CO2/O2 specificity factor of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco). The [14C]3-phosphoglycerate (PGA) from the Rubisco carboxylase reaction and its dilution by the Rubisco oxygenase reaction was monitored by directly measuring the specific radioactivity of PGA. 14CO2 fixation with Rubisco occurred under two reaction conditions: carboxylase with oxygenase with 40 micromolar CO2 in O2-saturated water and carboxylase only with 160 micromolar CO2 under N2. Detection of the specific radioactivity used the amount of PGA as obtained from the peak area, which was determined by pulsed amperometry following separation by high-performance anion exchange chromatography and the radioactive counts of the [14C]PGA in the same peak. The specificity factor of Rubisco from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) (93 ± 4), from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (66 ± 1), and from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum (13) were comparable with the published values measured by different methods

  14. A conformational investigation of propeptide binding to the integral membrane protein γ-glutamyl carboxylase using nanodisc hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Christine H; Morgan, Christopher R; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg;

    2014-01-01

    Gamma (γ)-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) is an integral membrane protein responsible for the post-translational catalytic conversion of select glutamic acid (Glu) residues to γ-carboxy glutamic acid (Gla) in vitamin K-dependent (VKD) proteins. Understanding the mechanism of carboxylation and the rol...

  15. Cloning and characterization of the gene product of the form II ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase gene of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, E D; Chory, J; Kaplan, S

    1985-01-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of the gene product of the gene for the form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. We present evidence that the form II enzyme is encoded by a single gene in R. sphaeroides; however, this gene does hybridize to a second chromosomal locus.

  16. Intrinsic Instability of Coronal Streamers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y; Song, H Q; Shi, Q Q; Feng, S W; Xia, L D; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1936

    2009-01-01

    Plasma blobs are observed to be weak density enhancements as radially stretched structures emerging from the cusps of quiescent coronal streamers. In this paper, it is suggested that the formation of blobs is a consequence of an intrinsic instability of coronal streamers occurring at a very localized region around the cusp. The evolutionary process of the instability, as revealed in our calculations, can be described as follows: (1) through the localized cusp region where the field is too weak to sustain the confinement, plasmas expand and stretch the closed field lines radially outward as a result of the freezing-in effect of plasma-magnetic field coupling; the expansion brings a strong velocity gradient into the slow wind regime providing the free energy necessary for the onset of a subsequent magnetohydrodynamic instability; (2) the instability manifests itself mainly as mixed streaming sausage-kink modes, the former results in pinches of elongated magnetic loops to provoke reconnections at one or many loc...

  17. Serine-15 is the regulatory seryl-phosphorylation site in C4-leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) from maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 32P-labeled regulatory site phosphopeptide was purified from a tryptic digest of in vitro phosphorylated/activated dark-form PEPCase by metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography and subjected to automated Edman degradation analysis. The amino acid sequence of this phosphoseryl peptide is His-His-Ser(P)-Ile-Asp-Ala-Gln-Leu-Arg. This nonapeptide, which corresponds exactly to residues 13-21 in the deduced primary sequence of the maize leaf carboxylase, is far removed from a recently identified active-site cysteine (Cys-553) in the C-terminal region of the primary structure. Comparative analysis of the deduced N-terminal sequences of C3, C4, and CAM leaf PEPCases suggests that the motif of Lys/Arg-X-X-Ser is an important structural requirement of the C4- and CAM-leaf protein-serine kinases

  18. Serine-15 is the regulatory seryl-phosphorylation site in C sub 4 -leaf phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) from maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Jinan; Chollet, R. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The {sup 32}P-labeled regulatory site phosphopeptide was purified from a tryptic digest of in vitro phosphorylated/activated dark-form PEPCase by metal ion affinity and reversed-phase chromatography and subjected to automated Edman degradation analysis. The amino acid sequence of this phosphoseryl peptide is His-His-Ser(P)-Ile-Asp-Ala-Gln-Leu-Arg. This nonapeptide, which corresponds exactly to residues 13-21 in the deduced primary sequence of the maize leaf carboxylase, is far removed from a recently identified active-site cysteine (Cys-553) in the C-terminal region of the primary structure. Comparative analysis of the deduced N-terminal sequences of C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, and CAM leaf PEPCases suggests that the motif of Lys/Arg-X-X-Ser is an important structural requirement of the C{sub 4}- and CAM-leaf protein-serine kinases.

  19. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation process as a probable mechanism for the diurnal regulatory changes of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in CAM plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Vidal, J; Le Marechal, P; Gadal, P; Queiroz, O; Kluge, M; Kruger, I

    1986-04-14

    Day and night forms of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) (PEPC) were extracted from leaves of the CAM plants Kalanchoe daigremontiana, K. tubiflora and K. blossfeldiana previously fed with [32P] labelled phosphate solution. A one-step immunochemical purification followed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography showed that, in all species, the night form of the enzyme was phosphorylated and not the day form. Limited acid hydrolysis of the night form and two-dimensional separation identified predominantly labelled phosphoserine and phosphothreonine. In vitro addition of exogenous acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) to desalted night form-containing extracts resulted within 30 min in a shift in PEPC enzymic properties similar to the in vivo changes from night to day form. It is suggested that phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of the enzyme could be the primary in vivo process which might explain the observed rhythmicity of enzymic properties. PMID:3707571

  20. Differential transcription and message stability of two genes encoding soybean ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of two closely related soybean ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (Rubisco ss) genes, SRS1 and SRS4, has been compared. These genes account for approximately 2-4% of the total transcription in light grown leaves, SRS4 being twice as transcriptionally active as SRS1. The transcription of these genes is reduced more than 30 fold after a pulse of far-red light or extended periods of darkness. When etiolated seedlings are shifted to the light the transcription of both genes increases 30-50 fold. Despite this 30-fold range in transcriptional expression the steady state mRNA levels in light and dark grown tissue differ by less than 8 fold. This suggests that the mRNAs are less stable in light grown tissue. 38 refs., 5 figs

  1. Determination of ploidy level and isolation of genes encoding acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Japanese Foxtail (Alopecurus japonicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongle Xu

    Full Text Available Ploidy level is important in biodiversity studies and in developing strategies for isolating important plant genes. Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but our understanding of these polyploid weeds is limited. Japanese foxtail, a noxious agricultural grass weed, has evolved herbicide resistance. However, most studies on this weed have ignored the fact that there are multiple copies of target genes. This may complicate the study of resistance mechanisms. Japanese foxtail was found to be a tetraploid by flow cytometer and chromosome counting, two commonly used methods in the determination of ploidy levels. We found that there are two copies of the gene encoding plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase in Japanese foxtail and all the homologous genes are expressed. Additionally, no difference in ploidy levels or ACCase gene copy numbers was observed between an ACCase-inhibiting herbicide-resistant and a herbicide-sensitive population in this study.

  2. Cloning, Expression and Purification of Wheat Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases CT Domain in E.coil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Rui-jian; YANG Xue-ying; ZHENG Liang-yu; YANG Ye; GAO Gui; CAO Shu-gui

    2008-01-01

    The entire gene of carboxyltransferase(CT) domain of acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACCase) from Chinese Spring wheat(CSW) plastid was cloned firstly,and the 2.3 kb gene was inserted into PET28a+ vector and expressed in E.coil in a soluble state.The (His)6 fusion protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot.The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography,and the calculated molecular mass(Mr) was 88000.The results of the sequence analysis indicate that the cloned gene(GeneBank accession No.EU124675) was a supplement and revision of the reported ACCase CT partial cDNA from Chinese Spring wheat plastid.The recombinant protein will be significant for us to investigate the recognizing mechanism between ACCase and herbicides,and further to screen new herbicides.

  3. Effect of low temperature stress on the transcription of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase in rice seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of ri e (oryza sativa. cv. IR 8) were grown in the growth chambers having 14 hours day length and temperature 25 deg. C) under same photo period to observe low temperature effect. After 10 days the fourth leaf of each plant was excised and immediately killed in liquid nitrogen and then used for the extraction of total RNA by GTC method. This RNA was used to estimate the amount of mRNAs responsible for the transcription of lage subunit (LSU) and small subunit (|SSU) of the Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuPBC) by northern blot and dot blot hybridization using cDNA probes labeled with /sup 32/P. It was observed that amount of mRNAs (LSU and SSU mRNAs) or RuBPC decreased under low temperature stress indicating that transcription of RuBPC was affected. (author)

  4. Pressure Transducer Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Files are located here, defining the locations of the pressure transducers on the HIRENASD model. These locations also correspond to the locations that analysts...

  5. A 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficient human skin fibroblast transcriptome reveals underlying mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, L; van Dyk, H C; van der Westhuizen, F H; van Dijk, A A

    2016-09-01

    Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease of leucine catabolism with a highly variable phenotype. Apart from extensive mutation analyses of the MCCC1 and MCCC2 genes encoding 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.4), molecular data on MCC deficiency gene expression studies in human tissues is lacking. For IEMs, unbiased '-omics' approaches are starting to reveal the secondary cellular responses to defects in biochemical pathways. Here we present the first whole genome expression profile of immortalized cultured skin fibroblast cells of two clinically affected MCC deficient patients and two healthy individuals generated using Affymetrix(®)HuExST1.0 arrays. There were 16191 significantly differentially expressed transcript IDs of which 3591 were well annotated and present in the predefined knowledge database of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software used for downstream functional analyses. The most noticeable feature of this MCCA deficient skin fibroblast transcriptome was the typical genetic hallmark of mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased antioxidant response and disruption of energy homeostasis, which was confirmed by mitochondrial functional analyses. The MCC deficient transcriptome seems to predict oxidative stress that could alter the complex secondary cellular response that involve genes of the glycolysis, the TCA cycle, OXPHOS, gluconeogenesis, β-oxidation and the branched-chain fatty acid metabolism. An important emerging insight from this human MCCA transcriptome in combination with previous reports is that chronic exposure to the primary and secondary metabolites of MCC deficiency and the resulting oxidative stress might impact adversely on the quality of life and energy levels, irrespective of whether MCC deficient individuals are clinically affected or asymptomatic. PMID:27417235

  6. Comparative modeling and molecular dynamics suggest high carboxylase activity of the Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 RbcL protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Andrei Santos; Lima, Alex Ranieri Jerônimo; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo Teixeira; de Azevedo, Juliana Simão Nina; da Silva Gonçalves Vianez, João Lídio; Gonçalves, Evonnildo Costa

    2016-03-01

    Rubisco catalyzes the first step reaction in the carbon fixation pathway, bonding atmospheric CO2/O2 to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate; it is therefore considered one of the most important enzymes in the biosphere. Genetic modifications to increase the carboxylase activity of rubisco are a subject of great interest to agronomy and biotechnology, since this could increase the productivity of biomass in plants, algae and cyanobacteria and give better yields in crops and biofuel production. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize in silico the catalytic domain of the rubisco large subunit (rbcL gene) of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14, and identify target sites to improve enzyme affinity for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate. A three-dimensional model was built using MODELLER 9.14, molecular dynamics was used to generate a 100 ns trajectory by AMBER12, and the binding free energy was calculated using MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and SIE methods with alanine scanning. The model obtained showed characteristics of form-I rubisco, with 15 beta sheets and 19 alpha helices, and maintained the highly conserved catalytic site encompassing residues Lys175, Lys177, Lys201, Asp203, and Glu204. The binding free energy of the enzyme-substrate complexation of Cyanobium sp. CACIAM14 showed values around -10 kcal mol(-1) using the SIE method. The most important residues for the interaction with ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate were Arg295 followed by Lys334. The generated model was successfully validated, remaining stable during the whole simulation, and demonstrated characteristics of enzymes with high carboxylase activity. The binding analysis revealed candidates for directed mutagenesis sites to improve rubisco's affinity. PMID:26936271

  7. A Location Privacy Aware Friend Locator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas; Thomsen, Jeppe Rishede; Saltenis, Simonas;

    2009-01-01

    A location-based service called friend-locator notifies a user if the user is geographically close to any of the user’s friends. Services of this kind are getting increasingly popular due to the penetration of GPS in mobile phones, but existing commercial friend-locator services require users to...... trade their location privacy for quality of service, limiting the attractiveness of the services. The challenge is to develop a communication-efficient solution such that (i) it detects proximity between a user and the user’s friends, (ii) any other party is not allowed to infer the location of the user...

  8. Full Amalgamation Classes with Intrinsic Transcendentals

    OpenAIRE

    Brody, Justin

    2015-01-01

    We develop some basic results about full amalgamation classes with intrinsic trascendentals. These classes have generics whose models may have finite subsets whose intrinsic closure is not contained in its algebraic closure. We will show that under fairly natural conditions the generic will have an essentially undecidable theory, but we will also exhibit strictly superstable and strictly simple examples. Separating types over a model into those that are intrinsic and those that are extrinsic,...

  9. Intrinsic Charges and the Strong Forc

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnert B.

    2013-01-01

    According to a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, there are models of leptons such as the electron which possess both a net integrated electric charge and a much larger intrinsic charge of both polarities. From estimates based on such models, the corresponding Coulomb force due to the intrinsic charges then becomes two orders of magnitude larger than that due to the conventional net charge. This intrinsic charge force can also have the features of a short-range interaction. If these resul...

  10. What are intrinsic motivations? A biological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Baldassarre G.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "intrinsic motivation", initially proposed and developed within psychology, is gaining an increasing attention within cognitive sciences for its potential to produce open-ended learning machines and robots. However, a clear definition of the phenomenon is not yet available. This theoretical paper aims to clarify what intrinsic motivations are from a biological perspective. To this purpose, it first shows how intrinsic motivations can be defined contrasting them to extrinsic mot...

  11. Design of intrinsically safe power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-jin; JIN Lin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to make a high power direct current supply safely used in coal mine production,this paper made a deep research on characteristics of intrinsically safe power supply,using the mathematical model established according to coal mine intrinsic safety standards.It provides theory support for the application of high power intrinsically safe power supply.The released energy of output short circuit of switch power supply,and the close related factors that influence the biggest output short-circuit spark discharge energy are the theoretical basis of the power supply.It is shown how to make a high power intrinsically safe power supply using the calculated values in the mathematical model,and take values from intrinsically safe requirements parameters scope,then this theoretical calculation value can be developed as the ultimate basis for research of the power supply.It gets the identification method of intrinsically safe from mathematics model of intrinsically safe power supply characteristics study,which solves the problem of theory and application of designing different power intrinsically safe power supply,and designs a kind of high power intrinsically safe power supply through this method.

  12. Bootstrapping Intrinsically Motivated Learning with Human Demonstrations

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Sao Mai; Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the coupling of internally guided learning and social interaction, and more specifically the improvement owing to demonstrations of the learning by intrinsic motivation. We present Socially Guided Intrinsic Motivation by Demonstration (SGIM-D), an algorithm for learning in continuous, unbounded and non-preset environments. After introducing social learning and intrinsic motivation, we describe the design of our algorithm, before showing through a fishing experiment that SGIM-D efficiently combines the advantages of social learning and intrinsic motivation to gain a wide repertoire while being specialised in specific subspaces.

  13. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, P.; Plunk, G. G.; Zocco, A.; Helander, P.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale), leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014)].

  14. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  15. Protein intrinsic disorder in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencio ePazos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To some extent contradicting the classical paradigm of the relationship between protein 3D structure and function, now it is clear that large portions of the proteomes, especially in higher organisms, lack a fixed structure and still perform very important functions. Proteins completely or partially unstructured in their native (functional form are involved in key cellular processes underlain by complex networks of protein interactions. The intrinsic conformational flexibility of these disordered proteins allows them to bind multiple partners in transient interactions of high specificity and low affinity. In concordance, in plants this type of proteins has been found in processes requiring these complex and versatile interaction networks. These include transcription factor networks, where disordered proteins act as integrators of different signals or link different transcription factor subnetworks due to their ability to interact (in many cases simultaneously with different partners. Similarly, they also serve as signal integrators in signalling cascades, such as those related to response to external stimuli. Disordered proteins have also been found in plants in many stress-response processes, acting as protein chaperones or protecting other cellular components and structures. In plants, it is especially important to have complex and versatile networks able to quickly and efficiently respond to changing environmental conditions since these organisms can not escape and have no other choice than adapting to them. Consequently, protein disorder can play an especially important role in plants, providing them with a fast mechanism to obtain complex, interconnected and versatile molecular networks.

  16. Location, Location, Location! A Classroom Demonstration of the Hotelling Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa R. Anderson; Beth A. Freeborn; Jessica Holmes; Mark Jeffreys; Dan Lass; Jack Soper

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines a classroom experiment that complements the standard theoretical discussion of Hotelling's (1929) spatial competition model. The exercise provides students with a deeper understanding of the intuition behind competitive clustering, resolving the Bertrand paradox, and product positioning. Students act as street vendors operating within a “linear city.” Each student chooses a location, taking into account the locations of competitors and the transportation costs of customers...

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP)

  18. Expressing intrinsic volumes as rotational integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel

    2010-01-01

    A new rotational formula of Crofton type is derived for intrinsic volumes of a compact subset of positive reach. The formula provides a functional defined on the section of X with a j-dimensional linear subspace with rotational average equal to the intrinsic volumes of X. Simplified forms of the...... functional are derived in special cases....

  19. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  20. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. → Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. → AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCβ) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACCβ activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACCβ promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACCβ promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes ± a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACCβ gene promoter activity by 71 ± 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACCβ was abolished with a pPIIβ-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACCβ promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACCβ gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACCβ promoter activity by 58 ± 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 ± 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACCβ gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACCβ to the transcriptional level.

  1. Influence of nitrogen enrichment on size-fractionated in vitro carboxylase activities of phytoplankton from Thau Lagoon (Coastal Mediterranean Lagoon, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Fouilland, Eric; Descolas Gros, Chantal; Collos, Yves; Vaquer A, André; Souchu, Philippe; Gasc, Anne; Bibent, Bertrand; Pons, Virginie

    2002-01-01

    The influence of dissolved inorganic and organic nitrogen (DIN and DON) enrichments on pools of enzymes responsible for CO2 fixation by the Calvin-Benson (Rubisco) and beta-carboxylation pathways (beta-carboxylases) were studied in a natural plankton assemblage. The plankton community from a coastal Mediterranean lagoon were incubated in situ for 24 h with initially ammonium, nitrate and DON (taurine) enrichments and compared to a control without any enrichment. An increase of small picophyto...

  2. Measurement of Acylcarnitine Substrate to Product Ratios Specific to Biotin-Dependent Carboxylases Offers a Combination of Indicators of Biotin Status in Humans12

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusiewicz, Anna; Horvath, Thomas D; Stratton, Shawna L.; Mock, Donald M; Boysen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    This work describes a novel liquid chromatography tandem MS (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of ratios of acylcarnitines arising from acyl-CoA substrates and products that reflect metabolic disturbances caused by marginal biotin deficiency. The urinary ratios reflecting reduced activities of biotin-dependent enzymes include the following: 1) the ratio of 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine : 3-methylglutarylcarnitine (3HIAc : MGc) for methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase; 2) the ratio of propionylc...

  3. Location, Location, Location: Development of Spatiotemporal Sequence Learning in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Natasha Z.; Slemmer, Jonathan A.; Richardson, Daniel C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated infants' sensitivity to spatiotemporal structure. In Experiment 1, circles appeared in a statistically defined spatial pattern. At test 11-month-olds, but not 8-month-olds, looked longer at a novel spatial sequence. Experiment 2 presented different color/shape stimuli, but only the location sequence was violated during test;…

  4. Intrinsic and resonance space charge limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzen, G.

    1989-01-01

    The space charge limit in circular proton accelerators has been studied using a simulation program described below. Results from the simulation study indicate a different model for the space charge limit than the often presented models which emphasize resonances due to magnetic field errors. This simulation study suggests that the intrinsic space charge limit plays an important role. The intrinsic space charge limit is the space charge limit, in the absence of magnetic field errors, and is due to the forces generated by the beam itself. In studies of three operating accelerators, which include the AGS, the PS Booster and the Fermilab booster, it was found that the computed intrinsic space charge limit was fairly close to the experimentally observed space charge limit. This result plus studies of the effects of resonances due to magnetic field errors suggest that the intrinsic space charge limit provides an upper bound for the space charge limit which is not far from what is actually achieved by operating accelerators. The resonances present due to magnetic field errors, if strong enough, can prevent the accelerator from achieving the intrinsic space charge limit. However, the effects of these resonances were found to be appreciable only when the beam intensity gets close to the intrinsic space charge limit. Well below the intrinsic space charge limit, there is little beam growth due to magnetic field error driven resonances, and the space charge forces tend to stabilize these resonances. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Intrinsic and resonance space charge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space charge limit in circular proton accelerators has been studied using a simulation program described below. Results from the simulation study indicate a different model for the space charge limit than the often presented models which emphasize resonances due to magnetic field errors. This simulation study suggests that the intrinsic space charge limit plays an important role. The intrinsic space charge limit is the space charge limit, in the absence of magnetic field errors, and is due to the forces generated by the beam itself. In studies of three operating accelerators, which include the AGS, the PS Booster and the Fermilab booster, it was found that the computed intrinsic space charge limit was fairly close to the experimentally observed space charge limit. This result plus studies of the effects of resonances due to magnetic field errors suggest that the intrinsic space charge limit provides an upper bound for the space charge limit which is not far from what is actually achieved by operating accelerators. The resonances present due to magnetic field errors, if strong enough, can prevent the accelerator from achieving the intrinsic space charge limit. However, the effects of these resonances were found to be appreciable only when the beam intensity gets close to the intrinsic space charge limit. Well below the intrinsic space charge limit, there is little beam growth due to magnetic field error driven resonances, and the space charge forces tend to stabilize these resonances. 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition by ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, and modulates dyslipidemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Geraldine; Greenwood, Jeremy; Bhat, Sathesh; Huang, Xinyi; Wang, Ruiying; Paul, Debamita; Tong, Liang; Saha, Asish K; Westlin, William F; Kapeller, Rosana; Harwood, H James

    2016-03-29

    Simultaneous inhibition of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) isozymes ACC1 and ACC2 results in concomitant inhibition of fatty acid synthesis and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and may favorably affect the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, diabetes, and fatty liver disease. Using structure-based drug design, we have identified a series of potent allosteric protein-protein interaction inhibitors, exemplified by ND-630, that interact within the ACC phosphopeptide acceptor and dimerization site to prevent dimerization and inhibit the enzymatic activity of both ACC isozymes, reduce fatty acid synthesis and stimulate fatty acid oxidation in cultured cells and in animals, and exhibit favorable drug-like properties. When administered chronically to rats with diet-induced obesity, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves insulin sensitivity, reduces weight gain without affecting food intake, and favorably affects dyslipidemia. When administered chronically to Zucker diabetic fatty rats, ND-630 reduces hepatic steatosis, improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and reduces hemoglobin A1c (0.9% reduction). Together, these data suggest that ACC inhibition by representatives of this series may be useful in treating a variety of metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and fatty liver disease. PMID:26976583

  7. INFLUENCE OF NACL SALINITY ON THE ACTIVITY OF RIBULOSE 1, 5-BISPHOSPHATE CARBOXYLASE IN THREE LEAFY VEGETABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Ratnakar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the major factors which have an adverse effect on crop growth. Stress caused due to excessive accumulation of salts results in various physiological and biochemical changes in plants. Due to their nutritional value, leafy vegetables constitute an important part of our daily diet. In the present investigation, effect of NaCl salinity on the activity of ribulose 1,5–bisphosphate carboxylase in three leafy vegetables was studied. Seeds of leafy vegetables were sown in earthen pots and were subjected to different levels of saline water (NaCl treatment. Control plants were irrigated with tap water. Treatments started after the seedling emergence and continued till the plants were 45 day old. Mature leaves of these plants were harvested and used for the studies. The activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate in all the three leafy vegetables was observed to decrease gradually with increase in the concentration of NaCl in the growth medium.

  8. The source and characteristics of chemiluminescence associated with the oxygenase reaction catalyzed by Mn(2+)-ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, R M; Riesen, H; Andrews, T J

    1993-07-01

    We confirm the observation of Mogel and McFadden (Mogel, S.N., and McFadden, B. A. (1990) Biochemistry 29, 8333-8337) that ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) exhibits chemiluminescence while catalyzing its oxygenase reaction in the presence of Mn2+. However, our results with the spinach and Rhodospirillum rubrum enzymes differ markedly in the following respects. 1) Chemiluminescence intensity was directly proportional to enzyme concentration and behaved as if representing the rate of oxygenase catalysis. 2) The wavelength spectrum peaked at about 770 nm and extended beyond 810 nm. This seems inconsistent with chemiluminescence generated by simultaneous decay of pairs of singlet O2 molecules. It is consistent with manganese(II) luminescence and we discuss its possible sources. The time course of chemiluminescence (resolution, 0.25 s) was distinctively different for spinach and R. rubrum enzymes during the initial 5 s of catalysis, with the bacterial enzyme exhibiting a pronounced initial "burst." Chemiluminescence by the spinach enzyme responded to substrate concentrations in a manner consistent with known oxygenase properties, exhibiting Michaelis-Menten kinetics with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (Km 400 nM). Chemiluminescence required carbamylated enzyme with Mn2+ bound at the active site (activation energy, -57.1 KJ.mol-1). As an indicator of oxygenase activity, chemiluminescence represents an improvement over oxygen electrode measurements in response time and sensitivity by factors of at least 100. PMID:8314755

  9. Promotive Effect of Low Concentrations of NaHSO3 on Photophosphorylation and Photosynthesis in Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Transgenic Rice Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben-Hua JI; Hong-He TAN; Rong ZHOU; De-Mao JIAO; Yun-Gang SHEN

    2005-01-01

    Spraying a 1-2 mmol/L solution of NaHSO3 on the leaves of wild-type rice (Oryza sativa L.)Kitaake (WT), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) transgenic (PC) rice and PEPC+phosphate dikinase (PPDK) transgenic rice (PC+PK), in which the germplasm was transformed with wild-type Kitaake as the gene receptor, resulted in an enhancement of the net photosynthetic rate by 23.0%, 28.8%, and 34.4%,respectively, for more than 3 d. It was also observed that NaHSO3 application caused an increase in the ATP content in leaves. Spraying PMS (a cofactor catalysing the photophosphorylation cycle) and NaHSO3 separately or together on leaves resulted in an increase in photosynthesis with all treatments. There was no additional effect on photosynthetic rate when the mixture was applied, suggesting that the mechanism by which NaHSO3 promotes photosynthesis is similar to the mechanism by which PMS acts and that both of compounds enhanced the supply of ATP. After spraying a solution of NaHSO3 on leaves, compared with the WT Kitaake rice, a greater enhancement of net photosynthetic rate was observed in PEPC transgenic (PC) and PEPC+PPDK transgenic (PC+PK) rice, with the greatest increase being observed in the latter group. Therefore ATP supply may become the limiting factor that concentrates CO2 in rice leaves transformed with an exogenous PEPC gene and exogenous PEPC+PPDK genes.

  10. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Quattrocchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS and GS extension (GSE is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  11. Intrinsic stress analysis of sputtered carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqin Liu; Zhanshan Wang; Jingtao Zhu; Zhong Zhang; Moyan Tan; Qiushi Huang; Rui Chen; Jing Xu; Lingyan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic stresses of carbon films deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering were investigated.The bombardments of energetic particles during the growth of films were considered to be the main reason for compressive intrinsic stresses.The values of intrinsic stresses were determined by measuring the radius of curvature of substrates before and after film deposition.By varying argon pressure and target-substrate distance,energies of neutral carbon atoms impinging on the growing films were optimized to control the intrinsic stresses level.The stress evolution in carbon films as a function of film thickness was investigated and a void-related stress relief mechanism was proposed to interpret this evolution.

  12. Intrinsic Thickness of QCD Flux-Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Vyas, Vikram

    2010-01-01

    The effects of finite intrinsic thickness of QCD flux-tubes are explored using gauge/gravity duality under the assumptions that the position of the string in the fifth dimension is related to the intrinsic thickness of the QCD flux-tube, and the action of the five-dimensional fundamental string is the Nambu-Goto action. Under these assumptions the static quark-antiquark potential is calculated in the large d approximation, where d is the number of transverse direction in the flat space where the gauge theory lives. The potential is found to be given by Arvis's formula corrected by an exponentially suppressed term, which can be thought of as arising from the fluctuations of the intrinsic thickness of the QCD flux-tube. This result suggests that when the effects of intrinsic thickness can be ignored, then the four-dimensional effective string theory is just the Nambu-Goto string with no additional marginal or irrelevant terms.

  13. Intrinsic Galaxy Alignments and Weak Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Heavens, A F

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational lensing causes background galaxy images to become aligned, and the statistical characteristics of the image alignments can then be used to constrain the power spectrum of mass fluctuations. Analyses of gravitational lensing assume that intrinsic galaxy alignments are negligible, but if this assumption does not hold, then the interpretation of image alignments will be in error. As gravitational lensing experiments become more ambitious and seek very low-level alignments arising from lensing by large-scale structure, it becomes more important to estimate the level of intrinsic alignment in the galaxy population. In this article, I review the cluster of independent theoretical studies of this issue, as well as the current observational status. Theoretically, the calculation of intrinsic alignments is by no means straightforward, but some consensus has emerged from the existing works, despite each making very different assumptions. This consensus is that a) intrinsic alignments are a small but non-n...

  14. Intrinsic Redshifts in QSOs Near NGC 6212

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, M B

    2003-01-01

    The high number of QSOs around NGC 6212 allows a correlation analysis to be carried out between their redshift distribution and the redshift distributions predicted by intrinsic redshift models. We find no correlation between the QSO redshift distribution and the intrinsic redshifts predicted by Karlsson's log(1+z) = 0.089 relation. However, we find that the QSO redshift distribution is correlated with the intrinsic redshifts predicted by the relation z_{iQ} = 0.62[N-0.1M_{N}], for N = 3. We also find evidence that the observed redshifts of the QSOs contain a small cosmological redshift component similar to that of NGC 6212. The same correlation analysis carried out on the distribution of 574 quasar redshifts discussed by Karlsson also gave a negative result for the log(1+z)= 0.089 relation, and a positive result for the z_{iQ} intrinsic redshifts.

