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Sample records for carbon nanotubes modified

  1. Modified carbon nanotubes and methods of forming carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heintz, Amy M.; Risser, Steven; Elhard, Joel D.; Moore, Bryon P.; Liu, Tao; Vijayendran, Bhima R.

    2016-06-14

    In this invention, processes which can be used to achieve stable doped carbon nanotubes are disclosed. Preferred CNT structures and morphologies for achieving maximum doping effects are also described. Dopant formulations and methods for achieving doping of a broad distribution of tube types are also described.

  2. Modified carbon nanotubes: from nanomedicine to nanotoxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Massimo; Bottini, Nunzio

    2012-09-01

    Nanomedicine is the science of fabricating smart devices able to diagnose and treat diseases more efficiently than conventional medicine while minimizing costs, complexity and adverse effects. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are receiving considerable attention for biomedical applications due to their extraordinary properties. In particular, their chemical nature and high aspect ratio (ratio between the length and the diameter) make them ideal carriers to achieve delivery of high doses of therapeutic and imaging cargo to a specific site of interest. A major obstacle to the use of pristine (unmodified) CNTs in biological systems is their complete aqueous insolubility and low biocompatibility and toxicity profiles. To endow CNTs with solubility in a biological milieu, several non-covalent and covalent modification methods have been explored. Suitably modified CNTs have shown increased solubility under physiological conditions, improved biocompatibility profiles and lack of toxicity after injection in living animals. Additionally, after being loaded with cargo (small molecules, proteins, peptides or nucleic acids) they have been successfully evaluated as pharmaceutical, therapeutic and diagnostic tools.

  3. Conductive hydrophobic hybrid textiles modified with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, D.; Brzeziński, S.; Makowski, T.; Fortuniak, W.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the results of modifying and testing modern hybrid polyester-cotton woven fabrics with deposited multi-wall carbon nanotubes and imparted hydrophobicity. The effect of the carbon nanotubes deposited on these fabrics on their conductive properties and hydrophobicity has been assessed. The electro-conductive and hydrophobic composite fabrics obtained in this way, being light, elastic and resistant to mechanical effects, make it possible to be widely used in various industrial fields.

  4. Improved Composites Using Crosslinked, Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotube Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James Stewart

    2014-01-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit exceptional tensile strength and stiffness; however, these properties have not translated well to the macroscopic scale. Premature failure of bulk CNT materials under tensile loading occurs due to the relatively weak frictional forces between adjacent CNTs, leading to poor load transfer through the material. When used in polymer matrix composites (PMCs), the weak nanotube-matrix interaction leads to the CNTs providing less than optimal reinforcement.Our group is examining the use of covalent crosslinking and surface modification as a means to improve the tensile properties of PMCs containing carbon nanotubes. Sheet material comprised of unaligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) was used as a drop-in replacement for carbon fiber in the composites. A variety of post-processing methods have been examined for covalently crosslinking the CNTs to overcome the weak inter-nanotube shear interactions, resulting in improved tensile strength and modulus for the bulk sheet material. Residual functional groups from the crosslinking chemistry may have the added benefit of improving the nanotube-matrix interaction. Composites prepared using these crosslinked, surface-modified nanotube sheet materials exhibit superior tensile properties to composites using the as received CNT sheet material.

  5. Nanocomposite fibers and film containing polyolefin and surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu,Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-26

    Methods for modifying carbon nanotubes with organic compounds are disclosed. The modified carbon nanotubes have enhanced compatibility with polyolefins. Nanocomposites of the organo-modified carbon nanotubes and polyolefins can be used to produce both fibers and films having enhanced mechanical and electrical properties, especially the elongation-to-break ratio and the toughness of the fibers and/or films.

  6. ELECTROANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS OF CARBOXYL-MODIFIED CARBON NANOTUBE FILM ELECTRODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.G. Hu; W.L. Wang; K.J. Liao; W. Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of a carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube films was investigated to explore its possibility in electroanalytical applicaton. Cyclic voltammetry of quinone was conducted in 1mol/L Na2SO4, which showed a stable, quasi-reversible voltammetric response for quinone / hydroquinone, and the anodic and the cathodic peak potentials were 0.657V and -0.029V (vs. SCE) at a scan rate of 0.1V.s-1, respectively. Both anodic and cathodic peak currents depended linearly on the square root of the scan rate over the range of 0.01-0. 5 V.s-1, which suggested that the process of the electrode reactions was diffusion-controlled. Carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes made it possible to determine low level of dopamine selectively in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid in acidic media using derivative voltammetry.The results obtained were discussed in details. This work demonstrates the potential of carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube electrodes for electroanalytical applications.

  7. Investigation of bioresistant dry building mixes modified by carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry construction mixes are today a product of high technologies. Depending on the purpose and requirements to the properties it is easy to produce dry construction mixes with different compositions and operating indicators in plant conditions using the necessary modifying additives. Cement, gypsum and other mineral binders are used in the construction mixes. Different types of cement are more heavily used in dry construction mixes. Such dry mixes are believed to be more effective materials comparing to traditional cement-sandy solutions of centralized preparation. The authors present the results of the investigations on obtaining biocidal cement-sand compositions. It was established, that introduction of sodium sulfate into the composition provides obtaining the materials with funginert and fungicide properties. The strength properties of the mixes modified by carbon nanotubes and biocide additive were investigated by mathematical planning methods. The results of the investigations showed that the modification of cement stone structure by carbon nanotubes positively influences their strength and technological properties. Nanomodifying of construction composites by introducing carbon nanotubes may be effectively used at different stages of structure formation of a construction material.

  8. Osteoblast cell response to surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the interaction of cells with modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for their potential biomedical applications, the MWCNTs were chemically modified with carboxylic acid groups (–COOH), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer and biomimetic apatite on their surfaces. Additionally, human osteoblast MG-63 cells were cultured in the presence of the surface-modified MWCNTs. The metabolic activities of osteoblastic cells, cell proliferation properties, as well as cell morphology were studied. The surface modification of MWCNTs with biomimetic apatite exhibited a significant increase in the cell viability of osteoblasts, up to 67.23%. In the proliferation phases, there were many more cells in the biomimetic apatite-modified MWCNT samples than in the MWCNTs–COOH. There were no obvious changes in cell morphology in osteoblastic MG-63 cells cultured in the presence of these chemically-modified MWCNTs. The surface modification of MWCNTs with apatite achieves an effective enhancement of their biocompatibility.

  9. Voltammetric Response of Epinephrine at Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode and Activated Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Juan; TANG Ping; ZHAO Fa-qiong; ZENG Bai-zhao

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of epinephrine at activated glassy carbon electrode and carbon nanotube-coated glassy carbon electrode was studied. Epinephrine could exhibit an anodic peak at about 0.2 V (vs. SCE) at bare glassy carbon electrode, but it was very small.However, when the electrode was activated at certain potential (i. e. 1.9V) or modified with carbon nanotube, the peak became more sensitive,resulting from the increase in electrode area in addition to the electrostatic attraction. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to epinephrine concentration in the range of 3.3 × 10-7-1.1 × 10-5mol/L at activated glassy carbon electrode and in the range of 1.0 × 10-6-5.0 × 10-5 mol/L at carbon nanotube-coated electrode. The correlation coefficients were 0. 998 and 0. 997, respectively. The determination limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L. The two electrodes have been successfully applied for the determination of epinephrine in adrenaline hydrochloride injection with recovery of 95%-104%.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Polycarbonate Modified Multiple-walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-Gang; HUANG Ke-Long; LIU Su-Qin; TANG Jin-Chun

    2008-01-01

    To prepare polymer/carbon nanotube composites, polycarbonate was chosen to modify multiple-walled carbon nanotubes. Poly[(propylene oxide)-(carbon dioxide)-(ε-caprolactone)], poly(butylene-co-ε-caprolactone carbonate),and poly[(propylene oxide)-co-(carbon dioxide)-co-(maleic anhydride)] were the polycarbonates which were used to modify multiple-walled carbon nanotubes, but only soluble poly[(propylene oxide)-(carbon dioxide)-(ε-caprolactone)] modified multiple-walled carbon nanotubes could be obtained. Thermogravimetric analysis clearly indicated that more polycarbonates were attached to soluble poly[(propylene oxide)-(carbon dioxide)-(ε-caprolactone)] modified multiple-walled carbon nanotubes. The formation of surface functional groups and changes of nanotube structures and morphology were monitored by infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Because of their solubility and bioactive moieties,poly[(propylene oxide)-(carbon dioxide)-(ε-caprolactone)] modified multiple-walled carbon nanotubes may find their potential use in drug delivery.

  11. Reprogramming cellular signaling machinery using surface-modified carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Cuijuan; Yan, Bing

    2015-03-16

    Nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), interact with cells and are easily internalized, causing various perturbations to cell functions. The mechanisms involved in such perturbations are investigated by a systematic approach that utilizes modified CNTs and various chemical-biological assays. Three modes of actions are (1) CNTs bind to different cell surface receptors and perturb different cell signaling pathways; (2) CNTs bind to a receptor with different affinity and, therefore, strengthen or weaken signals; (3) CNTs enter cells and bind to soluble signaling proteins involved in a signaling pathway. Understanding of such mechanisms not only clarifies how CNTs cause cytotoxicity but also demonstrates a useful method to modulate biological/toxicological activities of CNTs for their various industrial, biomedical, and consumer applications. PMID:25536342

  12. A modified structure for MOSFET-like carbon nanotube FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeydi, Maryam Mirasanloo; Yousefi, Reza

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, non-equilibrium Green's function method is used to investigate the characteristics of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs). Leakage current resulted from band-to-band tunneling, and ambipolarity behaviors are among the known effects for CNTFET devices. To minimize these phenomena, a modified structure is presented in which density of source and drain in the transistor is reduced in steps while going toward the intrinsic channel. The proposed structure shows a better ambipolar property and less power-delay product at a given I ON/ I OFF ratio, and also less delay time at a given I ON compared with the available structure. Also, its other ON- and OFF-state characteristics are almost intact. Afterward, the effect of different factors on the behavior of the device and their optimal values such as channel length changes, chirality, dielectric constant, and gate length changes are investigated.

  13. Reprogramming cellular signaling machinery using surface-modified carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ling; Jiang, Cuijuan; Yan, Bing

    2015-03-16

    Nanoparticles, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), interact with cells and are easily internalized, causing various perturbations to cell functions. The mechanisms involved in such perturbations are investigated by a systematic approach that utilizes modified CNTs and various chemical-biological assays. Three modes of actions are (1) CNTs bind to different cell surface receptors and perturb different cell signaling pathways; (2) CNTs bind to a receptor with different affinity and, therefore, strengthen or weaken signals; (3) CNTs enter cells and bind to soluble signaling proteins involved in a signaling pathway. Understanding of such mechanisms not only clarifies how CNTs cause cytotoxicity but also demonstrates a useful method to modulate biological/toxicological activities of CNTs for their various industrial, biomedical, and consumer applications.

  14. Electrodes from carbon nanotubes/NiO nanocomposites synthesized in modified Watts bath for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakamada, Masataka; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Mabuchi, Mamoru

    2016-09-01

    A modified Watts bath coupled with pulsed current electroplating is used to uniformly deposit ultrafine nickel oxide particles (diameter carbon nanotubes. The capacitance of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes/nickel oxide electrodes was as high as 2480 F g-1 (per mass of nickel oxide), which is close to the theoretical capacitance of NiO.

  15. Strain-modified RKKY interaction in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, Stephen R.;

    2015-01-01

    For low-dimensionalmetallic structures, such as nanotubes, the exchange coupling between localized magnetic dopants is predicted to decay slowly with separation. The long-range character of this interaction plays a significant role in determining the magnetic order of the system. It has previously...... been shown that the interaction range depends on the conformation of the magnetic dopants in both graphene and nanotubes. Here we examine the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction in carbon nanotubes in the presence of uniaxial strain for a range of different impurity configurations. We show...... nanotubes, allowing an interplay between mechanical and magnetic properties in future spintronic devices. We also examine the dimensional relationship between graphene and nanotubes with regards to the decay rate of the RKKY interaction....

  16. SELECTIVE VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HYDROXYPURINS ON ELECTRODE MODIFIED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Shaidarova, L. G.; Chelnokova, I. A.; Mahmutova, G. F.; Degteva, M. A.; Gedmina, A. V.; Budnikov, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) deposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode show catalytic activity in the oxidation of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine that is exhibited in decreasing overvoltage and increasing oxidation current of hydroxypurins. The method of simultaneous voltammetric determination of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine at the electrode modified by carbon nanotubes is suggested. The linear dependence of analytical signal from substrates concentration is observed in the ...

  17. Direct Electrochemistry of Catalase on Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang ZHAO; Lun Hui GUAN; Zhen Nan GU; Qian Kun ZHUANG

    2005-01-01

    Direct electrochemistry of catalase (Ct) has been studied on single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. A pair of well-defined nearly reversible redox peaks is given at --0.48 V (vs. SCE) in 0.1 mol/L phosphate solution (pH 7.0).The peak current in cyclic voltammogram is proportional to the scan rate. The peak potential of catalase is shifted to more negative value when the pH increases. Catalase can adsorb on the SWNTs modified electrode.

  18. Hall Measurements on Carbon Nanotube Paper Modified With Electroless Deposited Platinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwuoha Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube paper, sometimes referred to as bucky paper, is a random arrangement of carbon nanotubes meshed into a single robust structure, which can be manipulated with relative ease. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to make the nanotube paper, and were subsequently modified with platinum using an electroless deposition method based on substrate enhanced electroless deposition. This involves the use of a sacrificial metal substrate that undergoes electro-dissolution while the platinum metal deposits out of solution onto the nanotube paper via a galvanic displacement reaction. The samples were characterized using SEM/EDS, and Hall-effect measurements. The SEM/EDS analysis clearly revealed deposits of platinum (Pt distributed over the nanotube paper surface, and the qualitative elemental analysis revealed co-deposition of other elements from the metal substrates used. When stainless steel was used as sacrificial metal a large degree of Pt contamination with various other metals was observed. Whereas when pure sacrificial metals were used bimetallic Pt clusters resulted. The co-deposition of a bimetallic system upon carbon nanotubes was a function of the metal type and the time of exposure. Hall-effect measurements revealed some interesting fluctuations in sheet carrier density and the dominant carrier switched from N- to P-type when Pt was deposited onto the nanotube paper. Perspectives on the use of the nanotube paper as a replacement to traditional carbon cloth in water electrolysis systems are also discussed.

  19. A Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-chitosan Modified Electrode for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yan JIANG; Chuan Yin LIU; Li Ping JIANG; Guang Han LU

    2005-01-01

    A novel multiwall carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode has been prepared.The modified electrode resolves the overlapping voltammetric response of dopamine and ascorbic acid into two well-defined peak by 212 mY. The mechanism of discrimination of dopamine from ascorbic acid is discussed. Dopamine can be determined selectively with the carbon nanotube-chitosan modified electrode. The electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability.keywords: Nanotube-chitosan modified electrode, dopamine, ascorbic acid.

  20. Carbon Nanotube Coating on Titanium Substrate Modified with TiO2 Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu; PARK Ilsong; BAE Taesung; KLM Kyounga; WATARI Fumio; UO Motohiro; LEE Minho

    2011-01-01

    A combination of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and titanium (Ti) modified with TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) was fulfilled with the aim of improving bioactivity of Ti implant.First,well-ordered TiO2 NTs were prepared by the electrochemical anodization of Ti in an ethylene glycol electrolyte containing 1 wt% NH4F and 10 wt% H2O at 20 V for 50 min,followed by annealing.Then,the carboxylated CNTs were coated onto the TiO2NTs using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique.The growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the samples was investigated by soaking them in simulated body fiuid (SBF).The result showed the CNTs-coated Ti with the modification of TiO2 NTs (CNTs-TiO2 NTs) was more efficient to induce HA formation than the CNTs-coated smooth Ti (CNTs-Ti).The vitro cell response was evaluated using osteoblast cells (MC3T3-El).The good cell proliferation and strong cell adhesion could be obtained on the CNTs-TiO2 NTs.These results indicated that CNT coating on the Ti modified with TiO2 NTs could be potentially useful for the periodontal ligament combination on dental implants.

  1. A study of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified by organics of the phthalocyanine category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Organics of the phthalocyanine category have very good nonlinear optical properties. The single-walled carbon nanotubes were modified by using the phenoxy phthalocyanine. Characterization analysis was made by means of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet visible absorptive spectra, fluorescent spectra and Raman spectra. Under the TEM, it was observed that the composite looked like sugarcoated haws. By comparing the ultraviolet visible absorptive spectra before and after absorption, it was disclosed that the spectral intensity and the intensity of the peaks in the fluorescent spectra dropped remarkably. This shows that the single-walled carbon nanotubes have absorbed a large number of phenoxy phthalocyanines. Raman analysis revealed that in the Raman spectra, the position of the main peaks of the single-walled carbon nanotubes after absorption moved in the direction of long waves. The analysis suggests that the movement of the Raman spectra results from the change in the state of the single-walled carbon nanotubes before and after absorption.

  2. Carbon nanotube-nucleobase hybrids: nanorings from uracil-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prabhpreet; Toma, Francesca Maria; Kumar, Jitendra; Venkatesh, V; Raya, Jesus; Prato, Maurizio; Verma, Sandeep; Bianco, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been covalently functionalized with uracil nucleobase. The hybrids have been characterized by using complementary spectroscopic and microscopic techniques including solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The uracil-functionalized SWCNTs are able to self-assemble into regular nanorings with a diameter of 50-70 nm, as observed by AFM and TEM. AFM shows that the rings do not have a consistent height and thickness, which indicates that they may be formed by separate bundles of CNTs. The simplest model for the nanoring formation likely involves two bundles of CNTs interacting with each other via uracil-uracil base-pairing at both CNT ends. These nanorings can be envisaged for the development of advanced electronic circuits.

  3. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiying; Liu, Mingyue; Hu, Xinxi; Li, Mei; Xiong, Xingyao

    2013-01-01

    A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs) was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA) modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors. PMID:24287539

  4. Electrochemical Determination of Glycoalkaloids Using a Carbon Nanotubes-Phenylboronic Acid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiying Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A versatile strategy for electrochemical determination of glycoalkaloids (GAs was developed by using a carbon nanotubes-phenylboronic acid (CNTs-PBA modified glassy carbon electrode. PBA reacts with α-solanine and α-chaconine to form a cyclic ester, which could be utilized to detect GAs. This method allowed GA detection from 1 μM to 28 μM and the detection limit was 0.3 μM. Affinity interaction of GAs and immobilized PBA caused an essential change of the peak current. The CNT-PBA modified electrodes were sensitive for detection of GAs, and the peak current values were in quite good agreement with those measured by the sensors.

  5. Design of Dendrimer Modified Carbon Nanotubes for Gene Delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Bi-feng; BAO Chen-chen; GAO Feng; HE Rong; SHU Meng-jun; MA Yong-jie; CUI Da-xiang; XU Ping; CHEN Hao; LIU Feng-tao; LI Qing; HUANG Tuo; YOU Xiao-gang; SHAO Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficiency of polyamidoamine dendrimer grafted carbon nanotube (dendrimer-CNT) mediated entrance of anti-survivin oligonucleotide into MCF-7 cells, and its effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells. Methods: Antisense survivin oligonucleotide was anchored onto polyamidoamine dendrimer grafted carbon nanotubes to form dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex and the complex was characterized by Zeta potential, AFM, TEM, and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis analysis. Dendrimer-CNT-asODN complexes were added into the medium and incubated with MCF-7 cells. MTT method was used to detect the effects of asODN and dendrimer-CNT-asODN on the growth of MCF-7 cells. TEM was used to observe the distribution of dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex within MCF-7 cells. Results: Successful synthesis of dendrimer-CNT-asODN complexes was proved by TEM, AFM and agarose gel electrophoresis. TEM showed that the complexes were located in the cytoplasm, endosome, and lysosome within MCF-7 cells. When dendrimer-CNT-asODN (1.0 μmol/L) and asODN (1.0 μmol/L) were used for 120 h incubation, the inhibitory rates of MCF-7 cells were (28.22±3.5)% for dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex group, (9.23±0.56)% for only asODN group, and (3.44±0.25)% for dendrimer-CNT group. Dendrimer-CNT-asODN complex at 3.0 μmol/L inhibited MCF-7 cells by (30.30±10.62)%, and the inhibitory effects were in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. Conclusion: Dendrimer-CNT nanoparticles may serve as a gene delivery vector with high efficiency, which can bring foreign gene into cancer cells, inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and markedly enhancing the cancer therapy effects.

  6. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  7. Carbon nanotubes/pentacyaneferrate-modified chitosan nanocomposites platforms for reagentless glucose biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Alfambra, A M; Casero, E; Ruiz, M A; Vázquez, L; Pariente, F; Lorenzo, E

    2011-08-01

    The design, characterization and applicability of a nanostructured biosensor platform are described. The biosensor is developed through the immobilization of three components: a polymeric chitosan network previously modified with a redox mediator (denoted as PCF-Pyr-Ch), an enzyme (glucose oxidase, chosen as a model) and carbon nanotubes onto a solid glassy carbon electrode (C). In order to assess the influence of the nanomaterial in the performance of the resulting analytical device, a second biosensor, free of carbon nanotubes, is developed. The characterization of both biosensing platforms was performed in aqueous phosphate buffer solutions using atomic force microscopy technique. In the presence of glucose, both systems exhibit a clear electrocatalytic activity, and glucose could be amperometrically determined at +0.35 V versus Ag/AgCl. The performance of both biosensors was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, detection limit and linear response range. Finally, the enhancement of the analytical response induced by the presence of carbon nanotubes was evaluated. PMID:21633839

  8. Novel estradiol sensors based on carbon nanotube multilayer modified gold hair microelectrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hui Xu; Cheng Guo Hu; Sheng Shui Hu

    2009-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube multilayers were modified onto a newly proposed gold hair microelectrode via a simple layer-by-layer assembling method. The resulting electrode showed a sensitive oxidation response to estradiol with detection limit as low as 1.0×10~(-8) mol/L, foreseeing a promising approach to the fabrication of high-sensitive microsensors.

  9. Chemically modified carbon nanotubes as material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI) material in protein profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomarkers play a potential role in the early detection and diagnosis of a disease. Our aim is to derivatize carbon nanotubes for exploration of the differences in human body fluids e.g. serum, through matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) that can be related to disease and subsequently to be employed in the biomarker discovery process. This application we termed as the material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI). The versatility of this technology is meant to increase the amount of information from biological samples on the protein level, which will have a major impact to serve the cause of diagnostic markers. Serum peptides and proteins are immobilized on derivatized carbon nanotubes, which function as binding material. Protein-loaded suspension is placed on a stainless steel target or buckypaper on aluminum target for direct analysis with MALDI-MS. The elution method to wash the bound proteins from carbon nanotubes was employed to compare with the direct analysis procedure. Elution is carried out by MALDI matrix solution to get them out of the entangled nanotubes, which are difficult to desorb by laser due to the complex nanotube structures. The advantage of these optimized methods compared to the conventional screening methods is the improved sensitivity, selectivity and the short analysis time without prior albumin and immunoglobulin depletion. The comparison of similarly modified diamond and carbon nanotubes exhibit differences in their nature to bind the proteins out of serum due to the differences in their physical characteristics. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provided hint for the presence of tertiary amine peak at the crucial chemical step of iminodiacetic acid addition to acid chloride functionality on carbon nanotubes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was utilized to quantitatively measure the copper capacity of these derivatized carbon nanotubes which is a direct measure of capacity of

  10. Chemically modified carbon nanotubes as material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI) material in protein profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najam-ul-Haq, M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rainer, M. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schwarzenauer, T. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Huck, C.W. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]. E-mail: christian.w.huck@uibk.ac.at; Bonn, G.K. [Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Leopold-Franzens University, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2006-03-02

    Biomarkers play a potential role in the early detection and diagnosis of a disease. Our aim is to derivatize carbon nanotubes for exploration of the differences in human body fluids e.g. serum, through matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) that can be related to disease and subsequently to be employed in the biomarker discovery process. This application we termed as the material enhanced laser desorption ionisation (MELDI). The versatility of this technology is meant to increase the amount of information from biological samples on the protein level, which will have a major impact to serve the cause of diagnostic markers. Serum peptides and proteins are immobilized on derivatized carbon nanotubes, which function as binding material. Protein-loaded suspension is placed on a stainless steel target or buckypaper on aluminum target for direct analysis with MALDI-MS. The elution method to wash the bound proteins from carbon nanotubes was employed to compare with the direct analysis procedure. Elution is carried out by MALDI matrix solution to get them out of the entangled nanotubes, which are difficult to desorb by laser due to the complex nanotube structures. The advantage of these optimized methods compared to the conventional screening methods is the improved sensitivity, selectivity and the short analysis time without prior albumin and immunoglobulin depletion. The comparison of similarly modified diamond and carbon nanotubes exhibit differences in their nature to bind the proteins out of serum due to the differences in their physical characteristics. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy provided hint for the presence of tertiary amine peak at the crucial chemical step of iminodiacetic acid addition to acid chloride functionality on carbon nanotubes. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was utilized to quantitatively measure the copper capacity of these derivatized carbon nanotubes which is a direct measure of capacity of

  11. Improvement of the LiBH{sub 4} hydrogen desorption by confinement in modified carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.T.; Wan, C.B.; Meng, X.H.; Ju, X., E-mail: jux@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • The desorption kinetics for LiBH{sub 4} greatly promoted using melt infiltration method. • The LiBH{sub 4} confined in modified MWCNTs shows the best desorption kinetics. • The crystal structure of MWCNTs and SWCNTs is unchanged after ball milling. • Ball milling introduces a great amount of structural defects in the CNTs. • Nano-confinement is dominant on improving the hydrogen desorption of LiBH{sub 4}. - Abstract: The dehydrogenation kinetics of LiBH{sub 4} incorporated within various carbon nanotubes has been studied. It is demonstrated that the desorption kinetics of LiBH{sub 4} could be greatly promoted using a simple melt infiltration method and LiBH{sub 4} confined in modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) shows the best desorption kinetics. The structural properties of carbon nanotubes and confined samples are demonstrated by means of transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The crystal structure of MWCNTs and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are almost unchanged after ball milling. But high energy ball milling leads to a decrease in the average nanotube length and introduces a great amount of local disorder and structural defects in the CNTs, which may provide a considerable kinetic improvement.

  12. Amperometric biosensor based on glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length carbon nanotube and enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutaka, Hajime; Nemoto, Kentaro; Inoue, Yuki; Hidaka, Hiroki; Muguruma, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Ohsawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    An amperometric biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with long-length multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and enzyme nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) is presented. We demonstrate the effect of the MWCNT length on the amperometric response of the enzyme biosensor. The long length of MWCNT is 200 µm (average), whereas the normal length of MWCNT is 1 µm (average). The response of the long MWCNT–GDH electrode is 2 times more sensitive than that of the normal-length MWCNT–GDH electrode in the concentration range from 0.25–35 mM. The result of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that the long-length MWCNT–GDH electrode formed a better electron transfer network than the normal-length one.

  13. A carbon monoxide gas sensor using oxygen plasma modified carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weiyun; Fam, Derrick Wen Hui; Yin, Zongyou; Sun, Ting; Tan, Hui Teng; Liu, Weiling; Iing Yoong Tok, Alfred; Boey, Yin Chiang Freddy; Zhang, Hua; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2012-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly toxic gas that can be commonly found in many places. However, it is not easily detected by human olfaction due to its colorless and odorless nature. Therefore, highly sensitive sensors need to be developed for this purpose. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an immense potential in gas sensing. However, CNT-based gas sensors for sensing CO are seldom reported due to the lack of reactivity between CO and CNTs. In this work, O2 plasma modified CNT was used to fabricate a CNT gas sensor. The plasma treated CNTs showed selectively towards CO, with the capability of sensing low concentrations of CO (5 ppm) at room temperature, while the pristine CNTs showed no response. UV spectra and oxygen reduction reaction provided evidence that the difference in sensing property was due to the elimination of metallic CNTs and enhancement of the oxygen reduction property.

  14. Electrooxidation of DNA at glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luque, Guillermina L.; Ferreyra, Nancy F. [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Granero, Adrian [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina); Bollo, Soledad [Laboratorio de Bioelectroquimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Universidad de Chile, P.O. Box 233, Santiago (Chile); Rivas, Gustavo A., E-mail: grivas@fcq.unc.edu.ar [INFIQC, Departamento de Fisico Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2011-10-30

    This work reports the electrochemical response of the complex between dsDNA and PEI formed in solution and at the surface of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in polyethylenimine (CNT-PEI). Scanning Electron Microscopy and Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy demonstrate that the dispersion covers the whole surface of the electrode although there are areas with higher density of CNT and, consequently, with higher electrochemical reactivity. The adsorption of DNA at GCE/CNT-PEI is fast and it is mainly driven by electrostatic forces. A clear oxidation signal is obtained either for dsDNA or a heterooligonucleotide of 21 bases (oligoY) at potentials smaller than those for the oxidation at bare GCE. The comparison of the behavior of DNA before and after thermal treatment demonstrated that the electrochemical response highly depends on the 3D structure of the nucleic acid.

  15. Improved capacitance characteristics during electrochemical charging of carbon nanotubes modified with polyoxometallate monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By modification of surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with ultra-thin monolayer-type films of phosphododecamolybdic acid, H3PMo12O40, an electrode material with improved capacitance properties is produced. It is apparent from three distinct test experiments (based on cyclic voltammetry, galavanostatic charging-discharging and AC impedance) that capacitors utilizing H3PMo12O40-modified carbon nanotubes are characterized by specific capacitances and energy densities on the levels of 40 F g-1 and 1.3 Wh kg-1, whereas the respective values for the systems built from bare carbon nanotubes are lower, 22 F g-1 and 0.7 Wh kg-1. It is reasonable to expect that fast and reversible multi-electron transfers of the Keggin-type H3PMo12O40 account for the pseudocapacitance effect and significantly contribute to the observed overall capacitance

  16. Anti-tumor response with immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and phototherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Zhou, Feifan; Boarman, Ellen; Chen, Wei R.

    2013-02-01

    While successes of different cancer therapies have been achieved in various degrees a systemic immune response is needed to effectively treat late-stage, metastatic cancers, and to establish long-term tumor resistance in the patients. A novel method for combating metastatic cancers has been developed using immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy. Glycated chitosan (GC) is a potent immunological adjuvant capable of increasing host immune responses, including antigen presentation by activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and causing T cell proliferation. GC is also an effective surfactant for nanomaterials. By combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and GC, immunologically modified carbon nanotubes (SWNT-GC) were constructed. The SWNT-GC suspension retains the enhanced light absorption properties in the near infrared (NIR) region and the ability to enter cells, which are characteristic of SWNTs. The SWNT-GC also retains the immunological properties of GC. Cellular SWNT-GC treatments increased macrophage activity, DC activation and T cell proliferation. When cellular SWNT-GC was irradiated with a laser of an appropriate wavelength, these immune activities could be enhanced. The combination of laser irradiation and SWNT-GC induced cellular toxicity in targeted tumor cells, leading to a systemic antitumor response. Immunologically modified carbon nanotubes in conjunction with phototherapy is a novel and promising method to produce a systemic immune response for the treatment of metastatic cancers.

  17. Electroanalysis of some common pesticides using conducting polymer/multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manisankar, P; Sundari, Pl Abirama; Sasikumar, R; Palaniappan, Sp

    2008-09-15

    The cyclic voltammetric behaviour of three common pesticides such as isoproturon (ISO), voltage (VOL) and dicofol (DCF) was investigated at glassy carbon electrode (GCE), multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified GCE (MWCNTs/GCE), polyaniline (PANI) and polypyrrole (PPY) deposited MWCNT/GCE. The modified electrode film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The electroactive behaviour of the pesticides was realized from the cyclic voltammetric studies. The differential pulse voltammetric principle was used to analyze the above-mentioned pesticides using MWCNT/GCE, PANI/MWCNT/GCE and PPY/MWCNT/GCE. Effects of accumulation potential, accumulation time, Initial scan potential, amplitude and pulse width were examined for the optimization of stripping conditions. The PANI/MWCNT/GCE performed well among the three electrode systems and the determination range obtained was 0.01-100 mgL(-1) for ISO, VOL and DCF respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 microgL(-1) for ISO, 0.01 microgL(-1) for VOL and 0.05 microgL(-1) for DCF on PANI/MWCNT/GCE modified system. It is significant to note that the PANI/MWCNT/GCE modified system results in the lowest LOD in comparison with the earlier reports. Suitability of this method for the trace determination of pesticide in spiked samples was also realized.

  18. Removal of Chromium (III from Water by Using Modified and Nonmodified Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muataz Ali Atieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the environmental application of modified and nonmodified carbon nanotubes through the experiment removal of chromium trivalent (III from water. The aim was to find the optimal condition of the chromium (III removal from water under different treatment conditions of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time and agitation speed. Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes produced varied from 20–40 nm with average diameter of 24 nm and 10 micrometer in length. Adsorption isotherms were used to model the adsorption behavior and to calculate the adsorption capacity of the absorbents. The results showed that, 18% of chromium (III removal was achieved using modified carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs at pH 7, 150 rpm, and 2 hours for a dosage of 150 mg of CNTs. The removal of Cr (III is mainly attributed to the affinity of chromium (III to the physical and chemical properties of the CNTs. The adsorption isotherms plots were well fitted with experimental data.

  19. Enhanced Growth and Redox Characteristics of Some Conducting Polymers on Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Saraswathi

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Recent studies on the electrochemistry of a number of active compounds at carbon nanotube electrodes have proved beyond doubt their excellent electrocatalytic properties.Particularly,the advancements accomplished towards the functionalization of carbon nanotubes resulting in their enhanced solubilization in aqueous solutions have helped in the preparation of stable carbon nanotube electrodes.Glassy carbon has been invariably the preferred substrate for casting carbon nanotube electrodes.Such c...

  20. Electrocatalytic Reduction of NAD+ at Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎明; 丁飞; 王欢; 张文; 陆嘉星

    2005-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetric (CV) behaviors of NAD+ were studied with a multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. In 0.05 mol/L tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-HCl (Tris-HCl) buffer solution (pH=6.9), the MWNTs modified electrode showed high electrocatalytic activity toward reduction of NAD+.The electroreduction of NAD+ was an irreversible diffusion controlled process. The cathodic peak current increased linearly with increasing the concentration of NAD+. The influences of scan rate, temperature and concentration were also investigated.

  1. Strain-modified RKKY interaction in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, P. D.; Duffy, J. M.; Power, Stephen R.;

    2015-01-01

    For low-dimensionalmetallic structures, such as nanotubes, the exchange coupling between localized magnetic dopants is predicted to decay slowly with separation. The long-range character of this interaction plays a significant role in determining the magnetic order of the system. It has previously...

  2. Single-walled carbon nanotubes modified carbon ionic liquid electrode for sensitive electrochemical detection of rutin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhihong [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Xiaoying; Zhuang Xiaoming [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Zeng Yan [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Sun Wei, E-mail: sunwei@qust.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Huang Xintang [Institute of Nano-Science and Technology Center, Huazhong Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2010-11-01

    The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE) was designed and further used for the voltammetric detection of rutin in this paper. CILE was prepared by mixing graphite powder with ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and liquid paraffin together. Based on the interaction of SWCNTs with IL present on the electrode surface, a stable SWCNTs film was formed on the CILE to get a modified electrode denoted as SWCNTs/CILE. The characteristics of SWCNTs/CILE were recorded by different methods including cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of rutin on the SWCNTs/CILE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the specific interface provided by the SWCNTs-IL film, the electrochemical response of rutin was greatly enhanced with a pair of well-defined redox peaks appeared in pH 2.5 phosphate buffer solution. The oxidation peak currents showed good linear relationship with the rutin concentration in the range from 1.0 x 10{sup -7} to 8.0 x 10{sup -4} mol/L with the detection limit as 7.0 x 10{sup -8} mol/L (3{sigma}). The SWCNTs/CILE showed the advantages such as excellent selectivity, improved performance, good stability and it was further applied to the rutin tablets sample detection with satisfactory results.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Hamzaoui, Rabah

    2014-04-01

    Mechanical performance of modified mortar using hemp fibres is studied following various processing conditions. Hemp fibres combined with carbon nanotubes (CNT) are introduced in mortar and their effect is studied as function of curing time. The cement phase is replaced by different percentages of dry or wet hemp fibres ranging from 1.1. wt% up to 3.1. wt% whereas carbon nanotubes are dispersed in the aqueous solution. Our experimental results show that compressive and flexural strengths of wet fibres modified mortar are higher than those for dry hemp-mortar material. The achieved optimal percentage of wet hemp fibres is 2.1. wt% allowing a flexural strength higher than that of reference mortar. The addition of an optimal CNT concentration (0.01. wt%) combined with wet hemp has a reinforcing effect which turns to be related to an improvement of compressive and flexural strengths by 10% and 24%, respectively, in comparison with reference condition. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Electrochemical investigation of NO at single-wall carbon nanotubes modified electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tingliang Xia; Hongmei Bi; Keying Shi

    2010-05-01

    The NO electro-oxidation was investigated at various single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified electrodes by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Compared with the glassy carbon electrode, the SWCNTs modified electrodes possess higher electro-catalytic activity to NO electro-oxidation. CV results indicate that the peak current density of NO electro-oxidation at the SWCNT-COOH (SWCNTs with carboxyl groups) modified electrode is the highest and the peak potential is the most negative among the four kinds of electrodes. EIS indicates that the charge transfer resistance of NO electro-oxidation at the SWCNT-COOH modified electrode is the least. The determined factors (charge transfer and mass transfer of diffusion) of NO electro-oxidation are different in varied potential region. The mechanism of NO electro-oxidation reaction at the SWCNTs modified electrodes is also discussed.

  5. A Novel Cholesterol Oxidase Biosensor Based on Pt-nanoparticle /Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Cui SHI; Tu Zhi PENG

    2005-01-01

    A Pt-nanoparticle/carbon nanotube modified graphite electrode immobilized with cholesterol oxidase/sol-gel layer was developed for monitoring cholesterol. Using this electrode,cholesterol concentration (4.0×10-6 to 1.0×10 mol/L) could be determined accurately in the presence of ascorbic or uric acid, and the response time was rapid (< 20 s). This biosensor has high sensitivity and selectivity.

  6. A study of single-walled carbon nanotubes modified by organics of the phthalocyanine category

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Organics of the phthalocyanine category have very good nonlinear optical properties. The single-walled carbon nanotubes were modified by using the phenoxy phthalocyanine. Characterization analysis was made by means of the transmission electron microscope (TEM), ultraviolet visible absorptive spectra, fluorescent spectra and Raman spectra. Under the TEM, it was observed that the composite looked like sugarcoated haws. By comparing the ultraviolet visible absorptive spectra before and after absorption, it was...

  7. Electrochemical impedance-based DNA sensor using a modified single walled carbon nanotube electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jessica E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Pillai, Shreekumar [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States); Ram, Manoj Kumar, E-mail: mkram@usf.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Nanomaterials and Nanomanufacturing Research Center, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Singh, Shree R. [Center for NanoBiotechnology Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL (United States)

    2011-07-20

    Carbon nanotubes have become promising functional materials for the development of advanced electrochemical biosensors with novel features which could promote electron-transfer with various redox active biomolecules. This paper presents the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium using chemically modified single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with single stranded DNA (ssDNA) on a polished glassy carbon electrode. Hybridization with the corresponding complementary ssDNA has shown a shift in the impedance studies due to a higher charge transfer in ssDNA. The developed biosensor has revealed an excellent specificity for the appropriate targeted DNA strand. The methodologies to prepare and functionalize the electrode could be adopted in the development of DNA hybridization biosensor.

  8. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Gong; Guoquan Zhang; Song Wang

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs) nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC) electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs ...

  9. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    H. F. Xie; Wang, Y. T.; Wang, C. S.; H. Y. Yin; Wang, L.L.; R. S. Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs) as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN). The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg), mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOH...

  10. Voltammetric determination of theophylline at a Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes composite film-modified glassy carbon electrode

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suling Yang; Ran Yang; Gang Li; Jianjun Li; Lingbo Qu

    2010-11-01

    A Nafion/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated and applied to the sensitive and convenient determination of theophylline (TP). Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were easily dispersed homogeneously into 0.1% Nafion methanol solution by sonication. Appropriate amount of Nafion/MWNTs suspension was coated on a glassy carbon electrode. After evaporating methanol, a Nafion/MWNTs composite film-modified electrode was achieved. TP could effectively accumulate at Nafion/MWNTs composite film-modified electrode and cause a sensitive anodic peak at around 1180 mV (vs SCE) in 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 medium (pH 1.8). In contrast with the bare glassy carbon electrode, Nafion film-modified electrode, Nafion/MWNTs film-modified electrode could remarkably increase the anodic peak current and decreased the overpotential of TP oxidation. Under the optimized conditions, the anodic peak current was proportional to TP concentration in the range of 8.0 × 10-8-6.0 × 10-5 mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.0 × 10-8 mol/L. This newly developed method was used to determine TP in drug samples with good percentage of recoveries.

  11. Adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of nitroimidazole derivative on multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrodes: influence of size and functionalization of nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jara-Ulloa, Paola; Canete-Rosales, Paulina; Nunez-Vergara, Luis J; Squella, Juan A., E-mail: asquella@ciq.uchile.c [University of Chile, Santiago (Chile). Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty. Bioelectrochemistry Lab.

    2011-07-01

    1-Methyl-4-nitro-2-bromine methylimidazole (4-NimMeBr), was electrochemically reduced on mercury, glassy carbon and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified electrodes. 4-NimMeBr was adsorbed on the MWCNT modified electrode thus permitting the implementation of an adsorptive stripping voltammetric (ASV) method. We have used 4-NimMeBr as a prototype electroactive nitro compound to study the effect of both the size of the nanotubes and its functionalization by oxidation. The oxidized MWCNT forms better dispersions than the non-oxidized, producing electrode surface with higher density of MWCNT as was determined by electrochemical mapping using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). Under the optimized conditions, the peak current was proportional to the concentration of 4-NimMeBr in the range of 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} to 10{sup -4} mol L{sup -1} with detection and quantification limits of 4.41 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} and 6.21 x 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1}, respectively. The sensibility of bare electrode was 0.01 {mu}A per mmol L{sup -1}, which was lower than the value of 5.34 and 6.97 mA per mmol L{sup -1} obtained using short and large oxidized MWCNT, respectively. (author)

  12. Modifying the electronic properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes using designed surfactant peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Dinushi R.; Dieckmann, Gregg R.; Nielsen, Steven O.; Musselman, Inga H.

    2012-07-01

    The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes can be altered significantly by modifying the nanotube surface. In this study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were functionalized noncovalently using designed surfactant peptides, and the resultant SWCNT electronic properties were investigated. These peptides have a common amino acid sequence of X(Valine)5(Lysine)2, where X indicates an aromatic amino acid containing either an electron-donating or electron-withdrawing functional group (i.e. p-amino-phenylalanine or p-cyano-phenylalanine). Circular dichroism spectra showed that the surfactant peptides primarily have random coil structures in an aqueous medium, both alone and in the presence of SWCNTs, simplifying analysis of the peptide/SWCNT interaction. The ability of the surfactant peptides to disperse individual SWCNTs in solution was verified using atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy. The electronic properties of the surfactant peptide/SWCNT composites were examined using the observed nanotube Raman tangential band shifts and the observed additional features near the Fermi level in the scanning tunneling spectroscopy dI/dV spectra. The results revealed that SWCNTs functionalized with surfactant peptides containing electron-donor or electron-acceptor functional groups showed n-doped or p-doped altered electronic properties, respectively. This work unveils a facile and versatile approach to modify the intrinsic electronic properties of SWCNTs using a simple peptide structure, which is easily adaptable to obtain peptide/SWCNT composites for the design of tunable nanoscale electronic devices.The electronic properties of carbon nanotubes can be altered significantly by modifying the nanotube surface. In this study, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were functionalized noncovalently using designed surfactant peptides, and the resultant SWCNT electronic properties were investigated. These peptides have a common amino

  13. Study of enzyme biosensor based on carbon nanotubes modified electrode for detection of pesticides residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Ping Zhang; Lian Gang Shan; Zhen Ran Tian; Yi Zheng; Li Yi Shi; Deng Song Zhang

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a controllable layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly modification technique of multi-walled carbon nanotubes(MWNTs) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) towards glassy carbon electrode (GCE), Acetylcholinesterase(ACHE) was immobilized directly to the modified GCE by LBL self-assembly method, the activity value of AChE was detected byusing i-t technique based on the modified Ellman method. Then the composition of carbaryl were detected by the enzyme electrodewith 0.01U activity value and the detection limit of carbaryl is 10-12 g L-1 so the enzyme biosensor showed good properties forpesticides residue detection.2008 Shu Ping Zhang. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Optical properties of carbon nanostructures produced by laser irradiation on chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Enrique Vigueras; López, Susana Hernández; Camacho López, Marco A.; Contreras, Delfino Reyes; Farías-Mancilla, Rurik; Flores-Gallardo, Sergio G.; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia A.; Zaragoza-Contreras, E. Armando

    2016-10-01

    This research focused on the nanosecond (Nd: YAG-1064 nm) laser pulse effect on the optical and morphological properties of chemically modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Two suspensions of MWCNT in tetrahydrofuran (THF) were prepared, one was submitted to laser pulses for 10 min while the other (blank) was only mechanically homogenized during the same time. Following the laser irradiation, the suspension acquired a yellow-amber color, in contrast to the black translucent appearance of the blank. UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed this observation, showing the blank a higher absorption. Additionally, photoluminescence measurements exhibited a broad blue-green emission band both in the blank and irradiated suspension when excited at 369 nm, showing the blank a lower intensity. However, a modification in the excitation wavelength produced a violet to green tuning in the irradiated suspension, which did not occur in the blank. Lastly, the electron microscopy analysis of the treated nanotubes showed the abundant formation of amorphous carbon, nanocages, and nanotube unzipping, exhibiting the intense surface modification produced by the laser pulse. Nanotube surface modification and the coexistence with the new carbon nanostructures were considered as the conductive conditions for optical properties modification.

  15. Synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and biological use of lysine-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulvey JJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available J Justin Mulvey,1,2 Evan N Feinberg,1,3 Simone Alidori,1 Michael R McDevitt,4,5 Daniel A Heller,1,6 David A Scheinberg1,5,6 1Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY, USA; 2Tri-Institutional MD-PhD Program, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT USA; 4Department of Radiology and 5Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: We aimed to create a more robust and more accessible standard for amine-modifying single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. A 1,3-cycloaddition was developed using an azomethine ylide, generated by reacting paraformaldehyde and a side-chain-Boc (tert-Butyloxycarbonyl-protected, lysine-derived alpha-amino acid, H-Lys(Boc-OH, with purified SWCNT or C60. This cycloaddition and its lysine adduct provides the benefits of dense, covalent modification, ease of purification, commercial availability of reagents, and pH-dependent solubility of the product. Subsequently, SWCNTs functionalized with lysine amine handles were covalently conjugated to a radiometalated chelator, 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA. The 111In-labeled construct showed rapid renal clearance in a murine model and a favorable biodistribution, permitting utility in biomedical applications. Functionalized SWCNTs strongly wrapped small interfering RNA (siRNA. In the first disclosed deployment of thermophoresis with carbon nanotubes, the lysine-modified tubes showed a desirable, weak SWCNT-albumin binding constant. Thus, lysine-modified nanotubes are a favorable candidate for medicinal work. Keywords: fullerene, cycloaddition, azomethine, DOTA, thermophoresis, 111In

  16. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

  17. PEG-modified carbon nanotubes in biomedicine: current status and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Massimo; Rosato, Nicola; Bottini, Nunzio

    2011-10-10

    Since their discovery at the end of the previous millennium, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been the object of thousands of papers describing their applications in fields ranging from physics to electronics, photonics, chemistry, biology, and medicine. The development of chemical approaches to modify their graphitic sidewalls enabled the generation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified CNTs and their exploration in multiple biomedical applications. Studies at the cellular and organism level revealed that PEG-modified CNTs have favorable pharmacokinetic and toxicology profiles. Recently, PEG-modified CNTs have been successfully tested in preclinical studies in the fields of oncology, neurology, vaccination, and imaging, suggesting that they are well suited for the generation of novel multifunctional nanodrugs. Here we will review published data about the application of PEG-modified CNTs as in vitro and in vivo therapeutic and imaging tools and describe what is known about the interaction between PEG-modified CNTs and biological systems. Although several pieces of the puzzle are still missing, we will also attempt to formulate a preliminary structure-function model for PEG-modified CNT cellular trafficking, disposition, and side effects. PMID:21916410

  18. Investigations of multilayer polyoxometalates-modified carbon nanotubes for electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Multiwall carbon nanotube was modified by superimposing two types polyoxometalates. → The superimposed POM layers showed a synergistic effect from both POM layers. → The specific capacitance was quadrupled after two layers alternate coatings of POM. → The bottom POM layer dominates the chemistry and kinetics of the overall coating. - Abstract: A simple and effective method to improve over previous approaches to add pseudocapacitance to carbon substrates through deposition of polyoxometalates (POMs) was demonstrated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). By superimposing layers of different pseudocapacitive polyoxometalates, SiMo12O40-4 (SiMo12) and PMo12O40-3 (PMo12), the POMs exhibited continuous overlapped oxidation/reduction reactions and achieved an up to fourfold increase in area specific capacitance when compared with the double layer capacitance of bare MWCNTs. The superimposed SiMo12 and PMo12 layers were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Analyses of the potential/pH relationship provided important insights into the deposition mechanism and suggested that the layer closest to the electrode substrate was dominating in terms of chemistry and kinetics of the coated MWCNT.

  19. Voltammetric oxidation and determination of cinnarizine at glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rajesh N; Hosamani, Ragunatharaddi R; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2009-09-01

    The voltammetric oxidation of cinnarizine was investigated. In pH 2.5 Britton-Robinson buffer, cinnarizine shows an irreversible oxidation peak at about 1.20 V at a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-modified glassy carbon electrode. The cyclic voltammetric results indicate that MWCNT-modified glassy carbon electrode can remarkably enhance electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of cinnarizine. The electrocatalytic behavior was further exploited as a sensitive detection scheme for the cinnarizine determination by differential-pulse voltammetry. Under optimized conditions, the concentration range and detection limit are 9.0x10(-8) to 6.0x10(-6) M and 2.58x10(-9) M, respectively for cinnarizine. The proposed method was successfully applied to cinnarizine determination in pharmaceutical samples. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of analyte in urine as a real sample. PMID:19446444

  20. Electrochemical properties of seamless three-dimensional carbon nanotubes-grown graphene modified with horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kikuo; Terse-Thakoor, Trupti; Mulchandani, Ashok

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized through sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the surface of a seamless three-dimensional hybrid of carbon nanotubes grown at the graphene surface (HRP-SDS/CNTs/G) and its electrochemical properties were investigated. Compared with graphene alone electrode modified with HRP via SDS (HRP-SDS/G electrode), the surface coverage of electroactive HRP at the CNTs/G electrode surface was approximately 2-fold greater because of CNTs grown at the graphene surface. Based on the increase in the surface coverage of electroactive HRP, the sensitivity to H2O2 at the HRP-SDS/CNTs/G electrode was higher than that at the HRP-SDS/G electrode. The kinetics of the direct electron transfer from the CNTs/G electrode to compound I and II of modified HRP was also analyzed. PMID:27224430

  1. Synthesis and Characterizations of Poly(3-hexylthiophene and Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaul Karim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexylthiophene and modified (functionalized and silanized multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT nanocomposites have been prepared through in situ polymerization process in chloroform medium with FeCl3 oxidant at room temperature. The composites are characterized through Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman, and X-ray diffraction (XRD measurements to probe the nature of interaction between the moieties. Optical properties of the composites are measured from ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. Conductivity of the composites is followed by four probe techniques to understand the conduction mechanism. The change (if any in C=C symmetric and antisymmetric stretching frequencies in FT-IR, the shift in G band frequencies in Raman, any alterations in λmax of UV-Vis, and PL spectroscopic measurements are monitored with modified MWNT loading in the polymer matrix.

