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Sample records for carbon ion radiotherapy

  1. Carbon ion radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is the world's first heavy ion accelerator complex dedicated to medical use in a hospital environment. Carbon ion therapy offers the potential advantages of improved dose localization and enhanced biological effects. It has been suggested that carbon ion therapy is effective against radioresistant pancreatic cancer. In April 2000, clinical studies examining the treatment of pancreatic cancer with carbon ions were begun at the HIMAC. As of February 2010, 48 patients treated with preoperative carbon ion radiotherapy and 89 patients treated for locally advanced pancreatic cancer were enrolled into the clinical trials. Both protocols are still ongoing. The interim results of these clinical trials suggest that carbon ion radiotherapy provides good local control and offers a survival advantage for patients with otherwise hard to cure pancreatic cancer, without unacceptable morbidity. (author)

  2. Carbon ion radiotherapy for sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of heavy ion therapy, its application to bone and soft tissue sarcomas and outline of its general state are described. The heavy ion therapy has advantages of its high dose distribution to the target and strong biological effect due to the Bragg peak formation and high linear energy transfer, respectively. The authors use carbon ion generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for the therapy of performance state 0-2 patients with the sarcomas unresectable, diagnosed pathologically, and of 60 y, 45% and teens, 8%) have been treated, whose tumor site has been the pelvis in 73%, volume >600 mL in 63%, tissue type of bone tumor in 70% (where cordoma has amounted to>200 cases). Five-year local control rate is found 71% and survival, 59%. In 175 therapeutically fresh cases with sacral cordoma of median age 67 y, with median clinical target volume 9 cm, treated with median dose 70.4 GyE/16 irradiations, the 8-y local control rate is found to be 69% and survival, 74%, within the median follow-up 54 months; with severe skin ulcer in 2 cases and deterioration of nervous dysfunction in 15 cases; suggesting the therapy is as effective and useful as surgical resection. At present, the therapy is not applicable to Japan health insurance. In the author's hospital, the heavy ion therapy has been conducted to total of >6,000 patients, which amounting to the largest number in the world. Now, 3 Japanese facilities can do the therapy as well and 3 countries in the world.(T.T.)

  3. Recent innovations in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, hospital-based facilities for carbon-ion radiotherapy are being constructed and proposed in Europe and Asia. During the next few years, several new facilities will be opened for carbon-ion radiotherapy in the world. These facilities in operation or under construction are categorized in two types by the beam shaping method used. One is the passive beam shaping method that is mainly improved and systematized for routine clinical use at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), Japan. The other method is active beam shaping which is also known as beam scanning adopted at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT), Germany. In this paper an overview of some technical aspects for beam shaping is reported. The technique of passive beam shaping is established for stable clinical application and has clinical result of over 4000 patients in HIMAC. In contrast, clinical experience of active beam shaping is about 400 patients, and there is no clinical experience to respiratory moving target. A great advantage of the active beam shaping method is patient-specific collimator-less and compensator-less treatment. This may be an interesting potential for adaptive radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Skull Base Chordoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoe, Jun–etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Takagi, Ryo; Bessho, Hiroki; Onda, Takeshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the results of the clinical study of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for skull base and paracervical spine tumors at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan. Methods: The study is comprised of three protocols: a pilot study, a phase I/II dose escalation study, and a phase II study. All the patients were treated by 16 fractions for 4 weeks with total doses of 48.0, 52.8, 57.6, and 60.8 Gy equivalents (GyE). Results: As a result of the dose escalatio...

  5. Treatment planning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the treatment planning (TP) and its peripheral system for carbon ion therapy that has been developed and in clinical use in recent two years at our institution. A new treatment planning system which is FOCUS customized to our irradiation system will be launched in clinical use soon. A new DICOM based PACS has been developed and in use. Now MRI, PET images are ready to be utilized for patient definition with image fusion functionality of radiotherapy TP. We implemented the exchange functionality of TP data specified by RTOG 3D QA Center in FOCUS, Pinnacle3 and heavy ion TP. Target volume and normal structure contours and dose distributions are exchangeable. A database system of carbon ion therapy dedicated to analysis of therapy data has been designed and implemented. All accessible planning data and treatment records of more than 1000 patients treated for seven and half years have been archived. The system has a DICOM RT sever and a database for miscellaneous text data. Limited numbers of private attributes were introduced for ion therapy specific objects. On-line as well as manual registration along with edit functionalities is prepared. Standard web browser is used to search and retrieve information. A DICOM RT viewer has been developed to view and retrieve RT images, dose distributions and structure set. These system described above are all designed to conform to the up-to-date standards of radiation therapy so as to be bases of the future development of the therapy at our institution. (author)

  6. Carbon ion radiotherapy of skull base chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of carbon ion radiotherapy in chondrosarcomas of the skull base. Patients and Methods: Between November 1998 and September 2005, 54 patients with low-grade and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ion radiation therapy (RT) using the raster scan technique at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany. All patients had gross residual tumors after surgery. Median total dose was 60 CGE (weekly fractionation 7 x 3.0 CGE). All patients were followed prospectively in regular intervals after treatment. Local control and overall survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria (CTCAE v.3.0) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) score. Results: Median follow-up was 33 months (range, 3-84 months). Only 2 patients developed local recurrences. The actuarial local control rates were 96.2% and 89.8% at 3 and 4 years; overall survival was 98.2%at 5 years. Only 1 patient developed a mucositis CTCAE Grade 3; the remaining patients did not develop any acute toxicities >CTCAE Grade 2. Five patients developed minor late toxicities (RTOG/EORTC Grades 1-2), including bilateral cataract (n = 1), sensory hearing loss (n = 1), a reduction of growth hormone (n = 1), and asymptomatic radiation-induced white matter changes of the adjacent temporal lobe (n = 2). Grade 3 late toxicity occurred in 1 patient (1.9%) only. Conclusions: Carbon ion RT is an effective treatment for low- and intermediate-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base offering high local control rates with low toxicity

  7. Carbon ion radiotherapy for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams in the treatment of choroidal melanoma, with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Between January 2001 and August 2006, 67 patients with locally advanced or unfavorable-site choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Fifty-nine of the patients were followed up for more than 6 months and analyzed. Twenty-three patients (39%) developed neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 3 of them underwent enucleation because of the eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. The incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died by the date of analysis, 3 of distant metastasis and 2 of intercurrent diseases. All patients but one, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Eight patients developed distant metastasis, 5 in the liver and 3 in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 87.1%, 81.6%, and 98.0%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed either in tumor control or in normal tissue morbidity with the dose range applied. C-ion RT can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient anti-tumor effect, even in tumors of unfavorable size or site. (author)

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of carbon ion radiotherapy for Human Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Chengguo; Yao, Zeen; Xu, Junkui; Li, Wuyuan; Yuan, Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Carbon ion is the mostly common used particle in heavy ion radiotherapy. In this paper, carbon ion dose in tumor treatment for human eye was simulated with FLUKA code, 80 MeV/u carbon beam was irradiated into the human eye from two directions, The first is from the lateral-forward direction which was a typical therapeutic condition, maximum dose was deposited in the tumor volume. The second one was that beam irradiated into eyes from the forward direction which may cause certain medical accident. The calculated results are compared with other reports. The agreement indicates that this method can be used for treatment plan in heavy ion radiotherapy.

  9. Carbon ion radiotherapy. Clinical study and future prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present, most of the patients receiving carbon ion radiotherapy at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) visit the clinic seeking this specific modality, and it is difficult to obtain consent for a randomized controlled study from these patients and it may be unnecessary to conduct a phase III trial. However, in selected tumors where the high-linear energy transfer (LET) benefit could be appreciated, we can participate in randomized studies. Finally, studies aimed at clarifying the usefulness of carbon ion radiotherapy and elucidating any advantages from hypo-fractionation should be considered. A multi-institutional prospective non-randomized concurrent phase II clinical trial is one such new approach, and it will be proposed not only to the Japanese, but also to the international community of particle therapy and radiation oncology. (author)

  10. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon-ion

  11. Clinical trial of carbon ion radiotherapy for gynecological melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) is an advanced modality for treating malignant melanoma. After we treated our first case of gynecological melanoma using C-ion RT in November 2004, we decided to conduct a clinical trial to evaluate its usefulness for the treatment of gynecological melanoma. The eligibility criteria for enrollment in this study were histologically proven malignant melanoma of the gynecological regions with lymph node metastasis remaining in the inguinal and pelvic regions. The small pelvic space, including the GTV and the metastatic lymph node, was irradiated with up to a total dose of 36 GyE followed by a GTV boost of up to a total dose of 57.6 GyE or 64 GyE in 16 fractions. A series of 23 patients were treated between November 2004 and October 2012. Patient age ranged from 51-80 with a median of 71. Of the tumor sites, 14 were located in the vagina, 6 in the vulva, and 3 in the cervix uteri. Of the 23 patients, 22 were irradiated with up to a total dose of 57.6 GyE, and 1 patient was irradiated with up to a total dose of 64 GyE. Chemotherapy and interferon-β were also used to treat 11 of the patients. Acute and late toxicities of Grade 3 or higher were observed in 1 patient treated with concurrent interferon-β. The median follow-up time was 17 months (range, 6-53 months). There was recurrence in 14 patients, and the 3-year local control and overall survival rates were 49.9% and 53.0%, respectively. C-ion RT may become a non-invasive treatment option for gynecological melanoma. (author)

  12. Clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First choice of treatment for bone and soft tissue tumors is surgical tumor resection, but some cases have difficulties to resect radically because of tumor size, location, or their reduction in QOL after surgery. Carbon ion radiotherapy has been reported that have both good local tumor control and high QOL for patients with bone and soft tissue tumors, especially sacral chordoma and unresectable osteosarcoma of the tract. Some articles of the results with carbon ion radiotherapy for sacral chordoma show better local control and QOL than that of surgery. Moreover, several reports show good local control and preservation of QOL for patients with unresectable osteosarcoma of the tract, retroperitoneal sarcoma, and other situations of sarcomas. Now carbon ion radiotherapy can offer a promising alternative to surgery for patients with unresectable sarcomas. We will discuss about the results of carbon ion radiotherapy for bone and soft tissue tumors in this issue. (author)

  13. Clinical oxygen enhancement ratio of tumors in carbon ion radiotherapy: the influence of local oxygenation changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonovic, Laura; Lindblom, Emely; Dasu, Alexandru;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of carbon ion radiotherapy on hypoxic tumors has recently been questioned because of low linear energy transfer (LET) values in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypoxia and local oxygenation changes (LOCs) in fractionated carbon ion...

  14. Carbon ion radiotherapy with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor for refractory gastrointestinal carcinomas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined effect of carbon ion radiotherapy with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor on refractory gastrointestinal carcinomas in mice. As a preliminary experiment, we assessed the sensitization effect of gemcitabine (GEM) on carbon ion radiotherapy for tumor cells and the normal tissues by using SCCVII of C3H mice. Tumor cells treated with low linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion irradiation showed the sensitizing effect of GEM. However, no sensitizating effect was shown for the normal tissue irradiated with either low LET or with high LET. (author)

  15. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  16. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  17. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4. PMID:26932119

  18. Feasibility of carbon ion radiotherapy for locally advanced sinonasal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for locally advanced sinonasal adenocarcinoma. Material and methods: Twenty-two patients with sinonasal adenocarcinoma were treated with CIRT. CIRT was the primary treatment for 16 patients. Four patients received CIRT for local recurrence after surgery and two for residual tumour after surgery or chemotherapy. At the start of CIRT, 1 patient had T-classification (T) 2 disease, 2 had T3 disease, 5 had T4a disease, and 14 had T4b disease. Fourteen patients were treated with 57.6 Gy equivalent (GyE)/16 fractions, and 8, with 64.0 GyE/16 fractions. Results: The median follow-up period was 43 months for all patients. The 3-year local control and loco-regional control rates for all patients were 76.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.7–97.1%) and 61.3% (95% CI = 38.5–84.1%), respectively. The 3-year overall survival and disease-specific survival rates were 59.1% (95% CI = 38.6–79.6%) and 65.6% (95% CI = 44.9–86.3%), respectively. Acute reactions of grade 3 of the skin and mucosa were observed in 2 and 4 patients, respectively. Late reactions included lateral visual loss (5 patients), mucosal ulceration (1 patient), and brain necrosis with clinical symptoms (1 patient). In the 5 patients who developed visual loss, the optic nerve was close to the tumour. Conclusions: CIRT was effective and generally safe for locally advanced sinonasal adenocarcinoma

  19. In vitro evaluation of photon and carbon ion radiotherapy in combination with chemotherapy in glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of carbon ion radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioblastoma cells in vitro. The human glioblastoma (GBM) cell line U87 was irradiated with photon radiotherapy (RT) doses of 2 Gy, 4 Gy and 6 Gy. Likewise, irradiation with carbon ions was performed with single carbon doses of 0.125, 0.5, 2 and 3 Gy. Four chemotherapeutic substances, camptothecin, gemcitabine, paclitaxel and cisplatinum, were used for single and combination experiments. The assessment of the effect of single and double treatment on cell viability was performed using the clonogenic growth assay representing the radiobiological gold standard. The RBE of carbon ions ranges between 3.3 and 3.9 depending on survival level and dose. All chemotherapeutic substances showed a clear does-response relationhips. in their characteristic concentrations. For subsequent combination experiments, two dose levels leading to low and medium reduction of cell survival were chosen. Combination experiments showed additive effects independently of the drugs' mechanisms of action. Paclitaxel and campthothecin demonstrated the most prominent cytotoxic effect in combination with carbon ion radiotherapy. In conclusion, combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with chemotherapies of different mechanisms of action demonstrates additive effects. The most dominant effect was produced by paclitaxel, followed by camptothecin, as espected from previously published work. The present data serve as an important radiobiological basis for further combination experiments, as well as clinical studies on combination treatments

  20. Biological systems: from water radiolysis to carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuve, Michael; Moreau, Jean-Michel; Rodriguez, Claire; Testa, Etienne

    2015-07-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative cancer treatment method based on the acceleration of light ions at high energy. In addition to their interesting profile of dose deposition, which ensures accurate targeting of localized tumors, carbon ions offer biological properties that lead to an efficient treatment for radio- and chemo-resistant tumors and to provide a boost for tumors in hypoxia. This paper is a short review of the progress in theoretical, experimental, fundamental and applied research, aiming at understanding the origin of the biological benefits of light ions better. As a limit of such a vast and multidisciplinary domain, this review adopts the point of view of the physicists, leaning on results obtained in connection with CIMAP's IRRABAT platform.

  1. Experience With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for WHO Grade 2 Diffuse Astrocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Azusa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-Etsu, E-mail: junetsumizoe@gmail.com [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Jingu, Keiichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy Hospital, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Iwadate, Yasuo [Department of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan); Nakazato, Youichi [Department of Human Pathology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan); Matsutani, Masao [Department of Neurological Surgery, Saitama Medical University, Saitama (Japan); Takakura, Kintomo [Department of Neurological Surgery, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To assess outcomes of carbon ion radiotherapy for diffuse astrocytomas in adults. Methods and Materials: Between October 1994 and February 2002, 14 patients with diffuse astrocytoma, identified as eligible for carbon ion radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial. Carbon ion radiotherapy was administered in 24 fractions over 6 weeks. The normal tissue morbidity was monitored carefully, and the carbon ion dose was escalated from 50.4 Gy equivalent (GyE) to 55.2 GyE. Patients were divided into two groups according to their carbon ion doses: a low-dose group in which 2 patients were irradiated with 46.2 GyE and 7 patients were irradiated with 50.4 GyE, and a high-dose group in which 5 patients were irradiated with 55.2 GyE. Results: Toxicities were within acceptable limits, and none of the patients developed Grade 3 or higher acute or late reactions. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 18 months for the low-dose group and 91 months for the high-dose group (p = 0.0030). The median overall survival (OS) time was 28 months for the low-dose group and not reached for the high-dose group (p = 0.0208). Conclusion: High-dose group patients showed significant improvement in PFS and OS rates compared to those in the low-dose group, and both dose groups showed acceptable toxicity.

  2. Experience With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for WHO Grade 2 Diffuse Astrocytomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess outcomes of carbon ion radiotherapy for diffuse astrocytomas in adults. Methods and Materials: Between October 1994 and February 2002, 14 patients with diffuse astrocytoma, identified as eligible for carbon ion radiotherapy, were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial. Carbon ion radiotherapy was administered in 24 fractions over 6 weeks. The normal tissue morbidity was monitored carefully, and the carbon ion dose was escalated from 50.4 Gy equivalent (GyE) to 55.2 GyE. Patients were divided into two groups according to their carbon ion doses: a low-dose group in which 2 patients were irradiated with 46.2 GyE and 7 patients were irradiated with 50.4 GyE, and a high-dose group in which 5 patients were irradiated with 55.2 GyE. Results: Toxicities were within acceptable limits, and none of the patients developed Grade 3 or higher acute or late reactions. The median progression-free survival (PFS) time was 18 months for the low-dose group and 91 months for the high-dose group (p = 0.0030). The median overall survival (OS) time was 28 months for the low-dose group and not reached for the high-dose group (p = 0.0208). Conclusion: High-dose group patients showed significant improvement in PFS and OS rates compared to those in the low-dose group, and both dose groups showed acceptable toxicity.

  3. Clinical Outcome of Sacral Chordoma With Carbon Ion Radiotherapy Compared With Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, post-treatment function, toxicity, and complications of carbon ion radiotherapy (RT) for sacral chordoma compared with surgery. Methods and Materials: The records of 17 primary sacral chordoma patients treated since 1990 with surgery (n = 10) or carbon ion RT (n = 7) were retrospectively analyzed for disease-specific survival, local recurrence-free survival, complications, and functional outcome. The applied carbon ion dose ranged from 54.0 Gray equivalent (GyE) to 73.6 GyE (median 70.4). Results: The mean age at treatment was 55 years for the surgery group and 65 years for the carbon ion RT group. The median duration of follow-up was 76 months for the surgery group and 49 months for the carbon ion RT group. The local recurrence-free survival rate at 5 years was 62.5% for the surgery and 100% for the carbon ion RT group, and the disease-specific survival rate at 5 years was 85.7% and 53.3%, respectively. Urinary-anorectal function worsened in 6 patients (60%) in the surgery group, but it was unchanged in all the patients who had undergone carbon ion RT. Postoperative wound complications requiring reoperation occurred in 3 patients (30%) after surgery and in 1 patient (14%) after carbon ion RT. The functional outcome evaluated using the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scoring system revealed 55% in the surgery group and 75% in the carbon ion RT group. Of the six factors in this scoring system, the carbon ion RT group had significantly greater scores in emotional acceptance than did the surgery group. Conclusion: Carbon ion RT results in a high local control rate and preservation of urinary-anorectal function compared with surgery.