  15. Intrinsic Charges and the Strong Forc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available According to a revised quantum electrodynamic theory, there are models of leptons such as the electron which possess both a net integrated electric charge and a much larger intrinsic charge of both polarities. From estimates based on such models, the corresponding Coulomb force due to the intrinsic charges then becomes two orders of magnitude larger than that due to the conventional net charge. This intrinsic charge force can also have the features of a short-range interaction. If these results would generally hold true, the intrinsic charge force could either interact with a strong force of different origin and character, or could possibly become identical with the strong force.

  16. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.)

  17. Intrinsic endometriosis of ureter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endometriosis is a rare cause of an ureteral obstruction. We report a case of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis resulting in severe hydroureteronephrosis. The diagnosis of ureteral endometriosis may be considered in women with flank pain and ureteric obstruction within true pelvis

  18. Intrinsic mean-square displacements in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-07-01

    The thermal mean-square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width, and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), ribonuclease A, and staphysloccal nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  19. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Vural, Derya

    2012-01-01

    The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite time value of that appears in the Debye-Waller factor. The method consists of fitting a model to the resolution broadened elastic incoherent structure factor or to the resolution dependent MSD. The model contains the intrinsic MSD, the instrument resolution width and a rate constant characterizing the motions of H in the protein. The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of heparan sulphate (HS-0.4), Ribonuclease A and Staphysloccal Nuclase (SNase) from data in the literature.

  20. RUSSIAN STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sharovatova, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article is aimed at analysing Russian teachers’ experience in developing students’ intrinsic motivation. The author’s own reflections and findings based on motivation theory and practice are also given.

  1. Stochastic Intrinsic Kriging for Simulation Metamodelling

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdad, Ehsan; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Kriging provides metamodels for deterministic and random simulation models. Actually, there are several types of Kriging; the classic type is so-called universal Kriging, which includes ordinary Kriging. These classic types require estimation of the trend in the input-output data of the underlying simulation model; this estimation deteriorates the Kriging metamodel. We therefore consider so-called intrinsic Kriging originating in geostatistics, and derive intrinsic Kriging for deterministic a...

  2. Stochastic Intrinsic Kriging for Simulation Metamodelling

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdad, E.; Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Kriging provides metamodels for deterministic and random simulation models. Actually, there are several types of Kriging; the classic type is so-called universal Kriging, which includes ordinary Kriging. These classic types require estimation of the trend in the input-output data of the underlying simulation model; this estimation deteriorates the Kriging metamodel. We therefore consider so-called intrinsic Kriging originating in geostatistics, and derive intrinsic Kriging for deterministic a...

  3. Regularized Maximum Likelihood for Intrinsic Dimension Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Mithun Das

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new method for estimating the intrinsic dimension of a dataset by applying the principle of regularized maximum likelihood to the distances between close neighbors. We propose a regularization scheme which is motivated by divergence minimization principles. We derive the estimator by a Poisson process approximation, argue about its convergence properties and apply it to a number of simulated and real datasets. We also show it has the best overall performance compared with two other intrinsic dimension estimators.

  4. Rotational Crofton formulae for flagged intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    integration is over all sections containing the fixed point origo. Our main result is a local stereological analogue to the well-known Crofton formula. More precisely, we derive geometric formulae that relate new flagged intrinsic volumes of a set with the flagged intrinsic volumes of its sections, . The...... development of a potential local stereological analogue of the famous principal kinematic formula is also discussed....

  5. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares, Jorge; Bernardini, Alejandra; Garcia-Leon, Guillermo; Corona, Fernando; B. Sanchez, Maria; Martinez, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that...

  6. Reconciling economics and psychology on intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes how the debate on intrinsic motivation was imported from psychology into economics. The most important differences between the two disciplines are in the definition of intrinsic motivation and in the timing of the undermining effect of rewards. The economic framework of inter-temporal choices is proposed to reconcile the different empirical and theoretical results arising in the literature, and it is shown how rewards induce substitution and income effects depending on whet...

  7. Intrinsic Motivation Systems for Autonomous Mental Development

    OpenAIRE

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Kaplan, Frederic; Hafner, Verena

    2007-01-01

    Exploratory activities seem to be intrinsically rewarding for children and crucial for their cognitive development. Can a machine be endowed with such an intrinsic motivation system? This is the question we study in this paper, presenting a number of computational systems that try to capture this drive towards novel or curious situations. After discussing related research coming from developmental psychology, neuroscience, developmental robotics, and active learning, this paper prese...

  8. The intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoseLMartinez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsically resistant bacteria have emerged as a relevant health problem in the last years. Those bacterial species, several of them with an environmental origin, present naturally a low-level susceptibility to several drugs. It has been proposed that intrinsic resistance is mainly the consequence of the impermeability of cellular envelopes, the activity of multidrug efflux pumps or the lack of appropriate targets for a given family of drugs. However, recently published articles indicate that the characteristic phenotype of susceptibility to antibiotics of a given bacterial species depends on the concerted activity of several elements, what has been named as intrinsic resistome. These determinants comprise not just classical resistance genes. Other elements, several of them involved in basic bacterial metabolic processes, are of relevance for the intrinsic resistance of bacterial pathogens. In the present review we analyse recent publications on the intrinsic resistomes of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present as well information on the role that global regulators of bacterial metabolism, as Crc from P. aeruginosa, may have on modulating bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. Finally, we discuss the possibility of searching inhibitors of the intrinsic resistome in the aim of improving the activity of drugs currently in use for clinical practice.

  9. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  10. Cable-fault locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, R. L.; Mcstay, J. J.; Heymann, A. P., Sr.

    1979-01-01

    Inexpensive system automatically indicates location of short-circuited section of power cable. Monitor does not require that cable be disconnected from its power source or that test signals be applied. Instead, ground-current sensors are installed in manholes or at other selected locations along cable run. When fault occurs, sensors transmit information about fault location to control center. Repair crew can be sent to location and cable can be returned to service with minimum of downtime.

  11. Location, Location, Location: Where Do Location-Based Services Fit into Your Institution's Social Media Mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekritz, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Foursquare is a location-based social networking service that allows users to share their location with friends. Some college administrators have been thinking about whether and how to take the leap into location-based services, which are also known as geosocial networking services. These platforms, which often incorporate gaming elements like…

  12. Intrinsic Spin and Orbital-Angular-Momentum Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhang; Yang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A generalized definition of intrinsic and extrinsic transport coefficients is introduced. We show that transport coefficients from the intrinsic origin are solely determined by local electronic structure, and thus the intrinsic spin Hall effect is not a transport phenomenon. The intrinsic spin Hall current is always accompanied by an equal but opposite intrinsic orbital-angular-momentum Hall current. We prove that the intrinsic spin Hall effect does not induce a spin accumulation at the edge ...

  13. Smartphones as locative media

    CERN Document Server

    Frith, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Smartphone adoption has surpassed 50% of the population in more than 15 countries, and there are now more than one million mobile applications people can download to their phones. Many of these applications take advantage of smartphones as locative media, which is what allows smartphones to be located in physical space. Applications that take advantage of people's location are called location-based services, and they are the focus of this book. Smartphones as locative media raise important questions about how we understand the complicated relationship between the Internet and physical space

  14. Noise Source Location Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed O’Keefe

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a method to determine locations of noise sources that minimize modal coupling in complex acoustic volumes. Using the acoustic source scattering capabilities of the boundary element method, predictions are made of mode shape and pressure levels due to various source locations. Combining knowledge of the pressure field with a multivariable function minimization technique, the source location generating minimum pressure levels can be determined. The analysis also allows for an objective comparison of “best/worst” locations. The technique was implemented on a personal computer for the U.S. Space Station, predicting 5–10 dB noise reduction using optimum source locations.

  15. Osteoblast-Specific γ-Glutamyl Carboxylase-Deficient Mice Display Enhanced Bone Formation With Aberrant Mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kotaro; Shiba, Sachiko; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Urano, Tomohiko; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi; Amizuka, Norio; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-07-01

    Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that is necessary for blood coagulation. In addition, it has bone-protective effects. Vitamin K functions as a cofactor of γ-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), which activates its substrates by carboxylation. These substrates are found throughout the body and examples include hepatic blood coagulation factors. Furthermore, vitamin K functions as a ligand of the nuclear receptor known as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) and its murine ortholog, pregnane X receptor (PXR). We have previously reported on the bone-protective role of SXR/PXR signaling by demonstrating that systemic Pxr-knockout mice displayed osteopenia. Because systemic Ggcx-knockout mice die shortly after birth from severe hemorrhage, the GGCX-mediated effect of vitamin K on bone metabolism has been difficult to evaluate. In this work, we utilized Ggcx-floxed mice to generate osteoblast-specific GGCX-deficient (Ggcx(Δobl/Δobl)) mice by crossing them with Col1-Cre mice. The bone mineral density (BMD) of Ggcx(Δobl/Δobl) mice was significantly higher than that of control Col1-Cre (Ggcx(+/+)) mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of trabecular bones in the proximal tibia showed increased osteoid volume and a higher rate of bone formation in Ggcx(Δobl/Δobl) mice. Histomorphometrical analysis of cortical bones revealed a thicker cortical width and a higher rate of bone formation in Ggcx(Δobl/Δobl) mice. Electron microscopic examination revealed disassembly of mineralized nodules and aberrant calcification of collagen fibers in Ggcx(Δobl/Δobl) mice. The mechanical properties of bones from Ggcx(Δobl/Δobl) mice tended to be stronger than those from control Ggcx(+/+) mice. These results suggest that GGCX in osteoblasts functions to prevent abnormal mineralization in bone formation, although this function may not be a prerequisite for the bone-protective effect of vitamin K. PMID:25600070

  16. Insights into the carboxyltransferase reaction of pyruvate carboxylase from the structures of bound product and intermediate analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzan, Adam D; St Maurice, Martin

    2013-11-15

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the MgATP- and bicarbonate-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, an important anaplerotic reaction in central metabolism. The carboxyltransferase (CT) domain of PC catalyzes the transfer of a carboxyl group from carboxybiotin to the accepting substrate, pyruvate. It has been hypothesized that the reactive enolpyruvate intermediate is stabilized through a bidentate interaction with the metal ion in the CT domain active site. Whereas bidentate ligands are commonly observed in enzymes catalyzing reactions proceeding through an enolpyruvate intermediate, no bidentate interaction has yet been observed in the CT domain of PC. Here, we report three X-ray crystal structures of the Rhizobium etli PC CT domain with the bound inhibitors oxalate, 3-hydroxypyruvate, and 3-bromopyruvate. Oxalate, a stereoelectronic mimic of the enolpyruvate intermediate, does not interact directly with the metal ion. Instead, oxalate is buried in a pocket formed by several positively charged amino acid residues and the metal ion. Furthermore, both 3-hydroxypyruvate and 3-bromopyruvate, analogs of the reaction product oxaloacetate, bind in an identical manner to oxalate suggesting that the substrate maintains its orientation in the active site throughout catalysis. Together, these structures indicate that the substrates, products and intermediates in the PC-catalyzed reaction are not oriented in the active site as previously assumed. The absence of a bidentate interaction with the active site metal appears to be a unique mechanistic feature among the small group of biotin-dependent enzymes that act on α-keto acid substrates. PMID:24157795

  17. Decline of activity and quantity of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and net photosynthesis in ozone-treated potato foliage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dann, M.S.; Pell, E.J. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The effect of ozone (O{sub 3}) on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity and quantity and net photosynthesis in greenhouse-grown Solanum tuberosum L. cv Norland foliage was studied in relation to oxidant-induced premature senescence. Plants, 26 days old, were exposed to 0.06 to 0.08 microliters per liter O{sub 3} from 1,000 to 1,600 hours for 4 days in a controlled environment chamber. On day 5, plants were exposed to a 6-hour simulated inversion in which O{sub 3} peaked at 0.12 microliters per liter. Net photosynthesis declined in response to O{sub 3} but recovered to near control levels 3 days after the exposure ended. Rubisco activity and quantity in control potato foliage increased and then decreased during the 12-day interval of the study. In some experiments foliage studied was physiologically mature and Rubisco activity had peaked when O{sub 3} exposure commenced. In those cases, O{sub 3} accelerated the decline in Rubisco activity. When less mature foliage was treated with O{sub 3}, the leaves never achieved the maximal level of Rubisco activity observed in control foliage and also exhibited more rapid decline in initial and total activity. Percent activation of Rubisco (initial/total activity) was not affected significantly by treatment. Quantity of Rubisco decreased in concert with activity. The reduction in the quantity of Rubisco, an important foliage storage protein, could contribute to premature senescence associated with toxicity of this air pollutant.

  18. Metabolic regulation of invadopodia and invasion by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and de novo lipogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen E N Scott

    Full Text Available Invadopodia are membrane protrusions that facilitate matrix degradation and cellular invasion. Although lipids have been implicated in several aspects of invadopodia formation, the contributions of de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis have not been defined. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, the committed step of fatty acid synthesis, reduced invadopodia formation in Src-transformed 3T3 (3T3-Src cells, and also decreased the ability to degrade gelatin. Inhibition of fatty acid synthesis through AMP-activated kinase (AMPK activation and ACC phosphorylation also decreased invadopodia incidence. The addition of exogenous 16∶0 and 18∶1 fatty acid, products of de novo fatty acid synthesis, restored invadopodia and gelatin degradation to cells with decreased ACC1 activity. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC also altered the phospholipid profile of 3T3-Src cells, with the majority of changes occurring in the phosphatidylcholine (PC species. Exogenous supplementation with the most abundant PC species, 34∶1 PC, restored invadopodia incidence, the ability to degrade gelatin and the ability to invade through matrigel to cells deficient in ACC1 activity. On the other hand, 30∶0 PC did not restore invadopodia and 36∶2 PC only restored invadopodia incidence and gelatin degradation, but not cellular invasion through matrigel. Pharmacological inhibition of ACC also reduced the ability of MDA-MB-231 breast, Snb19 glioblastoma, and PC-3 prostate cancer cells to invade through matrigel. Invasion of PC-3 cells through matrigel was also restored by 34∶1 PC supplementation. Collectively, the data elucidate the novel metabolic regulation of invadopodia and the invasive process by de novo fatty acid synthesis and lipogenesis.

  19. Secure Location Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Georg T.; Lo, Sherman C.; De Lorenzo, David S.; Enge, Per K.; Paar, Christof

    2010-01-01

    The use of location based services has increased significantly over the last few years. However, location information is only sparsely used as a security mechanism. One of the reasons for this is the lack of location verification techniques with global coverage. Recently, a new method for authenticating signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) such as GPS or Galileo has been proposed. In this paper, we analyze the security of this signal authentication mechanism and show how it ...

  20. Generic Network Location Service

    OpenAIRE

    Laban Mwansa; Jan Janeček

    2010-01-01

    This work presents the Generic Network Location Service based on the Chord implementation utilizing data structures called distributed hash tables (DHT) or structured overlay networks, which are used to build scalable self-managing distributed systems. The provided algorithms guarantee resilience in the presence of dynamism: they guarantee consistent lookup results in the presence of nodes failing and leaving. Generic Network Location Service provides a Location Service system based on DHT te...

  1. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  2. The intrinsic depth of horizontal convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Wei; Wu, Dexing

    2010-05-01

    The mainstream depth of a return flow can be viewed as an intrinsic depth of horizontal convection. By using a theoretical tube model combined with the application of the Maximum Entropy Production Principle (MaxEPP) in thermodynamics, the following statements can be made. Under fixed external forcing, the system chooses a particular depth as the mainstream depth of its return flow, the depth of which not only satisfies the maximum circulation rate and the maximum heat transport, but also satisfies the maximum entropy production rate. A comparison between this intrinsic depth and the container height leads to the definition of a relative partial and full-penetration pattern of the circulation. Moreover, this intrinsic depth is found to vary with the external forcing; the regulation of this variation is related to the Modified Rayleigh number.

  3. Flavor Structure of Intrinsic Nucleon Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of intrinsic charm suggested by Brodsky et al. is extended to lighter quarks. Extraction of the intrinsic ū, d-macron, and s-macron seas is obtained from an analysis of the d-macron − ū, s + s-macron, and ū + d-macron − s −s-macron distributions. The connection between the intrinsic/extrinsic seas and the connected/disconnected seas in lattice QCD is also examined. It is shown that the connected and disconnected components for the ū(x) + d-macron(x) sea can be separated. The striking x-dependence of the [s(x) + s-macron(x)]/[ū(x) + d-macron(x)] ratio is interpreted as an interplay between the connected and disconnected seas. (author)

  4. Smart Location Database - Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census...

  5. Dis-locative arts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2013-01-01

    Questions about what it means to locate and be located are being significantly reconfigured through the digitalization of urban life and space, and as computer processing becomes embedded or ‘pervasive’ in urban environments. With position becoming increasingly automatically monitored and tracked...... on efforts by artists working within the realm of locative media to appropriate, reframe and repurpose GPS so as to question aspects of positioning technologies as well as their targeting of locations and their subjects. Attention centres on how these practices are embedded within a context of urban...

  6. Reversible micromachining locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, L.J.; Foreman, L.R.

    1999-08-31

    This invention provides a device which includes a locator, a kinematic mount positioned on a conventional tooling machine, a part carrier disposed on the locator and a retainer ring. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls, placed in an equidistant position circumferentially around the locator. The kinematic mount includes a plurality of magnets which are in registry with the steel balls on the locator. In operation, a blank part to be machined is placed between a surface of a locator and the retainer ring (fitting within the part carrier). When the locator (with a blank part to be machined) is coupled to the kinematic mount, the part is thus exposed for the desired machining process. Because the locator is removably attachable to the kinematic mount, it can easily be removed from the mount, reversed, and reinserted onto the mount for additional machining. Further, the locator can likewise be removed from the mount and placed onto another tooling machine having a properly aligned kinematic mount. Because of the unique design and use of magnetic forces of the present invention, positioning errors of less than 0.25 micrometer for each machining process can be achieved. 7 figs.

  7. Smart Location Database - Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Smart Location Database (SLD) summarizes over 80 demographic, built environment, transit service, and destination accessibility attributes for every census...

  8. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  9. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  10. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.

    1988-08-01

    Use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process. The fact that this function has to be estimated from data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the bootstrap in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as their kriging variance, provide a reasonable picture of variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  11. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  12. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H. [Hatter Cardiovascular Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory 7925 (South Africa); Essop, M. Faadiel, E-mail: mfessop@sun.ac.za [Cardio-Metabolic Research Group (CMRG), Department of Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600 (South Africa)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  13. Abundance and distribution of archaeal acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase genes indicative for putatively chemoautotrophic Archaea in the tropical Atlantic's interior

    OpenAIRE

    Bergauer, Kristin; Sintes, Eva; van Bleijswijk, Judith; Witte, Harry; Herndl, Gerhard J.; Lueders, Tillmann

    2013-01-01

    Recently, evidence suggests that dark CO2 fixation in the pelagic realm of the ocean does not only occur in the suboxic and anoxic water bodies but also in the oxygenated meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic. To elucidate the significance and phylogeny of the key organisms mediating dark CO2 fixation in the tropical Atlantic, we quantified functional genes indicative for CO2 fixation. We used a Q-PCR-based assay targeting the bifunctional acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase (a...

  14. Protein phosphatases active on acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein phosphatases in rat liver cytosol, active on rat liver acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) phosphorylated by casein kinase I, casein kinase II and the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, have been partially purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The major phosphatase activities against all three substrates copurify through fractionation and appear to be identical to protein phosphatases 2A1 and 2A2. No unique protein phosphatase active on 32P-ACC phosphorylated by the casein kinases was identified

  15. Reversible micromachining locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Leander J.; Foreman, Larry R.

    2002-01-01

    A locator with a part support is used to hold a part onto the kinematic mount of a tooling machine so that the part can be held in or replaced in exactly the same position relative to the cutting tool for machining different surfaces of the part or for performing different machining operations on the same or different surfaces of the part. The locator has disposed therein a plurality of steel balls placed at equidistant positions around the planar surface of the locator and the kinematic mount has a plurality of magnets which alternate with grooves which accommodate the portions of the steel balls projecting from the locator. The part support holds the part to be machined securely in place in the locator. The locator can be easily detached from the kinematic mount, turned over, and replaced onto the same kinematic mount or another kinematic mount on another tooling machine without removing the part to be machined from the locator so that there is no need to touch or reposition the part within the locator, thereby assuring exact replication of the position of the part in relation to the cutting tool on the tooling machine for each machining operation on the part.

  16. Lost in Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    illustrate an alternative location-performative paradigm: Meredith Warner's Lost/Found knitting series and Etter and Schecht's Melodious Walkabout. In both examples, the artist's hand becomes the intermediary between alien and location. Thus, by exploring how wayfinding can be a poetically situated...

  17. Revitalizing Faculty Work through Intrinsic Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froh, Robert C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A faculty survey suggests that college climate can help maximize faculty effectiveness. Institutions are making use of the intrinsic rewards of academic work to improve its quality, by helping faculty reach new levels of understanding and mutual learning with students, accomplish greater mastery of content, and find successful new teaching…

  18. An Intrinsic Approach to Lichnerowicz Conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhil Ranjan

    2000-02-01

    In this paper we give a proof of Lichnerowicz conjecture for compact simply connected manifolds which is intrinsic in the sense that it avoids the nice embeddings into eigenspaces of the Laplacian. Even if one wants to use these embeddings, this paper gives a more streamlined proof. As a byproduct, we get a simple criterion for a polynomial to be a Jacobi polynomial.

  19. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  20. Intrinsic Josephson effects on superconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Chana, O S

    2002-01-01

    Films of the high-T sub c superconductor Tl sub 2 Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 with the crystal c-axis misaligned from the substrate normal have been used to make intrinsic Josephson junctions. The copper-oxide layers in the cuprate superconductor are weakly coupled in the c-direction. This weak interplanar coupling is analogous to superconductor- insulator-superconductor stacks parallel to the c-direction in the film and this maps out to a series array of intrinsic Josephson junctions. A novel device geometry has been used to exploit this and series arrays of intrinsic Josephson junctions have been fabricated. The junctions are optimised in quality and have a high and critical-current- independent value for the product of the critical current and normal state resistance. The temperature dependence of the critical current fits the Ambegaokar-Baratoff theory for SIS tunnelling. X-band emission at around 12 GHz has been detected from the intrinsic Josephson bridge at 103 K. This confirms that the junctions are s...

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Intrinsic Josephson junctions: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgens, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Some recent developments in the fabrication of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) and their application for studying high-temperature superconductors are discussed. The major advantages of IJJ and unsolved problems are outlined. The feasibility of three-terminal devices based on the stacked IJJ is briefly evaluated.

  2. Electric Field Effect in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, T.

    The electric field effect in intrinsic Josephson junction stacks (IJJ's) is investigated on the basis of the capacitively-coupled IJJ model. We clarify the current-voltage characteristics of the IJJ's in the presence of an external electric field. It is predicted that the IJJ's show a dynamical transition to the voltage state as the external electric field is increased.

  3. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  4. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  6. Allegheny County Dam Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the point locations of dams in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  7. Healthcare Facility Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MAP:http://tinyurl.com/HealthcareFacilityLocationsMap The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), Center for Health Care Quality, Licensing and Certification...

  8. Global Volcano Locations Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a database of over 1,500 volcano locations obtained from the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Volcanoes of the World publication....

  9. Uranium Location Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata...

  10. Eldercare Locator Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Eldercare Locator is a searchable database that allows a user to search via zip code or city/ state for agencies at the State and local levels that provide...

  11. Location and logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Alumura, Sibel A.; Karab, Bahar Y.; Melo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions play a critical role in designing logistics networks. This article provides some guidelines on how location decisions and logistics functions can be integrated into a single mathematical model to optimize the configuration of a logistics network. This will be illustrated by two generic models, one supporting the design of a forward logistics network and the other addressing the specific requirements of a reverse logistics network. Several special cases and extensio...

  12. Advances in indoor Location

    OpenAIRE

    Barceló, F.; Evennou, F.; De Nardis, L.; Tomé, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the research activities carried out within the scope of the Liaison project. Most of the work has been performed on WiFi location. WiFi is nowadays widely deployed in buildings such as hotels, hospitals, airports, train stations, public buildings, etc. Using this infrastructure to locate terminals connected to the wireless LAN is expected to have a low cost. Methods presented in this paper include fingerprinting and tracking through particle filter constrained on a Voronoi...

  13. Mild water stress effects on carbon-reduction-cycle intermediates, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity, and spatial homogeneity of photosynthesis in intact leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the effect of mild water stress on photosynthetic chloroplast reactions of intact Phaseolus vulgaris leaves by measuring two parameters of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase activity and the pool sizes of RuBP, 3-phosphoglycerate (PGA), triose phosphates, hexose monophosphates, and ATP. We also tested for patchy stomatal closure by feeding 14CO2. The kcat of RuBP carboxylase (moles CO2 fixed per mole enzyme per second) which could be measured after incubating the enzyme with CO2 and Mg2+ was unchanged by water stress. The ratio of activity before and after incubation with CO2 and Mg2+ (the carbamylation state) was slightly reduced by severe stress but not by mild stress. Likewise, the concentration of RuBP was slightly reduced by severe stress but not by mild stress. The concentration of PGA was markedly reduced by both mild and severe water stress. The concentration of triose phosphates did not decline as much as PGA. We found that photosynthesis in water stressed leaves occurred in patches. The patchiness of photosynthesis during water stress may lead to an underestimation of the effect of stomatal closure. We conclude that reductions in whole leaf photosynthesis caused by mild water stress are primarily the result of stomatal closure and that there is no indication of damage to chloroplast reactions

  14. Influence of the nitrate concentration and source in the incorporation of 14CO2 by the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat (triticum aestivum) and maize (zea mays)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the concentration and source of nitrogen in the culture media has been studied regarding its influence in the activity of the RuBP-carboxylase from wheat and maize during the first month of development. Wheat and maize has been chosen as plants representatives of two different types of CO2 assimilation: C3 and M- respectively. Plants have been grown in hydroponic media and under temperature, humidity and nutrient salts control. A negative effect of NH4 has been observed in the enzymatic activity of wheat seedlings, being this effect more remarkable as NH4 concentration increases and as long the time of treatment. In our experimental conditions the most favorable source of nitrogen has been N03NH4. The specific activity of the enzyme from wheat is about four times higher than in maize, even it decreases with time. This decreasing has not been observed in maize, with the exception of total absence of nitrogen in the media. We have not seen significant differences between the two photo periods which have been tested. Also, no differences have been found in the enzyme activities at the different NO3NH4 concentrations assayed, and it seems that RuBP-carboxylase metabolism is only affected in the case of absolute stress. (Author) 20 refs

  15. The transcriptional repressor domain of Gli3 is intrinsically disordered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tsanev

    Full Text Available The transcription factor Gli3 is acting mainly as a transcriptional repressor in the Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway. Gli3 contains a repressor domain in its N-terminus from residue G106 to E236. In this study we have characterized the intracellular structure of the Gli3 repressor domain using a combined bioinformatics and experimental approach. According to our findings the Gli3 repressor domain while being intrinsically disordered contains predicted anchor sites for partner interactions. The obvious interaction partners to test were Ski and DNA; however, with both of these the structure of Gli3 repressor domain remained disordered. To locate residues important for the repressor function we mutated several residues within the Gli3 repressor domain. Two of these, H141A and H157N, targeting predicted helical regions, significantly decreased transcriptional repression and thus identify important functional parts of the domain.

  16. Intrinsic viscosity of model starburst dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrodynamic radii (Rη) calculated from intrinsic viscosities of poly(amido amide) (PAMAM) starburst dendrimers increasing generation number. This would seem to support a structure with strongly stretched tiers, which is relatively hollow near the core, and with most end groups near the surface. However, a computer simulation due to Lescanec and Muthukumar supports a more folded structure with higher density near the core and with end groups dispersed throughout the molecule. Here we calculate the hydrodynamic radii of the Lescanec-Muthukumar model using intrinsic viscosity formulas developed by Zimm and Fixman. The Lescanec-Muthukumar starbursts with relatively stiff spacers have hydrodynamic radii in good agreement with the experimental PAMAM radii, in spite of their folded structure. The hydrodynamic radius is sensitive both to the molecular size and to the density. As the number of generations increases, the molecules become more dense and the hydrodynamic radius increases more rapidly than the radius of gyration. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Bootstrapped models for intrinsic random functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K.

    1987-01-01

    The use of intrinsic random function stochastic models as a basis for estimation in geostatistical work requires the identification of the generalized covariance function of the underlying process, and the fact that this function has to be estimated from the data introduces an additional source of error into predictions based on the model. This paper develops the sample reuse procedure called the ''bootstrap'' in the context of intrinsic random functions to obtain realistic estimates of these errors. Simulation results support the conclusion that bootstrap distributions of functionals of the process, as well as of their ''kriging variance,'' provide a reasonable picture of the variability introduced by imperfect estimation of the generalized covariance function.

  18. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner-Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  19. Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J.; W., Schrettl,; Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    public good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflects key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. In particular, instead of relying on extrinsic motives for programmers (e.g. signaling) the present model is driven by intrinsic motives of OSS......This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision of a...... programmers, such as user-programmers, play value or \\emph{homo ludens} payoff, and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and turn out to add new insights to the economic analysis....

  20. Proprioceptive bimanual test in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolo, Riccardo; Squeri, Valentina; De Santis, Dalia; Giannoni, Psiche; Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Is there any difference between matching the position of the hands by asking the subjects to move them to the same spatial location or to mirror-symmetric locations with respect to the body midline? If the motion of the hands were planned in the extrinsic space, the mirror-symmetric task would imply an additional challenge, because we would need to flip the coordinates of the target on the other side of the workspace. Conversely, if the planning were done in intrinsic coordinates, in order to move both hands to the same spot in the workspace, we should compute different joint angles for each arm. Even if both representations were available to the subjects, the two tasks might lead to different results, providing some cue on the organization of the "body schema". In order to answer such questions, the middle fingertip of the non-dominant hand of a population of healthy subjects was passively moved by a manipulandum to 20 different target locations. Subjects matched these positions with the middle fingertip of their dominant hand. For most subjects, the matching accuracy was higher in the extrinsic modality both in terms of systematic error and variability, even for the target locations in which the configuration of the arms was the same for both modalities. This suggests that the matching performance of the subjects could be determined not only by proprioceptive information but also by the cognitive representation of the task: expressing the goal as reaching for the physical location of the hand in space is apparently more effective than requiring to match the proprioceptive representation of joint angles. PMID:25741268

  1. Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development

    CERN Document Server

    Soo, Chopin

    2016-01-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development is presented. Paradigm shift from full space-time covariance to spatial diffeomorphism invariance yields a non-vanishing Hamiltonian, a resolution of the `problem of time', and gauge-invariant temporal ordering in an ever expanding universe. Einstein's general relativity is a particular realization of a wider class of theories; and the framework prompts natural extensions and improvements, with the consequent dominance of Cotton-York potential at early times when the universe was small.