  2. Voltammetric Determination of Ferulic Acid Using Polypyrrole-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode with Sample Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Abdel-Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A polypyrrole-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode-based sensor was devised for determination of ferulic acid (FA. The fabricated sensor was prepared electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV and characterized using CV and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The electrode shows an excellent electrochemical catalytic activity towards FA oxidation. Under optimal conditions, the anodic peak current correlates linearly to the FA concentration throughout the range of 3.32 × 10−6 to 2.59 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 1.17 × 10−6 M (S/N = 3. The prepared sensor is highly selective towards ferulic acid without the interference of ascorbic acid. The sensor applicability was tested for total content determination of FA in a commercial popcorn sample and showed a robust functionality.

  3. Electrochemical detection of carbidopa using a ferrocene-modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FATEMEH KARIMI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A chemically modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE containing ferrocene (FC and carbon nanotubes (CNT was constructed. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the MCPE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The electrocatalytic activity of the MCPE was investigated and it showed good characteristics for the oxidation of carbidopa (CD in phosphate buffer solution (PBS. A linear concentration range of 5 to 600 μM CD, with a detection limit of 3.6±0.17 μM CD, was obtained. The diffusion coefficient of CD and the transfer coefficient ( were also determined. The MCPE showed good reproducibility, remarkable long-term stability and especially good surface renewability by simple mechanical polishing. The results showed that this electrode could be used as an electrochemical sensor for the determination of CD in real samples, such as urine samples.

  4. Carbon Nanotube Purification and Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, Marisabel; Mintz, Eric; Smalley, Richard E.; Meador, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have the potential to significantly enhance the mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of polymers. However, dispersion of carbon nanotubes in a polymer matrix is hindered by the electrostatic forces that cause them to agglomerate. Chemical modification of the nanotubes is necessary to minimize these electrostatic forces and promote adhesion between the nanotubes and the polymer matrix. In a collaborative research program between Clark Atlanta University, Rice University, and NASA Glenn Research Center several approaches are being explored to chemically modify carbon nanotubes. The results of this research will be presented.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of carbon modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube and photocatalytic activity on methylene blue under sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yinchang [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geoscience, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Yongqian, E-mail: cugwyq@126.com [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geoscience, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhejiang Research Institute, China University of Geosciences, Hanzhou 311305 (China); Kong, Junhan; Jia, Hanxiang; Wang, Zhengshu [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geoscience, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Graphical abstract: Tentative photo-degradation mechanism diagram of the MB on the surface of carbon modified TNT. When the TiO{sub 2} was under ultraviolet light irradiation, the electrons were excited and transferred from the valence band (VB) to the conduction band (CB), leaving the holes on VB. The electrons were trapped by O{sub 2} and formed superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup −}). H{sub 2}O around the TiO{sub 2} was oxidized by the holes leaved on VB to hydroxyl radicals (OH·). When the TiO{sub 2} was modified by carbon, the same is that the electrons of C{sup 4+} would be excited from ground state to 2P orbital under visible light irradiation. The electrons and holes can also lead to the generation of the O{sub 2}{sup −} and OH·. The oxidability of O{sub 2}{sup −} and OH· created around the carbon modified TNT is strong, and could oxidize the MB to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. - Highlights: • The TNT was successfully modified by carbon, its amount is about 4.95%. • The carbon modified TNT has a great enhancement of visible light absorption. • The photocatalytic ability of carbon modified TNT is higher than pristine TNT. • A tentative photo-degradation mechanism of carbon modified TNT is proposed. - Abstract: Carbon modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube was successfully synthesized via anodic oxidation method and its photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photodegrading methylene blue. The full width at half maximum of carbon modified TiO{sub 2} nanotube is smaller than that of pristine TiO{sub 2} nanotube, indicating the fact that carbon modifying leads to the increase of TiO{sub 2} crystallinity. TiO{sub 2} nanotube modified by carbon has a great enhancement on visible light absorption while contrasting with the pristine TiO{sub 2} nanotube. A tentative mechanism for the enhancement of sunlight absorption is proposed.

  6. Electroanalysis of NADH Using Conducting and Redox Active Polymer/Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrodes-A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Ming Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Past few decades, conducting and redox active polymers play a critical role in the development of transducers for biosensing. It has been evidenced by increasing numerous reports on conducting and redox active polymers incorporated electrodes for assay of biomolcules. This review highlights the potential uses of electrogenerated polymer modified electrodes and polymer/carbon nanotubes composite modified electrodes for electroanalysis of reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinuceltoide (NADH. In addition, carbon electrodes modified with organic and inorganic materials as modifier have been discussed in detail for the quantification of NADH based on mediator or mediator-less methods.

  7. Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen on Anthraquinone/Carbon Nanotubes Nanohybrid Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode in Neutral Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviors of monohydroxy-anthraquinone/multiwall carbon nanotubes (MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified glassy carbon (MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrodes in neutral medium were investigated; also reported was their application in the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. The resulting MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. It was found that the ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs/GC electrode occurs irreversibly at a potential about 214 mV less negative than at a bare GC electrode in pH 7.0 buffer solution. Cyclic voltammetric and rotating disk electrode (RDE techniques indicated that the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid has high electrocatalytic activity for the two-electron reduction of oxygen in the studied potential range. The kinetic parameters of ORR at the MHAQ/MWCNTs nanohybrid modified GC electrode were also determined by RDE and EIS techniques.

  8. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes for the determination of ascorbic acid by square-wave voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode to enhance its electroactivity. Nafion served to immobilise the carbon nanotubes on the electrode surface. The modified electrode was used to develop an analytical method for the analysis of ascorbic acid (AA by square-wave voltammetry (SWV. The oxidation of ascorbic acid at the modified glassy carbon electrode showed a peak potential at 315 mV, about 80 mV lower than that observed at the bare (unmodified electrode. The peak current was about threefold higher than the response at the bare electrode. Replicate measurements of peak currents showed good precision (3% rsd. Peak currents increased with increasing ascorbic acid concentration (dynamic range = 0.0047–5.0 mmol/L and displayed good linearity (R2 = 0.994. The limit of detection was 1.4 μmol/L AA, while the limit of quantitation was 4.7 μmol/L AA. The modified electrode was applied to the determination of the amount of ascorbic acid in four brands of commercial orange-juice products. The measured content agreed well (96–104% with the product label claim for all brands tested. Recovery tests on spiked samples of orange juice showed good recovery (99–104%. The reliability of the SWV method was validated by conducting parallel experiments based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with absorbance detection. The observed mean AA contents of the commercial orange juice samples obtained by the two methods were compared statistically and were found to have no significant difference (P = 0.05.

  9. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  10. Mechanical, Rheological and Thermal Properties of Polystyrene/1-Octadecanol Modified Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Amr, Issam Thaher

    2014-09-04

    The results of the studies on the functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) with 1-octadecanol and its usage as reinforcing filler in the bulk polymerization of styrene are reported in this article. Both unmodified and modified CNTs were utilized in different loadings, however, without any initiator. The resulting composites were characterized by using mechanical testing, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and melt rheology. The tensile tests show the addition of 0.5wt% of CNT-C18 results in 19.5% increment of Young\\'s modulus. The DSC study shows a decrease in T-g values of prepared PS/CNT nanocomposite. The rheological study was conducted at 190 degrees C and shows that addition of pure CNT increased the viscoelastic behavior of the PS matrices, while the CNT-C18 act as plasticizer. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the incorporation of CNT into PS enhanced the thermal properties significantly.

  11. Carbon nanotubes modified with SnO{sub 2} rods for levofloxacin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesarino, Vivian [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Cesarino, Ivana; Moraes, Fernando C.; Machado, Sergio A.S., E-mail: ivana@iqsc.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Mascaro, Lucia H. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2014-03-15

    A new sensor based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with SnO{sub 2} rods for the electrochemical determination of levofloxacin has been investigated. The morphology, the structure, and the electrochemical performance of the composite electrode were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry in phosphate buffer solution at pH 6.0, allowed the application of a method to determine levofloxacin levels in a range of 1.0-9.9 μmol L{sup -1}, with a limit of detection calculated at 0.2 μmol L{sup -1} (72.0 mg L{sup -1}). (author)

  12. Multiwall carbon nanotubes doped ferroelectric liquid crystal composites: A study of modified electrical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj, E-mail: neerajvenus@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sant Hira Dass Kanya Maha Vidyalaya, Kala Sanghian, Kapurthala 144623, Punjab (India); Raina, K.K., E-mail: kkraina@gmail.com [Materials Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147004, Punjab (India)

    2014-02-01

    We systematically investigated the role of carbon nanotubes and their nature of interaction with the high polarization ferroelectric liquid crystal molecules that causes a change in the dynamic behavior of the liquid crystals. The carbon nanotubes were functionalized with carboxyl group (–COOH) before dispersion in order to enhance their stability in the liquid crystal medium. For the systematic investigation of a non linear behavior of dispersed composite systems, results for various physical properties were determined by thermal, morphological and dielectric studies in the planer aligned 5 μm thickness cells. An effort has also gone into detail to investigate these properties with varying concentration (0.02 wt%, 0.05 wt% and 0.1 wt%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The various carbon nanotubes doped ferroelectric liquid crystal thin film composites have shown enhanced dielectric strength and dielectric permittivity values as compared to the undoped sample.

  13. Simultaneous determination of nitrophenol isomers at the single-wall carbon nanotube compound conducting polymer film modified electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui; WANG Zhenhui; ZHOU Shuping

    2005-01-01

    Based on the molecular recognition ability of conductive polymer and the peculiar properties of carbon nanotubes, a novel single wall nanotubes (SWNTs) compound poly(4- aminopyridine) modified electrode (SWNTs/POAPE) is prepared at glass carbon electrode (GCE). The electrochemistry response of nitrophenol isomers is studied at the SWNTs/POAPE. The result indicates that o-, m- and p-nitrophenol are separated entirely at the SWNTs/POAPE interface. The electrode present here can be easily used to determine nitrophenol isomers simultaneously with higher sensitivity.

  14. Flow injection amperometric sensor with a carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode for determination of hydroquinone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upan, Jantima; Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection amperometric (FI-Amp) sensor was developed for sensitive and selective determination of hydroquinone. A simple screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified with various nanomaterials for improvement of sensitivity on the determination of quinone. As a result, the appropriate sensitivity is obtained from the SPCE modified with carbon nanotube (CNT) which indicated that CNT contributed to the transfer of electron to quinone. The reproducibility (n=9) and repeatability (n=111) of SPCE-CNT were obtained at 4.4% and 3.6%RSD, respectively. The SPCE-CNT electrode and enzymatic column were incorporated to the FI-Amp system to determine hydroquinone. Laccase was immobilized on silica gel using a cross-linking method by glutaraldehyde modification and then packed in the column. The laccase column has high efficiency for catalytic oxidation of hydroquinone to quinone, which further detects by amperometric detection. Parameters affecting response of the proposed sensor, i.e., pH, ionic strength, and temperature have been optimized. The proposed system provided a wide linear range between 1 and 50 µM with detection limit of 0.1 µM. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 91.2-103.8% were obtained for the analysis of water sample. PMID:26695328

  15. Deposition of carbon nanotubes onto aramid fibers using as-received and chemically modified fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Uicab, O.; Avilés, F.; Gonzalez-Chi, P. I.; Canché-Escamilla, G.; Duarte-Aranda, S.; Yazdani-Pedram, M.; Toro, P.; Gamboa, F.; Mazo, M. A.; Nistal, A.; Rubio, J.

    2016-11-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) oxidized by an acid treatment were deposited on the surface of as-received commercial aramid fibers containing a surface coating ("sizing"), and fibers modified by either a chlorosulfonic treatment or a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. The surface of the aramid fiber activated by the chemical treatments presents increasing density of CO, COOH and OH functional groups. However, these chemical treatments reduced the tensile mechanical properties of the fibers, especially when the nitric and sulfuric acid mixture was used. Characterization of the MWCNTs deposited on the fiber surface was conducted by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. These characterizations showed higher areal concentration and more homogeneous distribution of MWCNTs over the aramid fibers for as-received fibers and for those modified with chlorosulfonic acid, suggesting the existence of interaction between the oxidized MWCNTs and the fiber coating. The electrical resistance of the MWCNT-modified aramid yarns comprising ∼1000 individual fibers was in the order of MΩ/cm, which renders multifunctional properties.

  16. A pyrrole quinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase biosensor based on screen-printed carbon paste electrodes modified by carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) modified biosensor based on oxygen-independent, pyrrole quinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) for monitoring glucose was studied. The disposable amperometric biosensors based on screen-printed carbon paste electrodes are low cost and suitable for mass production. Potassium ferricyanide was immobilized on the surface of the electrodes as an electron mediator, which decreased the work potential. The biosensor showed a linear amperometric response to glucose from 1 to 35 mM, with a sensitivity of 31.0 µA mM−1 cm−2. Experimentally, the compositions of PQQ-GDH, potassium ferricyanide, CNTs and other components were evaluated and optimized. Only 2 µl of sample are needed for one test, and the response time of the sensor is 20 s. The characteristics of the biosensor were studied through cyclic voltammetry, and experimental results showed that the CNTs could facilitate the electron transfer between the enzyme and electrode surface significantly. Compared with the biosensor without carbon nanotube modification, the CNTs improved the sensitivity of the biosensor up to five times

  17. Direct Electrochemical Oxidation of NADPH at a Low Potential on the Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN, Jing(陈静); CAI, Chen-Xin(蔡称心)

    2004-01-01

    NADPH can be directly oxidized on a carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon (CNT/GC) electrode in phosphate buffer solution (pH=6.0) with a diminution of the overpotential of more than 700 mV. The anodic peak currents increase linearly with the increase of concentration of NADPH in the range of 5×10-7 to 1×10-3 mol/L with a detection limit of about 1×10-7 mol/L. The CNT/GC electrode exhibits high sensitivity, low potential and stability in detecting NADPH and thus might be used in biosensors to study the electrocatalytic reaction of important dehydrogenase-based biological systems.

  18. Impedimetric microbial biosensor based on single wall carbon nanotube modified microelectrodes for trichloroethylene detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We propose an impedimetric microbial biosensor for trichloroethylene detection. ► A new transducer modified with carbon nanotubes and Pseudomonas putida is evaluated. ► Functionalization steps are controlled by impedance spectroscopy and AFM. ► The biosensor offers good sensitivity, selectivity, linear range and stability. ► The biosensor is successfully applied to spiked natural water samples. - Abstract: Contamination of soils and groundwaters with persistent organic pollutants is a matter of increasing concern. The most common organic pollutants are chlorinated hydrocarbons such as perchloroethylene and trichloroethylene (TCE). In this study, we developed a bacterial impedimetric biosensor for TCE detection, based on the immobilization of Pseudomonas putida F1 strain on gold microelectrodes functionalized with single wall carbon nanotubes covalently linked to anti-Pseudomonas antibodies. The different steps of microelectrodes functionalization were characterized by electrochemical impedance and atomic force spectroscopies, and analytical performances of the developed microbial biosensor were determined. The impedimetric biosensor response was linear with TCE concentration up to 150 μg L−1 and a low limit of detection (20 μg L−1) was achieved. No significant loss of signal was observed after 4 weeks of storage at 4 °C in phosphate buffer saline pH 7 (three to four measurements a week). After 5 weeks, 90% of the initial value still remained. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene and vinylchloride, the main TCE degradation products, did not significantly interfere with TCE. The microbial sensor was finally applied to the determination of TCE in natural water samples spiked at the 30, 50 and 75 μg L−1 levels. Recoveries were very good, ranging from 100 to 103%.

  19. Polyamide 6/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites with Modified Morphology and Thermal Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Mahmood; Mohammad Islam; Asad Hameed; Shaukat Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Pure polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyamide 6/carbon nanotube (PA6/CNT) composite samples with 0.5 weight percent loading of pristine or functionalized CNTs were made using a solution mixing technique. Modification of nanotube surface as a result of chemical functionalization was confirmed through the presence of lattice defects as examined under high-resolution transmission electron microscope and absorption bands characteristic of carboxylic, sulfonic and amine chemical groups. Microstructural exa...

  20. Determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified glassy carbon electrode with immobilized silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noroozifar, Meissam, E-mail: mnoroozifar@chem.usb.ac.ir [Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, P.O. Box 98155-147 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan [Inorganic Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taheri, Aboozar [Analytical Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, P.O. Box 98155-147 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: {yields} GC electrode modified with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on MWCNT. {yields} Modified electrode use for determination of Cyanide in waste water. {yields} The detection limit of the sensor is 8.3 nM. {yields} The linear range is from 40.0 nM to 150.0 {mu}M. - Abstract: The sensitive determination of cyanide in wastewaters using modified GC electrode with silver hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles (SHFNPs) immobilized on multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) was reported. The immobilization of SHFNPs on MWCNT was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM image showed that the SHFNPs retained the spherical morphology after immobilized on MWCNT. The size of SHFNPs was examined around 27 nm. The GC/MWCNT-SHFNPs was used for the determination of cyanide in borax buffer (BB) solution (pH 8.0). Using square wave voltammetry, the current response of cyanide increases linearly while increasing its concentration from 40.0 nM to 150.0 {mu}M and a detection limit was found to be 8.3 nM (S/N = 3). The present modified electrode was also successfully used for the determination of 5.0 {mu}M cyanide in the presence of common contaminants at levels presenting in industrial wastewaters. The practical application of the present modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of cyanide in industrial wastewater samples. Moreover, the studied sensor exhibited high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-term stability.

  1. Detection of NADH via electrocatalytic oxidation at single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with Variamine blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radoi, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)], E-mail: radoiantonio@yahoo.com; Compagnone, D. [Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Universita di Teramo, via C. Lerici 1, Mosciano S. Angelo, Teramo (Italy); Valcarcel, M.A. [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cs./08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Placidi, P.; Materazzi, S. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Moscone, D.; Palleschi, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita ' Tor Vergata' , via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2008-01-01

    Screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with Variamine blue (VB), covalently attached to the oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH), were developed and used as chemical sensors for the detection of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The Variamine blue redox mediator was covalently linked to the SWCNTs-COOH by the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry. Infrared Fourier transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of the amide bands situated at 1623 cm{sup -1} (I band), 1577 cm{sup -1} (II band) and 1437 cm{sup -1} (III band) demonstrating the covalent linkage of Variamine blue to SWCNTs-COOH. The heterogeneous electron transfer rate, k{sub obs.}, was 13,850 M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, and the k{sub s} and {alpha} were 0.8 s{sup -1} and 0.56, respectively. The pH dependence was also investigated. SPEs modified with Variamine blue by using the DCC/NHS conjugation method, showed a variation of -36 mV per pH unit. A successful application was the development of a lactate biosensor obtained by the immobilization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase on the NADH sensor.

  2. Electrochemical Characterization and Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols by Voltammetry at Single Wall Carbon Nanotube/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Negash, Negussie; Alemu, Hailemichael; Tessema, Merid

    2015-01-01

    Screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) has been modified with single wall carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) composites for the determination of phenol and chlorophenols (phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The effect of the modifiers on the electrode characteristics was evaluated and the responses were optimized for the voltammetric determination of phenol and chlorophenols. The parameters affecting the responses such as pH, sca...

  3. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, pwine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively).

  4. Cobalt oxide nanoparticle-modified carbon nanotubes as an electrocatalysts for electrocatalytic evolution of oxygen gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jahan Bakhsh Raoof; Fereshteh Chekin; Vahid Ehsani

    2015-02-01

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare cobalt oxide nanoparticles (nano-CoO) on multiwall carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE). Scanning electron microscopy revealed the electrodeposition of nano-CoO with an average particle size of 25 nm onto MWNT/GCE. Also, the presence of nano-CoO was revealed by energy dispersive X-ray spectra. The electrocatalytic activity of nano-CoO and MWNT composite-modified GCE (CoO–MWNT/GCE) has been examined towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by linear sweep voltammetry. The OER is significantly enhanced at CoO–MWNT/GCE, as demonstrated by a negative shift in the polarization curves at the CoO–MWNT/GCE compared with that obtained at the CoO–GCE and GCE. Optimization of the operating experimental conditions (i.e., solution pH and loading level of nano-CoO) has been achieved to maximize the electrocatalytic activity of CoO–MWNT/GCE. The maximum electrocatalytic activity towards the OER was obtained in alkaline media (pH = 13). The electrocatalytic activity of CoO–MWNT/GCE increased with the number of potential cycles employed for the CoO deposition till a certain loading (20 cycles) beyond which an adverse effect is observed. The fabricated CoO–MWNT/GCE exhibited a good stability and durability. The value of energy saving per gram of oxygen gas at a current density of 10 mA cm-2 is 19.3 kWh kg-1.

  5. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe; Yantasee, Wassana; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Fang; Tu, Yi

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  6. Gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode as a sensitive voltammetric sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2016-02-01

    A simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of diclofenac sodium based on gold nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. Scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry was used to characterize the nanostructure and performance of the sensor and the results were compared with those obtained at the multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions diclofenac sodium gave linear response over the range of 0.03-200μmolL(-1). The lower detection limits were found to be 0.02μmolL(-1). The effect of common interferences on the current response of DS was investigated. The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by measuring the concentration of diclofenac sodium in urine and pharmaceutical samples. This revealed that the gold nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of diclofenac sodium in terms of a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, very good accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility.

  7. Carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapmaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Low temperature electron transport measurements on individual single wall carbon nanotubes are described in this thesis. Carbon nanotubes are small hollow cylinders made entirely out of carbon atoms. At low temperatures (below ~10 K) finite length nanotubes form quantum dots. Because of its small si

  8. Carbon nanotubes paste sensor modified with bismuth film for determination of metallic ions in ethanol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Augusto Gorla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study an anodic stripping voltammetric method using a bismuth film modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode for simultaneous determination of metals Zn2+, Cd2+and Pb2+in ethanol fuel is described. The metallic ions were preconcentrated on the bismuth film in the time and deposition potential of 500 s and -1.2 V and the stripping step was carried out by square wave voltammetry (frequency of 15 Hz, pulse amplitude of 25 mV and potential step of 5 mV. Acetate buffer at 0.1 mol L-1concentration and pH 4.5 was used as support electrolyte. The method showed linearity including the analytical blank up to 48.39 ?g L-1 for the metals and the obtained limits of detection were 3.36, 0.32 and 0.47 ?g L-1for Zn2+, Cd2+and Pb2+, respectively. The proposed method was applied in ethanol fuel samples.

  9. Catalytic performance of heteroatom-modified carbon nanotubes in advanced oxidation processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    João Restivo; Raquel P. Rocha; Adrián M. T. Silva; José J. M. Órfão; Manuel F. R. Pereira; José L. Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were submitted to chemical and thermal treatments in or-der to incorporate different heteroatoms on the surface. O-, S-and N-containing groups were suc-cessfully introduced onto the CNTs without significant changes of the textural properties. The cata-lytic activity of these heteroatom-modified CNTs was studied in two liquid phase oxidation pro-cesses:catalytic ozonation and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO), using oxalic acid and phenol as model compounds. In both cases, the presence of strongly acidic O-containing groups was found to decrease the catalytic activity of the CNTs. On the other hand, the introduction of S species (mainly sulfonic acids) enhanced the removal rate of the model compounds, particularly in the CWAO of phenol. Additional experiments were performed with a radical scavenger and sodium persulfate, in order to clarify the reaction mechanism. Nitrogen functionalities improve the catalytic performance of the original CNTs, regardless of the process or of the pollutant.

  10. Gold nanoparticle-coated multiwall carbon nanotube-modified electrode for electrochemical determination of methyl parathion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an electrochemical sensor for the determination of methyl parathion. It is based on an electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes that were covered with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs). The vertically aligned array of MWCNTs on a tantalum substrate was coated with Au-NPs by overhead magnetron sputtering deposition. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD were used to characterize the Au-NP-MWCNTs composite. Cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were employed to evaluate the suitability of the new electrode for the determination of methyl parathion. Under the optimal conditions, the current response of the electrode to methyl parathion is linear in the range from 0.50 to 16.0 mg mL-1, with a detection limit of 50 μg mL-1 (signal/noise = 3), and the sensitivity is 4.5 times better than that of the plain MWCNTs electrode. We conclude that this method represents a simple, rapid, effective and sensitive approach for the detection of methyl parathion. (author)

  11. Amperometric sensing of anti-HIV drug zidovudine on Ag nanofilm-multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir; Afraz, Ahmadreza

    2014-06-01

    The zidovudine (ZDV) is the first drug approved for the treatment of HIV virus infection. The detection and determination of this drug are very importance in human serum because of its undesirable effects. A new ZDV sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanocomposite of silver nanofilm (Ag-NF) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) immobilized on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. Results showed that the electrodeposited silver has a nanofilm structure and further electrochemical studies showed that the prepared nanocomposite has high electrocatalytic activity and is appropriate for using in sensors. The amperometric technique under optimal conditions is used for the determination of ZDV ranging from 0.1 to 400 ppm (0.37 μM–1.5 mM) with a low detection limit of 0.04 ppm (0.15 μM) (S/N = 3) and good sensitivity. The prepared sensor possessed accurate and rapid response to ZDV and shows an average recovery of 98.6% in real samples. - Highlights: • New anti-HIV drug sensor was fabricated on the basis of nanomaterials composite. • The GCE modified by prepared hydrophilic MWCNT silver nanoparticles. • Silver nanofilm electrodeposited on MWCNT/GCE and characterized by SEM, EDX, CV and LSV • Response of electrode to ZDV was thoroughly investigated by electrochemical techniques.

  12. Immunoassay for netrin 1 via a glassy carbon electrode modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes, thionine and gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a nanostructured immunosensor for the cardiovascular biomarker netrin 1. A glassy carbon electrode was consecutively modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), nafion (to retain the MWCNTs), thionine-coated gold nanoparticles (Thi-AuNPs), and monoclonal antibodies against netrin 1. The modified electrode was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, UV-visible spectrophotometry and X-ray diffraction. The presence of Thi-AuNPs warrants direct and convenient immobilization of the antibody. This immunoelectrode enables netrin 1 to be determined, best at a voltage of −300 mV (vs. SCE), with a limit of detection of 30 fg mL−1 (at an S/N ratio of 3) after a 50 min incubation time. The detection range extends from 0.09 to 1800 pg∙mL−1. The method is simple, sensitive, specific and reproducible. We presume this stable and reproducible biosensor to be useful for the early detection of cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  13. Plumbing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanhong; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, the possibility of connecting carbon nanotubes together like water pipes has been an intriguing prospect for these hollow nanostructures. The serial joining of carbon nanotubes in a controlled manner offers a promising approach for the bottom-up engineering of nanotube structures-from simply increasing their aspect ratio to making integrated carbon nanotube devices. To date, however, there have been few reports of the joining of two different carbon nanotubes. Here we demonstrate that a Joule heating process, and associated electro-migration effects, can be used to connect two carbon nanotubes that have the same (or similar) diameters. More generally, with the assistance of a tungsten metal particle, this technique can be used to seamlessly join any two carbon nanotubes-regardless of their diameters-to form new nanotube structures.

  14. Non-enzymatic sensing of hydrogen peroxide using a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite made from carbon nanotubes and molybdenum disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing strategy for ultrasensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at nanomolar levels. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a hybrid material consisting of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize the hybrid nanostructures. GCEs modified with carbon nanotubes, or nanoscaled MoS2, or with the CNT-MoS2 hybrid were investigated with respect to sensing H2O2, and this revealed that the GCE modified with the CNT-MoS2 hybrid performed best and resulted in a limit of detection as low as 5.0 nM. A repeatability and intermediate precision of 9 % was accomplished. The method was applied to determine H2O2 in spiked sterilized milk and gave satisfactory results. (author)

  15. Highly selective and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters using receptor-modified single-walled carbon nanotube sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present receptor-modified carbon nanotube sensors for the highly selective and sensitive detection of acetylcholine (ACh), one kind of neurotransmitter. Here, we successfully expressed the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in E. coli and coated single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT)-field effect transistors (FETs) with lipid membrane including the receptor, enabling highly selective and sensitive ACh detection. Using this sensor, we could detect ACh at 100 pM concentration. Moreover, we showed that this sensor could selectively detect ACh among other neurotransmitters. This is the first demonstration of the real-time detection of ACh using specific binding between ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs for various applications such as disease diagnosis and drug screening. (paper)

  16. Highly selective and sensitive detection of neurotransmitters using receptor-modified single-walled carbon nanotube sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2013-07-01

    We present receptor-modified carbon nanotube sensors for the highly selective and sensitive detection of acetylcholine (ACh), one kind of neurotransmitter. Here, we successfully expressed the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M1 mAChR), a family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in E. coli and coated single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT)-field effect transistors (FETs) with lipid membrane including the receptor, enabling highly selective and sensitive ACh detection. Using this sensor, we could detect ACh at 100 pM concentration. Moreover, we showed that this sensor could selectively detect ACh among other neurotransmitters. This is the first demonstration of the real-time detection of ACh using specific binding between ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs for various applications such as disease diagnosis and drug screening.

  17. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghica, M. Emilia; Christopher M. A. Brett

    2014-01-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer...

  18. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co3O4 nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co3O4. • Incorporating Co3O4 nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co3O4/MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co3O4 nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10−7–1.9 × 10−5 M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10−7. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89

  19. Synergistic effect of plasma-modified halloysite nanotubes and carbon black in natural rubber-butadiene rubber blend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2013-01-01

    Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were investigated concerning their suitability for rubber reinforcement. As they have geometrical similarity with carbon nanotubes, they were expected to impart a significant reinforcement effect on the rubber compounds but the dispersion of the nanofillers is difficult.

  20. Determination of oleuropein using multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode by adsorptive stripping square wave voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittan, Mustafa; Koçak, Süleyman; Çelik, Ali; Dost, Kenan

    2016-10-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode was used to prepare an electrochemical sensing platform for the determination of oleuropein. Results showed that, the accumulation of oleuropein on the prepared electrode takes place with the adsorption process. Electrochemical behavior of oleuropein was studied by using cyclic voltammetry. Compared to the bare GCE, the oxidation peak current of oleuropein increased about 340 times at MWCNT/GCE. Voltammetric determination of oleuropein on the surface of prepared electrode was studied using square wave voltammetry where the oxidation peak current of oleuropein was measured as an analytical signal. A calibration curve of oleuropein was performed between 0.01 and 0.70µM and a good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.9984. Detection and quantification limits of the method were obtained as 2.73 and 9.09nM, respectively. In addition, intra-day and inter-day precision studies indicated that the voltammetric method was sufficiently repeatable. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to the determination of oleuropein in an olive leaf extract. Microwave-assisted extraction of oleuropein had good recovery values between 92% and 98%. The results obtained with the proposed electrochemical sensor were compared with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. PMID:27474292

  1. Characterization and photocatalytic performance of carbon nanotube material-modified TiO2 synthesized by using the hot CVD process

    OpenAIRE

    Tsubota, Toshiki; Ono, Asami; Murakami, Naoya; Ohno, Teruhisa

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-modified TiO2 was synthesized by using the hot CVD process. Fe (0.13–1.9 wt%) as the catalyst for synthesis of carbon nanotubes modified on the surface of TiO2, was loaded on commercial TiO2 particles. CH4 gas was used as the carbon source in the CVD process. The color of the Fe-supported TiO2 powder changed to black when CVD treatment was performed. Nano-sized spherical carbon materials were generated on the surface of TiO2 after the CVD process. The spherical materials gradu...

  2. Microbiosensors based on DNA modified single-walled carbon nanotube and Pt black nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jin; Cha, Tae-Gon; Claussen, Jonathan C; Diggs, Alfred R; Choi, Jong Hyun; Porterfield, D Marshall

    2011-12-01

    Glucose and ATP biosensors have important applications in diagnostics and research. Biosensors based on conventional materials suffer from low sensitivity and low spatial resolution. Our previous work has shown that combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with Pt nanoparticles can significantly enhance the performance of electrochemical biosensors. The immobilization of SWCNTs on biosensors remains challenging due to the aqueous insolubility originating from van der Waals forces. In this study, we used single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to modify SWCNTs to increase solubility in water. This allowed us to explore new schemes of combining ssDNA-SWCNT and Pt black in aqueous media systems. The result is a nanocomposite with enhanced biosensor performance. The surface morphology, electroactive surface area, and electrocatalytic performance of different fabrication protocols were studied and compared. The ssDNA-SWCNT/Pt black nanocomposite constructed by a layered scheme proved most effective in terms of biosensor activity. The key feature of this protocol is the exploitation of ssDNA-SWCNTs as molecular templates for Pt black electrodeposition. The glucose and ATP microbiosensors fabricated on this platform exhibited high sensitivity (817.3 nA/mM and 45.6 nA/mM, respectively), wide linear range (up to 7 mM and 510 μM), low limit of detection (1 μM and 2 μM) and desirable selectivity. This work is significant to biosensor development because this is the first demonstration of ssDNA-SWCNT/Pt black nanocomposite as a platform for constructing both single-enzyme and multi-enzyme biosensors for physiological applications. PMID:21858297

  3. High performance natural rubber composites with a hierarchical reinforcement structure of carbon nanotube modified natural fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and facile method for depositing multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto the surface of naturally occurring short jute fibers (JFs) is reported. Hierarchical multi-scale structures were formed with CNT-networks uniformly distributed and fully covering the JFs (JF–CNT), as depicted by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs. The impact of these hybrid fillers on the mechanical properties of a natural rubber (NR) matrix was systematically investigated. Pristine JFs were cut initially to an average length of 2.0 mm and exposed to an alkali treatment (a-JFs) to remove impurities existing in the raw jute. MWCNTs were treated under mild acidic conditions to generate carboxylic acid moieties. Afterward, MWCNTs were dispersed in an aqueous media and short a-JFs were allowed to react with them. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the chemical interaction between CNTs and JFs. The JF–CNT exposed quite hydrophobic behavior as revealed by the water contact angle measurements, improving the wettability of the non-polar NR. Consequently, the composite interfacial adhesion strength was significantly enhanced while a micro-scale “mechanical interlocking” mechanism was observed from the interphase-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. SEM analysis of the composite fracture surfaces demonstrated the interfacial strength of NR/a-JF and NR/JF–CNT composites, at different fiber loadings. It can be presumed that the CNT-coating effectively compatibillized the composite structure acting as a macromolecular coupling agent. A detailed analysis of stress-strain and dynamic mechanical spectra confirmed the high mechanical performance of the hierarchical composites, consisting mainly of materials arising from natural resources. - Highlights: • Natural rubber (NR) composites reinforced with CNT-modified short jute fibers. • MWCNTs deposited to the surface of jute fibers via non-covalent interactions. • Hierarchical reinforcement structure with

  4. Carboxyl multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified polypyrrole (PPy) aerogel for enhanced electromagnetic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xie, Aming; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Wanchun; Wang, Mingyang; Dong, Wei

    2016-05-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy) aerogel is a low-cost and lightweight material with high-performance electromagnetic absorption (EA). However, it does not always meet the requirements of practical applications. In this study, we used trace amounts of carboxyl multiwalled carbon nanotubes to regulate the dielectric property of PPy aerogel, thus enhancing the EA performance. Furthermore, the reason for enhanced EA performance can be elaborated by an electron blocking mechanism.

  5. Microbiosensors based on DNA modified single-walled carbon nanotube and Pt black nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    SHI, JIN; Cha, Tae-Gon; Claussen, Jonathan; Diggs, Alfred R.; Choi, Jong Hyun; Porterfield, D. Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Glucose and ATP biosensors have important applications in diagnostics and research. Biosensors based on conventional materials suffer from low sensitivity and low spatial resolution. Our previous work has shown that combining single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with Pt nanoparticles can significantly enhance the performance of electrochemical biosensors. The immobilization of SWCNTs on biosensors remains challenging due to the aqueous insolubility originating from van der Waals forces. In...

  6. Polyurethane foams obtained from residues of PET manufacturing and modified with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiebra, L.; Cabulis, U.; Knite, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we report the preparation of rigid microcellular polyurethane/carbon nanotube nanocomposites with different CNT loadings (0.09-0.46%) and various isocyanate indexes (110-260). Water was used as a blowing agent for samples. Density of all obtained samples – 200 ± 10 kg/m3. Electrical properties, as well as heat conductivity, cellular structure and mechanical properties of these nanocomposites were investigated.

  7. Simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and tryptophan with Azure A-interlinked multi-walled carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticles composite modified electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Hayati Filik; Asiye Aslıhan Avan; Sevda Aydar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotube/Azure A/gold nanoparticle composites (Nafion/AuNPs/AzA/MWCNTs) were prepared by binding gold nanoparticles to the surfaces of Azure A-coated carbon nanotubes. Nafion/AuNPs/AzA/MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, and tryptophan. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the modified e...

  8. Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles to Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Cheng MA; Ning LUN; Shu Lin WEN

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes were initially chemically modified with an H2SO4-HNO3 treatment,and subsequently activated with Pd-Sn catalytic nuclei via a one-step activation approach. These activated nanotubes were used as precursors for obtaining gold nanoparticles-attached nanotubes via simple electroless plating. This approach provides an efficient method for attachment of metal nanostructures to carbon nanotubes. Such novel hybrid nanostructures are attractive for many applications.

  9. Modified Sol-Gel Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Supported Titania Composites with Enhanced Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanjie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT enhanced MWCNT/TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by surface coating of carbon nanotube with mixed phase of anatase and rutile TiO2 through a modified sol-gel approach using tetrabutyl titanate as raw material. The morphological structures and physicochemical properties of the nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DTA-TG, TEM, and UV-Vis spectra. The results show that TiO2 nanoparticles with size of around 15 nm are closely attached on the sidewall of MWCNT. The nanocomposites possess good absorption properties not only in the ultraviolet but also in the visible light region. Under irradiation of ultraviolet lamp, the prepared composites have the highest photodegradation efficiency of 83% within 4 hours towards the degradation of Methyl Orange (MO aqueous solution. The results indicate that the carbon nanotubes supported TiO2 nanocomposites exhibit high photocatalytic activity and stability, showing great potentials in the treatment of wastewater.

  10. Ruthenium oxide modified titanium dioxide nanotube arrays as carbon and binder free lithium-air battery cathode catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Niu, Yanning; Zhang, Li; Sun, Kening

    2014-12-01

    RuO2 modified TiO2 nanotube arrays, growing on Ti foams, are used as carbon and binder free cathodes for Li-O2 batteries. The micrometer pores in Ti foams and nanometer pores in TiO2 nanotubes supply facilitated transport channels for oxygen diffusing into/out of the catalysts in discharge and charge processes. The RuO2 catalyst exhibits outstanding catalytic active toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which leads the charge voltage maintaining around 3.7 V all through the battery cycling. The stability of TiO2/Ti support, abundant oxygen transport path and favorable catalytic activity of RuO2 toward OER enable the Li-O2 batteries exhibiting 130 cycle discharge/charge.

  11. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  12. Size-dependent characteristics of electrostatically actuated fluid-conveying carbon nanotubes based on modified couple stress theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrabadi, Mir Masoud Seyyed; Rastgoo, Abbas; Ahmadian, Mohammad Taghi

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the effects of fluid flow on the static and dynamic properties of carbon nanotubes that convey a viscous fluid. The mathematical model is based on the modified couple stress theory. The effects of various fluid parameters and boundary conditions on the pull-in voltages are investigated in detail. The applicability of the proposed system as nanovalves or nanosensors in nanoscale fluidic systems is elaborated. The results confirm that the nanoscale system studied in this paper can be properly applied for these purposes.

  13. Simultaneous determination of cysteamine and folic acid in pharmaceutical and biological samples using modified multiwall carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Taherkhani; Hassan Karimi-Maleh; Ali A.Ensafi; Hadi Beitollahi; Ahmad Hosseini; Mohammad A.Khalilzadeh; Hassan Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    A carbon paste electrode (CPE) chemically modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes and ferrocene (FC) was used as a selective electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts of cysteamine (CA) and folic acid (FA).This modified electrode showed very efficient electrocatalytic activity for the anodic oxidation of CA.The peak current of differential pulse voltammograms of CA and FA increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.7-200 μmol/L CA and 5.0-700 μmol/L FA.The detection limits for CA and FA were 0.3 μmol/L and 2.0 μ mol/L,respectively.The diffusion coefficient (D) and transfer coefficient (α) of CA were also determined.These conditions are sufficient to allow determination of CA and FA both individually and simultaneously.

  14. Fabrication of multiwalled carbon nanotube-surfactant modified sensor for the direct determination of toxic drug 4-aminoantipyrine☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayant I. Gowda; Arunkumar T. Buddanavar; Sharanappa T. Nandibewoor

    2015-01-01

    A multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant composite modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed as a novel system for the determination of 4-aminoantipyrine(AAP). The oxidation process was irreversible over the pH range studied and exhibited a diffusion controlled behavior. All experimental parameters were optimized. The combination of MWCNT-CTAB endows the biosensor with large surface area, good biological compatibility, electricity and stability, high selectivity and sensitivity. MWCNT-CTAB /GCE electrode gave a linear response for AAP from 5.0 × 10-9 to 4.0 × 10-8 M with a detection limit of 1.63 × 10-10 M. The modified electrode showed good selectivity against interfering species and also exhibited good reproducibility. The present electrochemical sensor based on the MWCNT-CTAB/GCE electrode was applied to the determination of AAP in real samples.

  15. Analysis of polyphenols in white wine by CZE with amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mónica; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of five polyphenols (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) by CZE with electrochemical detection was developed. Separation of these polyphenols was performed in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) within 15 min. Under optimized separation conditions, the performance of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube layer obtained from different dispersions was examined. GC electrode modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polyethylenimine has proven to be the most suitable CNT-based electrode for its application as amperometric detector for the CZE separation of the studied compounds. The excellent electrochemical properties of this electrode allowed the detection of the selected polyphenols at +200 mV and improved the efficiency and the resolution of their CZE separation. Limits of detection below 3.1 μM were obtained with linear ranges covering the 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴  M range. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection (ferulic, caffeic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) and the quantification (gallic acid and (+)-catechin) of polyphenols in two different white wines without any preconcentration step. A remarkable signal stability was observed on the electrode performance despite the presence of potential fouling substances in wine.

  16. Amperometric sensor for detection of bisphenol A using a pencil graphite electrode modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a simple and highly sensitive amperometric method for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) using pencil graphite electrodes modified with polyaniline nanorods and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified electrodes display enhanced electroactivity for the oxidation of BPA compared to the unmodified pencil graphite electrode. Under optimized conditions, the sensor has a linear response to BPA in the 1. 0 and 400 μM concentration range, with a limit of detection of 10 nM (at S/N = 3). The modified electrode also has a remarkably stable response, and up to 95 injections are possible with a relative standard deviation of 4. 2% at 100 μM of BPA. Recoveries range from 86 to 102% for boiling water spiked with BPA from four brands of baby bottles. (author)

  17. Reinforcement of semicrystalline polymers with collagen-modified single walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Salvetat, Jean-Paul; Saboungi, Marie-Louise

    2006-06-01

    We report on the enhancement of the mechanical properties of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composites through functionalization of SWNTs with denatured collagen. In addition to improving compatibility with the matrix, the denatured collagen layer was found to increase the PVA matrix crystallinity, which results in a dramatic enhancement of the Young's modulus (260%), tensile strength (300%), and toughness (700%) well above what can be expected with the classical rule of mixture. A supramolecular organization at the interface is associated with an increase of PVA crystallinity as shown by the x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry.

  18. Adsorption of carbon dioxide on amine-modified TiO2 nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fujiao Song; Yunxia Zhao; Qin Zhong

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (TiNT) were prepared by a hydrothermal treatment and modified by three kinds of amines,namely ethylenediamine,polyetherimide and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA),to study their CO2 adsorption properties from gas streams.The resultant samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction,transmission electron microscopy,and infrared spectroscopy,as well as low temperature N2adsorption.CO2 capture was investigated in a dynamic packed column at 30℃.TEPA-modified TiO2 nanotubes showed the highest adsorption capacity of 167.64 mg/g because it had the highest amino-group content among the three amines.CO2 fixation on TiNT impregnated by TEPA was investigated at 30,50,and 70℃C,and the adsorption capacity increased slightly with temperature.Following the adsorption step,the sorbents were regenerated by temperature programmed desorption,and the TiNT-TEPA sample,as CO2 sorbent,was found to be readily regenerated and energy-efficient.The cycle test also revealed that the TiNT-TEPA adsorbent is fairly stable,with only a 5% drop in the adsorption capacity after 10 adsorption/desorption cycles.In addition,the CO2 adsorption behavior was investigated with the deactivation model,and which showed an excellent prediction for the TiNT-TEPA breakthrough curves.

  19. Glucose Biosensor Based on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Polythionine and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Wenwei Tang; Lei Li; Lujun Wu; Jiemin Gong; Xinping Zeng

    2014-01-01

    A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good ...

  20. High-Flux Positively Charged Nanocomposite Nanofiltration Membranes Filled with Poly(dopamine) Modified Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Yang; Ji, Yan-Li; Weng, Xiao-Dan; Mi, Yi-Fang; Ye, Chun-Chun; An, Quan-Fu; Gao, Cong-Jie

    2016-03-01

    The poor dispensability of pristine carbon nanotubes in water impedes their implications in thin-film nanocomposite membranes for crucial utilities such as water purification. In this work, high-flux positively charged nanocomposite nanofiltration membranes were exploited by uniformly embedding poly(dopamine) modified multiwall carbon nanotubes (PDA-MWCNTs) in polyamide thin-film composite membranes. With poly(dopamine) modification, fine dispersion of MWCNTs in polyethyleneimine (PEI) aqueous solutions was achieved, which was interracially polymerized with trimesoyl chloride (TMC) n-hexane solutions to prepare nanocomposite membranes. The compatibility and interactions between modified MWCNTs and polyamide matrix were enhanced, attributed to the poly(dopamine) coatings on MWCNT surfaces, leading to significantly improved water permeability. At optimized conditions, pure water permeability of the PEI/PDA-MWCNTs/TMC nanofiltration membrane (M-4) was 15.32 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1), which was ∼1.6 times increased compared with that of pristine PEI/TMC membranes. Salt rejection of M-4 to different multivalent cations decreased in the sequence ZnCl2 (93.0%) > MgCl2 (91.5%) > CuCl2 (90.5%) ≈ CaCl2, which is well-suited for water softening and heavy metal ion removal. PMID:26901491

  1. LDRD final report on carbon nanotube composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahill, P.A.; Rand, P.B.

    1997-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes and their composites were examined using computational and experimental techniques in order to modify the mechanical and electrical properties of resins. Single walled nanotubes were the focus of the first year effort; however, sufficient quantities of high purity single walled nanotubes could not be obtained for mechanical property investigations. The unusually high electrical conductivity of composites loaded with <1% of multiwalled nanotubes is useful, and is the focus of continuing, externally funded, research.

  2. Electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide at a waxed graphite electrode modified with platinum-decorated carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Qiao-cui; ZENG Wen-fang; ZHU Yunu

    2009-01-01

    Platinum-decorated carbon nanotubes (CNT-Pt) were produced by the chemical reduction method. A novel modified electrode was fabricated by intercalated CNT-Pt in the surface of waxed graphite, which provided excellent electro-catalytic activity and selectivity for both oxidation and reduction of hydrogen peroxide. The current response of the modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide was very rapid and the detection limits in amperometry are 2.5×10-6 mol/L at reduction potential and 4.8×10-6 mol/L at oxidation potential. It was desmonstrated that the electrode with high electro-activity was a suitable basic electrode for preparing enzyme electrode.

  3. Cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode as electrochemical sensor on microfluidic chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinchun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Chen Zuanguang, E-mail: chenzg@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhong Yuwen, E-mail: yu0106@163.com [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Guangdong Province, 176 Xingangxi, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Yang Fan; Pan Jianbin; Liang Yajing [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, 132 Waihuan East Road of Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CoHCF nanoparticles modified MWCNTs/graphite electrode use for electrochemistry on electrophoresis microchip for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous, rapid, and sensitive electrochemical detection of hydrazine and isoniazid in real samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An exemplary work of CME sensor assembly onto microchip for determination of analytes with environmental significance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Manifestation of the applicability and flexibility of CME sensor for electroanalysis on microfluidic chip. - Abstract: Nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensor has received significant interest. In this work, cobalt hexacyanoferrate modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/graphite composite electrode was electrochemically prepared and exploited as an amperometric detector for microchip electrophoresis. The prepared sensor displayed rapid and sensitive response towards hydrazine and isoniazid oxidation, which was attributed to synergetic electrocatalytic effect of cobalt hexacyanoferrate and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The sensitivity enhancement with nearly two orders of magnitude was gained, compared with the bare carbon paste electrode, with the detection limit of 0.91 {mu}M (S/N = 3) for hydrazine. Acceptable repeatability of the microanalysis system was verified by consecutive eleven injections of hydrazine without chip and electrode treatments, the RSDs for peak current and migration time were 3.4% and 2.1%, respectively. Meanwhile, well-shaped electrophoretic peaks were observed, mainly due to fast electron transfer of electroactive species on the modified electrode. The developed microchip-electrochemistry setup was successfully applied to the determination of hydrazine and isoniazid in river water and pharmaceutical preparation, respectively. Several merits of the novel electrochemical sensor coupled with microfluidic platform, such as comparative stability, easy fabrication and

  4. Glucose biosensor based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with polythionine and multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwei Tang

    Full Text Available A novel glucose biosensor was fabricated. The first layer of the biosensor was polythionine, which was formed by the electrochemical polymerisation of the thionine monomer on a glassy carbon electrode. The remaining layers were coated with chitosan-MWCNTs, GOx, and the chitosan-PTFE film in sequence. The MWCNTs embedded in FAD were like "conductive wires" connecting FAD with electrode, reduced the distance between them and were propitious to fast direct electron transfer. Combining with good electrical conductivity of PTH and MWCNTs, the current response was enlarged. The sensor was a parallel multi-component reaction system (PMRS and excellent electrocatalytic performance for glucose could be obtained without a mediator. The glucose sensor had a working voltage of -0.42 V, an optimum working temperature of 25°C, an optimum working pH of 7.0, and the best percentage of polytetrafluoroethylene emulsion (PTFE in the outer composite film was 2%. Under the optimised conditions, the biosensor displayed a high sensitivity of 2.80 µA mM(-1 cm(-2 and a low detection limit of 5 µM (S/N = 3, with a response time of less than 15 s and a linear range of 0.04 mM to 2.5 mM. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensor had a good selectivity, reproducibility, and long-term stability, indicating that the novel CTS+PTFE/GOx/MWCNTs/PTH composite is a promising material for immobilization of biomolecules and fabrication of third generation biosensors.