  4. Histological study of choroidal malignant melanoma treated by carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to report, we believe for the first time, a histological study of choroidal malignant melanoma treated by carbon ion beam radiotherapy. A 75-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed as having a choroidal melanoma after undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Positron emission tomography (PET) revealed a hot spot in the same location as the intraocular mass seen in MRI. Carbon ion radiotherapy was performed with a total dose of 77 Gy, and the hot spot seen by PET disappeared completely. At 15 months after carbon ion therapy, the eye had to be enucleated because of uncontrollable ocular hypertension. It was examined histologically in serial sections. A large tumor mass (15 x 12 mm) with high pigmentation was found in the vitreous space. Almost all tumor cells showed necrosis in every section. A small number of intact tumor cells were present at the periphery. The overlying retina did not show any necrosis, but showed mild to moderate gliosis. No intraretinal hemorrhage, lipid deposit, or protein exudate was apparent. Almost all tumor cells showed necrosis after radiotherapy with a carbon ion beam. However, the effect on the adjacent tissues was determined as minimal in histological analysis. (author)

  5. Evaluation of cases treated with particle reirradiation using carbon ions or protons for recurrent tumors of the head and neck after photon radiotherapy or particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated efficacy and safety of particle reirradiation using carbon ions or protons for recurrent tumors of the head and neck after photon or particle radiotherapy retrospectively. Among 28 cases, 15 cases were recurrence after photon radiotherapy and 13 cases after particle radiotherapy. Statistical analyses revealed that photon cases showed significantly better progression-free survival than particle cases. Acute morbidities were acceptable, however, late morbidities were more frequent and severer compared to initial irradiation. Particle reirradiation for recurrent head and neck tumors after photon radiotherapy might be beneficial, however, it is not the case for recurrence after particle radiotherapy. (author)

  6. SAGA-HIMAT project for carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project of SAGA Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Tosu (SAGA HIMAT) is promoted by Saga prefecture with private financial supports, investments, and also personal donations. With this funding, facility construction is conducted by a collaboration of SAGA-HIMAT foundation and SAGA HIMAT company. The facility is constructing in Tosu-shi near Shinn-Tosu shinkansen station, which has easy access from Kyushu island area and also south west Japan. In the facility, there are three treatment rooms, where first one has been equipped with horizontal and 45 degree oblique beam lines, second one has horizontal and vertical beam lines, and third one is for future preparation of spot scanning irradiation system. Design of an accelerator itself is same as a therapy facility at Gunma University, i.e., acceleration ion is carbon, maximum beam energy is 400MeV/u, and maximum beam intensity is 1.3x109pps. An injection line to a synchrotron and transport lines to three treatment rooms had been rearranged. Designs of the accelerator and an irradiation system have started at beginning of 2010, and the construction of a facility building has started at beginning of this year (2011). Installations of accelerator devices are expected to start at beginning of 2012, and the facility is planned to complete in 2013. In this paper, we present our project and current status of the facility construction. (author)

  7. The first French randomized prospective study of the economic and medical benefit of carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiotherapy modality for non-operable radio-resistant or resected cancers. Its efficiency is due to improved ballistic accuracy and biological efficiency. The authors present the first phase III study of carbon ion therapy in France. This technique concerns some sarcomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas of head and neck. The authors indicate the possible treatment procedures (doses, sessions) for the different types of cancers, and how the study is to be performed (number of patients, randomization, and multicentre approach). Short communication

  8. Biological dose representation for carbon-ion radiotherapy of unconventional fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Inaniwa, Taku

    2016-01-01

    In carbon-ion radiotherapy, single-beam delivery each day in alternate directions has been commonly practiced for operational efficiency, taking advantage of the Bragg peak and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for uniform dose conformation to a tumor. The treatment plans are usually evaluated with total RBE-weighted dose, which is however deficient in relevance to the biological effect in the linear-quadratic model due to its quadratic-dose term, or the dose-fractionation effect. I...

  9. Clinical oxygen enhancement ratio of tumors in carbon ion radiotherapy. The influence of local oxygenation changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of carbon ion radiotherapy on hypoxic tumors has recently been questioned because of low linear energy transfer (LET) values in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hypoxia and local oxygenation changes (LOCs) in fractionated carbon ion radiotherapy. Three-dimensional tumors with hypoxic subvolumes were simulated assuming interfraction LOCs. Different fractionations were applied using a clinically relevant treatment plan with a known LET distribution. The surviving fraction was calculated, taking oxygen tension, dose and LET into account, using the repairable-conditionally repairable (RCR) damage model with parameters for human salivary gland tumor cells. The clinical oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) was defined as the ratio of doses required for a tumor control probability of 50% for hypoxic and well-oxygenated tumors. The resulting OER was well above unity for all fractionations. For the hypoxic tumor, the tumor control probability was considerably higher if LOCs were assumed, rather than static oxygenation. The beneficial effect of LOCs increased with the number of fractions. However, for very low fraction doses, the improvement related to LOCs did not compensate for the increase in total dose required for tumor control. In conclusion, our results suggest that hypoxia can influence the outcome of carbon ion radiotherapy because of the non-negligible oxygen effect at the low LETs in the SOBP. However, if LOCs occur, a relatively high level of tumor control probability is achievable with a large range of fractionation schedules for tumors with hypoxic subvolumes, but both hyperfractionation and hypofractionation should be pursued with caution. (author)

  10. Influence of Multiple Genetic Polymorphisms on Genitourinary Morbidity After Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the genetic risk of late urinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 197 prostate cancer patients who had undergone carbon ion radiotherapy were evaluated for urinary morbidity. The distribution of patients with dysuria was as follows: Grade 0, 165; Grade 1, 28; and Grade 2, 4 patients. The patients were divided (2:1) consecutively into the training and test sets and then categorized into control (Grade 0) and case (Grade 1 or greater) groups. First, 450 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 118 candidate genes were genotyped in the training set. The associations between the SNP genotypes and urinary morbidity were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Then, various combinations of the markers were tested for their ability to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUC-ROC) curve analysis results. Finally, the test set was validated for the selected markers. Results: When the SNP markers in the SART1, ID3, EPDR1, PAH, and XRCC6 genes in the training set were subjected to AUC-ROC curve analysis, the AUC-ROC curve reached a maximum of 0.86. The AUC-ROC curve of these markers in the test set was 0.77. The SNPs in these five genes were defined as 'risk genotypes.' Approximately 90% of patients in the case group (Grade 1 or greater) had three or more risk genotypes. Conclusions: Our results have shown that patients with late urinary morbidity after carbon ion radiotherapy can be stratified according to the total number of risk genotypes they harbor

  11. Influence of nuclear interactions in polyethylene range compensators for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nkanemat@nirs.go.jp; Koba, Yusuke; Ogata, Risa [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Himukai, Takeshi [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA HIMAT Foundation, 415 Harakoga-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0071 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: A recent study revealed that polyethylene (PE) would cause extra carbon-ion attenuation per range shift by 0.45%/cm due to compositional differences in nuclear interactions. The present study aims to assess the influence of PE range compensators on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Methods: Carbon-ion radiation was modeled to be composed of primary carbon ions and secondary particles, for each of which the dose and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were estimated at a tumor depth in the middle of spread-out Bragg peak. Assuming exponential behavior for attenuation and yield of these components with depth, the PE effect on dose was calculated for clinical carbon-ion beams and was partly tested by experiment. The two-component model was integrated into a treatment-planning system and the PE effect was estimated in two clinical cases. Results: The attenuation per range shift by PE was 0.1%–0.3%/cm in dose and 0.2%–0.4%/cm in RBE-weighted dose, depending on energy and range-modulation width. This translates into reduction of RBE-weighted dose by up to 3% in extreme cases. In the treatment-planning study, however, the effect on RBE-weighted dose to tumor was typically within 1% reduction. Conclusions: The extra attenuation of primary carbon ions in PE was partly compensated by increased secondary particles for tumor dose. In practical situations, the PE range compensators would normally cause only marginal errors as compared to intrinsic uncertainties in treatment planning, patient setup, beam delivery, and clinical response.

  12. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in Advanced Hypofractionated Regimens for Prostate Cancer: From 20 to 16 Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tohru [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Akakura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shimazaki, Jun [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the effects of differences in dose fractionation on late radiation toxicity and biochemical control in patients with prostate cancer treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 740 prostate cancer patients who received C-ion RT between April 2000 and February 2009 were analyzed. Of those, 664 patients followed for at least 1 year were analyzed with regard to late radiation toxicity. Biochemical relapse-free (BRF) and overall survival (OS) rates in patient subgroups with each dose-fractionation were analyzed. Results: Only 1 case of grade 3 genitourinary (GU) morbidity was observed in 20 fractions, and none of the patients developed higher grade morbidities. The incidence of late GU toxicity in patients treated with 16 fractions was lower than that of patients treated with 20 fractions. The OS rate and BRF rate of the entire group at 5 years were 95.2% and 89.7%, respectively. The 5-year BRF rate of the patients treated with 16 fractions of C-ion RT (88.5%) was comparable to that of the patients treated with 20 fractions (90.2%). Conclusion: C-ion RT of 57.6 GyE (the physical C-ion dose [Gy] Multiplication-Sign RBE) in 16 fractions could offer an even lower incidence of genitourinary toxicity and comparable BRF rate than that in 20 fractions. Advancement in hypofractionation could be safely achieved with C-ion RT for prostate cancer.

  13. Association of serum reactive oxygen metabolite levels with normal tissue damages by carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxygen is required for respiration and the energetic processes that enable aerobic life. Free radical and reactive oxygen metabolite (ROM) formations create oxidative stress and contribute to various processes including aging, degenerative diseases and cancer. Additionally, they may have a role in the radiotherapy for various types of cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the degree of oxidative stress for carbon-ion radiotherapy in locally recurrent rectal cancer and pancreas cancer, and to find out whether the degree of oxidative stress shows any difference among different grade of normal tissue damages. It can be used as an index for their differential diagnosis. Sixteen patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer and 6 pancreas cancers were included in the study. The BAP levels were lower before carbon-ion treatment than after treatment. The ROM levels were significantly lower before treatment than after treatment. It might be possible to conclude that the serum BAP and ROM levels may be an index parameter for normal tissue damages. (author)

  14. Rectal cancer with local re-recurrence successfully treated by carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 61 year-old male with rectal cancer underwent anterior resection with D2 lymph node dissection in August 2007. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level was 5.6 before the operation. Pathological findings were Rs, tub2>>tub1, type 3, pSE, ly1, v2, pN1 (1/23), H0, P0, M0, pStage 3A. Adjuvant chemotherapy with tegafur-uracil (UFT) 600 mg/Leucovorin (LV) 75 mg was administered for 1 year. A recurrence at a site of anastomosis developed and lower anterior resection was required in September 2010. CEA level was 5.4 before the operation. After 7 courses of capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (XELOX) treatment, the right no. 283 lymph node increased to 8 mm in October 2011 and the patient was diagnosed with a re-recurrence of the original tumor (CEA level, 4.6). Carbon ion radiotherapy (73.6 Gy/16 Fr/4 weeks) was performed between November 28 and December 22, 2011. Although the right no. 283 lymph node had shrunk by January 2012, a single node in the S3 domain of the right lung was observed and became progressively larger, indicating a lung metastasis (CEA level, 5.4). The patient received carbon ion radiotherapy (60.0 Gy/4 Fr) for the lung metastasis between July 30 and August 2, 2012. No additional recurrences have been seen through February 2014. (author)

  15. Investigations on the quality of treatment plans for carbon ion radiotherapy. Beam delivery systems and radiobiological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmann, Clarissa

    2014-07-01

    In a worldwide effort in research and development, radiation therapy with carbon ions has evolved to a technologically challenging but clinically very promising treatment option for cancer patients. To further improve patient benefit, optimal use of the physical and biological characteristics of carbon ions as well as of the available technologies should be made. The present thesis investigates the impact of different beam delivery systems and radiobiological models on the quality of treatment plans in carbon ion radiotherapy. The results of the study may provide pointers as to the role and the possible future implementation of the different techniques and radiobiological models in existing and upcoming particle therapy centers.

  16. Two cases of intrapelvic recurrence after radical resection of rectal cancer, treated with carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report two cases of intrapelvic recurrence after radical resection of rectal cancer, which were successfully treated with Carbon Ion Radiotherapy (C-ion RT). The first case is of a 71-year-old man who underwent abdominoperineal resection (APR) with D2 lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer in December 2010, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with S-1 plus oxaliplatin. The patient was diagnosed with a recurrence on the left pelvic wall in August 2012, and underwent C-ion RT (73.6 Gray equivalent) for this lesion in October 2012. Three months after this treatment, the lesion had regressed significantly, as ascertained by computed tomography (CT). He remains alive with no signs of recurrence. The second case is of a 63-year-old man who underwent APR with D3 lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy with uracil-tegafur (UFT). The patient was diagnosed with a recurrence on the right pelvic wall in January 2013, and underwent C-ion RT(73.6 Gray equivalent) for this lesion in March 2013. Three months after this treatment, the lesion reduced significantly, and the patient is alive with no signs of recurrence. Although the long-term outcomes need to be assessed, C-ion RT could be a safe and effective therapy. (author)

  17. Current State Of Proton And Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy At The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center (HIBMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Fujii, Osamu; Terashima, Kazuki; Mima, Masayuki; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Ryohei; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2011-06-01

    HIBMC is the world's first facility to be able to use both proton (PRT) and carbon-ion radiotherapy (CiRT). The medically dedicated synchrotron can accelerate protons up to 230 MeV and carbon ions up to 320 MeV. From April 2001 to March 2010, the facility treated 3275 patients, with 2487 patients treated using PRT and 788 using CiRT. Particle radiotherapy was delivered to patients suffering from malignant tumors originating in the head and neck (502 patients), lungs (330), liver (539), prostate (1283), and the bone & soft tissue (130). The clinical results are as follows: (1) H & N tumors: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rates of patients with olfactory neuroblastoma, mucoepidermoid cancer, adenoid cystic cancer, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma was 100%, 86%, 78%, 78%, 66%, and 62%, respectively. (2) Lung cancer: For all 80 patients, the 3-year OS rate was 75% (Stage IA: 74%; Stage IB: 76%) and local control (LC) rate was 82% (IA: 87%; IB: 77%). Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity was observed in only 1 patient. These results are comparable to those obtained by surgery, and indicate proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy are safe and effective for stage I lung cancer. (3) Liver cancer: The 5-year LC rate for 429 tumor patient was 90%, and the 5-year OS rate for 364 patients was 38%. These results seem equivalent to those obtained by surgery or radio-frequency ablation. (4) Prostate cancer: In 290 patients treated by proton radiotherapy, five patients died from other disease in the median follow-up period of 62 months. Biochemical disease-free survival and OS rate at 5 years was 88.2% and 96.5%, respectively. Our proton radiotherapy showed excellent OS and biochemical disease-free survival rates with minimum late morbidities. PRT VS CiRT: From our retrospective analysis, it seems that there is no significant difference in the LC and OS rate in H&N, lung and liver cancer between PRT and CiRT.

  18. Current State Of Proton And Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy At The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center (HIBMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIBMC is the world's first facility to be able to use both proton (PRT) and carbon-ion radiotherapy (CiRT). The medically dedicated synchrotron can accelerate protons up to 230 MeV and carbon ions up to 320 MeV. From April 2001 to March 2010, the facility treated 3275 patients, with 2487 patients treated using PRT and 788 using CiRT. Particle radiotherapy was delivered to patients suffering from malignant tumors originating in the head and neck (502 patients), lungs (330), liver (539), prostate (1283), and the bone and soft tissue (130). The clinical results are as follows: (1) H and N tumors: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rates of patients with olfactory neuroblastoma, mucoepidermoid cancer, adenoid cystic cancer, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma was 100%, 86%, 78%, 78%, 66%, and 62%, respectively. (2) Lung cancer: For all 80 patients, the 3-year OS rate was 75%(Stage IA: 74%; Stage IB: 76%) and local control (LC) rate was 82%(IA: 87%; IB: 77%). Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity was observed in only 1 patient. These results are comparable to those obtained by surgery, and indicate proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy are safe and effective for stage I lung cancer. (3) Liver cancer: The 5-year LC rate for 429 tumor patient was 90%, and the 5-year OS rate for 364 patients was 38%. These results seem equivalent to those obtained by surgery or radio-frequency ablation. (4) Prostate cancer: In 290 patients treated by proton radiotherapy, five patients died from other disease in the median follow-up period of 62 months. Biochemical disease-free survival and OS rate at 5 years was 88.2% and 96.5%, respectively. Our proton radiotherapy showed excellent OS and biochemical disease-free survival rates with minimum late morbidities. PRT VS CiRT: From our retrospective analysis, it seems that there is no significant difference in the LC and OS rate in H and N, lung and liver cancer between PRT and CiRT.

  19. Carbon ion radiotherapy for oligo-recurrent lung metastases from colorectal cancer: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for oligo-recurrent lung tumors from colorectal cancer (CRC). From May 1997 to October 2012, 34 consecutive patients with oligo-recurrent pulmonary metastases from CRC were treated with CIRT. The patients were not surgical candidates for medical reasons or patient refusal. Using a respiratory-gated technique, carbon ion therapy was delivered with curative intent using 4 coplanar beam angles. A median dose of 60 GyE (range, 44–64.8 GyE) was delivered to the planning target volume (PTV), with a median daily dose of 15 GyE (range, 3.6–44 GyE). Treatment outcome was analyzed in terms of local control rate (LCR), survival rate, and treatment-related complications. In total, 34 patients with 44 oligo-recurrent pulmonary lesions were treated with CIRT. Median follow-up period was 23.7 months. The 2- and 3-year actuarial LCRs of the treated patients were 85.4% ± 6.2% and 85.4% ± 6.2%, respectively. Overall survival was 65.1% ± 9.5% at 2 years, and 50.1% ± 10.5% at 3 years. Although survival rates were relatively worse in the subsets of patients aged < 63 years or with early metastasis (< 36 months after resection of primary site), these factors were not significantly correlated with overall survival (P = 0.13 and 0.19, respectively). All treatment-related complications were self-limited, without any grade 3–5 toxicity. CIRT is one of the most effective nonsurgical treatments for colorectal lung metastases, which are relatively resistant to stereotactic body radiotherapy. CIRT is considered to be the least invasive approach even in patients who have undergone repeated prior thoracic metastasectomies

  20. Biological dose representation for carbon-ion radiotherapy of unconventional fractionation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In carbon-ion radiotherapy, single-beam delivery each day in alternate directions has been commonly practiced for operational efficiency, taking advantage of the Bragg peak and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for uniform dose conformation to a tumor. The treatment plans are usually evaluated with total RBE-weighted dose, which is however deficient in relevance to the biological effect in the linear-quadratic model due to its quadratic-dose term, or the dose-fractionation effect. In this study, we reformulate the extrapolated response dose (ERD), or synonymously BED, which normalizes the dose-fractionation and cell-repopulation effects as well as the RBE of treating radiation, based on inactivation of a single model cell system and a typical treating radiation in carbon-ion RT. The ERD distribution virtually represents the biological effect of the treatment regardless of radiation modality or fractionation scheme. We applied the ERD formulation to simplistic model treatments and to a preclinical su...

  1. Phase i study evaluating the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with carbon ion radiotherapy: The PROMETHEUS-01 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment options for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are often limited. In most cases, they are not amenable to local therapies including surgery or radiofrequency ablation. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown to increase overall survival in this patient group for about 3 months. Radiation therapy is a treatment alternative, however, high local doses are required for long-term local control. However, due to the relatively low radiation tolerance of liver normal tissue, even using stereotactic techniques, delivery of sufficient doses for successful local tumor control has not be achieved to date. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 2 and 3 depending on the HCC cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with HCC. In the current Phase I-PROMETHEUS-01-Study, carbon ion radiotherapy will be evaluated for patients with advanced HCC. The study will be performed as a dose-escalation study evaluating the optimal carbon ion dose with respect to toxicity and tumor control. Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoint is progression-free survival and response. The Prometheus-01 trial ist the first trial evaluating carbon ion radiotherapy delivered by intensity-modulated rasterscanning for the treatment of HCC. Within this Phase I dose escalation study, the optimal dose of carbon ion radiotherapy will be determined.