  2. The Intrinsic Instability of Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiou Inoua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explain the wild fluctuations of financial prices from the intrinsic amplifying feedback of speculative supply and demand. Formally, we show that an asset return follows a multiplicative random growth with exogenous input, which is well-known to be a generic power-law generating process, and which could thus easily explain the well-established power-law distribution of returns, and other related variables. Moreover, the theory we develop here is a general framework where comp...

  3. An intrinsic mobility ceiling of Si bulk

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Castello, Nuria; Prades, Joan Daniel; Cirera, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We compute by Density Functional Theory-Non Equilibrium Green Functions Formalism (DFT-NEGFF) the conductance of bulk Si along different crystallographic directions. We find a ceiling value for the intrinsic mobility of bulk silicon of $8.4\\cdot10^6 cm^2/V\\cdot s$. We suggest that this result is related to the lowest effective mass of the $$ direction.

  4. Intrinsic transcript cleavage activity of RNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Orlova, M; Newlands, J; Das, A; Goldfarb, A; Borukhov, S

    1995-01-01

    The GreA and GreB transcript cleavage factors of Escherichia coli suppress elongation arrest and may have a proofreading role in transcription. With the use of E. coli greA-greB- mutant, RNA polymerase is demonstrated to possess substantial intrinsic transcript cleavage activity. Mildly alkaline pH mimics the effect of the Gre proteins by inducing transcript cleavage in ternary complexes and antagonizing elongation arrest through a cleavage-and-restart reaction. Thus, transcript cleavage cons...

  5. Intrinsic spin Hall effect in noncubic crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chudnovsky, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the dependence of the intrinsic spin Hall effect on the crystal symmetry and geometry of experiment. The spin current is obtained and the Hall voltage caused by the polarization of the electron spins is computed. The unique dependence of the effect on the crystal symmetry permits the choice of geometry in which the spin Hall effect can be unambiguously distinguished from the effects due to the orbital motion of charge carriers and due to the magnetic field generated by the transport ...

  6. Intrinsic work motivation and pension reform acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Hennighausen, Tanja; Moessinger, Marc-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Although demographic change leaves pay-as-you-go pension systems unsustainable, reforms, such as a higher pension age, are highly unpopular. This contribution looks into the role of intrinsic motivation as a driver for pension reform acceptance. Theoretical reasoning suggests that this driver should be relevant: The choice among different pension reform options (increasing pension age, increasing contributions, cutting pensions) can be analyzed within the framework of an optimal job separatio...

  7. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    the predominant scheduling method since it was introduced in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects, which among other things is indicated by the development of a large number of CPM-based software applications available...... on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...

  8. Predicting intrinsic disorder in proteins: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo He; Kejun Wang; Yunlong Liu; Bin Xue; Vladimir N Uversky; A Keith Dunker

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of intrinsically disordered proteins IDP I.e., biologically active proteins that do not possess stable secondary and/or tertiary structures came as an unexpected surprise, as the existence of such proteins is in contradiction to the traditional "sequence---,structure--,function" paradigm. Accurate prediction of a protein's predisposition to be intrinsically disordered is a necessary prerequisite for the further understanding of principles and mechanisms of protein folding and function, and is a key for the elaboration of a new structural and functional hierarchy of proteins. Therefore, prediction of IDPs has attracted the attention of many researchers, and a number of prediction tools have been developed. Predictions of disorder, in turn, are playing major roles in directing labora-tory experiments that are leading to the discovery of ever more disordered proteins, and thereby leading to a positive feedback loop in the investigation of these proteins, in this review of algorithms for intrinsic disorder prediction, the basic concepts of various prediction methods for IDPs are summarized, the strengths and shortcomings of many of the methods are analyzed, and the difficulties and directions of future development of IDP prediction techniques are discussed.

  9. Etiology of dental erosion--intrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheutzel, P

    1996-04-01

    Dental erosion due to intrinsic factors is caused by gastric acid reaching the oral cavity and the teeth as a result of vomiting or gastroesophageal reflux. Since clinical manifestation of dental erosion does not occur until gastric acid has acted on the dental hard tissues regularly over a period of several years, dental erosion caused by intrinsic factors has been observed only in those diseases which are associated with chronic vomiting or persistent gastroesophageal reflux over a long period. Examples of such conditions include disorders of the upper alimentary tract, specific metabolic and endocrine disorders, cases of medication side-effects and drug abuse, and certain psychosomatic disorders, e.g. stress-induced psychosomatic vomiting, anorexia and bulimia nervosa or rumination. Based on a review of the medical and dental literature, the main symptoms of all disorders which must be taken into account as possible intrinsic etiological factors of dental erosion are thoroughly discussed with respect to the clinical picture, prevalence and risk of erosion. PMID:8804885

  10. Cable fault locator research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, C. A.; Honey, S. K.; Petro, J. P.; Phillips, A. C.

    1982-07-01

    Cable fault location and the construction of four field test units are discussed. Swept frequency sounding of mine cables with RF signals was the technique most thoroughly investigated. The swept frequency technique is supplemented with a form of moving target indication to provide a method for locating the position of a technician along a cable and relative to a suspected fault. Separate, more limited investigations involved high voltage time domain reflectometry and acoustical probing of mine cables. Particular areas of research included microprocessor-based control of the swept frequency system, a microprocessor based fast Fourier transform for spectral analysis, and RF synthesizers.

  11. Location and daily mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Engebretsen, Øystein

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the interaction of location and daily mobility in cities. According to previous research the length of daily travel and the amount of car use in cities are influenced by urban density and residential location, thus focusing on urban sprawl as one of the main challenges for sustainable urban planning. However, during the last 10-15 years it has been more popular to settle in the inner city areas of Norwegian cities. This re-urbanisation has resulted in a sta...

  12. RFI emitter location techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. L. J.

    1973-01-01

    The possibility is discussed of using Doppler techniques for determining the location of ground based emitters causing radio frequency interference with low orbiting satellites. An error analysis indicates that it is possible to find the emitter location within an error range of 2 n.mi. The parameters which determine the required satellite receiver characteristic are discussed briefly along with the non-real time signal processing which may by used in obtaining the Doppler curve. Finally, the required characteristics of the satellite antenna are analyzed.

  13. Location-based games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine

    In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception of and be......In this dissertation, it is explored which prerequisites are necessary in location-based games (LBGs) to make meaningful the meeting between players and spatiality with an emphasis on physical locations. Throughout the dissertation, it has been shown that LBGs affect players’ perception...... experiences of being in the world and the creation of meaning. The theory on motivation defines what motivation consists of and how it relates to our actions. This theory has been combined with theories concerning play and play culture, digital media, (digital) games, (optimal) experiences, landscape...... architecture, everyday practices (related to walking in the city), and the existing theories on LBGs as well as pervasive games. The methodological approach incorporates design-based research. It combines and aims at improving design, research, and practice concurrently. A design of an LBG – Visions of Sara...

  14. Direct Intrinsics: Learning Albedo-Shading Decomposition by Convolutional Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Narihira, Takuya; Maire, Michael; Yu, Stella X.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to intrinsic image decomposition, the task of decomposing a single image into albedo and shading components. Our strategy, which we term direct intrinsics, is to learn a convolutional neural network (CNN) that directly predicts output albedo and shading channels from an input RGB image patch. Direct intrinsics is a departure from classical techniques for intrinsic image decomposition, which typically rely on physically-motivated priors and graph-based inference alg...

  15. Selection for intrinsic endurance modifies endocrine stress responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, R Parrish; Renner, Kenneth J.; Summers, Cliff H.; Watt, Michael L; Forster, Gina L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Swallow, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise dampens an individual’s stress response and decreases symptoms of anxiety and depression disorders. While the extrinsic relationship of exercise and psychological state are established, their intrinsic relationship is unresolved. We investigated the potential intrinsic relationship of exercise with stress responsiveness using NIH rats bidirectionally selected for intrinsic endurance capacity. Selection resulted in two populations, one with high intrinsic endurance (high capa...

  16. Role of Intrinsic Motivation in Children's School Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles

    The relationship between intrinsic motivation for school learning and school achievement was investigated. An intrinsic motivation inventory was developed to test the hypotheses that intrinsic motivation is differentiated into specific subject areas for school learning; and for specific subjects is positively, significantly, and differentially…

  17. Location Intelligence Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Location Intelligence (LI) means using the spatial dimension of information as a key to support business processes. This spatial dimension has to be defined by geographic coordinates. Storing these spatial objects in a database allows for attaching a 'meaning' to them, like 'current position', 'border', 'building' or 'room'. Now the coordinates represent real-world objects, which can be relevant for the measurement, documentation, control or optimization of (parameters of) business processes aiming at different business objectives. But LI can only be applied, if the locations can be determined with an accuracy (in space and time) appropriate for the business process in consideration. Therefore the first step in any development of a LI solution is the analysis of the business process itself regarding its requirements for spatial and time resolution and accuracy. The next step is the detailed analysis of the surrounding conditions of the process: Does the process happen indoor and/or outdoor? Are there moving objects? If yes, how fast are they? How does the relevant environment look like? Is technical infrastructure available? Is the process restricted by regulations? As a result, a proper Location Detection Technology (LDT) has to be chosen in order to get reliable and accurate positions of the relevant objects. At the highly challenging conditions of the business processes IAEA inspectors are working with, the chosen LDTs have to deliver reliable positioning on ''room-level'' accuracy, even if there is no location enabling infrastructure in place, the objects (people) mostly are indoors and have to work under strong regulations. The presentation will give insights into innovative LI solutions based on technologies of different LDT providers. Pros and cons of combinations of different LDT (like multi- GNSS, IMU, camera, and human interaction based positioning) will be discussed from the

  18. Locating the stranger rapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A; Dale, A

    1996-04-01

    As part of a larger project evaluating aspects of offender profiling, an initial study was undertaken of the geographic aspects of approximately 300 sexual offences carried out by 79 stranger rapists. The objective was to focus further research on the topic into potentially useful channels, but information thought to be of immediate use to investigating officers was also produced. It was ascertained that at least one-fifth of the sample of stranger rapists were itinerant to a greater or lesser extent. Analysis of the cases where both the offender's address and the location where he approached the victim were known, indicated that the majority of attacks (75 per cent) were initiated within five miles of the offenders' homes. The apparent reasons for victims being approached unusually far away included targeting of locations where numbers of suitable victims were available; raping during relatively sophisticated property offences; 'prowling' or 'hunting' over large areas by subjects who spent considerable amounts of time so doing; access to transport; and familiarity with widely dispersed neighbourhoods, often due to the offender having lived in two or more locations. As a result of this work, future research on the geography of rape will be directed towards those aspects of the offences which have been identified as relevant to the distance between an offender's base and the site where he approached his victim. PMID:8999277

  19. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  20. A rotational integral formula for intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel; Rataj, J.

    2008-01-01

    A rotational version of the famous Crofton formula is derived. The motivation for deriving the formula comes from local stereology, a new branch of stereology based on sections through fixed reference points. The formula shows how rotational averages of intrinsic volumes measured on sections...... passing through fixed points are related to the geometry of the sectioned object. In particular it is shown how certain weighting factors, appearing in the rotational integral formula, can be expressed in terms of hypergeometric functions. Close connections to geometric tomography will be pointed out...

  1. Intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xintong; Shen, Kang; Bülow, Hannes E

    2015-01-01

    The complex, branched morphology of dendrites is a cardinal feature of neurons and has been used as a criterion for cell type identification since the beginning of neurobiology. Regulated dendritic outgrowth and branching during development form the basis of receptive fields for neurons and are essential for the wiring of the nervous system. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of dendritic morphogenesis have been an intensely studied area. In this review, we summarize the major experimental systems that have contributed to our understandings of dendritic development as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms that instruct the neurons to form cell type-specific dendritic arbors. PMID:25386991

  2. Intrinsic Redshifts and the Hubble Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, M. B.; Comeau, S. P.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the V_CMB velocities of the Fundamental Plane (FP) clusters studied in the Hubble Key Project appear to contain the same discrete "velocities" found previously by us and by Tifft to be present in normal galaxies. Although there is a particular Hubble constant associated with our findings we make no claim that its accuracy is better than that found by the Hubble Key Project. We do conclude, however, that if intrinsic redshifts are present and are not taken into account, the Hubble...

  3. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.;

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity and...... strain sensitivity using two- and four-point measurement method. We have found that polyaniline has a negative gauge factor of K = -4.9, which makes it a candidate for piezoresistive read-out in polymer based MEMS-devices. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Measurement of intrinsic and scattering attenuation of shear waves in two sedimentary basins and comparison to crystalline sites in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulenfeld, Tom; Wegler, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    We developed an improved method for the separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation of seismic shear waves by envelope inversion called Qopen. The method optimizes the fit between Green's functions for the acoustic, isotropic radiative transfer theory and observed energy densities of earthquakes. The inversion allows the determination of scattering and intrinsic attenuation, site corrections and spectral source energies for the investigated frequency bands. Source displacement spectrum and the seismic moment of the analysed events can be estimated from the obtained spectral source energies. We report intrinsic and scattering attenuation coefficients of shear waves near three geothermal reservoirs in Germany for frequencies between 1 and 70 Hz. The geothermal reservoirs are located in Insheim, Landau (both Upper Rhine Graben) and Unterhaching (Molasse basin). We compare these three sedimentary sites to two sites located in crystalline rock with respect to scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The inverse quality factor for intrinsic attenuation is constant in sediments for frequencies smaller than 10 Hz and decreasing for higher frequencies. For crystalline rock, it is on a lower level and strictly monotonic decreasing with frequency. Intrinsic attenuation dominates scattering except for the Upper Rhine Graben, where scattering is dominant for frequencies below 10 Hz. Observed source displacement spectra show a high-frequency fall-off greater than or equal to 3.

  5. Photoperiodism and crassulacean acid metabolism : I. Immunological and kinetic evidences for different patterns of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoforms in photoperiodically inducible and non-inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brulfert, J; Müller, D; Kluge, M; Queiroz, O

    1982-05-01

    Plants of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poelln. Tom Thumb and Sedum morganianum E. Walth. were grown under controlled photoperiodic conditions under either short or long days. Gaz exchange measurements confirmed that in K. blossfeldiana Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) was photoperiodically inducible and that S. morganianum performed CAM independently of photoperiod. With K. blossfeldiana, a comparison of catalytic and regulatory properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, EC 4.1.1.31) from short-day and long-day grown plants showed differences, but not with S. morganianum. Ouchterlony double diffusion tests and immunotitration experiments (using a S. morganianum PEPC antibody) established that CAM is induced in K. blossfeldiana-but not in S. morganianum-through the synthesis of a new PEPC isoform; this form shows an immunological behavior different from that prevailing under non-inductive conditions and can be considered as specific for CAM performance. PMID:24276159

  6. Accumulation fatty acids of in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, Luis A.; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae.

  7. Genes encoding the alpha-carboxyltransferase subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase from Brassica napus and parental species: cloning, expression patterns, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Guo; Yin, Wei-Bo; Guo, Huan; Song, Li-Ying; Chen, Yu-Hong; Guan, Rong-Zhan; Wang, Jing-Qiao; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2010-05-01

    Heteromeric acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis in dicots, is a multi-enzyme complex consisting of biotin carboxylase, biotin carboxyl carrier protein, and carboxyltransferase (alpha-CT and beta-CT). In the present study, four genes encoding alpha-CT were cloned from Brassica napus, and two were cloned from each of the two parental species, B. rapa and B. oleracea. Comparative and cluster analyses indicated that these genes were divided into two major groups. The major divergence between group-1 and group-2 occurred in the second intron. Group-2 alpha-CT genes represented the ancestral form in the genus Brassica. The divergence of group-1 and group-2 genes occurred in their common ancestor 12.96-17.78 million years ago (MYA), soon after the divergence of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica (15-20 MYA). This time of divergence is identical to that reported for the paralogous subgenomes of diploid Brassica species (13-17 MYA). Real-time reverse transcription PCR revealed that the expression patterns of the two groups of genes were similar in different organs, except in leaves. To better understand the regulation and evolution of alpha-CT genes, promoter regions from two sets of orthologous gene copies from B. napus, B. rapa, and B. oleracea were cloned and compared. The function of the promoter of gene Bnalpha-CT-1-1 in group-1 and gene Bnalpha-CT-2-1 in group-2 was examined by assaying beta-glucuronidase activity in transgenic A. thaliana. Our results will be helpful in elucidating the evolution and regulation of ACCase in oilseed rape. PMID:20616867

  8. New insights into the post-translational modification of multiple phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isoenzymes by phosphorylation and monoubiquitination during sorghum seed development and germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ballesta, Isabel; Baena, Guillermo; Gandullo, Jacinto; Wang, Liqun; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William Charles; Echevarría, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; E.C. 4.1.1.31) was characterized in developing and germinating sorghum seeds, focusing on the transcript and polypeptide abundance of multiple plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PTPC) genes, and the post-translational modification of each isoenzyme by phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination during germination. We observed high levels of SbPPC4 (Sb07g014960) transcripts during early development (stage I), and extensive transcript abundance of SbPPC2 (Sb02g021090) and SbPPC3 (Sb04g008720) throughout the entire life cycle of the seed. Although tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of immunopurified PTPC indicated that four different PTPC isoenzymes were expressed in the developing and germinating seeds, SbPPC3 was the most abundant isozyme of the developing seed, and of the embryo and the aleurone layer of germinating seeds. In vivo phosphorylation of the different PTPC isoenzymes at their conserved N-terminal seryl phosphorylation site during germination was also established by MS/MS analysis. Furthermore, three of the four isoenzymes were partially monoubiquitinated, with MS/MS pinpointing SbPPC2 and SbPPC3 monoubiquitination at the conserved Lys-630 and Lys-624 residues, respectively. Our results demonstrate that monoubiquitination and phosphorylation simultaneously occur in vivo with different PTPC isozymes during seed germination. In addition, we show that PTPC monoubiquitination in germinating sorghum seeds always increases at stage II (emergence of the radicle), is maintained during the aerobic period of rapid cell division and reserve mobilization, and remains relatively constant until stage IV-V when coleoptiles initiate the formation of the photosynthetic tissues. PMID:27194739

  9. Sonar Locator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    An underwater locator device called a Pinger is attached to an airplane's flight recorder for recovery in case of a crash. Burnett Electronics Pinger Model 512 resulted from a Burnett Electronics Laboratory, Inc./Langley Research Center contract for development of a search system for underwater mines. The Pinger's battery-powered transmitter is activated when immersed in water, and sends multidirectional signals for up to 500 hours. When a surface receiver picks up the signal, a diver can retrieve the pinger and the attached airplane flight recorder. Other pingers are used to track whales, mark underwater discoveries and assist oil drilling vessels.

  10. The LHCb Vertex Locator

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2004-01-01

    LHCb is an experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), dedicated to the study of b-hadron physics. The Vertex Locator (VELO) is a sub-detector which reconstructs primary and secondary vertices, which is of importance for the processes under study. It is a silicon micro-strip detector operated in a harsh radiation environment with demands of high read-out speed and the use of minimal material. In this paper, the LHCb VELO is introduced and the technology choices of the detector are motivated. We report on the present status of the project and one possible upgrade technology is presented.

  11. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment and...... lack of a local immigrant population by migrating to large municipalities. Lack of local fellow countrymen, however, increases the exit rate to medium-sized as well as large municipalities. This finding is likely to be a result of the dispersal policy. Finally, refugees react strongly to assignment to...

  12. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points is...... minimized, where the distance is measured by a norm k2. We present results for the general case. In the case that k1 and k2 are both block norms, we are able to identify a nite dominating set in R3 for the problem, which can be obtained as the intersection of cones....

  13. Intrinsic Josephson effects in Bi-2212

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The interesting physics that is seen in the behaviour of a Josephson junction (a weak connection between two superconductors) can be exploited in a wide range of devices. For example the inverse AC Josephson effect underpins today's voltage standard, SQUID technology is based on quantum interference between two Josephson junctions and the AC Josephson effect has the potential to be used to produce microwave sources. Recently it has been shown that a variety of layered superconductors form intrinsic Josephson junctions as a direct consequence of the highly anisotropic nature of their crystal structure. One such layered superconductor is Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 in which the CuO2 planes act as the superconducting electrode and the non-superconducting Bi2O3 and SrO layers act as the barrier. We report here on a study of intrinsic Josephson effects in single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. The I-V characteristic shows behaviour consistent with the DC Josephson effect. Indeed, close examination reveals a branching pattern in which the difference between adjacent branches corresponds to a switching of one atomic scale junction to the resistive state. We also discuss the microwave response and the possibility of using single crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 as sub-millimetre sources

  14. NdN: An intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, E.-M.; McNulty, J. F.; Ruck, B. J.; Suzuki, M.; Mizumaki, M.; Antonov, V. N.; Quilty, J. W.; Strickland, N.; Trodahl, H. J.

    2016-02-01

    The rare-earth nitrides have recently regained attention due to findings that most members of the series are intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductors, a class of materials that is crucial for the development of spintronics devices. Here we present a study of NdN thin films, with films grown via molecular beam epitaxy. Optical transmission measurements revealed a band gap of about 0.9 eV, while resistivity measurements confirmed semiconducting behavior with a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, though semimetallic behavior could not be ruled out. The room temperature resistivity of 0.6 m Ω cm indicates strong doping by nitrogen vacancies. Magnetization measurements show a ferromagnetic moment of 1.0 ±0.2 μB below the Curie temperature TC of 43 ±1 K, strongly suppressed from the Hund's rules value of 3.27 μB per ion. The ferromagnetic moment is strongly quenched and the TC is enhanced compared to previously studied bulk NdN, and crystal field calculations reveal that the quenched moment is likely due to lattice strain. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements show that the magnetic moment is orbital dominant, placing NdN in the same category as SmN, an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor with an orbital-dominant ferromagnetic moment.

  15. Intrinsic Josephson Junctions with Intermediate Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Paul A.; Saleem, Sajid; Fenton, Jon C.; Speller, Susie; Grovenor, Chris R. M.

    2011-03-01

    In cuprate superconductors, adjacent cuprate double-planes are intrinsically Josephson-coupled. For bias currents perpendicular to the planes, the current-voltage characteristics correspond to those of an array of underdamped Josephson junctions. We will discuss our experiments on sub-micron Tl-2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs). The dynamics of the IJJs at the plasma frequency are moderately damped (Q ~ 8). This results in a number of counter-intuitive observations, including both a suppression of the effect of thermal fluctuations and a shift of the skewness of the switching current distributions from negative to positive as the temperature is increased. Simulations confirm that these phenomena result from repeated phase slips as the IJJ switches from the zero-voltage to the running state. We further show that increased dissipation counter-intuitively increases the maximum supercurrent in the intermediate damping regime (PRL vol. 103, art. no. 217002). We discuss the role of environmental dissipation on the dynamics and describe experiments with on-chip lumped-element passive components in order control the environment seen by the IJJs. Work supported by EPSRC.

  16. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  17. The intrinsic viscosity of linear DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsortos, Achilleas; Papadakis, George; Gizeli, Electra

    2011-12-01

    We measured the intrinsic viscosity of very small synthetic DNA molecules, of 20-395 base pairs, and incorporated them in a nearly complete picture for the whole span of molecular weights reported in the literature to date. A major transition is observed at M approximately 2 × 10(6) . It is found that in the range of approximately 7 × 10(3) ≤ M ≤ 2 × 10(6) , the intrinsic viscosity scales as [η] approximately M(1.05) , suggesting that short DNA chains are not as rigid as generally thought. The corresponding scaling for the range of 2 × 10(6) ≤ M ≤ 8 × 10(10) is [η] approximately M(0.69) . A comparison of our results with existing equations, for much narrower data distributions, is made, and the agreement is very satisfactory considering the huge range of data analyzed here. Experimental concerns such as the effect of ionic strength, polydispersity, temperature, and shear rate are discussed in detail. Some issues concerning the Huggins coefficient, polymer chain stiffness, and the relationship between the Mark-Houwink constants K, α are also presented; it is found that log K = 1.156 - 6.19α. PMID:21638275

  18. Minimum-weight perfect matching for~non-intrinsic distances on the line

    CERN Document Server

    Delon, Julie; Sobolevski, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    Consider a real line equipped with a (not necessarily intrinsic) distance. We deal with the minimum-weight perfect matching problem for a complete graph whose points are located on the line and whose edges have weights equal to distances along the line. This problem is closely related to one-dimensional Monge-Kantorovich transport optimization. The main result of the present note is a "bottom-up" recursion relation for weights of partial minimum-weight matchings.

  19. Intrinsic Properties Guide Proximal Abducens and Oculomotor Nerve Outgrowth in Avian Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Lance-Jones, Cynthia; Shah, Veeral; Noden, Drew M; Sours, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Proper movement of the vertebrate eye requires the formation of precisely patterned axonal connections linking cranial somatic motoneurons, located at defined positions in the ventral midbrain and hindbrain, with extraocular muscles. The aim of this research was to assess the relative contributions of intrinsic, population-specific properties and extrinsic, outgrowth site-specific cues during the early stages of abducens and oculomotor nerve development in avian embryos. This was accomplished...

  20. Indoor Location Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Subrata

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on the special challenges posed by accurately pinpointing a location indoors, this volume reflects the distance we have come in the handful of decades since the germination of GPS technology. Not only can we locate a signal to within a meter’s accuracy, but we now have this technology in the most basic mobile phone. Tracing recent practical developments in positioning technology and in the market it supplies, the author examines the contributions of the varied research—in silicon, signal and image processing, radio communications and software—to a fast-evolving field. The book looks forward to a time when, in addition to directing your road journey, positioning systems can peer indoors and guide you to an available photocopier in your office building. Featuring standalone chapters each dealing with a specific aspect of the subject, including treatments of systems such as Zebra, Awarepoint, Aeroscout, IEEE 802.11, etc. This study has all the detail needed to get up to speed on a key modern techn...

  1. Equity and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear waste disposal sites are among those energy facilities which are considered public ''bads'' and which are related to equity issues in terms of their direct and indirect impact on a locale, the distributional effect the site has on the relative quality of life, and the process of decision making, including the opportunity for participation. These issues are reviewed, and the conclusion reached that decisions to site noxious facilities will depend on how advantages are to be distributed and how decision makers respond to locational concerns. Recommendations based on experience suggest that equity of outcome is more important than that of process, but that the constituency of each facility should have a role in the decision making process. Other recommendations include a national data bank, coordination of siting, and training for policymakers. 28 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  2. Intrinsic motivations drive learning of eye movements: an experiment with human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Mustile, Magda; Cipriani, Daniele; Redgrave, Peter; Triesch, Jochen; De Marsico, Maria; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivations drive the acquisition of knowledge and skills on the basis of novel or surprising stimuli or the pleasure to learn new skills. In so doing, they are different from extrinsic motivations that are mainly linked to drives that promote survival and reproduction. Intrinsic motivations have been implicitly exploited in several psychological experiments but, due to the lack of proper paradigms, they are rarely a direct subject of investigation. This article investigates how different intrinsic motivation mechanisms can support the learning of visual skills, such as "foveate a particular object in space", using a gaze contingency paradigm. In the experiment participants could freely foveate objects shown in a computer screen. Foveating each of two "button" pictures caused different effects: one caused the appearance of a simple image (blue rectangle) in unexpected positions, while the other evoked the appearance of an always-novel picture (objects or animals). The experiment studied how two possible intrinsic motivation mechanisms might guide learning to foveate one or the other button picture. One mechanism is based on the sudden, surprising appearance of a familiar image at unpredicted locations, and a second one is based on the content novelty of the images. The results show the comparative effectiveness of the mechanism based on image novelty, whereas they do not support the operation of the mechanism based on the surprising location of the image appearance. Interestingly, these results were also obtained with participants that, according to a post experiment questionnaire, had not understood the functions of the different buttons suggesting that novelty-based intrinsic motivation mechanisms might operate even at an unconscious level. PMID:25775248

  3. Demographics and remote locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppus, G. [Dynawise Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Within the next decade, the number of people leaving the workforce will exceed the number of new entrants. The demand for workers is expected to increase in Alberta due to oil sands industry growth. Sixty-four per cent of all responding federal, provincial, and municipal government organizations have reported shortages in their work environments, and almost 8 in 10 organizations predict they will continue to be understaffed in the next 3 to 5 years. Tightness in the general labour market will have an impact on employers in remote locations, and planning is essential to avoid the creation of a mercenary culture and a reliance on compensation. Challenges found in remote locations include high turnover rates among recent hires; critical gaps in service length; aggressive retirement; and the fact that the local population is often seen as unqualified for many industrial jobs. This Power Point presentation suggested that although decisions to join or quit a company are often based on considerations such as the organizational environment and amount of compensation, the relationship between employees and management is the most important attribute in many career decisions. Rigorous quantitative analysis of current demographics combined with forecasting analysis may help to forestall recruitment difficulties for many companies. Productivity analyses, and the effects of work overload on absenteeism, attrition and quality of workmanship must also be examined. Many companies are now focusing on retention and development strategies on mid-career staff to address depletion, as well as redesigning procedures to operate with less skilled staff. It was concluded that extra efforts are now being made to attract non-traditional employees, and non-traditional employment models are being considered by some companies. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Robot navigation system using intrinsic evolvable hardware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been great interest in the idea that evolvable system based on the principle of ar tifcial intelligence can be used to continuously and autonomously adapt the behaviour of physically embedded systems such as autonomous mobile robots and intelligent home devices. Meanwhile, we have seen the introduc tion of evolvable hardware(EHW): new integrated electronic circuits that are able to continuously evolve to a dapt the chages in the environment implemented by evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithm(GA)and reinforcement learning. This paper concentrates on developing a robotic navigation system whose basic behav iours are obstacle avoidance and light source navigation. The results demonstrate that the intrinsic evolvable hardware system is able to create the stable robotiiuc behaviours as required in the real world instead of the tra ditional hardware systems.