  5. A novel hydrazine electrochemical sensor based on a carbon nanotube-wired ZnO nanoflower-modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Bin, E-mail: binfang_47@yahoo.com.c [Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensor, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Beijing East Road, No. 1, Wuhu 241000 (China); Zhang Cuihong; Zhang Wei; Wang Guangfeng [Anhui Key Laboratory of Chemo-Biosensor, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Anhui Normal University, Beijing East Road, No. 1, Wuhu 241000 (China)

    2009-12-15

    ZnO nanoflowers were synthesized by a simple process (ammonia-evaporation-induced synthetic method) and were applied to the hydrazine electrochemical sensor. The prepared material was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and was then immobilized onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) via multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to obtain ZnO/MWCNTs/GCE. The potential utility of the constructed electrodes was demonstrated by applying them to the analytical determination of hydrazine concentration. An optimized limit of detection of 0.18 muM was obtained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 and with a fast response time (within 3 s). Additionally, the ZnO/MWCNTs/GCE exhibited a wide linear range from 0.6 to 250 muM and higher sensitivity for hydrazine than did the ZnO modified electrode without immobilization of MWCNTs.

  6. Investigation of Cytotoxicity of Phosphoryl Choline Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes under a Live Cell Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and various modified SWCNTs have drawn a lot of attention due to their potential applications in biomedical field. Before further moving on to real clinical applications, hydrophobicity and toxicity of SWCNTs should be investigated thoroughly. In this paper, 2-methacryloyloxy ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC was adopted to modify SWCNTs and phosphoryl choline was grafted onto SWCNTs as small molecule moieties and polymeric chains, which made SWCNTs dispersed stably both in water and in cell culture medium for a long time. Cytotoxicity of pristine and modified SWCNTs were assayed upon successful preparation of the designed modified SWCNT. Furthermore, the internalization of SWCNTs by three cells was investigated using a live cell station under normal culture temperature (37°C and low temperature (4°C. The results showed that the internalization of modified SWCNTs was related to both the active transport and the passive transport. Although the modification with phosphoryl choline remarkably reduced the cytotoxicity of SWCNTs, the results were probably due to other reasons such as the decrease in the ratio of cells which internalized modified SWCNTs since the cells without SWCNTs occupation still exhibited normal states.

  7. Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols at Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode Using Flow Injection Amperometry

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie Negash; Hailemichael Alemu; Merid Tessema

    2014-01-01

    Phenol and chlorophenols were investigated using single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) composite modified glassy carbon electrode (SWCNT/PEDOT/GCE) as a detector in flow injection system. Optimization of experimental variables such as the detection potential, flow rate, and pH of the carrier solution (0.1 M sodium acetate) for the determination of phenol (P), 4-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), and pentachloro...

  8. Polyamide 6/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites with Modified Morphology and Thermal Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mahmood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pure polyamide 6 (PA6 and polyamide 6/carbon nanotube (PA6/CNT composite samples with 0.5 weight percent loading of pristine or functionalized CNTs were made using a solution mixing technique. Modification of nanotube surface as a result of chemical functionalization was confirmed through the presence of lattice defects as examined under high-resolution transmission electron microscope and absorption bands characteristic of carboxylic, sulfonic and amine chemical groups. Microstructural examination of the cryogenically fractured surfaces revealed qualitative information regarding CNT dispersion within PA6 matrix and interfacial strength. X-ray diffraction studies indicated formation of thermodynamically more stable α-phase crystals. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that CNT incorporation delayed onset of thermal degradation by as much as 70 °C in case of amine-functionalized CNTs, thus increasing thermal stability of the composites. Furthermore, addition of amine-functionalized CNTs caused an increase in crystallization and melting temperatures from the respective values of 177 and 213 °C (for neat PA6 to 211 and 230 °C (for composite, respectively.

  9. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, PO Box 51 Br-4, I-72100 Brindisi (Italy); Serra, E, E-mail: michele.penza@enea.it [ENEA, Department of Physical Technologies and New Materials, Via Anguillarese 301, I-00060 Rome (Italy)

    2010-03-12

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) layers were synthesized on Fe-coated low-cost alumina substrates using radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (RF-PECVD) technology. A miniaturized CNT-based gas sensor array was developed for monitoring landfill gas (LFG) at a temperature of 150 deg. C. The sensor array was composed of 4 sensing elements with unmodified CNT, and CNT loaded with 5 nm nominally thick sputtered nanoclusters of platinum (Pt), ruthenium (Ru) and silver (Ag). Chemical analysis of multicomponent gas mixtures constituted of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, CO and NO{sub 2} has been performed by the array sensor responses and pattern recognition based on principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA results demonstrate that the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor array is able to discriminate the NO{sub 2} presence in the multicomponent mixture LFG. The NO{sub 2} gas detection in the mixture LFG was proved to be very sensitive, e.g.: the CNT:Ru sensor shows a relative change in the resistance of 1.50% and 0.55% for NO{sub 2} concentrations of 3.3 ppm and 330 ppb dispersed in the LFG, respectively, with a wide NO{sub 2} gas concentration range measured from 0.33 to 3.3 ppm, at the sensor temperature of 150 deg. C. The morphology and structure of the CNT networks have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. A forest-like nanostructure of vertically aligned CNT bundles in the multi-walled form appeared with a height of about 10 {mu}m and a single-tube diameter varying in the range of 5-35 nm. The intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy D-peak and G-peak indicates the presence of disorder and defects in the CNT networks. The size of the metal (Pt, Ru, Ag) nanoclusters decorating the CNT top surface varies in the range of 5-50 nm. Functional characterization based on electrical charge transfer sensing mechanisms in the metal-modified

  10. Dynamic photothermal-mechanical response of a microcantilever modified by carbon nanotube film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng; Zhu, Yong

    2016-03-20

    Dynamic photothermal-mechanical response of a tri-material microcantilever illuminated by an intensity modulated laser source is theoretically analyzed using the heat dynamic differential model and finite element model based on the COMSOL 5.0. Tri-material microcantilever samples are fabricated by transferring carbon nanotube film onto a silicon microcantilever with aluminum coating. During the experiment, these samples are illuminated by an intensity-modulated laser pulse, and the maximum photothermal response frequency is ∼173  Hz. Experimental results are consistent with theoretical analyses. The photothermal spectroscopy detection of water vapor in the open environment is carried out, and the linear correlation coefficient between spectroscopy signal and water concentration is 0.997. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of tri-material microcantilever as a thermal sensor for photothermal deflection spectroscopy. PMID:27140569

  11. Assembly of Modified Ferritin Proteins on Carbon Nanotubes and its Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Highly effective dispersions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be made using a commercially available buffer solution. Buffer solutions of 3-(N-morpholino)-propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), which consists of a cyclic ring with nitrogen and oxygen heteroatoms, a charged group, and an alkyl chain greatly enhance the dispersibility and stability of CNTs in aqueous solutions. Additionally, the ability of biomolecules, especially cationized Pt-cored ferritins, to adhere onto the well-dispersed CNTs in the aqueous buffer solution is also improved. This was accomplished without the use of surfactant molecules, which are detrimental to the electrical, mechanical, and other physical properties of the resulting products. The assembled Pt-cored ferritin proteins on the CNTs were used as an electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction

  12. Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Zhou, Otto Z.

    Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists worldwide. The small dimensions, strength and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a very unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review we describe some of the important materials science applications of carbon nanotubes. Specifically we discuss the electronic and electrochemical applications of nanotubes, nanotubes as mechanical reinforcements in high performance composites, nanotube-based field emitters, and their use as nanoprobes in metrology and biological and chemical investigations, and as templates for the creation of other nanostructures. Electronic properties and device applications of nanotubes are treated elsewhere in the book. The challenges that ensue in realizing some of these applications are also discussed from the point of view of manufacturing, processing, and cost considerations.

  13. Application of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Mefenamic Acid in Pharmaceutical Preparations and Biological Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemically modified electrode is constructed based on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). It is demonstrated that this sensor could be used for determination of pharmaceutically important compound mefenamic acid (MEF). Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) experiments of various concentration of MEF showed two linear dynamic ranges. The first linear dynamic range was from 2 micro M to 40 micro M, and the second linear dynamic range was between 50 micro M to 360 micro M. A detection limit of 0.21 micro M (S/N = 3) was obtained. Under optimal conditions the modified electrode exhibited high sensitivity and stability for determination of MEF, making it a suitable sensor for the submicromolar detection of MEF in solutions. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of MEF in human serum, human urine and a pharmaceutical preparation with satisfactory results. (author)

  14. Carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile-toughened epoxy/carboxyl-modified carbon nanotube nanocomposites: Thermal and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Xie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Carboxyl-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT–COOHs as nanofillers were incorporated into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA toughened with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile (CTBN. The carboxyl functional carbon nanotubes were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Furthermore, cure kinetics, glass transition temperature (Tg, mechanical properties, thermal stability and morphology of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT–COOHs nanocomposites were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, universal test machine, thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. DSC kinetic studies showed that the addition of MWCNT–COOHs accelerated the curing reaction of the rubber-toughened epoxy resin. DMA results revealed that Tg of rubber-toughened epoxy nanocomposites lowered with MWCNT–COOH contents. The tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength and flexural modulus of DGEBA/CTBN/MWCNT-COOHs nanocomposites were increased at lower MWCNT-COOH concentration. A homogenous dispersion of nanocomposites at lower MWCNT–COOH concentration was observed by SEM.

  15. Adsorption on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yi; YANG Xiao-bao; NI Jun

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption on single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is a subject of growing experimental and theoretical interest.The possible adsorbed patterns of atoms and molecules on the single-walled carbon nanotubes vary with the diameters and chirality of the tubes due to the confinement.The curvature of the carbon nanotube surface enlarges the distance of the adsorbate atoms and thus enhances the stability of high coverage structures of adsorbate.There exist two novel high-coverage stable structures of potassium adsorbed on SWCNTs,which are not stable on graphite.The electronic properties of SWCNTs can be modified by adsorbate atoms and metal-semiconductor and semiconductor-semi-conductor transitions can be achieved by the doping of alkali atoms.

  16. Liquid composite molding-processing and characterization of fiber-reinforced composites modified with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, R.; Khalid, U.; Kuttner, C.; Kothmann, M.; Dijkstra, D. J.; Fery, A.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand in fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs) necessitates economic processing of high quality, like the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. FRPs exhibit excellent in-plane properties but weaknesses in off-plane direction. The addition of nanofillers into the resinous matrix phase embodies a promising approach due to benefits of the nano-scaled size of the filler, especially its high surface and interface areas. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are preferable candidates for resin modification in regard of their excellent mechanical properties and high aspect ratios. However, especially the high aspect ratios give rise to withholding or filtering by fibrous fabrics during the impregnation process, i.e. length dependent withholding of tubes (short tubes pass through the fabric, while long tubes are restrained) and a decrease in the local CNT content in the laminate along the flow path can occur. In this study, hybrid composites containing endless glass fiber reinforcement and surface functionalized CNTs dispersed in the matrix phase were produced by VARTM. New methodologies for the quantification of the filtering of CNTs were developed and applied to test laminates. As a first step, a method to analyze the CNT length distribution before and after injection was established for thermosetting composites to characterize length dependent withholding of nanotubes. The used glass fiber fabric showed no perceptible length dependent retaining of CNTs. Afterward, the resulting test laminates were examined by Raman spectroscopy and compared to reference samples of known CNT content. This Raman based technique was developed further to assess the quality of the impregnation process and to quantitatively follow the local CNT content along the injection flow in cured composites. A local decline in CNT content of approx. 20% was observed. These methodologies allow for the quality control of the filler content and size-distribution in CNT based hybrid

  17. Analysis of total polyphenols in wines by FIA with highly stable amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Martínez-Fernández, Marta; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    The use of glassy carbon electrodes (GCEs) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) films for the continuous monitoring of polyphenols in flow systems has been examined. The performance of these modified electrodes was evaluated and compared to bare GCE by cyclic voltammetry experiments and by flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection monitoring the response of gallic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids in 0.050 M acetate buffer pH 4.5 containing 100 mM NaCl. The GCE modified with CNT dispersions in polyethyleneimine (PEI) provided lower overpotentials, higher sensitivity and much higher signal stability under a dynamic regime than bare GCEs. These properties allowed the estimation of the total polyphenol content in red and white wines with a remarkable long-term stability in the measurements despite the presence of potential fouling substances in the wine matrix. In addition, the versatility of the electrochemical methodology allowed the selective estimation of the easily oxidisable polyphenol fraction as well as the total polyphenol content just by tuning the detection potential at +0.30 or 0.70 V, respectively. The significance of the electrochemical results was demonstrated through correlation studies with the results obtained with conventional spectrophotometric assays for polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteu, absorbance at 280 nm index and colour intensity index).

  18. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies. PMID:26944347

  19. Study of Carbon Nanotube-Substrate Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline S. Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental effects are very important in nanoscience and nanotechnology. This work reviews the importance of the substrate in single-wall carbon nanotube properties. Contact with a substrate can modify the nanotube properties, and such interactions have been broadly studied as either a negative aspect or a solution for developing carbon nanotube-based nanotechnologies. This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental studies where the interaction between the carbon nanotubes and the substrate affects the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the tubes.

  20. Carbon nanotube macroelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jialu

    In this dissertation, I discuss the application of carbon nanotubes in macroelectronis. Due to the extraordinary electrical properties such as high intrinsic carrier mobility and current-carrying capacity, single wall carbon nanotubes are very desirable for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications such as flat panel display, transparent electronics, as well as flexible and stretchable electronics. Compared with other popular channel material for TFTs, namely amorphous silicon, polycrystalline silicon and organic materials, nanotube thin-films have the advantages of low-temperature processing compatibility, transparency, and flexibility, as well as high device performance. In order to demonstrate scalable, practical carbon nanotube macroelectroncis, I have developed a platform to fabricate high-density, uniform separated nanotube based thin-film transistors. In addition, many other essential analysis as well as technology components, such as nanotube film density control, purity and diameter dependent semiconducting nanotube electrical performance study, air-stable n-type transistor fabrication, and CMOS integration platform have also been demonstrated. On the basis of the above achievement, I have further demonstrated various kinds of applications including AMOLED display electronics, PMOS and CMOS logic circuits, flexible and transparent electronics. The dissertation is structured as follows. First, chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the electronic properties of carbon nanotubes, which serves as the background knowledge for the following chapters. In chapter 2, I will present our approach of fabricating wafer-scale uniform semiconducting carbon nanotube thin-film transistors and demonstrate their application in display electronics and logic circuits. Following that, more detailed information about carbon nanotube thin-film transistor based active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays is discussed in chapter 3. And in chapter 4, a technology to

  1. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laird, Edward A.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Steele, Gary A.;

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries, enabled by sophisticated fabrication, have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin...... and valley degrees of freedom. This review describes the modern understanding of transport through nanotube devices. Unlike conventional semiconductors, electrons in nanotubes have two angular momentum quantum numbers, arising from spin and from valley freedom. We focus on the interplay between the two....... In single quantum dots defined in short lengths of nanotube, the energy levels associated with each degree of freedom, and the spin-orbit coupling between them, are revealed by Coulomb blockade spectroscopy. In double quantum dots, the combination of quantum numbers modifies the selection rules of Pauli...

  2. Hydrogen peroxide sensor based on modified vitreous carbon with multiwall carbon nanotubes and composites of Pt nanoparticles-dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman, C.; Orozco, G. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Verde, Y. [Instituto Tecnologico de Cancun, Av. Kabah Km. 3, C.P. 77500, Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Jimenez, S. [Unidad Queretaro Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., Juriquilla, Santiago de Queretaro (Mexico); Godinez, Luis A. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Juaristi, E. [Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bustos, E. [Electrochemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C., P.O. Box 064, C.P. 76700, Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Chemistry Department, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N., P.O. Box 14-740, C.P. 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)], E-mail: ebustos@cideteq.mx

    2009-02-15

    Sensors using nanostructured materials have been under development in the last decade due to their selectivity for the detection and quantification of different compounds. The physical and chemical characteristics of carbon nanotubes provide significant advantages when used as electrodes for electronic devices, fuel cells and electrochemical sensors. This paper presents preliminary results on the modification of vitreous carbon electrodes with Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) and composites of Pt nanoparticles-dopamine (DA) as electro-catalytic materials for the hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) reaction. Chemical pre-treatment and consequent functionalization of MWCNTs with carboxylic groups was necessary to increase the distribution of the composites. In addition, the presence of DA was important to protect the active sites and eliminate the pasivation of the surface after the electro-oxidation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} takes place. The proposed H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sensor exhibited a linear response in the 0-5 mM range, with detection and quantification limits of 0.3441 mM and 1.1472 mM, respectively.

  3. Simultaneous Electrochemical Determination of Hydroquinone, Catechol and Resorcinol at Nitrogen Doped Porous Carbon Nanopolyhedrons-multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Hybrid Materials Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhua [Hunan Univ., Changsha (China)

    2014-01-15

    The nitrogen doped porous carbon nanopolyhedrons (N-PCNPs)-multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid materials were prepared for the first time. Combining the excellent catalytic activities, good electrical conductivities and high surface areas of N-PCNPs and MWCNTs, the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CC) and resorcinol (RE) with good analytical performance was achieved at the N-PCNPs-MWCNTs modified electrode. The linear response ranges for HQ, CC and RE are 0.2-455 μM, 0.7-440 μM and 3.0-365 μM, respectively, and the detection limits (S/N = 3) are 0.03 μM, 0.11 μM and 0.38 μM, respectively. These results are much better than that obtained on some graphene or CNTs-based materials modified electrodes. Furthermore, the developed sensor was successfully applied to simultaneously detect HQ, CC and RE in the local river water samples.

  4. The Application of Nafion Metal Catalyst Free Carbon Nanotube Modified Gold Electrode: Voltammetric Zinc Detection in Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wei; Bange, Adam; Riehl, Bill L.; Johnson, Jay M.; Papautsky, Ian; Heineman, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Metal catalyst free carbon nanotube (MCFCNT) whiskers were first used as an electrode modification material on a gold electrode surface for zinc voltammetric measurements. A composite film of Nafion and MCFCNT whiskers was applied to a gold electrode surface to form a mechanically stable sensor. The sensor was then used for zinc detection in both acetate buffer solution and extracted bovine serum solution. A limit of detection of 53 nM was achieved for a 120 s deposition time. The zinc in bovine serum was extracted via a double extraction procedure using dithizone in chloroform as a zinc chelating ligand. The modified electrode was found to be both reliable and sensitive for zinc measurements in both matrices. PMID:24436574

  5. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ćirić-Marjanović, Gordana; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-06-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 °C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 µm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 µm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm-1, increased to 0.7 S cm-1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  6. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  7. FLUIDIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Wei; Cang Huang; Yao Wang

    2005-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can be fluidized in the form of fluidlike agglomerates made of many three-dimensional sub-agglomerates, having a multi-stage agglomerate (MSA) structure and containing large amounts of twisting CNTs of micrometer magnitude.

  8. Carbon nanotubes: Fibrillar pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostarelos, Kostas

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms by which chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes flow in blood and are excreted through the kidneys illustrate the unconventional behaviour of these fibrillar nanostructures, and the opportunities they offer as components for the design of advanced delivery vehicles.

  9. Magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes modified with dual hydroxy functional ionic liquid for the solid-phase extraction of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Yuzhi; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia; Li, Na; Wen, Qian; Zhou, Yigang

    2015-05-21

    A novel adsorbent based on silica-coated magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) surface modified by dual hydroxy functional ionic liquid (FIL) ([OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2) has been designed and used for the purification of lysozyme (Lys) by magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed to characterize [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2. After extraction, the concentration of Lys was determined by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 278 nm. A series of single-factor experiments were carried out to identify the optimal conditions of the extraction and the extraction amount could reach up to 94.6 mg g(-1). The RSD of the precision, the repeatability and the stability experiments were 0.37% (n = 3), 0.47% (n = 3) and 0.52% (n = 3), respectively. Comparison of [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2 with silica-coated magnetic Fe3O4 (Fe3O4@SiO2), silica-coated magnetic multiwall carbon nanotubes (m-MWCNTs@SiO2) and alkyl quaternary ammonium ionic liquid-modified on m-MWCNTs@SiO2 was carried out by extracting Lys. The extraction of bovine serum albumin (BSA), trypsin (Try) and ovalbumin (OVA) was also done by the proposed method. Desorption of Lys was carried out by 0.005 mol L(-1) Na2HPO4-1 mol L(-1) NaCl as the eluent solution and the desorption ratio reached 91.6%. Nearly 97.8% of the [OH]-FIL-m-MWCNTs@SiO2 could be recovered from each run, and the extraction amount decreased less after five runs. The circular dichroism spectral experiment analysis indicated that the secondary structure of Lys was unchanged after extraction.

  10. Poly(brilliant green) and poly(thionine) modified carbon nanotube coated carbon film electrodes for glucose and uric acid biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghica, M Emilia; Brett, Christopher M A

    2014-12-01

    Poly(brilliant green) (PBG) and poly(thionine) (PTH) films have been formed on carbon film electrodes (CFEs) modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT) by electropolymerisation using potential cycling. Voltammetric and electrochemical impedance characterisation were performed. Glucose oxidase and uricase, as model enzymes, were immobilised on top of PBG/CNT/CFE and PTH/CNT/CFE for glucose and uric acid (UA) biosensing. Amperometric determination of glucose and UA was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 at -0.20 and +0.30 V vs. SCE, respectively, and the results were compared with other similarly modified electrodes existing in the literature. An interference study and recovery measurements in natural samples were successfully performed, indicating these architectures to be good and promising biosensor platforms. PMID:25159399

  11. A sensor for determination of tramadol in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemically modified electrode is constructed based on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). It is demonstrated that this sensor could be used for determination of pharmaceutical important compound tramadol (TRA). The measurements were carried out using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) methods. DPV experiments of various concentration of TRA showed two linear dynamic ranges. The first linear dynamic range was from 4 micro M to 35 micro M, and the second linear dynamic range was between 60 micro M to 550 micro M. A detection limit of 0.38 micro M (S/N = 3) was obtained. The analytical performance of this sensor has been evaluated for the detection of TRA in human serum, human urine and some pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. (author)

  12. Effect of Modified and Nonmodified Carbon Nanotubes on the Rheological Behavior of High Density Polyethylene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewunmi A. Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of studies on the rheological behavior of nanocomposites of high density polyethylene (HDPE with pristine multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT as well as phenol and 1-octadecanol (C18 functionalized CNT at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 wt% loading. The viscosity reduction at 1 wt% CNT follows the order, pristine CNT < phenol functionalized CNT < C18 functionalized CNT. As the filler loading increases from 1 to 2, 3, and 4 wt%, neat HDPE and filled HDPE systems show similar moduli and viscosity, particularly in the low frequency region. As the filler loading increases further to 5 and 7 wt%, the viscosity and moduli become greater than the neat HDPE. The storage modulus, tan, and the Cole-Cole plots show that CNT network formation occurs at higher CNT loading. The critical CNT loading or the rheological percolation threshold, where network formation occurs is found to be strongly dependant on the functionalization of CNT. For pristine CNT, the rheological percolation threshold is around 4 wt%, but for functionalized CNT it is around 7 wt%. The surface morphologies of CNT and functionalized CNT at 1 wt% loading showed good dispersion while at 7 wt% loading, dispersion was also achieved, but there are few regions with agglomeration of CNT.

  13. Germanomolybdate (GeMo12O404−) Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites for Electrochemical Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GeMo12O404− (GeMo) was deposited onto MWCNT to fabricate capacitive electrodes. • GeMo electrode showed excellent conductivity and 6X the capacitance of bare MWCNT. • GeMo was superimposed with PMo12O403− or SiMo12O404− on dual-layer electrodes. • Dual-layer electrodes showed combination of both molecules and 12X bare capacitance. - Abstract: Keggin type germanomolybdate, GeMo12O404− (GeMo), was deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition to form composite electrodes for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The GeMo composite electrode demonstrated charge storage six times greater than that of the bare MWCNT electrode while maintaining excellent conductivity and cycling stability. GeMo also demonstrated charge storage complementary to that of the commercial Keggin type POMs, PMo12O403− (PMo) and SiMo12O404− (SiMo). Dual-layer coatings superimposing GeMo with either PMo or SiMo showed an additive combination of both active layers, which resulted in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) with overlapping redox features and charge storage twelve times greater than that of the bare MWCNT electrode. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated successful single and dual layer coating of POMs on MWCNT with high coverage and uniform surface morphologies

  14. Direct Assembly of Modified Proteins on Carbon Nanotubes in an Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Park, Cheol; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have superior mechanical and electrical properties that have opened up many potential applications. However, poor dispersibility and solubility, due to the substantial van der Waals attraction between tubes, have prevented the use of CNTs in practical applications, especially biotechnology applications. Effective dispersion of CNTs into small bundles or individual tubes in solvents is crucial to ensure homogeneous properties and enable practical applications. In addition to dispersion of CNTs into a solvent, the selection of appropriate solvent, which is compatible with a desired matrix, is an important factor to improve the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical properties of CNT-based fibers and composites. In particular, dispersion of CNTs into an aqueous system has been a challenge due to the hydrophobic nature of CNTs. Here we show an effective method for dispersion of both single wall CNTs (SWCNTs) and few wall CNTs (FWCNTs) in an aqueous buffer solution. We also show an assembly of cationized Pt-cored ferritins on the well dispersed CNTs in an aqueous buffer solution.

  15. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  16. Carbon nanotube solar cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Klinger

    Full Text Available We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabricate using a spray-paint technique. We observe that cells with a lower concentration of carbon nanotubes on the active semiconducting electrode perform better than cells with a higher concentration of nanotubes. This effect is contrary to the expectation that a larger number of nanotubes would lead to more photoconversion and therefore more power generation. We attribute this to the presence of metallic nanotubes that provide a short for photo-excited electrons, bypassing the load. We demonstrate optimization strategies that improve cell efficiency by orders of magnitude. Once it is possible to make semiconducting-only carbon nanotube films, that may provide the greatest efficiency improvement.

  17. Carbon nanotube epoxy modified CFRPs: toward improved mechanical and sensing for multifunctional aerostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, Vassilis; Vavouliotis, Antonios; Karapappas, Petros

    2008-03-01

    In aerospace structures, the increase of mechanical performance of materials such as Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRPs) is always a key goal. In parallel, there is a constant demand for multi-functional solutions that provide continuous, integrated damage monitoring in an efficient and cost affordable way. Structural Health Monitoring systems are crucial for a variety of aerospace applications where safety, operational cost and the maintenance have increased significantly. The Electrical Resistance Technique (ERT) as a promising damage monitoring technique uses the CFRP materials themselves as inherent damage sensors. Currently method's medium sensitivity does not allow the identification of early damage stages requested for a potential application. By using highly conductive carbon-nanotubes as filler material into the epoxy matrix of CFRP is expected to increase the sensitivity of the method, allowing for wider field of applications. In addition, it is expected that the introduction of CNTs into the polymer matrix of CFRP laminates will increase the overall mechanical and electrical performance of the composite. This double role of the CNTs is investigated in the present study. Quasi-static tensile, cyclic loading-unloading-reloading with increase load level at each loading cycle and tension-tension fatigue tests with parallel monitoring of the longitudinal resistance performed on CFRP laminates with various contents of CNTs in the epoxy matrix showed that matrix cracking and fiber breakage caused resistance to increase irreversibly. Although the individual damage mechanisms could not be easily distinguished the overall damage state can be reliably characterized. Moreover significant increase in the fracture resistance was shown, for both Mode I and Mode II tests in the case of CNT doped laminates, compared against the reference laminate where neat epoxy matrix was used. Finally, low velocity impact tests showed that the CNT doped laminates appear to have

  18. Preparation of glass carbon electrode modified with nanocrystalline nickel-decorated carbon nanotubes and electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline nickel with an average diameter of about 16 nm and a face-centered cubic (fcc)structure was uniformly attached to the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNT) by wet chemistry.The sample was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).A glass carbon electrode modified with nickel-modified multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Ni/GCE) was prepared.The electrochemical behavior of the MWCNTs-Ni/GCE and the electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol at the MWCNTsNi/GCE were investigated by cyclic voltammetry in 1.0 mol/L NaOH solution.The cyclic voltammograms showed that the electron transfer between β-Ni(OH)2 and β-NiOOH is mainly a diffusion-controlled quasireversible process,and that the electrode has high catalytic activity for the electrooxidation of methanol in alkaline medium,revealing its potential application in alkaline rechargeable batteries and fuel cells.

  19. Simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil and its active metabolite, mycophenolic acid, by differential pulse voltammetry using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of mycophenolate mofetil (MPM) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) was fabricated by multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWCNTs/GCE). The electrochemical behavior of these two drugs was studied at the modified electrode using cyclic voltammetry and adsorptive differential pulse voltammetry. MPM and MPA were oxidized at the GCE during an irreversible process. DPV analysis showed two oxidation peaks at 0.87 V and 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPM and an oxidation peak at 0.87 V vs. Ag/AgCl for MPA in phosphate buffer solution of pH 5.0. The MWCNTs/GCE displayed excellent electrochemical activities toward oxidation of MPM and MPA relative to the bare GCE. The experimental design algorithm was used for optimization of DPV parameters. The electrode represents linear responses in the range 5.0 × 10−6 to 1.6 × 10−4 mol L−1 and 2.5 × 10−6 mol L−1 to 6.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 for MPM and MPA, respectively. The detection limit was found to be 9.0 × 10−7 mol L−1 and 4.0 × 10−7 mol L−1 for MPM and MPA, respectively. The modified electrode showed a good sensitivity and stability. It was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of MPM and MPA in plasma and urine samples. - Highlights: • A new modified electrochemical sensor was constructed and used. • Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as the modifiers. • MPM and MPA were measured simultaneously at the low levels. • The sensor was used to the determination of MPA and MPM in real samples

  20. Amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotube modified electrode with electropolymerized poly(toluidine blue O) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Wenju [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wang Fang [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)] [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao Yanli [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Hu Shengshui [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shiu, Kwok-Keung, E-mail: kkshiu@hkbu.edu.h [Department of Chemistry, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2010-09-30

    The amperometric bienzyme glucose biosensor utilizing horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilized in poly(toluidine blue O) (PTBO) film was constructed on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) modified glassy carbon electrode. The HRP layer could be used to analyze hydrogen peroxide with toluidine blue O (TBO) mediators, while the bienzyme system (HRP + GOx) could be utilized for glucose determination. Glucose underwent biocatalytic oxidation by GOx in the presence of oxygen to yield H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which was further reduced by HRP at the MWNT-modified electrode with TBO mediators. In the absence of oxygen, glucose oxidation proceeded with electron transfer between GOx and the electrode mediated by TBO moieties without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production. The bienzyme electrode offered high sensitivity for amperometric determination of glucose at low potential, displaying Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The bienzyme glucose biosensor displayed linear response from 0.1 to 1.2 mM with a sensitivity of 113 mA M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at an applied potential of -0.10 V in air-saturated electrolytes.

  1. Determination of beta-glucosidase activity in soils with a bioanalytical sensor modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, Patricia W; Messina, Germán A; Bianchi, Guillermo; Olsina, Roberto A; Raba, Julio

    2010-06-01

    Soil microorganisms and enzymes are the primary mediators of soil biological processes, including organic matter degradation, mineralization, and nutrient recycling. They play an important role in maintaining soil ecosystem quality and functional diversity. Moreover, enzyme activities can provide an indication of quantitative changes in soil organic matter. Beta-glucosidase (beta-Glu) activity has been found to be sensitive to soil management and has been proposed as a soil quality indicator because it provides an early indication of changes in organic matter status and its turnover. The aims of the present study were to test and use a simple and convenient procedure for the assay of beta-Glu activity in agricultural soil. The method described here is based on the enzymatic degradation of cellobiose by beta-Glu present in the soil sample and the subsequent determination of glucose produced by the enzymatic reaction using screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SPCE-CNT) equipped with coimmobilized glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase enzymes. The potential applied to the SPCE-CNT detection was -0.15 V versus a Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the range 2.7-11.3 mM with a correlation coefficient. In the present study, an easy and effective SPCE-CNT-modified electrode allowed an improved amperometric response to be achieved and this is attributed to the increased surface area upon electrode modification. PMID:20349226

  2. Voltammetric determination of polyphenolic content in pomegranate juice using a poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Refat; Newair, Emad F

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive poly(gallic acid)/multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (PGA/MWCNT/GCE) electrochemical sensor was prepared for direct determination of the total phenolic content (TPC) as gallic acid equivalent. The GCE working electrode was electrochemically modified and characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and chronocoulometry. It was found that gallic acid (GA) exhibits a superior electrochemical response on the PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor in comparison with bare GCE. The results reveal that a PGA/MWCNT/GCE sensor can remarkably enhance the electro-oxidation signal of GA as well as shift the peak potentials towards less positive potential values. The dependence of peak current on accumulation potential, accumulation time and pH were investigated by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) to optimize the experimental conditions for the determination of GA. Using the optimized conditions, the sensor responded linearly to a GA concentration throughout the range of 4.97 × 10(-6) to 3.38 × 10(-5) M with a detection limit of 3.22 × 10(-6) M (S/N = 3). The fabricated sensor shows good selectivity, stability, repeatability and (101%) recovery. The sensor was successfully utilized for the determination of total phenolic content in fresh pomegranate juice without interference of ascorbic acid, fructose, potassium nitrate and barbituric acid. The obtained data were compared with the standard Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric results. PMID:27547628

  3. Detection of Carbofuran with Immobilized Acetylcholinesterase Based on Carbon Nanotubes-Chitosan Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and stable enzyme biosensor based on efficient immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE to MWNTs-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE with chitosan (CS by layer-by-layer (LBL technique for rapid determination of carbofuran has been devised. According to the inhibitory effect of carbamate pesticide on the enzymatic activity of AChE, we use carbofuran as a model pesticide. The inhibitory effect of carbofuran on the biosensor was proportional to concentration of carbofuran in the range from  g/L to  g/L with a detection limit of  g/L. This biosensor is a promising new method for pesticide analysis.

  4. Electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of insulin at nickel oxide nanoparticles-multiwalled carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiee, Banafsheh; Fakhari, Ali Reza

    2013-08-15

    Nickel oxide nanoparticles modified nafion-multiwalled carbon nanotubes screen printed electrode (NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs/SPE) were prepared using pulsed electrodeposition of NiONPs on the MWCNTs/SPE surface. The size, distribution and structure of the NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) and also the results show that NiO nanoparticles were homogeneously electrodeposited on the surfaces of MWCNTs. Also, the electrochemical behavior of NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs composites in aqueous alkaline solutions of insulin was studied by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the prepared nanoparticles have excellent electrocatalytic activity towards insulin oxidation due to special properties of NiO nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed that the NiONPs/Nafion-MWCNTs film modified SPE, lowers the overpotentials and improves electrochemical behavior of insulin oxidation, as compared to the bare SPE. Amperometry was also used to evaluate the analytical performance of modified electrode in the quantitation of insulin. Excellent analytical features, including high sensitivity (1.83 μA/μM), low detection limit (6.1 nM) and satisfactory dynamic range (20.0-260.0 nM), were achieved under optimized conditions. Moreover, these sensors show good repeatability and a high stability after a while or successive potential cycling.

  5. New Modified-Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Paste Electrode for Electrocatalytic Oxidation and Determination of Hydrazine Using Square Wave Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali A. ENSAF; Mahsa LOTFI; Hassan KARIMI-MALEH

    2012-01-01

    The application of p-aminophenol as a suitable mediator, as a sensitive and selective voltammetric sensor for the determination of hydrazine using square wave voltammetric method were described. The modified multiwall carbon nanotubes paste electrode exhibited a good electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of hydrazine at pH = 7.0. The catalytic oxidation peak currents showed a linear dependence of the peaks current to the hydrazine concentrations in the range of 0.5–175 μmol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9975. The detection limit (S/N = 3) was estimated to be 0.3 μmol/L of hydrazine. The relative standard deviations for 0.7 and 5.0 μmol/L hydrazine were 1.7 and 1.1%, respectively. The modified electrode showed good sensitivity and selectivity. The diffusion coefficient (D = 9.5 × 10–4 cm2/s) and the kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient (α = 0.7) of hydrazine at the surface of the modified electrode were determined using electrochemical approaches. The electrode was successfully applied for the determination of hydrazine in real samples with satisfactory results.

  6. A hydrogen peroxide sensor based on a horseradish peroxidase/polyaniline/carboxy-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube modified gold electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Mu-Yi, E-mail: huamy@mail.cgu.edu.t [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chen [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Rung-Ywan [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd., Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Liu, Yin-Chih [Green Research Center, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biosensor Group, Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Kuei-Shan, Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-30

    We have developed a polyaniline/carboxy-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotube (PAn/MWCNTCOOH) nanocomposite by blending the emeraldine base form of polyaniline (PAn) and carboxy-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in dried dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at room temperature. The conductivity of the resulting PAn/MWCNTCOOH was 3.6 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}, mainly as a result of the protonation of the PAn with the carboxyl group and the radical cations of the MWCNT fragments. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized within the PAn/MWCNTCOOH nanocomposite modified Au (PAn/MWCNTCOOH/Au) electrode to form HRP/PAn/MWCNTCOOH/Au for use as a hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) sensor. The adsorption between the negatively charged PAn/MWCNTCOOH nanocomposite and the positively charged HRP resulted in a very good sensitivity to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and an increased electrochemically catalytical current during cyclic voltammetry. The HRP/PAn/MWCNTCOOH/Au electrode exhibited a broad linear response range for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations (86 {mu}M-10 mM). This sensor exhibited good sensitivity (194.9 {mu}A mM{sup -1} cm{sup -2}), a fast response time (2.9 s), and good reproducibility and stability at an applied potential of -0.35 V. The construction of the enzymatic sensor demonstrated the potential application of PAn/MWCNTCOOH nanocomposites for the detection of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with high performance and excellent stability.

  7. Layer-by-layer self-assembling copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine on carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode for electro-oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Mahabul, E-mail: mshaik86@gmail.com; Rao, V.K.; Gupta, Manish; Pandey, P.

    2012-12-30

    This paper describes the electrocatalytic activity of layer-by-layer self-assembled copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) on carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. CuPcTS is immobilized on the negatively charged CNT surface by alternatively assembling a cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) layer and a CuPcTS layer. UV-vis absorption spectra and electrochemical measurements suggested the successive linear depositions of the bilayers of CuPcTs and PDDA on CNT. The surface morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The viability of this CuPcTS/PDDA/CNT modified GC electrode as a redox mediator for the anodic oxidation and sensitive amperometric determination of 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) in alkaline conditions is described. The effect of number of bilayers of CuPcTS/PDDA and pH on electrochemical oxidation of 2-ME was studied. The proposed electrochemical sensor displayed excellent characteristics towards the determination of 2-ME in 0.1 M NaOH; such as low overpotentials (- 0.15 V vs Ag/AgCl), linear concentration range of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M to 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M, and with a detection limit of 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M using simple amperometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon nanotubes (CNT) were drop-dried on glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Copper tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (CuPcTS) was deposited on CNT/GCE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Layer-by-layer self-assembling method is used for depositing CuPcTS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrocatalytic oxidation of 2-mercaptoethanol (ME) was studied at this electrode Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The detection limit of ME at modified electrode was 25 {mu}M by amperometry.

  8. Determination of Lead Ion by a Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs andLigand (N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl Ethanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new modified carbon paste electrode (CPEto measure lead ion has been reported in this study. Lead is a highly toxic element which can have a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, measurement of lead in aquatic environments is very important. Although several methods have been developed for determination of lead ion in aquatic environments, there is no a cheap, simple, accurate and rapid method to measure this ion. Aim of this study is to develop a new method to measure the lead based on using multi walls carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and Paracetamol as an ionophore for modificationof a CPE.The optimum composition of modified CPE was determined as 64% of graphite powder, 20% of paraffin oil, 12% of nanotube and 4% of ionophore.This optimum composition was shown high selectivity, with appropriate Nernestian slope (-29.73 mV/decade, linear range (from 1.0×10-1to 1.0×10-8M, low lead concentration detection limit (7.5×10-9M and good response time (equal of 25 sec.The results of this study to introduce a cheap, accurate and simple method for determination of lead ion in aquatic environments.

  9. Determination of Lead Ion by a Modified Carbon Paste Electrode Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs and Ligand (N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl Ethanamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Bagheri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of a new modified carbon paste electrode (CPE to measure lead ion has been reported in this study. Lead is a highly toxic element which can have a negative impact on the environment. Therefore, measurement of lead in aquatic environments is very important. Although several methods have been developed for determination of lead ion in aquatic environments, there is no a cheap, simple, accurate and rapid method to measure this ion. Aim of this study is to develop a new method to measure the lead based on using multi walls carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs and Paracetamol as an ionophore for modification of a CPE. The optimum composition of modified CPE was determined as 64% of graphite powder, 20% of paraffin oil, 12% of nanotube and 4% of ionophore. This optimum composition was shown high selectivity, with appropriate Nernestian slope (-29.73 mV/decade, linear range (from 1.0×10-1to 1.0×10-8M, low lead concentration detection limit (7.5×10-9M and good response time (equal of 25 sec.The results of this study to introduce a cheap, accurate and simple method for determination of lead ion in aquatic environments.

  10. A novel non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor based on single walled carbon nanotubes-manganese complex modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdioun, Monierosadat; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, Amir [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156/83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghavami, Raoof [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P.O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-03-30

    A simple procedure was developed to prepare a glassy carbon (GC) electrode modified with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and phenazine derivative of Mn-complex. With immersing the GC/CNTs modified electrode into Mn-complex solution for a short period of time 20-100 s, a stable thin layer of the complex was immobilized onto electrode surface. Modified electrode showed a well defined redox couples at wide pH range (1-12). The surface coverages and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants (k{sub s}) of immobilized Mn-complex were approximately 1.58 x 10{sup -10} mole cm{sup -2} and 48.84 s{sup -1}. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reduction. Detection limit, sensitivity, linear concentration range and k{sub cat} for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were, 0.2 {mu}M and 692 nA {mu}M{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, 1 {mu}M to 1.5 mM and 7.96({+-}0.2) x 10{sup 3} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. Compared to other modified electrodes, this electrode has many advantageous such as remarkable catalytic activity, good reproducibility, simple preparation procedure and long term stability.

  11. Templated Growth of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siochik Emilie J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method of growing carbon nanotubes uses a synthesized mesoporous si lica template with approximately cylindrical pores being formed there in. The surfaces of the pores are coated with a carbon nanotube precu rsor, and the template with the surfaces of the pores so-coated is th en heated until the carbon nanotube precursor in each pore is convert ed to a carbon nanotube.

  12. Biosensor based on tyrosinase immobilized on a single-walled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode for detection of epinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apetrei IM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Irina Mirela Apetrei,1 Constantin Apetrei21Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, Physics and Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Environment, Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, RomaniaAbstract: A biosensor comprising tyrosinase immobilized on a single-walled carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrode has been developed. The sensitive element, ie, tyrosinase, was immobilized using a drop-and-dry method followed by cross-linking. Tyrosinase maintained high bioactivity on this nanomaterial, catalyzing the oxidation of epinephrine to epinephrine-quinone, which was electrochemically reduced (-0.07 V versus Ag/AgCl on the biosensor surface. Under optimum conditions, the biosensor showed a linear response in the range of 10–110 µM. The limit of detection was calculated to be 2.54 µM with a correlation coefficient of 0.977. The repeatability, expressed as the relative standard deviation for five consecutive determinations of 10-5 M epinephrine solution was 3.4%. A good correlation was obtained between results obtained by the biosensor and those obtained by ultraviolet spectrophotometric methods.Keywords: amperometry, single-walled carbon nanotubes, spectrophotometry, catecholamine, pharmaceutical formula

  13. Glassy carbon electrode modified with horse radish peroxidase/organic nucleophilic-functionalized carbon nanotube composite for enhanced electrocatalytic oxidation and efficient voltammetric sensing of levodopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Yalda; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Ghodsi, Javad

    2016-01-01

    A novel and selective enzymatic biosensor was designed and constructed for voltammetric determination of levodopa (L-Dopa) in aqueous media (phosphate buffer solution, pH=7). Biosensor development was on the basis of to physically immobilizing of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as electrochemical catalyst by sol-gel on glassy carbon electrode modified with organic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite which in this composite p-phenylenediamine (pPDA) as organic nucleophile chemically bonded with functionalized MWCNT (MWCNT-COOH). The results of this study suggest that prepared bioorganic nucleophilic carbon nanotube composite (HRP/MWCNT-pPDA) shows fast electron transfer rate for electro oxidation of L-Dopa because of its high electrochemical catalytic activity toward the oxidation of L-Dopa, more--NH2 reactive sites and large effective surface area. Also in this work we measured L-Dopa in the presence of folic acid and uric acid as interferences. The proposed biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), FT-IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used for determination of L-Dopa from 0.1 μM to 1.9 μM with a low detection limit of 40 nM (for S/N=3) and sensitivity was about 35.5 μA/μM. Also this biosensor has several advantages such as rapid response, high stability and reproducibility.

  14. Highly sensitive choline biosensor based on carbon nanotube-modified Pt electrode combined with sol-gel immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhao; ZHAO Zixia; QIN Xia; HUANG Jiadong; SHI Haibin; WU Baoyan; CHEN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    A novel amperometric choline biosensor has been fabricated with choline oxidase (ChOx) immobilized by the sol-gel method on the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) modified platinum electrode to improve the sensitivity and the anti-interferential property of the sensor.By analyzing the electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode by MWCNT,it was found that MWCNT could not only improve the current response to H2O2 but also decrease the electrocatalytic potential.The effects of experimental variables such as the buffer solutions,pH and the amount of loading enzyme were investigated for the optimum analytical performance.This sensor shows sensitive determination of choline with a linear range from 5.0×10-6 to 1.0×10-4 mol/L when the operating pH and potential are 7.2 and 0.15 V,respectively.The detection limit of choline was 5.0×10-7 mol/L.Selectivity for choline was 9.48 μA.(mmol/L)-1.The biosensor exhibits excellent anti-interferential property and good stability,retaining 85% of its original current value even after a month.It has been applied to the determination of choline in human serum.

  15. Enhanced sensitivity for biosensors: Functionalized P1,5-diaminonaphthalene-multiwall carbon nanotube composite film-modified electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A homogeneous electroactive poly(1,5-diaminonaphthalene) (P1,5DAN) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composite film-modified electrode was fabricated by cyclic voltammetry and a casting method. The dispersion and morphology of the MWNTs/P1,5DAN composite film were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cyclic voltammograms of the electrode modified by the MWNTs/P15DAN composite film strongly depended on the film thickness and pH of the electrolyte solution. Two absolutely isolated oxidation potentials were found as the MWCNTs were immobilized onto the surface of P1,5DAN film in a pH 6.8 buffer solution containing ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). Both peak currents linearly increased with increased concentrations. The electrochemical behavior of UA was not interrupted even in the presence of high-concentration AA given that AA had no observable electrochemical changes at the immobilized concentration. The electrocatalytic behavior of H2O2 was also investigated by steady-state amperometry for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase on the P1,5DAN film. The plot of the response current vs. H2O2 concentration was linear over the wide concentration range of 0.015–5.37 mM.

  16. Removal of some cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► MMMWCNTs effectively removes color from dye-containing wastewater. ► MMMWCNTs has high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate. ► MMMWCNTs showed high efficiency. ► The modified nanoparticles are highly monodisperse and magnetically separable. - Abstract: An adsorbent, magnetic-modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes, was used for removal of cationic dyes crystal violet (CV), thionine (Th), janus green B (JG), and methylene blue (MB) from water samples. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, BET and XRD measurements. The prepared magnetic adsorbent can be well dispersed in the water and easily separated magnetically from the medium after loaded with adsorbate. The influences of parameters including initial pH, dosage of adsorbent and contact time have been investigated in order to find the optimum adsorption conditions. The optimum pH for removing of all the investigated cationic dyes from water solutions was found to be 7.0. The experimental data were analyzed by the Langmuir adsorption model. The maximum predicted adsorption capacities for CV, JG, Th and MB dyes were obtained as 227.7, 250.0, 36.4 and 48.1 mg g−1, respectively. Desorption process of the adsorbed cationic dyes was also investigated using acetonitrile as the solvent. It was notable that both the adsorption and desorption of dyes were quite fast probably due to the absence of internal diffusion resistance.

  17. Role of iron oxide impurities in electrocatalysis by multiwall carbon nanotubes: An investigation using a novel magnetically modified ITO electrodes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanchan M Samant; Vrushali S Joshi; Kashinath R Patil; Santosh K Haram

    2014-04-01

    The role of iron oxide impurities in the electrocatalytic properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) prepared by catalytic chemical vapour decomposition method (CCVD) is studied in detail. A novel magnetically modified electrodes have been developed by which MWCNTs were immobilized on indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes, without any chemical binders. The electro-catalytic oxidation of dopamine, and reduction of hydrogen peroxide have been studied by cyclic voltammetry on magnetically modified electrodes with (i) MWCNTs with occluded iron oxide impurities (Fe-MWCNTs), (ii) MWCNTs grown on iron oxide nanoparticle particulate films (Io-MWCNTs) and (iii) pristine iron oxide nanoparticle particulate film (Io-NPs). A shift towards less positive potentials for the oxidation of dopamine was observed which is in the order of Fe-MWCNTs < Io-MWCNTs < Io-NPs. Similarly, trend towards less negative potentials for the reduction of hydrogen peroxide was observed. Thus, the electrocatalytic activities displayed by MWCNTs have been attributed to the iron oxide impurities associated with it. The systematic variation was related to the nature of interaction of iron oxide nanoparticles with MWCNT surface.

  18. Carbon nanotube junctions and devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, H.W.Ch.

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis Postma presents transport experiments performed on individual single-wall carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are molecules entirely made of carbon atoms. The electronic properties are determined by the exact symmetry of the nanotube lattice, resulting in either metallic or semiconduct

  19. Application of a Cu-chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotube film-modified electrode for the sensitive determination of rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila; Hosseinkhani, Hossein

    2016-01-15

    A new sensitive electrochemical sensor, a glassy carbon electrode modified with chemically cross-linked copper-complexed chitosan/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE), for rutin analysis was constructed. Experimental investigations of the influence of several parameters showed that the rutin can effectively accumulate on the surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE, which accumulation caused a pair of well-defined redox peaks in the electrochemical signal when measurements were carried out in Britton-Robinson buffer solution (pH 3, 0.04 M). The surface of the Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE was characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry analysis. In a rutin concentration range of 0.05-100 μM and under optimized conditions, a linear relationship between the oxidation peak current of rutin and its concentration was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 μM. The Cu-CS/MWCNT/GCE showed good selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Moreover, the sensor was used to determine the presence of rutin in fruits with satisfactory results.

  20. Electrochemical performance of carbon nanotube-modified LiFePO_4 cathodes for Li-ion batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈召勇; 朱华丽; 朱伟; 张建利; 李奇峰

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and acetylene black (AB) were dispersed synchronously or separately between LiFePO4 (LFP) particles as conducting agents during the course of manufacture of LiFePO4 cathodes. The morphology and electrochemical performances of as-prepared LiFePO4 were evaluated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), charge-discharge test, electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). CNTs contribute to the interconnection of the isolated LiFePO4 or carbon particles. For the CNTs-modified LiFePO4, it exhibits excellent performance in terms of both specific capacity and cycle life. The initial discharge capacity is 147.9 mA·h/g at 0.2C rate and 134.2 mA·h/g at 1C rate, keeping a capacity retention ratio of 97% after 50 cycles. The results from EIS indicate that the impedance value of the solid electrolyte interface decreases. The cyclic voltammetric peak profiles is more symmetric and spiculate and there are fewer peaks. CNTs are promising conductive additives candidate for high-power Li-ion batteries.