  2. Phase i study evaluating the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC with carbon ion radiotherapy: The PROMETHEUS-01 trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäkel Oliver

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment options for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are often limited. In most cases, they are not amenable to local therapies including surgery or radiofrequency ablation. The multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown to increase overall survival in this patient group for about 3 months. Radiation therapy is a treatment alternative, however, high local doses are required for long-term local control. However, due to the relatively low radiation tolerance of liver normal tissue, even using stereotactic techniques, delivery of sufficient doses for successful local tumor control has not be achieved to date. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE, which can be calculated between 2 and 3 depending on the HCC cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with HCC. Methods/Design In the current Phase I-PROMETHEUS-01-Study, carbon ion radiotherapy will be evaluated for patients with advanced HCC. The study will be performed as a dose-escalation study evaluating the optimal carbon ion dose with respect to toxicity and tumor control. Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoint is progression-free survival and response. Discussion The Prometheus-01 trial ist the first trial evaluating carbon ion radiotherapy delivered by intensity-modulated rasterscanning for the treatment of HCC. Within this Phase I dose escalation study, the optimal dose of carbon ion radiotherapy will be determined. Trial registration NCT 01167374

  3. Randomised phase I/II study to evaluate carbon ion radiotherapy versus fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy in patients with recurrent or progressive gliomas: The CINDERELLA trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haselmann Renate

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of patients with recurrent glioma includes neurosurgical resection, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. In most cases, a full course of radiotherapy has been applied after primary diagnosis, therefore application of re-irradiation has to be applied cauteously. With modern precision photon techniques such as fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT, a second course of radiotherapy is safe and effective and leads to survival times of 22, 16 and 8 months for recurrent WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE, which can be calculated between 2 and 5 depending on the GBM cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Protons, however, offer an RBE which is comparable to photons. First Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy for the treatment of primary high-grade gliomas showed promising results in a small and heterogeneous patient collective. Methods Design In the current Phase I/II-CINDERELLA-trial re-irradiation using carbon ions will be compared to FSRT applied to the area of contrast enhancement representing high-grade tumor areas in patients with recurrent gliomas. Within the Phase I Part of the trial, the Recommended Dose (RD of carbon ion radiotherapy will be determined in a dose escalation scheme. In the subsequent randomized Phase II part, the RD will be evaluated in the experimental arm, compared to the standard arm, FSRT with a total dose of 36 Gy in single doses of 2 Gy. Primary endpoint of the Phase I part is toxicity. Primary endpoint of the randomized part II is survival after re-irradiation at 12 months, secondary endpoint is progression-free survival. Discussion The

  4. The first French randomized prospective study of the economic and medical benefit of carbon ion radiotherapy; Premiere etude francaise prospective randomisee de l'interet medical et economique de la radiotherapie par ions carbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommier, P. [Centre Leon-Berard, Lyon (France); Patin, S.; Vogin, G.; Hu, Y. [GCS-etoile, Lyon (France); Buron van de Voorde, C. [Hospices civils de Lyon (France); Baron, M.H. [CHUde Besancon (France); Lievre, M. [Universite Claude-Bernard, Lyon (France); Balosso, J. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2011-10-15

    Carbon ion therapy is an innovative radiotherapy modality for non-operable radio-resistant or resected cancers. Its efficiency is due to improved ballistic accuracy and biological efficiency. The authors present the first phase III study of carbon ion therapy in France. This technique concerns some sarcomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas of head and neck. The authors indicate the possible treatment procedures (doses, sessions) for the different types of cancers, and how the study is to be performed (number of patients, randomization, and multicentre approach). Short communication

  5. Clinical outcome and prognosis of carbon ion radiotherapy on thoracic malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and side-response of high-LET carbon ion radiotherapy on thoracic malignant tumors. Methods Ten patients with pathological confirmed thoracic malignant tumors received treatment using heavy ion accelerator, which included 6 cases with non-small lung cancer, one case with small lung cancer, 2 cases with metastatic sarcomas and one case with invasive thymoma. The applied regimen included fractioned dose (5.5-6.8GyE/Fraction), one faction/day, and 7 fractions/week. The total dose ranged from 55 to 70 GyE. Results The short-term results showed that the response rate (the complete response (CR) rate +the partial response (PR) rate) was 10% at the first month, 40% at the third month and 90% at the sixth month. The overall response rate was 90% and the rate of stable disease was 10%. There was no relation between the response rate and tumor pathology (P>0.05) while significance between the response rate and the tumor volume.At median follow-up of 27 months (range, 6 to 36 months), the local control rate and free-disease rate were respectively 100% an 90% at the first year, 90% and 80% at the secondary year, 80% and 70% at the third year. The death rate due to disease progression was 20% and the non-specific death rate was 10%. Side and toxicity effects: Grade I skin effect occurred in three cases and Grade I lung effect occurred in two cases. The blood counts didn’t reach significance among pre-radiation course, peri-radiation course and post-radiation course (P>0.05). The subgoups of T cells detected in humoral immunity and cytoimmunity didn’t change between pre-radiation and post radiation(P>0.05). Conclusions Carbon ion radiotherapy is effective and safe in the management of patients with thoracic malignant tumors. There were no obvious side effects. The long term of clinical outcome and the late effect need to be further observed.

  6. Nuclear-interaction correction of integrated depth dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    materials and combinations of them. In scanned beams, the dose estimation error in target dose amounted to 4% for a 150 mm-thick layer of 40% K2HPO4. The error is significantly reduced with the correction method. The planned dose distributions with the method agreed with the measurements within ±1.5% of target dose for all materials not only in the target region but also in the plateau and fragment-tail regions. We tested the correction method of IDD in some non-water materials to verify that this method would offer the accuracy and simplicity required in carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning. (paper)

  7. Influence of nuclear interactions in body tissues on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaniwa, T., E-mail: taku@nirs.go.jp; Kanematsu, N. [Medical Physics Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Tsuji, H.; Kamada, T. [Hospital, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: In carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning, the planar integrated dose (PID) measured in water is applied to the patient dose calculation with density scaling using the stopping power ratio. Since body tissues are chemically different from water, this dose calculation can be subject to errors, particularly due to differences in inelastic nuclear interactions. In recent studies, the authors proposed and validated a PID correction method for these errors. In the present study, the authors used this correction method to assess the influence of these nuclear interactions in body tissues on tumor dose in various clinical cases. Methods: Using 10–20 cases each of prostate, head and neck (HN), bone and soft tissue (BS), lung, liver, pancreas, and uterine neoplasms, the authors first used treatment plans for carbon-ion radiotherapy without nuclear interaction correction to derive uncorrected dose distributions. The authors then compared these distributions with recalculated distributions using the nuclear interaction correction (corrected dose distributions). Results: Median (25%/75% quartiles) differences between the target mean uncorrected doses and corrected doses were 0.2% (0.1%/0.2%), 0.0% (0.0%/0.0%), −0.3% (−0.4%/−0.2%), −0.1% (−0.2%/−0.1%), −0.1% (−0.2%/0.0%), −0.4% (−0.5%/−0.1%), and −0.3% (−0.4%/0.0%) for the prostate, HN, BS, lung, liver, pancreas, and uterine cases, respectively. The largest difference of −1.6% in target mean and −2.5% at maximum were observed in a uterine case. Conclusions: For most clinical cases, dose calculation errors due to the water nonequivalence of the tissues in nuclear interactions would be marginal compared to intrinsic uncertainties in treatment planning, patient setup, beam delivery, and clinical response. In some extreme cases, however, these errors can be substantial. Accordingly, this correction method should be routinely applied to treatment planning in clinical practice.

  8. Influence of nuclear interactions in body tissues on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning, the planar integrated dose (PID) measured in water is applied to the patient dose calculation with density scaling using the stopping power ratio. Since body tissues are chemically different from water, this dose calculation can be subject to errors, particularly due to differences in inelastic nuclear interactions. In recent studies, the authors proposed and validated a PID correction method for these errors. In the present study, the authors used this correction method to assess the influence of these nuclear interactions in body tissues on tumor dose in various clinical cases. Methods: Using 10–20 cases each of prostate, head and neck (HN), bone and soft tissue (BS), lung, liver, pancreas, and uterine neoplasms, the authors first used treatment plans for carbon-ion radiotherapy without nuclear interaction correction to derive uncorrected dose distributions. The authors then compared these distributions with recalculated distributions using the nuclear interaction correction (corrected dose distributions). Results: Median (25%/75% quartiles) differences between the target mean uncorrected doses and corrected doses were 0.2% (0.1%/0.2%), 0.0% (0.0%/0.0%), −0.3% (−0.4%/−0.2%), −0.1% (−0.2%/−0.1%), −0.1% (−0.2%/0.0%), −0.4% (−0.5%/−0.1%), and −0.3% (−0.4%/0.0%) for the prostate, HN, BS, lung, liver, pancreas, and uterine cases, respectively. The largest difference of −1.6% in target mean and −2.5% at maximum were observed in a uterine case. Conclusions: For most clinical cases, dose calculation errors due to the water nonequivalence of the tissues in nuclear interactions would be marginal compared to intrinsic uncertainties in treatment planning, patient setup, beam delivery, and clinical response. In some extreme cases, however, these errors can be substantial. Accordingly, this correction method should be routinely applied to treatment planning in clinical practice

  9. Outcomes of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy: Analysis of dose-volume histograms and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the tolerance dose for retention of visual acuity in patients with head-and-neck tumors treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: From June 1994 to March 2000, 163 patients with tumors in the head and neck or skull base region were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy. Analysis was performed on 54 optic nerves (ONs) corresponding to 30 patients whose ONs had been included in the irradiated volume. These patients showed no evidence of visual impairment due to other factors and had a follow-up period of >4 years. All patients had been informed of the possibility of visual impairment before treatment. We evaluated the dose-complication probability and the prognostic factors for the retention of visual acuity in carbon ion radiotherapy, using dose-volume histograms and multivariate analysis. Results: The median age of 30 patients (14 men, 16 women) was 57.2 years. Median prescribed total dose was 56.0 gray equivalents (GyE) at 3.0-4.0 GyE per fraction per day (range, 48-64 GyE; 16-18 fractions; 4-6 weeks). Of 54 ONs that were analyzed, 35 had been irradiated with max]) resulting in no visual loss. Conversely, 11 of the 19 ONs (58%) irradiated with >57 GyE (Dmax) suffered a decrease of visual acuity. In all of these cases, the ONs had been involved in the tumor before carbon ion radiotherapy. In the multivariate analysis, a dose of 20% of the volume of the ON (D2) was significantly associated with visual loss. Conclusions: The occurrence of visual loss seems to be correlated with a delivery of >60 GyE to 20% of the volume of the ON

  10. Risk factors for brain injury after carbon ion radiotherapy for skull base tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: This study aimed to determine the risk factors for radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) after carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for treating skull base tumors. Materials and methods: Between April 1997 and January 2009, CIRT at a total dose of 48.0–60.8 Gy equivalent (GyE) was administered in 16 fractions to 47 patients with skull base tumors. Of these patients, 39 who were followed up with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for more than 24 months were analyzed. RIBI was assessed according to the MRI findings based on the Late Effects of Normal Tissue-Subjective, Objective, Management, Analytic criteria; clinical symptoms were assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer tables. The correlations of clinical and dosimetric parameters with incidence of ⩾grade 2 RIBI were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The median follow-up period was 67 months. The 5-year actuarial likelihoods of ⩾grade 2 RIBI and ⩾grade 2 clinical symptoms were 24.5% and 7.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the brain volume receiving more than 50 GyE (V50) was a significant risk factor for the development of ⩾grade 2 RIBI (p = 0.004). Conclusion: V50 was a significant risk factor for ⩾grade 2 RIBI after CIRT using a 16-fraction regimen

  11. Phase I/II trial evaluating carbon ion radiotherapy for the treatment of recurrent rectal cancer: the PANDORA-01 trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combs Stephanie E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment standard for patients with rectal cancer depends on the initial staging and includes surgical resection, radiotherapy as well as chemotherapy. For stage II and III tumors, radiochemotherapy should be performed in addition to surgery, preferentially as preoperative radiochemotherapy or as short-course hypofractionated radiation. Advances in surgical approaches, especially the establishment of the total mesorectal excision (TME in combination with sophisticated radiation and chemotherapy have reduced local recurrence rates to only few percent. However, due to the high incidence of rectal cancer, still a high absolute number of patients present with recurrent rectal carcinomas, and effective treatment is therefore needed. Carbon ions offer physical and biological advantages. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increase relative biological effectiveness (RBE, which can be calculated between 2 and 5 depending on the cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese data on the treatment of patients with recurrent rectal cancer previously not treated with radiation therapy have shown local control rates of carbon ion treatment superior to those of surgery. Therefore, this treatment concept should also be evaluated for recurrences after radiotherapy, when dose application using conventional photons is limited. Moreover, these patients are likely to benefit from the enhanced biological efficacy of carbon ions. Methods and design In the current Phase I/II-PANDORA-01-Study the recommended dose of carbon ion radiotherapy for recurrent rectal cancer will be determined in the Phase I part, and feasibilty and progression-free survival will be assessed in the Phase II part of the study. Within the Phase I part, increasing doses from 12 × 3 Gy E to 18

  12. Dose escalation study of carbon ion radiotherapy for locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for locally advanced cervical cancer by two phase I/II clinical trials. Methods and Materials: Between June 1995 and January 2000, 44 patients were treated with CIRT. Thirty patients had Stage IIIB disease, and 14 patients had Stage IVA disease. Median tumor size was 6.5 cm (range, 4.2-11.0 cm). The treatment consisted of 16 fractions of whole pelvic irradiation and 8 fractions of local boost. In the first study, the total dose ranged from 52.8 to 72.0 gray equivalents (GyE) (2.2-3.0 GyE per fraction). In the second study, the whole pelvic dose was fixed at 44.8 GyE, and an additional 24.0 or 28.0 GyE was given to the cervical tumor (total dose, 68.8 or 72.8 GyE). Results: No patient developed severe acute toxicity. In contrast, 8 patients developed major late gastrointestinal complications. The doses resulting in major complications were ≥60 GyE. All patients with major complications were surgically salvaged. The 5-year local control rate for patients in the first and second studies was 45% and 79%, respectively. When treated with ≥62.4 GyE, the local control was favorable even for the patients with stage IVA disease (69%) or for those with tumors ≥6.0 cm (64%). Conclusions: In CIRT for advanced cervical cancer, the dose to the intestines should be limited to <60 GyE to avoid major complications. Although the number of patients in this study was small, the results support continued investigation to confirm therapeutic efficacy

  13. Carbon ion radiotherapy in a hypofraction regimen for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1994 to 1999, we conducted a phase I/II clinical trial for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using carbon ion beams alone, demonstrating optimal doses of 90.0 GyE in 18 fractions over 6 weeks (Protocol no.9303) and 72.0 GyE in 9 fractions over 3 weeks (Protocol no.9701), which led to more than 95% local control with minimal pulmonary damage. In the present study, the total dose was fixed at 72.0 GyE in 9 fractions over 3 weeks (Protocol no.9802), and at 52.8 GyE for stage IA and 60.0 GyE for stage IB in 4 fractions in 1 week (Protocol no.0001). Following this schedule, we conducted a phase II clinical trial for stage I NSCLC from 1999 to 2003. We also conducted a phase I/II single fractionation clinical trial (Protocol no.0201) as a dose escalation study. The total dose was initially 28.0 GyE in 2003, and it was increased to 46.0 GyE in 2008. This article describes the intermediate steps. Most targets were irradiated from four oblique directions. A respiratory-gated irradiation system was used for all sessions. Local control and survival were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. For statistical testing, the Log-rank test was used. The local control rate for all patients (no.9802 and no.0001) was 91.5%, and for those with T1 and T2 tumors was 96.3% and 84.7%, respectively. While there was a significant difference (p=0.0156) in the tumor control rate between patients with T1 and T2 tumors, there was no significant difference (P=0.1516) between squamous cell carcinomas and non-squamous cell carcinomas. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 67.0% (IA: 84.4, IB: 43.7), and overall survival was 45.3% (IA: 53.9, IB: 34.2). No adverse effects greater than grade 2 occurred in the lungs. In a single fractionation trial, the 3-year local control rate for 117 patients was 81.9%, and the control rates for patients with T1 and T2 tumors were 84.7% and 78.0%, respectively. No adverse effects greater than grade 2 occurred in the lungs. Carbon beam

  14. Carbon ion radiotherapy in a hypofraction regimen for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1994 to 1999, we conducted a phase I/II clinical trial for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using carbon ion beams alone, demonstrating optimal doses of 90.0 GyE in 18 fractions over 6 weeks (Protocol no.9303) and 72.0 GyE in 9 fractions over 3 weeks (Protocol no.9701), which achieved a more than 95% local control rate with minimal pulmonary damage. In the present study, the total dose was fixed at 72.0 GyE in 9 fractions over 3 weeks (Protocol no.9802), and at 52.8 GyE for stage IA and 60.0 GyE for stage IB in 4 fractions in 1 week (Protocol no.0001). Following this schedule, we conducted a phase II clinical trial for stage I NSCLC from 1999 to 2003. We also conducted a phase I/II single fractionation clinical trial (Protocol no.0201) as a dose escalation study. The total dose was initially 28.0 GyE in 2003, and it was increased to 50.0 GyE in 2011. This article describes the intermediate steps. Most targets were irradiated from four oblique directions. A respiratory-gated irradiation system was used for all sessions. Local control and survival were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method. For statistical testing, the Log-rank test was used. The local control rate for all patients (no.9802 and no.0001) was 91.5%, and those for T1 and T2 tumors were 96.3% and 84.7%, respectively. While there was a significant difference (p=0.0156) in the tumor control rates between T1 and T2 tumors, there was no significant difference (P=0.1516) between squamous cell carcinomas and non-squamous cell carcinomas. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 67.0% (IA: 84.4, IB: 43.7), and the overall survival was 45.3% (IA: 53.9, IB: 34.2). No adverse effects greater than grade 2 occurred in the lungs. In a single fractionation trial, the 5-year local control rate for 131 patients was 80.5%, and the control rates for T1 and T2 tumors were 82.8% and 78.4%, respectively. No adverse effects greater than grade 2 occurred in the lungs. Carbon beam radiotherapy

  15. Carbon ion radiotherapy in hypofraction regimen for stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1994 to 1999, we conducted a phase I/II clinical trial for stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using carbon ion beams alone, demonstrating optimal doses of 90.0 GyE in 18 fractions over 6 weeks (Protocol no.9303) and 72.0 GyE in 9 fractions over 3 weeks (Protocol no.9701) for achieving more than 95% local control with minimal pulmonary damage. In the present study, the total dose was fixed at 72.0 GyE in 9 fractions over 3 weeks (Protocol no.9802), and at 52.8 GyE for stage IA and 60.0 GyE for stage IB in 4 fractions in 1 week (Protocol no.0001). Following this schedule, we conducted a phase II clinical trial for stage I NSCLC from 1999 to 2003. We also conducted a phase I/II single fractionation clinical trial (Protocol no.0201), a dose escalation study. The total dose was initially 28.0 GyE in 2003, and it was raised to 44.0 GyE in 2007. This article describes the intermediate steps. Most targets were irradiated from four oblique directions. A respiratory-gated irradiation system was used for all sessions. Local control and survival were assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. For statistical testing, the Log-rank test was used. The local control rate for all patients (no.9802 and no.0001) was 91.5%, and those for T1 and T2 tumors were 96.3% and 84.7%, respectively. While there was a significant difference (p=0.0156) in tumor control rate between T1 and T2, there was no significant difference (P=0.1516) between squamous cell carcinomas and non-squamous cell carcinomas. The 5-year cause-specific survival rate was 67.0% (IA: 84.4, IB: 43.7), and overall survival was 45.3% (IA: 53.9, IB: 34.2). No adverse effects greater than grade 2 occurred in the lung. In a single fractionation trial, the local control rate for all 72 patients was 89.3%, and the control rates for T1 and T2 tumors were 94.6% and 78.7%, respectively. No adverse effects greater than grade 2 occurred in the lung. Carbon beam radiotherapy, an excellent new modality in terms of high quality of

  16. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development

  17. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  18. Carbon ion radiotherapy for basal cell adenocarcinoma of the head and neck: preliminary report of six cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma accounts for approximately 1.6% of all salivary gland neoplasms. In this report, we describe our experiences of treatment for BCAC with carbon ion radiotherapy in our institution. Case records of 6 patients with diagnosis of basal cell adenocarcinoma of the head and neck, who were treated by carbon ion radiotherapy with 64.0 GyE/16 fractions in our institution, were retrospectively reviewed. In a mean follow-up period of 32.1 months (14.0-51.3 months), overall survival and local control rates of 100% were achieved. Only one grade 4 (CTCAE v3.0) late complication occurred. There was no other grade 3 or higher toxicity. Carbon ion radiotherapy should be considered as an appropriate curative approach for treatment of basal cell adenocarcinoma in certain cases, particularly in cases of unresectable disease and postoperative gross residual or recurrent disease

  19. Phase I/II Trial Evaluating Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Salvaging Treatment of Locally Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lin; Hu, Jiyi; Guan, Xiyin; Gao, Jing; Lu, Rong; Lu, Jiade J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy is the mainstay strategy for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). Intensity-modulated X-ray therapy (IMXT) alone is the current standard for stage I and II NPC. For stage III and IV A/B diseases, concurrent chemotherapy should be provided in addition to IMXT. However, optimal treatment for locally recurrent NPC after previous definitive dose of radiotherapy is lacking. Various techniques including brachytherapy, IMXT, stereotactic radiosurgery or radiotherapy (SRS or SBRT) have been used in the management of locally recurrent NPC. Due to the inherent limitation of these techniques, i.e., limited range of irradiation or over-irradiation to surrounding normal tissues, moderate efficacy has been observed at the cost of severe toxicities. Carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) offers potential physical and biological advantages over photon and proton radiotherapy. Due to the inverted dose profile of particle beams and their greater energy deposition within the Bragg peak, precise dose delivery to the target volume(s) without exposing the surrounding organs at risk to extra doses is possible. In addition, CIRT provides an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) as compared to photon and proton radiotherapy. Such advantages may translate to improved outcomes after irradiation in terms of disease control in radio-resistant and previously treated, recurrent malignancies. It is therefore reasonable to postulate that recurrent NPC after high-dose radiotherapy could be more resistant to re-irradiation using photons. Reports on the treatment of radio-resistant malignancies in the head and neck region such as melanoma, sarcoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) have demonstrated superior local control rates from CIRT as compared to photon irradiation. Thus patients with recurrent NPC are likely to benefit from the enhanced biological effectiveness of carbon ions. As effective retreatment strategy is lacking for locally recurrent NPC