  5. And what if gravity is intrinsically quantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early days of search for a quantum theory of gravity the attempts have been mostly concentrated on the quantization of an otherwise classical system. The two most contentious candidate theories of gravity, string theory and quantum loop gravity are based on a quantum field theory - the latter is a quantum field theory of connections on a SU(2) group manifold and the former is a quantum field theory in two dimensional spaces. Here we argue that there is a very close relation between quantum mechanics (QM) and gravity. Without gravity, QM becomes ambiguous. We consider this observation as the evidence for an intrinsic relation between these fundamental laws of nature. We suggest a quantum role and definition for gravity in the context of a quantum Universe, and present a preliminary formulation for gravity in a system with a finite number of particles.

  6. Intrinsic Ambipolarity and Rotation in Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that collisional plasma transport is intrinsically ambipolar only in quasiaxisymmetric or quasihelically symmetric magnetic configurations. Only in such fields can the plasma rotate freely, and then only in the direction of quasisymmetry. In a non-quasi-symmetric magnetic field, the average radial electric field is determined by parallel viscosity, which in turn is usually governed by collisional processes. Locally, the radial electric field may be affected by turbulent Reynolds stress producing zonal flows, but on a radial average taken over several ion gyroradii, it is determined by parallel viscosity, at least if the turbulence is electrostatic and obeys the conventional gyrokinetic orderings. This differs from the situation in a tokamak, where there is no flow damping by parallel viscosity in the symmetry direction and the turbulent Reynolds stress may affect the global radial electric field

  7. Photometric Ambient Occlusion for Intrinsic Image Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauagge, Daniel; Wehrwein, Scott; Bala, Kavita; Snavely, Noah

    2016-04-01

    We present a method for computing ambient occlusion (AO) for a stack of images of a Lambertian scene from a fixed viewpoint. Ambient occlusion, a concept common in computer graphics, characterizes the local visibility at a point: it approximates how much light can reach that point from different directions without getting blocked by other geometry. While AO has received surprisingly little attention in vision, we show that it can be approximated using simple, per-pixel statistics over image stacks, based on a simplified image formation model. We use our derived AO measure to compute reflectance and illumination for objects without relying on additional smoothness priors, and demonstrate state-of-the art performance on the MIT Intrinsic Images benchmark. We also demonstrate our method on several synthetic and real scenes, including 3D printed objects with known ground truth geometry. PMID:26959670

  8. Intrinsic visual oblateness of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New solar oblateness observations are reported that yield a value of 18.4plus-or-minus12.5 milli-arcsec for the difference between equatorial and polar diameters. These observations were conducted when the time-varying, excess equatorial brightness was markedly reduced, greatly simplifying the interpretation of the apparent solar oblateness. The experimental scheme for defining the ''edge'' of the Sun and monitoring the shape of the extreme limb darkening function is summarized along with the description of the instrumentation. Sources of systematic error are exhaustively surveyed in order to extract the intrinsic visual oblateness of the Sun. The result further strengthens the conclusion of Hill et al. that the grave consequence of the Dicke-Goldenberg work for Einstein's general theory of relativity is removed. The new result excludes an oblateness as large as that required by the rapidly rotating interior models used to explain the low neutrino flux

  9. Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor (ISER) is designed based on the principle of a process inherent ultimate safe reactor, PIUS, a so-called inherently safe reactor (ISR). ISER has been developed joingly by the members of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, the University of Tokyo, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and several industrial firms in Japan. This paper describes the requirements for the next generation of power reactor, the safety design philosphy of ISR and ISER, the controllability of ISER and the results of analyses of some of the design-based accidents (DBA) of ISER, namely station blackout, accidents in which the pressurizer relief valve becomes jammed and stuck in open position and tube breaks in the steam generator. It is concluded that the ISER can ensure a wide range of contraollabitily and fuel integrity for all the analysed DBAs. (orig.)

  10. Intrinsic noise in systems with switching environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufton, Peter G.; Lin, Yen Ting; Galla, Tobias; McKane, Alan J.

    2016-05-01

    We study individual-based dynamics in finite populations, subject to randomly switching environmental conditions. These are inspired by models in which genes transition between on and off states, regulating underlying protein dynamics. Similarly, switches between environmental states are relevant in bacterial populations and in models of epidemic spread. Existing piecewise-deterministic Markov process approaches focus on the deterministic limit of the population dynamics while retaining the randomness of the switching. Here we go beyond this approximation and explicitly include effects of intrinsic stochasticity at the level of the linear-noise approximation. Specifically, we derive the stationary distributions of a number of model systems, in good agreement with simulations. This improves existing approaches which are limited to the regimes of fast and slow switching.

  11. Intrinsic Frequency and the Single Wave Biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasek, Danny; Pahlevan, Niema M.; Tavallali, Peyman; Rinderknecht, Derek G.; Gharib, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the hallmark of classical type II diabetes. In addition, insulin resistance plays a central role in metabolic syndrome, which astonishingly affects 1 out of 3 adults in North America. The insulin resistance state can precede the manifestation of diabetes and hypertension by years. Insulin resistance is correlated with a low-grade inflammatory condition, thought to be induced by obesity as well as other conditions. Currently, the methods to measure and monitor insulin resistance, such as the homeostatic model assessment and the euglycemic insulin clamp, can be impractical, expensive, and invasive. Abundant evidence exists that relates increased pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and vascular dysfunction with insulin resistance. We introduce a potential method of assessing insulin resistance that relies on a novel signal-processing algorithm, the intrinsic frequency method (IFM). The method requires a single pulse pressure wave, thus the term “ wave biopsy.” PMID:26183600

  12. Quaternion Formalism for the Intrinsic Transfer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretu, Nicolae; Pop, Mihail Ioan; Boer, Attila

    A quaternion formulation is applied to the intrinsic transfer matrix for longitudinal elastic wave propagation through a multilayer medium in order to find the spectral response of a sonic crystal. Resonance conditions and the band structure of the crystal are obtained. The presence of a defect is also analysed. The analysis is carried out theoretically and through simulations. A coupled oscillators model is used to validate the obtained results from a phenomenological point of view. Experimental measurements are carried out for some periodic multilayer arrangements and they are correlated with theory. The obtained spectral response and band structure are essential in characterising the sonic crystal and also in optimising its structure in order to obtain specific passbands and stopbands. The adaptedness of the quaternion formulation to periodic structures and to the inclusion of defects is considered.

  13. Intrinsic glue distribution at very small x

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalilian-Marian, J.; Kovner, A.; McLerran, L.; Weigert, H. [Physics Department, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    We compute the distribution functions for gluons at very small x and not too large values of transverse momenta. We extend the McLerran-Venugopalan model by using renormalization group methods to integrate out effects due to those gluons which generate an effective classical charge density for Weizs{umlt a}cker-Williams fields. We argue that this model can be extended from the description of nuclei at small x to the description of hadrons at yet smaller values of x. This generates a Lipatov-like enhancement for the intrinsic gluon distribution function and a nontrivial transverse momentum dependence as well. We estimate the transverse momentum dependence for the distribution functions, and show how the issue of unitarity is resolved in lepton-nucleus interactions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Intrinsic glue distribution at very small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compute the distribution functions for gluons at very small x and not too large values of transverse momenta. We extend the McLerran-Venugopalan model by using renormalization group methods to integrate out effects due to those gluons which generate an effective classical charge density for Weizsaecker-Williams fields. We argue that this model can be extended from the description of nuclei at small x to the description of hadrons at yet smaller values of x. This generates a Lipatov-like enhancement for the intrinsic gluon distribution function and a nontrivial transverse momentum dependence as well. We estimate the transverse momentum dependence for the distribution functions, and show how the issue of unitarity is resolved in lepton-nucleus interactions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Intrinsic thermoelectric power of group VB metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunadhor Singh Okram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the thermopower of group VB metals in polycrystalline forms in the temperature range of 6-300K, taking into account the critical nature of the sample surface and heat treatment especially for niobium. Strikingly small magnitude, negative sign, phonon drag dip and superconductivity not reported previously were observed in surface-cleaned single crystalline Nb. However, while thermopower magnitudes are small, mixed signs were found in the polycrystalline V, Nb and Ta samples. These properties were therefore interpreted as their intrinsic properties and were briefly discussed taking into account of the existing theory by fitting also the data that give the Fermi energies of 10.94 eV, 5.08 eV and 1.86eV, respectively.

  16. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    CERN Document Server

    Tenneti, Ananth; Feng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and AGN feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of "MassiveBlack-II" family. Using smaller volume simulations, we explored the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and found remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  17. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 109 molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...... or as sensor devices based on e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix...

  18. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Location constrained resource interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed issues related to wind integration from the perspective of the California Independent System Operator (ISO). Issues related to transmission, reliability, and forecasting were reviewed. Renewable energy sources currently used by the ISO were listed, and details of a new transmission financing plan designed to address the location constraints of renewable energy sources and provide for new transmission infrastructure was presented. The financing mechanism will be financed by participating transmission owners through revenue requirements. New transmission interconnections will include network facilities and generator tie-lines. Tariff revisions have also been implemented to recover the costs of new facilities and generators. The new transmission project will permit wholesale transmission access to areas where there are significant energy resources that are not transportable. A rate impact cap of 15 per cent will be imposed on transmission owners to mitigate short-term costs to ratepayers. The presentation also outlined energy resource area designation plans, renewable energy forecasts, and new wind technologies. Ramping issues were also discussed. It was concluded that the ISO expects to ensure that 20 per cent of its energy will be derived from renewable energy sources. tabs., figs

  20. On location at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    CERN continues to be a very popular candidate for film locations at the moment. Not only has it inspired a German author and a film-maker interested in the more exotic interpretations of the science being worked on at the Organization, but even the recent puppet animation film by the legendary Muppets featured some CERN scenes.   Dr Bunsen Honeydew (far left) and his friends at ATLAS. Beaker, Bunsen's assistant, has just been sucked up the vacuum tube top left... Image courtesy Walt Disney Studios. In “The Muppet Movie”, released in November 2011 in North America and world-wide in January and February this year, Kermit is reuniting his friends who have ended up in some far-flung places since they last worked together 10 years ago. CERN caught the imagination of the film-makers as the perfect place for the Muppet scientists, Dr. Honeydew Bunsen and his hapless assistant Beaker. After a brief scene filmed in front of a backdrop of the ATLAS detector, the rest of the ...

  1. Intrinsic circuitry in the deep layers of the cat superior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behan, M; Kime, N M

    1996-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus is involved in the transformation of sensory signals into orienting behaviors. Sensory and motor signals are integrated in the colliculus to produce movements of the eyes, head, and neck. While there is a considerable amount of information available on the afferent and efferent connections of the colliculus, almost nothing is known about its intrinsic circuitry, particularly that of its deepest layers. It is likely that intrinsic connections in these deeper layers of the colliculus participate in the sensory-motor transformations leading to orienting movements. In this study, we used the neuroanatomical tracer biocytin to label small groups of neurons in the deeper layers of the cat superior colliculus and examine the distribution of their axons and terminals. We found a broadly distributed network of intrinsic projections throughout the deep layers of the superior colliculus. While the majority of terminals were found in a 1-2 mm radius around the injection site, labeled terminals were found throughout the deep layers of the colliculus up to 5 mm from the injection site. In addition, these injections sometimes labeled terminals in the superficial tectum. Extensive projections were demonstrated by the more superficial injections, but few terminals were found when injections were confined to the deepest layers of the colliculus. There was no evidence of anisotropy in the distribution of terminals from injections made at different rostrocaudal or mediolateral locations; neurons located in any one region in the colliculus could potentially influence any other region. This network of intrinsic connections in the cat superior colliculus could provide a means for deeper-layer efferent neurons to associate, and to modulate or coordinate their output. Interneurons could also provide a substrate for mutual inhibition between neurons at the rostral pole of the colliculus that are active during fixation, and more caudally located neurons

  2. Electron cyclotron heating and core intrinsic rotation reversal in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) on the intrinsic rotation profile in DIII-D is shown experimentally. Former DIII-D experiments have shown that ECH tends to cause an interior reduction in the normally co-Ip directed intrinsic rotation profile, and this core rotation can be fully reversed to the opposite direction. This effect is due to a turbulent rearrangement of the interior rotation profile. Here, we show results that there is more than one mechanism causing this. We compare two low density L-mode discharges where the only operational difference is the location of the ECH deposition. At low ECH power, comparable to the Ohmic power, the primary change is in the q-profile accompanied by a reversal of the core intrinsic rotation direction for the more off-axis deposition. The change in the shear of the q-profile fits well with a recent theoretical prediction for this rotation reversal. At higher ECH power, the primary change is in the core electron temperature, Te, accompanied by a hollowing of the rotation profile near the magnetic axis. This effect appears to be due to the change in electron collisionality, consistent with another theoretical, gyrokinetic prediction. The variety of phenomena that could allow ECH to modify the intrinsic rotation profile give some expectation that regions of large velocity shear in the interior could be generated, with the possibility of triggering internal transport barriers

  3. Electron cyclotron heating and core intrinsic rotation reversal in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassie, J. S. de, E-mail: degrassie@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Boedo, J. A. [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA 94550 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    The effect of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) on the intrinsic rotation profile in DIII-D is shown experimentally. Former DIII-D experiments have shown that ECH tends to cause an interior reduction in the normally co-Ip directed intrinsic rotation profile, and this core rotation can be fully reversed to the opposite direction. This effect is due to a turbulent rearrangement of the interior rotation profile. Here, we show results that there is more than one mechanism causing this. We compare two low density L-mode discharges where the only operational difference is the location of the ECH deposition. At low ECH power, comparable to the Ohmic power, the primary change is in the q-profile accompanied by a reversal of the core intrinsic rotation direction for the more off-axis deposition. The change in the shear of the q-profile fits well with a recent theoretical prediction for this rotation reversal. At higher ECH power, the primary change is in the core electron temperature, Te, accompanied by a hollowing of the rotation profile near the magnetic axis. This effect appears to be due to the change in electron collisionality, consistent with another theoretical, gyrokinetic prediction. The variety of phenomena that could allow ECH to modify the intrinsic rotation profile give some expectation that regions of large velocity shear in the interior could be generated, with the possibility of triggering internal transport barriers.

  4. Thoracoabdominal teratoma: Rare location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvijanović Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Teratomas are tumours derived from pluripotent germ cells. They appear most frequently on ovaries. However, other locations are also possible: testicles, retroperitoneum, stomach, neck, and bottom of the mouth cavity. It is not very common to find teratomas in two different body cavities. Case report. A 51-year-old patient visited her doctor complaining of an intensive pain which suddenly appeared in her low back. The computed tomography scan of the abdomen was performed, which revealed cystic formation, 12.5 x 18 cm in size, with remarkable capsule visualization. It had paraaortic, subdiaphragmatic, retropancreatic and suprarenal left localisation with signs of compression and pancreatic dislocation. The cystic formation had a septated appearance filled with clear fluid in all its parts except at the bottom, where it was dense. The intra-operative finding was left retroperitoneal mass placed above the left kidney, dislocating surrounding structures and their infiltration could not be excluded for sure. A tumour mass passed through the diaphragmatic hiatus and continued in the left thoracic space. The cyst was only drained and the fenestration was performed. Three months later, the second operation was performed-splenectomy, left suprarenaladenectomy, left nephrectomy, aortic deliberalisation, the left diaphragmatic crus was opened and tumour mass was completely removed from the thoracic space. The histological examination showed mature teratoma with morphological characterisations of the skin, so the definite diagnosis was dermoid cyst. Conclusion. The patient presented with thoracoabdominal teratoma. Although without malignant transformation, the teratoma required splenectomy, supraadrenalectomy and nefrectomy due to its position and size.

  5. Beyond money : intrinsic work motivation in profit and nonprofit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Jelstad, Beate

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold. Firstly, the antecedents of intrinsic work motivation are investigated. The role of job autonomy, relatedness at work, perceived competence and the individual difference of autonomy orientation on intrinsic motivation were explored. Secondly, the purpose of this research is to investigate the link between intrinsic work motivation and the outcome variables performance and turnover intention. Thirdly, the extent to which the two previous o...

  6. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus;

    2014-01-01

    determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  7. Cobalamin Malabsorption due to a Dysfunctional Intrinsic Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Drouin, Jeanne; Mikhael, Nadia

    1989-01-01

    An 18-year-old French Canadian student presenting with a severe normocytic anemia, had undetectable serum cobalamin but normal gastric acidity and no evidence of generalized malabsorption. The gastric juice contained a normal quantity of intrinsic factor. Serum anti-intrinsic factor blocking antibodies were not present. Absorption of radiolabelled cobalamin given orally in the Schilling test was decreased but this was corrected by using hog intrinsic factor. Patient gastric juice bound cobala...

  8. An Investigation of gifted students' intrinsic motivation and classroom productivity

    OpenAIRE

    McGrimmond, Leanne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic intrinsic motivation and classroom productivity in a sample of gifted students (N = 99) in Grades 4-8. Participants completed the Children’s Academic Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (CAIMI) (Gottfried, 1986), a measure of intrinsic motivation in four subject areas (reading, math, social studies, science) and in general. Participants’ teachers rated their classroom productivity using the Student Productivity Scale (S...

  9. Fault location on power networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Murari Mohan

    2009-01-01

    Fault Location on Power Lines enables readers to pinpoint the location of a fault on power lines following a disturbance. The nine chapters are organised according to the design of different locators. The authors do not simply refer the reader to manufacturers' documentation, but instead have compiled detailed information to allow for in-depth comparison. Fault Location on Power Lines describes basic algorithms used in fault locators, focusing on fault location on overhead transmission lines, but also covering fault location in distribution networks. An application of artificial intelligence i

  10. Interventions for primary (intrinsic) tracheomalacia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohadana, Saramira Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tracheomalacia, a disorder of the large airways where the trachea is deformed or malformed during respiration, is commonly seen in tertiary paediatric practice. It is associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory symptoms from life-threatening recurrent apnoea to common respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough and wheeze. Current practice following diagnosis of tracheomalacia includes medical approaches aimed at reducing associated symptoms of tracheomalacia, ventilation modalities of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP), and surgical approaches aimed at improving the calibre of the airway (airway stenting, aortopexy, tracheopexy). OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of medical and surgical therapies for children with intrinsic (primary) tracheomalacia. METHODS Search The Cochrane Airways Group searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register, Medline and Embase databases. The Cochrane Airways Group performed the latest searches in March 2012. Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of therapies related to symptoms associated with primary or intrinsic tracheomalacia. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers extracted data from the included study independently and resolved disagreements by consensus. MAIN RESULTS We included one RCT that compared nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) with placebo in 40 children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection. We assessed it to be a RCT with overall low risk of bias. Data analyzed in this review showed that there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of proportion cough-free at two weeks (odds ratio (OR) 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 5.14). However, the mean change in night time cough diary scores significantly favoured the placebo group (mean difference (MD) 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.83, P = 0

  11. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 years (1-3.5 years in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems nor in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable broad absorption lines. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density $\\sim$ 10$^3$-10$^5$ cm$^{-3}$ and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of order a few kpc. Motivate...

  12. Monitoring the variability of intrinsic absorption lines in quasar spectra , ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 yr (1-3.5 yr in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems or in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable BALs. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density ∼103-105 cm–3 and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of the order of a few kiloparsecs. Motivated by the observed variability properties, we suggest that mini-BALs can vary because of fluctuations of the ionizing continuum or changes in partial coverage while NALs can vary primarily because of changes in partial coverage.

  13. Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests

  14. An analysis of the intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements using DPCCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chen-hua; Li, Cao-ling

    2016-03-01

    In order to reveal the intrinsic cross-correlations between air pollution index (API) records and synchronously meteorological elements data, the detrended partial cross-correlation (DPCC) coefficients are analyzed using a detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA). DPCC coefficients for different spatial locations and seasons are calculated and compared. The results show that DPCCA can uncover intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and most of their interactional mechanisms can be explained. DPCC coefficients are either positive or negative, and vary with spatial locations and seasons, with consistently interactional mechanisms. More remarkable, we find that detrended cross-correlation analysis can present the cross-correlations between the fluctuations in two nonstationary time series, but this cross-correlation does not always fully reflect the interactional mechanism for the original time series. Despite this, DPCCA is recommended as a comparatively reliable method for revealing intrinsic cross-correlations between API and meteorological elements, and it can also be useful for our understanding of their interactional mechanisms.

  15. Rapid identification of microorganisms by intrinsic fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Hemant; Goldys, Ewa M.; Learmonth, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Microbial contamination has serious consequences for the industries that use fermentation processes. Common contaminants such as faster growing lactic acid bacteria or wild yeast can rapidly outnumber inoculated culture yeast and produce undesirable end products. Our study focuses on a rapid method of identification of such contaminants based on autofluorescence spectroscopy of bacterial and yeast species. Lactic acid bacteria (Lac-tobacillus casei), and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were cultured under controlled conditions and studied for variations in their autofluorescence. We observed spectral differences in the spectral range representative of tryptophan residues of proteins, with excitation at 290 nm and emission scanned in the 300 nm - 440 nm range. Excitation scans between 240 nm and 310 nm were also performed for the emission at 340 nm. Moreover, we observed clearly pronounced differences in the excitation and emission in the visible range, with 410 nm excitation. These results demonstrate that bacterial and yeast species can be differentiated using their intrinsic fluorescence both in UV and in the visible region. The comparative spectroscopic study of selected strains of Saccharomyces yeast showed clear differences between strains. Spectrally-resolved laser scanning microscopy was carried out to link the results obtained using ensembles of cells with spectral properties of individual cells. Strongly fluorescent subpopulation were observed for all yeast strains with excitation at 405 nm. The fluorescence spectra showed variations correlated with cell brightness. The presented results demonstrate that using autofluorescence, it is possible to differentiate between yeast and lactic acid bacteria and between different yeast species.

  16. i=0 (Information has no intrinsic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written mainly to help identify some contradictions that can be found in the notion of knowledge management though its application is wider-ranging. The author suggests that knowledge - that is to say 'what we know' - can scarcely be understood and managed even by ourselves, much less by means of sophisticated information and communications (ie groupware and shareware technologies. We have progressed from the industrial age through the information age into what is being promoted as the 'golden age' of knowledge and, in the process, we've been led to believe that information contains meaning - rather than just standing for, provoking or evoking meaning in others. The paper argues that unless we take the trouble to face and understand the significance and implications of i=0 (ie that information has no intrinsic meaning and that knowledge is the uniquely human capability of making meaning from information - ideally in face-to-face relationships with other human beings - we may never emerge into any 'golden' age at all! The consequences of i=0 for communications, learning, safety, quality, management (itself, and winning work are also discussed.

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic measurement for Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based upon the Smoluchowski equation on curved manifolds, three physical observables are considered for Brownian displacement, namely geodesic displacement s, Euclidean displacement δR, and projected displacement δR⊥. The Weingarten–Gauss equations are used to calculate the mean-square Euclidean displacements in the short-time regime. Our findings show that from an extrinsic point of view the geometry of the space affects the Brownian motion in such a way that the particle’s diffusion is decelerated, contrasting with the intrinsic point of view where dynamics is controlled by the sign of the Gaussian curvature (Castro-Villarreal, 2010 J. Stat. Mech. P08006). Furthermore, it is possible to give exact formulas for 〈δR〉 and 〈δR2〉 on spheres and minimal surfaces, which are valid for all values of time. In the latter case, surprisingly, Brownian motion corresponds to the usual diffusion in flat geometries, albeit minimal surfaces have non-zero Gaussian curvature. Finally, the two-dimensional case is emphasized due to its close relation to surface self-diffusion in fluid membranes. (paper)

  18. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raül Ramos

    Full Text Available Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment.

  19. Understanding oceanic migrations with intrinsic biogeochemical markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raül; González-Solís, Jacob; Croxall, John P; Oro, Daniel; Ruiz, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Migratory marine vertebrates move annually across remote oceanic water masses crossing international borders. Many anthropogenic threats such as overfishing, bycatch, pollution or global warming put millions of marine migrants at risk especially during their long-distance movements. Therefore, precise knowledge about these migratory movements to understand where and when these animals are more exposed to human impacts is vital for addressing marine conservation issues. Because electronic tracking devices suffer from several constraints, mainly logistical and financial, there is emerging interest in finding appropriate intrinsic markers, such as the chemical composition of inert tissues, to study long-distance migrations and identify wintering sites. Here, using tracked pelagic seabirds and some of their own feathers which were known to be grown at different places and times within the annual cycle, we proved the value of biogeochemical analyses of inert tissue as tracers of marine movements and habitat use. Analyses of feathers grown in summer showed that both stable isotope signatures and element concentrations can signal the origin of breeding birds feeding in distinct water masses. However, only stable isotopes signalled water masses used during winter because elements mainly accumulated during the long breeding period are incorporated into feathers grown in both summer and winter. Our findings shed new light on the simple and effective assignment of marine organisms to distinct oceanic areas, providing new opportunities to study unknown migration patterns of secretive species, including in relation to human-induced mortality on specific populations in the marine environment. PMID:19623244

  20. The intrinsic shape of NGC 3379

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statler, Thomas S.

    1994-01-01

    Photometric and kinematic data from the literature are combined with new dynamical models to derive the intrinsic shape of the 'standard' elliptical galaxy NGC 3379. The parameters that are best constrained are the dynamical triaxiality T (essentially the triaxiality of the total mass distribution) and the short-to long axis ratio of the light distribution c(sub L). The inferred shape is given by a Bayesian probability distribution in the (T, c(sub L) plane. Assuming a uniform prior, the most probable shape is oblate with a flattening of c(sub L) = 87. The distribution is strongly non-Gaussian, however, and the expectation values, (T) = .31 (c(sub L) = .75, imply a flatter and more triaxial figure. The 68% highest posterior density region allows more triaxial shapes as long as they are fairly round, or flatter shapes as long as they are nearly oblate. These results are essentially unchanged if the galaxy is assumed to rotate about its short axis, or if it is modeled as an S0 with a negligible-mass disk rather than as an elliptical. The suggestion of Capaccioli et al. (ApJ, 371, 535 (1991)) that NGC 3379 is a rather flat, triaxial S0 galaxy is found to be improbable at the 98% level; this conclusion is largely independent of the bulge-to-disk ratio or the relative rotation speeds of the two components.

  1. Intrinsic convergence properties of entropic sampling algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the convergence of the density of states and thermodynamic properties in three flat-histogram simulation methods, the Wang–Landau (WL) algorithm, the 1/t algorithm, and tomographic sampling (TS). In the first case the refinement parameter f is rescaled (f → f/2) each time the flat-histogram condition is satisfied, in the second f ∼ 1/t after a suitable initial phase, while in the third f is constant (t corresponds to Monte Carlo time). To examine the intrinsic convergence properties of these methods, free of any complications associated with a specific model, we study a featureless entropy landscape, such that for each allowed energy E = 1, ..., L, there is exactly one state, that is, g(E) = 1 for all E. Convergence of sampling corresponds to g(E, t) → const. as t → ∞, so that the standard deviation σg of g over energy values is a measure of the overall sampling error. Neither the WL algorithm nor TS converge: in both cases σg saturates at long times. In the 1/t algorithm, by contrast, σg decays ∝1/√t. Modified TS and 1/t procedures, in which f ∝ 1/tα, converge for α values between 0  α with 0  1 the initial error is never completely eliminated. (paper)

  2. Exploiting intrinsic fluctuations to identify model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Christoph; Sahle, Sven; Pahle, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Parameterisation of kinetic models plays a central role in computational systems biology. Besides the lack of experimental data of high enough quality, some of the biggest challenges here are identification issues. Model parameters can be structurally non-identifiable because of functional relationships. Noise in measured data is usually considered to be a nuisance for parameter estimation. However, it turns out that intrinsic fluctuations in particle numbers can make parameters identifiable that were previously non-identifiable. The authors present a method to identify model parameters that are structurally non-identifiable in a deterministic framework. The method takes time course recordings of biochemical systems in steady state or transient state as input. Often a functional relationship between parameters presents itself by a one-dimensional manifold in parameter space containing parameter sets of optimal goodness. Although the system's behaviour cannot be distinguished on this manifold in a deterministic framework it might be distinguishable in a stochastic modelling framework. Their method exploits this by using an objective function that includes a measure for fluctuations in particle numbers. They show on three example models, immigration-death, gene expression and Epo-EpoReceptor interaction, that this resolves the non-identifiability even in the case of measurement noise with known amplitude. The method is applied to partially observed recordings of biochemical systems with measurement noise. It is simple to implement and it is usually very fast to compute. This optimisation can be realised in a classical or Bayesian fashion. PMID:26672148

  3. Surgical Treatment Guidelines for Digital Deformity Associated With Intrinsic Muscle Spasticity (Intrinsic Plus Foot) in Adults With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffeli, Troy J; Collier, Rachel C

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic plus foot deformity has primarily been associated with cerebral palsy and involves spastic contracture of the intrinsic musculature with resultant toe deformities. Digital deformity is caused by a dynamic imbalance between the intrinsic muscles in the foot and extrinsic muscles in the lower leg. Spastic contracture of the toes frequently involves curling under of the lesser digits or contracture of the hallux into valgus or plantarflexion deformity. Patients often present with associated pressure ulcers, deformed toenails, shoe or brace fitting challenges, and pain with ambulation or transfers. Four different patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity have been observed by the authors that likely relate to the different patterns of muscle involvement. Case examples are provided of the 4 patterns of intrinsic plus foot deformity observed, including global intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, isolated intrinsic plus lesser toe deformity, intrinsic plus hallux valgus deformity, and intrinsic plus hallux flexus deformity. These case examples are presented to demonstrate each type of deformity and our approach for surgical management according to the contracture pattern. The surgical approach has typically involved tenotomy, capsulotomy, or isolated joint fusion. The main goals of surgical treatment are to relieve pain and reduce pressure points through digital realignment in an effort to decrease the risk of pressure sores and allow more effective bracing to ultimately improve the patient's mobility. PMID:25154656

  4. BANKERS’ PREFERENCES AND LOCATING FEDERAL RESERVE BANK LOCATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Mc Avoy

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines the relationship between the locations bankers preferred to locate Federal Reserve banks and the locations selected by the committee charged with organizing the Federal Reserve System. Immediately following the decision locating the 12 Federal Reserve banks, citizens and organizations alleged that the responsible political committee behaved with partisanship and favoritism, criticisms repeated to the present time. I examine the committee’s selections using a previously unr...