  1. A Novel Electrochemical Sensor for Probing Doxepin Created on a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Poly(4-Amino- benzoic Acid/Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Composite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Lie Kong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of doxepin was prepared, which was based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with poly(4-aminobenzoic acid/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite film [poly(4-ABA/MWNTs/GCE]. The sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. It was observed that poly(4-ABA/MWNTs/GCE showed excellent preconcentration function and electrocatalytic activities towards doxepin. Under the selected conditions, the anodic peak current was linear to the logarithm of doxepin concentration in the range from 1.0 ´ 10−9 to 1.0 ´ 10−6 M, and the detection limit obtained was 1.0 × 10−10 M. The poly(4-ABA/MWNTs/GCE was successfully applied in the measurement of doxepin in commercial pharmaceutical formulations, and the analytical accuracy was confirmed by comparison with a conventional ultraviolet spectrophotometry assay.

  2. Voltammetric determination of bisphenol A in food package by a glassy carbon electrode modified with carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive and mercury-free method for determination of bisphenol A (BPA) was established using a glassy carbon electrode that was modified with carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes. A sensitive oxidation peak is found at 550 mV in linear sweep voltammograms at pH 7. Based on this finding, trace levels of bisphenol A can be determined over a concentration range that is linear from 10 nM to 104 nM, the correlation coefficient being 0.9983, and the detection limit (S/N = 3) being 5.0 nM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BPA in food package. (author)

  3. Gold Nanoparticle-based Layer-by-Layer Enhancement of DNA Hybridization Electrochemical Signal at Carbon Nanotube Modified Carbon Paste Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Bo NIE; Jian Rong CHEN; Yu Qing MIAO; Nong Yue HE

    2006-01-01

    Colloid gold nanoparticle-based layer-by-layer amplification approach was applied to enhance the electrochemical detection sensitivity of DNA hybridization at carbon nanotube modified carbon paste electrodes (CNTPEs). Streptavidin was immobilized onto the surface of CNTPEs, and the conjugation of biotin labeled target oligonucleotides to the above immobilized streptavidin was performed, followed by the hybridization of target oligonucleotides with the gold nanoparticle-labeled DNA probe and then the layer-by-layer enhanced connection of gold nanoparticles, on which oligonucleotides complementary to the DNA probe were attached, to the hybridization system. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signal of total gold nanoparticles was monitored. It was found that the layer-by-layer colloidal gold DPV detection enhanced the sensitivity by about one order of magnitude compared with that of one-layer detection. One-base mismatched DNA and complementary DNA could be distinguished clearly.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of propranolol hydrochloride in neutral solution on platinum nanoparticles doped multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: PtNPs/MWCNTs has been successfully stabilized onto the surface of GCE and used for electrochemical determination of PRO as a sensor. The results showed that the oxidation of PRO was catalyzed by PtNPs/MWCNTs film in neutral environment and that the peak potential of PRO was shifted to 1.10 V. Highlights: ► Pt nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes mixture as the electrode modified material. ► The modified material doped directly onto the electrode surface. ► Detected in the neutral environment. - Abstract: Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) were used in combination with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with Nafion as the adhesives for fabricating sensitivity-enhanced electrochemical propranolol hydrochloride (PRO) sensor. The modifier, PtNPs doped MWCNTs (PtNPs/MWCNTs), was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electrochemical method which showed an excellent character for electrocatalytic oxidization of PRO. In addition, the experimental parameters such as pH values, the concentration of PtNPs/MWCNTs and the scan rate were optimized. Due to the fine characteristics of PtNPs/MWCNTs, a good linear relationship between the anodic peak current and PRO concentration in the range 6.76 × 10−7–3.8 × 10−5 M was observed. The detection limit of 8.45 × 10−8 M was achieved with the linear correlation coefficient R = 0.9965. The relative standard derivation was 2.74% for 3.38 10−6 M PRO in 11 repeated determinations. This modified electrode showed excellent sensitivity and stability for the determination of PRO.

  5. A novel non-enzyme hydrogen peroxide sensor based on an electrode modified with carbon nanotube-wired CuO nanoflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared a novel sensor for hydrogen peroxide that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a film containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes wired to CuO nanoflowers. The nanoflowers were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, and the electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy. The response of the modified electrode towards hydrogen peroxide was investigated by CV and chronoamperometry and showed it to exhibit high electrocatalytic activity, with a linear range from 0. 5 μM to 82 μM and a detection limit of 0. 16 μM. The sensor also displays excellent selectivity and stability. (author)

  6. A simple and sensitive method for the determination of 4-n-octylphenol based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiaoli Zheng; Ping Yang; He Xu; Jianshe Liu; Litong Jin

    2012-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electroanalytical method was presented for the determination of 4-n-octylphenol (OP) based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE).OP was directly oxidized on the MWCNTs/GCE,and the electrochemical oxidation mechanism was demonstrated by a one-electron and one-proton process in the reaction.The oxidation peak current of OP was significantly enhanced by the use of MWCNTs/GCE compared with those of bare glassy carbon electrode; suggesting that the modified electrode can remarkably improve the performance for OP determination.Factors influencing the detection processes were optimized.Under these optimal conditions,a linear relationship between concentration of OP and current response was obtained in the range of 5 × 10-8 to 1 × 10-5 mol/L with a detection limit of 1.5 × 10-8 mol/L and correlation coeffìcient 0.9986.The modified electrode showed good selectivity,sensitivity,reproducibility and high stability.

  7. Electrochemical Characterization and Determination of Phenol and Chlorophenols by Voltammetry at Single Wall Carbon Nanotube/Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Modified Screen Printed Carbon Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Negussie; Alemu, Hailemichael; Tessema, Merid

    2015-01-01

    Screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) has been modified with single wall carbon nanotube/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (SWCNT/PEDOT) composites for the determination of phenol and chlorophenols (phenol, 4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol). The effect of the modifiers on the electrode characteristics was evaluated and the responses were optimized for the voltammetric determination of phenol and chlorophenols. The parameters affecting the responses such as pH, scan rate, and stability were studied. The analytical performance of the SWCNT/PEDOT/SPCE using cyclic voltammetry was tested and found to be impressive. Under these conditions, the designed electrode showed a good performance for the voltammetric measurements of the phenolic compounds. The modified SPCE, when it is compared with other enzymatic and nonenzymatic sensors, showed a wider dynamic range for the detection of the phenolic compounds. The modified SPCE was used for the quantification of phenol in water samples. The results suggest that the method is quite useful for analyzing and monitoring phenols and chlorophenols. PMID:27347519

  8. A sensitive electrochemical sensor for paracetamole based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an electrochemical sensor for paracetamole that is based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and dopamine nanospheres functionalized with gold nanoparticles. The functionalized nanospheres were prepared by a chemical route and characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The well-dispersed gold nanoparticles were anchored on the dopamine nanosphere via a chemical reduction of the gold precursor. The stepwise fabrication of the modified electrode and its electrochemical response to paracetamole were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode displayed improved electrocatalytic activity towards paracetamole, a lower oxidation potential (371 mV), and a larger peak current when compared to a bare electrode or other modified electrodes. The kinetic parameters governing the electro-oxidation of paracetamole were studied, and the analytical conditions were optimized. The peak current was linearly related to the concentration of paracetamole in 0.8–400 μM range, and the detection limit was 50 nM (at an SNR of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of paracetamole in spiked human urine samples and gave recoveries between 95.3 and 105.2 %. (author)

  9. Horizontal carbon nanotube alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew T; Cientanni, Vito; Milne, William I

    2016-09-21

    The production of horizontally aligned carbon nanotubes offers a rapid means of realizing a myriad of self-assembled near-atom-scale technologies - from novel photonic crystals to nanoscale transistors. The ability to reproducibly align anisotropic nanostructures has huge technological value. Here we review the present state-of-the-art in horizontal carbon nanotube alignment. For both in and ex situ approaches, we quantitatively assess the reported linear packing densities alongside the degree of alignment possible for each of these core methodologies. PMID:27546174

  10. Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Colin; Patel, Yogeshwari; Postma, Henk W. Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We present proof-of-concept all-carbon solar cells. They are made of a photoactive side of predominantly semiconducting nanotubes for photoconversion and a counter electrode made of a natural mixture of carbon nanotubes or graphite, connected by a liquid electrolyte through a redox reaction. The cells do not require rare source materials such as In or Pt, nor high-grade semiconductor processing equipment, do not rely on dye for photoconversion and therefore do not bleach, and are easy to fabr...

  11. Optimization of bioselective membrane of amperometric enzyme sensor on basis of glucose oxidase using NH2-modified multi-wall carbone nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Korpan Ya. I.; Rogaleva N. S.; Biloivan O. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To investigate a possibility of application of multi-wall carbone nanotubes modified with NH2-groups (MWCNT-NH2) for creation of sensitive elements of the amperometric biosensor based on immobilized oxidoreductases, in particular, glucose oxidase (GOD). To study electrochemical properties of the membranes obtained. Methods. Experiments were carried out with amperometric methods using the ìStat 200 device («DropSens», Spain). The enzymes were immobilised in glutaraldehyde vapour. Results....

  12. Surface-modified carbon nanotube coating on high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Taejin; Lee, Joong Kee; Mun, Junyoung; Choi, Wonchang

    2016-08-01

    Surface-modified carbon nanotubes were utilized as a coating for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) via a mechano-fusion method as a strategy to prevent unfavorable carbothermal reduction. Two types of carbon nanotubes were investigated as coating materials: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and oxidized carbon nanotubes (OCNTs), which were prepared by a simple re-oxidation process. The samples coated with CNTs or OCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and elemental analyses. The OCNT-coated LNMO presented a highly enhanced discharge capacity retention (95.5%) and a coulombic efficiency of 99.9% after 80 cycles between 3.5 and 4.9 V (versus Li/Li+), whereas the CNT-coated LNMO exhibited poor retention of 47.2% and a coulombic efficiency of 95.3%. In addition, post-mortem XPS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis proved that the OCNT coating improved the surface electrochemical stability and rate capability, whereas the CNT coating formed a thick resistive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) film by accelerating the surface side reactions.

  13. Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin Immobilized on a Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles Nanocomplex-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Sheibani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb was realized by immobilizing Hb on a carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs nanocomplex-modified glassy carbon electrode. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR methods were utilized for additional characterization of the AuNPs and FMWCNTs. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified electrode has a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of −0.270 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks was evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 s−1. The average surface concentration of electro-active Hb on the surface of the modified glassy carbon electrode was calculated to be 6.8 ± 0.3 × 10−10 mol cm−2. The cathodic peak current of the modified electrode increased linearly with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide (from 0.05 nM to 1 nM with a detection limit of 0.05 ± 0.01 nM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp was calculated to be 0.85 ± 0.1 nM. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor with high sensitivity, long-term stability and low detection limit.

  14. Carbon nanotubes and graphene modified screen-printed carbon electrodes as sensitive sensors for the determination of phytochelatins in plants using liquid chromatography with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dago, Àngela; Navarro, Javier; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2015-08-28

    Nanomaterials are of great interest for the development of electrochemical sensors. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and graphene were used to modify the working electrode surface of different screen-printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) with the aim of improving the sensitivity of the SPCE and comparing it with the conventional glassy carbon electrode. To assay the usability of these sensors, a HPLC methodology with amperometric detection was developed to analyze several phytochelatins in plants of Hordeum vulgare and Glycine max treated with Hg(II) or Cd(II) giving detection limits in the low μmolL(-1) range. Phytochelatins are low molecular weight peptides with the general structure γ-(Glu-Cys)n-Gly (n=2-5) which are synthesized in plants in the presence of heavy metal ions. These compounds can chelate heavy metal ions by the formation of complexes which, are transported to the vacuoles, where the toxicity is not threatening. For this reason phytochelatins are essential in the detoxification of heavy metal ions in plants. The developed HPLC method uses a mobile phase of 1% of formic acid in water with KNO3 or NaCl (pH=2.00) and 1% of formic acid in acetonitrile. Electrochemical detection at different carbon-based electrodes was used. Among the sensors tested, the conventional glassy carbon electrode offers the best sensitivity although modification improves the sensitivity of the SPCE. Glutathione and several isoforms of phytochelatin two were found in plant extracts of both studied species.

  15. Chirality-Selective Photoluminescence Enhancement of ssDNA-Wrapped Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified with Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhao, Qinghua; Lyu, Min; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Meng; Gao, Zhou; Li, Yan

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a convenient method to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous solutions is provided. Dispersing by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and modifying with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), about tenfold PL enhancement of the SWNTs is observed. More importantly, the selective PL enhancement is achieved for some particular chiralities of interest over all other chiralities, by using certain specific ssDNA sequences that are reported to recognize these particular chiralities. By forming AuNP-DNA-SWNT nanohybrids, ssDNA serves as superior molecular spacers that on one hand protect SWNT from direct contacting with AuNP and causing PL quench, and on the other hand attract the AuNP in close proximity to the SWNT to enhance its PL. This PL enhancement method can be utilized for the PL analysis of SWNTs in aqueous solutions, for biomedical imaging, and may serve as a prescreening method for the recognition and separation of single chirality SWNTs by ssDNA. PMID:27128378

  16. Methanol Oxidation over TiO2-modified Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Supported Pt-Mo Electrocatalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiu-yu; JIANG Yuan-sheng; ZHU Hong; ZHANG Jing-chang

    2011-01-01

    In order to develop a novel and high-performance catalytic material for direct methanol fuel cells(DMFC),molybdenum oxide as a co-catalyst with Pt on multi-walled carbon nanotubes which were modified by titanium dioxide(denoted as CNTs@TiO2) was investigated. The physicochemical characterizations of the catalysts were carried out via X-ray diffraction(XRD), transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS).Cyclic voltammetry(CV) showed that the CO-tolerance performance increased in the sequence of Pt/CNTs<Pt/CNTs@TiO2<Pt-Mo/CNTs@TiO2. The improved CO-tolerance performance of the Pt-Mo/CNTs@TiO2 catalyst can be attributed to the combined beneficial effects of highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles on the CNTs, the existence of oxygen holes in the MoO3 layer structure and the oxidation capability of TiO2.

  17. Enhanced dielectric performance of three phase percolative composites based on thermoplastic-ceramic composites and surface modified carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Sun, Haoliang; Zhu, Benpeng; Wang, Ziyu; Wei, Jianhong; Xiong, Rui; Shi, Jing; Liu, Zhengyou; Lei, Qingquan

    2015-01-01

    Three-phase composites were prepared by embedding CaCu3Ti4O12(CCTO) nanoparticles and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) into polyimide (PI) matrix via in-situ polymerization. The dependences of electric and dielectric properties of the resultant composites on volume fractions of filler and frequency were investigated. The dielectric permittivity of PI/CCTO-surface modified MWNT (MWNT-S) composite reached as high as 252 at 100 Hz at 0.1 vol. % filler (MWNT-S), which is about 63 times higher than that of pure PI. Also the dielectric loss is only 0.02 at 100 Hz. The results are in good agreement with the percolation theory. It is shown that embedding high aspect ratio MWNT-S in PI/CCTO composites is an effective means to enhance the dielectric permittivity and reduce the percolation threshold. The dielectric properties of the composites will meet the practical requirements for the application in high dielectric constant capacitors and high energy density materials.

  18. Potentiometric stripping analysis of bismuth based on carbon paste electrode modified with cryptand [2.2.1] and multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrochemical method based on potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) employing a cryptand [2.2.1] (CRY) and carbon nanotube (CNT) modified paste electrode (CRY-CNT-PE) has been proposed for the subnanomolar determination of bismuth. The characterization of the electrode surface has been carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and chronocoulometry (CC). It was observed that by employing CRY-CNT-PE, a 9-fold enhancement in the PSA signal (dt/dE) was observed as compared to plain carbon paste electrode (PCPE). Under the optimized conditions, dt/dE (s/V) was proportional to the Bi(III) concentration in the range of 5.55 x 10-8 to 9.79 x 10-11 M (r = 0.9990) with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 3.17 x 10-11 M. The practical analytical utilities of the modified electrode were demonstrated by the determination of bismuth in pharmaceutical formulations, human hair, sea water, urine and blood serum samples. The prepared modified electrode showed several advantages, such as a simple preparation method, high sensitivity, very low detection limits and excellent reproducibility. Moreover, the results obtained for bismuth analysis in commercial and real samples using CRY-CNT-PE and those obtained by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  19. CO2 Removal from Biogas Using Carbon Nanotubes Mixed Matrix Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of mixed matrix membrane consisting of polyethersulfone (PES and carbon nanotubes (CNTs is prepared for biogas purification application. PES mixed matrix membrane with and without modification of carbon nanotubes were prepared by a dry/wet phase inversion technique using a pneumatically membrane casting machine system. The modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by treating the carbon nanotubes with chemical modification using acid treatment to allow PES chains to be grafted on carbon nanotubes surface. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Meanwhile, the nanogaps in the interface of polymer and carbon nanotubes were appeared in the PES mixed matrix membrane with unmodified of carbon nanotubes. The modified carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membrane increases the mechanical properties and the permeability of all gases. For PES-modified carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membrane the maximum selectivity achieved for CO2/CH4 is 23.54

  20. Electrohemical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Paste Electrodes Modified with Redox Cationic Dyes - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v34i3.15250

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Ramos Antônio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the electrochemical behavior of cationic dyes (methylene blue and toluidine blue as electron mediators adsorbed in the multiwall carbon nanotubes paste in 0.5 KCl at pH 7.0 by using cyclic voltammetry. Based on midpoint potential [Em = (Eap + Ecp/2] and separation of cathodic and anodic peaks (ΔE, it was not observed interaction of different eletrolytes (LiCl, KCl, BaCl2, CaCl2, NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4 and NaClO4, with the cationic dyes by an ion exchange reaction and, as a consequence, absence of leaching of cationic dyes to the solution phase.  The kinetics of electron transfer on the surface electrode was not sufficiently fast showing a fairly resistence of carbon nanotube paste modified with the cationic dyes.  The midpoint potential and ΔE also were insentive to the pH range (4-8, confirming the protective effect of carbon nanotubes matrix, owing to strong interaction of between the latter and the nitrogen of nitrogen of cationic dyes with carbon nanotube matrix, minimizing the proton interaction under cationic dye. This result is very important for sensor/biosensor preparation, because the eletrooxidation behavior of the analyte will be only affected by its formal potencial shifting.  Carbon nanotubes proved to be an efficient solid matrix for the adsorption of mediator electron in comparison to the electrochemical behavior of free cationic dyes in solution phase.

  1. Enzyme entrapment by β-cyclodextrin electropolymerization onto a carbon nanotubes-modified screen-printed electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Ángeles, G; Guix, M; Silva, W C; Ramírez-Silva, M T; Palomar-Pardavé, M; Romero-Romo, M; Merkoçi, A

    2010-12-15

    A novel enzyme entrapment approach based on an electropolymerization process utilizing multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and glucose oxidase (GOx) is shown. Dopamine (DA) quantification is presented using a screen-printed electrode modified by electropolymerization of cyclodextrin with glucose oxidase, SPE/MWCNT/β-CD-GOx. In order to show the relevance of the enzyme entrapment strategy controlled by electropolymerization to develop a specific and efficient biosensor, the various parts composing the electrode: SPE, SPE/β-CD, SPE/GOx, SPE/β-CD/GOx, SPE/MWCNT/β-CD, SPE/MWCNT/GOx and SPE/MWCNT/β-CD/GOx were tested separately. It was shown that although DA determination can be achieved with all of them, the electrodes modified with MWCNT presented better analytical features that those built without MWCNT, the best being the one including all components. This biosensor displayed good reproducibility, repeatability, and prolonged life-time under cold storage conditions. Its DA limit of detection (LOD) was 0.48±0.02 μA in a linear range of 10-50 μM with a sensitivity of 0.0302±0.0003 μA μM(-1) that makes it comparable or even better than many other electrodes reported in the literature. Moreover, it was also shown that using this electrode, DA quantification can be done in the presence of interfering agents such as ascorbic and uric acid. These findings demonstrate that the approach employed is feasible for enzyme entrapment and may find applications in other biosensing systems, where better sensitivity, stability and fast response are required. PMID:20863684

  2. Electrochemiluminescence biosensor for determination of organophosphorous pesticides based on bimetallic Pt-Au/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Shan Shan; Wu, Mei Sheng; Ma, Li Ya; He, Xiao Jing; Yang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    A novel and highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) biosensing system was designed and developed for individual detection of different organophosphorous pesticides (OPs) in food samples. Bimetallic Pt-Au nanoparticles were electrodeposited on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)-modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) to increase the surface area of electrode and ECL signals of luminol. Biocomposites of enzymes from acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase (AChE and ChOx) were immobilized onto the electrode surface to produce massive hydrogen peroxides (H2O2), thus amplifying ECL signals. Based on the dual-amplification effects of nanoparticles and H2O2 produced by enzymatic reactions, the proposed biosensor exhibits highly sensitivity. The proposed biosensing approach was then used for detecting OPs by inhibition of OPs on AChE. Under optimized experimental conditions, the ECL intensity decreased accordingly with the increase in concentration of OPs, and the inhibition rates of OPs were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-50nmolL(-1) for malathion, methyl parathion and chlorpyrifos, with detection limit of 0.16nmolL(-1), 0.09nmolL(-1) and 0.08nmolL(-1), respectively. The linearity range of the biosensor for pesticide dufulin varied from 50 to 500nmolL(-1), with the detection limit of 29.7nmolL(-1). The resulting biosensor was further validated by assessment of OPs residues in cabbage, which showed a fine applicability for the detection of OPs in the realistic sample. PMID:27343588

  3. Modifying the electronic structure of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes by Ar+ ion irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolvanen, A.; Buchs, G.; Ruffieux, P.; Gröning, P.; Gröning, O.; Krasheninnikov, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Local controllable modification of the electronic structure of carbon nanomaterials is important for the development of carbon-based nanoelectronics. By combining density-functional theory simulations with Ar-ion-irradiation experiments and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectrosc

  4. Application of carbon nanotubes in modified oxidase biosensors%碳纳米管在修饰酶传感器中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文秀; 董宏博; 张伟萍; 崔桂花

    2008-01-01

    碳纳米管是一种新兴的纳米材料,碳纳米管良好的电子传递能力使其可用于修饰电极,可以降低化学物质氧化还原反应的过电位,改善生物分子氧化还原可逆性;其大比表面积有利于酶的固定化,还能促进酶活性中心与电极表面的电子传递;功能化的碳纳米管还能与各种生物分子键合将其固定于电极表面.随着制备和纯化工艺的改进,碳纳米管将为生物传感器的发展开创更广阔的前景.本文总结和分析碳纳米管在生物传感器中的应用、研究现状和发展趋势.综述了吸附型、糊类、原位生长(阵列)型和共价键合型等几种类型碳纳米管修饰酶传感器及在DNA生物传感器中的应用,并对各种传感器的制备、特点和研究现状进行了述评.%Carbon nanotubes are a novel kind of nano-materials, and contribute to modify electrodes using their good capacity of electric transmission. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes may reduce the overpotential caused by the oxidation-reduction reaction of chemical materials, and ameliorate the oxidation-reduction reversibility of the biomolecules; Their wide specific surface area leads to enzyme immobilization and promote the electric transmission between enzyme active center and electrode surface; Functionalized carbon nanotubes bonding with various biomolecules will benefit to fix these biomolecules on the electrode surface. With the development of preparation and purification techniques, carbon nanotubes may widen the prospect of biosensors applied. The aim of this paper is to summarize and analyze the application, research status and development tendency of carbon nanotubes with regard to biosensors. Moreover, this paper reviews various carbon nanotubes modified oxidase biosensors, such as adsorption, paste, array and covalent bond, together with their application on DNA biosensor. The preparation, characteristics and research status of various sensors are also summarized.

  5. Preparation of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide/multi-wall carbon nanotubes hybrid film modified electrode, and its application to amperometric sensing of rutin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uling Yang; Gang Li; Meifang Hu; Lingbo Qu

    2014-07-01

    Through a facile electrochemical method, we prepared an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO)/multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) hybrid film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), and characterized it by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) The experimental results demonstrated that ERGO-MWNTs/GCE exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity toward rutin as evidenced by the significant enhancement of redox peak currents in comparison with a bare GCE, ERGO/GCE and MWNTs/GCE. This method has been applied for the direct determination of rutin in real samples with satisfactory results.

  6. Carbon nanotube network varactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generalov, A. A.; Anoshkin, I. V.; Erdmanis, M.; Lioubtchenko, D. V.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Räisänen, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) varactors based on a freestanding layer of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films were designed, fabricated and tested. The freestanding SWCNT film was employed as a movable upper patch in the parallel plate capacitor of the MEMS. The measurements of the SWCNT varactors show very high tunability, nearly 100%, of the capacitance with a low actuation voltage of 10 V. The functionality of the varactor is improved by implementing a flexible nanocellulose aerogel filling.

  7. Coated carbon nanotube array electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Wen, Jian; Chen, Jinghua; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Dezhi

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides conductive carbon nanotube (CNT) electrode materials comprising aligned CNT substrates coated with an electrically conducting polymer, and the fabrication of electrodes for use in high performance electrical energy storage devices. In particular, the present invention provides conductive CNTs electrode material whose electrical properties render them especially suitable for use in high efficiency rechargeable batteries. The present invention also provides methods for obtaining surface modified conductive CNT electrode materials comprising an array of individual linear, aligned CNTs having a uniform surface coating of an electrically conductive polymer such as polypyrrole, and their use in electrical energy storage devices.

  8. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  9. From Carbon Nanotube Crystals to Carbon Nanotube Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhengjun; ZHAO Ye; ZHOU Ya

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the very initial deposition stages of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) and xylene (C8H10) for growing carbon nanotubes, and made clear that the mechanism for the self-organization behaviors of nanotubes at different growth stages by this approach. For instance, the organization of nanotubes into flower-like structures at prolonged deposition is developed from the crystal-like structures formed at early growth stages, both of which are closely related to and determined by the very initial deposition stages of this CVD approach. Based on this approach, ways have been established to build up different architectures of carbon nanotubes, by controlling the initial deposition stages of the CVD process, with which we have realized the selective growth of self-organized carbon nanotube structures. This study provides a new idea for growing carbon nanotube architectures by CVD.

  10. Interaction between Palladium Nanoparticles and Surface-Modified Carbon Nanotubes: Role of Surface Functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Bingsen; Shao, Lidong; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial to accurately describe the interaction between the surface functionality and the supported metal catalyst because it directly determines the activity and selectivity of a catalytic reaction. It is, however, challenging with a metal-carbon catalytic system owing to the ultrafine...... degrees C. We focus on probing the effects of oxygen and nitrogen-containing functional groups on supported palladium nanoparticles (NPs) in the model catalytic system. The stability of palladium NPs supported on CNTs depends strongly on the surface properties of CNTs. Moreover, the oxygen......-containing functional groups on the CNT surfaces, such as carboxylic acids and anhydrides, have an even stronger interaction with palladium NPs than the nitrogen-containing counterparts. Our work contributes to elucidation of the complex metal-carbon interaction and unlocks potential in activity and selectivity control...

  11. Electrochemical sandwich immunoassay for the peptide hormone prolactin using an electrode modified with graphene, single walled carbon nanotubes and antibody-coated gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a new kind of electrochemical immunoassay for the peptide hormone prolactin. A glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with a hybrid material consisting of graphene, single walled carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in a chitosan (CS) matrix. The graphene and the single wall carbon nanotubes were first placed on the GCE, and the AuNPs were then electrodeposited on the surface by cyclic voltammetry. This structure results in a comparably large surface for immobilization of the capturing antibody (Ab1). The modified electrode was used in a standard sandwich-type of immunoassay. The secondary antibody (Ab2) consisted of AuNPs with immobilized Ab2 and modified with biotinylated DNA as signal tags. Finally, alkaline phosphatase was bound to the biotinylated DNA-AuNPs-Ab2 conjugate via streptavidin chemistry. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the α-naphthyl phosphate to form α-naphthol which is highly electroactive at an operating voltage as low as 180 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). The resulting immunoassay exhibits high sensitivity, wide linear range (50 to 3200 pg∙mL-1), low detection limit (47 pg∙mL-1), acceptable selectivity and reproducibility. The assay provides a pragmatic platform for signal amplification and has a great potential for the sensitive determination of antigens other than prolactine. (author)

  12. Geometric and electronic structure of carbon nanotube networks: 'super'-carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluci, V. R.; Galvão, D. S.; Jorio, A.

    2006-02-01

    Structures of the so-called super-carbon nanotubes are proposed. These structures are built from single walled carbon nanotubes connected by Y-like junctions forming a 'super'-sheet that is then rolled into a seamless cylinder. Such a procedure can be repeated several times, generating a fractal structure. This procedure is not limited to carbon nanotubes, and can be easily modified for application to other systems. Tight binding total energy and density of states calculations showed that the 'super'-sheets and tubes are stable and predicted to present metallic and semiconducting behaviour.

  13. Synthesis and CO{sub 2} adsorption study of modified MOF-5 with multi-wall carbon nanotubes and expandable graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sami, E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Bustam, M. A., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Shariff, A. M., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Elkhalifah, Ali E. I., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Murshid, G., E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com; Riaz, Nadia, E-mail: samichemist1@gmail.com, E-mail: azmibustam@petronas.com.my, E-mail: azmish@petronas.com.my, E-mail: lkhlfh@gmail.com, E-mail: hmurshid@gmail.com, E-mail: nadiariazz@gmail.com [Research Center for Carbon Dioxide Capture, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Sri Iskandar, Tronoh 31750 Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    MOF-5 was synthesized by solvothermal method and its reactivation under anhydrous conditions. This research is conducted to investigate the effect of MOF-5 and MOF-5 modified with multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and expandable graphite (EG) on the performance of CO{sub 2} adsorption. The synthesized MOFs were characterized using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) for surface morphology, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal stability, X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystals plane, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) for surface area and CO{sub 2} adsorption. The result had showed that the modified MOF-5 enhanced the CO{sub 2} adsorption compared to the pure MOF-5. The increment in the CO{sub 2} uptake capacities of MOF materials was attributed to the decrease in the pore size and enhancement of micropore volume of MOF-5 by multi-walled carbon nanotube and EG incorporation. The BET surface area of the synthesized MOF-5@MWCNTs is more than MOF-5. The CO{sub 2} sorption capacities of MOF-5 and MOF-5@MWCNTs were observed to increase from 0.00008 to 0.00048 mol g-1 at 298 K and 1 bar. The modified MOF-5@MWCNTs resulted in the highest CO{sub 2} adsorption followed by the modified MOF-5@ EG and lastly, MOF-5.

  14. An amperometric hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaçar, Ceren; Dalkiran, Berna; Erden, Pınar Esra, E-mail: erdenpe@gmail.com; Kiliç, Esma

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Hydrogen peroxide biosensor was constructed by combining the advantageous properties of MWCNTs and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Incorporating Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles into MWCNTs/gelatin film increased the electron transfer. • Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/MWCNTs/gelatin/HRP/Nafion/GCE showed strong anti-interference ability. • Hydrogen peroxide was successfully determined in disinfector with an average recovery of 100.78 ± 0.89. - Abstract: In this work a new type of hydrogen peroxide biosensor was fabricated based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by cross-linking on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and gelatin. The introduction of MWCNTs and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles not only enhanced the surface area of the modified electrode for enzyme immobilization but also facilitated the electron transfer rate, resulting in a high sensitivity of the biosensor. The fabrication process of the sensing surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide was investigated by holding the modified electrode at −0.30 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The biosensor showed optimum response within 5 s at pH 7.0. The optimized biosensor showed linear response range of 7.4 × 10{sup −7}–1.9 × 10{sup −5} M with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10{sup −7}. The applicability of the purposed biosensor was tested by detecting hydrogen peroxide in disinfector samples. The average recovery was calculated as 100.78 ± 0.89.

  15. Carbon nanotube core graphitic shell hybrid fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Myung Gwan; Lee, Jae-Hwang; Hart, Amelia H C; Song, Sung Moo; Nam, Jaewook; Jung, Hyun Young; Hashim, Daniel Paul; Li, Bo; Narayanan, Tharangattu N; Park, Chi-Dong; Zhao, Yao; Vajtai, Robert; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Hayashi, Takuya; Ku, Bon-Cheol; Endo, Morinobu; Barrera, Enrique; Jung, Yung Joon; Thomas, Edwin L; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2013-12-23

    A carbon nanotube yarn core graphitic shell hybrid fiber was fabricated via facile heat treatment of epoxy-based negative photoresist (SU-8) on carbon nanotube yarn. The effective encapsulation of carbon nanotube yarn in carbon fiber and a glassy carbon outer shell determines their physical properties. The higher electrical conductivity (than carbon fiber) of the carbon nanotube yarn overcomes the drawbacks of carbon fiber/glassy carbon, and the better properties (than carbon nanotubes) of the carbon fiber/glassy carbon make up for the lower thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanotube yarn via synergistic hybridization without any chemical doping and additional processes. PMID:24224730

  16. Biosensor for bisphenol A leaching from baby bottles using a glassy carbon electrode modified with DNA and single walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a biosensor for highly sensitive and selective determination of the endocrinic disruptor bisphenol A (BPA). It is based on glassy carbon electrode modified with calf thymus DNA and a composite prepared from single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and Nafion. The interaction between BPA and DNA was studied by voltammetry. The binding constant was determined to be 3.55 × 103 M−1, and the binding site has a length of 4.3 base pairs. These electrochemical studies provide further information for a better understanding of the toxicity and carcinogenicity of BPA. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor displays a linear electrochemical response to BPA in the 10 nM to 20 μM concentration range, with a detection limit as low as 5.0 nM (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the quantification of BPA in leachates from plastic baby bottles. Recoveries range from 94.0 % to 106.0 % which underpins the excellent performance of this SWNT-based DNA sensor. (author)

  17. A miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cell with single-walled carbon nanotubes-modified carbon fiber microelectrodes as the substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianchan; Zhou, Haojie [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Graduate School of CAS, Beijing 100049 (China); Yu, Ping; Su, Lei; Mao, Lanqun [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100080 (China); Ohsaka, Takeo [Department of Electronic Chemistry, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    This study demonstrates a new kind of miniature glucose/O{sub 2} biofuel cells (BFCs) based on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). SWNTs are used as a support both for stably confining the electrocatalyst (i.e., methylene green, MG) for the oxidation of NADH and the anodic biocatalyst (i.e., NAD{sup +}-dependent glucose dehydrogenase, GDH) for the oxidation of glucose and for efficiently facilitating direct electrochemistry of the cathodic biocatalyst (i.e., laccase) for the O{sub 2} reduction. The prepared micro-sized GDH-based bioanode and laccase-based biocathode exhibit good bioelectrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose and the reduction of oxygen, respectively. In 0.10 M phosphate buffer containing 10 mM NAD{sup +} and 45 mM glucose under ambient air, the power density of the assembled miniature compartment-less glucose/O{sub 2} BFC reaches 58 {mu}W cm{sup -2} at 0.40 V. The stability of the miniature glucose/O{sub 2} BFC is also evaluated. (author)

  18. Preparation of yttrium hexacyanoferrate/carbon nanotube/Nafion nanocomposite film-modified electrode: Application to the electrocatalytic oxidation of L-cysteine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Lingbo, E-mail: qulingbo@zzu.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Kexue Road, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chemistry and Chemical Engineering School, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455002 (China); Yang Suling [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Kexue Road, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Li Gang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang 455002 (China); Yang Ran; Li Jianjun; Yu Lanlan [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Kexue Road, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2011-02-28

    An yttrium hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube/Nafion (YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion)-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was constructed. Several techniques, including infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemistry, were performed to characterize the yttrium hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles. The electrochemical behavior of the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE in response to L-cysteine oxidation was studied. The response current of L-cysteine oxidation at the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE was obviously higher than that at the bare GCE or other modified GCE. The effects of pH, scan rate and interference on the response to L-cysteine oxidation were investigated. In addition, on the basis of these findings, a determination of L-cysteine at the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE was carried out. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the electrochemical response to L-cysteine at the YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE was fast (within 4 s). Linear calibration plots were obtained over the range of 0.20-11.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} with a low detection limit of 0.16 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The YHCFNP/MWNT/Nafion-modified GCE exhibited several advantages, such as high stability and good resistance against interference by ascorbic acid and other oxidizable amino acids.

  19. Covalently {beta}-cyclodextrin modified single-walled carbon nanotubes: a novel artificial receptor synthesized by 'click' chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Zhen; Liang Li [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China); Liang Jiajie; Ma Yanfeng; Yang Xiaoying [Nankai University, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Ren Dongmei [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China); Chen Yongsheng [Nankai University, Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology and Institute of Polymer Chemistry, College of Chemistry (China); Zheng Jianyu, E-mail: jyzheng@nankai.edu.c [Nankai University, State Key Laboratory and Institute of Elemento-Organic Chemistry (China)

    2008-08-15

    Novel {beta}-cyclodextrin covalently modified single-walled carbon nanotubes have been synthesized via a 'click' coupling reaction. The product was fully characterized with Raman, FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis-NIR spectra as well as TEM and TGA measurements. The effective functionalization via 'click' coupling has set up a facile and versatile route for modular preparation of SWNTs based functional materials. The inclusion complexation behavior of this artificial receptor with quinine has been investigated in aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  20. Voltammetric determination of isoproterenol using a 5-amino-2′,4′-dimethoxybiphenyl-2-ol modified carbon nanotube paste electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hadi Beitollahi; Hojatollah Khabazzadeh; Hassan Karimi-Maleh; Ali Akbari

    2012-01-01

    A new electrochemical sensor for determination ofisoproterenol (IP) is described.The sensor is based on carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified with 5-amino-2',4'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2-ol (5ADMB) and takes the advantages of carbon nanotubes (CNTs).Under the optimum pH of 7.0,the oxidation of IP occurs at a potential about 210 mV less positive than that of the unmodified CPE.The oxidation currents increased linearly with two concentration intervals of IP,one is 0.09 to 20.0 μmol/L and,the other is 20.0 to 400.0 μmol/L.The detection limit (3σ) obtained by square wave voltammetry (SWV) was 39.0 nmol/L.The practical application of the modified electrode was demonstrated by determining IP in IP ampoule,urine and human blood serum samples.

  1. The Long-Term Fate and Toxicity of PEG-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Isoliquiritigenin Delivery Vehicles in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (o-SWNTs was modified by covalently and noncovalently linking PEG to the o-SWNTs. The influence of oxidation time, PEG molecular weight, and type of PEG linkage on the blood clearance time of PEG-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs was investigated. The toxicity profile of SWNTs covalently linked to PEG (c-PEG-o-SWNTs in rats has also been determined. The pharmacokinetics of c-PEG-o-SWNTs in rats and their distribution in vital organs were monitored by Raman spectroscopy, and the blood clearance of homogenate isoliquiritigenin (ISL was determined by HPLC. Photos of tissue and tissue sections were taken to evaluate the toxicity of c-PEG-o-SWNTs. We found that SWNTs which were covalently modified with PEG and have a molecular weight of 3500 had the longest blood clearance half-lives. However, SWNTs were toxic to the kidneys and the hearts. The high renal clearance of long-term fate SWNTs may occur because of impaired kidney filtration function. Therefore, we assume that while researchers study the long-term fate of SWNTs, the toxicity of SWNTs also needs to be taken into account.

  2. Optimization of modified carbon paste electrode with multiwalled carbon nanotube/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like gold nanostructures for simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine and uric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afraz, Ahmadreza [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafati, Amir Abbas, E-mail: aa_rafati@basu.ac.ir [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, P.O. Box 65174, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafi, Mojgan [Department of Materials Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), 65169 Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    We describe the modification of a carbon paste electrode (CPE) with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and an ionic liquid (IL). Electrochemical studies by using a D-optimal mixture design in Design-Expert software revealed an optimized composition of 60% graphite, 14.2% paraffin, 10.8% MWCNT and 15% IL. The optimal modified CPE shows good electrochemical properties that are well matched with model prediction parameters. In the next step, the optimized CPE was modified with gold nanostructures by applying a double-pulse electrochemical technique. The resulting electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It gives three sharp and well-separated oxidation peaks for ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA), and uric acid (UA). The sensor enables simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA with linear responses from 0.3 to 285, 0.08 to 200, and 0.1 to 450 μM, respectively, and with 120, 30 and 30 nM detection limits (at an S/N of 3). The method was successfully applied to the determination of AA, DA, and UA in spiked samples of human serum and urine. - Highlights: • New method for simultaneous determination of AA, DA and UA was developed. • MWCNT/ionic liquid/cauliflower-like Au nanostructure was used for CPE modification. • Optimization of electrode composition was done by Design-Expert software. • The pH effect, peak separation mechanism and real samples was thoroughly studied.

  3. Sol-gel derived multiwalled carbon nanotubes ceramic electrode modified with molecularly imprinted polymer for ultra trace sensing of dopamine in real samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: > MWCNTs-CE was prepared by silane acrylate which provides a nanometer thin MIP film. > The sensor was modified by iniferter and MIP using 'surface grafting-from approach'. > A comparative study was performed between differentially designed ceramic electrodes. > The sensor can detect dopamine in real samples with LODs (0.143-0.154 ng mL{sup -1}). - Abstract: A new class of composite electrodes made of sol-gel derived ceramic-multiwalled carbon nanotubes is used for the growth of a nanometer thin film adopting 'surface grafting-from approach'. For this the multiwalled carbon nanotubes-ceramic electrode surface is first modified with an iniferter (benzyl N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate) and then dopamine imprinted polymer, under UV irradiation, for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric sensing of dopamine in aqueous, blood serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and pharmaceutical samples (detection limit 0.143-0.154 ng mL{sup -1}, 3{sigma}), without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positive contributions. Such composite electrodes offer higher stability, electron kinetics, and renewable porous surface of larger electroactive area (with insignificant capacitance) than carbon ceramic electrodes. Additional cyclic voltammetry (stripping mode) and chronocoulometry experiments were performed to explore electrodics and kinetics of electro-oxidation of dopamine.

  4. Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhoeft, Lindsey R; Castillo, Aida C; Smalley, Preston R; Kittrell, Carter; James, Dustin K; Brinson, Bruce E; Rybolt, Thomas R; Johnson, Bruce R; Cherukuri, Tonya K; Cherukuri, Paul

    2016-04-26

    This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil's antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (>30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale. PMID:27074626

  5. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  6. Apparatus for the laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin

    2010-02-16

    An RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of carbon nanotubes. Such an apparatus, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently provides a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization.

  7. Highly sensitive amperometric sensor for micromolar detection of trichloroacetic acid based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and Fe(II)–phtalocyanine modified glassy carbon electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurd, Masoumeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salimi, Abdollah, E-mail: absalimi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Center for Nanotechnology, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hallaj, Rahman [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, P. O. Box 416, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for the detection of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) is developed by subsequent immobilization of phthalocyanine (Pc) and Fe(II) onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) electrode showed a pair of well-defined and nearly reversible redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) with surface-confined characteristics. The surface coverage (Γ) and heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) of immobilized Fe(II)–Pc were calculated as 1.26 × 10{sup −10} mol cm{sup −2} and 28.13 s{sup −1}, respectively. Excellent electrocatalytic activity of the proposed GC/MWCNTs/Pc/Fe(II) system toward TCA reduction has been indicated and the three consequent irreversible peaks for electroreduction of CCl{sub 3}COOH to CH{sub 3}COOH have been clearly seen. The observed chronoamperometric currents are linearly increased with the concentration of TCA at concentration range up to 20 mM. Detection limit and sensitivity of the modified electrode were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively. The applicability of the sensor for TCA detection in real samples was tested. The obtained results suggest that the proposed system can serve as a promising electrochemical platform for TCA detection. Highlights: ► Phthalocyanine (PC) and Fe(II) immobilized onto MWCNTs modified GC electrode. ► A pair of well-defined redox couple correspondent to (Fe(III)Pc/Fe(II)Pc) observed. ► Modified electrode shows excellent catalytic activity to electroreduction of CCl{sub 3}COOH. ► Amperometry and cyclic voltammetry techniques were used for detection of CCl{sub 3}COOH. ► Detection limit and sensitivity were 2.0 μM and 0.10 μA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, respectively.

  8. Luminescence of carbon nanotube bulbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI ChuanGang; WU DeHai; WANG KunLin; WEI JinQuan; WEI BingQing; ZHU HongWei; WANG ZhiCheng; LUO JianBin; LIU WenJin; ZHENG MingXin

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) bulbs made of decimeter-scale double-walled carbon nanotube (DWCNT) strands and films were fabricated and their luminescence properties, including the lighting efficiency, voltage-current relation and thermal stability were investigated. The results show that the DWCNT bulb has a comparable spectrum of visible light with tungsten bulb and its average efficiency is 40% higher than that of a tungsten filament at the same temperature (1400-2300 K). The nanotube filaments show both resistance and thermal stability over a large temperature region. No obvious damage was found for a nanotube bulb illuminating at 2300 K for more than 24 hours in vacuum.

  9. Laser ablative synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Jordan, Kevin; Park, Cheol

    2010-03-02

    An improved method for the production of single walled carbon nanotubes that utilizes an RF-induction heated side-pumped synthesis chamber for the production of such. Such a method, while capable of producing large volumes of carbon nanotubes, concurrently permits the use of a simplified apparatus that allows for greatly reduced heat up and cool down times and flexible flowpaths that can be readily modified for production efficiency optimization. The method of the present invention utilizes a free electron laser operating at high average and peak fluence to illuminate a rotating and translating graphite/catalyst target to obtain high yields of SWNTs without the use of a vacuum chamber.

  10. Modifying the poly ether ester antistatic agent by carbon nanotubes,the antistatic effect on polypropylene fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chensha; LI Zhi; ZHANG Baoyou; LU Weizhe; TANG Yaping; FANG Gang; HU Xiaoqing; LIANG Ji

    2004-01-01

    A new antistatic fiber is investigated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance the antistatic ability of polymer fibers based on the mechanism of the discharging process of polarity macromolecule. Composite antistatic agent (CAA), prepared by dispersing CNTs in an organic antistatic agent carrier containing metallic ions in their main chains, is cospun with polypropylene (PP) to prepare CAA/PP fibers. It is indicated through analyzing the measured dynamic tribo-electrostatic voltages that CNTs can promote the discharging process of polarity macromolecule of antistatic agent carrier and further improve the antistatic ability of PP fibers. It is also indicated that the antistatic effect promoted by CNTs is better than that by conductive carbon black. Moreover, the antistatic effects of the CNTs treated by different methods are also compared.

  11. Simultaneous detection of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid and tryptophan with Azure A-interlinked multi-walled carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticles composite modified electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Filik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, multi-walled carbon nanotube/Azure A/gold nanoparticle composites (Nafion/AuNPs/AzA/MWCNTs were prepared by binding gold nanoparticles to the surfaces of Azure A-coated carbon nanotubes. Nafion/AuNPs/AzA/MWCNTs based electrochemical sensor was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, and tryptophan. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the modified electrodes. The modified electrode showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward ascorbic acid, dopamine, uric acid, and tryptophan (pH 7.0. The experiment results showed that the linear response range for simultaneous detection of AA, DA, UA and Trp were 300–10,000 μM, 0.5–50 μM, 0.5–50 μM and 1.0–100 μM, respectively, and the detection limits were 16 μM, 0.014 μM, 0.028 μM and 0.56 μM (S/N = 3. The proposed method offers promise for simple, rapid, selective and cost-effective analysis of small biomolecules. The procedure was also applied to the determination of tryptophan in spiked milk samples.

  12. Carbon Nanotube Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Mihaela eTilmaciu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials possess unique features which make them particularly attractive for biosensing applications. In particular Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs can serve as scaffolds for immobilization of biomolecules at their surface, and combine several exceptional physical, chemical, electrical and optical characteristics properties which make them one of the best suited materials for the transduction of signals associated with the recognition of analytes, metabolites or disease biomarkers. Here we provide a comprehensive review on these carbon nanostructures, in which we will describe their structural and physical properties, discuss functionalization and cellular uptake, biocompatibility and toxicity issues. We further review historical developments in the field of biosensors, and describe the different types of biosensors which have been developed over time, with specific focus on CNT-conjugates engineered for biosensing applications, and in particular detection of cancer biomarkers.

  13. An Effective Approach towards the Immobilization of PtSn Nanoparticles on Noncovalent Modified Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Ethanol Electrooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Geng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe an effective method to tether Pt and PtSn nanoparticles (NPs on polyelectrolyte modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs for ethanol electrooxidation. By using a polymer wrapping technique, positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI was attached onto carbon nanotubes (CNTs to provide preferential linking sites for metal precursors. Well-dispersed Pt and PtSn nanocrystals (2–5 nm were subsequently decorated on PEI-functionalized MWCNTs through the polyol reduction method. The successful non-covalent modification of MWCNTs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Zeta potential measurements. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectrum indicates approximately 20 wt % Pt loading and a desirable Pt:Sn atomic ratio of 1:1. Electrochemical analysis demonstrated that the as-synthesized PtSn/PEI-MWCNTs nanocomposite exhibited improved catalytic activity and higher poison tolerance for ethanol oxidation as compared to Pt/PEI-MWCNTs and commercial Pt/XC-72 catalysts. The enhanced electrochemical performance may be attributed to the uniform dispersion of NPs as well as the mitigating of CO self-poisoning effect by the alloying of Sn element. This modification and synthetic strategy will be studied further to develop a diversity of carbon supported Pt-based hybrid nanomaterials for electrocatalysis.

  14. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  15. Green-tea modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for efficient poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylenesulfonate)/n-silicon hybrid solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Ishwor; Tang, Zeguo; Liu, Qiming; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime

    2013-02-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(stylenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)/n-Si hybrid solar cells were studied with and without embedding green-tea modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at interface. Devices fabricated with embedding green-tea modified MWCNTs show much better performance than that of a device without MWCNTs with short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor, and power conversion efficiency (η) as 30.31 mA/cm2, 0.54 V, 0.66, and 10.93%, respectively. Here, we believe that green-tea disperse MWCNTs bundles to individual and its incorporation improved built-in potential (Vb) of the device for better hole transport, easy exciton splitting, and suppression of charge recombination, thereby improving photovoltaic response.

  16. Electrocatalytic determination of L-cysteine using a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode: Application to the analysis of some real samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malihe Ahmadipour; Mohammad Ali Taher; Hadi Beitollahi; Rahman Hosseinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    The electrooxidation of L-cysteine (L-Cys) was studied using a benzoylferrocene (BF) modified multi-wall carbon nanotube paste electrode (BFCNPE) using cyclic voltammetry (CV),square wave voltammetry (SWV) and chronoamperometry (CHA).Under optimum pH in CV the oxidation of L-Cys occurs at a potential about 215 mV less positive than that at the surface of unmodified carbon paste electrode.The catalytic oxidation peak currents were dependent on the L-Cys concentration and a linearcalibration curve was obtained in the range 0.7-350.0 μmol/L of L-Cys with SWV method.The detection limit (3σ) was determined as 0.1 μmolL.This method was also used for the determination of L-Cys in some real samples.