  20. Study on the influence to interstitial pneumonia by carbon ion radiotherapy for the lung cancer with lung fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional radiotherapy was unsuitable for the lung cancer patient with interstitial pneumonia (IP), but we expect that the patients are treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) more safely and effectively. We evaluated the changes of interstitial pneumonia in serologic tests, pulmonary function tests and CT scans before and after CIRT. We analyzed 131 cases that performed CIRT as the phase I/II dose escalation clinical study (protocol: no.0201) by single fractionation for stage I non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), between April 2003 and December 2006. We evaluated pulmonary function tests (vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO)), serologic tests (KL-6, SP-D, LDH) and CT scans before and after CIRT until two years every six months. We revealed that DLCO and %DLCO decreased for the patients with interstitial changes on CT scans before CIRT. The levels of KL-6, SP-D were increased in the cases with interstitial changes on CT scans On CT scan, there was the change increasing slightly ground-glass opacities in limited local area of the lung after CIRT. In this study, we could analyze only 7 cases with the interstitial changes. We could not necessarily estimate that the patients with the interstitial pneumonia decrease pulmonary functions significantly: We have to analyze more patients treated by CIRT with interstitial changes. (author)

  1. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Peripheral Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Baba, Masayuki

    The National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan (NIRS) has the highest number of patients with lung cancer treated with carbon ion beams in the world. This report describes the techniques and clinical trials that have been undertaken at NIRS and preliminary results of a current study on single-fraction irradiation. The data are compared to recent results for the treatment of peripheral stage I lung cancer from the literature.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of radiotherapy in various head and neck cancers : Comparing photons, carbon-ions and protons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, Bram L. T.; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Joore, Manuela A.; van den Ende, Piet; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Lambin, Philippe; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Grutters, Janneke P. C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To synthesize and compare available evidence considering the effectiveness of carbon-ion, proton and photon radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed to retrieve evidence on tumor control, survival and late treatment toxicity for ca

  3. Effects of the dose-volume relationship on and risk factors for maxillary osteoradionecrosis after carbon ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is a critical complication after carbon ion (C-ion) or photon radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck tumors. However, the risk factors for ORN after C-ion RT remain unclear. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of the dose-volume relationship on and risk factors for ORN development after C-ion RT. We, however, focused on the maxillary bone because most tumors treated with C-ion RT were primarily located in the sinonasal cavity. The patients enrolled in this study received more than 10% of the prescribed total dose of 57.6 Gy equivalent (GyE) in 16 fractions to their maxilla. All patients were followed up for more than 2 years after C-ion RT. Those with tumor invasion to the maxilla before C-ion RT or local recurrence after the treatment were excluded from the study to accurately evaluate the effects of irradiation on the bone. Sixty-three patients were finally selected. The severity of ORN was assessed according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The correlation between clinical and dosimetric parameters and ORN incidence was retrospectively analyzed. The median follow-up period was 79 months. Of the 63 enrolled patients, 26 developed ORN of grade ≥1. Multivariate analysis revealed that the maxilla volume receiving more than 50 GyE (V50) and the presence of teeth within the planning target volume were significant risk factors for ORN. Dose-volume histogram analysis revealed that V10 to V50 parameters were significantly higher in patients with ORN than in those without ORN. V50 and the presence of teeth within the planning target volume were independent risk factors for the development of ORN after C-ion RT using a 16-fraction protocol

  4. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Kessel, Kerstin; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jurgen [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)], e-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications.

  5. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors and tumors of the skull base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze clinical concepts, toxicity and treatment outcome in patients with brain and skull base tumors treated with photons and particle therapy. Material and methods: In total 260 patients with brain tumors and tumors of the skull base were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Patients enrolled in and randomized within prospective clinical trials as well as bony or soft tissue tumors are not included in this analysis. Treatment was delivered as protons, carbon ions, or combinations of photons and a carbon ion boost. All patients are included in a tight follow-up program. The median follow-up time is 12 months (range 2-39 months). Results: Main histologies included meningioma (n = 107) for skull base lesions, pituitary adenomas (n = 14), low-grade gliomas (n = 51) as well as high-grade gliomas (n = 55) for brain tumors. In all patients treatment could be completed without any unexpected severe toxicities. No side effects > CTC Grade III were observed. To date, no severe late toxicities were observed, however, for endpoints such as secondary malignancies or neuro cognitive side effects follow-up time still remains too short. Local recurrences were mainly seen in the group of high-grade gliomas or atypical meningiomas; for benign skull base meningiomas, to date, no recurrences were observed during follow-up. Conclusion: The specific benefit of particle therapy will potentially reduce the risk of secondary malignancies as well as improve neuro cognitive outcome and quality of life (QOL); thus, longer follow-up will be necessary to confirm these endpoints. Indication-specific trials on meningiomas and gliomas are underway to elucidate the role of protons and carbon ions in these indications

  6. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors delivered with active raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): early treatment results and study concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle irradiation was established at the University of Heidelberg 2 years ago. To date, more than 400 patients have been treated including patients with primary brain tumors. In malignant glioma (WHO IV) patients, two clinical trials have been set up-one investigating the benefit of a carbon ion (18 GyE) vs. a proton boost (10 GyE) in addition to photon radiotherapy (50 Gy), the other one investigating reirradiation with escalating total dose schedules starting at 30 GyE. In atypical meningioma patients (WHO °II), a carbon ion boost of 18 GyE is applied to macroscopic tumor residues following previous photon irradiation with 50 Gy. This study was set up in order to investigate toxicity and response after proton and carbon ion therapy for gliomas and meningiomas. 33 patients with gliomas (n = 26) and meningiomas (n = 7) were treated with carbon ion (n = 26) and proton (n = 7) radiotherapy. In 22 patients, particle irradiation was combined with photon therapy. Temozolomide-based chemotherapy was combined with particle therapy in 17 patients with gliomas. Particle therapy as reirradiation was conducted in 7 patients. Target volume definition was based upon CT, MRI and PET imaging. Response was assessed by MRI examinations, and progression was diagnosed according to the Macdonald criteria. Toxicity was classified according to CTCAE v4.0. Treatment was completed and tolerated well in all patients. Toxicity was moderate and included fatigue (24.2%), intermittent cranial nerve symptoms (6%) and single episodes of seizures (6%). At first and second follow-up examinations, mean maximum tumor diameters had slightly decreased from 29.7 mm to 27.1 mm and 24.9 mm respectively. Nine glioma patients suffered from tumor relapse, among these 5 with infield relapses, causing death in 8 patients. There was no progression in any meningioma patient. Particle radiotherapy is safe and feasible in patients with primary brain tumors. It is associated with little toxicity. A positive

  7. Proton and carbon ion radiotherapy for primary brain tumors delivered with active raster scanning at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT: early treatment results and study concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rieken Stefan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle irradiation was established at the University of Heidelberg 2 years ago. To date, more than 400 patients have been treated including patients with primary brain tumors. In malignant glioma (WHO IV patients, two clinical trials have been set up-one investigating the benefit of a carbon ion (18 GyE vs. a proton boost (10 GyE in addition to photon radiotherapy (50 Gy, the other one investigating reirradiation with escalating total dose schedules starting at 30 GyE. In atypical meningioma patients (WHO °II, a carbon ion boost of 18 GyE is applied to macroscopic tumor residues following previous photon irradiation with 50 Gy. This study was set up in order to investigate toxicity and response after proton and carbon ion therapy for gliomas and meningiomas. Methods 33 patients with gliomas (n = 26 and meningiomas (n = 7 were treated with carbon ion (n = 26 and proton (n = 7 radiotherapy. In 22 patients, particle irradiation was combined with photon therapy. Temozolomide-based chemotherapy was combined with particle therapy in 17 patients with gliomas. Particle therapy as reirradiation was conducted in 7 patients. Target volume definition was based upon CT, MRI and PET imaging. Response was assessed by MRI examinations, and progression was diagnosed according to the Macdonald criteria. Toxicity was classified according to CTCAE v4.0. Results Treatment was completed and tolerated well in all patients. Toxicity was moderate and included fatigue (24.2%, intermittent cranial nerve symptoms (6% and single episodes of seizures (6%. At first and second follow-up examinations, mean maximum tumor diameters had slightly decreased from 29.7 mm to 27.1 mm and 24.9 mm respectively. Nine glioma patients suffered from tumor relapse, among these 5 with infield relapses, causing death in 8 patients. There was no progression in any meningioma patient. Conclusions Particle radiotherapy is safe and feasible in patients with primary brain

  8. Risk factors for neovascular glaucoma after carbon ion radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma using dose-volume histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors for neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) of choroidal melanoma. Methods and Materials: A total of 55 patients with choroidal melanoma were treated between 2001 and 2005 with C-ion RT based on computed tomography treatment planning. All patients had a tumor of large size or one located close to the optic disk. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors of NVG for the following parameters; gender, age, dose-volumes of the iris-ciliary body and the wall of eyeball, and irradiation of the optic disk (ODI). Results: Neovascular glaucoma occurred in 23 patients and the 3-year cumulative NVG rate was 42.6 ± 6.8% (standard error), but enucleation from NVG was performed in only three eyes. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant risk factors for NVG were V50IC (volume irradiated ≥50 GyE to iris-ciliary body) (p = 0.002) and ODI (p = 0.036). The 3-year NVG rate for patients with V50IC ≥0.127 mL and those with V50IC IC and ODI were independent risk factors for NVG. An irradiation system that can reduce the dose to both the anterior segment and the optic disk might be worth adopting to investigate whether or not incidence of NVG can be decreased with it

  9. Research of the relationship between dose distribution and given dose in the sequestrum of the patients with head and neck tumors treated by carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out about sequestrum caused by carbon-ion radiotherapy of the patients with head and neck tumors. There were 13 patients who were operated of sequestrotomy at Ichikawa General Hospital, Tokyo Dental College from 2000 to 2009. We compared the CT images of nine out of thirteen patients to investigate the dose distribution. Six out of nine patients, the area of sequestrotomy were corresponded with the highest dose area. We studied the progress of 3 cases treated by maxillofacial prostheses that were retained with maxillofacial implant at carbon-ion radiationtherapy area. (author)

  10. Phase I study evaluating the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer with carbon ion radiotherapy: the PHOENIX-01 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment options for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer include surgery, chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy. In many cases, surgical resection is not possible, and therefore treatment alternatives have to be performed. Chemoradiation has been established as a convincing treatment alternative for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 1.16 and 2.46 depending on the pancreatic cancer cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with pancreatic cancer. The present PHOENIX-01 trial evaluates carbon ion radiotherapy using the active rasterscanning technique in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with weekly gemcitabine and adjuvant gemcitabine. Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival and response. The physical and biological properties of the carbon ion beam promise to improve the therapeutic ratio in patients with pancreatic cancer: Due to the inverted dose profile dose deposition in the entry channel of the beam leads to sparing of normal tissue; the Bragg peak can be directed into the defined target volume, and the sharp dose fall-off thereafter again spares normal tissue behind the target volume. The higher RBE of carbon ions, which has been shown also for pancreatic cancer cell lines in the preclinical setting, is likely to contribute to an increase in local control, and perhaps in OS. Early data from Japanese centers have shown promising results. In conclusion, this is the first trial to evaluate actively delivered carbon

  11. Combining Carbon Ion Radiotherapy and Local Injection of α-Galactosylceramide-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Inhibits Lung Metastases in an In Vivo Murine Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Our previous report indicated that carbon ion beam irradiation upregulated membrane-associated immunogenic molecules, underlining the potential clinical application of radioimmunotherapy. The antimetastatic efficacy of local combination therapy of carbon ion radiotherapy and immunotherapy was examined by use of an in vivo murine model. Methods and Materials: Tumors of mouse squamous cell carcinoma (NR-S1) cells inoculated in the legs of C3H/HeSlc mice were locally irradiated with a single 6-Gy dose of carbon ions (290 MeV/nucleon, 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak). Thirty-six hours after irradiation, α-galactosylceramide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were injected into the leg tumor. We investigated the effects on distant lung metastases by counting the numbers of lung tumor colonies, making pathologic observations, and assessing immunohistochemistry. Results: The mice with no treatment (control) presented with 168 ± 53.8 metastatic nodules in the lungs, whereas the mice that received the combination therapy of carbon ion irradiation and DCs presented with 2.6 ± 1.9 (P = 0.009) at 2 weeks after irradiation. Immunohistochemistry showed that intracellular adhesion molecule 1, which activates DCs, increased from 6 h to 36 h after irradiation in the local tumors of the carbon ion-irradiated group. The expression of S100A8 in lung tissue, a marker of the lung pre-metastatic phase, was decreased only in the group with a combination of carbon ions and DCs. Conclusions: The combination of carbon ion radiotherapy with the injection of α-galactosylceramide-pulsed DCs into the primary tumor effectively inhibited distant lung metastases.

  12. Treatment of patients with atypical meningiomas Simpson grade 4 and 5 with a carbon ion boost in combination with postoperative photon radiotherapy: The MARCIE Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment standard for patients with atypical or anaplastic meningioma is neurosurgical resection. With this approach, local control ranges between 50% and 70%, depending on resection status. A series or smaller studies has shown that postoperative radiotherapy in this patient population can increase progression-free survival, which translates into increased overall survival. However, meningiomas are known to be radioresistant tumors, and radiation doses of 60 Gy or higher have been shown to be necessary for tumor control. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 2 and 5 depending on the cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. First data obtained within the Phase I/II trial performed at GSI in Darmstadt on carbon ion radiotherapy for patients with high-risk meningiomas has shown safety, and treatment results are promising. The Phase II-MARCIE-Study will evaluate a carbon ion boost applied to the macroscopic tumor in conjunction with photon radiotherapy in patients with atypical menigiomas after incomplete resection or biopsy. Primary endpoint is progression-free survival, secondary endpoints are overall survival, safety and toxicity. Based on published data on the treatment of atypical meningiomas with carbon ions at GSI, the present study will evaluate this treatment concept in a larger patient population and will compare outcome to current standard photon treatment. NCT01166321

  13. Treatment of patients with atypical meningiomas Simpson grade 4 and 5 with a carbon ion boost in combination with postoperative photon radiotherapy: The MARCIE Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unterberg Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment standard for patients with atypical or anaplastic meningioma is neurosurgical resection. With this approach, local control ranges between 50% and 70%, depending on resection status. A series or smaller studies has shown that postoperative radiotherapy in this patient population can increase progression-free survival, which translates into increased overall survival. However, meningiomas are known to be radioresistant tumors, and radiation doses of 60 Gy or higher have been shown to be necessary for tumor control. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE, which can be calculated between 2 and 5 depending on the cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. First data obtained within the Phase I/II trial performed at GSI in Darmstadt on carbon ion radiotherapy for patients with high-risk meningiomas has shown safety, and treatment results are promising. Methods/design The Phase II-MARCIE-Study will evaluate a carbon ion boost applied to the macroscopic tumor in conjunction with photon radiotherapy in patients with atypical menigiomas after incomplete resection or biopsy. Primary endpoint is progression-free survival, secondary endpoints are overall survival, safety and toxicity. Discussion Based on published data on the treatment of atypical meningiomas with carbon ions at GSI, the present study will evaluate this treatment concept in a larger patient population and will compare outcome to current standard photon treatment. Trial registration NCT01166321

  14. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  15. Designing a ridge filter based on a mouse foot skin reaction to spread out Bragg-peaks for carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carbon-ion radiotherapy uses spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) to produce uniform biological effects within a target volume. The relative biological effectiveness is determined by the in vitro cell kill after a single dose is employed to design the SOBP. A question remains as to whether biological effects for in vivo tissues after fractionated doses are also uniform within the SOBP. Material and methods: Mouse foot skin was irradiated with fractionated doses of carbon ions at various linear energy transfer (LET) values. A new ridge filter was designed based on alpha and beta values for each LET to cause moderate skin reaction, and was studied concerning its uniformity. Results: The reciprocal total doses of intermediate-LET carbon ions and of reference gamma rays linearly increased with an increase of a dose per fraction in Fe-plots. As the single total dose of higher LET run off linearity, data obtained from 2 to 6 fractions were used to design a new ridge filter. The physical dose distribution of the new ridge filter was almost identical to, and indistinguishable from, the ridge filter designed based on the in vitro cell kill. Conclusions: The LET dependence of alpha is a principle of the biological factor to be used for designing spread-out Bragg peaks of carbon-ion radiotherapy

  16. Track structure modelling for ion radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, Marta

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest terms, doctoral dissertation entitled "Track structure modelling for ion radiotherapy" is part of the supporting research background in the development of the ambitious proton radiotherapy project currently under way at the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN in Krak\\'ow. Another broad motivation was the desire to become directly involved in research on a topical and challenging subject of possibly developing a therapy planning system for carbon beam radiotherapy, based in its radiobiological part on the Track Structure model developed by prof. Robert Katz over 50 years ago. Thus, the general aim of this work was, firstly, to recapitulate the Track Structure model and to propose an updated and complete formulation of this model by incorporating advances made by several authors who had contributed to its development in the past. Secondly, the updated and amended (if necessary) formulation of the model was presented in a form applicable for use in computer codes which would constitute the "radiobio...

  17. Carbon ion radiotherapy for localized primary sarcoma of the extremities: Results of a phase I/II trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for localized primary sarcomas of the extremities in a prospective study. Patients and materials: From April 2000 to May 2010, 17 (male/female: 12/5) patients with localized primary sarcoma of the extremities received CIRT. The median age was 53 years (range: 14–87 years). Nine patients had primary diseases and eight had recurrent diseases. Of the 17 patients, eight refused amputation, and the remaining nine refused surgical resection. Tumors were located in the upper limbs in four patients and lower limbs in 13. Histological diagnosis was osteosarcoma in three patients, liposarcoma in two, synovial sarcoma in two, rhabdomyosarcoma in two, pleomorphic sarcoma in two, and miscellaneous in six. The CIRT dose to the limb was 52.8 GyE for one patient, 64 GyE for three, 70.4 GyE for 13 in 16 fixed fractions over 4 weeks. Records were reviewed and outcomes including radiologic response, local control (progression-free), and survival were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range: 11–97 months). Radiological response rate was 65% (PR in 11, SD in 5, and PD in 1). The local control rate at 5 years was 76%. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 56%. Of the 17 patients, 10 survived without disease progression. Four patients had local recurrences, one was salvaged by repeated CIRT and the other three died due to systemic diseases. Distant failure was observed in six patients. One patient suffered from femoral fracture (grade 3) and received surgical fixation 27 months after CIRT. No other severe reactions (grade 3) were observed. Conclusions: CIRT is suggested to be an effective and safe treatment for patients who refuse surgery for localized primary sarcomas of the extremities.