  5. Complete Firing-Rate Response of Neurons with Complex Intrinsic Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puelma Touzel, Maximilian; Wolf, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The response of a neuronal population over a space of inputs depends on the intrinsic properties of its constituent neurons. Two main modes of single neuron dynamics-integration and resonance-have been distinguished. While resonator cell types exist in a variety of brain areas, few models incorporate this feature and fewer have investigated its effects. To understand better how a resonator's frequency preference emerges from its intrinsic dynamics and contributes to its local area's population firing rate dynamics, we analyze the dynamic gain of an analytically solvable two-degree of freedom neuron model. In the Fokker-Planck approach, the dynamic gain is intractable. The alternative Gauss-Rice approach lifts the resetting of the voltage after a spike. This allows us to derive a complete expression for the dynamic gain of a resonator neuron model in terms of a cascade of filters on the input. We find six distinct response types and use them to fully characterize the routes to resonance across all values of the relevant timescales. We find that resonance arises primarily due to slow adaptation with an intrinsic frequency acting to sharpen and adjust the location of the resonant peak. We determine the parameter regions for the existence of an intrinsic frequency and for subthreshold and spiking resonance, finding all possible intersections of the three. The expressions and analysis presented here provide an account of how intrinsic neuron dynamics shape dynamic population response properties and can facilitate the construction of an exact theory of correlations and stability of population activity in networks containing populations of resonator neurons. PMID:26720924

  6. Making the primary utility of travel concept operational: a measurement model for the assessment of the intrinsic utility of reported trips

    OpenAIRE

    Diana, Marco

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research is casting light on the intrinsic utility of the traveling activity, something that seems not identifiable with the utility of performing activities at different locations. As a complement to previous speculative and empirical researches on this topic, the present study proposes a measurement model for the intrinsic, or primary utility of travel. A new definition of primary utility is proposed, keeping into account the users of different transportation modes, beyond...

  7. Intrinsic Motivation--An Overlooked Basis for Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso-Ahola, Seppo E.

    1982-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation is discussed as the main concern of evaluation of leisure and recreational programs. Two factors influencing leisure behavior are perceived freedom and perceived competence. Two types of intrinsic rewards are possible from leisure participation: rewards and those obtained from a change in environment. Evaluation should then…

  8. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  9. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    . Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  10. Creativity as Mediator for Intrinsic Motivation and Sales Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodla, Mahmood A.; Naeem, Basharat

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical literature indicates inconsistent performance implications of intrinsic motivation, suggesting the possibility of some explanatory mechanisms. However, little is known about the factors that might explain intrinsic motivation and sales force performance relation, particularly in highly competitive and…

  11. A prototype empirical framework of intrinsic and extrinsic EERQI indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    The research question is: What do statistical analyses show us about the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic indicators of quality and what does this mean when constructing a prototype EERQI framework? The pilot study involved the scoring on both intrinsic and extrinsic indica-tors for 177

  12. Intrinsic Decoherence and Irreversibility in the Quasiperiodic Kicked Rotor

    CERN Document Server

    Shifino, A C S; Siri, R; Romanelli, A; Donangelo, R J

    2003-01-01

    We show that some classically chaotic quantum systems uncoupled from noisy environments may generate intrinsic decoherence with all its associated effects. In particular, we have observed time irreversibility and high sensitivity to small perturbations in the initial conditions in a quasiperiodic version of the kicked rotor. The existence of simple quantum systems with intrinsic decoherence clarifies the quantum--classical correspondence in chaotic systems.

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  14. Intrinsic nanoscale phase separation in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    A model is used to describe the intrinsic nanoscale phase separation in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies. Phase-separated nanostructures related to size-dependent surface tension, molecular structural factors and strong interphase interactions exist in miscible mixtures and supramolecular assemblies. The intrinsic nanoscale phase separation may exist universally in miscible mixtures.

  15. ICE Online Detainee Locator System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Online Detainee Locator datasets provide the location of a detainee who is currently in ICE custody, or who was release from ICE custody for any reason with the...

  16. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline open-quotes good faithclose quotes for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds

  17. Increased expression of fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum in the valproic acid model of autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianling; Wu, Wei; Fu, Yingmei; Yu, Shunying; Cui, Donghong; Zhao, Min; Du, Yasong; Li, Jijun; Li, Xiaohong

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in enzymes associated with fatty acid synthesis, namely fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model of autism. In this model, pregnant rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of VPA, and prefrontal cortex and cerebellum samples from their pups were analyzed. The results of western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the protein and mRNA expression levels of FASN, ACC and phospho-ACC (pACC) were increased in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism. Furthermore, in the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum of the VPA model of autism, AMPK expression is increased, whereas PI3K and Akt expression are unchanged. This suggests that disorder of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/FASN and/or adenosine 5′-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/ACC pathway may be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. It is hypothesized that fatty acid synthesis participates in autism through PI3K/Akt/FASN and AMPK/ACC pathways. PMID:27602061

  18. The glossyhead1 Allele of ACC1 Reveals a Principal Role for Multidomain Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase in the Biosynthesis of Cuticular Waxes by Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, S.; Xu, C.; Zhao, H.; Parsons, E. P.; Kosma, D. K.; Xu, X.; Chao, D.; Lohrey, G.; Bangarusamy, D. K.; Wang, G.; Bressan, R. A.; Jenks, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C{sub 20:0} or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling.

  19. Decreasing the Rate of Metabolic Ketone Reduction in the Discovery of a Clinical Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, David A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kung, Daniel W. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Esler, William P. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Amor, Paul A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Bagley, Scott W. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Beysen, Carine [KineMed Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States); Carvajal-Gonzalez, Santos [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Doran, Shawn D. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Limberakis, Chris [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mathiowetz, Alan M. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); McPherson, Kirk [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Price, David A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ravussin, Eric [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Sonnenberg, Gabriele E. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Southers, James A. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sweet, Laurel J. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States); Turner, Scott M. [KineMed Inc., Emeryville, CA (United States); Vajdos, Felix F. [Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-12-26

    We found that Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) inhibitors offer significant potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hepatic steatosis, and cancer. However, the identification of tool compounds suitable to test the hypothesis in human trials has been challenging. An advanced series of spirocyclic ketone-containing ACC inhibitors recently reported by Pfizer were metabolized in vivo by ketone reduction, which complicated human pharmacology projections. Here, we disclose that this metabolic reduction can be greatly attenuated through introduction of steric hindrance adjacent to the ketone carbonyl. Incorporation of weakly basic functionality improved solubility and led to the identification of 9 as a clinical candidate for the treatment of T2DM. Phase I clinical studies demonstrated dose-proportional increases in exposure, single-dose inhibition of de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and changes in indirect calorimetry consistent with increased whole-body fatty acid oxidation. This demonstration of target engagement validates the use of compound 9 to evaluate the role of DNL in human disease.

  20. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Biotin augments acetyl CoA carboxylase 2 gene expression in the hypothalamus, leading to the suppression of food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Hideyuki; Kamiyama, Shin; Higuchi, Mutsumi; Fujino, Kaho; Kubo, Shizuka; Miyazawa, Masami; Shirato, Saya; Hiroi, Yuka; Shiozawa, Kota

    2016-07-29

    It is known that biotin prevents the development of diabetes by increasing the functions of pancreatic beta-cells and improving insulin sensitivity in the periphery. However, its anti-obesity effects such as anorectic effects remain to be clarified. Acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), a biotin-dependent enzyme, has two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) and serves to catalyze the reaction of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA. In the hypothalamus, ACC2 increases the production of malonyl CoA, which acts as a satiety signal. In this study, we investigated whether biotin increases the gene expression of ACC2 in the hypothalamus and suppresses food intake in mice administered excessive biotin. Food intake was significantly decreased by biotin, but plasma regulators of appetite, including glucose, ghrelin, and leptin, were not affected. On the other hand, biotin notably accumulated in the hypothalamus and enhanced ACC2 gene expression there, but it did not change the gene expression of ACC1, malonyl CoA decarboxylase (a malonyl CoA-degrading enzyme), and AMP-activated protein kinase α-2 (an ACC-inhibitory enzyme). These findings strongly suggest that biotin potentiates the suppression of appetite by upregulating ACC2 gene expression in the hypothalamus. This effect of biotin may contribute to the prevention of diabetes by biotin treatment. PMID:27181349

  2. Effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase expression in pea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeau, N.; Coleman, J.R. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The effect of external CO{sub 2} concentration on the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was examined in pea (Pisum sativum cv Little Marvel) leaves. Enzyme activities and their transcript levels were reduced in plants grown at 1000 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} compared with plants grown in ambient air. Growth at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} also appeared to reduce steady-state transcript levels for the rbcS, the gene encoding the small subunit of Rubisco, and for ca, the gene encoding CA; however, rbcS transcripts were reduced to a greater extent at this concentration. Rubisco activity was slightly lower in plants grown at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2}, and CA activity was significantly higher than that observed in air-grown plants. Transfer of plants from 1000 {mu}L/L to air levels of CO{sub 2} resulted in a rapid increase in both ca and rbcS transcript abundance in fully expanded leaves, followed by an increase in enzyme activity. Plants transferred from air to high-CO{sub 2} concentrations appeared to modulate transcript abundance and enzyme activity less quickly. Foliar carbohydrate levels were also examined in plants grown continuously at high and ambient CO{sub 2}, and following changes in growth conditions that rapidly altered ca and rbcS transcript abundance and enzyme activities. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Search for novel targets of the PII signal transduction protein in Bacteria identifies the BCCP component of acetyl-CoA carboxylase as a PII binding partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thiago E; Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Oliveira, Marco A; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Souza, Gustavo A; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Huergo, Luciano F

    2014-02-01

    The PII family comprises a group of widely distributed signal transduction proteins. The archetypal function of PII is to regulate nitrogen metabolism in bacteria. As PII can sense a range of metabolic signals, it has been suggested that the number of metabolic pathways regulated by PII may be much greater than described in the literature. In order to provide experimental evidence for this hypothesis a PII protein affinity column was used to identify PII targets in Azospirillum brasilense. One of the PII partners identified was the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP), a component of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase which catalyses the committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis. As BCCP had been previously identified as a PII target in Arabidopsis thaliana we hypothesized that the PII -BCCP interaction would be conserved throughout Bacteria. In vitro experiments using purified proteins confirmed that the PII -BCCP interaction is conserved in Escherichia coli. The BCCP-PII interaction required MgATP and was dissociated by increasing 2-oxoglutarate. The interaction was modestly affected by the post-translational uridylylation status of PII ; however, it was completely dependent on the post-translational biotinylation of BCCP. PMID:24329683

  4. Intrinsic time in Geometrodynamics: introduction and application to Friedmann cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    An intrinsic local time in Geometrodynamics is obtained with using a scaled Dirac's mapping. By addition of a background metric, one can construct a scalar field. It is suitable to play a role of intrinsic time. Cauchy problem was successfully solved in conformal variables because they are physical ones. First, the intrinsic time as a logarithm of determinant of spatial metric, was applied to a cosmological problem by Misner. A global time is exist under condition of constant mean curvature slicing of spacetime. A volume of hypersurface and the so-called mean York's time are canonical conjugated pair. So, the volume is the intrinsic global time by its sense. The experimentally observed redshift in cosmology is the evidence of its existence. An intrinsic time of homogeneous models is global. The Friedmann equation by its sense ties time intervals. Exact solutions of the Friedmann equation in Standard cosmology with standard and conformal units are presented. Theoretical curves interpolated the Hubble diagram o...

  5. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  6. Intrinsic organization of the anesthetized brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhifeng; King, Jean; Zhang, Nanyin

    2012-07-25

    The neural mechanism of unconsciousness has been a major unsolved question in neuroscience despite its vital role in brain states like coma and anesthesia. The existing literature suggests that neural connections, information integration, and conscious states are closely related. Indeed, alterations in several important neural circuitries and networks during unconscious conditions have been reported. However, how the whole-brain network is topologically reorganized to support different patterns of information transfer during unconscious states remains unknown. Here we directly compared whole-brain neural networks in awake and anesthetized states in rodents. Consistent with our previous report, the awake rat brain was organized in a nontrivial manner and conserved fundamental topological properties in a way similar to the human brain. Strikingly, these topological features were well maintained in the anesthetized brain. Local neural networks in the anesthetized brain were reorganized with altered local network properties. The connectional strength between brain regions was also considerably different between the awake and anesthetized conditions. Interestingly, we found that long-distance connections were not preferentially reduced in the anesthetized condition, arguing against the hypothesis that loss of long-distance connections is characteristic to unconsciousness. These findings collectively show that the integrity of the whole-brain network can be conserved between widely dissimilar physiologic states while local neural networks can flexibly adapt to new conditions. They also illustrate that the governing principles of intrinsic brain organization might represent fundamental characteristics of the healthy brain. With the unique spatial and temporal scales of resting-state fMRI, this study has opened a new avenue for understanding the neural mechanism of (un)consciousness. PMID:22836253

  7. Intrinsic flood-field uniformity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality assurance program in a Nuclear Medicine Department pretends to minimize errors and artifacts that cover all aspects of clinical practice. The intrinsic flood-field uniformity is one of the quality control procedures to evaluate the response of a gamma camera to a spatially uniform flux of an incident gamma radiation over the field of view. The purpose of this study is to test our gamma cameras, by recording the obtained results of the integral and differential uniformity in order to generate a data base which is going to be our reference benchmark to evaluate the performance of the systems in the future. At the beginning we performed an evaluation of our acquisition protocol which implies the variation of the acquired counts, the energy window width and its placement. After that, we analyzed the recording data, creating plots which show the performance of the systems. As a result using an energy window placed at 140 keV at 20%, with matrix size of 512 x 512, acquiring 15 million counts and the source activity close to 700 μC; we obtained good images and both uniformities are within the manufacture's requirements, however, increasing the number of acquired counts, images are much better and an improvement in the evaluated parameters can be seen. The performance evaluation, of the three gamma cameras, was taken into account for approximately 240 days, showing an integral uniformity range of 1.04 - 3.5 % and the range for differential uniformity varies from 0.88 up to 2.7 %. We conclude that the gamma cameras were working well, we do not need to vary our acquisition protocol because it is good to evaluate these figures; also other factors affecting the quality of the images are radioactive waste material not very well shielded and temperature room variations, especially at the beginning of our workday. (author)

  8. The high risk location approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The high risk location approach is one of the most traditional ways of improving road safety. This reactive approach tackles unsafe situations at locations with the most crashes. On average, this approach results in an 18% reduction in casualties at such locations. However, in the Netherlands this a

  9. Location theory a unified approach

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Although modern location theory is now more than 90 years old, the focus of researchers in this area has been mainly problem oriented. However, a common theory, which keeps the essential characteristics of classical location models, is still missing.This monograph addresses this issue. A flexible location problem called the Ordered Median Problem (OMP) is introduced. For all three main subareas of location theory (continuous, network and discrete location) structural properties of the OMP are presented and solution approaches provided. Numerous illustrations and examples help the reader to bec

  10. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra characteristics of vitamin B1, B2, and B6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Xiao, Xue; Zhao, Xuesong; Hu, Lan; Lv, Caofang; Yin, Zhangkun

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic fluorescence characteristics of vitamin B1, B2 and B6 measured with 3D fluorescence Spectrophotometer. Three strong fluorescence areas of vitamin B2 locate at λex/λem=270/525nm, 370/525nm and 450/525nm, one fluorescence areas of vitamin B1 locates at λex/λem=370/460nm, two fluorescence areas of vitamin B6 locates at λex/λem=250/370nm and 325/370nm were found. The influence of pH of solution to the fluorescence profile was also discussed. Using the PARAFAC algorithm, 10 vitamin B1, B2 and B6 mixed solutions were successfully decomposed, and the emission profiles, excitation profiles, central wavelengths and the concentration of the three components were retrieved precisely through about 5 iteration times.

  11. Location-based Web Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Dirk; Boll, Susanne

    In recent years, the relation of Web information to a physical location has gained much attention. However, Web content today often carries only an implicit relation to a location. In this chapter, we present a novel location-based search engine that automatically derives spatial context from unstructured Web resources and allows for location-based search: our focused crawler applies heuristics to crawl and analyze Web pages that have a high probability of carrying a spatial relation to a certain region or place; the location extractor identifies the actual location information from the pages; our indexer assigns a geo-context to the pages and makes them available for a later spatial Web search. We illustrate the usage of our spatial Web search for location-based applications that provide information not only right-in-time but also right-on-the-spot.

  12. Language supports young children's use of spatial relations to remember locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary E; Patterson, Rebecca; Simmering, Vanessa R

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of language in children's spatial recall performance. In particular, we assessed whether selecting an intrinsic reference frame could be improved through verbal encoding. Selecting an intrinsic reference frame requires remembering locations relative to nearby objects independent of one's body (egocentric) or distal environmental (allocentric) cues, and does not reliably occur in children under 5 years of age (Nardini, Burgess, Breckenridge, & Atkinson, 2006). The current studies tested the relation between spatial language and 4-year-olds' selection of an intrinsic reference frame in spatial recall. Experiment 1 showed that providing 4-year-olds with location-descriptive cues during (Exp. 1a) or before (Exp. 1b) the recall task improved performance both overall and specifically on trials relying most on an intrinsic reference frame. Additionally, children's recall performance was predicted by their verbal descriptions of the task space (Exp. 1a control condition). Non-verbally highlighting relations among objects during the recall task (Exp. 2) supported children's performance relative to the control condition, but significantly less than the location-descriptive cues. These results suggest that the ability to verbally represent relations is a potential mechanism that could account for developmental changes in the selection of an intrinsic reference frame during spatial recall. PMID:26896902

  13. Major intrinsic proteins in biomimetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes define the structural and functional boundaries in living cells and their organelles. The integrity of the cell depends on its ability to separate inside from outside and yet at the same time allow massive transport of matter in and out the cell. Nature has elegantly met this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting-the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 10(9) molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other permeants such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and the metalloids antimonite, arsenite, silicic and boric acid depending on the effective restriction mechanism of the protein. The flux properties of MIPs thus lead to the question ifMIPs can be used in separation devices or as sensor devices based on, e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport

  14. Location Systems An Introduction to the Technology Behind Location Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    LaMarca, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Advances in electronic location technology and the coming of age of mobile computing have opened the door for location-aware applications to permeate all aspects of everyday life. Location is at the core of a large number of high-value applications ranging from the life-and-death context of emergency response to serendipitous social meet-ups. For example, the market for GPS products and services alone is expected to grow to US200 billion by 2015. Unfortunately, there is no single location technology that is good for every situation and exhibits high accuracy, low cost, and universal coverage.

  15. Intrinsic structural disorder confers cellular viability on oncogenic fusion proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedi Hegyi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations, which often generate chimeric proteins by fusing segments of two distinct genes, represent the single major genetic aberration leading to cancer. We suggest that the unifying theme of these events is a high level of intrinsic structural disorder, enabling fusion proteins to evade cellular surveillance mechanisms that eliminate misfolded proteins. Predictions in 406 translocation-related human proteins show that they are significantly enriched in disorder (43.3% vs. 20.7% in all human proteins, they have fewer Pfam domains, and their translocation breakpoints tend to avoid domain splitting. The vicinity of the breakpoint is significantly more disordered than the rest of these already highly disordered fusion proteins. In the unlikely event of domain splitting in fusion it usually spares much of the domain or splits at locations where the newly exposed hydrophobic surface area approximates that of an intact domain. The mechanisms of action of fusion proteins suggest that in most cases their structural disorder is also essential to the acquired oncogenic function, enabling the long-range structural communication of remote binding and/or catalytic elements. In this respect, there are three major mechanisms that contribute to generating an oncogenic signal: (i a phosphorylation site and a tyrosine-kinase domain are fused, and structural disorder of the intervening region enables intramolecular phosphorylation (e.g., BCR-ABL; (ii a dimerisation domain fuses with a tyrosine kinase domain and disorder enables the two subunits within the homodimer to engage in permanent intermolecular phosphorylations (e.g., TFG-ALK; (iii the fusion of a DNA-binding element to a transactivator domain results in an aberrant transcription factor that causes severe misregulation of transcription (e.g. EWS-ATF. Our findings also suggest novel strategies of intervention against the ensuing neoplastic transformations.

  16. How can we define intrinsic motivation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Kaplan, Frédéric

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation is a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development since it is the driver of spontaneous exploration and curiosity. Yet, it has so far only been conceptualized in ad hoc manners in the epigenetic robotics com- munity. After reviewing different approaches to intrinsic motivation in psychology, this pa- per presents a unified definition of intrinsic mo- tivation, based on the theory of Daniel Berlyne. Based on this definition, we propose a landscape of types of computa...

  17. Dynamics of intrinsic electrophysiological properties in spinal cord neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    The spinal cord is engaged in a wide variety of functions including generation of motor acts, coding of sensory information and autonomic control. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of spinal neurones represent a fundamental building block of the spinal circuits executing these tasks....... The intrinsic response properties of spinal neurones--determined by the particular set and distribution of voltage sensitive channels and their dynamic non-linear interactions--show a high degree of functional specialisation as reflected by the differences of intrinsic response patterns in different...

  18. Location and the multinational enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    John Cantwell

    2009-01-01

    In the early development of the international business field, the focus of attention moved from the country level to the firm level, and interest in location issues declined. More recently, firm-based research has itself become increasingly concerned with the study of firm–location interactions. When examining two-way knowledge flows or spillovers between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and other actors in specific locations, the diversity or heterogeneity of firms matters, as does the diver...

  19. Bilateral monopolies and location choice

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke, Kurt R.; Straume, Odd Rune

    2002-01-01

    We analyse how equilibrium locations in location-price games à la Hotelling are affected when firms acquire inputs through bilateral monopoly relations with suppliers. Assuming a duopoly downstream market, we consider the case of two independent input suppliers bargaining with both downstream firms. We find that the presence of input suppliers changes the locational incentives of downstream firms in several ways, compared with the case of exogenous production costs. Bargaining induces downstr...

  20. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...... reasonable cost given the ubiquitous availability of location information in recent wireless standards or smart phones. Location tracking furthermore opens the new perspective of slow fading prediction....

  1. Effects of reducing frequency of intrinsic knowledge of results on the learning of a motor skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butki, Brian D; Hoffman, Shirl J

    2003-10-01

    The guidance hypothesis suggests too much knowledge of results during skill acquisition can be detrimental to long-term performance. Possibly, the learner becomes dependent on augmented KR and is unable to use intrinsic feedback. This study examined this hypothesis with three groups performing a golf putting task. One group received continuous KR about ball path and final location; the other groups were deprived of specific KR on 50% or 100% of the acquisition trials. As expected, the continuous KR group performed better during acquisition, but the KR-deprived groups performed better on delayed retention trials, especially when KR was absent. PMID:14620246

  2. A new nanoscale fin field effect transistor with embedded intrinsic region for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fa.; Orouji, Ali A.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper reveals a novel structure of nanoscale Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) in which an intrinsic region (EIR) is embedded into the buried oxide layer. The key idea in this work is to improve the critical thermal problems raised by the self-heating effect (SHE). The EIR-FinFET device has lower thermal resistance, reduced hot carrier effect, lower threshold voltage roll-off, and lower critical electric field in comparison with the C-FinFET. Also, higher DC transconductance, lower DC conductance and a better gate capacitance are obtained because the intrinsic region is embedded in a suitable place. Moreover, the simulation result with three-dimensional and two-carrier device simulator demonstrates an improved output characteristic of the proposed structure due to the reduced self-heating effect. The intrinsic silicon layer is located under the source and fin regions and provides more space to dissipate the accumulated heat. Due to the high thermal conductivity of the silicon and decreasing corner effects there, the heat will flow easily and the lattice temperature will decrease. All the extracted results attempt to show the superiority of the EIR-FinFET device over the conventional one, and its effect on the operation of nanoscale low power and high speed devices.

  3. Status of the substrate binding sites of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase as determined with 2-C-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of the tight and specific binding of 2-C-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (CABP), which occurs only to reaction sites of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) that are activated by CO2 and Mg2+, were studied. With fully active purified spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Rubisco the rate of tight binding of [14C]CABP fit a multiple exponential rate equation with half of the sites binding with a rate constant of 40 per minute and the second half of the sites binding at 3.2 per minute. This suggests that after CABP binds to one site of a dimer of Rubisco large subunits, binding to the second site is considerably slower, indicating negative cooperativity as previously reported. The rate of CABP binding to partially activated Rubisco was complete within 2 to 5 minutes, with slower binding to inactive sites as they formed the carbamate and bound Mg2+. Addition of [14C]CABP and EDTA stopped binding of Mg2+ and allowed tight binding of the radiolabel only to sites which were CO2/Mg2+-activated at that moment. The rate of CO2 fixation was proportional to the CO2/Mg2+-activated sites. During light-dependent CO2 fixation with isolated spinach chloroplasts, the amount of carbamylation was proportional to Rubisco activity either initially upon lysis of the plastids or following total activation with Mg2+ and CO2. Lysis of chloroplasts in media with [14C]CABP plus EDTA estimated those carbamylated sites having Mg2+. The loss of Rubisco activation during illumination was partially due to the lack of Mg2+ to stabilize the carbamylated sites

  4. Inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylases by soraphen A prevents lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordonier, Elizabeth L; Jarecke, Sarah K; Hollinger, Frances E; Zempleni, Janos

    2016-06-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylases (ACC) 1 and 2 catalyze the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA and depend on biotin as a coenzyme. ACC1 localizes in the cytoplasm and produces malonyl-CoA for fatty acid (FA) synthesis. ACC2 localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane and produces malonyl-CoA that inhibits FA import into mitochondria for subsequent oxidation. We hypothesized that ACCs are checkpoints in adipocyte differentiation and tested this hypothesis using the ACC1 and ACC2 inhibitor soraphen A (SA) in murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 100nM SA for 8 days after induction of differentiation, the expression of PPARγ mRNA and FABP4 mRNA decreased by 40% and 50%, respectively, compared with solvent controls; the decrease in gene expression was accompanied by a decrease in FABP4 protein expression and associated with a decrease in lipid droplet accumulation. The rate of FA oxidation was 300% greater in SA-treated cells compared with vehicle controls. Treatment with exogenous palmitate restored PPARγ and FABP4 mRNA expression and FABP4 protein expression in SA-treated cells. In contrast, SA did not alter lipid accumulation if treatment was initiated on day eight after induction of differentiation. We conclude that loss of ACC1-dependent FA synthesis and loss of ACC2-dependent inhibition of FA oxidation prevent lipid accumulation in adipocytes and inhibit early stages of adipocyte differentiation. PMID:27041646

  5. Discrimination in the dark. Resolving the interplay between metabolic and physical constraints to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity during the crassulacean acid metabolism cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Howard; Cousins, Asaph B; Badger, Murray R; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2007-02-01

    A model defining carbon isotope discrimination (delta13C) for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants was experimentally validated using Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and instantaneous CO2 discrimination (for 13C and 18O) were made from late photoperiod (phase IV of CAM), throughout the dark period (phase I), and into the light (phase II). Measurements of CO2 response curves throughout the dark period revealed changing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) capacity. These systematic changes in PEPC capacity were tracked by net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, and online delta13C signal; all declined at the start of the dark period, then increased to a maximum 2 h before dawn. Measurements of delta13C were higher than predicted from the ratio of intercellular to external CO2 (p(i)/p(a)) and fractionation associated with CO2 hydration and PEPC carboxylations alone, such that the dark period mesophyll conductance, g(i), was 0.044 mol m(-2) s(-1) bar(-1). A higher estimate of g(i) (0.085 mol m(-2) s(-1) bar(-1)) was needed to account for the modeled and measured delta18O discrimination throughout the dark period. The differences in estimates of g(i) from the two isotope measurements, and an offset of -5.5 per thousand between the 18O content of source and transpired water, suggest spatial variations in either CO2 diffusion path length and/or carbonic anhydrase activity, either within individual cells or across a succulent leaf. Our measurements support the model predictions to show that internal CO2 diffusion limitations within CAM leaves increase delta13C discrimination during nighttime CO2 fixation while reducing delta13C during phase IV. When evaluating the phylogenetic distribution of CAM, carbon isotope composition will reflect these diffusive limitations as well as relative contributions from C3 and C4 biochemistry. PMID:17142488

  6. Computational simulations of structural role of the active-site W374C mutation of acetyl-coenzyme-A carboxylase: multi-drug resistance mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yu, Ning-Xi; Yang, Sheng-Gang; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2011-03-01

    Herbicides targeting grass plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase, EC 6.4.1.2) are selectively effective against graminicides. The intensive worldwide use of this herbicide family has selected for resistance genes in a number of grass weed species. Recently, the active-site W374C mutation was found to confer multi-drug resistance toward haloxyfop (HF), fenoxaprop (FR), Diclofop (DF), and clodinafop (CF) in A. myosuroides. In order to uncover the resistance mechanism due to W374C mutation, the binding of above-mentioned four herbicides to both wild-type and the mutant-type ACCase was investigated in the current work by molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding free energies were calculated by molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method. The calculated binding free energy values for four herbicides were qualitatively consistent with the experimental order of IC(50) values. All the computational model and energetic results indicated that the W374C mutation has great effects on the conformational change of the binding pocket and the ligand-protein interactions. The most significant conformational change was found to be associated with the aromatic amino acid residues, such as Phe377, Tyr161' and Trp346. As a result, the π-π interaction between the ligand and the residue of Phe377 and Tyr161', which make important contributions to the binding affinity, was decreased after mutation and the binding affinity for the inhibitors to the mutant-type ACCase was less than that to the wild-type enzyme, which accounts for the molecular basis of herbicidal resistance. The structural role and mechanistic insights obtained from computational simulations will provide a new starting point for the rational design of novel inhibitors to overcome drug resistance associated with W374C mutation. PMID:20499260

  7. Expression and methylation of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and acetyl-CoA carboxylase are associated with fatty liver syndrome in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Qinghe; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Guiping; Zhang, Yonghong; Zheng, Maiqing; Cui, Huanxian; Li, Peng; Cui, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jie; Wen, Jie