  17. 碳纳米管改性涂料的防腐性能研究%Study on Corrosion Resistance of Coating Modified by Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程敬泉; 乔磊; 黄海祥

    2015-01-01

    采用浓酸氧化法对碳纳米管进行表面改性,在 40 ℃超声波分散条件下,制备碳纳米管/环氧树脂复合涂料.通过对未加入碳纳米管、加入未经过浓酸氧化的碳纳米管、加入浓酸氧化的碳纳米管环氧树脂复合涂料进行耐酸碱盐试验.试验表明,加入未处理的碳纳米管的环氧树脂复合涂料防腐性能较纯净的环氧树脂涂料没有明显提高,加入浓酸氧化的碳纳米管环氧树脂防腐性能有了明显改善和提高.%Modifying the surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) with concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4 / HNO3) oxidation. At 40℃ ultrasonic dispersion, prepare carbon nanotubes (MWCNTS) / epoxy resin composites. The anti-acid, anti-alkali and anti-salt tests of epoxy resin composite materials are carried out, first without MWCNTS, then with MWCNTS which are not oxidated with concentrated sulfuric acid, and then with MWCNTS which are oxidated with concentrated sulfuric acid. Experiments show that, the anticorrosive performance of epoxy resin composite materials with untreated carbon nanotubes are not obviously higher than the pure epoxy resin composite materials; the anticorrosive performance of epoxy resin composite materials with MWCNTS which are oxidated with concentrated sulfuric acid has been significantly improved and enhanced.

  18. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was prepared. •Hemoglobin and nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. •Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. •Bioelectrocatalysis towards the reduction of different substrates was enhanced. -- Abstract: A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (ks) as 0.97 s−1. The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L−1 with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L−1 (3σ), H2O2 in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L−1 with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO2 in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L−1 with a detection limit of 0.282 μmol L−1 (3σ). So the proposed electrode had the

  19. Direct electrochemistry with enhanced electrocatalytic activity of hemoglobin in hybrid modified electrodes composed of graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 China (China); College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Cao, Lili; Deng, Ying; Gong, Shixing [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Shi, Fan; Li, Gaonan; Sun, Zhenfan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 China (China)

    2013-06-05

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A graphene and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was prepared. •Hemoglobin and nanocomposite modified carbon ionic liquid electrode was fabricated. •Direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin was realized on the modified electrode. •Bioelectrocatalysis towards the reduction of different substrates was enhanced. -- Abstract: A graphene (GR) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) hybrid was prepared and modified on a 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate based carbon ionic liquid electrode (CILE). Hemoglobin (Hb) was immobilized on GR-MWCNT/CILE surface with Nafion as the film forming material and the modified electrode was denoted as Nafion/Hb-GR-MWCNT/CILE. Spectroscopic results revealed that Hb molecules retained its native structure in the GR-MWCNT hybird. Electrochemical behaviors of Hb were carefully investigated by cyclic voltammetry with a pair of well-defined redox peaks obtained, which indicated that direct electron transfer of Hb was realized in the hybrid modified electrode. The result could be attributed to the synergistic effects of GR-MWCNT hybrid with enlarged surface area and improved conductivity through the formation of a three-dimensional network. Electrochemical parameters of the immobilized Hb on the electrode surface were further calculated with the results of the electron transfer number (n) as 1.03, the charge transfer coefficient (a) as 0.58 and the electron-transfer rate constant (k{sub s}) as 0.97 s{sup −1}. The Hb modified electrode showed good electrocatalytic ability toward the reduction of different substrates such as trichloroacetic acid in the concentration range from 0.05 to 38.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.0153 mmol L{sup −1} (3σ), H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the concentration range from 0.1 to 516.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 34.9 nmol/L (3σ) and NaNO{sub 2} in the concentration range from 0.5 to 650.0 mmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0

  20. Modifying the electrical behaviour of polypropylene/carbon nanotube composites by adding a second nanoparticle and by annealing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Palza

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different nanoparticles on the geometrical percolation transition of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT in polypropylene (PP composites was studied. Our results show that the electrical conductivity of PP/CNT composites (around 2 vol% can be tuned depending on the characteristic of the third component. Non-conductive layered silica fillers disrupt the CNT percolated network reducing the electrical conductivity of the composite. Spherical nanoparticles otherwise, either copper metal or silica-based, decrease the percolation threshold down to 0.5 vol% of CNT. These results cannot be explained by previous theories about the effect of a second particle on the electrical behaviour of polymer/CNT composites such as the interparticle bridging or the excluded volume. The effect of annealing in the melt was further analyzed and our results show that depending on the concentration and the type of filler, the electrical conductivity of the composites can be increased several orders of magnitude.

  1. Effect of Co-polyester antistatic agent modified by carbon nanotubes on the properties of polypropylene fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Antistatic polymer fibers were investigated by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance the antistatic ability of inner antistatic agents based on the mechanism of attracting moisture by polar radical groups. It is indicated that the antistatic ability of the fibers filled with composite antistatic agents that contain CNTs and organic antistatic agents was superior to that of the fibers filled either with pure organic antistatic agents or pure CNTs. The antistatic ability of the composite antistatic agent fabricated by an in situ process was superior to that of the composite antistatic agent fabricated by direct dispersing CNTs in the antistatic agent carrier.Moreover, the heat-treated CNTs could further enhance the antistatic effect compared with the initial CNTs. The antistatic effect is significantly influenced by the content of CNTs in the composite antistatic agent.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  3. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Haider; Yetisen, Ali K.; Ahmed, Rajib; Yun, Seok Hyun; Dai, Qing

    2015-03-01

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2-3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  4. Carbon nanotube optical mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Rabin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We report the fabrication of imaging quality optical mirrors with smooth surfaces using carbon nanotubes (CNT) embedded in an epoxy matrix. CNT/epoxy is a multifunctional composite material that has sensing capabilities and can be made to incorporate self-actuation. Moreover, as the precursor is a low density liquid, large and lightweight mirrors can be fabricated by processes such as replication, spincasting, and three-dimensional printing. Therefore, the technology holds promise for the development of a new generation of lightweight, compact "smart" telescope mirrors with figure sensing and active or adaptive figure control. We report on measurements made of optical and mechanical characteristics, active optics experiments, and numerical modeling. We discuss possible paths for future development.

  5. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  6. Carbon nanotube biconvex microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Haider, E-mail: h.butt@bham.ac.uk; Ahmed, Rajib [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yetisen, Ali K.; Yun, Seok Hyun [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Dai, Qing [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-03-23

    Developing highly efficient microcavities with predictive narrow-band resonance frequencies using the least amount of material will allow the applications in nonlinear photonic devices. We have developed a microcavity array that comprised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) organized in a biconvex pattern. The finite element model allowed designing microcavity arrays with predictive transmission properties and assessing the effects of the microarray geometry. The microcavity array demonstrated negative index and produced high Q factors. 2–3 μm tall MWCNTs were patterned as biconvex microcavities, which were separated by 10 μm in an array. The microcavity was iridescent and had optical control over the diffracted elliptical patterns with a far-field pattern, whose properties were predicted by the model. It is anticipated that the MWCNT biconvex microcavities will have implications for the development of highly efficient lenses, metamaterial antennas, and photonic circuits.

  7. Enhanced Carbon Nanotube Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation utilizes carbon nanotubes (CNTs) coated with pseudo-capacitive MnO2 material as nano-composite electrode and ionic electrolyte for the...

  8. Molybdenum Disulfide Sheathed Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chun SONG; Zhu De XU; Yi Fan ZHENG; Gui HAN; Bo LIU; Wei Xiang CHEN

    2004-01-01

    Single and double layered MoS2-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNs) were successfully prepared by pyrolyzing (NH4)2MoS4-coated multiwalled carbon nanotubes in an H2 atmosphere at 900℃. MoS2-coated MWCNs would be expected to have different tribological and mechanical properties compared to MoS2, so it may have potential applications in many fields.

  9. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kuemmeth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications.

  10. Selective functionalization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strano, Michael S. (Inventor); Usrey, Monica (Inventor); Barone, Paul (Inventor); Dyke, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tour, James M. (Inventor); Kittrell, W. Carter (Inventor); Hauge, Robert H. (Inventor); Smalley, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward methods of selectively functionalizing carbon nanotubes of a specific type or range of types, based on their electronic properties, using diazonium chemistry. The present invention is also directed toward methods of separating carbon nanotubes into populations of specific types or range(s) of types via selective functionalization and electrophoresis, and also to the novel compositions generated by such separations.

  11. Carbon nanotubes for coherent spintronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Churchill, H O H; Herring, P K;

    2010-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes bridge the molecular and crystalline quantum worlds, and their extraordinary electronic, mechanical and optical properties have attracted enormous attention from a broad scientific community. We review the basic principles of fabricating spin-electronic devices based on individual......, electrically-gated carbon nanotubes, and present experimental efforts to understand their electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom, which in the future may enable quantum applications....

  12. A novel magnetic ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube for the simultaneous determination of aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides and their metabolites in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Mai; Liu, Donghui; Zhao, Lu; Han, Jiajun; Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang, E-mail: zqzhou@cau.edu.cn

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A new kind of ionic liquid modified carbon nanotube has been synthesized and applied for simultaneous analysis of AOPPs and their metabolites. • The potential pollutants, such as metabolites of AOPPs, have been analyzed. • The mechanism of absorption has been discussed. • Varieties of experiment factors were optimized and selected. • This method has been successfully applied in the analysis of real water samples. - Abstract: A reliable, sensitive, rapid and environmentally friendly analysis procedure for the simultaneous determination of the analytes with a wide range of polarity in the environmental water was developed by coupling dispersive magnetic solid-phase extraction (d-MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–diode array detector (DAD) and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (MS/MS), in this work. Magnetic ionic liquid modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-IL-MWCNTs) were prepared by spontaneous assembly of magnetic nanoparticles and imidazolium-modified carbon nanotubes, and used as the sorbent of d-MSPE to simultaneously extract aryloxyphenoxy-propionate herbicides (AOPPs) and their polar acid metabolites due to the excellent π–π electron donor–acceptor interactions and anion exchange ability. The factors, including the amount of sorbent, pH of the sample solution, extraction time and the volume of elution solvent were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the proposed d-MSPE coupling to HPLC–DAD system had a satisfactory performance, the limits of detection (LODs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, defined as the signal to noise ratio of 10) for analytes in Milli-Q water were in the range of 2.8–14.3 and 9.8–43.2 μg L{sup −1} respectively. Calibration curves were linear (r{sup 2} > 0.998) over the concentration range from 0.02 to 1 mg L{sup −1}. The recoveries of the eight analytes ranged

  13. Microfabricated electroactive carbon nanotube actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Arti; Baughman, Ray H.; De Rossi, Danilo; Mazzoldi, Alberto; Tesconi, Mario; Tognetti, Alessandro; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2001-07-01

    A variety of microfabrication techniques have been developed at the University of Pisa. They are based either on pressure or piston actuated microsyringes or modified ink-jet printers. This work present the results of a study aimed at fabricating carbon nanotube (NT) actuators using micro-syringes. In order to prevent the nanotubes from aggregating into clumps, they were enclosed in a partially cross-linked polyvinylalcohol - polyallylamine matrix. After sonication the solution remained homogenously dispersed for about 40 minutes, which was sufficient time for deposition. Small strips of NT, about 5 mm across and 15 mm long were deposited. Following deposition, the films were baked at 80 degree(s)C and their thickness, impedance and mechanical resistance measured. The results indicate that 50 minutes of baking time is sufficient to give a constant resistivity of 1.12 x 10-2 (Omega) m per layer similar to a typical semiconductor, and each layer has a thickness of about 6 micrometers .

  14. Electrodeposition of palladium on carbon nanotubes modified nickel foam as an efficient electrocatalyst towards hydrogen peroxide reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Cao, Bo; Tao, Yue; Hu, Miao; Feng, Chengcheng; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Zhao; Cao, Dianxue; Zhang, Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this article, a three-dimensional electrode (Pd-CNT/Ni foam) based on Pd nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is successfully developed by a simple "dipping and drying" process and a potentiostatic deposition technology for H2O2 reduction in base medium. The composition and structure of Pd-CNT/Ni foam electrode are examined by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA) techniques are applied to determine the electrochemical performance. The electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity for H2O2 electroreduction, and it outperforms Pd/Ni foam electrode without CNT coating. At the reduction potential of -0.8 V, the reduction currents on Pd-CNT/Ni foam electrode can reach 323 mA cm-2, however, it is only 192 mA cm-2 on Pd/Ni foam electrode, which is increased by 68.2%. The impressive electrocatalytic performance is largely attributed to the superior open structure and high electronic conductivity, which allows the high utilization of Pd surfaces and makes the electrode have higher electrochemical activity. These findings may provide the opportunity on preparing binder-free carbon-supported electrode in the application of fuel cells.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide biosensor based on gold nanoparticles/thionine/gold nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosans composite film-modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shenfeng; Zhu Xiaoying; Zhang Wei; Xie Guoming [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Ministry of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Feng Wenli, E-mail: fengwlcqmu@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Ministry of Education, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2012-01-15

    In this paper, an amperometric electrochemical biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs)/thionine (Thi)/GNPs/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-chitosans (Chits) composite film was developed. MWCNTs-Chits homogeneous composite was first dispersed in acetic acid solution and then the GNPs were in situ synthesized at the composite. The mixture was dripped on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then the Thi was deposited by electropolymerization by Au-S or Au-N covalent bond effect and electrostatic adsorption effect as an electron transfer mediator. Finally, the mixture of GNPs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was assembled onto the modified electrode by covalent bond. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. This study introduces the in situ-synthesized GNPs on the other surface of the modified materials in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. The linear response range of the biosensor to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration was from 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} mol L{sup -1} to 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} mol L{sup -1} with a detection limit of 3.75 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1} (based on S/N = 3).

  16. Preparation of Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes modified by carbon nanotube for anodic oxidation of dye wastewater and combination with nanofiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrodes were prepared by pulse electrodeposition technology. • The characteristics of Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT was compared with Ti/SnO2-Sb. • We combined electro-catalytic oxidation with NF to treat dye wastewater. - Abstract: A new type of Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode modified with carbon nanotube (CNT) has been fabricated using a pulse electrodeposition method. The electrode modified with CNT versus without CNT has larger surface area and smaller crystallite particles (41.9 nm versus 46.8 nm) as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and calculated through X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. It means that the CNT-modified electrode can provide more active sites for electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants. Oxygen evolution potential of the CNT-modified electrode has 0.07 V higher overpotential in the Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) curve. The service lifetime of Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrode is 4.8 times longer than that of the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode without CNT modifying. The Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrode is demonstrated to have a superior electrochemical oxidation and degradation abilities using Acid Red 73 (AR 73) as a model organic pollutant. The CNT-modified electrode has higher kinetic rate constant, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) removals, and mineralization current efficiency, which is 1.93, 1.27, 1.26, and 1.38 times those of the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode, respectively. The repeated experiments prove the reproducibility of the data. Ti/SnO2-Sb-CNT electrode is 1.15 times more effective in permeation flux than the Ti/SnO2-Sb electrode when combining electro-catalytic oxidation and nanofiltration for treating dye wastewater

  17. The fabrication and tribological behavior of epoxy composites modified by the three-dimensional polyurethane sponge reinforced with dopamine functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Huaiyuan; Sun, Liyuan; Wang, Enqun; Zhu, Yixing; Zhu, Yanji

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) interpenetrating network structure epoxy composites were fabricated based on the modified carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced flexible polyurethane (PU) sponge. CNTs were first functionalized with polydopamine (PDA) as revealed by TEM imaging, which is formed via the oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine. Then the functionalized CNTs (CNT-PDA) were successfully anchored on the skeleton surfaces of sponge, forming a continuous 3D carbon network. The interfacial interaction between modified PU sponge and epoxy (EP) matrix was significantly enhanced due to the covalent linkage of PDA. Improvement in the thermal stability of CNT-PDA/PU3D/EP composites was observed by TG analysis and related to the CNTs anchored on the skeleton of sponge. The tribological properties of pure EP, PU3D/EP and CNT-PDA/PU3D/EP composites were comparatively investigated in terms of different loads and velocities. Results demonstrated that CNT-PDA/PU3D/EP composites exhibited the best tribological performance owing to the strong interfacial interaction and the 3D carbon network structure. In particular, the wear resistance of CNT-PDA/PU3D/EP composites was 6.2 times and 3 times higher than those of pure EP and PU3D/EP composites under the applied load of 1.6 MPa, respectively.

  18. Carbon nanotube computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulaker, Max M; Hills, Gage; Patil, Nishant; Wei, Hai; Chen, Hong-Yu; Wong, H-S Philip; Mitra, Subhasish

    2013-09-26

    The miniaturization of electronic devices has been the principal driving force behind the semiconductor industry, and has brought about major improvements in computational power and energy efficiency. Although advances with silicon-based electronics continue to be made, alternative technologies are being explored. Digital circuits based on transistors fabricated from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential to outperform silicon by improving the energy-delay product, a metric of energy efficiency, by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, CNTs are an exciting complement to existing semiconductor technologies. Owing to substantial fundamental imperfections inherent in CNTs, however, only very basic circuit blocks have been demonstrated. Here we show how these imperfections can be overcome, and demonstrate the first computer built entirely using CNT-based transistors. The CNT computer runs an operating system that is capable of multitasking: as a demonstration, we perform counting and integer-sorting simultaneously. In addition, we implement 20 different instructions from the commercial MIPS instruction set to demonstrate the generality of our CNT computer. This experimental demonstration is the most complex carbon-based electronic system yet realized. It is a considerable advance because CNTs are prominent among a variety of emerging technologies that are being considered for the next generation of highly energy-efficient electronic systems.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Delzeit, Clement J. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A method for cleaning or otherwise removing amorphous carbon and other residues that arise in growth of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array. The CNT array is exposed to a plurality of hydroxyls or hydrogen, produced from a selected vapor or liquid source such as H2O or H2O2. and the hydroxyls or hydrogen (neutral or electrically charged) react with the residues to produce partly or fully dissolved or hydrogenated or hydroxylizated products that can be removed or separated from the CNT array. The hydroxyls or hydrogen can be produced by heating the CNT array, residue and selected vapor or liquid source or by application of an electromagnetic excitation signal with a selected frequency or range of frequencies to dissociate the selected vapor or liquid. The excitation frequency can be chirped to cover a selected range of frequencies corresponding to dissociation of the selected vapor or liquid. Sonication may be uscd to supplement dissociation of the H2O and/or H2O2.

  20. CO2 Removal from Biogas Using Carbon Nanotubes Mixed Matrix Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Tutuk Djoko Kusworo; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail; Budiyono; I Nyoman Widiasa; Seno Johari; Sunarso

    2010-01-01

    A new type of mixed matrix membrane consisting of polyethersulfone (PES) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is prepared for biogas purification application. PES mixed matrix membrane with and without modification of carbon nanotubes were prepared by a dry/wet phase inversion technique using a pneumatically membrane casting machine system. The modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by treating the carbon nanotubes with chemical modification using acid treatment to allow PES chains to be grafted on c...

  1. Optimization of bioselective membrane of amperometric enzyme sensor on basis of glucose oxidase using NH2-modified multi-wall carbone nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpan Ya. I.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate a possibility of application of multi-wall carbone nanotubes modified with NH2-groups (MWCNT-NH2 for creation of sensitive elements of the amperometric biosensor based on immobilized oxidoreductases, in particular, glucose oxidase (GOD. To study electrochemical properties of the membranes obtained. Methods. Experiments were carried out with amperometric methods using the ìStat 200 device («DropSens», Spain. The enzymes were immobilised in glutaraldehyde vapour. Results. The method of formation of bioselective matrix based on immobilised GOD with MNP-NH2 on the surface of gold amperometric electrodes was optimised. Optimal working conditions of the biosensor developed were determined. Conclusion. MWCNT integration into a bioselective matrix improves the biosensor analytical characteristics which means: higher signal value, wider linear range of glucose analysis, and possibility of substrate determination in wide range of working potential.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of novel dopamine-derivative:Application of modified multi-wall carbon nanotubes paste electrode for electrochemical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shadpour Mallakpour; Mehdi Hatami; Ali A. Ensafi; Hassan Karimi-Maleh

    2011-01-01

    Novel dopamine-derivative compound, 3,5-diamino-N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl)benzamide (3,5-DAB) was prepared in two steps. In the first step dopamine hydrochloride was reacted with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride in the presence of propylene oxide. In the second step reduction of nitro groups resulted in preparation of 3,5-DAB in quantitative yield. This material was characterized using conventional spectroscopic methods such as FT-IR and 1H NMR. In addition, the redox response of a modified carbon nanotubes paste electrode of 3,5-DAB was investigated in aqueous solution at a neutral pH. The result showed that the electrode process has a guasi-reversible response, with △Ep, greater than the (59/n) mV expected for a reversible system. Finally, the diffusion coefficient for redox process in paraffin oil matrix obtained using chronoamperometry methods.

  3. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-doped polypyrrole DNA biosensor for label-free detection of genetically modified organisms by QCM and EIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Thi Ngoc Lien; Tran, Dai Lam; Vu, Thi Hong An; Tran, Vinh Hoang; Duong, Tuan Quang; Dinh, Quang Khieu; Tsukahara, Toshifumi; Lee, Young Hoon; Kim, Jong Seung

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, we describe DNA electrochemical detection for genetically modified organism (GMO) based on multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-doped polypyrrole (PPy). DNA hybridization is studied by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An increase in DNA complementary target concentration results in a decrease in the faradic charge transfer resistance (R(ct)) and signifying "signal-on" behavior of MWCNTs-PPy-DNA system. QCM and EIS data indicated that the electroanalytical MWCNTs-PPy films were highly sensitive (as low as 4pM of target can be detected with QCM technique). In principle, this system can be suitable not only for DNA but also for protein biosensor construction. PMID:20006069

  4. Multiwalled carbon nanotube modified screen-printed electrodes for the detection of p-aminophenol: Optimisation and application in alkaline phosphatase-based assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Queipo, Paula [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)], E-mail: costa@fq.uniovi.es

    2008-05-12

    Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) were used to modify the working electrode surface of different screen-printed electrodes. The effect of this modification on the electrodic characteristics (double layer capacitance, electroactive area and heterogeneous rate constants for the electron transfer) was evaluated and optimized for the cyclic voltammetric determination of p-aminophenol. The enzymatic hydrolysis of p-aminophenylphosphate was employed for the quantification of alkaline phosphatase, one of the most important label enzymes in immunoassays. Finally, ELISA assays were carried out to quantify pneumolysin using this enzymatic system. Results obtained indicated that low superficial densities of MWCNT-COOH (0.03-0.06 {mu}g mm{sup -2}) yielded the same electrodic improvements but with better analytical properties.

  5. Enhancing and redirecting carbon nanotube photoluminescence by an optical antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Böhmler, Miriam; Hartmann, Nicolai; Georgi, Carsten; Hennrich, Frank; Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.; Hartschuh, Achim

    2010-01-01

    We observe the angular radiation pattern of single carbon nanotubes' photoluminescence in the back focal plane of a microscope objective and show that the emitting nanotube can be described by a single in-plane point dipole. The near-field interaction between a nanotube and an optical antenna modifies the radiation pattern that is now dominated by the antenna characteristics. We quantify the antenna induced excitation and radiation enhancement and show that the radiative rate enhancement is c...

  6. Surface polyethylene glycol conformation influences the protein corona of polyethylene glycol-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes: potential implications on biological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Cristiano; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Magrini, Andrea; Palmieri, Graziana; Mattei, Maurizio; Bernardini, Sergio; Rosato, Nicola; Bottini, Nunzio; Bottini, Massimo

    2013-03-26

    Investigation of the nanoparticle protein corona, the shell of plasma proteins formed around nanoparticles immediately after they enter the bloodstream, is a benchmark in the study of the applications of nanoparticles in all fields of medicine, from pharmacology to toxicology. We report the first investigation of the protein corona adsorbed onto single-walled carbon nanotubes modified with 2 kDa molecular weight polyethylene glycol chains [PEG(2k)-modified SWCNTs or PEG2-SWCNTs] by using a large-scale gel-based proteomics method on biological replicates. More than 240 plasma proteins were selected, and their differences were analyzed among PEG2-SWCNTs differing in surface charge and PEG conformation. The protein corona of PEG2-SWCNTs showed that coagulation proteins, immunoglobulins, apolipoproteins, and proteins of the complement system were among the proteins bound by PEG2-SWCNTs and that their recruitment was independent from the isoelectric point, molecular weight, total hydrophobicity, and number of polyaromatic residues of the proteins. Statistical analysis on protein relative abundance revealed that PEG conformation had a higher influence on the PEG2-SWCNTs' protein corona repertoire than nanotube surface charge. PEG conformation also affected the biological performance of PEG2-SWCNTs. A change in PEG conformation from mushroom to mushroom-brush transition affected the competitive adsorption of the major constituents of the protein corona of PEG2-SWCNTs and promoted shorter blood circulation time, faster renal excretion, and higher relative spleen versus liver uptake of PEG2-SWCNTs. Our data suggest that the protein corona, along with steric stabilization, may mediate the action of PEG conformation on the pharmacokinetic profile of PEG-modified SWCNTs. PMID:23413928

  7. Probing Photosensitization by Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) photosensitize the production of reactive oxygen species that can damage organisms by biomembrane oxidation or mediate CNTs' environmental transformations. The photosensitized nature of derivatized carbon nanotubes from various synthetic methods, and thus ...

  8. Development of Carbon Nanotube Modified Cement Paste with Microencapsulated Phase-Change Material for Structural–Functional Integrated Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongzhi; Yang, Shuqing; Memon, Shazim Ali

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulated phase-change materials (MPCM) can be used to develop a structural–functional integrated cement paste having high heat storage efficiency and suitable mechanical strength. However, the incorporation of MPCM has been found to degrade the mechanical properties of cement based composites. Therefore, in this research, the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the properties of MPCM cement paste was evaluated. Test results showed that the incorporation of CNTs in MPCM cement paste accelerated the cement hydration reaction. SEM micrograph showed that CNTs were tightly attached to the cement hydration products. At the age of 28 days, the percentage increase in flexural and compressive strength with different dosage of CNTs was found to be up to 41% and 5% respectively. The optimum dosage of CNTs incorporated in MPCM cement paste was found to be 0.5 wt %. From the thermal performance test, it was found that the cement paste panels incorporated with different percentages of MPCM reduced the temperature measured at the center of the room by up to 4.6 °C. Inverse relationship was found between maximum temperature measured at the center of the room and the dosage of MPCM. PMID:25867476

  9. Enhanced Electrical Conductivity in Extruded Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Wires from Modified Coagulation Parameters and Mechanical Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucossi, Andrew R; Cress, Cory D; Schauerman, Christopher M; Rossi, Jamie E; Puchades, Ivan; Landi, Brian J

    2015-12-16

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) synthesized via laser vaporization have been dispersed using chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and extruded under varying coagulation conditions to fabricate multifunctional wires. The use of high purity SWCNT material based upon established purification methods yields wires with highly aligned nanoscale morphology and an over 4× improvement in electrical conductivity over as-produced SWCNT material. A series of eight liquids have been evaluated for use as a coagulant bath, and each coagulant yielded unique wire morphology based on its interaction with the SWCNT-CSA dispersion. In particular, dimethylacetamide as a coagulant bath is shown to fabricate highly uniform SWCNT wires, and acetone coagulant baths result in the highest specific conductivity and tensile strength. A 2× improvement in specific conductivity has been measured for SWCNT wires following tensioning induced both during extrusion via increased coagulant bath depth and during solvent evaporation via mechanical strain, over that of as-extruded wires from shallower coagulant baths. Overall, combination of the optimized coagulation parameters has yielded acid-doped wires with the highest reported room temperature electrical conductivities to date of 4.1-5.0 MS/m and tensile strengths of 210-250 MPa. Such improvements in bulk electrical conductivity can impact the adoption of metal-free, multifunctional SWCNT materials for advanced cabling architectures.

  10. Highly Selective and Sensitive Detection of Acetylcholine Using Receptor-Modified Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shihong; Kim, Byeongju; Song, Hyun Seok; Jin, Hye Jun; Park, Eun Jin; Lee, Sang Hun; Lee, Byung Yang; Park, Tai Hyun; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-03-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter in a human central nervous system and is related to various neural functions such as memory, learning and muscle contractions. Dysfunctional ACh regulations in a brain can induce several neuropsychiatric diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and myasthenia gravis. In researching such diseases, it is important to measure the concentration of ACh in the extracellular fluid of the brain. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and selective ACh sensor based on single-walled carbon nanotube-field effect transistors (swCNT-FETs). In our work, M1 mAChR protein, an ACh receptor, was expressed in E.coli and coated on swCNT-FETs with lipid membranes. Here, the binding of ACh onto the receptors could be detected by monitoring the change of electrical currents in the underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing the real-time detection of ACh at a 100 pM concentration. Furthermore, our sensor could selectively detect ACh from other neurotransmitters. This is the first report of the real-time sensing of ACh utilizing specific binding between the ACh and M1 mAChR, and it may lead to breakthroughs in various biomedical applications such as drug screening and disease diagnosis.

  11. Synergistic Enhancement of Antitumor Efficacy by PEGylated Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Modified with Cell-Penetrating Peptide TAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shanshan; Wang, Tong; Pei, Xibo; Cai, He; Chen, Junyu; Zhang, Xin; Wan, Qianbing; Wang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a cell-penetrating peptide, the transactivating transcriptional factor (TAT) domain from HIV, was linked to PEGylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to develop a highly effective antitumor drug delivery system. FITC was conjugated on MWCNTs-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and MWCNTs-PEG-TAT to provide fluorescence signal for tracing the cellular uptake of the nanocarrier. After loaded with an anticancer agent, doxorubicin (DOX) via π - π stacking interaction, the physicochemical characteristics, release profile and biological evaluation of the obtained nano-sized drug carrier were investigated. The DOX loaded MWCNTs-PEG and MWCNTs-PEG-TAT drug carriers both displayed appropriate particle size, excellent stability, high drug loading, and pH-dependent drug release profile. Nevertheless, compared with DOX-MWCNTs-PEG, DOX-MWCNTs-PEG-TAT showed improved cell internalization, intracellular distribution and potentiated anticancer efficacy due to the TAT-mediated membrane translocation, endosomal escape and nuclear targeting. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy of DOX was not compromised after being conjugated with MWCNTs-PEG-TAT and the proposed nanocarrier was also confirmed to have a good biocompatibility. In conclusion, our results suggested that the unique combination of TAT and MWCNTs as a multifunctional drug delivery system might be a powerful tool for improved anticancer drug development.

  12. 碳纳米管改性聚氨酯复合材料%Polyurethane composites modified by carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕君亮; 刘意; 易运红

    2011-01-01

    用原位聚合法制备两组聚氨酯(PUR)/碳纳米管(CNTs)复合材料.一组是在超声波作用下将CNTs直接和PUR复合;另一组是将硅烷偶联剂处理的CNTs在超声波作用下与PUR原位聚合制备PUR/CNTs复合材料.探讨了CNTs含量对复合材料电性能的影响,在w(CNTs)为1.0%时可用作抗静电材料.经硅烷偶联剂处理的CNTs分散较好,复合材料的拉伸强度、悬臂梁缺口冲击强度,拉伸模量更高.%The authors propared two sets of specimens of polyurethane/carbon nanotube(PUR/CNTs)composites via in-situ polymerization under the action of ultrasonic wave. either compounding PUR with CNTs directly or polymerizing PUR with the CNTs treated by silane coupling agent. The effect of CNTs content on electrical properties of the composites was diseussed. The composite could be used as antistatic material when the CNTs content was 1.0% in mass fraction. The CNTs treated by silane coupling agent could be dispersed well in the composite. The tensile strength, notched Izod impact strength and tensile modulus of the composites were superior.

  13. Electrochemical Degradation Characteristics of Refractory Organic Pollutants in Coking Wastewater on Multiwall Carbon Nanotube-Modified Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiwall carbon nanotube-mollified electrode (MWCNT-ME was fabricated and its electrocatalytic activity of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater was investigated. The surface morphology, absorption properties, and the electrochemical behavior of phenol and aniline at the MWCNT-ME were analyzed. Using ultraviolet-visible adsorption spectroscopy (UV-vis, Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS, and chemical oxygen demand (COD test, the electrochemical oxidation properties of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater using the MWCNT-ME and the IrSnSb/Ti electrode were analyzed. Compared with the powder adsorption media, the MWCNT-ME was proved to have weaker adsorption activity, which means electrochemical degradation is the decisive factor of the removal of organic pollutants. The MWCNT-ME shows high electrochemical reactivity with oxidation peaks of 0.18 A and 0.12 A for phenol and aniline, respectively. Under the same working conditions, the MWCNT-ME COD removal rate 51% is higher than IrSnSb/Ti electrode’s rate 35%. The MWCNT-ME has application potential of electrochemical oxidation of refractory organic pollutants of coking wastewater.

  14. Kondo physics in carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Nygard, Jesper; Cobden, David Henry; Lindelof, Poul Erik

    2000-01-01

    The connection of electrical leads to wire-like molecules is a logical step in the development of molecular electronics, but also allows studies of fundamental physics. For example, metallic carbon nanotubes are quantum wires that have been found to act as one-dimensional quantum dots, Luttinger-liquids, proximity-induced superconductors and ballistic and diffusive one-dimensional metals. Here we report that electrically-contacted single-wall nanotubes can serve as powerful probes of Kondo ph...

  15. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained, lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However, experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs’ cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTs in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs’ cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  16. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ying; LI WenXin

    2008-01-01

    With large-scale production and application at large scale, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) may cause ad-verse response to the environment and human health. Thus, study on bio-effects and safety of CNTs has attracted great attention from scientists and governments worldwide. This report briefly summa-rizes the main results from the in vitro toxicity study of CNTs. The emphasis is placed on the descrip-tion of a variety of factors affecting CNTs cytotoxicity, including species of CNTs, impurities contained,lengths of CNTs, aspect ratios, chemical modification, and assaying methods of cytotoxicity. However,experimental information obtained thus far on CNTs' cytotoxicity is lacking in comparability, and some-times there is controversy about it. In order to assess more accurately the potential risks of CNTs to human health, we suggest that care should be taken for issues such as chemical modification and quantitative characterization of CNTa in cytotoxicity assessment. More importantly, studies on physical and chemical mechanisms of CNTs' cytotoxicity should be strengthened; assaying methods and evaluating criteria characterized by nanotoxicology should be gradually established.

  17. The Cu-MOF-199/single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode for simultaneous determination of hydroquinone and catechol with extended linear ranges and lower detection limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Xi; Yang, Linlin; Yan, Songlin; Wang, Mengmeng; Cheng, Dan; Chen, Qi; Dong, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Cai, Weiquan; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-10-29

    A novel electrochemical sensor based on Cu-MOF-199 [Cu-MOF-199 = Cu3(BTC)2 (BTC = 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylicacid)] and SWCNTs (single-walled carbon nanotubes) was fabricated for the simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CT). The modification procedure was carried out through casting SWCNTs on the bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and followed by the electrodeposition of Cu-MOF-199 on the SWCNTs modified electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to characterize the electrochemical performance and surface characteristics of the as-prepared sensor. The composite electrode exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity with increased electrochemical signals towards the oxidation of HQ and CT, owing to the synergistic effect of SWCNTs and Cu-MOF-199. Under the optimized condition, the linear response range were from 0.1 to 1453 μmol L(-1) (RHQ = 0.9999) for HQ and 0.1-1150 μmol L(-1) (RCT = 0.9990) for CT. The detection limits for HQ and CT were as low as 0.08 and 0.1 μmol L(-1), respectively. Moreover, the modified electrode presented the good reproducibility and the excellent anti-interference performance. The analytical performance of the developed sensor for the simultaneous detection of HQ and CT had been evaluated in practical samples with satisfying results.

  18. Hybrid Composite of Polyaniline Containing Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polyaniline hybrid material was synthesized by emulsion polymerization in-situ. The morphology of hybrid material was studied by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity of nanocomposite increases with the increasing of carbon nanotube content because of the new conductivity passageways formed by carbon nanotubes.

  19. Synthesis and Application of Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Zeng; Zhenhua Li; Yuhong Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the unique structure, the superior physical and chemical properties, the super strong mechanical performances, and so on, carbon nanotubes have attracted the attention of researchers all over the world. In this article, the basic properties and the main production processes of carbon nanotubes are introduced in brief, and the progress of applied research for carbon nanotubes is reviewed.

  20. Dispersions of Carbon nanotubes in Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kristopher Eric (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Lowther, Sharon E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Dispersions of carbon nanotubes exhibiting long term stability are based on a polymer matrix having moieties therein which are capable of a donor-acceptor complexation with carbon nanotubes. The carbon nanotubes are introduced into the polymer matrix and separated therein by standard means. Nanocomposites produced from these dispersions are useful in the fabrication of structures, e.g., lightweight aerospace structures.

  1. Fluoride and lead adsorption on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuguang; LI Yanhui

    2004-01-01

    The properties and applications of CNT have been studied extensively since Iijima discovered them in 1991[1,2]. They have exceptional mechanical properties and unique electrical property, highly chemical stability and large specific surface area. Thus far, they have widely potential applications in many fields. They can be used as reinforcing materials in composites[3], field emissions[4], hydrogen storage[5], nanoelectronic components[6], catalyst supports[7], adsorption material and so on. However, the study on the potential application of CNT, environmental protection field in particular, was hardly begun.Long[8] et al. reported that CNT had a significantly higher dioxin removal efficiency than that of activated carbon. The Langmuir adsorption constant is 2.7 × 1052, 1.3 × 1018 respectively. The results indicated that CNT is potential candidate for the removal of micro-organic pollutants. However, the reports on the CNT used as fluoride and heavy metal adsorbent are seldom.In this paper, A novel material, alumina supported on carbon nanotubes (Al2O3/CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and Al(NO3)3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra demonstrate that alumina is amorphous, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that CNT and alumina are homogeneously mixed. Furthermore, the fluoride adsorption behavior on the surface of Al2O3/CNT has been investigated and compared with other adsorbents. The results indicate that Al2O3/CNT has a high adsorption capacity, with a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mg/g. It is also found that the adsorption capacity of Al2O3/CNT is 3.0~4.5 times that of γ-Al2O3while almost equal to that of IRA-410 polymeric resin at 25 ℃. The adsorption isotherms of fluoride on Al2O3/CNT is fit the Freundlich equation well, optimal pH ranging from 5.0 to 9.0.Also in this paper, a novel material, modified carbon nanotubes (CNT), was prepared from carbon nanotubes and HNO3 under boiling condition. Infrared spectroscopy (IR

  2. Direct electron transfer and biosensing of glucose oxidase immobilized at multiwalled carbon nanotube-alumina-coated silica modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei-Che; Huang, Jian-Lung; Tsai, Yu-Chen, E-mail: yctsai@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2012-05-01

    Investigations are reported regarding the direct electrochemical performance of glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized on a film of multiwalled carbon nanotube-alumina-coated silica (MWCNT-ACS). The surface morphology of the GOD/MWCNT-ACS nanobiocomposite is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. In cyclic voltammetric response, the immobilized GOD displays a pair of well-defined redox peaks, with a formal potential (E Degree-Sign Prime ) of - 0.466 V versus Ag/AgCl in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.5) at a scan rate of 0.05 V s{sup -1}; also the electrochemical response indicates a surface-controlled electrode process. The dependence of formal potential on solution pH indicates that the direct electron transfer reaction of GOD is a reversible two-electron coupled with a two-proton electrochemical reaction process. The glucose biosensor based on the GOD/MWCNT-ACS nanobiocomposite shows a sensitivity of 0.127 A M{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.5 mM. Furthermore, the prepared biosensor exhibits excellent anti-interference ability to the commonly co-existed uric acid and ascorbic acid. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A film composed of MWCNT-ACS was used for biosensor application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensitivity and good selectivity were obtained for the detection of glucose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This approach is potential for fabrication of mediator-free biosensor.

  3. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  4. Properties of Acrylic Acid Resin Coating Materials Modified by Carbon Nanotubes%碳纳米管改性丙烯酸树脂涂饰材料的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙友昌; 马建中; 鲍艳; 刘海腾; 于玉龙

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, carbon nanotubes were modified and purified by the mix acids, then surface properties of carbon nanotubes were analyzed with the help of the infrared detector. Vinyl leather finishing agent was modified by carbon nanotubes using physical blending and in - situ emulsion polymerization. Tensile strength, elongation at break and water resistance of acrylic resin mem- brane nano- composite coating agent were determined. The results show that carbon nanotubes has the obvious enhancement toughening effect to acrylic resin membrane. Acrylic resin modified by carbon nanotubes has better tensile strength and elongation at break with an increase in the amount of carbon nanotubes, but has worse water resistance. Acrylic resin membrane modified by carbon nanotubes using physical blending and in - situ emulsion polymerization, the comprehensive performance is the best when the dosage of CNTs respectively is 0.04% and 0. 03%. Ultrasonic treatment will decrease the tensile strength and elongation at break, but the water resistance of the film will be increased slightly.%采用混酸对碳纳米管(CNTs)进行改性和纯化,并以此为原料,分别采用物理共混与原位乳液聚合法制备碳纳米管改性丙烯酸树脂皮革涂饰剂,将制备的丙烯酸树脂乳液分别成膜,并对所成薄膜的抗张强度、断裂伸长率、耐水性等进行测定。结果表明:碳纳米管对丙烯酸树脂薄膜有明显的增强增韧效果,随着碳纳米管用量的增加,薄膜的抗张强度、断裂伸长率增加,但耐水性略有下降。采用物理共混法与原位乳液聚合法改性丙烯酸树脂乳液,当CNTs的用量分别为0.04%和0.03%时,改性丙烯酸树脂薄膜的综合性能最好。对改性后的乳液进行超声处理,可使

  5. Functionalization of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise Van Hooijdonk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses and summarizes recent studies on the functionalization of carbon nanotubes oriented perpendicularly to their substrate, so-called vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs. The intrinsic properties of individual nanotubes make the VA-CNTs ideal candidates for integration in a wide range of devices, and many potential applications have been envisaged. These applications can benefit from the unidirectional alignment of the nanotubes, the large surface area, the high carbon purity, the outstanding electrical conductivity, and the uniformly long length. However, practical uses of VA-CNTs are limited by their surface characteristics, which must be often modified in order to meet the specificity of each particular application. The proposed approaches are based on the chemical modifications of the surface by functionalization (grafting of functional chemical groups, decoration with metal particles or wrapping of polymers to bring new properties or to improve the interactions between the VA-CNTs and their environment while maintaining the alignment of CNTs.

  6. Gears Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Richard; Han, Jie; Globus, Al; Deardorff, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    Gears based on carbon nanotubes (see figure) have been proposed as components of an emerging generation of molecular- scale machines and sensors. In comparison with previously proposed nanogears based on diamondoid and fullerene molecules, the nanotube-based gears would have simpler structures and are more likely to be realizable by practical fabrication processes. The impetus for the practical development of carbon-nanotube- based gears arises, in part, from rapid recent progress in the fabrication of carbon nanotubes with prescribed diameters, lengths, chiralities, and numbers of concentric shells. The shafts of the proposed gears would be made from multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The gear teeth would be rigid molecules (typically, benzyne molecules), bonded to the nanotube shafts at atomically precise positions. For fabrication, it may be possible to position the molecular teeth by use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) or other related techniques. The capability to position individual organic molecules at room temperature by use of an STM tip has already been demonstrated. Routes to the chemical synthesis of carbon-nanotube-based gears are also under investigation. Chemical and physical aspects of the synthesis of molecular scale gears based on carbon nanotubes and related molecules, and dynamical properties of nanotube- based gears, have been investigated by computational simulations using established methods of quantum chemistry and molecular dynamics. Several particularly interesting and useful conclusions have been drawn from the dynamical simulations performed thus far: The forces acting on the gears would be more sensitive to local molecular motions than to gross mechanical motions of the overall gears. Although no breakage of teeth or of chemical bonds is expected at temperatures up to at least 3,000 K, the gears would not work well at temperatures above a critical range from about 600 to about 1,000 K. Gear temperature could probably be controlled by

  7. A Voltammetric Biosensor Based on Glassy Carbon Electrodes Modified with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes/Hemoglobin for Detection of Acrylamide in Water Extracts from Potato Crisps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Radecka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic acrylamide in a wide range of food products such as potato crisps, French fries or bread has been confirmed by Swedish scientists from Stockholm University. The neurotoxicity, possible carcinogenicity of this compound and its metabolites compels us to control them by quantitative and qualitative assays. Acrylamide forms adduct with hemoglobin (Hb as a result of the reaction the -NH2 group of the Nterminal valine with acrylamide. In this work we present the use of glassy carbon electrodes coated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and Hb for voltammetric detection of acrylamide in water solutions. The electrodes presented a very low detection limit (1.0×10-9 M. The validation made in the matrix obtained by water extraction of potato crisps showed that the electrodes presented are suitable for the direct determination of acrylamide in food samples.

  8. Amperometric biosensor for bisphenol A based on a glassy carbon electrode modified with a nanocomposite made from polylysine, single walled carbon nanotubes and tyrosinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have prepared a nanocomposite consisting of single-walled carbon nanotubes and polylysine. It was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and by UV/vis and FTIR spectroscopy. Tyrosinase was covalently immobilized on the nanocomposite, and the resulting bioconjugate deposited on a glassy carbon electrode to form a biosensor for bisphenol A. The biosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Under optimized experimental conditions, the biosensor gives a linear response to bisphenol A in the 4.00 nM to 11.5 μM concentration range. Its sensitivity is 788 mA M−1 cm−2, and the lower detection limit is 0.97 nM (at an S/N of 3). The biosensor shows good repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. In a preliminary practical application, it was successfully applied to the determination of bisphenol A in leachates of plastic spoons. (author)

  9. CMOS Integrated Carbon Nanotube Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been gaining their importance as sensors for gases, temperature and chemicals. Advances in fabrication processes simplify the formation of CNT sensor on silicon substrate. We have integrated single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with complementary metal oxide semiconductor process (CMOS) to produce a chip sensor system. The sensor prototype was designed and fabricated using a 0.30 um CMOS process. The main advantage is that the device has a voltage amplifier so the electrical measure can be taken and amplified inside the sensor. When the conductance of the SWCNTs varies in response to media changes, this is observed as a variation in the output tension accordingly.

  10. Deposition of new thia-containing Schiff-base iron (III) complexes onto carbon nanotube-modified glassy carbon electrodes as a biosensor for electrooxidation and determination of amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghatforoush, Lotfali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box 58168-45164, Khoy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanzadeh, Mohammad, E-mail: mhmmd_hasanzadeh@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box 58168-45164, Khoy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology (KNTU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadjou, Nasrin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Payame Noor University (PNU), P.O. Box 58168-45164, Khoy (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, K.N. Toosi University of Technology (KNTU), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalilzadeh, Balal [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as an immobilization matrix to incorporate an Fe (III)-Schiff base complex as an electron-transfer mediator onto a glassy carbon electrode surface. First, the preheated glassy carbon was subjected to abrasive immobilization of MWCNTs by gently rubbing the electrode surface on filter paper supporting the carbon nanotubes. Second, the electrode surface was modified by casting 100 {mu}L of an Fe (III)-complex solution (0.01 M in ACN). The cyclic voltammograms of the modified electrode in an aqueous solution displayed a pair of well-defined, stable and nearly reversible reductive oxidation redox systems with surface confined characteristics. Combinations of unique electronic and electrocatalytic properties of MWCNTs and Fe (III)-Schiff base complexes resulted in a remarkable synergistic augmentation of the response. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the modified electrode in aqueous solutions at pH 1-9 were characterized by cyclic voltammetry. The apparent electron transfer rate constant (K{sub s}) and transfer coefficient (a) were determined by cyclic voltammetry and were approximately 7 s{sup -1} and 0.55, respectively. The modified electrodes showed excellent catalytic activity towards the oxidation of amino acids at an unusually positive potential in acidic solution. They also displayed inherent stability at a wide pH range, fast response time, high sensitivity, low detection limit and had a remarkably positive potential oxidation of amino acids that decreased the effect of interferences in analysis. The linear concentration range, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantization (LOQ) and relative standard deviation of the proposed sensor for the amino acid detection were 1-55,000, 1.10-13.70, 2.79-27.14 and 1.30-5.11, respectively.

  11. Effects of fullerene (C60), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and hydroxyl and carboxyl modified single wall carbon nanotubes on riverine microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Waiser, M J; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Tumber, V; Paule, A; Hitchcock, A P; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R

    2016-05-01

    Commercial production of nanoparticles (NP) has created a need for research to support regulation of nanotechnology. In the current study, microbial biofilm communities were developed in rotating annular reactors during continuous exposure to 500 μg L(-1) of each nanomaterial and subjected to multimetric analyses. Scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) was used to detect and estimate the presence of the carbon nanomaterials in the biofilm communities. Microscopy observations indicated that the communities were visibly different in appearance with changes in abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria in particular. Microscale analyses indicated that fullerene (C60) did not significantly (p impact algal, cyanobacterial or bacterial biomass. In contrast, MWCNT exposure resulted in a significant decline in algal and bacteria biomass. Interestingly, the presence of SWCNT products increased algal biomass, significantly in the case of SWCNT-COOH (p impact on cyanobacterial or bacterial biomass. Thymidine incorporation indicated that bacterial production was significantly reduced (p nanomaterials with the exception of fullerene. Biolog assessment of carbon utilization revealed few significant effects with the exception of the utilization of carboxylic acids. PCA and ANOSIM analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results indicated that the bacterial communities exposed to fullerene were not different from the control, the MWCNT and SWNT-OH differed from the control but not each other, whereas the SWCNT and SWCNT-COOH both differed from all other treatments and were significantly different from the control (p nanomaterials. Enumeration of protozoan grazers showed declines in communities exposed to fullerene or MWCNT but a trend for increases in all SWCNT exposures. Observations indicated that at 500 μg L(-1), carbon nanomaterials significantly alter aspects of microbial community structure and function supporting the need for

  12. Modified carbon nanotubes as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction of gold, and its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, sensitive and accurate method was developed for solid-phase extraction and preconcentration of trace levels of gold in various samples. It is based on the adsorption of gold on modified oxidized multi-walled carbon nanotubes prior to its determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The type and volume of eluent solution, sample pH value, flow rates of sample and eluent, sorption capacity and breakthrough volume were optimized. Under these conditions, the method showed linearity in the range of 0.2–6.0 ng L−1 with coefficients of determination of >0.99 in the sample. The relative standard deviation for seven replicate determinations of gold (at a level of 0.6 ng L−1) is ±3.8 %, the detection limit is 31 pg L−1 (in the initial solution and at an S/N ratio of 3; for n = 8), and the enrichment factor is 200. The sorption capacity of the modified MWCNTs for gold(III) is 4.15 mg g−1. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of gold in (spiked) water samples, human hair, human urine and standard reference material with recoveries ranging from 97.0 to 104.2 %. (author)

  13. Ni(II)-quercetin complex modified multiwall carbon nanotube ionic liquid paste electrode and its electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Li [Institute of Analytical Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Shiyou University, Xi' an, 710065 (China); Zhang Jiaoqiang [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, 710072 (China); Song Junfeng [Institute of Analytical Science, Northwest University, Xi' an, 710069 (China)], E-mail: songjunf@nwu.edu.cn

    2009-07-30

    A modified electrode Ni(II)-Qu-MWCNT-IL-PE has been fabricated by electrodepositing Ni(II)-quercetin [Ni(II)-Qu] complex on the surface of multi-wall carbon nanotube ionic liquid paste electrode (MWCNT-IL-PE) in alkaline solution. The Ni(II)-Qu-MWCNT-IL-PE exhibits the characteristic of improved reversibility and enhanced current responses of the Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple compared with Ni(II)-Qu-MWCNT-PE. It also shows good electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of glucose. Kinetic parameters such as the electron transfer coefficient {alpha}, rate constant k{sub s} of the electrode reaction and the catalytic rate constant k{sub cat} of the catalytic reaction are determined. Moreover, the catalytic current presents linear dependence on the concentration of glucose from 5.0 {mu}M to 2.8 mM, with a detection limit of 1.0 {mu}M by amperometry. The modified electrode for glucose determination is of the property of simple preparation, good stability, fast response and high sensitivity.