  18. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma: A Phase I/II dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams for the treatment of choroidal melanoma with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Methods and Materials: Between January 2001 and February 2006, 59 patients with locally advanced or unfavorably located choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a Phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiologic Sciences. The primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity, and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Of the 59 subjects enrolled, 57 were followed >6 months and analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients (40%) developed neovascular glaucoma, and three underwent enucleation for eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. Incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died at analysis, three of distant metastasis and two of concurrent disease. All but one patient, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Six patients developed distant metastasis, five in the liver and one in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 88.2%, 84.8%, and 97.4%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed in either tumor control or normal tissue morbidity at the dose range applied. Conclusion: Carbon-ion radiotherapy can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient antitumor effect, even with tumors of unfavorable size or site

  19. Ridge filter design for carbon radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a ridge filter intended for forming the uniform spread-out Bragg peak within a tumor at carbon radiotherapy is described. The computation of the ridge filter shape was carried out by an analytical algorithm and tested by MC simulation (GEANT4 code). Two kinds of the ridge filter were considered: stationary and movable. The influence on a ridge filter shape of the carbon beam energy and type of relative biological effectiveness dependence on the carbon ion linear energy transfer in tissue were examined

  20. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... to the surface where the beam enters) are examined. For each plan the minimum,  maximum and the dose averaged LET of the PTV is calculated. The numbers are translated to OER using several sets of data found in literature for various cell lines. Results: We find a strong dependence of the dose average LET and OER...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  1. Reformulation of a clinical-dose system for carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment planning at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Shirai, Toshiyuki; Noda, Koji; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2015-04-01

    At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), more than 8,000 patients have been treated for various tumors with carbon-ion (C-ion) radiotherapy in the past 20 years based on a radiobiologically defined clinical-dose system. Through clinical experience, including extensive dose escalation studies, optimum dose-fractionation protocols have been established for respective tumors, which may be considered as the standards in C-ion radiotherapy. Although the therapeutic appropriateness of the clinical-dose system has been widely demonstrated by clinical results, the system incorporates several oversimplifications such as dose-independent relative biological effectiveness (RBE), empirical nuclear fragmentation model, and use of dose-averaged linear energy transfer to represent the spectrum of particles. We took the opportunity to update the clinical-dose system at the time we started clinical treatment with pencil beam scanning, a new beam delivery method, in 2011. The requirements for the updated system were to correct the oversimplifications made in the original system, while harmonizing with the original system to maintain the established dose-fractionation protocols. In the updated system, the radiation quality of the therapeutic C-ion beam was derived with Monte Carlo simulations, and its biological effectiveness was predicted with a theoretical model. We selected the most used C-ion beam with αr = 0.764 Gy-1 and β = 0.0615 Gy-2 as reference radiation for RBE. The C-equivalent biological dose distribution is designed to allow the prescribed survival of tumor cells of the human salivary gland (HSG) in entire spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region, with consideration to the dose dependence of the RBE. This C-equivalent biological dose distribution is scaled to a clinical dose distribution to harmonize with our clinical experiences with C-ion radiotherapy. Treatment plans were made with the original and the updated clinical-dose systems, and both

  2. In vitro evaluation of photon and raster-scanned carbon ion radiotherapy in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths, being responsible for 6% of all cancer-related deaths. Conventional radiotherapy with or without additional chemotherapy has been applied in the past in the context of neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapy concepts with only modest results, however new radiation modalities, such as particle therapy with promising physical and biological characteristics, present an alternative treatment option for patients with pancreatic cancer. Up until now the raster scanning technique employed at our institution for the application of carbon ions has been unique, and no radiobiological data using pancreatic cancer cells has been available yet. The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects that can be achieved by treating pancreatic cancer cell lines with combinations of X-rays and gemcitabine, or alternatively with carbon ion irradiation and gemcitabine, respectively. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, BxPC-3 and Panc-1 were irradiated with photons and carbon ions at various doses and treated with gemcitabine. Photon irradiation was applied with a biological cabin X-ray irradiator, and carbon ion irradiation was applied with an extended Bragg peak (linear energy transfer (LET) 103 keV/μm) using the raster scanning technique at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT). Responsiveness of pancreatic cancer cells to the treatment was measured by clonogenic survival. Clonogenic survival curves were then compared to predicted curves that were calculated employing the local effect model (LEM). Cell survival curves were calculated from the surviving fractions of each combination experiment and compared to a drug control that was only irradiated with X-rays or carbon ions, without application of gemcitabine. In terms of cytotoxicity, additive effects were achieved for the cell lines Panc-1 and BxPC-3, and a slight radiosensitizing effect was observed for AsPC-1. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon

  3. Usefulness of J-CAPRA score for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel risk assessment method, Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment, has been developed based on database of patients receiving primary androgen deprivation therapy. To investigate the usefulness of Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment for non-metastatic, high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radio-therapy plus androgen deprivation therapy. Patients with non-metastatic, high-risk prostate cancer (T3, initial prostate specific antigen level ≥20 ng/ml, and/or Gleason score ≥8) were included. The patients were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (the total dose from 57.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness)/16 fractions to 66.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness)/20 fractions), and neoadjuvant as well as adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy for at least 24 months. Four hundred and twenty-six patients were included with the median follow-up of 68.1 months. Of 426, 210 (49.3%), 270 (63.4%) and 251 (58.9%) had Gleason 8-10, prostate specific antigen ≥20 ng/ml and T3, respectively. The 10-year progression-free and cause-specific survival rates in Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment 1-2 group (76.5 and 98.9%) were significantly better than those in Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment 3-6 group (52.6 and 93.1%), (P < 0.001 and P=0.044, respectively). The median progression-free survivals in the Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment 1-2 and 3-6 groups were 158.9 months and 125.9 months (95% confidence interval: 108.6-143.2 months), respectively. For non-metastatic, high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with carbon ion radiotherapy plus androgen deprivation therapy, Japan Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment score was useful for predicting the progression-free and cause-specific survivals. (author)

  4. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists

  5. L-[METHYL-11C] Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Delineation in Malignant Gliomas: Impact on Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the importance of 11C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume (CTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 16 patients with malignant glioma (4 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma; 12 patients, glioblastoma multiforme) treated with surgery and carbon ion radiotherapy from April 2002 to Nov 2005. The MET-PET target volume was compared with gross tumor volume and CTV, defined by using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlations with treatment results were evaluated between positive and negative extended volumes (EVs) of the MET-PET target for CTV. Results: Mean volumes of the MET-PET targets, CTV1 (defined by means of high-intensity volume on T2-weighted MRI), and CTV2 (defined by means of contrast-enhancement volume on T1-weighted MRI) were 6.35, 264.7, and 117.7 cm3, respectively. Mean EVs of MET-PET targets for CTV1 and CTV2 were 0.6 and 2.2 cm3, respectively. The MET-PET target volumes were included in CTV1 and CTV2 in 13 (81.3%) and 11 patients (68.8%), respectively. Patients with a negative EV for CTV1 had significantly greater survival rate (p = 0.0069), regional control (p = 0.0047), and distant control time (p = 0.0267) than those with a positive EV. Distant control time also was better in patients with a negative EV for CTV2 than those with a positive EV (p = 0.0401). Conclusions: For patients with malignant gliomas, MET-PET has a possibility to be a predictor of outcome in carbon ion radiotherapy. Direct use of MET-PET fused to planning computed tomography will be useful and yield favorable results for the therapy

  6. Treatment outcomes of particle radiotherapy using protons or carbon ions as a single-modality therapy for adenoid cystic carcinoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the outcomes of cases of adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) of the head and neck that were treated at a single institution with particle therapy consisting of either protons or carbon ions. Methods and materials: Between February 2002 and March 2012, 80 patients were treated with proton therapy (PT) or carbon ion therapy (CIT) alone. PT and CIT were employed in 40 (50%) patients each, and more than half of the patients received 65.0 GyE in 26 fractions (n = 47, 59%). Results: The median duration of follow-up was 38 months (range, 6–115 months). For all patients, the 5-year for overall survival (OS) rate, progression-free survival (PFS) rate, and local control (LC) rate were 63%, 39%, and 75%, respectively. No significant differences between PT and CIT were observed. The 5-year LC rates for T4 and inoperable cases were 66% and 68%, respectively. Twenty-one patients (26%) experienced grade 3 or greater late toxicities, including three patients who developed grade 5 bleeding from nasopharyngeal ulcers. Conclusions: Particle radiotherapy for ACC achieves favourable LC, and its efficacy in inoperable or T4 cases is promising. There were no significant differences between PT and CIT in terms of OS, PFS and LC

  7. Prediction of Acute Radiation Mucositis using an Oral Mucosal Dose Surface Model in Carbon Ion Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Musha

    Full Text Available To evaluate the dose-response relationship for development of acute radiation mucositis (ARM using an oral mucosal dose surface model (OMDS-model in carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT for head and neck tumors.Thirty-nine patients receiving C-ion RT for head and neck cancer were evaluated for ARM (once per week for 6 weeks according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE, version 4.0, and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG scoring systems. The irradiation schedule typically used was 64 Gy [relative biological effectiveness (RBE] in 16 fractions for 4 weeks. Maximum point doses in the palate and tongue were compared with ARM in each patient.The location of the ARM coincided with the high-dose area in the OMDS-model. There was a clear dose-response relationship between maximum point dose and ARM grade assessed using the RTOG criteria but not the CTCAE. The threshold doses for grade 2-3 ARM in the palate and tongue were 43.0 Gy(RBE and 54.3 Gy(RBE, respectively.The OMDS-model was useful for predicting the location and severity of ARM. Maximum point doses in the model correlated well with grade 2-3 ARM.

  8. Comparison of carbon ion radiotherapy to photon radiation alone or in combination with temozolomide in patients with high-grade gliomas: Explorative hypothesis-generating retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare retrospectively outcome after photon radiotherapy alone, radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ), and carbon ion radiotherapy in patients with high-grade gliomas and to generate a hypothetical outcome curve for C12 and TMZ. Patients and methods: Patients treated within a Phase I/II Trial with a carbon ion boost were compared retrospectively with randomly chosen patients treated with photons or photons in combination with TMZ in a retrospective analysis. Per treatment group, 16 patients with anaplastic astocytoma (AA), and 32 patients with glioblastoma (GBM) were included. Treatment outcome with focus on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: Median OS for patients with GBM was 9 months with RT, 14 months with RCHT group, and 18 months in the C12 group. There was no significant difference between the C12 and the RCHT group. For patients with AA, median OS was 13 months for RT, 39 months for RCHT, and 35 months after C12. The difference from RCHT to C12 was not significant. Median PFS for patients with GBM was 5 months in the RT group, 6 months in the RCHT group, and 8 months in the C12 group. There was a significant difference between the RCHT group and the C12 group. For AA, median PFS was 15 months with RT, 6 months with RCHT, and 34 with C12. Comparing subgroups, C12 was significantly different from RCHT. Based on the significant OS increase from RT to RCHT, and from RT to C12, we projected the potential increase in outcome when combined C12 and TMZ would have been applied. A generated hypothetical curve based on the abovementioned outcome as well as preclinical examinations suggests there might be a benefit from the addition of C12 in patients with high-grade gliomas. Conclusions: This exploratory retrospective study suggests a potential benefit of carbon ions in patients with high-grade gliomas. This hypothesis is now being evaluated prospectively in GBM within the randomized CLEOPATRA clinical

  9. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if

  10. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the

  11. Phase II study of induction chemotherapy with TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with Cetuximab and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT in combination with a carbon ion boost for locally advanced tumours of the oro-, hypopharynx and larynx - TPF-C-HIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavtratzas Athanasios

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term locoregional control in locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN remains challenging. While recent years have seen various approaches to improve outcome by intensification of treatment schedules through introduction of novel induction and combination chemotherapy regimen and altered fractionation regimen, patient tolerance to higher treatment intensities is limited by accompanying side-effects. Combined radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as well as modern radiotherapy techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT and carbon ion therapy (C12 are able to limit toxicity while maintaining treatment effects. In order to achieve maximum efficacy with yet acceptable toxicity, this sequential phase II trial combines induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF followed by radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. We expect this approach to result in increased cure rates with yet manageable accompanying toxicity. Methods/design The TPF-C-HIT trial is a prospective, mono-centric, open-label, non-randomized phase II trial evaluating efficacy and toxicity of the combined treatment with IMRT/carbon ion boost and weekly cetuximab in 50 patients with histologically proven locally advanced SCCHN following TPF induction chemotherapy. Patients receive 24 GyE carbon ions (8 fractions and 50 Gy IMRT (2.0 Gy/fraction in combination with weekly cetuximab throughout radiotherapy. Primary endpoint is locoregional control at 12 months, secondary endpoints are disease-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, acute and late radiation effects as well as any adverse events of the treatment as well as quality of life (QoL analyses. Discussion The primary objective of TPF-C-HIT is to evaluate efficacy and toxicity of cetuximab in combination with combined IMRT/carbon ion therapy following TPF induction in locally advanced SCCHN. Trial Registration

  12. Carbon Beam Radio-Therapy and Research Activities at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-therapy with carbon ion beam has been carried out since 1994 at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). Now, many types of tumors can be treated with carbon beam with excellent local controls of the tumors. Stimulated with good clinical results, requirement of the dedicated compact facility for carbon beam radio-therapy is increased. To realize this requirement, design study of the facility and the R and D's of the key components in this design are promoted by NIRS. According successful results of these activities, the dedicated compact facility will be realized in Gunma University. In this facility, the established irradiation method is expected to use, which is passive irradiation method with wobbler magnets and ridge filter. In this presentation, above R and D's will be presented together with clinical results and basic research activities at HIMAC

  13. Modelling beam transport and biological effectiveness to develop treatment planning for ion beam radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Grzanka, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy with carbon ions is a novel technique of cancer radiotherapy, applicable in particular to treating radioresistant tumours at difficult localisations. Therapy planning, where the medical physicist, following the medical prescription, finds the optimum distribution of cancer cells to be inactivated by their irradiation over the tumour volume, is a basic procedure of cancer radiotherapy. The main difficulty encountered in therapy planning for ion radiotherapy is to correctly account for the enhanced radiobiological effectiveness of ions in the Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) region over the tumour volume. In this case, unlike in conventional radiotherapy with photon beams, achieving a uniform dose distribution over the tumour volume does not imply achieving uniform cancer cell inactivation. In this thesis, an algorithm of the basic element (kernel) of a treatment planning system (TPS) for carbon ion therapy is developed. The algorithm consists of a radiobiological part which suitably corrects for ...

  14. Monitoring bone and soft-tissue tumors after carbon-ion radiotherapy using 18F-FDG positron emission tomography: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of treatment for malignant bone and soft-tissue tumors arising from the deep trunk and pelvis are still not acceptable due to the relatively high recurrence and low overall survival rates. Recently, carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) was applied for several malignancies, including bone and soft-tissue sarcomas, and provided favorable results. However, it has been unclear what modalities should be used for evaluating the response and for the follow-up of these patients. Here, we analyzed the methods used to predict local recurrence and to find local failures or metastases. We analyzed 37 patients with bone and soft-tissue tumors who received CIRT at our institute. The patients were examined with FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and enhanced MRI before and three months after CIRT. The pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), and that three months after treatment, the difference between the pre- and post-CIRT SUVmax, the ratio of the post- to pre-SUVmax in FDG-PET and the size of the tumors were evaluated as predictors for local recurrence. FDG-PET and enhanced MRI were used to detect local recurrence. Local recurrence appeared in 10 cases after CIRT. Nine of the 10 lesions (90.0 %) were detected with FDG-PET, while enhanced MRI detected just 50.0 % of the recurrences. One case of local recurrence, in which the lesion was negative on FDG-PET, was detected using enhanced MRI. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that neither the SUVmax on FDG-PET nor the tumor size before or three months after CIRT could be used to predict local recurrence. The combination of FDG-PET and enhanced MRI is recommended to detect local recurrence for patients with sarcomas who have received CIRT; however, no parameters obtained during the examinations performed before and three months after CIRT accurately predicted the development of local recurrence

  15. Heavy ion radiotherapy. Yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At EO Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), clinical trials were conducted (1975-1992) for treating human cancer using heavy ion beams, in which about 700 patients were treated with helium-ion and about 300 patients with neon-ion beams. Clinical trials at the Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt, Germany used carbon-ion beams to treat about 250 patients (1997-2005). In 1993 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan, commissioned its first-in-the-world medicallydedicated Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), which accelerates heavy ions to an energy of 800 MeV/u (million electron volts per nucleon). By 2010 more than 5000 patients have been treated using carbon-ion beams at HIMAC. Following its successful clinical operation, several carbon-ion therapy facilities have been, or will be soon, constructed in: Hyogo (commissioned in 2001) and Gunma (2010), Japan; Heidelberg (2009), Marburg (2010) and Kiel (2012), Germany; Pavia (2010), Italy; Lyon (2015), France; Wiener Neustadt (2015), Austria; Shanghai (2015) and Lanzhou, China; and Busan (2016), Korea. Very active clinical research and technology development projects are carried out at these institutions to enhance beam delivery accuracy, such as beam scanning that compensates for organ movements, which will further improve the clinical efficacy of the ion-beam therapy in the future. (author)

  16. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  17. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  18. Recent progress of HIMAC for sophisticated heavy-ion cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NIRS has carried out carbon-ion radiotherapy (RT) with HIMAC since 1994. On the basis of their ten-year HIMAC experience, NIRS has developed a standard-type CIRT facility in order to boost availability of carbon-ion RT in Japan. Work has been carried out at its pilot facility at Gunma University since 2010. The current projects of the pilot facility include Saga-HIMAT and i-ROCK, promoted by the Kanagawa prefectural cancer center. Toward the further sophisticated conformal carbon-ion RT with HIMAC, the NIRS has since 2006 been developing new treatment technologies, such as a fast 3D rescanning with a pencil beam and a compact rotating gantry

  19. Recent progress of HIMAC for sophisticated heavy-ion cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K., E-mail: noda_k@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Fujimoto, T. [Accelerator Engineering Cooperation, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Hara, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Katagiri, K.; Kanematsu, N.; Mizushima, K. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Miyoshi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Cooperation, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Mori, S.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sano, Y. [Accelerator Engineering Cooperation, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Sato, S.; Shirai, T.; Takada, E.; Takei, Y.; Yonai, S. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    The NIRS has carried out carbon-ion radiotherapy (RT) with HIMAC since 1994. On the basis of their ten-year HIMAC experience, NIRS has developed a standard-type CIRT facility in order to boost availability of carbon-ion RT in Japan. Work has been carried out at its pilot facility at Gunma University since 2010. The current projects of the pilot facility include Saga-HIMAT and i-ROCK, promoted by the Kanagawa prefectural cancer center. Toward the further sophisticated conformal carbon-ion RT with HIMAC, the NIRS has since 2006 been developing new treatment technologies, such as a fast 3D rescanning with a pencil beam and a compact rotating gantry.

  20. Carbon Ion Therapy for Early-Stage Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Demizu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon ion therapy is a type of radiotherapies that can deliver high-dose radiation to a tumor while minimizing the dose delivered to the organs at risk; this profile differs from that of photon radiotherapy. Moreover, carbon ions are classified as high-linear energy transfer radiation and are expected to be effective for even photon-resistant tumors. Recently, high-precision radiotherapy modalities such as stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT, proton therapy, and carbon ion therapy have been used for patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer, and the results are promising, as, for carbon ion therapy, local control and overall survival rates at 5 years are 80–90% and 40–50%, respectively. Carbon ion therapy may be theoretically superior to SBRT and proton therapy, but the literature that is currently available does not show a statistically significant difference among these treatments. Carbon ion therapy demonstrates a better dose distribution than both SBRT and proton therapy in most cases of early-stage lung cancer. Therefore, carbon ion therapy may be safer for treating patients with adverse conditions such as large tumors, central tumors, and poor pulmonary function. Furthermore, carbon ion therapy may also be suitable for dose escalation and hypofractionation.

  1. Predictive value of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F] fluorothymidine positron emission tomography/computed tomography for outcome of carbon ion radiotherapy in patients with head and neck mucosal malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this prospective study was to assess the prognostic value of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (FLT) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the outcome of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) in patients with mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) of the head and neck. Thirteen patients (69±13 years) with histologically proven MMM tumor were enrolled. CIRT was performed with a total dose of 57.6-64.0 gray equivalents per 16 fractions over a period of 4 weeks. FLT-PET/CT was performed before and again 1 month after CIRT. Tumor FLT uptake was quantitatively assessed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). FLT-PET parameters [pre-CIRT SUVmax, post-CIRT SUVmax, and the reduction rate (RR)] and clinical parameters [age, gender, tumor site, tumor status, gross tumor volume (GTV), and regional lymph node involvement] were evaluated in relation to survival estimates. The follow-up period was 16.1±5.9 months for 9 deceased patients, and 36.7±7.9 months for 4 survivors. Pre-CIRT SUVmax of ≥4.3, age of ≥80 years old, sinonasal cavity tumor site, and GTV of ≥39 mL were found to be statistically significant prognostic factors for better overall survival. Pre-CIRT SUVmax of ≥5.0, age of ≥80 years old, sinonasal cavity tumor site, and the absence of regional lymph node involvement were statistically significant prognostic factors for better metastasis-free survival. RR of ≥35% and GTV of <73 mL were predictive of better local control. The present study indicated for the first time that in patients with the head and neck MMM, FLT-PET/CT imaging was useful for predicting the therapeutic outcome of CIRT. Our results will contribute to the establishment of an effective staging system for MMM based on prognostic factors, depending on treatment choice. (author)

  2. Technologies for Delivery of Proton and Ion Beams for Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, Hywel; Alonso, Jose; MacKay, Ranald

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments for the delivery of proton and ion beam therapy have been significant, and a number of technological solutions now exist for the creation and utilisation of these particles for the treatment of cancer. In this paper we review the historical development of particle accelerators used for external beam radiotherapy and discuss the more recent progress towards more capable and cost-effective sources of particles.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR DELIVERY OF PROTON AND ION BEAMS FOR RADIOTHERAPY

    CERN Document Server

    Owen, H; Alonso, J; Mackay, R

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments for the delivery of proton and ion beam therapy have been significant, and a number of technological solutions now exist for the creation and utilisation of these particles for the treatment of cancer. In this paper we review the historical development of particle accelerators used for external beam radiotherapy and discuss the more recent progress towards more capable and cost-effective sources of particles.