    2016-06-01

    The typical characteristic of fatty liver syndrome (FLS) is an increased hepatic triacylglycerol content, and a sudden decline in egg production often occurs. FLS may develop into fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS), characterized by sudden death from hepatic rupture and hemorrhage. DNA methylation is associated with transcriptional silencing, leading to the etiology and pathogenesis of some animal diseases. The roles of DNA methylation in the genesis of FLS, however, are largely unknown. The lipogenic methyl-deficient diet (MDD) caused FLS similar to human nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). After 16 Jingxing-Huang (JXH) hens were fed MDD for 10 wk, eight exhibited FLS (designated as FLS-susceptible birds); the remainder, without FLS, served as controls (NFLS). Physiological and biochemical variables, gene expression levels, and DNA methylation were determined in the liver. The development of FLS in JXH hens was accompanied by abnormal lipid accumulation. Relative expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) were significantly up-regulated in the FLS group in comparison with the NFLS group. The transcript abundance of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1c), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) did not differ between the two groups. Interestingly, MTTP and ACC mRNA abundance were negatively correlated with the level of promoter methylation. The extent of DNA methylation of the cytosine-guanine (CpG) sites in the SREBP-1c, FAS, PPARα, and LXRα promoter regions was also analyzed by direct sequencing but none differed between FLS and NFLS birds. Taken together, these results specify link DNA methylation to the pathogenesis of FLS in chickens. PMID:27083546

  8. Recombinant thermoactive phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and its coupling with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs) for the conversion of CO2 to oxaloacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Sonia; De Luca, Viviana; Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carginale, Vincenzo

    2016-01-15

    With the continuous increase of atmospheric CO2 in the last decades, efficient methods for carbon capture, sequestration, and utilization are urgently required. The possibility of converting CO2 into useful chemicals could be a good strategy to both decreasing the CO2 concentration and for achieving an efficient exploitation of this cheap carbon source. Recently, several single- and multi-enzyme systems for the catalytic conversion of CO2 mainly to bicarbonate have been implemented. In order to design and construct a catalytic system for the conversion of CO2 to organic molecules, we implemented an in vitro multienzyme system using mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes. The system, in fact, was constituted by a recombinant phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus, in combination with mesophilic/thermophilic bacterial carbonic anhydrases (CAs), for converting CO2 into oxaloacetate, a compound of potential utility in industrial processes. The catalytic procedure is in two steps: the conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by CA, followed by the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate with bicarbonate, catalyzed by PEPC, with formation of oxaloacetate (OAA). All tested CAs, belonging to α-, β-, and γ-CA classes, were able to increase OAA production compared to procedures when only PEPC was used. Interestingly, the efficiency of the CAs tested in OAA production was in good agreement with the kinetic parameters for the CO2 hydration reaction of these enzymes. This PEPC also revealed to be thermoactive and thermostable, and when coupled with the extremely thermostable CA from Sulphurhydrogenibium azorense (SazCA) the production of OAA was achieved even if the two enzymes were exposed to temperatures up to 60 °C, suggesting a possible role of the two coupled enzymes in biotechnological processes. PMID:26712095

  9. Associations of polymorphisms in the promoter I of bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha gene with beef fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Knight, T J; Reecy, J M; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Cundiff, L V; Beitz, D C

    2010-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter I (PI) region of the bovine acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACACA) gene and to evaluate the extent to which they were associated with lipid-related traits. Eight novel SNPs were identified, which were AJ276223:g.2064T>A (SNP1), g.2155C>T (SNP2), g.2203G>T (SNP3), g.2268T>C (SNP4), g.2274G>A (SNP5), g.2340A>G (SNP6), g.2350T>C (SNP7) and g.2370A>G (SNP8). Complete linkage disequilibrium was observed among SNP1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8. Phenotypic data were collected from 573 cross-bred steers with six sire breeds, including Hereford, Angus, Brangus, Beefmaster, Bonsmara and Romosinuano. The genotypes of SNP1/2/4/5/6/8 were significantly associated with adjusted backfat thickness. The genotypes of SNP3 were significantly associated with triacylglycerol (TAG) content and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) in Brangus-, Romosinuano- and Bonsmara-sired cattle. Cattle with g.2203GG genotype had greater concentrations of TAG, total lipid, total saturated fatty acid and total monounsaturated fatty acid than did cattle with g.2203GT genotype. The genotypes of SNP7 were significantly associated with fatty acid composition of LM. Cattle with genotype g.2350TC had greater amounts of several fatty acids in LM than did cattle with genotype g.2350CC. Our results suggested that the SNPs in the PI region of ACACA gene are associated with variations in the fatty acid contents in LM. PMID:20002363

  10. Pyruvate Carboxylase Is Up-Regulated in Breast Cancer and Essential to Support Growth and Invasion of MDA-MB-231 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phatchariya Phannasil

    Full Text Available Pyruvate carboxylase (PC is an anaplerotic enzyme that catalyzes the carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate, which is crucial for replenishing tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates when they are used for biosynthetic purposes. We examined the expression of PC by immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded breast tissue sections of 57 breast cancer patients with different stages of cancer progression. PC was expressed in the cancerous areas of breast tissue at higher levels than in the non-cancerous areas. We also found statistical association between the levels of PC expression and tumor size and tumor stage (P < 0.05. The involvement of PC with these two parameters was further studied in four breast cancer cell lines with different metastatic potentials; i.e., MCF-7, SKBR3 (low metastasis, MDA-MB-435 (moderate metastasis and MDA-MB-231 (high metastasis. The abundance of both PC mRNA and protein in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells was 2-3-fold higher than that in MCF-7 and SKBR3 cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PC expression in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells resulted in a 50% reduction of cell proliferation, migration and in vitro invasion ability, under both glutamine-dependent and glutamine-depleted conditions. Overexpression of PC in MCF-7 cells resulted in a 2-fold increase in their proliferation rate, migration and invasion abilities. Taken together the above results suggest that anaplerosis via PC is important for breast cancer cells to support their growth and motility.

  11. Characterization of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and transcriptional analysis of its related genes in Saccharina japonica (Laminariales, Phaeophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanru; Liu, Fuli; Li, Qiuying; Yao, Jianting; Duan, Delin

    2014-03-01

    Saccharina japonica is a common macroalga in sublittoral communities of cold seawater environments, and consequently may have highly efficient ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity for carbon assimilation. In our study, we cloned the full-length Rubisco gene from S. japonica ( SJ-rbc). It contained an open reading frame for a large subunit gene ( SJ — rbcL) of 1 467 bp, a small subunit gene ( SJ-rbcS) of 420 bp, and a SJ-rbcL/S intergenic spacer of 269 bp. The deduced peptides of SJ-rbcL and SJ-rbcS were 488 and 139 amino acids with theoretical molecular weights and isoelectric points of 53.97 kDa, 5.81 and 15.84 kDa, 4.71, respectively. After induction with 1 mmol/L isopropyl- β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 5 h and purification by Ni2+ affinity chromatography, electrophoresis and western blot detection demonstrated successful expression of the 55 kDa SJ-rbcL protein. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL in gametophytes increased when transferred into normal growth conditions and exhibited diurnal variations: increased expression during the day but suppressed expression at night. This observation implied that Rubisco played a role in normal gametophytic growth and development. In juvenile sporophytes, mRNA levels of SJ-rbcL, carbonic anhydrase, Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle-related enzyme, and chloroplast light-harvesting protein were remarkably increased under continuous light irradiance. Similarly, expression of these genes was up-regulated under blue light irradiance at 350 μmol/(m2·s). Our results indicate that long-term white light and short-term blue light irradiance enhances juvenile sporophytic growth by synergistic effects of various photosynthetic elements.

  12. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SilviaRossi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL, where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.

  13. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  14. Intrinsic Obstetric Palsy: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Rashida; Neppe, Cliff

    2016-04-01

    Maternal neurological injuries may be intrinsic to the labour and delivery process or may result directly or indirectly from obstetric or anaesthetic intervention. This intrinsic obstetric palsy is a rare complication of labour but can have devastating impact on a previously healthy mother. A 23-year-old gravida1, para0 who had epidural for labour analgesia, was augmented for slow progress and had a normal vaginal delivery. She was diagnosed post delivery with intrinsic obstetric palsy involving several peripheral nerves and lumbosacral nerve roots with a guarded prognosis. In this article we have discussed the risk factors and mechanisms of intrinsic obstetric palsy and proposed further investigation into the potential protective role of ambulatory analgesia i.e. CSE (Combined Spinal Epidural) or LDI (Low Dose Infusion). PMID:27190901

  15. What is intrinsic motivation? A typology of computational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Oudeyer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic motivation, the causal mechanism for spontaneous exploration and curiosity, is a central concept in developmental psychology. It has been argued to be a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development in humans, and as such has gathered a growing interest from developmental roboticists in the recent years. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, it provides a synthesis of the different approaches of intrinsic motivation in psychology. Second, by interpreting these approaches in a computational reinforcement learning framework, we argue that they are not operational and even sometimes inconsistent. Third, we set the ground for a systematic operational study of intrinsic motivation by presenting a formal typology of possible computational approaches. This typology is partly based on existing computational models, but also presents new ways of conceptualizing intrinsic motivation. We argue that this kind of computational typology might be useful for opening new avenues for research both in psychology and developmental robotics.

  16. Intrinsic Correlation of Galaxy Shapes Implications for Weak Lensing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Heavens, A F; Heymans, C; Heavens, Alan; Refregier, Alexandre; Heymans, Catherine

    2000-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is now established as a powerful method to measure mass fluctuations in the universe. It relies on the measurement of small coherent distortions of the images of background galaxies. Even low-level correlations in the intrinsic shapes of galaxies could however produce a significant spurious lensing signal. These correlations are also interesting in their own right, since their detection would constrain models of galaxy formation. Using about $10^5$ haloes found in N-body simulations, we compute the correlation functions of the intrinsic ellipticity of spiral galaxies assuming that the disk is perpendicular to the angular momentum of the dark matter halo. Although the results are not consistent with zero correlation of ellipticities, the correlation in 3D is generally weak, and we conservatively interpret our results as upper limits on the intrinsic correlation expected in projected catalogues. For deep lensing surveys with median redshifts $\\sim 1$, we find that intrinsic correlatio...

  17. The intrinsic vasculature of the cat facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkany, T

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of facial nerve disorders is based in part on assumptions regarding the intrinsic blood supply of the nerve. This study was designed to comprehensively delineate the intrinsic facial nerve microcirculation and its relation to the extrinsic circulation in an animal model. Twenty-eight cat facial nerves were removed intact from brain stem to stylomastoid foramen following intravital fixation. Specimens were studied by gross dissection, silicone injection and tissue clearing, complete vessel counts on serial cross sections of individual nerves, and scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy. The labyrinthine segment of the cat facial nerve contains strikingly fewer intrinsic blood vessels than the mastoid and tympanic segments. The geniculate ganglion, however, has a distinct, rich vascular plexus. The ultrastructure of the intrinsic facial nerve vessels is similar to other small vessels of the body with tight junctions of the endothelium and overlapping spiral smooth muscle fibers of arterioles, as well as surrounding pericytes. PMID:3510355

  18. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  19. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    OpenAIRE

    SilviaRossi

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learni...

  20. Intrinsic motivation in the military: models and strategic importance

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Kenneth Wayne; JANSEN, ERIK

    1996-01-01

    In this report, prepared for the Eighth Quadrennial Review ofMilitary Compensation, intrinsic task motivation is related to selfmanagement, a set ofproblem solving behaviors corresponding to the requirements specified for twenty-first century military personnel. Intrinsic task motivation refers to the psychological rewards that individuals derive directly from their work tasks. An integrative theory presents four types ofintrinsic rewards: senses ofmeaningrulness, choice, competence,...

  1. The role of intrinsic motivations in attention allocation and shifting

    OpenAIRE

    Di Nocera, Dario; Finzi, Alberto; Rossi, Silvia; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learni...

  2. Investigation of students’ intrinsic motivation in project based learning

    OpenAIRE

    OCAK, Mehmet Akif; Uluyol, Çelebi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of project-based learning on the students' intrinsic motivation in a college level course. Research using qualitative and quantitative techniques together was conducted within a period of 14 weeks. As a means of data collection, Kempler (2006)'s adaptation of the Internal Motivation Measurement Survey was used for the quantitative research. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions related to intrinsic motivation componen...

  3. Investigation of college students’ intrinsic motivation in project based learning

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Akif Ocak; Çelebi Uluyol

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of project-based learning on the students' intrinsic motivation in a college level course. Research using qualitative and quantitative techniques together was conducted within a period of 14 weeks. As a means of data collection, Kempler (2006)'s adaptation of the Internal Motivation Measurement Survey was used for the quantitative research. Besides, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions related to intrinsic motivation componen...

  4. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at 30: Unresolved scientific issues

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental controls (negative affect and novelty, not cognitive evaluation, may explain “undermining” effects); and biased metareviews (studies with possible floor ...

  5. Tunneling of a composite particle: Effects of intrinsic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bertulani, C A; Zelevinsky, V G

    2007-01-01

    We consider simple models of tunneling of an object with intrinsic degrees of freedom. This important problem was not extensively studied until now, in spite of numerous applications in various areas of physics and astrophysics. We show possibilities of enhancement for the probability of tunneling due to the presence of intrinsic degrees of freedom split by weak external fields or by polarizability of the slow composite object.

  6. A simple model for the anomalous intrinsic viscosity of dendrimers

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yuyuan; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia; Jin, Liping; Wang, Zhen-Gang

    2010-01-01

    The intrinsic viscosity of dendrimers in solution shows several anomalous behaviors that have hitherto not been explained within the existing theoretical frameworks of either Zimm or Rouse. Here we propose a simple two-zone model based on the radial segmental density profile of the dendrimers and combine a non-draining core with a free-draining outer region description, to arrive at a simple formula that captures most of the main features in the intrinsic viscosity data obtained in experiments.

  7. "Hall viscosity" and intrinsic metric of incompressible fractional Hall fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Haldane, F. D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The (guiding-center) "Hall viscosity" is a fundamental tensor property of incompressible ``Hall fluids'' exhibiting the fractional quantum Hall effect; it determines the stress induced by a non-uniform electric field, and the intrinsic dipole moment on (unreconstructed) edges. It is characterized by a rational number and an intrinsic metric tensor that defines distances on an ``incompressibility lengthscale''. These properties do not require rotational invariance in the 2D plane. The sign of ...

  8. The intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Allen Q.; Ajilore, Olusola A.; Conte, Giorgio; GadElkarim, Johnson; Thomas-Ramos, Galen; Zhan, Liang; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Magin, Richard L.; G. Forbes, Angus; Leow, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes novel methods for constructing the intrinsic geometry of the human brain connectome using dimensionality-reduction techniques. We posit that the high-dimensional, complex geometry that represents this intrinsic topology can be mathematically embedded into lower dimensions using coupling patterns encoded in the corresponding brain connectivity graphs. We tested both linear and nonlinear dimensionality-reduction techniques using the diffusion-weighted structural connectome ...

  9. Intrinsic Geometric Analysis of the Network Reliability and Voltage Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, N.; Tiwari, B N; S. Bellucci

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic geometric model for the solution of power system planning and its operation. This problem is large-scale and nonlinear, in general. Thus, we have developed the intrinsic geometric model for the network reliability and voltage stability, and examined it for the IEEE 5 bus system. The robustness of the proposed model is illustrated by introducing variations of the network parameters. Exact analytical results show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the pr...

  10. Intrinsic Geometric Analysis of the Network Reliability and Voltage Stability

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, N; Bellucci, S

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the intrinsic geometric model for the solution of power system planning and its operation. This problem is large-scale and nonlinear, in general. Thus, we have developed the intrinsic geometric model for the network reliability and voltage stability, and examined it for the IEEE 5 bus system. The robustness of the proposed model is illustrated by introducing variations of the network parameters. Exact analytical results show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique.

  11. What is Intrinsic Motivation? A Typology of Computational Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Yves Oudeyer; Frederic Kaplan

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation, the causal mechanism for spontaneous exploration and curiosity, is a central concept in developmental psychology. It has been argued to be a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development in humans, and as such has gathered a growing interest from developmental roboticists in the recent years. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, it provides a synthesis of the different approaches of intrinsic motivation in psychology. Second, by interpreting these approac...

  12. Cooperative motion of intrinsic and actuated semiflexible swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Llopis, I.; Pagonabarraga, I.; Lagomarsino, M.C.; Lowe, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the phenomenon of hydrodynamic-induced cooperativity for pairs of flagellated micro-organism swimmers, of which spermatozoa cells are an example. We consider semiflexible swimmers, where inextensible filaments are driven by an internal intrinsic force and torque-free mechanism (intrinsic swimmers). The velocity gain for swimming cooperatively, which depends on both the geometry and the driving, develops as a result of the near-field coupling of bending and hydrodynamic stresses. We...

  13. Searching for intrinsic charm in the proton at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LHC with pp-collisions at √s = 7-14 TeV will obviously supply extra unique information concerning the non-zero intrinsic (or valence-like) heavy quark component of the proton distribution functions component of the proton. On the basis of theoretical study it is demonstrated that investigation of the intrinsic heavy quark contributions looks very promising at the LHC in processes like pp → γ + c(b) + X. (authors)

  14. Encouraging intrinsic motivation : in the middle school reading classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Elizabeth Árnason

    2006-01-01

    Motivation refers to something that guides behavior towards certain goals. In the classroom, students are guided by both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. These are very different but sometimes intertwined types of motivation which appear to work in different ways. Both types of motivation have their benefits and drawbacks in the classroom, but overall, researchers agree that intrinsic motivation is the more powerful tool. Extrinsic motivators encourage students to perform tasks or acti...

  15. The effect of intrinsic soil properties on soil quality assessments

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of soil quality is based on indicators and indices derived from soil properties. However, intrinsic soil properties may interfere with other soil properties that vary under different land uses and are used to calculate the indices. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which intrinsic soil properties (clay and iron oxide contents) explain variable soil properties (sum of bases, potential acidity, organic carbon, total porosity, and bulk density) under different land...

  16. Small-number arrays of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurgens, A.; Torstensson, M.; You, L. X.; Bauch, T.; Winkler, D.; Kakeya, I.; Kadowaki, K.

    2008-04-01

    Arrays of nanometre-thick Bi2212-intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ's) are studied in various geometries. The samples with only a few IJJ's allow for the intrinsic-tunnelling spectroscopy with minimum of Joule heating. The reproducible low-voltage peaks of the spectra probably stem from a superconducting gap which is half the usual size. We estimate the internal temperature in the IJJ stacks and analyze the importance of the self-heating for the macroscopic-quantum-tunnelling experiments involving IJJ's.

  17. Applications of scanning probe microscopy in intrinsically conducting polymer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tao; NIU Li; LI Zhuang; DONG Shaojun

    2007-01-01

    The applications of scanning probe microscopy(SPM)in intrinsically conducting polymer research is briefly reviewed,including morphology observation,nanofabrication,microcosmic electrical property measurements,electrochemistry researches,in-situ measurements of film thickness change,and so on.At the same time,some important variations of SPM and the related techniques are briefly introduced.Finally,the future development of SPM in the study of intrinsically conducting polymers is prospected.

  18. Study of Intrinsic motivation in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate intrinsic motivation of the executive assistants and secretaries in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The objective in turn, was to examine how well intrinsic motivation has been achieved among these executive assistants and secretaries. How respondents evaluate their job satisfaction, work environment and motivation was also researched. Lastly, factors that increase or decrease motivation were studied, as well as if there is a need for additional...

  19. Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies

    OpenAIRE

    Gaechter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people’s social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cr...

  20. Asymmetric Stochastic Switching Driven by Intrinsic Molecular Noise

    OpenAIRE

    David Frigola; Laura Casanellas; Sancho, José M.; Marta Ibañes

    2012-01-01

    Low-copy-number molecules are involved in many functions in cells. The intrinsic fluctuations of these numbers can enable stochastic switching between multiple steady states, inducing phenotypic variability. Herein we present a theoretical and computational study based on Master Equations and Fokker-Planck and Langevin descriptions of stochastic switching for a genetic circuit of autoactivation. We show that in this circuit the intrinsic fluctuations arising from low-copy numbers, which are i...

  1. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  2. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  3. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job......-to-job transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also...

  4. Locating Logistics Locations of Suspicious Agricultural Production Food Safety Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to locate the suspicious agricultural products in agricultural product safety emergencies, this study builds an agricultural product logistics system from suppliers to retailers based on RFID technology and designs an agricultural product logistics tracking systems, which collects and integrates underlying data from logistics nodes. Tracking queries get logistics node addresses from the address resolution service system by Internet and obtain and synthesize data from all the underlying data sources to trace agricultural product information for effectively locating locations of suspicious agricultural products. It is very important to prevent more extension for safety emergencies.

  5. LLNL Location and Detection Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, S C; Harris, D B; Anderson, M L; Walter, W R; Flanagan, M P; Ryall, F

    2003-07-16

    We present two LLNL research projects in the topical areas of location and detection. The first project assesses epicenter accuracy using a multiple-event location algorithm, and the second project employs waveform subspace Correlation to detect and identify events at Fennoscandian mines. Accurately located seismic events are the bases of location calibration. A well-characterized set of calibration events enables new Earth model development, empirical calibration, and validation of models. In a recent study, Bondar et al. (2003) develop network coverage criteria for assessing the accuracy of event locations that are determined using single-event, linearized inversion methods. These criteria are conservative and are meant for application to large bulletins where emphasis is on catalog completeness and any given event location may be improved through detailed analysis or application of advanced algorithms. Relative event location techniques are touted as advancements that may improve absolute location accuracy by (1) ensuring an internally consistent dataset, (2) constraining a subset of events to known locations, and (3) taking advantage of station and event correlation structure. Here we present the preliminary phase of this work in which we use Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions, with known locations, to test the effect of travel-time model accuracy on relative location accuracy. Like previous studies, we find that the reference velocity-model and relative-location accuracy are highly correlated. We also find that metrics based on travel-time residual of relocated events are not a reliable for assessing either velocity-model or relative-location accuracy. In the topical area of detection, we develop specialized correlation (subspace) detectors for the principal mines surrounding the ARCES station located in the European Arctic. Our objective is to provide efficient screens for explosions occurring in the mines of the Kola Peninsula (Kovdor, Zapolyarny

  6. Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan F

    2016-03-24

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world that demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the 'prevalence of rule violations' (PRV) based on country-level data from the year 2003 of corruption, tax evasion and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment. We conducted the experiments with 2,568 young participants (students) who, due to their young age in 2003, could not have influenced PRV in 2003. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty. The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values, and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences, but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society. PMID:26958830

  7. Microscopic theory of intrinsic shear and bulk viscosities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic theory of intrinsic shear and bulk viscosities of solutions is given for a model of particles that interact with hard-sphere cores and weak long-range attraction. The approximation considered (the velocity chaos assumption of the Enskog theory) can be expected to yield quantitatively useful values for viscosities of the model solute-solvent system when the solute particles are not much larger than the solvent particles. Under solute-solvent mixing conditions of constant pressure and temperature, it is found that the intrinsic viscosities of a hard-sphere solute in a hard-sphere solvent can be positive or negative, depending upon size and mass ratios; for solute and solvent particles whose mass ratio equals their volume ratio, the intrinsic shear and bulk viscosities are always positive for solute particles larger than solvent particles: in the opposite case, the intrinsic shear viscosity is always negative while the intrinsic bulk viscosity is for the most part negative, becoming positive again when the solute particle is sufficiently small. For solute particles smaller than solvent particles, this result is sensitive to change in mass ratio. The addition of solvent-solvent attraction is found to lower the intrinsic viscosities substantially; the addition of solute-solvent attraction raises it. Detailed quantitative analysis of these effects is given

  8. Experimental observations of driven and intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental observations of driven and intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas are reviewed. For momentum sources, there is direct drive from neutral beam injection, lower hybrid and ion cyclotron range of frequencies waves (including mode conversion flow drive), as well as indirect \\mathbf{j}× \\mathbf{B} forces from fast ion and electron orbit shifts, and toroidal magnetic field ripple loss. Counteracting rotation drive are sinks, such as from neutral drag and toroidal viscosity. Many of these observations are in agreement with the predictions of neo-classical theory while others are not, and some cases of intrinsic rotation remain puzzling. In contrast to particle and heat fluxes which depend on the relevant diffusivity and convection, there is an additional term in the momentum flux, the residual stress, which can act as the momentum source for intrinsic rotation. This term is independent of the velocity or its gradient, and its divergence constitutes an intrinsic torque. The residual stress, which ultimately responds to the underlying turbulence, depends on the confinement regime and is a complicated function of collisionality, plasma shape, and profiles of density, temperature, pressure and current density. This leads to the rich intrinsic rotation phenomenology. Future areas of study include integration of these many effects, advancement of quantitative explanations for intrinsic rotation and development of strategies for velocity profile control.

  9. A dynamic birth-death model via Intrinsic Linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dynamic population models, or models with changing vital rates, are only beginning to receive serious attention from mathematical demographers. Despite considerable progress, there is still no general analytical solution for the size or composition of a population generated by an arbitrary sequence of vital rates. OBJECTIVE The paper introduces a new approach, Intrinsic Linkage, that in many cases can analytically determine the birth trajectory of a dynamic birth-death population. METHODS Intrinsic Linkage assumes a weighted linear relationship between (i the time trajectory of proportional increases in births in a population and (ii the trajectory of the intrinsic rates of growth of the projection matrices that move the population forward in time. Flexibility is provided through choice of the weighting parameter, w, that links these two trajectories. RESULTS New relationships are found linking implied intrinsic and observed population patterns of growth. Past experience is "forgotten" through a process of simple exponential decay. When the intrinsic growth rate trajectory follows a polynomial, exponential, or cyclical pattern, the population birth trajectory can be expressed analytically in closed form. Numerical illustrations provide population values and relationships in metastable and cyclically stable models. Plausible projection matrices are typically found for a broad range of values of w, although w appears to vary greatly over time in actual populations. CONCLUSIONS The Intrinsic Linkage approach extends current techniques for dynamic modeling, revealing new relationships between population structures and the changing vital rates that generate them.

  10. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  11. Uncapacitated facility location problems: contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Roberto Diéguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to review my personal contributions in the field of uncapacitated facility location problems. These contributions took place throughout my academic career, from the time I was a Ph.D. student at Imperial College to the present day. They cover approximately 30 years, from 1973 to 2003; they address: algorithms developed for the p-median problem and for a general formulation of uncapacitated location problems; the study of dynamic location models; covering and hierarchical location problems; queuing-based probabilistic location models. The contributions encompass theoretical developments, computational algorithms and practical applications. All work took place in an academic environment, with the invaluable collaboration of colleagues (both in Brazil and abroad and research students at COPPE. Each section in the paper is dedicated to a topic that involves a personal contribution. Every one of them is placed within the context of the existing literature.

  12. Design and performance analysis of wireless sensor network location node system for underground mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-zhu; SHEN Chun-feng; ZHOU Li-juan

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at the application of a wireless sensor network to locating miners in underground mine, we design a wireless sensor network location node system, considering the communication performance and the intrinsic safety. The location node sys-tem consists of a mobile node, several fixed nodes, and a sink node, all of whose circuits were designed based on CC2430. A varis-tor and a RC circuit were used in the reset circuit of a sensor node to guarantee the intrinsic safety by reducing discharge energy, the theoretical analysis of the discharge energy shows that the reset circuit is an intrinsic safety one. The analysis and simulation about the performance of the location node system are discussed, such as network communication delay and packet loss rate, the results show that the highest network communication delay of the system is about 0.11 seconds, and the highest packet loss rate is about 0.13, which assures the location node system has a high reliability, and can locate miners in the underground mine,

  13. Location Based Services and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenis Gorrita Michel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Location Based Services (LBS continue to grow in popularity, effectiveness and reliability, to the extent that applications are designed and implemented taking into account the facilities of the user location information. In this work, some of the main applications are addressed, in order to make an assessment of the current importance of the LBS, as a branch of technology in full swing. In addition, the main techniques for location estimation are studied, essential information to the LBS. Because of this it is a highly topical issue, the ongoing works and researches are also discussed.

  14. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION - AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of research untaken in the last decade have revealed some interesting aspects regarding the effects of different types of motivation on performance. Among the researchers who have shown interest in this field we can number: Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, Sam Glucksberg, Dan Ariely, Robert Eisenhower, Linda Shanock, analysts from London School of Economics, and others. Their findings suggest that extrinsic incentives may have a negative impact on overall performance, but a general agreement in this respect has not been reached. In this paper we intend to shed some light upon the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and performance. Experts define intrinsic motivation as being the execution of a task or activity because of the inherent satisfaction arising from it rather than due to some separate outcome. In contrast with intrinsic motivation, we speak of extrinsic motivation whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. With the purpose of contributing to the clarification of the links between concepts, we initiated and conducted an explanatory research. The research is based on the analysis of the relations between the results obtained by third year students and their predominant type of motivation. For this, we formulated and tested four work hypotheses using a combination of quantitative methods (investigation and qualitative methods (focus group. After the validation of the questionnaires, the respondents were divided into four categories: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and unmotivated. To analyze the collected data, we made use of Excel and SPSS. Some of the primary conclusions of the research are as follows: as the average increases, the percent of individuals having both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is decreasing; the highest percentage of unmotivated students is concentrated in the highest average category; Female

  15. Allegheny County WIC Vendor Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program vendors. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  16. Mental Health Treatment Program Locator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... County or Zip By Name Other Links State Mental Health Agencies Frequently Asked Questions Links Comments or Questions ... a Facility in Your State To locate the mental health treatment programs nearest you, find your State on ...

  17. Squared Metric Facility Location Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, Cristina G; Miyazawa, Flávio K; Pedrosa, Lehilton L C

    2011-01-01

    Jain et al. proposed two well-known algorithms for the Metric Facility Location Problem (MFLP), that achieve approximation ratios of 1.861 and 1.61. Mahdian et al. combined the latter algorithm with scaling and greedy augmentation techniques, obtaining a 1.52-approximation for the MFLP. We consider a generalization of the Squared Euclidean Facility Location Problem, when the distance function is a squared metric, which we call Squared Metric Facility Location Problem (SMFLP). We show that the algorithms of Jain et al. and of Mahdian et al., when applied to this variant of the facility location, achieve approximation ratios of 2.87, 2.43, and 2.17, respectively. It is shown that, for the SMFLP, there is no 2.04-approximation algorithm, assuming P $\

  18. Mental Health Treatement Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — An online resource for locating mental health treatment facilities and programs supported by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)....

  19. Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Locator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) provides on-line resource for locating drug and alcohol abuse treatment programs. The...

  20. Allegheny County Public Building Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of municipal facilities in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s...

  1. CBP List of Preclearance Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — CBP Preclearance provides for the U.S. border inspection and clearance of commercial air passengers and their goods at (15) locations in (6) foreign countries. CBP...