  14. Electroanalysis and simultaneous determination of 6-thioguanine in the presence of uric acid and folic acid using a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitollahi, Hadi; Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh; Hosseinzadeh, Rahman

    2011-01-01

    The present work describes the preparation and characterization of a carbon nanotube paste electrode modified with 2,7-bis(ferrocenyl ethyl)fluoren-9-one (2,7-BF). This electrode showed an efficient catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of 6-thioguanine (6-TG), which leads to lowering 6-TG overpotential by more than 610 mV. Also, the values of catalytic rate constant (k = 2.7 × 10(3) mol(-1) L s(-1)), and diffusion coefficient (D = 2.7 × 10(-5) cm(2) s) were calculated. In 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.0, the oxidation current increased linearly with two concentration intervals of 6-TG, one is 0.06 to 10.0 µmol L(-1) and the other is 10.0 to 160.0 µmol L(-1). The detection limit (3σ) obtained by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was 22.0 nmol L(-1). DPV was used for simultaneous determination of 6-TG, uric acid (UA) and folic acid (FA) at the modified electrode, and for quantification of 6-TG, UA and FA in some real samples by the standard addition method.

  15. Effects of fullerene (C60), multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and hydroxyl and carboxyl modified single wall carbon nanotubes on riverine microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J R; Waiser, M J; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Tumber, V; Paule, A; Hitchcock, A P; Dynes, J J; Korber, D R

    2016-05-01

    Commercial production of nanoparticles (NP) has created a need for research to support regulation of nanotechnology. In the current study, microbial biofilm communities were developed in rotating annular reactors during continuous exposure to 500 μg L(-1) of each nanomaterial and subjected to multimetric analyses. Scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy (STXM) was used to detect and estimate the presence of the carbon nanomaterials in the biofilm communities. Microscopy observations indicated that the communities were visibly different in appearance with changes in abundance of filamentous cyanobacteria in particular. Microscale analyses indicated that fullerene (C60) did not significantly (p < 0.05) impact algal, cyanobacterial or bacterial biomass. In contrast, MWCNT exposure resulted in a significant decline in algal and bacteria biomass. Interestingly, the presence of SWCNT products increased algal biomass, significantly in the case of SWCNT-COOH (p < 0.05) but had no significant impact on cyanobacterial or bacterial biomass. Thymidine incorporation indicated that bacterial production was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by all nanomaterials with the exception of fullerene. Biolog assessment of carbon utilization revealed few significant effects with the exception of the utilization of carboxylic acids. PCA and ANOSIM analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) results indicated that the bacterial communities exposed to fullerene were not different from the control, the MWCNT and SWNT-OH differed from the control but not each other, whereas the SWCNT and SWCNT-COOH both differed from all other treatments and were significantly different from the control (p < 0.05). Fluorescent lectin binding analyses also indicated significant (p < 0.05) changes in the nature and quantities of exopolymer consistent with changes in microbial community structure during exposure to all nanomaterials. Enumeration of protozoan grazers

  16. Electrocatalytic detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid using single-walled carbon nanotubes modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaya; Du, Jie; Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Dong; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2012-09-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) fabricated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) (f-SWCNTs) modified glassy carbon electrodes (f-SWCNTs/GCE) for the simultaneous determination of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA). The f-SWCNTs/GCE displayed very good electrochemical catalytic activities with respect to GCE. The oxidation over-potentials of DA and UA decreased dramatically, and their oxidation peak currents increased significantly at f-SWCNTs/GCE compared to those obtained at the bare GCE. Simultaneously, the oxidation peak currents of AA decreased accordingly. The f-SWCNTs/GCE not only divide the overlapping voltammetric responses of them into individual voltammetric peaks, but also totally eliminate the interference from AA and distinguish DA from UA. The catalytic peak currents obtained from square-wave voltammetry increased linearly with increasing DA concentrations in the range of 5.0×10(-6) to 1.0×10(-4)M with a detection limit of 2.0×10(-8)M (S/N=3). The method was also successfully applied for determination of DA and showed good recovery in some biological fluids. PMID:22580482

  17. An electrochemical sensor for warfarin determination based on covalent immobilization of quantum dots onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes and chitosan composite film modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher, E-mail: mbgholivand2013@gmail.com; Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila

    2015-12-01

    A method is described for the construction of a novel electrochemical warfarin sensor based on covalent immobilization of CdS-quantum dots (CdS-QDs) onto carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/chitosan (CS) composite film on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode. The CdS-QDs/CS/MWCNTs were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, XRD analysis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The sensor showed optimum anodic stripping response within 90 s at an accumulation potential of 0.75 V. The modified electrode was used to detect the concentration of warfarin with a wide linear range of 0.05–80 μM and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.5 nM. The proposed sensor has good storage stability, repeatability and reproducibility and was successfully applied for the determination of warfarin in real samples such as urine, serum and milk. - Highlights: • A new sensitive sensor for warfarin determination was developed. • The sensor was constructed based on covalent immobilization of CdS-QDs on the chitosan/MWCNTs/GCE. • The parameters affecting the stripping analysis of warfarin were optimized. • The proposed sensor is used for trace determination of warfarin in urine, serum and milk.

  18. CARBON NANOTUBES AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Pavani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are often described as a graphene sheet rolled up into the shape of a cylinder. These have fascinated scientists with their extraordinary properties. These compounds have become increasingly popular in various fields simply because of their small size and amazing optical, electric and magnetic properties when used alone or with additions of metals. Carbon nanotubes have potential therapeutic applications in the field of drug delivery, diagnostics, and biosensing. Functionalized carbon nanotubes can also act as vaccine delivery systems.Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are considered to be one of the innovative resources in nanotechnology with possible use in wide range of biomedical applications viz. cancer treatment, bioengineering, cardiac autonomic regulation, platelet activation and tissue regeneration. The effect of CNTs on cells and tissues are extremely important for their use in various complex biological systems. With the increasing interest shown by the nanotechnology research community in this field, it is expected that plenty of applications of CNTs will be explored in future.

  19. Quantum transport in carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laird, E.A.; Kuemmeth, F.; Steele, G.A.; Grove-Rasmussen, K.; Nygard, J.; Flensberg, K.; Kouwenhoven, L.P.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a versatile material in which many aspects of condensed matter physics come together. Recent discoveries have uncovered new phenomena that completely change our understanding of transport in these devices, especially the role of the spin and valley degrees of freedom. This revie

  20. Developing Carbon Nanotube Standards at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Pasha; Arepalli, Sivaram; Sosa, Edward; Gorelik, Olga; Yowell, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are currently being produced and processed by several methods. Many researchers are continuously modifying existing methods and developing new methods to incorporate carbon nanotubes into other materials and utilize the phenomenal properties of SWCNTs. These applications require availability of SWCNTs with known properties and there is a need to characterize these materials in a consistent manner. In order to monitor such progress, it is critical to establish a means by which to define the quality of SWCNT material and develop characterization standards to evaluate of nanotube quality across the board. Such characterization standards should be applicable to as-produced materials as well as processed SWCNT materials. In order to address this issue, NASA Johnson Space Center has developed a protocol for purity and dispersion characterization of SWCNTs. The NASA JSC group is currently working with NIST, ANSI and ISO to establish purity and dispersion standards for SWCNT material. A practice guide for nanotube characterization is being developed in cooperation with NIST. Furthermore, work is in progress to incorporate additional characterization methods for electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical and other properties of SWCNTs.

  1. Amino and thiol modified magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotubes for the simultaneous removal of lead, zinc, and phenol from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Li, Shujun; Yu, Haitao; Zou, Zongshu; Hou, Xingang; Shen, Fengman; Li, Chuantong; Yao, Xiayan

    2016-04-01

    The novel functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was synthesized by reacting trimethoxysilylpropanethiol (MPTs), hydrazine, ammonium ferrous sulfate, and ammonium ferric sulfate in sequence as efficient ways to introduce Fe3O4, amino and thiol groups onto the nanotubes sidewalls. The magnetic MWCNTs composite material (N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs) was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermo-gravimetric analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy and magnetization curve. The results revealed that MPTs and hydrazine were coated on the surface of N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs. A series of batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the experimental conditions, such as pH, contact time, initial concentrations and temperatures, which affected the adsorption process. The adsorption experiment results showed that the maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs for lead, zinc and phenol was 195.81 mg/g, 169.89 mg/g and 38.97 mg/g at pH 6, respectively. The adsorption isotherm was better fitted by the Freundlich model, and the adsorption kinetics was consistent with pseudo-second order kinetics model. Furthermore, thermodynamic data showed that the adsorption process was spontaneous and exothermic. These results indicated that N2H4-SH-Fe3O4/o-MWCNTs may be promising surface modified materials for removing heavy metal ions and phenol from aqueous solutions.

  2. Enhanced electrochemical performance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C cathode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Gang [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Zhang, Lu-Lu, E-mail: luluzhang924@gmail.com [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Yang, Xue-Lin, E-mail: xlyang@ctgu.edu.cn [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Duan, Song [College of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Three Gorges University, 8 Daxue Road, Yichang 443002 (China); Liang, Gan [Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341 (United States); Huang, Yun-Hui [State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-09-05

    Graphical abstract: The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C composite is synthesized via a citric acid-based sol–gel method. The as-prepared Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode displays a remarkably enhanced high-rate performance and cycling stability because of the effective conducting network between the MWCNTs and the Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C particles. Highlights: •Nano-Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs composite was successfully synthesized via a citric acid-based sol–gel method. •High conducting network were attained for Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs. •The Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode can extract more than 1 mol Li{sup +} at 0.1 C. •The as-prepared Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode displays a remarkably enhanced high-rate performance and cycling stability. -- Abstract: The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C composite is synthesized via a citric acid-based sol–gel method, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) tests. The Li{sup +} diffusion coefficient in Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs is larger than that in Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C. Compared with Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C, Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C/MWCNTs electrode can extract more than 1 mol Li{sup +} and exhibit better electrochemical performance with a high discharge capacity of 206.8 mA h g{sup −1} in the second cycle, especially, an excellent high-rate capacity and cycle stability. The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the reduced particle size and the high conducting network between the MWCNTs and the Li{sub 2}FeSiO{sub 4}/C particles.

  3. From carbon nanotubes to carbon atomic chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas García, Gilberto; Zhang, Weijia; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    Carbyne is a linear allotrope of carbon. It is formed by a linear arrangement of carbon atoms with sp-hybridization. We present a reliable and reproducible experiment to obtain these carbon atomic chains using few-layer-graphene (FLG) sheets and a HRTEM. First the FLG sheets were synthesized from worm-like exfoliated graphite and then drop-casted on a lacey-carbon copper grid. Once in the TEM, two holes are opened near each other in a FLG sheet by focusing the electron beam into a small spot. Due to the radiation, the carbon atoms rearrange themselves between the two holes and form carbon fibers. The beam is concentrated on the carbon fibers in order excite the atoms and induce a tension until multi wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) is formed. As the radiation continues the MWCNT breaks down until there is only a single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT). Then, when the SWCNT breaks, an atomic carbon chain is formed, lasts for several seconds under the radiation and finally breaks. This demonstrates the stability of this carbon structure.

  4. Bloch oscillations in carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Esther; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Rojas, Fernando

    2009-05-27

    Bloch oscillations arise when electrons are in a one-dimensional linear chain of atoms under a constant electric field. In this paper we show numerically that electrons in different types of carbon nanotubes show oscillations with a Bloch frequency proportional to the constant electric field applied along the nanotube axis. We show these oscillations, calculating the quadratic displacement as a function of the electric field. Because of the double periodicity of the nanotubes' geometry (the lattice constant and the lines of atoms) two frequencies appear, one twice the value of the other. These frequencies coincide perfectly with those predicted for a linear chain of atoms, taking into account the periodicity considered in each case.

  5. Formation of a robust and stable film comprising ionic liquid and polyoxometalate on glassy carbon electrode modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes: Toward sensitive and fast detection of hydrogen peroxide and iodate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A robust and stable film comprising n-octylpyridinum hexafluorophosphate ([C8Py][PF6]) and 1:12 phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was prepared on glassy carbon electrodes modified with multiwall carbon nanotubes (GCE/MWCNTs) by dip-coating. The cyclic voltammograms of the GCE/MWCNTs/[C8Py][PF6]-PMo12 showed three well-defined pairs of redox peaks due to the PMo12 system. The surface coverage for the immobilized PMo12 and the average values of the electron transfer rate constant for three pairs of redox peaks were evaluated. The GCE/MWCNTs/[C8Py][PF6]-PMo12 showed great electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2 and iodate. The kinetic parameters of the catalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide and iodate at the electrode surface and analytical features of the sensor for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide and iodate were evaluated.

  6. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes with Ni/CNTs catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chunhua; (李春华); YAO; Kefu; (姚可夫); RUAN; Dianbo; (阮殿波); LIANG; Ji; (梁; 吉); XU; Cailu; (徐才录); WU; Dehai; (吴德海)

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), owing to their large specific area, good chemical stability and modifiable surface properties after acidic or basic treatment, can be used as catalytic support materials. In this paper, the activities and selectivities of two catalysts, i. e. Ni catalyst supported by carbon nanotubes (Ni/CNTs) and that supported by diatomite (Ni/SiO2), are compared. It is found that the quality of the carbon nanotubes synthesized by the two catalysts is similar, but the yield of the former is 1.5 times higher than that of the latter. The excellent performance of the Ni/CNTs catalyst should be ascribed to the larger specific surface area and proper pore distribution and the structure of the carbon nanotube support.

  7. Roping and wrapping carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Kevin D.; O'Connell, Michael J.; Boul, Peter; Ericson, Lars M.; Casavant, Michael J.; Walters, Deron A.; Huffman, Chad; Saini, Rajesh; Wang, Yuhuang; Haroz, Erik; Billups, Edward W.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-11-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be dispersed into solvents by ultrasonication to the point that primarily individual tubes, cut to a few hundred nanometers in length, are present. However, when such dispersions are filtered to a thick mat, or paper, only tangles of uniform, seemingly endless ropes are observed. The factors contributing to this "roping" phenomenon, akin to aggregation or crystallization, will be discussed. We have developed methods for generating "super-ropes" more than twenty times the diameter of those formed by filtration, involving the extraction of nanotube material from an oleum dispersion. Nanotubes have been solubilized in water, largely individually, by non-covalently wrapping them with linear polymers. The general thermodynamic drive for this wrapping involves the polymer disrupting both the hydrophobic interface with water and the smooth tube-tube interaction in aggregates. The nanotubes can be recovered from their polymeric wrapping by changing their solvent system. This solubilization process opens the door to solution chemistry on pristine nanotubes, as well as their introduction into biologically relevant systems.

  8. Determination of Catechol Based on Carbon Nanotube Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode%碳纳米管修饰玻碳电极测定邻苯二酚的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔艳萍; 王卫星; 王小龙

    2011-01-01

    文章借助循环伏安法(CV)研究了邻二苯酚(CAT)在碳纳米管修饰玻碳电极(CNTs/GCE)表面的电催化氧化行为.试验结果表明:CNTs/GCE对邻二苯酚的氧化过程表现出良好的催化活性,其响应峰电流与裸GCE相比增加了10倍以上;在最佳响应条件下,在0.25~2.0 mmol/L的浓度范围内,邻苯二酚的催化氧化峰电流与浓度呈良好的线性关系;并对模拟废水中的邻苯二酚进行了回收试验.%Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were loaded on the glassy carbon electrode to prepare carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (CNTs/GCE). And the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of catechol was investigated on this modified electrode by cyclic voltammetry (CV) of the electrochemical methods. Results show that good electrocatalytic activity for catechol oxidation could be observed at CNTs/GCE. Compared with bare GCE, the response peak current of CNTs/GCE had an increase of more than lOtimes. Under the optimal condition of response, the oxidation peak current were increased linear with the concentrations of catechol at the range 0.25-2.0 mmol/L. And the recovery test of catechol in simulating wastewater was satisfactory.

  9. Application of an enzyme-based biofuel cell containing a bioelectrode modified with deoxyribonucleic acid-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes to serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Yong; Kang, Seong Woo; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Seung Wook

    2011-01-01

    Enzyme-based biofuel cells (EFCs) are a form of biofuel cells (BFCs) that can utilize redox enzymes as biocatalysts. Applications of an EFC to an implantable system are evaluated under mild conditions, such as ambient temperature or neutral pH. In the present study, an EFC containing a bioelectrode modified with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-wrapped single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) was applied to a serum system. The protection of immobilized glucose oxidase (GOD) using DNA-wrapped SWNTs was investigated in a trypsin environment, which can exist in a serum. GOD is immobilized by masking the active site onto the anode electrode. The anode/cathode system in the cell was composed of GOD/laccase as the biocatalysts and glucose/oxygen as the substrates in serum. The electrical properties of the anode in serum according to cyclic voltammetry (CV cycle) were improved using the DNA-wrapped SWNTs. Overall, an EFC that employed DNA-wrapped SWNTs and GOD immobilization in conjunction with protection of the active site increased the stability of GOD in serum, which enabled a high level of power production (ca. 190 μW/cm(2)) for up to 1 week.

  10. Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes at the Interface of Pickering Emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Nicholas M; Weston, Javen S; Li, Brian; Venkataramani, Deepika; Aichele, Clint P; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Crossley, Steven P

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes exhibit very unique properties in biphasic systems. Their interparticle attraction leads to reduced droplet coalescence rates and corresponding improvements in emulsion stability. Here we use covalent and noncovalent techniques to modify the hydrophilicity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and study their resulting behavior at an oil-water interface. By using both paraffin wax/water and dodecane/water systems, the thickness of the layer of MWNTs at the interface and resulting emulsion stability are shown to vary significantly with the approach used to modify the MWNTs. Increased hydrophilicity of the MWNTs shifts the emulsions from water-in-oil to oil-in-water. The stability of the emulsion is found to correlate with the thickness of nanotubes populating the oil-water interface and relative strength of the carbon nanotube network. The addition of a surfactant decreases the thickness of nanotubes at the interface and enhances the overall interfacial area stabilized at the expense of increased droplet coalescence rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the interfacial thickness of modified carbon nanotubes has been quantified and correlated to emulsion stability.

  11. Carbon Nanotubes - Polymer Composites with Enhanced Conductivity using Functionalized Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramaniam, Rajagopal; Chen, Jian; Gupta, Rishi

    2003-03-01

    Individual carbon nanotubes show superior electrical, mechanical and thermal properties [1]. Composite materials using carbon nanotubes as fillers are predicted to show similar superior properties. However, realization of such composites has been plagued by poor dispersion of carbon nanotubes in solvents and in polymer matrices. We have developed a method to homogenously disperse carbon nanotubes in polymer matrices using functionalized nanotubes [2]. Thin films of functionalized single walled nanotubes (SWNT) - polystyrene composites and functionalized SWNT - polycarbonate composites were prepared using solution evaporation and spin coating. Both of the composites show several orders of magnitude increase in conductivity for less than 1 wt thresholds of the composites are less than 0.2 wt nanotubes. We attribute the enhanced conduction to the superior dispersion of the functionalized nanotubes in the polymer matrix and to the reduced nanotube waviness resulting from the rigid backbone of the conjugated polymer. References: [1]. R. H. Baughman, A. A. Zakhidov and W. A. de Heer, Science v297, p787 (2002); [2]. J. Chen, H. Liu, W. A. Weimer, M. D. Halls, D. H. Waldeck and G. C. Walker, J. Am. Chem. Soc. v124, p9034 (2002).

  12. Synthesis and Characterization Of Fe-modified Imogolite Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Shafia, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    During the past decades, and after introducing the most famous carbon nanotubes, the main role in these fields has been playing by the single- and multi-wall carbon nanotubes which have received tremendous research interest due to their superior mechanical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties. However, several problems in carbon nanotube technology, such as high-temperature process with low yield product, imprecise control over nanotube dimensions and chirality, limitations of chemica...

  13. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F.; Ahmed A. Al-Ghamdi; Abdel-Daiem, A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc....

  14. Carboxyl-modified single-wall carbon nanotubes improve bone tissue formation in vitro and repair in an in vivo rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrientos-Durán A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Barrientos-Durán,1,5,* Ellen M Carpenter,2 Nicole I zur Nieden,3 Theodore I Malinin,4 Juan Carlos Rodríguez-Manzaneque,5 Laura P Zanello1,* 1Department of Biochemistry, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, South Los Angeles, CA, USA; 3Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Stem Cell Center, College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, USA; 4Tissue Bank, Department of Orthopedics, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 5Pfizer-University of Granada-Junta de Andalucía Centre for Genomics and Oncological Research (GENYO, Granada, Spain *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The clinical management of bone defects caused by trauma or nonunion fractures remains a challenge in orthopedic practice due to the poor integration and biocompatibility properties of the scaffold or implant material. In the current work, the osteogenic properties of carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH–SWCNTs were investigated in vivo and in vitro. When human preosteoblasts and murine embryonic stem cells were cultured on coverslips sprayed with COOH–SWCNTs, accelerated osteogenic differentiation was manifested by increased expression of classical bone marker genes and an increase in the secretion of osteocalcin, in addition to prior mineralization of the extracellular matrix. These results predicated COOH–SWCNTs’ use to further promote osteogenic differentiation in vivo. In contrast, both cell lines had difficulties adhering to multi-walled carbon nanotube-based scaffolds, as shown by scanning electron microscopy. While a suspension of SWCNTs caused cytotoxicity in both cell lines at levels >20 µg/mL, these levels were never achieved by release from sprayed SWCNTs, warranting the approach taken. In vivo, human allografts formed by the

  15. A glassy carbon electrode modified with bismuth nanotubes in a silsesquioxane framework for sensing of trace lead and cadmium by stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-walled bismuth nanotubes (sw-BiNTs) were self-assembled with octa(3-aminopropyl) silsesquioxane as a framework and to govern morphology. Deposited on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the sw-BiNTs were used for the simultaneous analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by square wave stripping voltammetry. The sw-BiNTs were prepared by (a) coordination interaction between the amino groups of the silsesquioxane and the Bi(III) ions, and by (b) reduction with sodium borohydride. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed single-walled tubular structures with diameters of ∼4–6 nm, and with lengths of several hundreds nanometers. GCEs modified with such sw-BiNTs perform much better than bare GCEs in stripping analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II). The effects of adsorption quantity of sw-BiNTs, solution pH, pulse amplitude, and pulse width were optimized. The modified electrode was then used for the analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in a linear response range from 0.4 to 6 μM with a sensitivity of 4.692 μA μM−1 and 3.835 μA μM−1, and detection limits of 1 nM and 5 nM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in toy leachates, and the results were in good agreement with those obtained with atomic absorption spectrometry. Sensitivity and detection limits were compared with other voltammetric methods, and the sw-BiNTs are deemed to be an attractive alternative for practical applications. Other features of the electrode include low costs, a well reproducible nanostructure, and ease of scale-up of the fabrication process. (author)

  16. Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsuk Mukhopadhyay

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes have attracted the fancy of many scientists world wide. The small dimensions,strength, and the remarkable physical properties of these structures make them a unique material with a whole range of promising applications. In this review, the structural aspects, the advantages and disadvantages of different for their procedures synthesis, the qualitative and quantitative estimation of carbon nanotubes by different analytical techniques, the present status on their applications as well as the current challenges faced in the application field, national, in particular DRDO, DMSRDE status, and interest in this field, have been discussed.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(4, pp.437-450, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.58.1666

  17. Ballistic Fracturing of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Sehmus; Machado, Leonardo D; Tiwary, ChandraSekhar; Autreto, Pedro A S; Vajtai, Robert; Barrera, Enrique V; Galvao, Douglas S; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2016-09-21

    Advanced materials with multifunctional capabilities and high resistance to hypervelocity impact are of great interest to the designers of aerospace structures. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with their lightweight and high strength properties are alternative to metals and/or metallic alloys conventionally used in aerospace applications. Here we report a detailed study on the ballistic fracturing of CNTs for different velocity ranges. Our results show that the highly energetic impacts cause bond breakage and carbon atom rehybridizations, and sometimes extensive structural reconstructions were also observed. Experimental observations show the formation of nanoribbons, nanodiamonds, and covalently interconnected nanostructures, depending on impact conditions. Fully atomistic reactive molecular dynamics simulations were also carried out in order to gain further insights into the mechanism behind the transformation of CNTs. The simulations show that the velocity and relative orientation of the multiple colliding nanotubes are critical to determine the impact outcome.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol based on poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composite film modified electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Kexin; Lu, Nan; Yuan, Xing

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a poly(Rhodamine B)/graphene oxide/multiwalled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite modified glass carbon electrode (PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PRhB/GO/MWCNTs film was extensively characterized by emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical behaviors of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. Due to the synergistic effect, the PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE significantly facilitated the simultaneous electro-oxidation of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP with peak potential difference of 160 mV and enhanced oxidation currents. Under optimum conditions, the oxidation current of 2,4,6-TCP was linear to its concentration in the ranges of 4.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-7 M and 1.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 8.0 × 10-10 M. And the linear concentration ranges for PCP were 2.0 × 10-9 to 1.0 × 10-7 M and 1.0 × 10-7 to 9.0 × 10-5 M with the detection limit of 5.0 × 10-10 M. Moreover, the proposed PRhB/GO/MWCNTs/GCE was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of 2,4,6-TCP and PCP in practical water samples.

  19. Photoluminescence Study of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Han, H. X.; Li, G. H.; Ge, W. K.; Wang, Z. P.; Xu, Z. Y.; Xie, S. S.; Chang, B H; Sun, L. F.; Wang, B S; G. Xu; Su, Z.B.

    2000-01-01

    ultiwalled carbon nanotubes, prepared by both electric arc discharge and chemical vapor deposition methods, show a strong visible light emission in photoluminescence experiments. All the samples employed in the experiments exhibit nearly same super-linear intensity dependence of the emission bands on the excitation intensity, and negligible temperature dependence of the central position and the line shapes of the emission bands. Based upon theoretical analysis of the electronic band structure...

  20. Photonics based on carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Qingyuan; Gicquel-Guézo, Maud; Loualiche, Slimane; Pouliquen, Julie Le; Batte, Thomas; Folliot, Hervé; Dehaese, Olivier; Grillot, Frederic; Battie, Yann; Loiseau, Annick; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Among direct-bandgap semiconducting nanomaterials, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit strong quasi-one-dimensional excitonic optical properties, which confer them a great potential for their integration in future photonics devices as an alternative solution to conventional inorganic semiconductors. In this paper, we will highlight SWCNT optical properties for passive as well as active applications in future optical networking. For passive applications, we directly compare the effi...

  1. OPPORTUNITIES OF BIOMEDICAL USE OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Mitrofanova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials  –  materials,  whouse  structure  elements  has  proportions  doesn’t  exceed  100  nm.  In superdispersed state matter acquire new properties. In the last decade, carbon nanotubes become the most popular nanomaterials, that cause attention of representatives of various scientific field. The сarbon nanotubes offer new opportunities for biological and medical applications: imaging at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels, biosensors and electrodes based on carbon nanotubes, target delivery of various substances, radiation and photothermal therapy. The most promising of carbon nanotubes in the context of biomedical applications is their ability to penetrate the various tissues of the body and carry large doses of agents, providing diagnostic and therapeutic effects. Functionalized nanotubes are biodegradable. Other current direction of using carbon nanotubes in medicine and biology is to visualize objects on the molecular, cellular and tissue level. Associated with carbon nanotubes contrasting substances improve the visualization of cells and tissues, which can detected new patterns of development of the pathological process. Due to the vagueness of the question of biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes possibility of their practical application is hampered. Before the introduction of carbon nanotubes into practical health care is necessary to provide all the possible consequences of using nanotubes. High rates of properties and development of new nanostructures based on carbon nanotubes in the near future will lead to new advances related to the application and development of new parameters that will determine their properties and effects. In these review attention is paid to the structure, physico-chemical properties of nanotubes, their functionalization, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and all aspects of using of carbon nanotubes.

  2. The Effect of Functionalization Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) on the Performance of PES-CNTs Mixed Matrix Membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Mustafa; Tutuk Djoko Kusworo; Abdullah Busairi; Ahmad Fauzi Ismail

    2010-01-01

    A new type of mixed matrix membrane consisting of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polyethersulfone (PES) is prepared for biogas purification. PES mixed matrix membrane with and without modification of carbon nanotubes were prepared by a dry/wet phase inversion technique using a pneumatically flat sheet membrane casting machine system. The modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by treating the carbon nanotubes with chemical modification using Dynasylan Ameo (DA) silane agent to all...

  3. Engineering carbon nanotubes and nanotube circuits using electrical breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, P G; Arnold, M S; Avouris, P

    2001-04-27

    Carbon nanotubes display either metallic or semiconducting properties. Both large, multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs), with many concentric carbon shells, and bundles or "ropes" of aligned single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs), are complex composite conductors that incorporate many weakly coupled nanotubes that each have a different electronic structure. Here we demonstrate a simple and reliable method for selectively removing single carbon shells from MWNTs and SWNT ropes to tailor the properties of these composite nanotubes. We can remove shells of MWNTs stepwise and individually characterize the different shells. By choosing among the shells, we can convert a MWNT into either a metallic or a semiconducting conductor, as well as directly address the issue of multiple-shell transport. With SWNT ropes, similar selectivity allows us to generate entire arrays of nanoscale field-effect transistors based solely on the fraction of semiconducting SWNTs.

  4. Enhancing and redirecting carbon nanotube photoluminescence by an optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhmler, Miriam; Hartmann, Nicolai; Georgi, Carsten; Hennrich, Frank; Green, Alexander A; Hersam, Mark C; Hartschuh, Achim

    2010-08-01

    We observe the angular radiation pattern of single carbon nanotubes' photoluminescence in the back focal plane of a microscope objective and show that the emitting nanotube can be described by a single in-plane point dipole. The near-field interaction between a nanotube and an optical antenna modifies the radiation pattern that is now dominated by the antenna characteristics. We quantify the antenna induced excitation and radiation enhancement and show that the radiative rate enhancement is connected to a directional redistribution of the emission. PMID:20721031

  5. Dielectrophoretic assembly of carbon nanotube devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimaki, Maria

    The purpose of this project has been to assemble single-walled carbon nanotubes on electrodes at the tip of a biocompatible cantilever and use these for chemical species sensing in air and liquid, for example in order to measure the local activity from ion channels in the cell membrane....... The electrical resistance of carbon nanotubes has been shown to be extremely sensitive to gas molecules. Dielectrophoresis is a method capable of quickly attracting nanotubes on microelectrodes by using an electric field, thus enabling nanotube integration in microsystems. Dielectrophoresis offers also...... the potential of distinguishing between nanotubes of different electrical properties, which is very important for the optimisation of the properties of the carbon nanotube sensors. Various cantilever and planar structures were designed, fabricated and tested both with multi-walled and single-walled carbon...

  6. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of

  7. 碳纳米管改性聚氨酯复合材料%Polyurethane composites modified by carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕君亮; 刘意; 易运红

    2012-01-01

    The authors prepared two sets of specimens of polyurethane/earbon nanotube(PUR/CNTs) composites via in-situ polymerization under the action of ultrasonic wave, either compounding PUR with CNTs directly or polymerizing PUR with the CNTs treated by silane coupling agent. The effect of CNTs content on electrical properties of the composites was discussed. The composite could be used as antistatic material when the CNTs content was 1.0% in mass fraction. The CNTs treated by silane coupling agent could be dispersed well in the composite. The tensile strength, notched Izod impact strength and tensile modulus of the composites were superior.%用原位聚合法制备两组聚氨酯(PUR)/碳纳米管(CNTs)复合材料.一组是在超声波作用下将CNTs直接和PUR复合;另一组是将硅烷偶联剂处理的CNTs在超声波作用下与PUR原位聚合制备PUR/CNTs复合材料.探讨了CNTs含量对复合材料电性能的影响,在w(CNTs)为1.0%时可用作抗静电材料.经硅烷偶联剂处理的CNTs分散较好,复合材料的拉伸强度、悬臂梁缺口冲击强度,拉伸模量更高.

  8. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: · Constructed a novel composite material using Fe3O4NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. · The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. · The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA μM-1) · The half life of electrode was 2 months. · The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe3O4/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe3O4NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 μM substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA μM-1), reusability (more than 50 times) and stability (2

  9. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  10. A Tunable Carbon Nanotube Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Vera

    2005-03-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. Carbon nanotubes (NT) are perhaps the ultimate material for realizing a NEMS device as they are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus is able to sense its own motion. Here, we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string oscillation modes of doubly-clamped NT oscillators. We observed resonance frequencies in the 5MHz to 150MHz range with quality factors in the 50 to 100 range. We showed that the resonance frequencies can be widely tuned by a gate voltage. We also report on the temperature dependence of the quality factor and present a discussion of possible loss mechanisms.

  11. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Materials based on Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Adrian Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes, no matter if they are single-walled or multi-walled, are an integral component in the vastly growing field of nanotechnology. Since their discovery by TEM and the invention of numerous large-scale production techniques, nanotubes are close to making their way into industrial products. Although many properties and modification processes are still under intensive research, the first real-market applications for carbon nanotubes have already been presented. However, if function...

  13. Glucose oxidase immobilization onto carbon nanotube networking

    CERN Document Server

    Karachevtsev, V A; Zarudnev, E S; Karachevtsev, M V; Leontiev, V S; Linnik, A S; Lytvyn, O S; Plokhotnichenko, A M; Stepanian, S G

    2012-01-01

    When elaborating the biosensor based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), it is necessary to solve such an important problem as the immobilization of a target biomolecule on the nanotube surface. In this work, the enzyme (glucose oxidase (GOX)) was immobilized on the surface of a nanotube network, which was created by the deposition of nanotubes from their solution in 1,2-dichlorobenzene by the spray method. 1-Pyrenebutanoic acid succinimide ester (PSE) was used to form the molecular interface, the bifunctional molecule of which provides the covalent binding with the enzyme shell, and its other part (pyrene) is adsorbed onto the nanotube surface. First, the usage of such a molecular interface leaves out the direct adsorption of the enzyme (in this case, its activity decreases) onto the nanotube surface, and, second, it ensures the enzyme localization near the nanotube. The comparison of the resonance Raman (RR) spectrum of pristine nanotubes with their spectrum in the PSE environment evidences the creat...

  14. 基于碳纳米管修饰电极的甲醛生物传感器%An Formaldehyde Biosensor Based on Carbon Nanotubes Modified Electrode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仁彦; 张学骜; 贾红辉; 李新华

    2012-01-01

    A novel formaldehyde biosensor based on the detection of reduced coenzyme I by using the formaldehyde dehydrogenase and carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified screen printed electrode was reported. The best detection conditions in experiments were examined. The experiment results showed that the sensor had good electrocatalytic oxidization function to formaldehyde, and it significantly reduced the formaldehyde oxidation peak voltage. The concentrate of formaldehyde in the range of 1 nmol/L to 11 mmol/L presented excellent linear relationship to its peak currents and its the linear regression equation was i(μ)=0. 944c (mmol/L) + 0.0623, with a correlation coefficient of 0. 9934. The response time was about 20 s. The detection limit was 0. 2 u,mol/L(S/N=3).%利用甲醛脱氢酶和羧基化多壁碳纳米管修饰的丝网印刷电极,制备了基于还原型辅酶Ⅰ检测的甲醛生物传感器,并优化了传感器的检测条件.结果表明,此传感器对甲醛有较好的电催化氧化作用,显著降低了甲醛的氧化峰电位.在0.001~11nmol/L范围内,响应电流与甲醛的浓度线性相关,其线性回归方程为z(μA)=0.944c(mmol/L,) +0.0623,相关系数为0.9934,响应时间约为20 s,检出限为0.2 μmol/L( S/ N=3).

  15. Polymer Self-assembly on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulianini, Michele; Motta, Nunzio

    This chapter analyses the poly(3-hexylthiophene) self-assembly on carbon nanotubes and the interaction between the two materials forming a new hybrid nanostructure. The chapter starts with a review of the several studies investigating polymers and biomolecules self-assembled on nanotubes. Then conducting polymers and polythiophenes are briefly introduced. Accordingly, carbon nanotube structure and properties are reported in Sect. 3. The experimental section starts with the bulk characterisation of polymer thin films with the inclusion of uniformly distributed carbon nanotubes. By using volume film analysis techniques (AFM, TEM, UV-Vis and Raman), we show how the polymer's higher degree of order is a direct consequence of interaction with carbon nanotubes. Nevertheless, it is through the use of nanoscale analysis and molecular dynamic simulations that the self-assembly of the polymer on the nanotube surface can be clearly evidenced and characterised. In Sect. 6, the effect of the carbon templating structure on the P3HT organisation on the surface is investigated, showing the chirality-driven polymer assembly on the carbon nanotube surface. The interaction between P3HT and CNTs brings also to charge transfer, with the modification of physical properties for both species. In particular, the alteration of the polymer electronic properties and the modification of the nanotube mechanical structure are a direct consequence of the P3HT π-π stacking on the nanotube surface. Finally, some considerations based on molecular dynamics studies are reported in order to confirm and support the experimental results discussed.

  16. Reinforcing effect of plasma modified halloysite nanotubes in a carbon black filled natural rubber-butadien rubber matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poikelispaa, Minna; Das, Amit; Dierkes, Wilma; Vuorinen, Jyrki

    2011-01-01

    Rubber composites are generally produced by the direct incorporation of fillers like carbon black and/or silica into the rubber matrix. The incorporation of different types of nanofillers is the subject of recent research with the aim of preparing composites with special compositions and properties.

  17. Chromatographic size separation of single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duesberg, G. S.; Muster, J.; Krstic, V.; Burghard, M.; Roth, S.

    The efficient purification of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is reported. Carbon nanospheres, metal particles, and amorphous carbon could be successfully removed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) applied to surfactant stabilised dispersions of SWNT raw material. In addition, length separation of the tubes was achieved. The SWNTs obtained can be adsorbed in high densities onto chemically modified substrates. As determined by AFM investigations, the purified material consists of about equal fractions of both individual SWNTS and ropes of SWNTs.

  18. Suspended carbon nanotubes coupled to superconducting circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, B.H.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are unique candidates to study quantum mechanical properties of a nanomechanical resonator. However to access this quantum regime, present detectors are not yet sensitive enough. In this thesis we couple a carbon nanotube CNT mechanical resonator to a superconducting circuit which i

  19. Light Emission in Silicon from Carbon Nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Gaufrès, Etienne; Noury, Adrien; Roux, Xavier Le; Rasigade, Gilles; Beck, Alexandre; Vivien, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The use of optics in microelectronic circuits to overcome the limitation of metallic interconnects is more and more considered as a viable solution. Among future silicon compatible materials, carbon nanotubes are promising candidates thanks to their ability to emit, modulate and detect light in the wavelength range of silicon transparency. We report the first integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon waveguides, successfully coupling their emission and absorption properties. A complete study of this coupling between carbon nanotubes and silicon waveguides was carried out, which led to the demonstration of the temperature-independent emission from carbon nanotubes in silicon at a wavelength of 1.3 {\\mu}m. This represents the first milestone in the development of photonics based on carbon nanotubes on silicon.

  20. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2.xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2.xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75%. In addition, supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  1. Development of supercapacitors based on carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁志; 魏秉庆; 徐才录; 梁吉; 吴德海

    2000-01-01

    Block-type electrodes made of carbon nanotubes were fabricated by different processes. The volumetric specific capacitance based on such electrodes reached 107 F/cm3, which proves carbon nanotubes to be ideal candidate materials for supercapacitors. The composite electrodes consisting of carbon nanotubes and RuO2 ·xH2O were developed by the deposition of RuO2 on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show much higher specific capacitance than those based on pure carbon nanotube ones. A specific capacitance of 600 F/g can be achieved when the weight percent of RuO2· xH2O in the composite electrodes reaches 75% . In addition , supercapacitors based on the composite electrodes show both high energy density and high power density characteristics.

  2. Computational Aspects of Carbon and Boron Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hexagonal nanotubes, boron triangular nanotubes and boron a-nanotubes are a few popular nano structures. Computational researchers look at these structures as graphs where each atom is a node and an atomic bond is an edge. While researchers are discussing the differences among the three nanotubes, we identify the topological and structural similarities among them. We show that the three nanotubes have the same maximum independent set and their matching ratios are independent of the number of columns. In addition, we illustrate that they also have similar underlying broadcasting spanning tree and identical communication behavior.

  3. Liquid surface model for carbon nanotube energetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Mathew, Maneesh; Solov'yov, Andrey V.;

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we developed a model for calculating the energy of single-wall carbon nanotubes of arbitrary chirality. This model, which we call as the liquid surface model, predicts the energy of a nanotube with relative error less than 1% once its chirality and the total number of atoms...... an important insight in the energetics and stability of nanotubes of different chirality and might be important for the understanding of nanotube growth process. For the computations we use empirical Brenner and Tersoff potentials and discuss their applicability to the study of carbon nanotubes. From...... the calculated energies we determine the elastic properties of the single-wall carbon nanotubes (Young modulus, curvature constant) and perform a comparison with available experimental measurements and earlier theoretical predictions....

  4. Electrochemical studies of U(VI)/U(IV) redox reaction in 1M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) modified gold (Au) electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Ruma; Aggarwal,S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Fuel Chemistry Div.

    2013-08-01

    Electrochemistry of U(VI)/U(IV) couple in 1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was studied on bare and SWCNT modified gold (Au) electrodes by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The gold electrode modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-Au) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrocatalysis of U(VI)/U(IV) redox reaction was observed on SWCNT-Au. The lower charge transfer resistance at SWCNT-Au promoted the rate of electron transfer reaction of U(VI)/U(IV) couple. These results are interesting to develop electroanalytical methodologies for uranium determination using SWCNT modified electrodes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the electrocatalysis of uranium on SWCNT modified electrode. (orig.)

  5. Growing carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Ando

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of ‘fullerenes’ added a new dimension to the knowledge of carbon science1; and the subsequent discovery of ‘carbon nanotubes’ (CNTs, the elongated fullerene added a new dimension to the knowledge of technology2;. Today, ‘nanotechnology’ is a hot topic attracting scientists, industrialists, journalists, governments, and even the general public. Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanometer scale and the exploitation of novel phenomena and properties of matter (physical, chemical, biological, electrical, etc. at that length scale. CNTs are supposed to be a key component of nanotechnology. Almost every week a new potential application of CNTs is identified, stimulating scientists to peep into this tiny tube with ever increasing curiosity.

  6. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F L Deepak; A Govindaraj; C N R Rao

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Yjunction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallicthiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives nanotubes with T- and Y-junctions.

  7. Carbon nanotube growth density control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D. (Inventor); Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Method and system for combined coarse scale control and fine scale control of growth density of a carbon nanotube (CNT) array on a substrate, using a selected electrical field adjacent to a substrate surface for coarse scale density control (by one or more orders of magnitude) and a selected CNT growth temperature range for fine scale density control (by multiplicative factors of less than an order of magnitude) of CNT growth density. Two spaced apart regions on a substrate may have different CNT growth densities and/or may use different feed gases for CNT growth.

  8. Effect of chemical potential on the computer simulation of hydrogen storage in single walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Hong; WANG Shaoqing; CHENG Huiming

    2004-01-01

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo molecular simulations were carried out for hydrogen adsorption in single-walled carbon nanotubes. It was found that variations in chemical potential may result in a great change in the hydrogen storage capacity of single-walled carbon nanotubes. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms of single-walled carbon nanotubes at 298.15 K were calculated using a modified chemical potential, and the result obtained is closer to the experimental results. By comparing the experimental and simulation results, it is proposed that chemical adsorption may exist for hydrogen adsorption in single-walled carbon nanotubes.

  9. On the structural and mechanical properties of Fe-filled carbon nanotubes: a computer simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, G; Mariscal, M M

    2009-04-22

    The structural and mechanical properties of single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes filled with iron nanowires are studied using a recent parameterization of the modified embedded atom model. We have analyzed the effect of different crystal structures of iron (bcc and fcc) inside carbon nanotubes of different topographies. We have computed strain energy versus strain curves for pure systems: Fe nanowires, carbon and Fe-filled carbon nanotubes. A noticeable difference is found when these monatomic systems are joined to form iron-capped nanowires and where multi-layers of graphite are added to the nanotubes.

  10. Purification of carbon nanotube by wet oxidation; Shisshiki sanka ni yoru carbon nanotube no seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan)

    1997-07-10

    In order to efficiently recover carbon nanotubes, the purification method by wet oxidation with orthoperiodic acid and perchloric acid is investigated. The reactivity of the carbonaceous material toward the acids depends on the type of carbon. Carbon nanotubes are selectively recovered under the mild oxidation conditions. The degree of purification depends on the concentration of orthoperiodic acid. It is suggested that wet oxidation is an effective method for purification of carbon nanotubes. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Copper-decorated carbon nanotubes-based composite electrodes for nonenzymatic detection of glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, A.(National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest, Romania); Manea, F.; Orha, C.; Motoc, S.; Llinoiu, E.; Vaszilcsin, N.; Schoonman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare three types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based composite electrodes and to modify their surface by copper electrodeposition for nonenzymatic oxidation and determination of glucose from aqueous solution. Copper-decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes composite electrode (Cu/CNT-epoxy) exhibited the highest sensitivity to glucose determination.

  12. Copper-decorated carbon nanotubes-based composite electrodes for nonenzymatic detection of glucose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pop, A.; Manea, F.; Orha, C.; Motoc, S.; Llinoiu, E.; Vaszilcsin, N.; Schoonman, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare three types of multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based composite electrodes and to modify their surface by copper electrodeposition for nonenzymatic oxidation and determination of glucose from aqueous solution. Copper-decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes composite

  13. On the elastic properties of carbon nanotube-based composites: modelling and characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Thostenson, E T

    2003-01-01

    The exceptional mechanical and physical properties observed for carbon nanotubes has stimulated the development of nanotube-based composite materials, but critical challenges exist before we can exploit these extraordinary nanoscale properties in a macroscopic composite. At the nanoscale, the structure of the carbon nanotube strongly influences the overall properties of the composite. The focus of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the structure/size influence of carbon nanotubes on the elastic properties of nanotube-based composites. Towards this end, the nanoscale structure and elastic properties of a model composite system of aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes embedded in a polystyrene matrix were characterized, and a micromechanical approach for modelling of short fibre composites was modified to account for the structure of the nanotube reinforcement to predict the elastic modulus of the nanocomposite as a function of the constituent properties, reinforcement geometry and nanot...

  14. Modifications of multi-wall carbon nanotubes with B-containing vapor and their effects on the properties of boron carbide matrix nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herth, S; Miranda, D; Doremus, R H; Siegel, R W

    2008-06-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes were modified by heating them together with elemental boron powder. B4C crystals grew on the surfaces of the nanotubes, and electron diffraction patterns showed an orientation dependence of the surface B4C and the underlying carbon in the nanotubes. There was no reaction of the nanotubes with solid B2O3 alone. Composites of the modified nanotubes in a B4C matrix showed a small increase of density over sintered B4C.

  15. Functionalized carbon nanotubes: biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardharajula S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sandhya Vardharajula,1 Sk Z Ali,2 Pooja M Tiwari,1 Erdal Eroğlu,1 Komal Vig,1 Vida A Dennis,1 Shree R Singh11Center for NanoBiotechnology and Life Sciences Research, Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL, USA; 2Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, IndiaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging as novel nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. CNTs can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic agents, including biomolecules, to the target disease sites. In addition, their unparalleled optical and electrical properties make them excellent candidates for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. However, the high cytotoxicity of CNTs limits their use in humans and many biological systems. The biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity of CNTs are attributed to size, dose, duration, testing systems, and surface functionalization. The functionalization of CNTs improves their solubility and biocompatibility and alters their cellular interaction pathways, resulting in much-reduced cytotoxic effects. Functionalized CNTs are promising novel materials for a variety of biomedical applications. These potential applications are particularly enhanced by their ability to penetrate biological membranes with relatively low cytotoxicity. This review is directed towards the overview of CNTs and their functionalization for biomedical applications with minimal cytotoxicity.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cytotoxicity, functionalization, biomedical applications

  16. Carbon nanotubes as heat dissipaters in microelectronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez Paz, Alejandro; García-Lastra, Juan María; Markussen, Troels;

    2013-01-01

    We review our recent modelling work of carbon nanotubes as potential candidates for heat dissipation in microelectronics cooling. In the first part, we analyze the impact of nanotube defects on their thermal transport properties. In the second part, we investigate the loss of thermal properties...... of nanotubes in presence of an interface with various substances, including air and water. Comparison with previous works is established whenever is possible....

  17. Electrochemistry of glucose oxidase on modified carbon nanotubes%葡萄糖氧化酶在修饰碳纳米管上的电化学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳; 李俊华; 周健

    2014-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on the electrode surface of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, amino functionalized carbon nanotubes (AMWNTs)and carboxyl functionalized carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-COOH). Electrochemical measurements indicated that the formal potentials of GOx immobilized on AMWNTs and MWNTs-COOH did not change, but their peak currents were improved. The peak current of GOx immobilized on AMWNTs was four times larger than that immobilized on MWNTs. The electrochemistry behavior of Nafion/GOx-AMWNTs/GC electrode were further characterized. The results indicated that GOx immobilized on AMWNTs could undergo a direct quasi-reversible electrochemical reaction and show good stability. Amino-functionalized electrodes could significantly improve the performance of GOx-based biofuel cells.%将葡萄糖氧化酶(GOx)分别固定在多壁碳纳米管(MWNT)、氨基化碳纳米管(AMWNTs)和羧基化碳纳米管(MWNTs-COOH)修饰的电极表面,电化学测量表明固定在羧基和氨基碳纳米管上的 GOx 式量电位基本没变,而峰电流得到了很大提高。尤其是氨基化碳纳米管上的GOx的峰电流是未功能化碳管上GOx的4倍多。进一步研究Nafion/GOx-AMWNTs/GC电极的电化学行为,发现固定在AMWNTs上的GOx可进行直接准可逆的氧化还原反应,而且固定在 AMWNTs 上的 GOx 有良好的稳定性。氨基改性碳纳米管电极载体材料有望显著提高 GOx生物燃料电池性能。

  18. High content of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-nitrogen-modified carbon nanotubes derived from blood biomass for the electrocatalysis of oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •An ORR electrocatalyst was fabricated from blood biomass and carbon nanotube. •The N-CNT catalyst exhibits good ORR activity, methanol resistance and stability. •The pyrolysis process produces high contents of pyridinic and pyrrolic N species. •The pyridinic-N group may play more important role in the active sites for ORR. -- Abstract: Here we present a facile synthetic route to design nitrogen-doped nanostructured carbon-based electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) by the copyrolysis of blood biomass from pig and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high temperatures. The nitrogen-doped CNTs obtained at 800 °C not only results in excellent ORR activity with four-electron transfer selectivity in alkaline medium, but also exhibits superior methanol-tolerant property and long-term stability. It is confirmed that high-temperature pyrolysis processes can facilitate to produce higher contents of pyridinic- and pyrrolic-N binding groups in electrocatalysts, contributing to the enhancement of ORR performance in terms of onset potential, half-wave potential, and limited current density. We also propose that the planar-N configuration may be the active site that is responsible for the improved ORR electrocatalytic performance. The straight-forward and cheap synthesis of the active and stable electrocatalyst makes it a promising candidate for electrochemical power sources such as fuel cells or metal-air batteries

  19. Carbon Nanotube Paper-Based Electroanalytical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmi Koo; Vesselin N. Shanov; Yeoheung Yun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report on carbon nanotube paper-based electroanalytical devices. A highly aligned-carbon nanotube (HA-CNT) array, grown using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), was processed to form bi-layered paper with an integrated cellulose-based Origami-chip as the electroanalytical device. We used an inverse-ordered fabrication method from a thick carbon nanotube (CNT) sheet to a thin CNT sheet. A 200-layered HA-CNT sheet and a 100-layered HA-CNT sheet are explored as a working electrode. The de...