  4. Measurement of Neutron Doses from Radiotherapy with 12C Ions and Photons

    OpenAIRE

    Ytre-Hauge, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis has been to investigate the neutron doses from radiotherapy with photons and ions. The advantages of proton and ion therapy, compared to the use of photons were also examined. During cancer radiotherapy, patients receive undesired dose from neutrons produced in collimators and in the patient. Measurements with bubble detectors were performed to investigate neutron doses from radiotherapy, using 200 MeV/u 12C ions, at GSI-Darmstadt in Germany, and a 15 ...

  5. Research of heavy ion radiotherapy based on formation of heterochromatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied about mechanism of heavy ion radiotherapy based on formation of heterochromatin. Role of D-NHEJ or HRR pathway in the biological effect of heavy ion irradiation is not clear. XRCC4 is a core factor of D-NHEJ pathway. For the purpose of determining the role of D-NHEJ in the effect of heavy ion irradiation, we performed survival fraction assay using HCT116 XRCC4-/- cells. Surprisingly, linear energy transfer (LET) dependency of survival fraction assay of HCT116 XRCC4-/- cells lost clearly. Preliminary data of survival fraction assay using HCT116 XRCC4-/- rescued by XRCC4 plasmid showed recovery of LET dependency. We are going to do further analysis in detail. (author)

  6. Heavy-ion transport codes for radiotherapy and radioprotection in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancusi, Davide

    2006-06-15

    Simulation of the transport of heavy ions in matter is a field of nuclear science that has recently received attention in view of its importance for some relevant applications. Accelerated heavy ions can, for example, be used to treat cancers (heavy-ion radiotherapy) and show some superior qualities with respect to more conventional treatment systems, like photons (x-rays) or protons. Furthermore, long-term manned space missions (like a possible future mission to Mars) pose the challenge to protect astronauts and equipment on board against the harmful space radiation environment, where heavy ions can be responsible for a significant share of the exposure risk. The high accuracy expected from a transport algorithm (especially in the case of radiotherapy) and the large amount of semi-empirical knowledge necessary to even state the transport problem properly rule out any analytical approach; the alternative is to resort to numerical simulations in order to build treatment-planning systems for cancer or to aid space engineers in shielding design. This thesis is focused on the description of HIBRAC, a one-dimensional deterministic code optimised for radiotherapy, and PHITS (Particle and Heavy- Ion Transport System), a general-purpose three-dimensional Monte-Carlo code. The structure of both codes is outlined and some relevant results are presented. In the case of PHITS, we also report the first results of an ongoing comprehensive benchmarking program for the main components of the code; we present the comparison of partial charge-changing cross sections for a 400 MeV/n {sup 40}Ar beam impinging on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium, copper, tin and lead targets.

  7. Heavy-ion transport codes for radiotherapy and radioprotection in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of the transport of heavy ions in matter is a field of nuclear science that has recently received attention in view of its importance for some relevant applications. Accelerated heavy ions can, for example, be used to treat cancers (heavy-ion radiotherapy) and show some superior qualities with respect to more conventional treatment systems, like photons (x-rays) or protons. Furthermore, long-term manned space missions (like a possible future mission to Mars) pose the challenge to protect astronauts and equipment on board against the harmful space radiation environment, where heavy ions can be responsible for a significant share of the exposure risk. The high accuracy expected from a transport algorithm (especially in the case of radiotherapy) and the large amount of semi-empirical knowledge necessary to even state the transport problem properly rule out any analytical approach; the alternative is to resort to numerical simulations in order to build treatment-planning systems for cancer or to aid space engineers in shielding design. This thesis is focused on the description of HIBRAC, a one-dimensional deterministic code optimised for radiotherapy, and PHITS (Particle and Heavy- Ion Transport System), a general-purpose three-dimensional Monte-Carlo code. The structure of both codes is outlined and some relevant results are presented. In the case of PHITS, we also report the first results of an ongoing comprehensive benchmarking program for the main components of the code; we present the comparison of partial charge-changing cross sections for a 400 MeV/n 40Ar beam impinging on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium, copper, tin and lead targets

  8. Response of SOI image sensor to therapeutic carbon ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy is known as a less invasive cancer treatment. The radiation quality is an important parameter to evaluate the biological effect and the clinical dose from the measured physical dose. The performance of SOPHIAS detector, which is the SOI image sensor having a wide dynamic range and large active area, was tested by using therapeutic carbon ion beam at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC). It was shown that the primary carbon and secondary particles can be distinguishable by SOPHIAS detector. On the other hand, a LET dependence was observed especially at the high LET region. This phenomenon will be studied by using the device simulator together with Monte Carlo simulation.

  9. Mobile ions on carbonate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Treavor A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2005-07-01

    Surface ions move during the dissolution and growth of minerals. The present study investigates the density and the mobility of surface ions and the structure of the adsorbed water layer with changes in relative humidity (RH). The time evolution of the polarization force, which is induced by an electrically biased tip of an atomic force microscope, shows that the density and the mobility of surface ions increase with rising humidity, a finding which is consistent with increasing surface hydration. A marked change in the observations above 55% RH indicates a transition from a water layer formed by heteroepitaxial two-dimensional growth at low RH to one formed by multilayer three-dimensional growth at high RH. A comparison of the results of several rhombohedral carbonates ( viz. CaCO 3, FeCO 3, ZnCO 3, MgCO 3, and MnCO 3) shows that a long relaxation time of the polarization force at high RH is predictive of a rapid dissolution rate. This finding is rationalized by long lifetimes in terrace positions and hence greater opportunities for detachment of the ion to aqueous solution (i.e., dissolution). Our findings on the density and the mobility of surface ions therefore help to better constrain mechanistic models of hydration, ion exchange, and dissolution/growth.

  10. Precision, high dose radiotherapy: helium ion treatment of uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, W.M.; Char, D.H.; Quivey, J.M.; Castro, J.R.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Cartigny, A.; Blakely, E.A.; Lyman, J.T.; Zink, S.R.

    1985-02-01

    The authors report on 75 patients with uveal melanoma who were treated by placing the Bragg peak of a helium ion beam over the tumor volume. The technique localizes the high dose region very tightly around the tumor volume. This allows critical structures, such as the optic disc and the macula, to be excluded from the high dose region as long as they are 3 to 4 mm away from the edge of the tumor. Careful attention to tumor localization, treatment planning, patient immobilization and treatment verification is required. With a mean follow-up of 22 months (3 to 60 months) the authors have had only five patients with a local recurrence, all of whom were salvaged with another treatment. Pretreatment visual acuity has generally been preserved as long as the tumor edge is at least 4 mm away from the macula and optic disc. The only serious complication to date has been an 18% incidence of neovascular glaucoma in the patients treated at our highest dose level. Clinical results and details of the technique are presented to illustrate potential clinical precision in administering high dose radiotherapy with charged particles such as helium ions or protons.

  11. Bringing the heavy: carbon ion therapy in the radiobiological and clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer is undergoing an evolution, shifting to the use of heavier ion species. For a plethora of malignancies, current radiotherapy using photons or protons yields marginal benefits in local control and survival. One hypothesis is that these malignancies have acquired, or are inherently radioresistant to low LET radiation. In the last decade, carbon ion radiotherapy facilities have slowly been constructed in Europe and Asia, demonstrating favorable results for many of the malignancies that do poorly with conventional radiotherapy. However, from a radiobiological perspective, much of how this modality works in overcoming radioresistance, and extending local control and survival are not yet fully understood. In this review, we will explain from a radiobiological perspective how carbon ion radiotherapy can overcome the classical and recently postulated contributors of radioresistance (α/β ratio, hypoxia, cell proliferation, the tumor microenvironment and metabolism, and cancer stem cells). Furthermore, we will make recommendations on the important factors to consider, such as anatomical location, in the future design and implementation of clinical trials. With the existing data available we believe that the expansion of carbon ion facilities into the United States is warranted

  12. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review highlights developments over the past decade in radiotherapy and attempts to summarize the state of the art in the management of the major diseases in which radiotherapy has a meaningful role. The equipment, radiobiology of radiotherapy and carcinoma of the lung, breast and intestines are highlighted

  13. Protontherapy versus carbon ion therapy advantages, disadvantages and similarities

    CERN Document Server

    d’Ávila Nunes, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comparison analysis of two cancer treatment therapies: carbon ion therapy and protontherapy. It is divided in 5 sections. The first ones gives the reader a brief history of Radiotherapy and types of radiation. In the second section, the techniques and equipments, including new ones in development such as Cyclinac , Laser and DWA, are described. The third section describes biophysical (such as stopping power and LET) and biological (such as RBE and OER) properties, the fundamental experiments and clinical area. The fourth section presents models and the fifth section compares both techniques, showing advantages and disadvantages of each, and their similarities.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibition sensitizes osteosarcoma to heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimal improvements in treatment or survival of patients with osteosarcoma have been achieved during the last three decades. Especially in the case of incomplete tumor resection, prognosis remains poor. Heavy ion radiotherapy (HIT) and modern anticancer drugs like histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have shown promising effects in osteosarcoma in vitro. In this study, we tested the effect of HIT and the combination of HIT and the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) in a xenograft mouse model. Osteosarcoma xenografts were established by subcutaneous injection of KHOS-24OS cells and treated with either vehicle (DMSO), SAHA, HIT or HIT and SAHA. Tumor growth was determined and tumor necrosis, proliferation rate, apoptotic rate as well as vessel density were evaluated. Here, we show that the combination of HIT and SAHA induced a significant delay of tumor growth through increased rate of apoptosis, increased expression of p53 and p21Waf1/Cip1, inhibition of proliferation and angiogenesis compared to tumors treated with HIT only. HIT and in particular the combination of HIT and histone deacetylase inhibition is a promising treatment strategy in OS and may be tested in clinical trials

  15. Development of a facility for high-precision irradiation of cells with carbon ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, Marc-Jan; Niemantsverdriet, Maarten; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; van Luijk, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Compared to photons, using particle radiation in radiotherapy reduces the dose and irradiated volume of normal tissues, potentially reducing side effects. The biological effect of dose deposited by particles such as carbon ions, however, differs from that of dose deposited by photons. The i

  16. Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: clinical implementation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical implementation and application of a novel treatment planning system (TPS) for scanned ion beams is described, which is in clinical use for carbon ion treatments at the German heavy ion facility (GSI). All treatment plans are evaluated on the basis of biologically effective dose distributions. For therapy control, in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) and an online monitoring system for the beam intensity and position are used. The absence of a gantry restricts the treatment plans to horizontal beams. Most of the treatment plans consist of two nearly opposing lateral fields or sometimes orthogonal fields. In only a very few cases a single beam was used. For patients with very complex target volumes lateral and even distal field patching techniques were applied. Additional improvements can be achieved when the patient's head is fixed in a tilted position, in order to achieve sparing of the organs at risk. In order to test the stability of dose distributions in the case of patient misalignments we routinely simulate the effects of misalignments for patients with critical structures next to the target volume. The uncertainties in the range calculation are taken into account by a margin around the target volume of typically 2-3 mm, which can, however, be extended if the simulation demonstrates larger deviations. The novel TPS developed for scanned ion beams was introduced into clinical routine in December 1997 and was used for the treatment planning of 63 patients with head and neck tumours until July 2000. Planning strategies and methods were developed for this tumour location that facilitate the treatment of a larger number of patients with the scanned heavy ion beam in a clinical setting. Further developments aim towards a simultaneous optimization of the treatment field intensities and more effective procedures for the patient set-up. The results demonstrate that ion beams can be integrated into a clinical environment for treatment planning and

  17. Past, present and future aspects of studies of heavy ion radiotherapy. 2. Future view of clinical studies of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of clinical studies of heavy ion radiotherapy (HIR, using carbon beam) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) is, in treatment of cancers, to elucidate its potential and significance for establishing the methodology for curing the disease safely and reliably to further spread the therapy. Here is presented a future view of clinical studies of HIR based on the past results and along authorities' medical policy. NIRS has treated 3,100 or more cancer patients in about 50 clinical trials from the start of HIR in 1994. In those studies, curing the intractable malignancies has become possible in a short term of therapy, and the irradiating machine is being miniaturized (actually under construction in Gunma Univ.). At the end of 2006, about 4,000 patients have been treated with HIR globally: the impact of NIRS HIR. There are such future HIR plans as the promotion of clinical trials, development of irradiation technology, promotion and efficient practice as an advanced frontier medicare, imaging diagnosis for the aim of treatment, biological studies, and comparative studies to elucidate the usefulness. Cooperation of NIRS, manufacturers and authorities will make HIR a more useful, less burdensome mean to treat patients with more intractable cancers. (R.T.)

  18. Carbon nanostructures produced through ion irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several nanostructures we produced by ion irradiation have been reviewed in this paper. By using ions to irradiate two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene targets respectively, it was found that small fullerenes C20 and C26 were grown, adding two members to the fullerene family. Meanwhile, crystalline diamonds also have been produced by Ar+ ions irradiation of graphite. In the experiment of double ions Ni+ and Ar+ irradiation, nanoscale argon bubbles formed. On the other side, when multi-wall carbon nanotubes were irradiated by C+, many MWCNTs evolved to amorphous carbon nanowires and amorphous carbon nanotubes. And there are possible welding in the crossed nanotubes.

  19. Erythrocyte stiffness during morphological remodeling induced by carbon ion radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoping Zhang

    Full Text Available The adverse effect induced by carbon ion radiation (CIR is still an unavoidable hazard to the treatment object. Thus, evaluation of its adverse effects on the body is a critical problem with respect to radiation therapy. We aimed to investigate the change between the configuration and mechanical properties of erythrocytes induced by radiation and found differences in both the configuration and the mechanical properties with involving in morphological remodeling process. Syrian hamsters were subjected to whole-body irradiation with carbon ion beams (1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy or X-rays (2, 4, 6, and 12 Gy for 3, 14 and 28 days. Erythrocytes in peripheral blood and bone marrow were collected for cytomorphological analysis. The mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were determined using atomic force microscopy, and the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was analyzed via western blotting. The results showed that dynamic changes were evident in erythrocytes exposed to different doses of carbon ion beams compared with X-rays and the control (0 Gy. The magnitude of impairment of the cell number and cellular morphology manifested the subtle variation according to the irradiation dose. In particular, the differences in the size, shape and mechanical properties of the erythrocytes were well exhibited. Furthermore, immunoblot data showed that the expression of the cytoskeletal protein spectrin-α1 was changed after irradiation, and there was a common pattern among its substantive characteristics in the irradiated group. Based on these findings, the present study concluded that CIR could induce a change in mechanical properties during morphological remodeling of erythrocytes. According to the unique characteristics of the biomechanical categories, we deduce that changes in cytomorphology and mechanical properties can be measured to evaluate the adverse effects generated by tumor radiotherapy. Additionally, for the first time, the current study

  20. Study on Microdosimetric Characteristics of 120MeV/u to 430MeV/u Carbon Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Chengguo; Li, Wuyuan; Yan, Weiwei; Yao, Zeen; Su, Youwu

    2015-01-01

    Microdosimetric single event spectra is a significant parameter in radiotherapy, which can be used to evaluate the biological effect of radiation fields. This paper simulated microscopic patterns of energy depositions for mixed radiation fields which are created by carbon ions with general purpose Monte Carlo code FLUKA. . Experimental measured lineal energy spectra produced by carbon ions of about 300MeV/u were chosen from literature to compared with the results from simulation one of the measurement set-up. In addition, the dose-weighted lineal energy spectra, frequency averaged lineal energy values and dose averaged lineal energy values of carbon ions from 120MeV/u to 430MeV/u of the measurement set-up were calculated, too. The results of this paper are meaningful for making treatment planning in carbon ion radiotherapy.

  1. Cancer stem cells: The potential of carbon ion beam radiation and new radiosensitizers (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Jae; Ishii, Hideshi; Tamari, Keisuke; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Naohiro; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Koseki, Jun; Fukusumi, Takahito; Hasegawa, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hisataka; Hamabe, Atsushi; Miyo, Masaaki; Noguchi, Kozo; Seo, Yuji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cells in cancer with stem-like properties such as cell proliferation, multiple differentiation and tumor initiation capacities. CSCs are therapy-resistant and cause cancer metastasis and recurrence. One key issue in cancer therapy is how to target and eliminate CSCs, in order to cure cancer completely without relapse and metastasis. To target CSCs, many cell surface markers, DNAs and microRNAs are considered as CSC markers. To date, the majority of the reported markers are not very specific to CSCs and are also present in non-CSCs. However, the combination of several markers is quite valuable for identifying and targeting CSCs, although more specific identification methods are needed. While CSCs are considered as critical therapeutic targets, useful treatment methods remain to be established. Epigenetic gene regulators, microRNAs, are associated with tumor initiation and progression. MicroRNAs have been recently considered as promising therapeutic targets, which can alter the therapeutic resistance of CSCs through epigenetic modification. Moreover, carbon ion beam radiotherapy is a promising treatment for CSCs. Evidence indicates that the carbon ion beam is more effective against CSCs than the conventional X-ray beam. Combination therapies of radiosensitizing microRNAs and carbon ion beam radiotherapy may be a promising cancer strategy. This review focuses on the identification and treatment resistance of CSCs and the potential of microRNAs as new radiosensitizers and carbon ion beam radiotherapy as a promising therapeutic strategy against CSCs. PMID:26330103

  2. Embedded system for power supply adjuster in radiotherapy with heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to meet the requirement of exact control for scanning magnet power supply in the device for HITFiL radiotherapy with heavy ion, a kind of digital adjuster for magnet power supply system based on EDA technology is designed. This digital adjuster is completed by using ARM, FPGA and DA/AD technology. Through the test on the spot, the whole system was robust and reliable, satisfied the design requirement, and provided a reliable technique support for the construction and application of radiotherapy with heavy ion equipment. (authors)

  3. Carbon Ion Irradiation Inhibits Glioma Cell Migration Through Downregulation of Integrin Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of carbon ion irradiation on glioma cell migration. Methods and Materials: U87 and Ln229 glioma cells were irradiated with photons and carbon ions. Migration was analyzed 24 h after irradiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed in order to quantify surface expression of integrins. Results: Single photon doses of 2 Gy and 10 Gy enhanced ανβ3 and ανβ5 integrin expression and caused tumor cell hypermigration on both vitronectin (Vn) and fibronectin (Fn). Compared to integrin expression in unirradiated cells, carbon ion irradiation caused decreased integrin expression and inhibited cell migration on both Vn and Fn. Conclusion: Photon radiotherapy (RT) enhances the risk of tumor cell migration and subsequently promotes locoregional spread via photon induction of integrin expression. In contrast to photon RT, carbon ion RT causes decreased integrin expression and suppresses glioma cell migration on both Vn and Fn, thus promising improved local control.