  2. A radioisotope dilution assay for unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex employing the binding intrinsic factor antibody: probable evidence for two types of binding antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radioisotope dilution assay for vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex is described. The method is based on the use of the binding type intrinsic antibody (the binding reagent), which when combined with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex (labelled ligand), is quantitatively adsorbed onto zirconium phosphate gel pH 6.25. The new assay has been shown to provide a measure of intrinsic factor comparable with other intrinsic factor assays, but it has the important advantage of being able to measure the unlabelled vitamin B12-intrinsic factor complex (unlabelled ligand), and will, therefore, be valuable in the study of physiological events in the gastrointestinal tract. During the study, it was found that there is some evidence for at least two types of binding intrinsic factor antibody: One which combines preferentially with the intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complex and one which combines equally well with this complex or with free intrinsic factor. (author)

  3. Exchange Rate Regimes and Location

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Luca Antonio

    1997-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of fixed versus flexible exchange rate regimes on location choices of firms and on the degree of specialization of countries. In a two-country two-differentiated-good monetary model, demand, supply, and monetary shocks arise after wages are set and prices are optimally chosen. The exchange rate performs then an adjustment role for firms located in the country relatively specialized in the good they produce, but it constitutes a factor of disturbance for the...

  4. The Location of Minerals Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Moomy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A popular perception has arisen that the mineral production of developing countries is too often exported in unprocessed form, thereby depriving the host country of the value-added and benefiting the developed country importer. The validity of this allegation and possible explanations for the location of minerals processing is the subject of this working paper. An examination of the patterns and trends in the location of processing for aluminum, copper, iron, nickel, tin and zinc, up to the r...

  5. Immunoelectron Microscopy for Locating Calvin Cycle Enzymes in the Thylakoids of Synechocystis 6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rachna Agarwal; Stefan Ortleb; Jayashree Krishna Saini; Michael Melzer

    2009-01-01

    Unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis 6803 were fixed using high-pressure freezing (HPF) and freeze substitution without any chemical cross-linkers. Immunoelectron microscopy of these cells showed that five sequential enzymes of the Calvin cycle (phosphoriboisomerase, phosphoribulokinase, ribulose-l,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO), 3-phosphoglyceratekinase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and the catalytic portion of the chloroplast H+-ATP synthase (CF1) are located adjacent to the thylakoid membranes. Cell-free extracts of Synechocystis were processed by ultracentrifugation to isolate thylakoid fractions sedimenting at 40 000, 90 000, and 150 000 g.Among these, the 150 000-g fraction showed the highest linked activity of the above five sequential Calvin cycle enzymes and also the highest coordinated activity of light and dark reactions as assessed by ribose-5-phosphate (R-5-P) +ADP dependent CO2 fixation. Immunogold labeling of this membrane fraction confirmed the presence of the above five enzymes as well as the catalytic portion of the CF1 ATP synthase. Notably, the protein A-gold labeling of the thylakoids was observed without use of chemical cross-linkers and in spite of the normal washing steps used during standard immunolabeling. The results showed that soluble Calvin cycle enzymes might be organized along the thylakoid membranes.

  6. Mobility-Assisted on-Demand Routing Algorithm for MANETs in the Presence of Location Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trung Kien Vu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mobility-assisted on-demand routing algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks in the presence of location errors. Location awareness enables mobile nodes to predict their mobility and enhances routing performance by estimating link duration and selecting reliable routes. However, measured locations intrinsically include errors in measurement. Such errors degrade mobility prediction and have been ignored in previous work. To mitigate the impact of location errors on routing, we propose an on-demand routing algorithm taking into account location errors. To that end, we adopt the Kalman filter to estimate accurate locations and consider route confidence in discovering routes. Via simulations, we compare our algorithm and previous algorithms in various environments. Our proposed mobility prediction is robust to the location errors.

  7. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  8. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  9. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services. PMID:26386901

  10. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by fNL = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered

  11. Effects of Light and Elevated Atmospheric CO(2) on the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity and Ribulose Bisphosphate Level of Soybean Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, C V; Allen, L H; Bowes, G

    1983-11-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Bragg) was grown throughout its life cycle at 330, 450, and 800 microliters CO(2) per liter in outdoor controlled-environment chambers under solar irradiance. Leaf ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activities and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) levels were measured at selected times after planting. Growth under the high CO(2) levels reduced the extractable RuBPCase activity by up to 22%, but increased the daytime RuBP levels by up to 20%.Diurnal measurements of RuBPCase (expressed in micromoles CO(2) per milligram chlorophyll per hour) showed that the enzyme values were low (230) when sampled before sunrise, even when activated in vitro with saturating HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+), but increased to 590 during the day as the solar quantum irradiance (photosynthetically active radiation or PAR, in micromoles per square meter per second) rose to 600. The nonactivated RuBPCase values, which averaged 20% lower than the corresponding HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+)-activated values, increased in a similar manner with increasing solar PAR. The per cent RuBPCase activation (the ratio of nonactivated to maximum-activated values) increased from 40% before dawn to 80% during the day. Leaf RuBP levels (expressed in nanomoles per milligram chlorophyll) were close to zero before sunrise but increased to a maximum of 220 as the solar PAR rose beyond 1200. In a chamber kept dark throughout the morning, leaf RuBPCase activities and RuBP levels remained at the predawn values. Upon removal of the cover at noon, the HCO(3) (-) and Mg(2+)-activated RuBPCase values and the RuBP levels rose to 465 and 122, respectively, after only 5 minutes of leaf exposure to solar PAR at 1500.These results indicate that, in soybean leaves, light may exert a regulatory effect on extractable RuBPCase in addition to the well-established activation by CO(2) and Mg(2+). PMID:16663291

  12. Shaping of Location Conscious Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palson Kennedy .R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays mobile technology is part of daily life and behavior and the mobile ecosystems areemerging, with smart phones and tablets being the foremost growth drivers. The mobile phonesare no longer just another device, we rely on their competence in work and in private. We look toour mobile phones for timely and restructured information and we rely on this being provided anytime of any day at any place. Nevertheless, no matter how much you depend and adore yourmobile phone the quality of the information and the user experience is directly associated with thefoundations and presentation of information. In this location, our activities, interactions andpreferences help shape the quality of service, content and products we use. Location-awaresystems use such information about end-users as input mechanisms for producing applicationsbased on mobile, location, social, cloud and customized content services. This represents newpossibilities for haul outing aggregated user-need information and includes novel sources forsituation-aware applications. Accordingly, a Design Research based approach has been taken tofurther investigate the creation, presentation and tailoring of user-centric information. Throughuser evaluated experiments findings show how multi-dimensional location-aware information canbe used to create adaptive solutions shaping the user experience to the users’ needs. Researchfindings in this work; highlight possible architectures for integration of cloud computing servicesin diverse mobile environment in future location-aware solutions.

  13. Permian Basin location recommendation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candidate study areas are screened from the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basin areas using data obtained from studies to date and criteria and specifications that consider: rock geometry; rock characteristics; human intrusion potential; surface characteristics; and environmental and socioeconomic conditions. Two preferred locations are recommended from among these areas for additional characterization to identify potential National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) salt repository sites. One location, in northeastern Deaf Smith County and southeastern Oldham County, is underlain by two salt units that meet the adopted screening specifications. The other location, in northcentral Swisher County, is underlain by one salt unit that meets the adopted screening specifications. Both locations have several favorable features, relative to surrounding areas, and no obviously undesirable characteristics. Both lie wholly on the Southern High Plains surface, are in relatively sparsely populated areas, contain no unique land use conflicts, and comprise large enough geographic areas to provide flexibility in site selection. Data gathered to date indicate that these locations contain salt units sufficient in thickness and in depth for the safe construction and operation of the underground facilities under consideration. 93 references, 34 figures, 6 tables

  14. Location, Location: Jurisdiction & Conflicts in Transborder Contract Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    In transborder contract litigation place-based factors are often decisive, both as regards jurisdiction to adjudicate as well as the rules which determine the applicable substantive law. Relevant locations include the place where the contract was made, where the parties reside, transact business or...

  15. Recovering the intrinsic shape of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bosch, Remco C E van den

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how well the intrinsic shape of early-type galaxies can be recovered when both photometric and two-dimensional stellar kinematic observations are available. We simulate these observations with galaxy models that are representative of observed oblate fast-rotator to triaxial slow-rotator early-type galaxies. By fitting realistic triaxial dynamical models to these simulated observations, we recover the intrinsic shape (and mass-to-light ratio), without making additional (ad-hoc) assumptions on the orientation. For (near) axisymmetric galaxies the dynamical modelling can strongly exclude triaxiality, but the regular kinematics do not further tighten the constraint on the intrinsic flattening significantly, so that the inclination is nearly unconstrained above the photometric lower limit even with two-dimensional stellar kinematics. Triaxial galaxies can have additional complexity in both the observed photometry and kinematics, such as twists and (central) kinematically decoupled components, which ...

  16. Molecular Recognition by Templated Folding of an Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, Angelo; Camilloni, Carlo; Giri, Rajanish; Brunori, Maurizio; Vendruscolo, Michele; Gianni, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins often become structured upon interacting with their partners. The mechanism of this ‘folding upon binding’ process, however, has not been fully characterised yet. Here we present a study of the folding of the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of c-Myb (c-Myb) upon binding its partner KIX. By determining the structure of the folding transition state for the binding of wild-type and three mutational variants of KIX, we found a remarkable plasticity of the folding pathway of c-Myb. To explain this phenomenon, we show that the folding of c-Myb is templated by the structure of KIX. This adaptive folding behaviour, which occurs by heterogeneous nucleation, differs from the robust homogeneous nucleation typically observed for globular proteins. We suggest that this templated folding mechanism may enable intrinsically disordered proteins to achieve specific and reliable binding with multiple partners while avoiding aberrant interactions.

  17. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-01-01

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use. PMID:26079292

  18. The bacterial signal transduction protein GlnB regulates the committed step in fatty acid biosynthesis by acting as a dissociable regulatory subunit of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Edileusa C M; Rodrigues, Thiago E; Müller-Santos, Marcelo; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Souza, Emanuel M; Forchhammer, Karl; Huergo, Luciano F

    2015-03-01

    Biosynthesis of fatty acids is one of the most fundamental biochemical pathways in nature. In bacteria and plant chloroplasts, the committed and rate-limiting step in fatty acid biosynthesis is catalyzed by a multi-subunit form of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase enzyme (ACC). This enzyme carboxylates acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which in turn acts as the building block for fatty acid elongation. In Escherichia coli, ACC is comprised of three functional modules: the biotin carboxylase (BC), the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) and the carboxyl transferase (CT). Previous data showed that both bacterial and plant BCCP interact with signal transduction proteins belonging to the PII family. Here we show that the GlnB paralogues of the PII proteins from E. coli and Azospirillum brasiliense, but not the GlnK paralogues, can specifically form a ternary complex with the BC-BCCP components of ACC. This interaction results in ACC inhibition by decreasing the enzyme turnover number. Both the BC-BCCP-GlnB interaction and ACC inhibition were relieved by 2-oxoglutarate and by GlnB uridylylation. We propose that the GlnB protein acts as a 2-oxoglutarate-sensitive dissociable regulatory subunit of ACC in Bacteria. PMID:25557370

  19. Locating ATMs in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi MoradiTabar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the banks and financial institutions have considerably attempted to provide better and more varied services to the customers. These varied services may satisfy needs of differentgroup of customers. In this regard, the location of these services as well as their level of accessibility (access to these services is greatly important. The importance of these issues is well recognized by responsible managers of the financial firms. In other words, the managers accept the importance of these services and they know that the quality and location of these services significantly affect their success in the business. Therefore, bank managers sought scientific methods, which may facilitate the locating process for their services. How to select the most effective methods and how to use these methods in this regard depend on following factors: the customers' demands, local capacities and fair distribution of theservices, etc. The effective impact of these factors as well as the interactive relationship between them should also be noted in the application. This study is a descriptive kind of research, which is applicable in various areas. Library and environmental studies were used to conduct the study. Considering the parameters that considerably affect the level of acceptability of ATMs services and analyzing the importance of these parameters according to this criterion, the researchers tried to use multiple attribute decision-making model. a heuristic algorithm was used in the context of this approach. Then, the most appropriate locations around the optimal locations were introduced based on fuzzy concept as well as quantitative and qualitative factors, including the minimum cost and maximum coverage according to the customers’ demands. The case study was located in the 13th district of Tehran city.

  20. Which Spatial Partition Trees are Adaptive to Intrinsic Dimension?

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Nakul; Dasgupta, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    Recent theory work has found that a special type of spatial partition tree - called a random projection tree - is adaptive to the intrinsic dimension of the data from which it is built. Here we examine this same question, with a combination of theory and experiments, for a broader class of trees that includes k-d trees, dyadic trees, and PCA trees. Our motivation is to get a feel for (i) the kind of intrinsic low dimensional structure that can be empirically verified, (ii) the extent to which a spatial partition can exploit such structure, and (iii) the implications for standard statistical tasks such as regression, vector quantization, and nearest neighbor search.

  1. On a continuum model of an intrinsic length scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A phenomenological model has been developed which modifies the constitutive equations of a general continuum to include the dynamic dispersive effects of a an intrinsic characteristic length scale. The new terms in this model are nondissipative and they are characterized by a single material constant. Moreover, the modified model requires no additional initial or boundary conditions. Here, an example problem of dynamic simple shearing of a metal with a discontinuity in yield strength is considered to show how these new terms control strain localization. The results of the modified theory for a rate-independent plastic material are compared with those of a viscoplastic material with no intrinsic length scale. (orig.)

  2. The Schroedinger differential operator and intrinsic self adjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is made to establish a hermitization procedure for rendering any linear differential operator to be intrinsically self adjoint, independently of any prescribed representation. This is accomplished by introducing an associate differential operator, which is simply a linear combination of all the individual ordinary differential operators belonging to the adjoint of the given linear differential operator, that satisfies the criterion of intrinsic self adjointness. It turns out that the associate differential operator is capable of generating an infinite set of hermitized versions of any arbitrary linear differential operator. Both momentum and kinetic energy differential operators that belong to the Schroedinger wave equation are rendered self adjoint. (author)

  3. The Intrinsic Shape of Galaxies in SDSS/Galaxy Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Silvio; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2013-01-01

    By modelling the axis ratio distribution of SDSS DR8 galaxies we find the intrinsic 3D shapes of spirals and ellipticals. We use morphological information from the Galaxy Zoo project and assume a non-parametric distribution intrinsic of shapes, while taking into account dust extinction. We measure the dust extinction of the full sample of spiral galaxies and find a smaller value than previous estimations, with an edge-on extinction of $E_0 = 0.284^{+0.015}_{-0.026}$ in the SDSS r band. We als...

  4. Intrinsic Instability of Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, S M; Tromp, R M

    2012-01-01

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with sub-atomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the Contrast Transfer Function near optimum correction, we define an 'instability budget' which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  5. Failure to label baboon milk intrinsically with iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widely held belief that 50% of the iron in human milk is absorbed is based on studies that have used an extrinsic radioactive iron tag. To determine the validity of an extrinsic tag, it is necessary to label the milk intrinsically with one isotope and to compare absorption of this isotope with absorption of another isotope added as the extrinsic tag. We chose the baboon as a model and infused 59Fe intravenously. In each of three attempts we failed to label the milk intrinsically

  6. Color excesses, intrinsic colors, and absolute magnitudes of Galactic and Large Magellanic Cloud Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, William D.; Torres-Dodgen, Ana V.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of determining the color excesses of WR stars in the Galaxy and the LMC has been developed and is used to determine the excesses for 44 Galactic and 32 LMC WR stars. The excesses are combined with line-free, narrow-band spectrophotometry to derive intrinsic colors of the WR stars of nearly all spectral subtypes. No correlation of UV spectral index or intrinsic colors with spectral subtype is found for the samples of single WN or WC stars. There is evidence that early WN stars in the LMC have flatter UV continua and redder intrinsic colors than early WN stars in the Galaxy. No separation is found between the values derived for Galactic WC stars and those obtained for LMC WC stars. The intrinsic colors are compared with those calculated from model atmospheres of WR stars and generally good agreement is found. Absolute magnitudes are derived for WR stars in the LMC and for those Galactic WR stars located in clusters and associations for which there are reliable distance estimates.

  7. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  8. Precise location of nonmetallic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to conduct precise surveys of nonmetallic pipelines. After a thin stranded wire is pulled through a part of the pipe first an inductive or capacitative prelocation is made, in which especially curves are marked. After that with this wire a go-devil with a 500 mCi 60Co-radiation source is moved slowly from reference point to reference point. On the ground plane the corresponding maximum of the radiation intensity is detected and marked as the position of the pipe. About the experiences of the location of two local gas pipelines with 4987 and 11897 km length is reported. The average length of the located sections was about 300 m, the average distance between two reference points was a little more than 8 m. In the case of curves the distances were reduced to 0.5 - 1.0 m. The output of location was 16 h/km, the daily output ca. 600 m. The accuracy is better than +- 10 cm, while in the case of the inductive prelocation deviations of more than 50 cm could be found. During the locations the delivery of gas was uninterrupted. It can be carried out also in thickly populated regions without any danger by radioactive radiation. (Author)

  9. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    reflect the growing academic and business interests, respectively, on places in a global media and consumption culture (Falkheimer & Jansson, 2006). Based on empirical location studies of three crime series, Wallander (Yellow Bird, 2008-2012), The Bridge (SVT1 & DR1, 2011-2013) and Dicte (Misofilm/TV2...

  10. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects...... with different aspects or roles. The use of part objects for inheritance of code is also explored....

  11. Eye Pupil Location Using Webcam

    CERN Document Server

    Ciesla, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Three different algorithms used for eye pupil location were described and tested. Algorithm efficiency comparison was based on human faces images taken from the BioID database. Moreover all the eye localisation methods were implemented in a dedicated application supporting eye movement based computer control. In this case human face images were acquired by a webcam and processed in a real-time.

  12. Smart location system; Sistema de localizacao inteligente Smart Location System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da; Antunes, Rodrigo de Castro; Azevedo, Fabio Augusto Ferreira de [PipeWay Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Afonso, Orlando de Jesus Ribeiro [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Matsuura, Minoru; Santa Cruz, Sergio de Freitas [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Jose Alberto Costa dos; Hashiguchi, Decio Issao [GDK Engenharia (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes the technology used in the Intelligent Location System developed by Pipeway and includes some of the results already obtained optimizing repair time and logistic costs during the location of anomalies detected by intelligent pigs, a joint operation within the scope of the contract for Sub sea Pipeline Recovery in the Guanabara Bay with PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO and GDK Engenharia. The system uses the ELF (Extra Low Frequency) transmission and reception technology at points near a pipe, with or without concrete coating, whose signals are recorded in the inspection tool memory to accurately establish reference points, thus preventing excessive dig work or dredging when human and operational risks tend to be high. (author)

  13. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  14. The restless brain: how intrinsic activity organizes brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichle, Marcus E

    2015-05-19

    Traditionally studies of brain function have focused on task-evoked responses. By their very nature such experiments tacitly encourage a reflexive view of brain function. While such an approach has been remarkably productive at all levels of neuroscience, it ignores the alternative possibility that brain functions are mainly intrinsic and ongoing, involving information processing for interpreting, responding to and predicting environmental demands. I suggest that the latter view best captures the essence of brain function, a position that accords well with the allocation of the brain's energy resources, its limited access to sensory information and a dynamic, intrinsic functional organization. The nature of this intrinsic activity, which exhibits a surprising level of organization with dimensions of both space and time, is revealed in the ongoing activity of the brain and its metabolism. As we look to the future, understanding the nature of this intrinsic activity will require integrating knowledge from cognitive and systems neuroscience with cellular and molecular neuroscience where ion channels, receptors, components of signal transduction and metabolic pathways are all in a constant state of flux. The reward for doing so will be a much better understanding of human behaviour in health and disease. PMID:25823869

  15. Extrinsic photoresponse enhancement under additional intrinsic photoexcitation in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounavis, P.

    2016-06-01

    Dual light beam photoresponse experiments are employed to explore the photoresponse under simultaneous extrinsic and intrinsic photoexcitation of organic semiconductors. The photoresponse of a red modulated light extrinsic photoexcitation is found that can be significantly enhanced under an additional blue bias-light intrinsic photoexcitation in two terminal pentacene films on glass substrates. From the frequency resolved photoresponse, it is deduced that the phenomenon of photoresponse enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the extrinsic photogeneration rate of the red modulated light and/or an improvement of the drift velocity of carriers under an additional blue light intrinsic photoexcitation. The possible predominant extrinsic photogeneration mechanism, which can be compatible with the observed dependence of the photoresponse enhancement on the frequency and on the light intensities of the red and blue light excitation, is the singlet exciton dissociation through electron transfer to acceptor-like traps. Moreover, an improvement in the drift velocity of carriers traversing grain boundaries with potential energy barriers, which may be reduced by trapping of minority carriers created from the intrinsic photoexcitation, may partly contribute to the photoresponse enhancement.

  16. Increasing Intrinsic Motivation to Learn in Organizational Behavior Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes my experiences redesigning a masters-level organizational behavior (OB) course. The course was delivered to two different audiences--MBA and MS-HR students--two different times. The redesign employed several unique features designed to increase and enhance student intrinsic interest in the subject matter. Two measures of…

  17. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  18. Teacher and Student Intrinsic Motivation in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Ma, William Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between teacher and student intrinsic motivation in project-based learning. The participants were 126 Hong Kong secondary school teachers and their 631 students who completed evaluation questionnaires after a semester-long project-based learning program. Both teachers and students were asked to indicate…

  19. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to Z

  20. Visual representations are dominated by intrinsic fluctuations correlated between areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Linda; Khaligh-Razavi, Seyed-Mahdi; Kay, Kendrick; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic cortical dynamics are thought to underlie trial-to-trial variability of visually evoked responses in animal models. Understanding their function in the context of sensory processing and representation is a major current challenge. Here we report that intrinsic cortical dynamics strongly affect the representational geometry of a brain region, as reflected in response-pattern dissimilarities, and exaggerate the similarity of representations between brain regions. We characterized the representations in several human visual areas by representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) constructed from fMRI response-patterns for natural image stimuli. The RDMs of different visual areas were highly similar when the response-patterns were estimated on the basis of the same trials (sharing intrinsic cortical dynamics), and quite distinct when patterns were estimated on the basis of separate trials (sharing only the stimulus-driven component). We show that the greater similarity of the representational geometries can be explained by coherent fluctuations of regional-mean activation within visual cortex, reflecting intrinsic dynamics. Using separate trials to study stimulus-driven representations revealed clearer distinctions between the representational geometries: a Gabor wavelet pyramid model explained representational geometry in visual areas V1–3 and a categorical animate–inanimate model in the object-responsive lateral occipital cortex. PMID:25896934

  1. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattl...

  2. Element Interactivity and Intrinsic, Extraneous, and Germane Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    In cognitive load theory, element interactivity has been used as the basic, defining mechanism of intrinsic cognitive load for many years. In this article, it is suggested that element interactivity underlies extraneous cognitive load as well. By defining extraneous cognitive load in terms of element interactivity, a distinct relation between…

  3. DSS1/Sem1, a Multifunctional and Intrinsically Disordered Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Birthe B; Schenstrøm, Signe M; Rebula, Caio A;

    2016-01-01

    DSS1/Sem1 is a versatile intrinsically disordered protein. Besides being a bona fide subunit of the 26S proteasome, DSS1 associates with other protein complexes, including BRCA2-RPA, involved in homologous recombination; the Csn12-Thp3 complex, involved in RNA splicing; the integrator, involved in...

  4. Frequency of Intrinsic Factor Antibody in Megaloblastic Anaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the presence of intrinsic factor antibody in vitamin B12 deficient patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Fauji Foundation Hospital, Foundation University Medical College and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January 2011 to June 2012. Methodology: A total of 120 patients of megaloblastic anaemia were selected on the basis of low serum vitamin B12 level. The intrinsic factor antibody tests were performed by ELISA method. The patients were considered positive or negative on the basis of presence or absence of intrinsic factor antibody respectively. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 14. Results: Pernicious anaemia with intrinsic factor deficiency was found in 13.3% in 120 vitamin B12 deficient patients. The mean age of patients of pernicious anaemia was 41.5 years, with a male to female ratio of 1:2.5. It was relatively more common in older age (17% in age more than 60 years) as compared to other age groups. Conclusion: Frequency of pernicious anaemia in megaloblastic anaemia was 13.3%. The male to female ratio was 1:2.5 and it was relatively more common in age group of more than 60 years. (author)

  5. Iterative Method for Intrinsic Viscosity Measurements on Perpendicular Recording Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Phan Le; Lodder, Cock

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a new method that allows one to directly measure the intrinsic viscosity (S/sub i/) for perpendicular media using a vibrating sample magnetometer. The measurement is carried out in a number of iterations. In each iteration, the behavior of applied field (H/sub a/) with time is gradually

  6. TiO(2) nanotube arrays: intrinsic peroxidase mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Han, Lei; Hu, Peng; Wang, Li; Dong, Shaojun

    2013-11-18

    TiO2 nanotube arrays (NTA), prepared by potentiostatic anodization, were discovered to possess an intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. The colorimetric and electrochemical assays both demonstrated their excellent catalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction. On this basis, a simple and inexpensive electrochemical biosensor for glucose detection was developed. PMID:24084751

  7. Improving Secondary School Students' Achievement using Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Erik; Haapanen, Rebecca; Hall, Erin; Mantonya, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a program for increasing students' intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase academic achievement. The targeted population consisted of secondary level students in a middle to upper-middle class suburban area. The students of the targeted secondary level classes appeared to be disengaged from learning due to a lack of…

  8. Diffusion in Intrinsic and Highly Doped III-V Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Stolwijk, N

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\Diffusion plays a key role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The diffusion of atoms in crystals is mediated by intrinsic point defects. Investigations of the diffusion behaviour of self- and solute atoms on the Ga sublattice of gallium arsenide led to the conclusion that in intrinsic and n-type material charged Ga vacancies are involved in diffusion processes whereas in p-type material diffusion if governed by charged Ga self-interstitials. Concerning the As sublattice of gallium arsenide there is a severe lack of reliable diffusion data. The few available literature data on intrinsic GaAs are not mutually consistent. A systematic study of the doping dependence of diffusion is completely missing. The most basic diffusion process - self-diffusion of As and its temperature and doping dependence - is practically not known. For GaP a similar statement holds.\\\\ \\\\The aim of the present project is to perform a systematic diffusion study of As diffusion in intrinsic and doped GaAs and in GaP. P...

  9. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  10. Intrinsic Chaoticity in Stable Classical Systems and Quantum Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F

    1997-01-01

    We postulate the existence of a universal Keplerian tremor for any stable classical complex system on every scale. Deriving the characteristic unit of action $\\alpha$ for each classical interaction, we obtain in all cases $\\alpha connected to an intrinsic chaoticity needed to assure stability of matter. Introducing temperature, we provide further consistency checks corroborating our hypothesis.

  11. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell function in relation to age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Broendsted, Adam Elias; Kessel, Line; Hansen, Michael Stormly; Kawasaki, Aki

    2012-01-01

    The activity of melanopsin containing intrinsically photosensitive ganglion retinal cells (ipRGC) can be assessed by a means of pupil responses to bright blue (appr.480 nm) light. Due to age related factors in the eye, particularly, structural changes of the lens, less light reaches retina. The aim...

  12. Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode.

  13. Intrinsic Motivation and Learning in a Schizophrenia Spectrum Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jimmy; Medalia, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Amotivation is a telling hallmark of negative symptomatology in schizophrenia, and it impacts nearly every facet of behavior, including inclination to attempt the difficult cognitive tasks involved in cognitive remediation therapy. Experiences of external reward, reinforcement, and hedonic anticipatory enjoyment are diminished in psychosis, so therapeutics which instead target intrinsic motivation for cognitive tasks may enhance task engagement, and subsequently, remediation outcome. We exami...

  14. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not develo

  15. Intrinsic Formulation of Geometric Integrability and Generation of Conservation Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Bracken, Paul

    2007-01-01

    An intrinsic version of the integrability theorem for the classical Backlund theorem is presented. It is characterized by a one-form which can be put in the form of a Riccati system. It is shown how this system can be linearized. Based on this, a procedure for generating an infinite number of conservation laws is given.