  20. Ordered phases of cesium in carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jeong Won; Hwang, Ho Jung; Song, Ki Oh; Choi, Won Young; Byun, Ki Ryang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won Woo [Juseong College, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    We investigate the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes by using a structural optimization process applied to an atomistic simulation method. As the radius of the carbon nanotubes is increased, the structures are found in various phases from an atomic strand to multishell packs composed of coaxial cylindrical shells. Both helical structures and layered structures are found. The numbers of helical atom rows composed of coaxial tubes and the orthogonal vectors of the circular rolling of a triangular network can explain the structural phases of Cs in carbon nanotubes.

  1. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  2. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen; Wen, Jian Guo; Lao, Jing Y.; Li, Wenzhi

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  3. Microcapsule carbon nanotube devices for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulamarva, Arun; Raja, Pavan M. V.; Bhathena, Jasmine; Chen, Hongmei; Talapatra, Saikat; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Prakash, Satya

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are a new class of nanomaterials that have immense potential in the field of biomedicine. Their ability to carry large quantities of therapeutic molecules makes them prime candidates for providing targeted delivery of therapeutics for use in various diseases. However, their utility is limited due to the problems faced during their delivery to target sites. This article for the first time describes the design of a novel microcapsule carbon nanotube targeted delivery device. This device has potential in the targeted delivery of carbon nanotubes in suitable membranes along with their cargo, safely and effectively to the target loci.

  4. An amperometric acetylcholinesterase sensor based on Fe3O4 nanoparticle/multi-walled carbon nanotube-modified ITO-coated glass plate for the detection of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Constructed AChE biosensor based on AChE/Fe3O4NPs/c-MWCNT/ITO electrode. ► Enzyme electrode was characterized by AFM, FTIR, CV and EIS. ► Detection limit and working range of biosensor were 0.1 nM and 0.1–100 nM. ► Half life of enzyme electrode was 3 months. ► Biosensor measured pesticides in environmental and food samples. - Abstract: A method is described for the construction of a highly sensitive electrochemical biosensor for the detection of malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan based on covalent immobilization of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) on iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs)-decorated carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs) electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass plate. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) and UV analysis of nanocomposite materials demonstrated that Fe3O4NPs were well deposited on the outer walls of c-MWCNTs. The modified electrode was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The resulting biosensor exhibited a linear response for acetylthiocholine in a concentration range of 0.1–700 μmol L−1 with a remarkable sensitivity of 0.402 mA/μmol L−1. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1–70 nmol L−1, 0.1–50 nmol L−1, 0.1–70 nmol L−1 and 0.1–100 nmol L−1 for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan, respectively. The detection limit of the biosensor for all pesticides was 0.1 nmol L−1 at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The biosensor showed good reproducibility, no interference by metal ions and long-term stability. The measurement results obtained by the present biosensor were in good agreement with those obtained by the standard gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. The biosensor was employed for the determination

  5. Synthesis and microwave absorption property of graphene oxide/carbon nanotubes modified with cauliflower-like Fe3O4 nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shaojiu; Wang, Lina; Wang, Tihong; Zhang, Liqiang; Li, Yongfeng; Dai, Shenglong

    2016-03-01

    We report a simple procedure to fabricate graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrids coated with cauliflower-like Fe3O4 sphere. Characterizations have been carried out to investigate the morphology, crystalline structure of the composites by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Fe3O4 particles have the morphologies of multi-lacuna; moreover, some spheres are hollow. As a kind of potential microwave absorption material, the composites are lightweight and exhibit excellent microwave absorbing ability in the range of 2-16 GHz.

  6. Defect-Free Carbon Nanotube Coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadmi, Nitzan; Kremen, Anna; Frenkel, Yiftach; Lapin, Zachary J; Machado, Leonardo D; Legoas, Sergio B; Bitton, Ora; Rechav, Katya; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Galvão, Douglas S; Jorio, Ado; Novotny, Lukas; Kalisky, Beena; Joselevich, Ernesto

    2016-04-13

    Carbon nanotubes are promising building blocks for various nanoelectronic components. A highly desirable geometry for such applications is a coil. However, coiled nanotube structures reported so far were inherently defective or had no free ends accessible for contacting. Here we demonstrate the spontaneous self-coiling of single-wall carbon nanotubes into defect-free coils of up to more than 70 turns with identical diameter and chirality, and free ends. We characterize the structure, formation mechanism, and electrical properties of these coils by different microscopies, molecular dynamics simulations, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical and magnetic measurements. The coils are highly conductive, as expected for defect-free carbon nanotubes, but adjacent nanotube segments in the coil are more highly coupled than in regular bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes, owing to their perfect crystal momentum matching, which enables tunneling between the turns. Although this behavior does not yet enable the performance of these nanotube coils as inductive devices, it does point a clear path for their realization. Hence, this study represents a major step toward the production of many different nanotube coil devices, including inductors, electromagnets, transformers, and dynamos. PMID:26708150

  7. Methods for preparation of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakov, Eduard G [D.I. Mendeleev Russian University of Chemical Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2000-01-31

    The most important methods of synthesis and purification of carbon nanotubes, a new form of material, are described. The prospects for increasing the scale of preparation processes and for more extensive application of nanotubes are evaluated. The bibliography includes 282 references.

  8. Charge Screening Effect in Metallic Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K

    2001-01-01

    Charge screening effect in metallic carbon nanotubes is investigated in a model including the one-dimensional long-range Coulomb interaction. It is pointed out that an external charge which is being fixed spatially is screened by internal electrons so that the resulting object becomes electrically neutral. We found that the screening length is given by about the diameter of a nanotube.

  9. Carbon Nanotubes for Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Carl D.; Files, Brad; Yowell, Leonard

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes offer the promise of a new class of revolutionary materials for space applications. The Carbon Nanotube Project at NASA Johnson Space Center has been actively researching this new technology by investigating nanotube production methods (arc, laser, and HiPCO) and gaining a comprehensive understanding of raw and purified material using a wide range of characterization techniques. After production and purification, single wall carbon nanotubes are processed into composites for the enhancement of mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. This "cradle-to-grave" approach to nanotube composites has given our team unique insights into the impact of post-production processing and dispersion on the resulting material properties. We are applying our experience and lessons-learned to developing new approaches toward nanotube material characterization, structural composite fabrication, and are also making advances in developing thermal management materials and electrically conductive materials in various polymer-nanotube systems. Some initial work has also been conducted with the goal of using carbon nanotubes in the creation of new ceramic materials for high temperature applications in thermal protection systems. Human space flight applications such as advanced life support and fuel cell technologies are also being investigated. This discussion will focus on the variety of applications under investigation.

  10. Label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the carcinoembryonic antigen using a glassy carbon electrode modified with electrodeposited Prussian Blue, a graphene and carbon nanotube assembly and an antibody immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We described a sensitive, label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen. It is based on the use of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with a multi-layer films made from Prussian Blue (PB), graphene and carbon nanotubes by electrodeposition and assembling techniques. Gold nanoparticles were electrostatically absorbed on the surface of the film and used for the immobilization of antibody, while PB acts as signaling molecule. The stepwise assembly process was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the formation of antibody-antigen complexes partially inhibits the electron transfer of PB and decreased its peak current. Under the optimal conditions, the decrease of intensity of the peak current of PB is linearly related to the concentration of carcinoembryonic antigen in two ranges (0.2–1.0, and 1.0–40.0 ng·mL−1), with a detection limit of 60 pg·mL−1 (S/N = 3). The immunosensor was applied to analyze five clinical samples, and the results obtained were in agreement with clinical data. In addition, the immunosensor exhibited good precision, acceptable stability and reproducibility. (author)

  11. The electrical conduction variation in stained carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shih-Jye; Wei Fan, Jun; Lin, Chung-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes become stained from coupling with foreign molecules, especially from adsorbing gas molecules. The charge exchange, which is due to the orbital hybridization, occurred in the stained carbon nanotube induces electrical dipoles that consequently vary the electrical conduction of the nanotube. We propose a microscopic model to evaluate the electrical current variation produced by the induced electrical dipoles in a stained zigzag carbon nanotube. It is found that stronger orbital hybridization strengths and larger orbital energy differences between the carbon nanotube and the gas molecules help increasing the induced electrical dipole moment. Compared with the stain-free carbon nanotube, the induced electrical dipoles suppress the current in the nanotube. In the carbon nanotubes with induced dipoles the current increases as a result of increasing orbital energy dispersion via stronger hybridization couplings. In particular, at a fixed hybridization coupling, the current increases with the bond length for the donor-carbon nanotube but reversely for the acceptor-carbon nanotube.

  12. Covalent enzyme immobilization onto carbon nanotubes using a membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Stefan Ioan; Nechifor, Aurelia Cristina; Gales, Ovidiu; Nechifor, Gheorghe

    2011-05-01

    Composite porous polysulfone-carbon nanotubes membranes were prepared by dispersing carbon nanotubes into a polysulfone solution followed by the membrane formation by phase inversion-immersion precipitation technique. The carbon nanotubes with amino groups on surface were functionalized with different enzymes (carbonic anhydrase, invertase, diastase) using cyanuric chloride as linker between enzyme and carbon nanotube. The composite membrane was used as a membrane reactor for a better dispersion of carbon nanotubes and access to reaction centers. The membrane also facilitates the transport of enzymes to active carbon nanotubes centers for functionalization (amino groups). The functionalized carbon nanotubes are isolated by dissolving the membranes after the end of reaction. Carbon nanotubes with covalent immobilized enzymes are used for biosensors fabrications. The obtained membranes were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermal analysis, FT-IR Spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and functionalized carbon nanotubes were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy.

  13. Coulomb drag in multiwall armchair carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, A.M.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the transresistivity rho(21) between two concentric armchair nanotubes in a diffusive multiwall carbon nanotube as a function of temperature T and Fermi level epsilon(F). We approximate the tight-binding band structure by two crossing bands with a linear dispersion near the Fermi...... surface. The cylindrical geometry of the nanotubes and the different parities of the Bloch states are accounted for in the evaluation of the effective Coulomb interaction between charges in the concentric nanotubes. We find a broad peak in rho(21) as a function of temperature at roughly T similar to 0.4T...

  14. Purification of Carbon Nanotubes: Alternative Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley; Scott, Carl; Gorelik, Olga; Nikolaev, Pasha; Hulse, Lou; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2000-01-01

    Traditional carbon nanotube purification process involves nitric acid refluxing and cross flow filtration using surfactant TritonX. This is believed to result in damage to nanotubes and surfactant residue on nanotube surface. Alternative purification procedures involving solvent extraction, thermal zone refining and nitric acid refiuxing are used in the current study. The effect of duration and type of solvent to dissolve impurities including fullerenes and P ACs (polyaromatic compounds) are monitored by nuclear magnetic reasonance, high performance liquid chromatography, and thermogravimetric analysis. Thermal zone refining yielded sample areas rich in nanotubes as seen by scanning electric microscopy. Refluxing in boiling nitric acid seem to improve the nanotube content. Different procedural steps are needed to purify samples produced by laser process compared to arc process. These alternative methods of nanotube purification will be presented along with results from supporting analytical techniques.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  16. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L.; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J. Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Ulmert, Hans David S.; Brea, Elliott J.; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-07-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans.

  17. Synthesis and electrochemical capacitance of core-shell poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-modified multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Li; Yuan Changzhou; Dou Hui; Gao Bo; Chen Shengyao [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Zhang Xiaogang [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)], E-mail: azhangxg@163.com

    2009-03-01

    A noncovalent method was used to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes with poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate). And then, the core-shell poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PEDOT/PSS-CNTs) nanocomposite was successfully realized via in situ polymerization under the hydrothermal condition. In the process, PSS served for not only solubilizing and dispersing CNTs well into an aqueous solution, but also tethering EDOT monomer onto the surface of CNTs to facilitate the formation of a uniform PEDOT coating. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the resultant PEDOT/PSS-CNTs. In addition, the PEDOT/PSS-CNTs nanocomposite (50 wt.% PEDOT) had a specific capacitance (SC) of 198.2 F g{sup -1} at a current density of 0.5 A g{sup -1} and a capacitance degradation of 26.9% after 2000 cycles, much better than those of pristine PEDOT and PEDOT/CNTs (50 wt.% PEDOT). The enhanced electrochemical performance of the PEDOT/PSS-CNTs nanocomposite (50 wt.% PEDOT) should be attributed to the high uniform system of the nanocomposite, resulting in the large surface easily contacted by abundant electrolyte ions through the three-dimensional conducting matrix.

  18. Carbon nanotubes – becoming clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Grobert

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are now well into their teenage years. Early on, theoretical predictions and experimental data showed that CNTs possess chemical and mechanical properties that exceed those of many other materials. This has triggered intense research into CNTs. A variety of production methods for CNTs have been developed; chemical modification, functionalization, filling, and doping have been achieved; and manipulation, separation, and characterization of individual CNTs is now possible. Today, products containing CNTs range from tennis rackets and golf clubs to vehicle fenders, X-ray tubes, and Li ion batteries. Breakthroughs for CNT-based technologies are anticipated in the areas of nanoelectronics, biotechnology, and materials science. In this article, I review the current situation in CNT production and highlight the importance of clean CNT material for the success of future applications.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Amperometric Chips with Pneumatic Micropumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Yuichi; Maehashi, Kenzo; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Chikae, Miyuki; Torai, Soichiro; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-04-01

    We fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) amperometric chips with pneumatic micropumps by the combination of amperometric biosensors based on CNT-arrayed electrodes and microchannels with pneumatic micropumps made of poly(dimethylsiloxane). On the chip, phosphate buffer solution and potassium ferricyanide, K3[Fe(CN)6], were introduced into the CNT electrodes using each pneumatic micropump and electrochemically measured by differential pulse voltammetry. The results indicate that our chip can automatically exchange reagents on the CNT electrodes and clearly detect molecules. Moreover, by modifying the CNT electrodes with enzyme glucose oxidase, glucose molecules could be detected using our chips by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. We conclude that microfluidic chips with CNT-arrayed electrodes are a promising candidate for the development of hand-held electrochemical biosensors.

  20. Carbon nanotube-based coatings on titanium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elzbieta Dlugon; Wojciech Simka; Aneta Fraczek-Szczypta; Wiktor Niemiec; Jaroslaw Markowski; Marzena Szymanska; Marta Blazewicz

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports results of the modification of titanium surface with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The Ti samples were covered with CNTs via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process. Prior to EPD process, CNTs were functionalized by chemical treatment. Mechanical, electrochemical and biological properties of CNT-covered Ti samples were studied and compared to those obtained for unmodified titanium surface. Atomic force microscopy was used to investigate the surface topography. To determine micromechanical characteristics of CNT-covered metallic samples indentation tests were conducted. Throughout electrochemical studies were performed in order to characterize the impact of the coating on the corrosion of titanium substrate. In vitro experiments were conducted using the human osteoblast NHOst cell line. CNT layers shielded titanium from corrosion gave the surface-enhanced biointegrative properties. Cells proliferated better on the modified surface in comparison to unmodified titanium. The deposited layer enhanced cell adhesion and spreading as compared to titanium sample.

  1. Piezoresistive Sensors Based on Carbon Nanotube Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jian-wei; WANG Wan-lu; LIAO Ke-jun; WANG Yong-tian; LIU CHang-lin; Zeng Qing-gao

    2005-01-01

    Piezoresistive effect of carbon nanotube films was investigated by a three-point bending test.Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition.The experimental results showed that the carbon nanotubes have a striking piezoresistive effect.The relative resistance was changed from 0 to 10.5×10-2 and 3.25×10-2 for doped and undoped films respectively at room temperature when the microstrain under stress from 0 to 500. The gauge factors for doped and undoped carbon nanotube films under 500 microstrain were about 220 and 67 at room temperature, respectively, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃.The origin of the resistance changes in the films may be attributed to a strain-induced change in the band gap for the doped tubes and the defects for the undoped tubes.

  2. Self Assembled Carbon Nanotube Enhanced Ultracapacitors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this NASA STTR program is to develop single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) based ultracapacitors for energy storage devices (ESD) application, using...

  3. A Thermal Model for Carbon Nanotube Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clay Mayberry

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied Joule heating in carbon nanotube based very large scale integration (VLSI interconnects and incorporated Joule heating influenced scattering in our previously developed current transport model. The theoretical model explains breakdown in carbon nanotube resistance which limits the current density. We have also studied scattering parameters of carbon nanotube (CNT interconnects and compared with the earlier work. For 1 µm length single-wall carbon nanotube, 3 dB frequency in S12 parameter reduces to ~120 GHz from 1 THz considering Joule heating. It has been found that bias voltage has little effect on scattering parameters, while length has very strong effect on scattering parameters.

  4. Carbon nanotube polymer composition and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Johnson, Stephen; Kerr, John B.; Minor, Andrew M.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2011-06-14

    A thin film device and compound having an anode, a cathode, and at least one light emitting layer between the anode and cathode, the at least one light emitting layer having at least one carbon nanotube and a conductive polymer.

  5. Carbon nanotube heat-exchange systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Terry Joseph; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-11-11

    A carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) and method for producing the same. One embodiment of the carbon nanotube heat-exchange system (10) comprises a microchannel structure (24) having an inlet end (30) and an outlet end (32), the inlet end (30) providing a cooling fluid into the microchannel structure (24) and the outlet end (32) discharging the cooling fluid from the microchannel structure (24). At least one flow path (28) is defined in the microchannel structure (24), fluidically connecting the inlet end (30) to the outlet end (32) of the microchannel structure (24). A carbon nanotube structure (26) is provided in thermal contact with the microchannel structure (24), the carbon nanotube structure (26) receiving heat from the cooling fluid in the microchannel structure (24) and dissipating the heat into an external medium (19).

  6. Non-covalent interactions between carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Dönüs

    2011-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are interest to many different disciplines including chemistry, physics, biology, material science and engineering because of their unique properties and potential applications in various areas spanning from optoelectronics to biotechnology. However, one of the drawbacks associated with these materials is their insolubility which limits their wide accessibility for many applications. Various approaches have been adopted to circumvent this problem including modification of carbon nanotube surfaces by non-covalent and covalent attachments of solubilizing groups. Covalent approach modification may alter the intrinsic properties of carbon nanotubes and, in turn make them undesirable for many applications. On the other hand, a non-covalent approach helps to improve the solubility of CNTs while preserving their intrinsic properties. Among many non-covalent modifiers of CNTs, conjugated polymers are receiving increasing attention and highly appealing because of a number of reasons. To this end, the aim of this feature article is to review the recent results on the conjugated polymer-based non-covalent functionalization of CNTs with an emphasis on the effect of conjugated polymers in the dispersibility/solubility, optical, thermal and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes as well as their usage in the purification and isolation of a specific single-walled nanotube from the mixture of the various tubes.

  7. The Effect of Functionalization Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs on the Performance of PES-CNTs Mixed Matrix Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new type of mixed matrix membrane consisting of functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs and polyethersulfone (PES is prepared for biogas purification. PES mixed matrix membrane with and without modification of carbon nanotubes were prepared by a dry/wet phase inversion technique using a pneumatically flat sheet membrane casting machine system. The modified carbon nanotubes were prepared by treating the carbon nanotubes with chemical modification using Dynasylan Ameo (DA silane agent to allow PES chains to be grafted on carbon nanotubes surface. The results from the FESEM, DSC and FTIR analysis confirmed that chemical modification on carbon nanotubes surface had taken place. Meanwhile, the nanogaps in the interface of polymer and carbon nanotubes were appeared in the PES mixed matrix membrane with unmodified of carbon nanotubes. The modified carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membrane increases the mechanical properties, the productivity and purity of biogas. For PES-modified carbon nanotubes mixed matrix membrane the maximum selectivity achieved for CO2/CH4 is 36.78

  8. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  9. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Geohegan, David B.

    2016-10-25

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  10. Controlled Deposition and Alignment of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Jan M. (Inventor); Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Patry, JoAnne L. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony Neal (Inventor); Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT) attraction material is deposited on a substrate in the gap region between two electrodes on the substrate. An electric potential is applied to the two electrodes. The CNT attraction material is wetted with a solution defined by a carrier liquid having carbon nanotubes (CNTs) suspended therein. A portion of the CNTs align with the electric field and adhere to the CNT attraction material. The carrier liquid and any CNTs not adhered to the CNT attraction material are then removed.

  11. ALUMINUM FOIL REINFORCED BY CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Alekseev; PREDTECHENSKIY M.R.

    2016-01-01

    In our research, the method of manufacturing an Al-carbon nanotube (CNT) composite by hot pressing and cold rolling was attempted. The addition of one percent of multi-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by OCSiAl provides a significant increase in the ultimate tensile strength of aluminum. The tensile strength of the obtained composite material is at the tensile strength level of medium-strength aluminum alloys.

  12. Analysis of Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Toshishige

    1999-01-01

    This five page presentation is grouped into 11 numbered viewgraphs, most of which contain one or more diagrams. Some of the diagrams are accompanied by captions, including: 2) Nanotube FET by Delft, IBM; 3) Nanotube FET/Standard MOSFET; 5) Saturation with carrier-carrier; 7) Electronic properties of carbon nanotube; 8) Theoretical nanotube FET characteristics; 11) Summary: Delft and IBM nanotube FET analysis.

  13. ON THE CONTINUUM MODELING OF CARBON NANOTUBES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏; 黄永刚; Philippe H.Geubelle; 黄克智

    2002-01-01

    We have recently proposed a nanoscale continuum theory for carbonnanotubes. The theory links continuum analysis with atomistic modeling by incor-porating interatomic potentials and atomic structures of carbon nanotubes directlyinto the constitutive law. Here we address two main issues involved in setting upthe nanoscale continuum theory for carbon nanotubes, namely the multi-body in-teratomic potentials and the lack of centrosymmetry in the nanotube structure. Weexplain the key ideas behind these issues in establishing a nanoscale continuum theoryin terms of interatomic potentials and atomic structures.

  14. Conductivity-Dependent Strain Response of Carbon Nanotube Treated Bacterial Nanocellulose

    OpenAIRE

    S. Farjana; F. Toomadj; Lundgren, P.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Naboka, O.; Enoksson, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the strain sensitivity of flexible, electrically conductive, and nanostructured cellulose which was prepared by modification of bacterial cellulose with double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The electrical conductivity depends on the modifying agent and its dispersion process. The conductivity of the samples obtained from bacterial cellulose (BNC) pellicles modified with DWCNT was in the range from 0.034 S·cm−1 to 0.39 S·cm−1, an...

  15. Friction Properties of Surface-Fluorinated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wal, R. L. Vander; Miyoshi, K.; Street, K. W.; Tomasek, A. J.; Peng, H.; Liu, Y.; Margrave, J. L.; Khabashesku, V. N.

    2005-01-01

    Surface modification of the tubular or sphere-shaped carbon nanoparticles through chemical treatment, e.g., fluorination, is expected to significantly affect their friction properties. In this study, a direct fluorination of the graphene-built tubular (single-walled carbon nanotubes) structures has been carried out to obtain a series of fluorinated nanotubes (fluoronanotubes) with variable C(n)F (n =2-20) stoichiometries. The friction coefficients for fluoronanotubes, as well as pristine and chemically cut nanotubes, were found to reach values as low as 0.002-0.07, according to evaluation tests run in contact with sapphire in air of about 40% relative humidity on a ball-on-disk tribometer which provided an unidirectional sliding friction motion. These preliminary results demonstrate ultra-low friction properties and show a promise in applications of surface modified nanocarbons as a solid lubricant.

  16. Improved synthesis of carbon nanotubes with junctions and of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak, FL; Govindaraj, A.; Rao, CNR

    2006-01-01

    Pyrolysis of thiophene over nickel nanoparticles dispersed on silica is shown to yield Y-junction carbon nanotubes with smaller diameters than those obtained by the pyrolysis of organometallic-thiophene mixtures. In the presence of water vapour, the pyrolysis of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures yields single-walled nanotubes, as well as relatively narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes with Y-junctions. Pyrolysis-of organometallic-hydrocarbon mixtures, in the absence of water vapour, only gives ...

  17. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insepov, Zeke; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  18. Quantitative optical imaging of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Lihong H.

    The development and application of optical imaging tools and probing techniques have been the subject of exciting research. These tools and techniques allow for non-invasive, simple sample preparation and relatively fast measurement of electronic and optical properties. They also provided crucial information on optoelectronic device application and development. As the field of nanostructure research emerged, they were modified and employed to understand various properties of these structures at the diffraction limit of light. Carbon nanotubes, up to hundreds of micrometers long and several nanometers thin, are perfect for testing and demonstrating newly-developed optical measurement platforms for individual nanostructures, due to their heterogeneous nature. By employing two quantitative imaging techniques, wide-field on-chip Rayleigh scattering spectroscopy and spatial modulation confocal absorption microscopy, we investigate the optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes. These techniques allow us to obtain the Rayleigh scattering intensity, absolute absorption cross section, spatial resolution, and spectral information of single-walled carbon nanotubes. By probing the optical resonance of hundreds of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a single measurement, the first technique utilizes Rayleigh scattering mechanism to obtain the chirality of carbon nanotubes. The second technique, by using high numerical aperture oil immersion objective lenses, we measure the absolute absorption cross section of a single-walled carbon nanotube. Combining all the quantitative values obtained from these techniques, we observe various interesting and recently discovered physical behaviors, such as long range optical coupling and universal optical conductivity on resonance, and demonstrate the possibility of accurate quantitative absorption measurement for individual structures at nanometer scale.

  19. Fast readout of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwaldt, Harold; Singh, Vibhor; Schneider, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van der Zant, Herre; Steele, Gary

    2013-03-01

    We perform fast readout measurements of carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. Using an electronic mixing scheme, we can detect the amplitude of the mechanical motion with an intermediate frequency (IF) of 46 MHz and a timeconstant of 1 us, up to 5 orders of magnitude faster than before. Previous measurements suffered from a low bandwidth due to the combination of the high resistance of the carbon nanotube and a large stray capacitance. We have increased the bandwidth significantly by using a high-impedance, close-proximity HEMT amplifier. The increased bandwidth should allow us to observe the nanotube's thermal motion and its transient response, approaching the regime of real-time detection of the carbon nanotube's mechanical motion.

  20. Manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomanipulation plays an important role in nanofabrication, it is also a technology necessary in exploring the secrets of nanoworld, and it thus beco mesa start point to research future nanomachine. In this study, manipulation and cutting of carbon nanotubes have been conducted in order to examine whether we can move a nanocomponent from one site to another by using the tip of atomic fo rce microscope (AFM). The technique may also be valuable for providing the const ructive materials of nanofabrication. While exploring the method for manipulatin g and cutting of nanotubes, some new phenomena have been observed during the process. Results show that carbon nanotubes present a feature of deformation combin ing bending and distortion when subjected to large mechanical forces exerted by the tip of AFM. In special cases, long carbon nanotubes can be cut into two part s, by which we can remove the part where crystal lattice is flawed, and therefor e a perfect nanocomponent can be obtained.

  1. Fabrication of nylon-6/carbon nanotube composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C.; Jia, Z.; Wu, D.; Han, Q.; Meek, T.

    2006-05-01

    A new technique to fabricate nylon-6/carbon nanotube (PA6/CNT) composites is presented. The method involves a pretreatment of carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic pyrolysis of hydrocarbon and an improved in-situ process for mixing nanotubes with the nylon 6 matrix. A good bond between carbon nanotubes and the nylon-6 matrix is obtained. Mechanical property measurements indicate that the tensile strength of PA6/CNT composites is improved significantly while the toughness and elongation are somewhat compromised. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured tensile specimens reveals cracking initiated at the wrapping of the CNTs PA6 layer/PA6 matrix interface rather than at the PA6/CNT interface.

  2. Polymerization initated at sidewalls of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Hudson, Jared L. (Inventor); Krishnamoorti, Ramanan (Inventor); Yurekli, Koray (Inventor); Mitchell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention is directed to aryl halide (such as aryl bromide) functionalized carbon nanotubes that can be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials with improved dispersion ability in polymer matrices. In this process the aryl halide is reacted with an alkyllithium species or is reacted with a metal to replace the aryl-bromine bond with an aryl-lithium or aryl-metal bond, respectively. It has further been discovered that other functionalized carbon nanotubes, after deprotonation with a deprotonation agent, can similarly be utilized in anionic polymerization processes to form polymer-carbon nanotube materials. Additionally or alternatively, a ring opening polymerization process can be performed. The resultant materials can be used by themselves due to their enhanced strength and reinforcement ability when compared to their unbound polymer analogs. Additionally, these materials can also be blended with pre-formed polymers to establish compatibility and enhanced dispersion of nanotubes in otherwise hard to disperse matrices resulting in significantly improved material properties. The resultant polymer-carbon nanotube materials can also be used in drug delivery processes due to their improved dispersion ability and biodegradability, and can also be used for scaffolding to promote cellular growth of tissue.

  3. Application of aromatization catalyst in synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Song Rongjun; Yang Yunpeng; Ji Qing; Li Bin

    2012-02-01

    In a typical chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process for synthesizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs), it was found that the aromatization catalysts could promote effectively the formation of CNT. The essence of this phenomenon was attributed to the fact that the aromatization catalyst can accelerate the dehydrogenation–cyclization and condensation reaction of carbon source, which belongs to a necessary step in the formation of CNTs. In this work, aromatization catalysts, H-beta zeolite, HZSM-5 zeolite and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) were chosen to investigate their effects on the formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) via pyrolysis method when polypropylene and 1-hexene as carbon source and Ni2O3 as the charring catalyst. The results demonstrated that the combination of those aromatization catalysts with nickel catalyst can effectively improve the formation of MWCNTs.

  4. Modeling of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube-polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, G.; Kumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet stringent environmental, safety and performance requirements from respective regulatory bodies, various technology-based industries are promoting the use of advanced carbon nanotube (CNT) reinforced lightweight and high strength polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) as a substitute to conventional materials both in structural and non-structural applications. The superior mechanical properties of PNCs made up of CNTs or bundles of CNTs can be attributed to the interfacial interaction between the CNTs and matrix, CNT's morphologies and to their uniform dispersion in the matrix. In PNCs, CNTs physically bond with polymeric matrix at a level where the assumption of continuum level interactions is not applicable. Modeling and prediction of mechanical response and failure behavior of CNTs and their composites becomes a complex task and is dealt with the help of up-scale modeling strategies involving multiple spatial and temporal scales in hierarchical or concurrent manner. Firstly, the article offers an insight into various modeling techniques in studying the mechanical response of CNTs; namely, equivalent continuum approach, quasi-continuum approach and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In the subsequent steps, these approaches are combined with analytical and numerical micromechanics models in a multiscale framework to predict the average macroscopic response of PNCs. The review also discusses the implementation aspects of these computational approaches, their current status and associated challenges with a future outlook.

  5. Studies on the heterogeneous electron transport and oxygen reduction reaction at metal (Co, Fe) octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanines supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified graphite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterogeneous electron transfer dynamics and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities using octabutylsulphonylphthalocyanine complexes of iron (FeOBSPc) and cobalt (CoOBSPc) supported on multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) platforms have been described. The MWCNT-based electrodes (MWCNT-CoOBSPc and MWCNT-FeOBSPc) showed larger Faradaic current responses than the electrodes without the MWCNTs, interpreted as a consequence of the trapped electrolyte species within the porous layers of MWCNTs undergoing a redox process. The EPPGE-MWCNT-FeOBSPc showed onset potential (-0.01 V vs Ag|AgCl) which is comparable and even much lower than recent reports. The MWCNT-FeOBSPc showed the best ORR activity involving a direct 4-electron mechanism, with a Tafel slope of about 124 mV, indicating a 1-electron process in the rate-determining step.

  6. Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Benjamin Jose

    One-dimensional and two-dimensional forms of carbon are composed of sp 2-hybridized carbon atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal, honeycomb lattice. The two-dimensional form, called graphene, is a single atomic layer of hexagonally-bonded carbon atoms. The one-dimensional form, known as a carbon nanotube, can be conceptualized as a rectangular piece of graphene wrapped into a seamless, high-aspect-ratio cylinder or tube. This dissertation addresses the physics and applied physics of these one and two-dimensional carbon allotropes in nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). First, we give a theoretical background on the electrodynamics and mechanics of carbon nanotube NEMS. We then describe basic experimental techniques, such as electron and scanning probe microscopy, that we then use to probe static and dynamic mechanical and electronic behavior of the carbon nanotube NEMS. For example, we observe and control non-linear beam bending and single-electron quantum tunneling effects in carbon nanotube resonators. We then describe parametric amplification, self-oscillation behavior, and dynamic, non-linear effects in carbon nanotube mechanical resonators. We also report a novel approach to fabricate carbon nanotube atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, and show that they can lead to exceptional lateral resolution enhancement in AFM when imaging both hard and soft (biological) materials. Finally, we describe novel fabrication techniques for large-area, suspended graphene membranes, and utilize these membranes as TEM-transparent, AFM-compatible, NEMS resonators. Laser-driven mechanical vibrations of the graphene resonators are detected by optical interferometry and several vibration harmonics are observed. A degeneracy splitting is observed in the vibrational modes of square-geometry resonators. We then attribute the observed degeneracy splitting to local mass inhomogeneities and membrane defects, and find good overall agreement with the developed theoretical model.

  7. Center for Applications of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel E

    2008-02-21

    This report describes the activities conducted under a Congressional Direction project whose goal was to develop applications for Single-walled carbon nanotubes, under the Carbon Nanotube Technology Center (CANTEC), a multi-investigator program that capitalizes on OU’s advantageous position of having available high quality carbon nanotubes. During the first phase of CANTEC, 11 faculty members and their students from the College of Engineering developed applications for carbon nanotubes by applying their expertise in a number of areas: Catalysis, Reaction Engineering, Nanotube synthesis, Surfactants, Colloid Chemistry, Polymer Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Tissue Engineering, Biosensors, Biochemical Engineering, Cell Biology, Thermal Transport, Composite Materials, Protein synthesis and purification, Molecular Modeling, Computational Simulations. In particular, during this phase, the different research groups involved in CANTEC made advances in the tailoring of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNT) of controlled diameter and chirality by Modifying Reaction Conditions and the Nature of the catalyst; developed kinetic models that quantitatively describe the SWNT growth, created vertically oriented forests of SWNT by varying the density of metal nanoparticles catalyst particles, and developed novel nanostructured SWNT towers that exhibit superhydrophobic behavior. They also developed molecular simulations of the growth of Metal Nanoparticles on the surface of SWNT, which may have applications in the field of fuell cells. In the area of biomedical applications, CANTEC researchers fabricated SWNT Biosensors by a novel electrostatic layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition method, which may have an impact in the control of diabetes. They also functionalized SWNT with proteins that retained the protein’s biological activity and also retained the near-infrared light absorbance, which finds applications in the treatment of cancer.

  8. Carbon nanotube ecotoxicity in amphibians: assessment of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and comparison with double-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Florence; Landois, Perine; Puech, Pascal; Pinelli, Eric; Flahaut, Emmanuel; Gauthier, Laury

    2010-08-01

    The potential impact of industrial multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) was investigated under normalized laboratory conditions according to the International Standard micronucleus assay ISO 21427-1 for 12 days of half-static exposure to 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/l of MWNTs in water. Three different end points were carried out for 12 days of exposure: mortality, growth inhibition and micronuclei induction in erythrocytes of the circulating blood of larvae. Raman spectroscopy analysis was used to study the presence of carbon nanotubes in the biological samples. Considering the high diversity of carbon nanotubes according to their different characteristics, MWNTs were analyzed in Xenopus larvae, comparatively to double-walled carbon nanotubes used in a previous study in similar conditions. Growth inhibition in larvae exposed to 50 mg/l of MWNTs was evidenced; however, no genetoxicity (micronucleus assay) was noticed, at any concentration. Carbon nanotube localization in the larvae leads to different possible hypothesis of mechanisms explaining toxicity in Xenopus.

  9. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  10. Current-Voltage Characteristics of the Composites Based on Epoxy Resin and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Pełech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composites based on epoxy resin were prepared. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes synthesized on iron-cobalt catalyst were applied as a filler in a polymer matrix. Chlorine or hydroxyl groups were incorporated on the carbon nanotubes surface via chlorination or chlorination followed by hydroxylation. The effect of functionalized carbon nanotubes on the epoxy resin matrix is discussed in terms of the state of CNTs dispersion in composites as well as electrical properties. For the obtained materials current-voltage characteristics were determined. They had a nonlinear character and were well described by an exponential-type equation. For all the obtained materials the percolation threshold occurred at a concentration of about 1 wt%. At a higher filler concentration >2 wt%, better conductivity was demonstrated by polymer composites with raw carbon nanotubes. At a lower filler concentration <2 wt%, higher values of electrical conductivity were obtained for polymer composites with modified carbon nanotubes.

  11. Interaction of carbohydrate modified boron nitride nanotubes with living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanet, Melis; Şen, Özlem; Çobandede, Zehra; Çulha, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are composed of boron and nitrogen atoms and they show significantly different properties from their carbon analogues (carbon nanotubes, CNTs). Due to their unique properties including low electrical conductivity, and imaging contrast and neutron capture properties; they can be used in biomedical applications. When their use in biological fields is considered, the route of their toxic effect should be clarified. Therefore, the study of interactions between BNNTs and living systems is important in envisaging biological applications at both cellular and sub-cellular levels to fully gain insights of their potential adverse effects. In this study, BNNTs were modified with lactose, glucose and starch and tested for their cytotoxicity. First, the interactions and the behavior of BNNTs with bovine serum albumin (BSA), Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) and DMEM/Nutrient Mixture F-12Ham were investigated. Thereafter, their cellular uptake and the cyto- and genotoxicity on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549) were evaluated. HDFs and A549 cells internalized the modified and unmodified BNNTs, and BNNTs were found to not cause significant viability change and DNA damage. A higher uptake rate of BNNTs by A549 cells compared to HDFs was observed. Moreover, a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity was observed on A549 cells while they were safer for HDFs in the same concentration range. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that BNNTs and their derivatives made with biomacromolecules might be good candidates for several applications in medicine and biomedical applications. PMID:26222410

  12. Fabrication Of Titania Nanotubes By A Modified Hydrothermal Method

    OpenAIRE

    Meor Yusoff M.S; Masliana M M; Wilfred Paulus; Parimala Devi; Mahdi E. Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    The main setback of the fabrication of titania nanotubes by the hydrothermal method is the long dissolution time and the usage of highly concentrated NaOH. Our group has managed to develop a modified hydrothermal process that is capable of fabricating titania nanotubes in a shorter timespan while using a more dilute NaOH solution. The study shows that the titania nanotubes starts to form from 7 hours of dissolution, and more nanotubes is produced as the dissolution duration is extended. Simil...

  13. Release characteristics of selected carbon nanotube polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are commonly used in polymer formulations to improve strength, conductivity, and other attributes. A developing concern is the potential for carbon nanotube polymer nanocomposites to release nanoparticles into the environment as the polymer ...

  14. Methods for Gas Sensing with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for gas sensing with single-walled carbon nanotubes are described. The methods comprise biasing at least one carbon nanotube and exposing to a gas environment to detect variation in temperature as an electrical response.

  15. A Review: Carbon Nanotube-Based Piezoresistive Strain Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waris Obitayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon nanotubes for piezoresistive strain sensors has acquired significant attention due to its unique electromechanical properties. In this comprehensive review paper, we discussed some important aspects of carbon nanotubes for strain sensing at both the nanoscale and macroscale. Carbon nanotubes undergo changes in their band structures when subjected to mechanical deformations. This phenomenon makes them applicable for strain sensing applications. This paper signifies the type of carbon nanotubes best suitable for piezoresistive strain sensors. The electrical resistivities of carbon nanotube thin film increase linearly with strain, making it an ideal material for a piezoresistive strain sensor. Carbon nanotube composite films, which are usually fabricated by mixing small amounts of single-walled or multiwalled carbon nanotubes with selected polymers, have shown promising characteristics of piezoresistive strain sensors. Studies also show that carbon nanotubes display a stable and predictable voltage response as a function of temperature.

  16. Application of carbon nanotubes modified with a Keggin polyoxometalate as a new sorbent for the hollow-fiber micro-solid-phase extraction of trace naproxen in hair samples with fluorescence spectrophotometry using factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Ezzat; Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Es'haghi, Zarrin; Bamoharram, Fatemeh Farrash

    2015-07-01

    A sensitive technique to determinate naproxen in hair samples was developed using hollow-fiber micro-solid-phase combined with fluorescence spectrophotometry. The incorporation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified with a Keggin polyoxometalate into a silica matrix prepared by the sol-gel method was reported. In this research, the Keggin carbon nanotubes /silica composite was used in the pores and lumen of a hollow fiber as the hollow-fiber micro-solid-phase extraction device. The device was used for the microextraction of the analyte from hair and water samples under the optimized conditions. An orthogonal array experimental design with an OA24 (4(6) ) matrix was employed to optimize the conditions. The effect of six factors influencing the extraction efficiency was investigated: pH, salt, volume of donor and desorption phase, extraction and desorption time. The effect of each factor was estimated using individual contributions as response functions in the screening process. Analysis of variance was employed for estimating the main significant factors and their contributions in the extraction. Calibration curve plot displayed linearity over a range of 0.2-10 ng/mL with detection limits of 0.072 and 0.08 ng/mL for hair and aqueous samples, respectively. The relative recoveries in the hair and aqueous matrices ranged from 103-95%. The relative standard deviation for fiber-to-fiber repeatability was 3.9%. PMID:25931376

  17. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Bakajin, O; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D

    2004-04-06

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Assuming Knudsen diffusion through this nanotube membrane, a maximum helium transport rate (for a pressure drop of 1 atm) of 0.25 cc/sec is predicted. Helium flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate greater than 1x10{sup -6} cc/sec. For viscous, laminar flow conditions, water is estimated to flow across the nanotube membrane (under a 1 atm pressure drop) at up to 2.8x10{sup -5} cc/sec (1.7 {micro}L/min).

  18. Carbon Nanotube Tower-Based Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A supercapacitor system, including (i) first and second, spaced apart planar collectors, (ii) first and second arrays of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) towers or single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) towers, serving as electrodes, that extend between the first and second collectors where the nanotube towers are grown directly on the collector surfaces without deposition of a catalyst and without deposition of a binder material on the collector surfaces, and (iii) a porous separator module having a transverse area that is substantially the same as the transverse area of at least one electrode, where (iv) at least one nanotube tower is functionalized to permit or encourage the tower to behave as a hydrophilic structure, with increased surface wettability.

  19. Carbon Nanotubes and Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P. Barna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of nanomaterials in manufactured consumer products is a rapidly expanding industry and potential toxicities are just beginning to be explored. Combustion-generated multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT or nanoparticles are ubiquitous in non-manufacturing environments and detectable in vapors from diesel fuel, methane, propane, and natural gas. In experimental animal models, carbon nanotubes have been shown to induce granulomas or other inflammatory changes. Evidence suggesting potential involvement of carbon nanomaterials in human granulomatous disease, has been gathered from analyses of dusts generated in the World Trade Center disaster combined with epidemiological data showing a subsequent increase in granulomatous disease of first responders. In this review we will discuss evidence for similarities in the pathophysiology of carbon nanotube-induced pulmonary disease in experimental animals with that of the human granulomatous disease, sarcoidosis.

  20. Optical trapping of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Vasi, S.; M. A. Monaca; Donato, M. G.; Bonaccorso, F.; Privitera, G; Trushkevych, O.; G. Calogero; Fazio, B.; Irrera, A.; M.A. Iati'; Saija, R.; Denti, P.; F. Borghese; Jones, P H; Ferrari, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    We study optical trapping of nanotubes and graphene. We extract the distribution of both centre-of-mass and angular fuctuations from three-dimensional tracking of these optically trapped carbon nanostructures. The optical force and torque constants are measured from auto and cross-correlation of the tracking signals. We demonstrate that nanotubes enable nanometer spatial, and femto-Newton force resolution in photonic force microscopy by accurately measuring the radiation pressure in a double ...

  1. Efficiently Dispersing Carbon Nanotubes in Polyphenylene Sulfide

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Kevin M; Pipes, R. Byron

    2013-01-01

    Thermal plastics are replacing conventional metals in the aerospace, sporting, electronics, and other industries. Thermal plastics are able to withstand relatively high temperatures, have good fatigue properties, and are lighter than metals. Unfortunately, they are not very electrically conductive. However, adding carbon nanotubes to thermal plastics such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) can drastically increase the plastic's conductivity at a low weight percent of nanotubes called the percolat...

  2. Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Jeremy; Moore, Andrew; Khatun, Mahfuza

    2011-10-01

    Recent advances in nanostructure technology have made it possible to create small devices at the nanoscale. Carbon nanotubes (CNT's) are among the most exciting building blocks of nanotechnology. Their versatility and extremely desirable properties for electronic and other devices have driven intense research and development efforts in recent years. A review of electrical and thermal conduction of the structures will be presented. The theoretical investigation is mainly based on molecular dynamics. Green Kubo relation is used for the study of thermal conductivity. Results include kinetic energy, potential energy, heat flux autocorrelation function, and heat conduction of various CNT structures. Most of the computation and simulation has been conducted on the Beowulf cluster at Ball State University. Various software packages and tools such as Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD), Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), and NanoHUB, the open online resource at Purdue University have been used for the research. The work has been supported by the Indiana Academy of Science Research Fund, 2010-2011.

  3. Does water dope carbon nanotubes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Robert A.; Payne, Michael C. [Theory of Condensed Matter Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Mostofi, Arash A. [Department of Materials and Department of Physics, and the Thomas Young Centre for Theory and Simulation of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-28

    We calculate the long-range perturbation to the electronic charge density of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a result of the physisorption of a water molecule. We find that the dominant effect is a charge redistribution in the CNT due to polarisation caused by the dipole moment of the water molecule. The charge redistribution is found to occur over a length-scale greater than 30 Å, highlighting the need for large-scale simulations. By comparing our fully first-principles calculations to ones in which the perturbation due to a water molecule is treated using a classical electrostatic model, we estimate that the charge transfer between CNT and water is negligible (no more than 10{sup −4} e per water molecule). We therefore conclude that water does not significantly dope CNTs, a conclusion that is consistent with the poor alignment of the relevant energy levels of the water molecule and CNT. Previous calculations that suggest water n-dopes CNTs are likely due to the misinterpretation of Mulliken charge partitioning in small supercells.

  4. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  5. Different Technical Applications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, S; Al-Marzouki, F; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A; Abdel-Daiem, A

    2015-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been of great interest because of their simplicity and ease of synthesis. The novel properties of nanostructured carbon nanotubes such as high surface area, good stiffness, and resilience have been explored in many engineering applications. Research on carbon nanotubes have shown the application in the field of energy storage, hydrogen storage, electrochemical supercapacitor, field-emitting devices, transistors, nanoprobes and sensors, composite material, templates, etc. For commercial applications, large quantities and high purity of carbon nanotubes are needed. Different types of carbon nanotubes can be synthesized in various ways. The most common techniques currently practiced are arc discharge, laser ablation, and chemical vapor deposition and flame synthesis. The purification of CNTs is carried out using various techniques mainly oxidation, acid treatment, annealing, sonication, filtering chemical functionalization, etc. However, high-purity purification techniques still have to be developed. Real applications are still under development. This paper addresses the current research on the challenges that are associated with synthesis methods, purification methods, and dispersion and toxicity of CNTs within the scope of different engineering applications, energy, and environmental impact.

  6. Edge effects in finite elongated carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hod, O; Scuseria, G E; Hod, Oded; Peralta, Juan E.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of finite-size effects for the electronic structure of long zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes is studied. We analyze the electronic structure of capped (6,6), (8,0), and (9,0) single walled carbon nanotubes as a function of their length up to 60 nm, using a divide and conquer density functional theory approach. For the metallic nanotubes studied, most of the physical features appearing in the density of states of an infinite carbon nanotube are recovered at a length of 40 nm. The (8,0) semi-conducting nanotube studied exhibits pronounced edge effects within the energy gap that scale as the inverse of the length of the nanotube. As a result, the energy gap reduces from the value of ~1 eV calculated for the periodic system to a value of ~0.25 eV calculated for a capped 62 nm long CNT. These edge effects are expected to become negligible only at tube lengths exceeding 6 micrometers. Our results indicate that careful tailoring of the nature of the system and its capping units should be applied w...

  7. Chitosan-mediated synthesis of carbon nanotube-gold nanohybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GRAVEL; Edmond; FOILLARD; Stéphanie; DORIS; Eric

    2010-01-01

    Metal-nanotube nanohybrids were produced by in situ synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticles on chitosan-functionalized carbon nanotubes.The formation of gold nanoparticles from tetrachloroauric acid was observed after only a few minutes of contact with the functionalized nanotubes,at room temperature.These results suggest that adsorption of chitosan at the surface of carbon nanotubes permits smooth reduction of the metallic salt and efficient anchoring of gold nanoparticles to the nanotubes.

  8. Glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase immobilized on a nanofilm composed of mesoporous hydroxyapatite, titanium dioxide, and modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a highly sensitive glucose biosensor that was fabricated from a composite made from mesoporous hydroxyapatite and mesoporous titanium dioxide which then were ultrasonically mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes to form a rough nanocomposite film. This film served as a platform to immobilize glucose oxidase onto a glassy carbon electrode. The morphological and electrochemical properties of the film were examined by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used to characterize the electrochemical performances of the biosensor which exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity to the oxidation of glucose. At an operating potential of 0. 3 V and pH 6. 8, the sensor displays a sensitivity of 57. 0 μA mM-1 cm-2, a response time of <5 s, a linear dynamic range from 0. 01 to 15. 2 mM, a correlation coefficient of 0. 9985, and a detection limit of 2 μM at an SNR of 3. No interferences are found for uric acid, ascorbic acid, dopamine and most carbohydrates. The sensor is stable and was successfully applied to the determination of glucose in real samples. (author)

  9. Transport Properties of Carbon-Nanotube/Cement Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Yang, Z.; Shi, X.; Yu, X.

    2012-01-01

    This paper preliminarily investigates the general transport properties (i.e., water sorptivity, water permeability, and gas permeability) of carbon-nanotube/cement composites. Carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed into cement mortar to fabricate the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) rei

  10. Deposition of the platinum crystals on the carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new technique and the affecting factors for depositing platinum on the carbon nanotubes were investigated. The results show that the deposited platinum crystals in the atmosphere of hydrogen or nitrogen have a small size and a homogeneous distribution on the surface of the carbon nanotubes. The pretreatment would decrease the platinum particles on the carbon nanotubes significantly.