  4. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance

  5. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu, E-mail: jjli@uw.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2600 (United States); Xie, Shuhong [Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Liu, Xiaoyan [College of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, and Advanced Materials for Energy Institute, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  6. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book is focussed on the actual knowledge on the clinical radiotherapy and radio-oncology. Besides fundamental and general contributions specific organ systems are treated in detail. The book contains the following contributions: Basic principles, radiobiological fundamentals, physical background, radiation pathology, basics and technique of brachytherapy, methodology and technique of the stereotactic radiosurgery, whole-body irradiation, operative radiotherapy, hadron therapy, hpyerthermia, combined radio-chemo-therapy, biometric clinical studies, intensity modulated radiotherapy, side effects, oncological diagnostics; central nervous system and sense organs, head-neck carcinomas, breast cancer, thorax organs, esophagus carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, pancreas carcinoma, heptabiliary cancer and liver metastases, rectal carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract, prostate carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, female pelvis, lymphatic system carcinomas, soft tissue carcinoma, skin cancer, bone metastases, pediatric tumors, nonmalignant diseases, emergency in radio-oncology, supporting therapy, palliative therapy

  7. Mechanical Design of Carbon Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Carbon Ion Optics are expected to provide much longer thruster life due to their resistance to sputter erosion. There are a number of different forms of carbon that have been used for fabricating ion thruster optics. The mechanical behavior of carbon is much different than that of most metals, and poses unique design challenges. In order to minimize mission risk, the behavior of carbon must be well understood, and components designed within material limitations. Thermal expansion of the thruster structure must be compatible with thermal expansion of the carbon ion optics. Specially designed interfaces may be needed so that grid gap and aperture alignment are not adversely affected by dissimilar material properties within the thruster. The assembled thruster must be robust and tolerant of launch vibration. The following paper lists some of the characteristics of various carbon materials. Several past ion optics designs are discussed, identifying strengths and weaknesses. Electrostatics and material science are not emphasized so much as the mechanical behavior and integration of grid electrodes into an ion thruster.

  8. Structural disorder in ion irradiated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ion irradiation on carbon based materials are reviewed laying emphasis on the well known ability of carbon to have different kinds of bonding configuration with the surrounding atoms. It was found that two kinds of bonding configuration of the carbon atoms are allowed in solid amorphous carbon phases. These rearrange the four valence electrons of carbon into sp2 (trigonal bond) and sp3 (tetrahedral bond) hybridizations. Driving the trigonal carbon fraction (x), the physical and chemical nature of solid carbon materials can change in a dramatic way ranging from metallic (x∼100%) to insulating (x∼0%) through semiconductor properties. The amount of the tetrahedral (or trigonal) carbon atoms can be controlled by ion beam irradiation, using suitable conditions and/or introducing foreign species such as hydrogen or silicon by the implantation technique. In hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloys (a-Si1-xCx:H), the ion beam effects are able to produce stable and reproducible compounds, achieved by tuning the hydrogen (silicon) concentration with well defined equilibrium curves between the trigonal carbon fraction and hydrogen (silicon) content. Raman spectroscopy and temperature dependent conductivity experiments performed on these alloys suggest clustering effects in samples with high carbon content (x∼0.5) due to the strong binding energy of the C-C double bond with respect to C-Si and Si-Si. Several models and theoretical studies such as the 'random covalent network' (RCN) and molecular dynamics calculations have been used to fit the experimental results. It is shown that, while RCN models are highly inaccurate because of the clustering effects, molecular dynamics calculation data are very close to the experimental measured physical properties and confirm the ability of the trigonal carbon to cluster in graphite-like aggregate

  9. Facilities for radiotherapy with ion beams status and worldwide developments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, B H

    1999-01-01

    Forty-five years after the first ion beam therapy in Berkeley around 25,000 cancer patients worldwide have been treated successfully. Ion accelerators, designed for nuclear research, delivered most of this treatment. The first hospital-based facility started operation in 1998 at Loma Linda California, the first for heavier ions at Chiba, Japan in 1994 and the first commercially delivered facilities started operation in 1998 at Kashiwa, Japan. In 2000, the Harvard Medical Centre, Boston, US, will commence operation and several new facilities are planned or under construction worldwide, although none in Australia. This paper will discuss the physical and biological advantages of ion beams over x-rays and electrons. In the treatment of cancer patients ion beam therapy is especially suited for localised tumours in radiation sensitive areas like skull or spine. Heavier ions are also effective in anoxic tumour cells (found around the normally oxygenated cell population). An additional advantage of the heavier carbo...

  10. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for radiotherapy research is exemplified by the 100,000 cancer patients who will fail treatment locally and/or regionally annually for the next several years but who would benefit from better local treatment modalities. Theoretically, all of the areas of investigation discussed in this projection paper have the potential to significantly improve local-regional treatment of cancer by radiotherapy alone or in combination with other modalities. In many of the areas of investigation discussed in this paper encouraging results have been obtained in cellular and animal tumor studies and in limited studies in humans as well. In the not too distant future the number of patients who would benefit from better local control may increase by tens of thousands if developments in chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy provide a means to eradicate disseminated microscopic foci of cancer. Thus the efforts to improve local-regional control take on even greater significance

  11. Irradiation with carbon ions for locally recurrent rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A female patient in her 70s underwent an abdominoperineal resection and bilateral lymph node dissection for advanced lower rectal cancer. The patient did not receive neoadjuvant therapy. In the Japanese classification of colorectal carcinoma (8th Edition), the tumor was a moderately differentiated type 2 adenocarcinoma, and was 4.5 cm in size. Histologically, the tumor was considered to be Stage 3b (T3N0M0). She received no adjuvant chemotherapy. After 39 months, pelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed a 29 mm tumor in the right pelvic wall. The patient declined surgery for recurrence so radiotherapy was planned. First, chemotherapy with mFOLFOX6 was administered for 4 courses to reduce tumor size. Consequently, irradiation with carbon ions was given to the site of recurrence at a total dose of 74 GyE in 37 fractions. There were no severe complications. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level decreased to the lower limit of the normal range from a maximum of 4.9, and no progression of the recurrent tumor was detected on CT for approximately 4 years. Systemic chemotherapy followed by irradiation with carbon ions may be effective for recurrent rectal cancer. (author)

  12. Review of clinical experience with ion beam radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, A D; Münter, M W; Debus, J.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes both the early development of oncology as a core discipline at the University of Heidelberg Hospital and the first steps towards ion beam treatment, from the pilot project carried out in co-operation with the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt to the initial start-up of clinical service at the Heidelberg Heavy Ion Centre (HIT). We present an overview, based on data published in the literature, of the available clinical evidence relating the use of ion beam t...

  13. Development of Compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source with Permanent Magnets for High-Energy Carbon-Ion Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Iwata, Y.; Hojo, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; Sato, S.; Ogawa, Hirotsugu; Yamada, S.; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Y.; Ueda, T.; Miyazaki, H.; Drentje, A. G.

    2008-11-01

    Heavy-ion cancer treatment is being carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with 140 to 400 MeV/n carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) since 1994. At NIRS, more than 4,000 patients have been treated, and the clinical efficiency of carbon ion radiotherapy has been demonstrated for many diseases. A more compact accelerator facility for cancer therapy is now being constricted at the Gunma University. In order to reduce the size of the injector (consists of ion source, low-energy beam transport and post-accelerator Linac include these power supply and cooling system), an ion source requires production of highly charged carbon ions, lower electric power for easy installation of the source on a high-voltage platform, long lifetime and easy operation. A compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets is one of the best types for this purpose. An ECRIS has advantage for production of highly charged ions. A permanent magnet is suitable for reduce the electric power and cooling system. For this, a 10 GHz compact ECRIS with all permanent magnets (Kei2-source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C4+ based on experience at the 10 GHz NIRS-ECR ion source. The Kei2-source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The beam intensity of C4+ was obtained to be 618 eμA under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. Outline of the heavy ion therapy and development of the compact ion source for new facility are described in this paper.

  14. Development of Compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source with Permanent Magnets for High-Energy Carbon-Ion Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion cancer treatment is being carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) with 140 to 400 MeV/n carbon ions at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) since 1994. At NIRS, more than 4,000 patients have been treated, and the clinical efficiency of carbon ion radiotherapy has been demonstrated for many diseases. A more compact accelerator facility for cancer therapy is now being constricted at the Gunma University. In order to reduce the size of the injector (consists of ion source, low-energy beam transport and post-accelerator Linac include these power supply and cooling system), an ion source requires production of highly charged carbon ions, lower electric power for easy installation of the source on a high-voltage platform, long lifetime and easy operation. A compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets is one of the best types for this purpose. An ECRIS has advantage for production of highly charged ions. A permanent magnet is suitable for reduce the electric power and cooling system. For this, a 10 GHz compact ECRIS with all permanent magnets (Kei2-source) was developed. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas-injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. These parameters have been optimized for the production of C4+ based on experience at the 10 GHz NIRS-ECR ion source. The Kei2-source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The beam intensity of C4+ was obtained to be 618 eμA under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. Outline of the heavy ion therapy and development of the compact ion source for new facility are described in this paper.

  15. Clinical output factors for carbon-ion beams passing through polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Risa; Himukai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A recent study suggested that polyethylene (PE) range compensators would cause extra carbon-ion attenuation by 0.45%/cm due to limitations in water equivalence. The present study aims to assess its influence on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Methods: Carbon-ion radiation was modeled to be composed of primary carbon ions and secondary particles. For these components, tumor dose fraction and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were estimated at a reference depth in the middle of spread-out Bragg peak. The PE effect was estimated for clinical carbon-ion beams and was partially tested by experiment. The two-component model was integrated into a treatment-planning system, with which the PE effect on tumor dose was investigated in two clinical cases. Results: The fluence and clinical attenuation coefficients for dose decrease per polyethylene thickness were estimated to be 0.1%-0.3%/cm and 0.2%-0.4%/cm, depending on energy and modulation of clinical carbon-ion beams. In the treatment-planning s...

  16. Nanodosimetric descriptors of the radiation quality of carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the emerging interest of carbon ions in radiotherapy and of the strong correlation between the track structure and the radiobiological effectiveness of ionising radiations, the track-structure properties of 12C-ions were studied at particle energies close to the Bragg peak. To perform the investigations, ionisation-cluster-size distributions for nanometre-sized target volumes were measured with the track-nano-dosimeter installed at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator complex at LNL, and calculated using a dedicated Monte Carlo simulation code. The resulting cluster-size distributions are used to derive particular descriptors of particle track structure. Here, the main emphasis is laid on the mean ionisation-cluster size M1 and the cumulative probability Fk of measuring cluster sizes ν≥k. From the radiobiological point of view, Fk is of particular interest because an increasing k corresponds to an increase of damages of higher complexity. In addition, Fk saturates with increasing radiation quality like radiobiological cross sections as a function of linear energy transfer. Results will be presented and discussed for 12C-ions at 96 and 240 MeV. (authors)

  17. Carbon Mineralization Using Phosphate and Silicate Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokturk, H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction from combustion of fossil fuels has become an urgent concern for the society due to marked increase in weather related natural disasters and other negative consequences of global warming. CO2 is a highly stable molecule which does not readily interact with other neutral molecules. However it is more responsive to ions due to charge versus quadrupole interaction [1-2]. Ions can be created by dissolving a salt in water and then aerosolizing the solution. This approach gives CO2 molecules a chance to interact with the hydrated salt ions over the large surface area of the aerosol. Ion containing aerosols exist in nature, an example being sea spray particles generated by breaking waves. Such particles contain singly and doubly charged salt ions including Na+, Cl-, Mg++ and SO4--. Depending on the proximity of CO2 to the ion, interaction energy can be significantly higher than the thermal energy of the aerosol. For example, an interaction energy of 0.6 eV is obtained with the sulfate (SO4--) ion when CO2 is the nearest neighbor [2]. In this research interaction between CO2 and ions which carry higher charges are investigated. The molecules selected for the study are triply charged phosphate (PO4---) ions and quadruply charged silicate (SiO4----) ions. Examples of salts which contain such molecules are potassium phosphate (K3PO4) and sodium orthosilicate (Na4SiO4). The research has been carried out with first principle quantum mechanical calculations using the Density Functional Theory method with B3LYP functional and Pople type basis sets augmented with polarization and diffuse functions. Atomic models consist of the selected ions surrounded by water and CO2 molecules. Similar to the results obtained with singly and doubly charged ions [1-2], phosphate and silicate ions attract CO2 molecules. Energy of interaction between the ion and CO2 is 1.6 eV for the phosphate ion and 3.3 eV for the silicate ion. Hence one can expect that the selected

  18. The use of low energy, ion induced nuclear reactions for proton radiotherapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, K.M.; Doyle, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Segal, M.N. [Univ. of New Mexico Medical School, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Otolaryngology; Hamm, R.W. [Accsys Technology Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Adler, R.J. [North Star Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glatstein, E. [Univ. of Texas Southwest Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Medical radiotherapy has traditionally relied upon the use of external photon beams and internally implanted radioisotopes as the chief means of irradiating tumors. However, advances in accelerator technology and the exploitation of novel means of producing radiation may provide useful alternatives to some current modes of medical radiation delivery with reduced total dose to surrounding healthy tissue, reduced expense, or increased treatment accessibility. This paper will briefly overview currently established modes of radiation therapy, techniques still considered experimental but in clinical use, innovative concepts under study that may enable new forms of treatment or enhance existing ones. The potential role of low energy, ion-induced nuclear reactions in radiotherapy applications is examined specifically for the 650 keV d({sup 3}He,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction. This examination will describe the basic physics associated with this reaction`s production of 17.4 MeV protons and the processes used to fabricate the necessary materials used in the technique. Calculations of the delivered radiation dose, heat generation, and required exposure times are presented. Experimental data are also presented validating the dose calculations. The design of small, lower cost ion accelerators, as embodied in `nested`-tandem and radio frequency quadrupole accelerators is examined, as is the potential use of high-output {sup 3}He and deuterium ion sources. Finally, potential clinical applications are discussed in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to current radiotherapy methods and equipment.

  19. The use of low energy, ion induced nuclear reactions for proton radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical radiotherapy has traditionally relied upon the use of external photon beams and internally implanted radioisotopes as the chief means of irradiating tumors. However, advances in accelerator technology and the exploitation of novel means of producing radiation may provide useful alternatives to some current modes of medical radiation delivery with reduced total dose to surrounding healthy tissue, reduced expense, or increased treatment accessibility. This paper will briefly overview currently established modes of radiation therapy, techniques still considered experimental but in clinical use, innovative concepts under study that may enable new forms of treatment or enhance existing ones. The potential role of low energy, ion-induced nuclear reactions in radiotherapy applications is examined specifically for the 650 keV d(3He,p)4He nuclear reaction. This examination will describe the basic physics associated with this reaction's production of 17.4 MeV protons and the processes used to fabricate the necessary materials used in the technique. Calculations of the delivered radiation dose, heat generation, and required exposure times are presented. Experimental data are also presented validating the dose calculations. The design of small, lower cost ion accelerators, as embodied in 'nested'-tandem and radio frequency quadrupole accelerators is examined, as is the potential use of high-output 3He and deuterium ion sources. Finally, potential clinical applications are discussed in terms of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique with respect to current radiotherapy methods and equipment

  20. MRI-based simulation of treatment plans for ion radiotherapy in the brain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the potential of MRI-based treatment plan simulation for ion radiotherapy in the brain region. Materials and methods: A classification-based tissue segmentation method based on discriminant analysis was employed to derive so-called pseudo CT numbers from MR images of three patients with lesions in the head region undergoing ion radiotherapy. Treatment plans for ions, and for comparison purposes also for photons, were subsequently optimized and simulated using both MRI-based pseudo CT and a standard X-ray-based reference CT. Results: Pseudo CTs revealed mean absolute errors in CT number in the range of 141–165 HU. While soft tissue was in good agreement with reference CT values, large deviations appeared at air cavities and bones as well as at interfaces of different tissue types. In simulations of ion treatment plans, pseudo CT optimizations showed small underdosages of target volumes with deviations in the PTV mean dose of 0.4–2.0% in comparison to reference CT optimizations. In contrast, the PTV mean dose in photon treatment plans differed by no more than 0.2%. Conclusions: The main challenge in deriving pseudo CT numbers from MRI was the correct assignment of air and compact bone. In this study, the impact of deviations on simulations of ion and photon treatment plans in the brain region was small, however for more complicated morphologies a further improvement of the classification method including MR imaging of compact bone is required

  1. Robotic-based carbon ion therapy and patient positioning in 6 degrees of freedom: setup accuracy of two standard immobilization devices used in carbon ion therapy and IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate repositioning accuracy in particle radiotherapy in 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, 3 DOF) for two immobilization devices (Scotchcast masks vs thermoplastic head masks) currently in use at our institution for fractionated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer patients. Position verifications in patients treated with carbon ion therapy and IMRT for head and neck malignancies were evaluated. Most patients received combined treatment regimen (IMRT plus carbon ion boost), immobilization was achieved with either Scotchcast or thermoplastic head masks. Position corrections in robotic-based carbon ion therapy allowing 6 DOF were compared to IMRT allowing corrections in 3 DOF for two standard immobilization devices. In total, 838 set-up controls of 38 patients were analyzed. Robotic-based position correction including correction of rotations was well tolerated and without discomfort. Standard deviations of translational components were between 0.5 and 0.8 mm for Scotchcast and 0.7 and 1.3 mm for thermoplastic masks in 6 DOF and 1.2 - 1.4 mm and 1.0 - 1.1 mm in 3 DOF respectively. Mean overall displacement vectors were between 2.1 mm (Scotchcast) and 2.9 mm (thermoplastic masks) in 6 DOF and 3.9 - 3.0 mm in 3 DOF respectively. Displacement vectors were lower when correction in 6 DOF was allowed as opposed to 3 DOF only, which was maintained at the traditional action level of > 3 mm for position correction in the pre-on-board imaging era. Setup accuracy for both systems was within the expected range. Smaller shifts were required when 6 DOF were available for correction as opposed to 3 DOF. Where highest possible positioning accuracy is required, frequent image guidance is mandatory to achieve best possible plan delivery and maintenance of sharp gradients and optimal normal tissue sparing inherent in carbon ion therapy

  2. F values for isoelectronic ions of carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-10-01

    An analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of isoelectronic ions of carbon up to Z = 20. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, f values are calculated for various transitions from the 2p2(3P0) ground state. The results are compared with those from other works.

  3. Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Modern Radiotherapy & Brachytherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2009-01-01

    This volume collects a series of lectures presented at the tenth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2007 and dedicated to radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of radiotherapy in general, including external radiotherapy (often called teletherapy) as well as internal radiotherapy (called brachytherapy). Radiotherapy strategy and dose management as well as the decisive role of digital imaging in the associated clinical practice are developed in several articles. Grouped under the discipline of Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT), numerous modern techniques, from Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC) to Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT), are explained in detail. The importance of treatment planning based upon patient data from digital imaging (Computed Tomography) is also underlined. Finally, despite the quasi- totality of patients being presently treated with gamma and X-rays, novel powerful tools are emerging using proton and light ions (like carbon ions) beams, bound to bec...

  4. Etoile: Rhone-Alpes project for carbon-ion treatment of radioresistant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadron-therapy using carbon ions appears to be very efficient for the treatment of tumours, due to its ballistic precision and to its biological effects that are much higher than in the case of conventional radiotherapy. The experience gained in experimental facilities in Japan (HIMAC) and Germany (GSI) shows that carbon beams provide both efficiency and tolerance and then are the most promising tool for a rapid increase of the recovery rate in the treatment of radioresistant tumours. Dedicated centres using carbon ions will start operation in 2002 in Hyogo (Japan) and in 2005 in Heidelberg (Germany), and each of them will treat about 1000 patients per year. We give here a short description of the project ETOILE to be built in Lyon. The technical proposal will be available beginning of 2002. (authors)

  5. Reactions of carbon cluster ions stored in an RF trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions of carbon cluster ions with O2 were studied by using an RF ion trap in which cluster ions of specific size produced by laser ablation could be stored selectively. Reaction rate constants for positive and negative carbon cluster ions were estimated. In the case of the positive cluster ions, these were consistent with the previous experimental results using FTMS. Negative carbon cluster ions C-n (n=4-8) were much less reactive than positive cluster ions. The CnO- products were seen only in n=4 and 6. (orig.)

  6. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, Leonid; Zaider, Marco

    2014-07-01

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)—viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells—is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule.