  16. Intrinsic Motivation as a Mediator on Imaginative Capability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored which environmental and psychological variables influenced the imagination of video/film major university students, and the effects these variables had on their imaginative capability development. The hypothesis of the study--that "intrinsic motivation" played a mediating role in imaginative capability development--was…

  17. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs : numerical predictions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  18. Intrinsic Photoluminescence Emission from Subdomained Graphene Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyewon; Chang, Yun Hee; Song, Sung Ho; Lee, Eui-Sup; Jin, Sung Hwan; Park, Chanae; Lee, Jinsup; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kang, Hee Jae; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jeon, Seokwoo

    2016-07-01

    The photoluminescence (PL) origin of bright blue emission arising from intrinsic states in graphene quantum dots (GQDs) is investigated. The bright PL of intercalatively acquired GQDs is attributed to favorably formed subdomains composed of four to seven carbon hexagons. Random and harsh oxidation which hinders the energetically favorable formation of subdomains causes weak and redshifted PL. PMID:27153519

  19. Associations of personality with intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Nabors, Lori

    2013-06-30

    Motivation is often disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about how it relates to personality. We examined intrinsic motivation (IM), two personality domains from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and symptoms in 58 male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Analyses revealed IM may be linked to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and negative symptoms. PMID:23566367

  20. Isolating Intrinsic Processing Disorders from Second Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robin H.; Layton, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluation of the validity of the Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory with limited-English-proficient (LEP) students in grades 2-7 found that nondisabled LEP students were over-identified as having intrinsic processing deficits. Examination of individual student protocols highlighted the need to train teacher-raters in language acquisition…

  1. Regional Location Calibration in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, L. K.; Hartse, H.; Aprea, C.; Franks, J.; Velasco, A.; Randall, G.; Bradley, C.; Begnaud, M.; Aguilar-Chang, J.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents a spectrum of issues and efforts involved in improving seismic location performance worldwide. Our efforts are largely designed around providing validated, rigorously calibrated travel times, azimuths, and slownesses along with accurate error estimates. To do so entails a significant effort that includes data mining, data integration, database management, developing optimal 1-, 2-, and 3-D Earth models, using the Earth models to predict wave propagation, developing corrections and errors for travel times, azimuths, and slownesses, and validation of all products. Results presented here will focus on Asia. For the region around station MAKZ in north-central Asia we have looked at several tens of published 1-D velocity models. For each model, travel time calculations were performed, predictions for P and S arrivals were established, and the predicted times were compared to the observed. We will present best-fit models for tectonic provinces out to regional distances from MAKZ. Previous work has shown that Non-stationary Modified Bayesian Kriging of travel time residuals successfully improves regional seismic event location, and this method is being extended to calculate corrections for azimuth and slowness. The ability to krig over 3-D Earth models is also being implemented. In order to produce the most useful corrections, we require accurate ground truth. For this we are continuing efforts to create a location database consisting of the best available seismic event locations and the most accurate and precise travel times. Building this database relies on participation from universities, other NNSA laboratories, and contacts in private industry. Through the kriging procedure we are able to stabilize location algorithms, but the ultimate usefulness of the corrections themselves is directly related to the quality of the ground truth from which the corrections are derived. Indeed, epicentral mislocations from EvLoc using travel time correction

  2. Intrinsic bent DNA sites in the chromosomal replication origin of Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimenes

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The features of the nucleotide sequences in both replication and promoter regions have been investigated in many organisms. Intrinsically bent DNA sites associated with transcription have been described in several prokaryotic organisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate intrinsic bent DNA sites in the segment that holds the chromosomal replication origin, oriC, of Xylella fastidiosa 9a5c. Electrophoretic behavior analyses, as well as in silico analyses of both the 2-D projection and helical parameters, were performed. The chromosomal segment analyzed contains the initial sequence of the rpmH gene, an intergenic region, the dnaA gene, the oriC sequence, and the 5' partial sequence of the dnaN gene. The analysis revealed fragments with reduced electrophoretic mobility, which indicates the presence of curved DNA segments. The analysis of the helical parameter ENDS ratio revealed three bent DNA sites (b1, b2, and b3 located in the rpmH-dnaA intergenic region, the dnaA gene, and the oriC 5' end, respectively. The chromosomal segment of X. fastidiosa analyzed here is rich in phased AT tracts and in CAnT motifs. The 2-D projection indicated a segment whose structure was determined by the cumulative effect of all bent DNA sites. Further, the in silico analysis of the three different bacterial oriC sequences indicated similar negative roll and twist >34.00° values. The DnaA box sequences, and other motifs in them, may be associated with the intrinsic DNA curvature.

  3. MICROGRIDS: THE AGRIA TEST LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Krkoleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the pilot Microgrid in Macedonia, developed within the framework of the MOREMICROGRIDS (EU EP6 projecet, contract No. SES6-019864 project. This Microgrid is the first of its kind being developed in the Western Balkan region and serves as pilot site for introduction and examination of the Microgrids concept in non European Union conditions. The test network consists of a part of the low voltage grid, located on a pig farm. The main electricity source for the Microgrid is a small biogas plant, which uses the biogas produced by a waste water treatment process. The paper addresses the Microgrid design, development of test scenarios and test results from the pilot location.

  4. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R; Harroun, Thad A; Katsaras, John

    2016-09-01

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown - at least in some bilayers - to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid-water interface. In this article we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. PMID:27056099

  5. Network design with facility location

    OpenAIRE

    Rezapour, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit betrachten wir Optimierungsprobleme, welche Fragestellungen aus dem Netzwerkdesign und aus der Standortplanung miteinander kombinieren. Solche Probleme treten unter Anderem bei der Planung und Optimierung von Netzen für die Telekommunikation, im Bereich Transport und Logistik oder für die Energieversorgung auf. Bei der Standortplanung, dem sogenannten Facility Location, ist typischerweise zu entscheiden, welche Standorte (Facilities) eingerichtet werden sollen und von welc...

  6. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  7. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus;

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  8. Computer Model Locates Environmental Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Catherine Huybrechts Burton founded San Francisco-based Endpoint Environmental (2E) LLC in 2005 while she was a student intern and project manager at Ames Research Center with NASA's DEVELOP program. The 2E team created the Tire Identification from Reflectance model, which algorithmically processes satellite images using turnkey technology to retain only the darkest parts of an image. This model allows 2E to locate piles of rubber tires, which often are stockpiled illegally and cause hazardous environmental conditions and fires.

  9. Location Privacy in Mobile Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ergenzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis presents a client-server system for protecting the anonymity and location privacy of mobile network users against a passive network-side adversary. The server provides a pool of UICCs – technological successors to SIM cards. Users’ cellphones rely on those UICCs for accessing a mobile network. Through simultaneous, coordinated switching to new UICCs, groups of users in the same mobile radio cell become indistinguishable to the adversary. The system’s performance was evaluat...

  10. Rare locations of calcifying tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nidecker, A.; Hartweg, H.

    1983-12-01

    5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humreus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy.

  11. Rare locations of calcifying tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    5 case-reports illustrate 2 rare locations of calcifying peritendinitis: The insertion of the deltoid tendon in the proximal humreus and the insertion of the gluteus maximus tendon in the femur. Knowledge of these insertion sites on one hand and the possibility of calcifying tendinitis at these sites on the other hand may allow proper diagnosis of certain shoulder- and hip joint pain syndromes and subsequent correct therapy. (orig.)

  12. Testing proprioception in intrinsic and extrinsic coordinate systems: is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iandolo, Riccardo; Squeri, Valentina; De Santis, Dalia; Giannoni, Psiche; Morasso, Pietro; Casadio, Maura

    2014-01-01

    An intact position sense is considered important for neuromotor recovery, but the available methods and protocols for its assessment are still limited. In the clinical practice it is generally tested trough a bimanual position matching test, that consists of replicating with one arm the angular positions of the other arm in space (intrinsic coordinates matching). However, the same test could be carried out by matching the hand location in space (extrinsic coordinates matching). Is there any difference between the procedures that may be relevant to the evaluation of position sense deficits? In this study we compared the performance of eight right handed subjects and two stroke survivors with left hemiparesis performing the test in the two conditions. A robotic manipulandum passively moved the left arm of the participants in twenty-four positions in the workspace. Subjects had to match the left arm position with their right arm either in intrinsic or extrinsic coordinates. The results show that all the subjects (impaired and controls) performed better when using the extrinsic paradigm. PMID:25571597

  13. Simulations of ITER in the presence of ITB using the NTV intrinsic toroidal rotation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of a standard H-mode International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) scenario in the presence of internal transport barrier (ITB) are carried out using the 1.5D BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code. The intrinsic offset toroidal rotation, which can play an essential role in turbulent transport suppression that results in the ITB formation, is theoretically calculated using a model based on the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) concept. The core transport in this simulation is a combination of a mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm anomalous transport model and an NCLASS neoclassical transport model. The boundary condition of the simulations is taken to be at the top of the pedestal where the pedestal value is calculated using the pedestal model based on a combination of pedestal width scaling determined by magnetic/flow shear stabilization and an infinite-n ballooning pressure gradient model. It is found that the predicted intrinsic rotation can result in the formation of ITB, locating mostly between r/a = 0.6 and 0.8 and having a strong impact on the plasma performance in ITER. It is also found that the variations of plasma density and heating power result in a minimal change in toroidal rotation; whereas the increase in plasma effective charge can considerably reduce the toroidal velocity peaking. (paper)

  14. Production of Internal Transport Barriers by Intrinsic Flow Drive in Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: New results suggest that changes observed in the intrinsic toroidal rotation influence the internal transport barrier (ITB) formation in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Detailed plasma rotation and ion temperature profile measurements are combined with linear and non-linear gyrokinetic simulation to examine the effects of the self-generated rotational shear on the transport changes that occur in C-Mod ITB plasmas. These arise when the resonance for ICRF minority heating is positioned off-axis at or outside of the plasma half-radius. These ITBs form in a reactor relevant regime, without particle or momentum injection, with Ti ≅ Te, and with monotonic q profiles (qmin 1.5 x 105 Rad/s) in the region where the ITB foot is observed. Gyrokinetic analyses indicate that this spontaneous shearing rate is comparable to the linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) growth rate at the ITB location and is sufficient to reduce the turbulent particle and energy transport. The newly available detailed measurement of the ion temperature demonstrates that the radial profile flattens as the ICRF resonance position moves off axis, decreasing the drive for ITG the instability as well. These results are the first evidence that intrinsic rotation can affect confinement in ITB plasmas, and suggest that this regime could be achievable in ITER and in future reactor experiments. (author)

  15. Characteristics of corticospinal projections to the intrinsic hand muscles in skilled harpists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buick, Alison R; Kennedy, Niamh C; Carson, Richard G

    2016-01-26

    The process of learning to play a musical instrument necessarily alters the functional organisation of the cortical motor areas that are involved in generating the required movements. In the case of the harp, the demands placed on the motor system are quite specific. During performance, all digits with the sole exception of the little finger are used to pluck the strings. With a view to elucidating the impact of having acquired this highly specialised musical skill on the characteristics of corticospinal projections to the intrinsic hand muscles, focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in three muscles (of the left hand): abductor pollicis brevis (APB); first dorsal interosseous (FDI); and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) in seven harpists. Seven non-musicians served as controls. With respect to the FDI muscle-which moves the index finger, the harpists exhibited reliably larger MEP amplitudes than those in the control group. In contrast, MEPs evoked in the ADM muscle-which activates the little finger, were smaller in the harpists than in the non-musicians. The locations on the scalp over which magnetic stimulation elicited discriminable responses in ADM also differed between the harpists and the non-musicians. This specific pattern of variation in the excitability of corticospinal projections to these intrinsic hand muscles exhibited by harpists is in accordance with the idiosyncratic functional demands that are imposed in playing this instrument. PMID:26673887

  16. Actin capping protein and its inhibitor CARMIL: how intrinsically disordered regions function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actin capping protein (CP) tightly binds to the barbed end of actin filaments to block further elongation. The β-tentacle in CP is an important region that ensures stable interaction with actin filaments. CARMIL inhibits the interaction of CP with actin filaments via the C-terminal portion containing the CP-binding motif, located in an intrinsically disordered region. We have proposed an allosteric inhibition model in which CARMIL suppresses CP by the population shift mechanism. Here, we solved a crystal structure of CP in complex with a CARMIL-derived peptide, CA32. The new structure clearly represents the α-helical form of the β-tentacle that was invisible in other CP/CARMIL peptide complex structures. In addition, we exhaustively performed a normal mode analysis with the elastic network model on all available crystal structures of the CP/CARMIL peptide complexes, including the new structure. We concluded that the CP-binding motif is necessary and sufficient for altering the fluctuation of CP, which is essential for attenuating the barbed-end-capping activity along the population shift mechanism. The roles and functions of the β-tentacle and the CP-binding motif are discussed in terms of their intrinsically disordered nature

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of MTBE-contaminated groundwater at a petroleum-hydrocarbon spill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, K. F.; Kao, C. M.; Chen, T. Y.; Weng, C. H.; Tsai, C. T.

    2006-06-01

    An oil-refining plant site located in southern Taiwan has been identified as a petroleum-hydrocarbon [mainly methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX)] spill site. In this study, groundwater samples collected from the site were analyzed to assess the occurrence of intrinsic MTBE biodegradation. Microcosm experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of biodegrading MTBE by indigenous microorganisms under aerobic, cometabolic, iron reducing, and methanogenic conditions. Results from the field investigation and microbial enumeration indicate that the intrinsic biodegradation of MTBE and BTEX is occurring and causing the decrease in MTBE and BTEX concentrations. Microcosm results show that the indigenous microorganisms were able to biodegrade MTBE under aerobic conditions using MTBE as the sole primary substrate. The detected biodegradation byproduct, tri-butyl alcohol (TBA), can also be biodegraded by the indigenous microorganisms. In addition, microcosms with site groundwater as the medium solution show higher MTBE biodegradation rate. This indicates that the site groundwater might contain some trace minerals or organics, which could enhance the MTBE biodegradation. Results show that the addition of BTEX at low levels could also enhance the MTBE removal. No MTBE removal was detected in iron reducing and methanogenic microcosms. This might be due to the effects of low dissolved oxygen (approximately 0.3 mg/L) within the plume. The low iron reducers and methanogens (bioremediation using indigenous microorganisms would be a feasible technology to clean up this MTBE-contaminated site.

  18. Microsurgery Resection of Intrinsic Insular Tumors via Transsylvian Surgical Approach in 12 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, operative methods, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the resection of intrinsic insular gliomas via transsylvian approach. From June 2008 to June 2010, 12 patients with intrinsic insular gliomas were treated via transsylvian microsurgical approach, with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging (MR DTI) evaluation. The data of these patients were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had astrocytoma, including 8 patients of Grades I to II, 2 patients of Grades III to IV, and 2 patients of mixed glial tumors. The insular tumors were completely removed in 9 patients, whereas they were only partially removed from 3 patients. No death was related to the operations. Two patients had transient aphasia, 2 experienced worsened hemiplegia on opposite sides of their bodies, and 2 had mild hemiplegia and language function disturbance. Most of the insular gliomas are of low grade. By evaluating the damage of the corticospinal tract through DTI and using ultrasonography to locate the tumors during operation, microsurgery treatment removes the lesions as much as possible, protects the surrounding areas, reduces the mobility rate, and improves the postoperative quality of life

  19. Spherical Location Under Restricted Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. R. Dhar

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of locating a new facility with respect to n given demand points on earth, with upper bounds imposed on distances between the new facility and each demand points. Distances are measured as the length of the shortest arc of great circle. The proposed algorithm makes use of a Lagrangean relaxation in which the distance constraints, which are not satisfied by the associated unconstrained solution, are incorporated in the economic function. Computational results of a limited number of test problems are presented.

  20. Device for locating defective fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for locating defective nuclear fuel elements is disclosed. Fuel elements that are to be tested are enclosed in a test chamber, filled with water. Air is pumped or pulled into the chamber, entering through a gas sparger at the bottom of the chamber and displacing a portion of the water above the fuel element. This reduces the pressure in the vessel, forms an air pocket above the fuel element and purges the water surrounding the fuel element of fission gases released from defective fuel elements. The activity of sample gas drawn from the chamber is continuously monitored to indicate fission gas content

  1. Self-Adapting Point Location

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Pedro; Devillers, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Point location in spatial subdivision is one of the most studied problems in computational geometry. In the case of triangulations of Rd, we revisit the problem to exploit a possible coherence between the query-points. For a single query, walking in the triangulation is a classical strategy with good practical behavior and expected complexity O(n^(1/d)) if the points are evenly distributed. For a batch of query-points, the main idea is to use previous queries to improve the current one; we co...

  2. Case study of an approved corrective action integrating active remediation with intrinsic remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., performed UST removals and/or site assessments at UST system locations at a former US Air Force Base (AFB) in Denver, Colorado. Four UST systems, incorporating 17 USTs, were located within the petroleum, oils, and lubricants bulk storage yard (POL Yard) of the former AFB. During the tank removals and subsequent site investigations, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in soils at each site. Significant releases from two of the UST systems resulted in a dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) plume in the groundwater, and smear-zone contamination of soils beneath the majority of the POL Yard. Because of the close proximity of the UST systems, and the presence of the groundwater plume beneath the POL Yard, a corrective action plan (CAP) was prepared that encompassed all four UST systems. An innovative, risk-based CAP integrated active remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils with intrinsic remediation of groundwater. A natural attenuation evaluation for the dissolved BTEX was performed to demonstrate that natural attenuation processes are providing adequate remediation of groundwater and to predict the fate of the groundwater plume. BTEX concentrations versus distance were regressed to obtain attenuation rates, which were then used to calculate BTEX degradation rates using a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical solution. Additionally, electron acceptor concentrations in groundwater were compared to BTEX concentrations to provide evidence that natural attenuation of BTEX compounds was occurring. The natural attenuation evaluation was used in the CAP to support the intrinsic remediation with long-term monitoring alternative for groundwater, thereby avoiding the installation of an expensive groundwater remediation system

  3. Intrinsic properties guide proximal abducens and oculomotor nerve outgrowth in avian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance-Jones, Cynthia; Shah, Veeral; Noden, Drew M; Sours, Emily

    2012-02-01

    Proper movement of the vertebrate eye requires the formation of precisely patterned axonal connections linking cranial somatic motoneurons, located at defined positions in the ventral midbrain and hindbrain, with extraocular muscles. The aim of this research was to assess the relative contributions of intrinsic, population-specific properties and extrinsic, outgrowth site-specific cues during the early stages of abducens and oculomotor nerve development in avian embryos. This was accomplished by surgically transposing midbrain and caudal hindbrain segments, which had been pre-labeled by electroporation with an EGFP construct. Graft-derived EGFP+ oculomotor axons entering a hindbrain microenvironment often mimicked an abducens initial pathway and coursed cranially. Similarly, some EGFP+ abducens axons entering a midbrain microenvironment mimicked an oculomotor initial pathway and coursed ventrally. Many but not all of these axons subsequently projected to extraocular muscles that they would not normally innervate. Strikingly, EGFP+ axons also took initial paths atypical for their new location. Upon exiting from a hindbrain position, most EGFP+ oculomotor axons actually coursed ventrally and joined host branchiomotor nerves, whose neurons share molecular features with oculomotor neurons. Similarly, upon exiting from a midbrain position, some EGFP+ abducens axons turned caudally, elongated parallel to the brainstem, and contacted the lateral rectus muscle, their originally correct target. These data reveal an interplay between intrinsic properties that are unique to oculomotor and abducens populations and shared ability to recognize and respond to extrinsic directional cues. The former play a prominent role in initial pathway choices, whereas the latter appear more instructive during subsequent directional choices. PMID:21739615

  4. An intrinsic hyperboloid approach for Einstein Klein-Gordon equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In [7] Klainerman introduced the hyperboloidal method to prove the global existence results for nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations by using commuting vector fields. In this paper, we extend the hyperboloidal method from Minkowski space to Lorentzian spacetimes. This approach is developed in [14] for proving, under the maximal foliation gauge, the global nonlinear stability of Minkowski space for Einstein equations with massive scalar fields, which states that, the sufficiently small data in a compact domain, surrounded by a Schwarzschild metric, leads to a unique, globally hyperbolic, smooth and geodesically complete solution to the Einstein Klein-Gordon system. In this paper, we set up the geometric framework of the intrinsic hyperboloid approach in the curved spacetime. By performing a thorough geometric comparison between the radial normal vector field induced by the intrinsic hyperboloids and the canonical $\\p_r$, we manage to control the hyperboloids when they are close to their asymptote, which is a light...

  5. Membrane dynamics in the intrinsic light-front coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the dynamics of the membrane, using internal light-front (LF) coordinates. The set of constraints, although equivalent to the standard one, is different. The intrinsic LF gauge is defined. Four additional, alternative gauge-fixing conditions are analyzed. Two of them polynomialize the system, while the other two are convenient for studying the initial-value problem. In particular, one of them is also extrinsically (i.e., in the ambient space) light-front. In this gauge, the system is shown to be consistently reduced to attain a canonical form in terms of pure transverse variables. Two constraints on these variables still hold, clearly showing the presence, as they must, of D - 3 degrees of freedom. Finally, the initial-value problem in this intrinsic-extrinsic. LF gauge is solved. Although the paper is based on the first-order action, the LF-Hamiltonian approach is discussed too

  6. Transport through graphenelike flakes with intrinsic spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, I.; Barnaś, J.; Krompiewski, S.

    2015-07-01

    It was shown recently [J. L. Lado and J. Fernández-Rossier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 027203 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.027203] that edge magnetic moments in graphene-like nanoribbons are strongly influenced by the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Due to this interaction an anisotropy comes about which makes the in-plane arrangement of magnetic moments energetically more favorable than that corresponding to the out-of-plane configuration. In this paper we raise both the edge magnetism problem and the differential conductance and shot noise Fano factor issues, in the context of finite-size flakes within the Coulomb blockade (CB) transport regime. Our findings elucidate the following problems: (i) modification of CB diamonds by the appearance of in-plane magnetic moments and (ii) modification of CB diamonds by the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction.

  7. Overcoming Intrinsic Spin Resonances with an rf Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A coherent spin resonance excited by an rf dipole was used to overcome depolarization due to intrinsic spin resonances at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We found that our data are consistent with a full spin flip of a polarized proton beam, without emittance growth, at Gγ=12+νz and 36-νz , by adiabatically exciting a vertical coherent betatron oscillation using a single rf dipole magnet. The interference pattern observed between the intrinsic spin resonance and the coherent spin resonance agrees well with multiparticle spin simulations based on a simple two-resonance model. The interference pattern can be used for beam diagnostics. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  8. The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiation Czochralski-silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yang Xian; Niu Ping Juan; Liu Cai Chi; Xu Yue Sheng; Yang Deren; Que Duan Lin

    2002-01-01

    The intrinsic gettering in neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon is studied. The result shows that a denuded zone at the surface of the neutron irradiated Czochralski-silicon wafer may be formed through one-step short-time annealing. The width of the denuded zone is dependent on the annealing temperature and the dose of neutron irradiation, while it is irrelated to the annealing time in case the denuded zone is formed. The authors conclude that the interaction between the defects induced by neutron irradiation and the oxygen in the silicon accelerates the oxygen precipitation in the bulk, and becomes the dominating factor of the quick formation of intrinsic gettering. It makes the effect of thermal history as the secondary factor

  9. Intrinsic Kinetic Modeling of Thermal Dimerization of C5 Fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Liang; Wang Tiefeng; Li Dongfeng; Wang Jinfu

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the intrinsic kinetics of thermal dimerization of C5 fraction in the reactive distilla-tion process. Experiments are conducted in an 1000-mL stainless steel autoclave under some selected design conditions. By means of the weighted least squares method, the intrinsic kinetics of thermal dimerization of C5 fraction is established, and the corresponding pre-exponential factor as well as the activation energy are determined. For example, the pre-exponential factor A is equal to 4.39×105 and the activation energy Ea is equal to 6.58×104 J/mol for the cyclopentadiene dimerization re-action. The comparison between the experimental and calculated results shows that the kinetics model derived in this work is accurate and reliable, which can be used in the design of reactive distillation columns.

  10. The Apparent and Intrinsic Shape of the APM Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Basilakos, S; Manolis, P; Basilakos, Spyros; Maddox, Steve; Plionis, Manolis

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the distribution of intrinsic shapes of APM galaxy clusters fromthe distribution of their apparent shapes. We measure the projected clusterellipticities using two alternative methods. The first method is based onmoments of the discrete galaxy distribution while the second is based onmoments of the smoothed galaxy distribution. We study the performance of bothmethods using Monte Carlo cluster simulations covering the range of APM clusterdistances and including a random distribution of background galaxies. We findthat the first method suffers from severe systematic biases, whereas the secondis more reliable. After excluding clusters dominated by substructure andquantifying the systematic biases in our estimated shape parameters, we recovera corrected distribution of projected ellipticities. We use the non-parametrickernel method to estimate the smooth apparent ellipticity distribution, andnumerically invert a set of integral equations to recover the correspondingdistribution of intrinsic ellipticiti...

  11. A facile route to recover intrinsic graphene over large scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Wook; Lee, Hyun Myoung; Yu, Seong Man; Lim, Kwang-Soo; Jung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kim, Sang-Woo; Han, Jae-Hee; Ruoff, Rodney S; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2012-09-25

    The intrinsic properties of initially p-type doped graphene (grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can be recovered by buffered oxide etch (BOE) treatment, and the dominant factor governing p-type doping is identified as the H(2)O/O(2) redox system. Semi-ionic C-F bonding prevents the reaction between the products of the H(2)O/O(2) redox system and graphene. BOE-treated graphene field effect transistors (FETs) subsequently exposed to air, became p-type doped due to recovery of the H(2)O/O(2) redox system. In comparison, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-coated graphene FETs had improved stability for maintaining the intrinsic graphene electronic properties. PMID:22928753

  12. Quantal rotation and its coupling to intrinsic motion in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Shimizu, Yoshifumi R

    2016-01-01

    Symmetry breaking is an importance concept in nuclear physics and other fields of physics. Self-consistent coupling between the mean-field potential and the single-particle motion is a key ingredient in the unified model of Bohr and Mottelson, which could lead to a deformed nucleus as a consequence of spontaneous breaking of the rotational symmetry. Some remarks on the finite-size quantum effects are given. In finite nuclei, the deformation inevitably introduces the rotation as a symmetry-restoring collective motion (Anderson-Nambu-Goldstone mode), and the rotation affects the intrinsic motion. In order to investigate the interplay between the rotational and intrinsic motions in a variety of collective phenomena, we use the cranking prescription together with the quasiparticle random phase approximation. At low spin, the coupling effect can be seen in the generalized intensity relation. A feasible quantization of the cranking model is presented, which provides a microscopic approach to the higher-order intens...

  13. Electron Spin Relaxation in Intrinsic Bulk InP Semiconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hong; Wang, Lihua; Ma, Guohong

    2010-01-01

    Electron spin dynamics is studied by time resolved pump probe reflectivity (TRPPR) technique using the co- and counter-circularly polarized femtosecond pulses in intrinsic bulk Indium Phosphide (InP) crystal at room temperature and 70 K. The reflectivity change from bleaching into absorption enhancement is observed with increasing pump photon energy. This phenomenon can be explained in terms of the spin sensitive band filling and band gap renormalization effects. Although electron spin relaxation process at room temperature is much faster than that at 70K, carrier density dependence of electron spin relaxation shows similar tendency. With increasing carrier density, the electron spin relaxation time increases initially and then decreases after reaching a maximum value. Our experimental results agree well with the recent theoretical prediction and D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism is considered as a dominating contribution to the electron spin relaxation in intrinsic bulk InP semiconductor.

  14. Finding intrinsic rewards by embodied evolution and constrained reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the design principle of reward functions is a substantial challenge both in artificial intelligence and neuroscience. Successful acquisition of a task usually requires not only rewards for goals, but also for intermediate states to promote effective exploration. This paper proposes a method for designing 'intrinsic' rewards of autonomous agents by combining constrained policy gradient reinforcement learning and embodied evolution. To validate the method, we use Cyber Rodent robots, in which collision avoidance, recharging from battery packs, and 'mating' by software reproduction are three major 'extrinsic' rewards. We show in hardware experiments that the robots can find appropriate 'intrinsic' rewards for the vision of battery packs and other robots to promote approach behaviors. PMID:19013054

  15. Intrinsic Josephson effect and single Cooper pair tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tsutomu; Kim, Sang-Jae; Latyshev, Yuri; Nakajima, Kensuke

    2000-06-01

    We proposed a new, small and fast switching gate based on the intrinsic Josephson effect of single crystals of a cuprate superconductor. The switching time is of subpicosecond order, and the operating frequency is up to several terahertz. We used the focused-ion-beam (FIB) method for the fabrication of small Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O 8 (Bi-2212) stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJ) with in-plane size down to the submicron level without the degradation of their Tc. We observed clear Fraunhofer patterns in Ic- B curves and flux-flow velocity of up to 10 6 m/s for the stack junctions with the size of several micrometer scale. For the submicron junction, the low-temperature behavior is governed by the Coulomb-charging effects. This is the first observation of the Coulomb-charging effects in layered high- Tc materials.

  16. Equivalent Effect Function and Fast Intrinsic Mode Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Louis Yu

    2011-01-01

    The Equivalent Effect Function (EEF) is defined as having the identical integral values on the control points of the original time series data; the EEF can be obtained from the derivative of the spline function passing through the integral values on the control points. By choosing control points with different criteria, the EEF can be used to find the intrinsic mode function(IMF, fluctuation) and the residue (trend); to fit the curve of the original data function; and to take samples on original data with equivalent effect. As examples of application, results of trend and fluctuation on real stock historical data are calculated on different time scales. A new approach to extend the EEF to 2D intrinsic mode decomposition is introduced to resolve the inter slice non continuity problem, some photo image decomposition examples are presented.

  17. Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at cold temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of intrinsic bioremediation in cold climates was evaluated based on studies on a former landfill site at Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake. This site has been used in the past as a disposal site for various hydrocarbon products, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX), dichloroethanes, and dichlorobenzenes. Computer models based on the results of the investigation suggest that reductive dechlorination and BTEX mineralization has occurred and is occurring at this site despite the colder in-situ temperatures. Further studies of the complex redox environment required to facilitate reductive dechlorination is recommended before intrinsic bioremediation can be considered with certainty as a viable remedial option in cold temperature environments. 17 refs., 7 figs

  18. Intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons at cold temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a study of the viability of intrinsic bioremediation of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons at cold temperatures, at a former landfill site, some 300 km northeast of Edmonton. The landfill was also used for disposing of various hydrocarbon-based products of environmental concern.The project was conducted in four phases, i. e. site investigation, analysis of contaminant concentration, microbial study in the laboratory, and computer fate and transport modeling, with the primary focus being on the effect of cold temperatures on the rate of reductive dechlorination. Preliminary analysis of the results shows considerable evidence for the biodegradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons and confirms intrinsic bioremediation as a viable option for cold temperature sites. 20 refs., 7 figs

  19. Intrinsic brightness temperatures of blazar jets at 15 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hovatta Talvikki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to deconvolve light curves of blazars into individual flares, including proper estimation of the fit errors. We use the method to fit 15GHzlight curves obtained within the OVRO 40-m blazar monitoring program where a large number of AGN have been monitored since 2008 in support of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope mission. The time scales obtained from the fitted models are used to calculate the variability brightness temperature of the sources. Additionally, we have calculated brightness temperatures of a sample of these objects using Very Long Baseline Array data from the MOJAVE survey. Combining these two data sets enables us to study the intrinsic brightness temperature distribution in these blazars at 15 GHz. Our preliminary results indicate that the mean intrinsic brightness temperature in a sample of 14 sources is near the equipartition brightness temperature of ~ 1011K.

  20. Noise suppression for micromechanical resonator via intrinsic dynamic feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou IAN; Zhi-rui GONG; Chang-pu SUN

    2008-01-01

    We study a dynamic mechanism to passively suppress the thermal noise of a micromechanical resonator through an intrinsic self-feedback that is genuinely non-Markovian.We use two coupled resonators,one as the target resonator and the other as an ancillary resonator,to illustrate the mechanism and its noise reduction effect.The intrinsic feedback is realized through the dynamics of coupling between the two resonators:the motions of the target resonator and the ancillary resonator mutually influence each other in a cyclic fashion.Specifically,the states that the target resonator has attained earlier will affect the state it attains later due to the presence of the ancillary resonator.We show that the feedback mechanism will bring forth the effect of noise suppression in the spectrum of displacement,but not in the spectrum of momentum.