  11. Decoration of activated carbon nanotubes by assembling nano-silver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-sha Li; Bin-song Wang; Ying-jie Qiao; Wei-zhe Lu; Ji Liang

    2009-01-01

    A facile solution processed strategy of synthesizing nano silver assembled on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at room tempera-ture was put forward. Activated carbon nanotubes were used as precursors for preparing silver-decorated nanotubes. The nature of the decorated nanotubes was studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and en-ergy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The inert surfaces of carbon nanotubes were activated by introducing catalytic nuclei via an oxidation-sensitization-activation approach. Activated carbon nanotubes catalyzed the metal deposition specifically onto their surfaces upon immersion in electroless plating baths. The method produced nanotubes decorated with silver. The extent of silver decoration was found to be dependent on fabrication conditions. Dense nano silver assembled on nanotube surfaces could be ob-tained by keeping a low reaction rate in the solution phase. The results here show that this method is an efficient and simple means of achieving carbon nanotubes being assembled by nano metal.

  12. Enhanced graphitization of carbon around carbon nanotubes during the formation of carbon nanotube/graphite composites by pyrolysis of carbon nanotube/polyaniline composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Dong Hoon; Cha, Seung Il; Jeong, Yong Jin; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2013-11-01

    The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are actively applied to the reinforcements for composite materials during last decade. One of the attempts is development of CNT/Carbon composites. Although there are some reports on the enhancement of mechanical properties by addition of CNTs in carbon or carbon fiber, it is far below the expectation. Considering the microstructure of carbon materials such as carbon fiber, the properties of them can be modified and enhanced by control of graphitization and alignment of graphene planes. In this study, enhanced graphitization of carbon has been observed the vicinity of CNTs during the pyrolysis of CNT/Polyaniline composites. As a result, novel types of composite, consisting of treading CNTs and coated graphite, can be fabricated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a specific orientation relationship between the graphene layers and the CNTs, with an angle of 110 degrees between the layers and the CNT axis. The possibility of graphene alignment control in the carbon by the addition of CNTs is demonstrated.

  13. Carbon nanotube suspensions, dispersions, & composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Trevor John

    Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) are amazing structures that hold the potential to revolutionize many areas of scientific research. CNTs can be behave both as semiconductors and metals, can be grown in highly ordered arrays and patterns or in random orientation, and can be comprised of one graphene cylinder (single wall nanotube, SWNT) or several concentric graphene cylinders (multi-wall nanotube, MWNT). Although these structures are usually only a few nanometers wide, they can be grown up to centimeter lengths, and in massive quantities. CNTs can be produced in a variety of processes ranging from repeated combustion of organic material such as dried grass, arc-discharge with graphite electrodes, laser ablation of a graphitic target, to sophisticated chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. CNTs are stronger than steel but lighter than aluminum, and can be more conductive than copper or semiconducting like silicon. This variety of properties has been matched by the wide variety of applications that have been developed for CNTs. Many of these applications have been limited by the inability of researchers to tame these structures, and incorporating CNTs into existing technologies can be exceedingly difficult and prohibitively expensive. It is therefore the aim of the current study to develop strategies for the solution processing and deposition of CNTs and CNT-composites, which will enable the use of CNTs in existing and emerging technologies. CNTs are not easily suspended in polar solvents and are extremely hydrophobic materials, which has limited much of the solution processing to organic solvents, which also cannot afford high quality dispersions of CNTs. The current study has developed a variety of aqueous CNT solutions that employ surfactants, water-soluble polymers, or both to create suspensions of CNTs. These CNT 'ink' solutions were deposited with a variety of techniques that have afforded many interesting structures, both randomly oriented as well as highly

  14. Graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials and use as electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Zhu, Yu; Li, Lei; Yan, Zheng; Lin, Jian

    2016-09-27

    Provided are methods of making graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials. Such methods generally include: (1) associating a graphene film with a substrate; (2) applying a catalyst and a carbon source to the graphene film; and (3) growing carbon nanotubes on the graphene film. The grown carbon nanotubes become covalently linked to the graphene film through carbon-carbon bonds that are located at one or more junctions between the carbon nanotubes and the graphene film. In addition, the grown carbon nanotubes are in ohmic contact with the graphene film through the carbon-carbon bonds at the one or more junctions. The one or more junctions may include seven-membered carbon rings. Also provided are the formed graphene-carbon nanotube hybrid materials.

  15. Processing and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Roberto J.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Czabaj, Michael W.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Hull, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the synthesis of large-scale quantities of carbon nanotubes (CNT) have provided the opportunity to study the mechanical properties of polymer matrix composites using these novel materials as reinforcement. Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. currently supplies large sheets with dimensions up to 122 cm x 244 cm containing both single-wall and few-wall CNTs. The tubes are approximately 1 mm in length with diameters ranging from 8 to 12 nm. In the present study being conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), single and multiple layers of CNT sheets were infused or coated with various polymer solutions that included commercial toughened-epoxies and bismaleimides, as well as a LaRC developed polyimide. The resulting CNT composites were tested in tension using a modified version of ASTM D882-12 to determine their strength and modulus values. The effects of solvent treatment and mechanical elongation/alignment of the CNT sheets on the tensile performance of the composite were determined. Thin composites (around 50 wt% CNT) fabricated from acetone condensed and elongated CNT sheets with either a BMI or polyimide resin solution exhibited specific tensile moduli approaching that of toughened epoxy/ IM7 carbon fiber unidirectional composites.

  16. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K. K. Upadhyayula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9×108 and 2×108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  17. Nanocrystalline cobalt oxides for carbon nanotube growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya H.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2007-09-01

    Thin Films of nanocrystalline cobalt oxide were formed by sol-gel method. Structure, optical properties and surface properties of these films were investigated by numerous characterization techniques. These films were successfully fabricated on glass substrates below 500°C. . Micropatterns of cobalt oxide thin films were also fabricated on glass and silicon substrates by employing a lift-off method. Crystal size of these nanocrystalline cobalt films could be successfully controllable by varying the amount of cobalt precursors and number of layers. These films were used as the seeding layers for carbon nanotube growth in a CVD process By changing the concentration of monomer precursors in the solgel coating solutions, different size nanoclusters hence different size carbon nanotubes could be synthesized in CVD process. This method can be used for controlled growth of carbon nanotubes for many different applications. In this paper, detail of these experimental results will be presented.

  18. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  19. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs.

  20. Modelling Carbon Nanotubes-Based Mediatorless Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Razumiene

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments: a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate.

  1. Modelling carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronas, Romas; Kulys, Juozas; Petrauskas, Karolis; Razumiene, Julija

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of carbon nanotubes-based mediatorless biosensor. The developed model is based on nonlinear non-stationary reaction-diffusion equations. The model involves four layers (compartments): a layer of enzyme solution entrapped on a terylene membrane, a layer of the single walled carbon nanotubes deposited on a perforated membrane, and an outer diffusion layer. The biosensor response and sensitivity are investigated by changing the model parameters with a special emphasis on the mediatorless transfer of the electrons in the layer of the enzyme-loaded carbon nanotubes. The numerical simulation at transient and steady state conditions was carried out using the finite difference technique. The mathematical model and the numerical solution were validated by experimental data. The obtained agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data was admissible at different concentrations of the substrate. PMID:23012537

  2. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  3. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  4. Boron-Filled Hybrid Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajen B.; Chou, Tsengming; Kanwal, Alokik; Apigo, David J.; Lefebvre, Joseph; Owens, Frank; Iqbal, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    A unique nanoheterostructure, a boron-filled hybrid carbon nanotube (BHCNT), has been synthesized using a one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The BHCNTs can be considered to be a novel form of boron carbide consisting of boron doped, distorted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating boron nanowires. These MWCNTs were found to be insulating in spite of their graphitic layered outer structures. While conventional MWCNTs have great axial strength, they have weak radial compressive strength, and do not bond well to one another or to other materials. In contrast, BHCNTs are shown to be up to 31% stiffer and 233% stronger than conventional MWCNTs in radial compression and have excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. The corrugated surface of BHCNTs enables them to bond easily to themselves and other materials, in contrast to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). BHCNTs can, therefore, be used to make nanocomposites, nanopaper sheets, and bundles that are stronger than those made with CNTs. PMID:27460526

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Synthesis Through Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Pablo; Garcia, Rafael; Montes, Jorge; Melendrez, Rodrigo; Barboza, Marcelino; Contreras, Oscar

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes show a great potential of applications since there discovery by Iijima in 1991[1] due to their numerous physical-chemical properties such as their high weight to strength relationship, which make them ideal to use in high resistance compound materials, and in many other applications[2] In this work, a novel method for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes is presented, starting from an ultra-thin sheet of graphite synthesized by the chemical vapor decomposition technique (CVD), using ultra high purity methane and hydrogen at 1200°C in a horizontal quartz reactor. For the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, the graphite sheets were exposed to different doses of radiation, with the objective of breaking the graphite bonds and form carbon nanotubes; a Gammacell equipment model 220 Excel was used for the purpose, which counts with a radiation source of cobalt 60, and a current radiation rate of 0.9 Gy/seconds. The time of exposure to radiation was varied in each sample, according to the desired dose of radiation in each case, afterwards the samples were characterized using the Raman spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques with the objective of observing the kind of nanotubes formed, their morphology and their number of defects. Results will be shown during the poster session.

  6. Investigating the effect of carbon nanotube diameter and wall number in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Grace; LePing Yu; Christopher Gibson; Daniel Tune; Huda Alturaif; Zeid Al Othman; Joseph Shapter

    2016-01-01

    Suspensions of single-walled, double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were generated in the same solvent at similar concentrations. Films were fabricated from these suspensions and used in carbon nanotube/silicon heterojunction solar cells and their properties were compared with reference to the number of walls in the nanotube samples. It was found that single-walled nanotubes generally produced more favorable results; however, the double and multi-walled nanotube films used in...

  7. Molecular Dynamics Modeling of Carbon Nanotubes and Their Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lars R.; Pyrz, Ryszard

    2004-06-01

    The tensile modulus of individual nanotubes and nanotube-polypropylene composites has been determined using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes showed that their tensile modulus was dependent on the tube structure and the diameter if the diameter was below 1,6 nm. The tensile modulus was determined for an infinite single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in an amorphous polypropylene matrix and for a finite and capped single-walled carbon nanotube embedded in a polypropylene matrix. For the infinite nanotube-polypropylene system the modulus was found to correspond to the one given by the Voigt approximation. For the finite nanotube-polypropylene system the reinforcing effect of the nanotube was not very pronounced. A pull out simulation showed that the length of the nanotube in the simulation was much smaller than the critical length and hence no load transfer between the nanotube and the matrix existed.

  8. Estudo teórico de propriedades ópticas não-lineares de nanotubos de carbono de parede única quimicamente modificados Theoretical analysis of non-linear optical properties for chemically modified single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio M. Da Silva Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and first hyperpolarizability for a series of armchair a(5,5 chemically modified carbon nanotubes (CNT were calculated at semiempirical and density functional levels of theory. The 4,4´-substituted stilbenes were selected as chromophore with substituents at position 4´ set to X=NO2, H, Cl, OH and NH2. The calculated values for static first hyperpolarizability (β were almost linearly dependent on the electronic effect of the group X, increasing from NO2 to NH2. At DFT level the effect of inserting the chromophore in the CNT surface was to enhance the β value up to 70% relative to the free 4,4´-substituted stilbene.

  9. Tuning electronic properties of carbon nanotubes by Boron and Nitrogen doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegel, Raad

    2016-10-01

    The electronic properties of pure and doped carbon nanotubes and NC3-, BC3-, NC- and BC-nanotubes are investigated by using tight binding theory. It was found that applying the external fields and doping change the band gap. The energy gap is reduced by B/N-doping and the reduction value is sensitive to the several parameters such as nanotube diameter and chirality, external field strength, electric field direction, impurity type and concentration. The direct N (B) substitution creates a new band above (below) the Fermi level and leads to creation of n-type (p-type) semiconductor. The external fields modify the band structure and convert the doped nanotube into metal. For both XC and XC3 nanotubes (X=B/N), the gap energy reduction shows identical dependence to electric field and the XC3 nanotubes show more sensitive behavior to electric field rather than XC nanotubes.

  10. Control of neuronal network organization by chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jie; Bibari, Olivier; Marchand, Gilles; Benabid, Alim-Louis; Sauter-Starace, Fabien [CEA, LETI-Minatec, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Appaix, Florence; De Waard, Michel, E-mail: fabien.sauter@cea.fr, E-mail: michel.dewaard@ujf-grenoble.fr [Inserm U836, Grenoble Institute of Neuroscience, Site Sante la Tronche, Batiment Edmond J Safra, Chemin Fortune Ferrini, BP170, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2011-05-13

    Carbon nanotube substrates are promising candidates for biological applications and devices. Interfacing of these carbon nanotubes with neurons can be controlled by chemical modifications. In this study, we investigated how chemical surface functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotube arrays (MWNT-A) influences neuronal adhesion and network organization. Functionalization of MWNT-A dramatically modifies the length of neurite fascicles, cluster inter-connection success rate, and the percentage of neurites that escape from the clusters. We propose that chemical functionalization represents a method of choice for developing applications in which neuronal patterning on MWNT-A substrates is required.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Modified Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes/Polyurethane Emulsion%改性多壁碳纳米管/聚氨酯乳液的制备与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵; 石阳阳; 许戈文; 黄毅萍

    2014-01-01

    以聚醚多元醇(N-210)、异佛尔酮二异氰酸酯(IPDI)、二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)、一缩二乙二醇(DEG)为基料,合成了水性聚氨酯预聚体,采用改性多壁碳纳米管( MWCNTs )的悬浊液为分散介质得到水性聚氨酯复合乳液。通过TEM、拉力机、TGA对其胶膜的微观结构、力学性能以及热学性能进行测试,结果表明: MWCNTs均匀分散在聚氨酯胶膜中;当MWCNTs质量分数在0.5%时,拉伸强度达到最大值为17.91 MPa,比纯聚氨酯提高了81%;复合材料的断裂伸长率均达到500%以上,最大达到539%,明显高于未加改性碳纳米管的聚氨酯; MWCNTs的加入可明显提高复合材料的耐热性。%A series of waterborne polyurethanes ( WPU ) , which were dispersed in the turbid liquid of the multi -walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), were prepared by polyether diol (N-210), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), dimethy lolpropionic acid ( DMPA) and diglycol ( DEG) .The microstructure , mechanical properties and the thermal properties of the coating films were investigated by TEM , tensile machine and TGA.The results showed that MWCNTs were well dispersed in the polyurethane films.The tensile strength was at the maximum 17.91MPa, increasing by 81%compared with that of pure WPU , when the mass fraction of MWCNTs was 0.5%.The elongation at break of the composite materials was all above 500% and had a maximum of 539%, which was significantly higher than the polyurethane without being modified by carbon nanotubes.The heat resistances of the composite materials were obviously improved by the addition of the modified multi -walled carbon nanotubes.

  12. 碳纳米管改性酚醛树脂固化动力学研究%Study on the curing kinetics of carbon nanotubes modified phenolic resins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亚琴; 傅深渊; 张凯

    2012-01-01

    The curing process of carbon nanotube modified phenolic resin was analyzed by using non-isothermal differential method.The curing kinetics was investigated by using Kissinger and Ozawa methods and the activation energy was obtained.The results showed that the curing reaction of carbon nanotube modified PF resin was an endothermic reaction.The corresponding initial peak temperature(Ti),peak temperature Tp and the peak-end temperature(Tf) was 106.4 °C,118.2 °and 157.6 °C,respectively.The apparent activation energy Ea,frequency factor and reaction order of the curing systems were 111.094 kJ/mol,9.56×10^-5/s and 0.965,respectively.%采用非等温示差法分析了碳纳米管改性酚醛固化反应过程,运用Kissinger和Ozawa法对其进行了动力学研究,得到了反应活化能。结果表明:碳纳米管改性PF树脂的固化反应为吸热反应;相应的峰始温度(Ti)为106.4℃,峰顶温度(Tp)为118.2℃,峰终温度(Tf)为157.6℃,固化体系的表观活化能Ea为111.094 kJ/mol,频率因子为9.56×10^-5/s,反应级数为0.965,并得到了固化反应动力学方程。

  13. A carbon nanotube optical rectenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Asha; Singh, Virendra; Bougher, Thomas L.; Cola, Baratunde A.

    2015-12-01

    An optical rectenna—a device that directly converts free-propagating electromagnetic waves at optical frequencies to direct current—was first proposed over 40 years ago, yet this concept has not been demonstrated experimentally due to fabrication challenges at the nanoscale. Realizing an optical rectenna requires that an antenna be coupled to a diode that operates on the order of 1 PHz (switching speed on the order of 1 fs). Diodes operating at these frequencies are feasible if their capacitance is on the order of a few attofarads, but they remain extremely difficult to fabricate and to reliably couple to a nanoscale antenna. Here we demonstrate an optical rectenna by engineering metal-insulator-metal tunnel diodes, with a junction capacitance of ˜2 aF, at the tip of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (˜10 nm in diameter), which act as the antenna. Upon irradiation with visible and infrared light, we measure a d.c. open-circuit voltage and a short-circuit current that appear to be due to a rectification process (we account for a very small but quantifiable contribution from thermal effects). In contrast to recent reports of photodetection based on hot electron decay in a plasmonic nanoscale antenna, a coherent optical antenna field appears to be rectified directly in our devices, consistent with rectenna theory. Finally, power rectification is observed under simulated solar illumination, and there is no detectable change in diode performance after numerous current-voltage scans between 5 and 77 °C, indicating a potential for robust operation.

  14. Micromechanics of carbon nanotube turfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi, Hamid

    Complex structures consisting of intertwined, nominally vertical carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are called turfs. Unique electrical, thermal, optical, and permeability properties of these turfs have attracted growing attention during the past decade, and have rendered them as appropriate candidates for applications such as contact thermal switches. These properties are controlled by the details of the turf microstructures. Due to the application of the turfs in different fields, they are subjected to different loading conditions. Deformation changes the microstructure of a CNT turf, which results in change of effective properties. Many researchers have recently studied the collective mechanical behavior of CNT turfs to compression loading, as this behavior determines their performance. However, their complex and intertwined structure must be investigated in more details to find the relation between their deformation and their underlying morphology. Under uniform compression experiments, CNT turfs exhibit irreversible collective buckling of a layer preceded by reorientation of CNT segments. Experimentally observed independence of the buckling stress and the buckling wavelength on the turf width suggests the existence of an intrinsic material length. To investigate the relationship the macroscopic material properties and the statistical parameters describing the nano-scale geometry of the turf (tortuosity, density and connectivity) we develop a nano-scale computational model, based on the representation of CNT segments as elastica finite elements with van der Waals interactions. The virtual turfs are generated by means of a constrained random walk algorithm and subsequent relaxation. The resulting computational model is robust and is capable of modeling the collective behavior of CNTs. We first establish the dependence of statistical parameters on the computational parameters used for turf generation, then establish relationships between post-buckling stress, initial

  15. Nitrogen in highly crystalline carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducati, C; Koziol, K; Stavrinadis, A; Friedrichs, S; Windle, A H; Midgley, P A [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-22

    Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with an unprecedented degree of internal order were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) adding a nitrogen-containing compound to the hydrocarbon feedstock. Ferrocene was used as the metal catalyst precursor. The remarkable crystallinity of these nanotubes lies both in the isochirality and in the crystallographic register of their walls, as demonstrated by electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy experiments. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the walls of the nanotubes consist of truncated stacked cones, instead of perfect cylinders, with a range of apex angles that appears to be related to the nitrogen concentration in the synthesis process. The structure of armchair, zigzag and chiral nanotubes is modelled and discussed in terms of density of topological defects, providing an interesting comparison with our microscopy experiments. A growth mechanism based on the interplay of base- and tip-growth is proposed to account for our experimental observations.

  16. A tunable carbon nanotube electromechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonova, Vera; Yaish, Yuval; Üstünel, Hande; Roundy, David; Arias, Tomás A.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2004-09-01

    Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) hold promise for a number of scientific and technological applications. In particular, NEMS oscillators have been proposed for use in ultrasensitive mass detection, radio-frequency signal processing, and as a model system for exploring quantum phenomena in macroscopic systems. Perhaps the ultimate material for these applications is a carbon nanotube. They are the stiffest material known, have low density, ultrasmall cross-sections and can be defect-free. Equally important, a nanotube can act as a transistor and thus may be able to sense its own motion. In spite of this great promise, a room-temperature, self-detecting nanotube oscillator has not been realized, although some progress has been made. Here we report the electrical actuation and detection of the guitar-string-like oscillation modes of doubly clamped nanotube oscillators. We show that the resonance frequency can be widely tuned and that the devices can be used to transduce very small forces.

  17. Magnetoresistance of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Yarns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENG Lei-Mei; GAO Wei; CAO Shi-Xun; ZHANG Jin-Cang

    2008-01-01

    We measure zero-field resistivity and magnetoresistance of multiwalled carbon nanotube yarns (CNTYs). The CNTYs are drawn from superaligned multiwalled carbon nanotube arrays synthesized by the low-pressure chemical vapour deposition method. The zero-field resistivity shows a logarithmic decrease from 2 K to 300 K. In the presence of a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the yarn axis, a pronounced negative magnetoresistance is observed. A magnetoresistance ratio of 22% is obtained. These behaviours can be explained by the weak localization effect.

  18. A carbon nanotube-based sensing element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHOU Zhao-ying; WU Ying; ZHANG Jin; ZHANG Ying-ying

    2007-01-01

    A carbon nanotube-based(CNT) sensing element is presented, which consists of substrate, insulating layer, electrodes,carbon nanotube and measuring circuit. The sensing components are a single or array of CNTs, which are located on the two electrodes. The CNT-based sensing element is fabricated by CVD (chemical vapor deposition)-direct-growth on microelectrodes. The sensing model and measurement method of electromechanical property are also presented. Finally, the voltage-current characteristics are measured, which show that the CNT-based sensing element has good electrical properties.

  19. Carbon nanotubes for in vivo cancer nanotechnology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The latest progress of using carbon nanotubes(CNTs) for in vivo cancer nanotechnology is reviewed.CNTs can be functionalized by either covalent or non-covalent chemistry to produce functional bioconjugates for many in vivo applications.In vivo behaviors and toxicology studies of CNTs are summarized,suggesting no significant toxicity of well functionalized CNTs to the treated mice.Owing to their unique chemical and physical properties,CNTs,especially single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWNTs),have been widely used for various modalities of in vivo cancer treatment and imaging.Future development of CNT-based nanomedicine may bring novel opportunities to cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Piezoresistive effect in carbon nanotube films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The piezoresistive effect of the pristine carbon nanotube (CNT) films has been studied. Carbon nanotubes were synthesized by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The piezoresistive effect in the pristine CNT films was studied by a three-point bending test. The gauge factor for the pristine CNT films under 500 microstrains was found to be at least 65 at room temperature, and increased with temperature, exceeding that of polycrystalline silicon (30) at 35℃. The origin of the piezoresistivity in CNT films may be ascribed to a pressure-induced change in the band gap and the defects.

  1. Computational Nanomechanics of Carbon Nanotubes and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Nanomechanics of individual carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes and their application as reinforcing fibers in polymer composites has been reviewed with interplay of theoretical modeling, computer simulations and experimental observations. The emphasis in this work is on elucidating the multi-length scales of the problems involved, and of different simulation techniques that are needed to address specific characteristics of individual nanotubes and nanotube polymer-matrix interfaces. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are shown to be sufficient to describe the generic behavior such as strength and stiffness modulus but are inadequate to describe elastic limit and nature of plastic buckling at large strength. Quantum molecular dynamics simulations are shown to bring out explicit atomic nature dependent behavior of these nanoscale materials objects that are not accessible either via continuum mechanics based descriptions or through classical molecular dynamics based simulations. As examples, we discus local plastic collapse of carbon nanotubes under axial compression and anisotropic plastic buckling of boron-nitride nanotubes. Dependence of the yield strain on the strain rate is addressed through temperature dependent simulations, a transition-state-theory based model of the strain as a function of strain rate and simulation temperature is presented, and in all cases extensive comparisons are made with experimental observations. Mechanical properties of nanotube-polymer composite materials are simulated with diverse nanotube-polymer interface structures (with van der Waals interaction). The atomistic mechanisms of the interface toughening for optimal load transfer through recycling, high-thermal expansion and diffusion coefficient composite formation above glass transition temperature, and enhancement of Young's modulus on addition of nanotubes to polymer are discussed and compared with experimental observations.

  2. Carbon nanotubes as tips for atomic force microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立秋; 徐宗伟; 赵铁强; 赵清亮; 张飞虎; 董申

    2004-01-01

    Ordinary AFM probes' characters prevent the AFM' s application in various scopes. Carbon nanotubes represent ideal AFM probe materials for their higher aspect ratio, larger Young' s modulus, unique chemical structure, and well-defined electronic property. Carbon nanotube AFM probes are obtained by using a new method of attaching carbon nanotubes to the end of ordinary AFM probes, and are then used for doing AFM experiments. These experiments indicated that carbon nanotube probes have higher elastic deformation, higher resolution and higher durability. And it was also found that carbon nanotube probes can accurately reflect the morphology of deep narrow gaps, while ordinary probes can not reflect.

  3. Electrochemical sensing of H2O2 by the modified electrode with pd nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes-g-poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyoung Soon; You, Jung-Min; Jeong, Haesang; Jeon, Seungwon

    2014-06-01

    A simple method has adapted to prepare MWCNT grafted Poly(lactic acid) (MWCNT-g-PLA) by intercalative polymerization of poly(lactic acid) in the presence of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) functionalized with hydroxyl groups. The functionalized MWCNT has obtained from the treatment of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) with MWCNT, and then the reaction with 1,4-butanediol (BD) to create functional hydroxyl groups. MWCNT-g-PLA-Pd and MWCNT-g-PLA-Pt have prepared from the MWCNT-g-PLA and metal precursors. The synthesized materials have characterized by 1H-NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The MWCNT-g-PLA-Pd is possibilities for employing to electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide. Electrocatalytic activities are verified from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometric response in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The biosensor provided good stability and selectivity towards interferences such as UA, AA, and glucose. PMID:24738350

  4. Electrochemical sensor using neomycin-imprinted film as recognition element based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Cui, Min; Xu, Wei; Huang, Jiadong

    2013-06-15

    A novel imprinted electrochemical sensor for neomycin recognition was developed based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CS-SNP)/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWCNTs) composites decorated gold electrode. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by electropolymerization using neomycin as the template, and pyrrole as the monomer. The mechanism of the fabrication process and a number of factors affecting the activity of the imprinted sensor have been discussed and optimized. The characterization of imprinted sensor has been carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The performance of the proposed imprinted sensor has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of the sensor was from 9×10(-9)mol/L to 7×10(-6)mol/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 7.63×10(-9)mol/L (S/N=3). The film exhibited high binding affinity and selectivity towards the template neomycin, as well as good reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, the proposed sensor was applied to determine the neomycin in milk and honey samples based on its good reproducibility and stability, and the acceptable recovery implied its feasibility for practical application. PMID:23395725

  5. Spinnability and Characteristics of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF-based Bicomponent Fibers with a Carbon Nanotube (CNT Modified Polypropylene Core for Piezoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Glauß

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explains the melt spinning of bicomponent fibers, consisting of a conductive polypropylene (PP core and a piezoelectric sheath (polyvinylidene fluoride. Previously analyzed piezoelectric capabilities of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF are to be exploited in sensor filaments. The PP compound contains a 10 wt % carbon nanotubes (CNTs and 2 wt % sodium stearate (NaSt. The sodium stearate is added to lower the viscosity of the melt. The compound constitutes the fiber core that is conductive due to a percolation CNT network. The PVDF sheath’s piezoelectric effect is based on the formation of an all-trans conformation β phase, caused by draw-winding of the fibers. The core and sheath materials, as well as the bicomponent fibers, are characterized through different analytical methods. These include wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD to analyze crucial parameters for the development of a crystalline β phase. The distribution of CNTs in the polymer matrix, which affects the conductivity of the core, was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Thermal characterization is carried out by conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Optical microscopy is used to determine the fibers’ diameter regularity (core and sheath. The materials’ viscosity is determined by rheometry. Eventually, an LCR tester is used to determine the core’s specific resistance.

  6. Electrochemical sensor using neomycin-imprinted film as recognition element based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Su; Yu, Jinghua; Li, Jie; Cui, Min; Xu, Wei; Huang, Jiadong

    2013-06-15

    A novel imprinted electrochemical sensor for neomycin recognition was developed based on chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CS-SNP)/graphene-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (GR-MWCNTs) composites decorated gold electrode. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized by electropolymerization using neomycin as the template, and pyrrole as the monomer. The mechanism of the fabrication process and a number of factors affecting the activity of the imprinted sensor have been discussed and optimized. The characterization of imprinted sensor has been carried out by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The performance of the proposed imprinted sensor has been investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of the sensor was from 9×10(-9)mol/L to 7×10(-6)mol/L, with the limit of detection (LOD) of 7.63×10(-9)mol/L (S/N=3). The film exhibited high binding affinity and selectivity towards the template neomycin, as well as good reproducibility and stability. Furthermore, the proposed sensor was applied to determine the neomycin in milk and honey samples based on its good reproducibility and stability, and the acceptable recovery implied its feasibility for practical application.

  7. Electrochemical lactate biosensor based upon chitosan/carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of lactate in embryonic cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ibáñez, Naiara; García-Cruz, Leticia; Montiel, Vicente; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Iniesta, Jesús

    2016-03-15

    l-lactate is an essential metabolite present in embryonic cell culture. Changes of this important metabolite during the growth of human embryo reflect the quality and viability of the embryo. In this study, we report a sensitive, stable, and easily manufactured electrochemical biosensor for the detection of lactate within embryonic cell cultures media. Screen-printed disposable electrodes are used as electrochemical sensing platforms for the miniaturization of the lactate biosensor. Chitosan/multi walled carbon nanotubes composite have been employed for the enzymatic immobilization of the lactate oxidase enzyme. This novel electrochemical lactate biosensor analytical efficacy is explored towards the sensing of lactate in model (buffer) solutions and is found to exhibit a linear response towards lactate over the concentration range of 30.4 and 243.9 µM in phosphate buffer solution, with a corresponding limit of detection (based on 3-sigma) of 22.6 µM and exhibits a sensitivity of 3417 ± 131 µAM(-1) according to the reproducibility study. These novel electrochemical lactate biosensors exhibit a high reproducibility, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.8% and an enzymatic response over 82% after 5 months stored at 4 °C. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography technique has been utilized to independently validate the electrochemical lactate biosensor for the determination of lactate in a commercial embryonic cell culture medium providing excellent agreement between the two analytical protocols.

  8. Bio-defunctionalization of Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sheng-Tao; Wang, Haifang; Meziani, Mohammed J.; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Xin; Sun, Ya-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Chemically modified carbon nanotubes with hydrophilic functionalities such as polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely pursued for potential biological and biomedical applications. In this study, PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWNT) were intravenously administrated into mice to study their bio-defunctionalization in vivo by using complementary Raman and photoluminescence measurements. There was meaningful defunctionalization of PEG-SWNT in liver over time, but not in spleen under...

  9. Promotion of the Direct Electron Transfer of Hemoglobin by the Carbon Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CHEN; Chen Xin CAI

    2004-01-01

    It is reported that the direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) can be effectively promoted by carbon nanotubes when Hb was immobilized on the surface of the carbon nanotubes modified electrode. The results indicated that the conversion of Hb-Fe(III)/Hb-Fe(II) is a one-electron coupled one-proton reaction process. The method presented can be easily extended to study the direct electrochemistry of other proteins or enzymes.

  10. Metal coating effect on thermal diffusivity of single-walled carbon nanotube

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2010-01-01

    Recently a functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that is modified by metal atoms was experimentally developed. Single-walled carbon nanotube is known to exhibit exceptional thermal conductivity; however, there is no report about a functionalized SWCNT. In this study, thermal diffusivity of metal-coated SWCNT was derived using molecular dynamics. Consequently, thermal diffusivity exhibited 10 times smaller than uncoated SWCNT. On the other hand, the heat conduction on the metal ...

  11. Simultaneous determination of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine using 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine diacetonitrile triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate complex functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Ida, E-mail: idatiwari_2001@rediffmail.com [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Gupta, Mandakini; Sinha, Preeti [Department of Chemistry (Center of Advanced Study), Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India); Banks, Craig E. [Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A nanocomposite of ruthenium(II) terpyridine, triphenylphosphine based complex and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been used first time for simultaneous detection of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine. • The detection limit reported is lower as compared to other reported works. • The paper also focuses towards effect of ligand variation attached to ruthenium(II) terpyridine based complexes complex for the hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine detection. • Nanocomposite does not involve any biological entity hence high stability. - Abstract: A nanocomposite based on the incorporation of the complex 4′-(4-carboxyphenyl)-2,2′:6′,2″ terpyridine triphenylphosphine diacetonitrile ruthenium(II) tetrafluoroborate with multiwalled carbon nanotubes and ionomer supported upon a glassy carbon electrode substrate is reported and characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior and stability of the composite electrode was investigated via cyclic voltammetry. The modified electrode exhibits an electro-catalytic activity towards the oxidation of both hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS, pH 7.4). The oxidation of hydrazine and phenyl hydrazine occurs at 0.81 V and 0.32 V with limit of detection found to be 3.7 × 10{sup −7} M and 1.15 × 10{sup −7} M and having a linear range from 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 6.5 × 10{sup −3} M, and 5 × 10{sup −6} M to 0.2 × 10{sup −3} M, respectively.

  12. Improved Method of Purifying Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzeit, Lance D.

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of removing the residues of fabrication from carbon nanotubes has been invented. These residues comprise amorphous carbon and metal particles that are produced during the growth process. Prior methods of removing the residues include a variety of processes that involved the use of halogens, oxygen, or air in both thermal and plasma processes. Each of the prior methods entails one or more disadvantages, including non-selectivity (removal or damage of nanotubes in addition to removal of the residues), the need to dispose of toxic wastes, and/or processing times as long as 24 hours or more. In contrast, the process described here does not include the use of toxic chemicals, the generation of toxic wastes, causes little or no damage to the carbon nanotubes, and involves processing times of less than 1 hour. In the improved method, purification is accomplished by flowing water vapor through the reaction chamber at elevated temperatures and ambient pressures. The impurities are converted to gaseous waste products by the selective hydrogenation and hydroxylation by the water in a reaction chamber. This process could be performed either immediately after growth or in a post-growth purification process. The water used needs to be substantially free of oxygen and can be obtained by a repeated freeze-pump-thaw process. The presence of oxygen will non-selectively attach the carbon nanotubes in addition to the amorphous carbon.

  13. Electrohemical properties of carbon nanotube paste electrodes modified with redox cationic dyes=Propriedades eletroquímicas de eletrodos a base de pasta de nanotubo de carbono modificados com corantes redox catiônicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo César Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the electrochemical behavior of methylene blue and toluidine blue as electron mediators adsorbed in the multiwall carbon nanotubes paste. Based on midpoint potential and separation of cathodic and anodic peaks (ΔE, it was not observed interaction of different eletrolytes with the cationic dyes by an ion exchange reaction and, as a consequence, absence of leaching of cationic dyes to the solution phase. The kinetics of electron transfer on the surface electrode was not sufficiently fast showing a fairly resistence of carbon nanotube paste modified with the mediators. The midpoint potential and ΔE also were insentive to the pH range (4-8, confirming the protective effect of carbon nanotubes matrix, owing to strong interaction of between the latter and the nitrogen of nitrogen of cationic dyes with carbon nanotube matrix, minimizing the proton interaction under cationic dye. This result is very important for sensor/biosensor preparation, because the eletrooxidation behavior of the analyte will be only affected by its formal potencial shifting. Carbon nanotubes proved to be an efficient solid matrix for the adsorption of mediator electron in comparison to the electrochemical behavior of free cationic dyes in solution phase.O presente trabalho descreve o comportamento eletroquímico de azul de metileno e azul de toluidina como mediadores de elétrons adsorvidos em pasta de nanotubo de carbono multiparede. Com base no potencial médio e na separação de pico catódico e anódico (ΔE, não foi observada interação de diferentes eletrólitos com os corantes catiônicos por meio de reação de troca iônica e, como consequência, ausência de lixiviação dos corantes para solução. A cinética de transferência de elétron na superfície do eletrodo não foi suficientemente rápida, mostrando razoável resistência da pasta de nanotubo de carbono modificada com os mediadores. O potencial médio e ΔE também foram insens

  14. Fabrication Of Titania Nanotubes By A Modified Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Yusoff M.S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main setback of the fabrication of titania nanotubes by the hydrothermal method is the long dissolution time and the usage of highly concentrated NaOH. Our group has managed to develop a modified hydrothermal process that is capable of fabricating titania nanotubes in a shorter timespan while using a more dilute NaOH solution. The study shows that the titania nanotubes starts to form from 7 hours of dissolution, and more nanotubes is produced as the dissolution duration is extended. Similarly, we are able to produce titania nanotubes from a more dilute NaOH solution than those reported earlier. By varying the parameters of the fabrication process, different nanostructures can be obtained such as single, branched nanowires and nanobelts.

  15. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  16. Carbon nanotube stationary phases for microchip electrochromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    nanotubes are very interesting for integration in especially microfluidic devices, because they can readily be grown on planar substrates by means of chemical vapour deposition. In this way the cumbersome process of packing of the stationary phase in the finished microfluidic channels is avoided and the CNT...... surface can furthermore be used directly as a stationary phase in reverse-phase separations, thereby avoiding subsequent functionalization of the nanostructures. This significantly reduces the fabrication time and possibly also increases the reproducibility of the column performance. In this presentation......, microfluidic devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube columns for electrochromatographic separations will be presented. The electrically conductive carbon nanotube layer has been patterned into hexoganol micropillars in order to support electroosmotic flow without forming gas bubbles from electrolysis...

  17. Mediated electrochemistry of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase promoted by carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BERNHARDT; Paul; V

    2010-01-01

    Mediated electrochemistry of dimethyl sulfoxide reductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus (DMSOR) which is immobilized on a bare glassy carbon (GC) electrode and a carbon nanotube (CNT)-modified GC electrode was studied using the Co complex (trans-6,13-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane-6,13-diamine)cobalt(III) ([Co(trans-diammac)] +) as a mediator.The cyclic voltammograms of different electrodes were carried out at different substrate (DMSO) concentrations.The results demonstrated that the catalytic current was increased by employing CNT as a promoter.

  18. Highly sensitive voltammetric sensor based on immobilization of bisphosphoramidate-derivative and quantum dots onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi-Behzad, Leila; Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Gholivand, Khodayar; Barati, Ali; Gholami, Akram

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, a new bisphosphoramidate derivative compound, 1, 4-bis(N-methyl)-benzene-bis(N-phenyl, N-benzoylphosphoramidate) (BMBPBP), was synthesized and used as a mediator for the electrocatalytic oxidation of olanzapine. The electro-oxidation of olanzapine at the surface of the BMBPBP/CdS-quantum dots/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BMBPBP/CdS-QDs/MWCNTs) modified gold electrode was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. This sensor showed an excellent electrocatalytic oxidation activity toward olanzapine at less positive potential, pronounced current response, and good sensitivity. The diffusion coefficient and kinetic parameters (such as electron transfer coefficient and the heterogeneous rate constant) were determined for olanzapine oxidation, using the electrochemical approaches. Surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the prepared modified electrode were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The hydrodynamic amperometry at rotating modified electrode at constant potential versus reference electrode was used for detection of olanzapine. Under optimized conditions, the calibration plot was linear in the concentration range of 20 nM to 100 μM and detection limit was found to be 6 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of olanzapine in pharmaceuticals and human serum samples. PMID:26706508

  19. Viscoelastic behavior of multiwalled carbon nanotubes into phenolic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Edson Cocchieri; Costa, Michelle Leali; Braga, Carlos Isidoro, E-mail: ebotelho@feg.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Materiais e Tecnologia; Burkhart, Thomas [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe GmbH, Kaiserslautern, (Germany); Lauke, Bernd [Leibniz-Institut fuer Polymerforschung, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Nanostructured polymer composites have opened up new perspectives for multi-functional materials. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the potential applications in order to improve mechanical and electrical performance in composites with aerospace application. This study focuses on the viscoelastic evaluation of phenolic resin reinforced carbon nanotubes, processed by using two techniques: aqueous-surfactant solution and three roll calender (TRC) process. According to our results a relative small amount of CNTs in a phenolic resin matrix is capable of enhancing the viscoelastic properties significantly and to modify the thermal stability. Also has been observed that when is used TRC process, the incorporation and distribution of CNT into phenolic resin is more effective when compared with aqueous solution dispersion process. (author)

  20. Homogeneous modification of carbon nanotubes with cellulose acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Ke

    2009-01-01

    An efficient strategy that comprised shorten, chain extension, active groups introducing and homogeneous reaction tactics, was adopted to modify multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) with cellulose acetate (CA). Specially, by utilizing 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, a reactive intermediate of the MWNTs (MWNT-triazine) was obtained. Suitable solubility of the MWNT-triazine helps make the homogeneous modification become reality. Detailed characterizations further verified that reaction between chloride atoms in the MWNT-triazine and hydroxyl groups in the CA had contributed to the formation of MWNT-CA conjugates. The novel MWNT-CA consists of carbon (76.3%), oxygen (18.4%) and nitrogen (5.3%). With a nanotube-attached CA content of 42.8 wt%, the MWNT-CA is readily soluble in DMSO, NME DMF and DMAc. Confirmation of the CA-based modification route might lead to studies aiming for specific sorption and isolation.

  1. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  2. Deconvoluting hepatic processing of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alidori, Simone; Bowman, Robert L; Yarilin, Dmitry; Romin, Yevgeniy; Barlas, Afsar; Mulvey, J Justin; Fujisawa, Sho; Xu, Ke; Ruggiero, Alessandro; Riabov, Vladimir; Thorek, Daniel L J; Ulmert, Hans David S; Brea, Elliott J; Behling, Katja; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes present unique opportunities for drug delivery, but have not advanced into the clinic. Differential nanotube accretion and clearance from critical organs have been observed, but the mechanism not fully elucidated. The liver has a complex cellular composition that regulates a range of metabolic functions and coincidently accumulates most particulate drugs. Here we provide the unexpected details of hepatic processing of covalently functionalized nanotubes including receptor-mediated endocytosis, cellular trafficking and biliary elimination. Ammonium-functionalized fibrillar nanocarbon is found to preferentially localize in the fenestrated sinusoidal endothelium of the liver but not resident macrophages. Stabilin receptors mediate the endocytic clearance of nanotubes. Biocompatibility is evidenced by the absence of cell death and no immune cell infiltration. Towards clinical application of this platform, nanotubes were evaluated for the first time in non-human primates. The pharmacologic profile in cynomolgus monkeys is equivalent to what was reported in mice and suggests that nanotubes should behave similarly in humans. PMID:27468684

  3. Making junctions between carbon nanotubes using an ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Krasheninnikov, A V; Keinonen, J; Banhart, F

    2003-01-01

    Making use of empirical potential molecular dynamics, we study ion bombardment of crossed single-walled carbon nanotubes as a tool to join the nanotubes. We demonstrate that ion irradiation should result in welding of crossed nanotubes, both suspended and deposited on substrates. We further predict optimum ion doses and energies for ion-mediated nanotube welding which may potentially be used for developing complicated networks of joined nanotubes.

  4. A new mechanism for carbon nanotube evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Key discoveries on the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes(CNTs) have recently been achieved by CAS researcher ZHU Zhenping and his research group at the State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion,the Institute of Coal Chemistry of CAS, funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China and the CAS Bairen Program.

  5. Chiral Anomaly in Toroidal Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is pointed out that the chiral anomaly in 1+1 dimensions should be observed in toroidal carbon nanotubes on a planar geometry with varying magnetic field. We show that the chiral anomaly is closely connected with the persistent current in a one-dimensional metallic ring.

  6. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotube (CNT Composite Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Losic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes are attractive approach for designing of new membranes for advanced molecular separation because of their unique transport properties and ability to mimic biological protein channels. In this work the synthetic approach for fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs composite membranes is presented. The method is based on growth of multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT using chemical vapour deposition (CVD on the template of nanoporous alumina (PA membranes. The influence of experimental conditions including carbon precursor, temperature, deposition time, and PA template on CNT growth process and quality of fabricated membranes was investigated. The synthesis of CNT/PA composites with controllable nanotube dimensions such as diameters (30–150 nm, and thickness (5–100 µm, was demonstrated. The chemical composition and morphological characteristics of fabricated CNT/PA composite membranes were investigated by various characterisation techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDXS, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and x-ray diffraction (XRD. Transport properties of prepared membranes were explored by diffusion of dye (Rose Bengal used as model of hydrophilic transport molecule.

  7. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  8. Spatially resolved spectroscopy on carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are small cylindrical molecules with a typical diameter of 1 nm and lengths of up to micrometers. These intriguing molecules exhibit, depending on the exact atomic structure, either semiconducting or metallic behavior. This makes them ideal candidates for possible future molecular e

  9. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian...

  10. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Ricaud, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with opposite charges and a Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum of their relative motion is well described...

  11. A New Resistance Formulation for Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A new resistance formulation for carbon nanotubes is suggested using fractal approach. The new formulation is also valid for other nonmetal conductors including nerve fibers, conductive polymers, and molecular wires. Our theoretical prediction agrees well with experimental observation.

  12. Bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity of carbon nanotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Baun, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have numerous industrial applications and may be released to the environment. In the aquatic environment, pristine or functionalized CNT have different dispersion behavior, potentially leading to different risks of exposure along the water column. Data included in this review...

  13. In-line manufacture of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Nicol Michele; Signorelli, Riccardo; Martini, Fabrizio; Corripio Luna, Oscar Enrique

    2015-04-28

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are facilitated by methods and apparatus disclosed herein. Advantageously, the methods and apparatus make use of a single production unit, and therefore provide for uninterrupted progress in a fabrication process. Embodiments of control systems for a variety of CNT production apparatus are included.

  14. Heat Transport in Liquid Polyester Resin with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales-Pinzón, C.; Quiñones-Weiss, G.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Medina-Esquivel, R. A.

    2015-11-01

    Carbon nanotubes represent one of the most important materials in nanoscience and nanotechnology, due to their outstanding structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. It has been shown that when incorporated in a polymeric matrix, carbon nanotubes can improve its physical properties. In this work, thermal-diffusivity measurements of composite materials, prepared by mixing carbon nanotubes in liquid polyester resin, were performed by means of the thermal-wave resonant cavity. The results show an increase of the thermal diffusivity when the volume fraction of carbon nanotubes grows. It is also shown that this increase depends strongly on the diameter of the nanotubes.

  15. Degradation of multiwall carbon nanotubes by bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the environmental transformation of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is important to their life cycle assessment and potential environmental impacts. We report that a bacterial community is capable of degrading 14C-labeled MWCNTs into 14CO2 in the presence of an external carbon source via co-metabolism. Multiple intermediate products were detected, and genotypic characterization revealed three possible microbial degraders: Burkholderia kururiensis, Delftia acidovorans, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. This result suggests that microbe/MWCNTs interaction may impact the long-term fate of MWCNTs. Highlights: •Mineralization of MWCNTs by a bacterial community was observed. •The mineralization required an external carbon source. •Multiple intermediate products were identified in the MWCNT degrading culture. •Three bacterial species were found likely responsible for MWCNT degradation. -- The 14C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes can be degraded to 14CO2 and other byproducts by a bacteria community under natural conditions

  16. Carbon nanotubes for stem cell control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Stout

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, two major advancements have transformed the world of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine—stem cells and carbon nano-dimensional materials. In the past, stem cell therapy seemed like it may present a cure for all medical ailments, but problems arose (i.e., immune system clearance, control of differentiation in the body, etc. that have hindered progress. But, with the synergy of carbon nano-dimensional materials, researchers have been able to overcome these tissue engineering and regenerative medicine obstacles and have begun developing treatments for strokes, bone failure, cardiovascular disease, and many other conditions. Here, we briefly review research involving carbon nanotubes which are relevant to the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine field with a special emphasis on carbon nanotube applications for stem cell delivery, drug delivery applications, and their use as improved medical devices.

  17. Preparation of double-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Bin; WEI Jinquan; CI Lijie; WU Dehai

    2004-01-01

    Double-walled carbon nanotubes were prepared using the floating chemical vapor deposition with methane as carbon source and adding small amount of sulfur into the ferrocene catalyst. The optimized technological parameters are: the reaction temperature is 1200℃; the catalyst vapor temperature is 80℃; the flow rate of argon is 2000 SCCM; the flow rate of methane is 5 SCCM. The purified DWNTs under these optimized technological parameters have high purity above 90 wt%.

  18. Exploring the Immunotoxicity of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanmei; Zhang, Qiu; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Bing

    2008-08-01

    Mass production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and their applications in nanomedicine lead to the increased exposure risk of nanomaterials to human beings. Although reports on toxicity of nanomaterials are rapidly growing, there is still a lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of such materials to immune systems. This article reviews some existing studies assessing carbon nanotubes’ toxicity to immune system and provides the potential mechanistic explanation.

  19. Selective dispersive micro solid-phase extraction using oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes modified with 1,10-phenanthroline for preconcentration of lead ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Barbara

    2016-10-15

    A dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) method for the selective preconcentration of trace lead ions on oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (ox-MWCNTs) with complexing reagent 1,10-phenanthroline is presented. Flame and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS, ET-AAS) were used for detection. The influence of several parameters such as pH, amount of sorbent and 1,10-phenanthroline, stirring time, concentration and volume of eluent, sample flow rate and sample volume was examined using batch procedures. Moreover, effects of inorganic matrix on recovery of the determined elements were studied. The experiment shows that foreign ions did not influence on recovery of the determined element. The method characterized by high selectivity toward Pb(II) ions. Lead ions can be quantitatively retained at pH 7 from sample volume up to 400mL and then eluent completely with 2mL of 0.5molL(-1)HNO3. The detection limits of Pb was 0.26μgL(-1) for F-AAS and 6.4ngL(-1) for ET-AAS. The recovery of the method for the determined lead was better than 97% with relative standard deviation lower than 3.0%. The preconcentration factor was 200 for F-AAS and 100 for ET-AAS. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was found to be about 350mgg(-1). The method was applied for determination of Pb in fish samples with good results. Accuracy of the method was verified using certified reference material DOLT-3 and ERM-BB186. PMID:27173531

  20. Excitation transfer and luminescence in porphyrin-carbon nanotube complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Magadur, G; Alain-Rizzo, V; Voisin, C; Roussignol, Ph; Deleporte, E; Delaire, J A

    2007-01-01

    Functionalization of carbon nanotubes with hydrosoluble porphyrins (TPPS) is achieved by "$\\pi$-stacking". The porphyrin/nanotube interaction is studied by means of optical absorption, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopies. The main absorption line of the porphyrins adsorbed on nanotubes exhibits a 120 meV red shift, which we ascribe to a flattening of the molecule in order to optimize $\\pi-\\pi$ interactions. The porphyrin-nanotube complex shows a strong quenching of the TPPS emission while the photoluminescence intensity of the nanotubes is enhanced when the excitation laser is in resonance with the porphyrin absorption band. This reveals an efficient excitation transfer from the TPPS to the carbon nanotube.