  7. On the probability of cure for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The probability of a cure in radiation therapy (RT)—viewed as the probability of eventual extinction of all cancer cells—is unobservable, and the only way to compute it is through modeling the dynamics of cancer cell population during and post-treatment. The conundrum at the heart of biophysical models aimed at such prospective calculations is the absence of information on the initial size of the subpopulation of clonogenic cancer cells (also called stem-like cancer cells), that largely determines the outcome of RT, both in an individual and population settings. Other relevant parameters (e.g. potential doubling time, cell loss factor and survival probability as a function of dose) are, at least in principle, amenable to empirical determination. In this article we demonstrate that, for heavy-ion RT, microdosimetric considerations (justifiably ignored in conventional RT) combined with an expression for the clone extinction probability obtained from a mechanistic model of radiation cell survival lead to useful upper bounds on the size of the pre-treatment population of clonogenic cancer cells as well as upper and lower bounds on the cure probability. The main practical impact of these limiting values is the ability to make predictions about the probability of a cure for a given population of patients treated to newer, still unexplored treatment modalities from the empirically determined probability of a cure for the same or similar population resulting from conventional low linear energy transfer (typically photon/electron) RT. We also propose that the current trend to deliver a lower total dose in a smaller number of fractions with larger-than-conventional doses per fraction has physical limits that must be understood before embarking on a particular treatment schedule. (paper)

  8. Carbonate ions and arsenic dissolution by groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-J.; Nriagu, J.; Haack, S.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.Samples of Marshall Sandstone, a major source of groundwater with elevated arsenic levels in southeast Michigan, were exposed to bicarbonate ion under controlled chemical conditions. In particular, effects of pH and redox conditions on arsenic release were evaluated. The release of arsenic from the aquifer rock was strongly related to the bicarbonate concentration in the leaching solution. The results obtained suggest that the carbonation of arsenic sulfide minerals, including orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As2S2), is an important process in leaching arsenic into groundwater under anaerobic conditions. The arseno-carbonate complexes formed, believed to be As(CO3)2-, As(CO3)(OH)2-, and AsCO3+, are stable in groundwater. The reaction of ferrous ion with the thioarsenite from carbonation process can result in the formation of arsenopyrite which is a common mineral in arsenic-rich aquifers.The role of bicarbonate in leaching arsenic into groundwater was investigated by conducting batch experiments using core samples of Marshall Sandstone from southeast Michigan and different bicarbonate

  9. The Initial Case Report: Salvage Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy After Heavy Ion Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choichiro Ozu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Salvage radical prostatectomy is one of treatments after radiation therapy to patients with prostate cancer. To date, no case of the salvage robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP following heavy ion radiotherapy (HIRT has been published. We report on a 70-year-old man with a history of HIRT for prostate cancer in 2011. For 3 years after. HIRT, his serum PSA levels were permissible range. However, his PSA levels were increased. We had diagnosis localized prostate cancer after HIRT. We had carried out salvage RARP. Until 10 months after salvage RARP, his PSA level was not detectable.

  10. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  11. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  12. Hypofractionated carbon ion therapy delivered with scanned ion beams for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma – feasibility and clinical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon-based radiation therapy does currently not play a major role as local ablative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Carbon ions offer distinct physical and biological advantages. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak, precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Furthermore, carbon ions have an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photons. A total of six patients with one or more HCC-lesions were treated with carbon ions delivered by the raster-scanning technique according to our clinical trial protocol. Diagnosis of HCC was confirmed by histology or two different imaging modalities (CT and MRI) according to the AASLD-guidelines. Applied fractionation scheme was 4 × 10 Gy(RBE). Correct dose application was controlled by in-vivo PET measurement of β + −activity in the irradiated tissue shortly after treatment. Patients were observed for a median time period of 11.0 months (range, 3.4 – 12.7 months). Imaging studies showed a partial response in 4/7 lesions and a stable disease in 3/7 lesions in follow-up CT- and MRI scans. Local control was 100%. One patient with multifocal intrahepatic disease underwent liver transplantation 3 months after carbon ion therapy. During radiotherapy and the follow-up period no severe adverse events have occurred. We report the first clinical results of patients with HCC undergoing carbon ion therapy using the rasterscanning technique at our institution. All patients are locally controlled and experienced no higher toxicities in a short follow-up period. Further patients will be included in our prospective Phase-I clinical trial PROMETHEUS-01 (NCT01167374)

  13. Operation of KeiGM for the carbon ion therapy facility at Gunma University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy is being carried out at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Centre (GHMC) since March 2010. A compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for GHMC, so-called KeiGM, supplies carbon 4+ ions for treatment. The general structure of KeiGM was copied from a prototype compact source, so-called Kei2. Based on experimental studies for production of carbon 4+ ions with a 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), so-called NIRS-ECR, the field distribution of the mirror magnet for Kei2 and KeiGM was designed. A microwave source with the traveling-wave-tube (TWT) was adopted for KeiGM, with a frequency range and maximum power of 9.75 - 10.25 GHz and 750 W, respectively. The KeiGM was installed in the GHMC facility in December 2008. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  14. Carbonate Ion Effects on Coccolith Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Probert, I.; Stoll, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    conclusively distinguished whether C is taken up only as CO2 by passive diffusion or also by active transport of CO2 or HCO^{3-} . In reality, the patterns of stable isotopic variations in coccoliths may provide more constraints for unraveling the cellular C transport and the calcification mechanisms. We will present latest findings on these issues, both from culture experiments and sediment traps located in the Bay of Bengal. Coccolith species separated from these sediment traps also show evidence of carbonate ion effects.

  15. Medical equipment and design approach contributing to evolution of heavy-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the efforts being made to realize high-quality cancer treatment, the Toshiba Group is striving to offer healthcare processes with the advanced heavy-ion radiotherapy system as the core. In addition to key technologies including ion accelerators and irradiation devices developed by Toshiba, Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation has developed an image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) technology for rapid and highly accurate determination of the beam irradiation position using computer tomography (CT) images taken by an AquilionTM X-ray CT scanner installed in the same treatment room. Moreover, in the area of design, Toshiba has employed a comprehensive approach that considers both optimal operations for the medical personnel and psychological care for the patient in each medical workflow, regarding the various items of equipment as a whole treatment system. In order to realize smooth communication between medical personnel and patients, Toshiba has also applied a design that provides efficiency and comfort appropriate to the treatment status to the displays of the treatment information system. (author)

  16. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  17. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  18. Specification of carbon ion dose at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical dose distributions of therapeutic carbon beams, currently used at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), are based on in-vitro Human Salivary Gland (HSG) cell survival response and clinical experience from fast neutron radiotherapy. Moderate radiosensitivity of HSG cells is expected to be a typical response of tumours to carbon beams. At first, the biological dose distribution is designed so as to cause a flat biological effect on HSG cells in the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region. Then, the entire biological dose distribution is evenly raised in order to attain a RBE (relative biological effectiveness)=3.0 at a depth where dose-averaged LET (linear energy transfer) is 80 keV/μm. At that point, biological experiments have shown that carbon ions can be expected to have a biological effect identical to fast neutrons, which showed a clinical RBE of 3.0 for fast neutron radiotherapy at NIRS. The resulting clinical dose distribution in this approximation is not dependent on dose level, tumour type or fractionation scheme and thus reduces the unknown parameters in the analysis of the clinical results. The width SOBP and the clinical/physical dose at the center of SOBP specify the dose distribution. The clinical results analyzed in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) were found to show good agreement with the expected RBE value at higher TCP levels. The TCP analysis method was applied for the prospective dose estimation of hypofractionation. (author)

  19. Intensive irradiation of carbon nanotubes by Si ion beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhichun; LI Qintao; YAN Long; GONG Jinlong; ZHU Dezhang; ZHU Zhiyuan

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were irradiated with 40 keV Si ion beam to a dose of 1×1017 cm-2. The multiple-way carbon nanowire junctions and the Si doping in carbon nanowires were realized. Moreover, the formation processes of carbon nanowire junctions and the corresponding mechanism were studied.

  20. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  1. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  2. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  3. Non-randomized therapy trial to determine the safety and efficacy of heavy ion radiotherapy in patients with non-resectable osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Marc

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. For effective treatment, local control of the tumor is absolutely critical, because the chances of long term survival are EURAMOS1. Local photon radiotherapy has previously been used in small series and in an uncontrolled, highly individualized fashion, which, however, documented that high dose radiotherapy can, in principle, be used to achieve local control. Generally the radiation dose that is necessary for a curative approach can hardly be achieved with conventional photon radiotherapy in patients with non-resectable tumors that are usually located near radiosensitive critical organs such as the brain, the spine or the pelvis. In these cases particle Radiotherapy (proton therapy (PT/heavy ion therapy (HIT may offer a promising new alternative. Moreover, compared with photons, heavy ion beams provide a higher physical selectivity because of their finite depth coverage in tissue. They achieve a higher relative biological effectiveness. Phase I/II dose escalation studies of HIT in adults with non-resectable bone and soft tissue sarcomas have already shown favorable results. Methods/Design This is a monocenter, single-arm study for patients ≥ 6 years of age with non-resectable osteosarcoma. Desired target dose is 60-66 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (Gy E with 45 Gy PT (proton therapy and a carbon ion boost of 15-21 GyE. Weekly fractionation of 5-6 × 3 Gy E is used. PT/HIT will be administered exclusively at the Ion Radiotherapy Center in Heidelberg. Furthermore, FDG-PET imaging characteristics of non-resectable osteosarcoma before and after PT/HIT will be investigated prospectively. Systemic disease before and after PT/HIT is targeted by standard chemotherapy protocols and is not part of this trial. Discussion The primary objectives of this trial are the determination of feasibility and toxicity of HIT. Secondary objectives are tumor response

  4. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry for carbon-ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Risa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. Ideally, such material should be water equivalent as well as that for dosimetry. In this study, we evaluated dosimetric water equivalency of four common plastics, HDPE, PMMA, PET, and POM, by uniformity of effective densities for carbon-ion-beam interactions. Methods: Using the Bethe formula for stopping, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, we calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. We tested HDPE, PMMA, and POM in carbon-ion-beam experiment and measured attenuations of carbon ions, which were compared with empirical linear-attenuation-model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculations resulted in reduced multiple scattering and increased nuclear interactions for HDPE compared to water, which ...

  5. Damage to plasmid DNA induced by low energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The damage induced in supercoiled plasmid DNA molecules by 1-6 keV carbon ions has been investigated as a function of ion exposure, energy and charge state. The production of short linear fragments through multiple double strand breaks has been demonstrated and exponential exposure responses for each of the topoisomers have been found. The cross section for the loss of supercoiling was calculated to be (2.2 ± 0.5) x 10-14 cm2 for 2 keV C+ ions. For singly charged carbon ions, increased damage was observed with increasing ion energy. In the case of 2 keV doubly charged ions, the damage was greater than for singly charged ions of the same energy. These observations demonstrate that ion induced damage is a function of both the kinetic and potential energies of the ion

  6. Evaluation of neutron radiation field in carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Su, You-Wu; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Carbon ions have significant advantages in tumor therapy because of their physical and biological properties. In view of the radiation protection, the safety of patients is the most important issue in therapy processes. Therefore, the effects of the secondary particles produced by the carbon ions in the tumor therapy should be carefully considered, especially for the neutrons. In the present work, the neutron radiation field induced by carbon ions was evaluated by using the FLUKA code. The simulated results of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose was found to be in good agreement with the experiment data. In addition, energy deposition of carbon ions and neutrons in tissue-like media was studied, it is found that the secondary neutron energy deposition is not expected to exceed 1% of the carbon ion energy deposition in a typical treatment.

  7. MRI-based treatment plan simulation and adaptation for ion radiotherapy using a classification-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to benefit from the highly conformal irradiation of tumors in ion radiotherapy, sophisticated treatment planning and simulation are required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of MRI for ion radiotherapy treatment plan simulation and adaptation using a classification-based approach. Firstly, a voxelwise tissue classification was applied to derive pseudo CT numbers from MR images using up to 8 contrasts. Appropriate MR sequences and parameters were evaluated in cross-validation studies of three phantoms. Secondly, ion radiotherapy treatment plans were optimized using both MRI-based pseudo CT and reference CT and recalculated on reference CT. Finally, a target shift was simulated and a treatment plan adapted to the shift was optimized on a pseudo CT and compared to reference CT optimizations without plan adaptation. The derivation of pseudo CT values led to mean absolute errors in the range of 81 - 95 HU. Most significant deviations appeared at borders between air and different tissue classes and originated from partial volume effects. Simulations of ion radiotherapy treatment plans using pseudo CT for optimization revealed only small underdosages in distal regions of a target volume with deviations of the mean dose of PTV between 1.4 - 3.1% compared to reference CT optimizations. A plan adapted to the target volume shift and optimized on the pseudo CT exhibited a comparable target dose coverage as a non-adapted plan optimized on a reference CT. We were able to show that a MRI-based derivation of pseudo CT values using a purely statistical classification approach is feasible although no physical relationship exists. Large errors appeared at compact bone classes and came from an imperfect distinction of bones and other tissue types in MRI. In simulations of treatment plans, it was demonstrated that these deviations are comparable to uncertainties of a target volume shift of 2 mm in two directions indicating that especially

  8. Particles that fight cancer: the use of protons and carbon ions in cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Particles that fight cancer: the use of protons and carbon ions in cancer therapy Cancer is a major societal issue. A key challenge for cancer therapy is the complex and multifaceted nature of the disease, which calls for personalised treatment. Radiotherapy has been used to treat tumours for more than a century, and is still a staple in oncology: today, 50 % of cancer patients receive radiotherapy, half of them with curative intent. Hadrontherapy is one of the most technologically advanced methods of delivering radiation dose to the tumour while protecting surrounding healthy tissues. In addition, hadrontherapy can reach otherwise difficult to access deep-seated tumours and can be used for radio resistant tumours as in hypoxia. This year marks 60 years since the first patient was treated with protons in the US and 20 years since the use of carbon ions in Japan. Join us in learning about the journey of particle therapy in Japan and Europe, its challenges, clinical results and future prospects. Thursday 2...

  9. Radiation therapy using high-energy heavy-ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical trial of the heavy-ion radiotherapy was started at June 1994 after pre-clinical experiments using 290 MeV/u carbon beam. In this paper, an irradiation system for the heavy-ion radiotherapy installed at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) and the physical characteristics of the therapeutic beam were discussed. (author)

  10. The Radiation Enhancement of 15 nm Citrate-Capped Gold Nanoparticles Exposed to 70 keV/μm Carbon Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Xi; Jin, Xiaodong; He, Pengbo; Zheng, Xiaogang; Ye, Fei; Chen, Weiqiang; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Radiotherapy is an important modality for tumor treatment. The central goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a therapeutic dose to the tumor as much as possible whilst sparing the surrounding normal tissues. On one hand, heavy ion radiation induces maximum damage at the end of the track (called the Bragg Peak). Hadron therapy based on heavy ions is considered superior to conventional X-rays and γ-rays radiations for tumors sited in sensitive tissues, childhood cases and radioresistant cancers. On the other hand, radiation sensitizers enhanced the radiation effects in tumors by increasing the dose specifically to the tumor cells. Recently, the use of gold nanoparticles as potential tumor selective radio-sensitizers has been proposed as a breakthrough in radiotherapy with conventional radiations. The enhanced radiation effect of heavy ions in tumor by using gold nanoparticles as radio-sensitizer may provide alternative in hadron therapy. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effects of carbon ions with a linear energy transfer of 70 keV/μm in the presence of 15 nm citrate-capped AuNPs. The existing of AuNPs resulted in 5.5-fold enhancement in hydroxyl radical production and 24.5% increment in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for carbon-ion-irradiated HeLa cells. The study indicated gold nanoparticles can be used as potential radio-sensitizer in carbon ions therapy. PMID:27455642

  11. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Early Vascular Response in Prostate Tumors Irradiated with Carbon Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Palmowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Individualized treatments with combination of radiotherapy and targeted drugs require knowledge about the behavior of molecular targets after irradiation. Angiogenic marker expression has been studied after conventional radiotherapy, but little is known about marker response to charged particles. For the very first time, we used molecular ultrasound imaging to intraindividually track changes in angiogenic marker expression after carbon ion irradiation in experimental tumors. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and of αvβ3-integrin in subcutaneous AT-1 prostate cancers in rats treated with carbon ions (16 Gy was studied using molecular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry. For this purpose, cyanoacrylate microbubbles were synthesized and linked to specific ligands. The accumulation of targeted microbubbles in tumors was quantified before and 36 hours after irradiation. In addition, tumor vascularization was analyzed using volumetric Doppler ultrasound. In tumors, the accumulation of targeted microbubbles was significantly higher than in nonspecific ones and could be inhibited competitively. Before irradiation, no difference in binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific or ICAM-1-specific microbubbles was observed in treated and untreated animals. After irradiation, however, treated animals showed a significantly higher binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific microbubbles and an enhanced binding of ICAM-1-specific microbubbles than untreated controls. In both groups, a decrease in vascularization occurred during tumor growth, but no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. In conclusion, carbon ion irradiation upregulates ICAM-1 and αvβ3-integrin expression in tumor neovasculature. Molecular ultrasound can indicate the regulation of these markers and thus may help to identify the optimal drugs and time points in individualized therapy regimens.

  12. Carbon ion fragmentation effects on the nanometric level behind the Bragg peak depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Z.; Seif, E.; Incerti, S.; Champion, C.; Karamitros, M.; Bernal, M. A.; Ivanchenko, V. N.; Mantero, A.; Tran, H. N.; El Bitar, Z.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, fragmentation yields of carbon therapy beams are estimated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit version 9.5. Simulations are carried out in a step-by-step mode using the Geant4-DNA processes for each of the major contributing fragments. The energy of the initial beam is taken 400 MeV amu-1 as this is the highest energy, which is used for medical accelerators and this would show the integral role of secondary contributions in radiotherapy irradiations. The obtained results showed that 64% of the global dose deposition is initiated by carbon ions, while up to 36% is initiated by the produced fragments including all their isotopes. The energy deposition clustering yields of each of the simulated fragments are then estimated using the DBSCAN clustering algorithm and they are compared to the yields of the incident primary beam.

  13. Carbon ion fragmentation effects on the nanometric level behind the Bragg peak depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, fragmentation yields of carbon therapy beams are estimated using the Geant4 simulation toolkit version 9.5. Simulations are carried out in a step-by-step mode using the Geant4-DNA processes for each of the major contributing fragments. The energy of the initial beam is taken 400 MeV amu−1 as this is the highest energy, which is used for medical accelerators and this would show the integral role of secondary contributions in radiotherapy irradiations. The obtained results showed that 64% of the global dose deposition is initiated by carbon ions, while up to 36% is initiated by the produced fragments including all their isotopes. The energy deposition clustering yields of each of the simulated fragments are then estimated using the DBSCAN clustering algorithm and they are compared to the yields of the incident primary beam. (paper)

  14. A TPS kernel for calculating survival vs. depth: distributions in a carbon radiotherapy beam, based on Katz's cellular track structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An algorithm was developed of a treatment planning system (TPS) kernel for carbon radiotherapy in which Katz's Track Structure Theory of cellular survival (TST) is applied as its radiobiology component. The physical beam model is based on available tabularised data, prepared by Monte Carlo simulations of a set of pristine carbon beams of different input energies. An optimisation tool developed for this purpose is used to find the composition of pristine carbon beams of input energies and fluences which delivers a pre-selected depth-dose distribution profile over the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) region. Using an extrapolation algorithm, energy-fluence spectra of the primary carbon ions and of all their secondary fragments are obtained over regular steps of beam depths. To obtain survival vs. depth distributions, the TST calculation is applied to the energy-fluence spectra of the mixed field of primary ions and of their secondary products at the given beam depths. Katz's TST offers a unique analytical and quantitative prediction of cell survival in such mixed ion fields. By optimising the pristine beam composition to a published depth-dose profile over the SOBP region of a carbon beam and using TST model parameters representing the survival of CHO (Chinese Hamster Ovary) cells in vitro, it was possible to satisfactorily reproduce a published data set of CHO cell survival vs. depth measurements after carbon ion irradiation. The authors also show by a TST calculation that 'biological dose' is neither linear nor additive. (authors)

  15. Physical and biological basis of hadron radiotherapy. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop was a satellite event of the 14th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR-2011). It was held in Cracow, Poland, on the 2 and 3 September 2011, at the Collegium Novum of the Jagiellonian University. The Workshop organized, jointly by the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Polish Radiation Research Society, would provide its participants with an opportunity to discuss current topics in proton and carbon radiotherapy, clinical aspects of ion radiotherapy, ion beam dosimetry, unwanted patient exposure, radiobiology for ion radiotherapy and other relevant subjects. Book of Abstracts contains abstracts of 33 oral presentations and 12 posters.

  16. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  17. Ion implantation inhibits cell attachment to glassy polymeric carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of MeV gold, oxygen, carbon ions into GPC alters the surface topography of GPC and enhances the already strong tendency for cells to attach to GPC. We have shown that implantation of silver ions near the surface strongly inhibits cell growth on GPC. Both enhanced adhesion of and inhibition of cell growth are desirable improvements on cardiac implants that have long been successfully fabricated from biocompatible glassy polymeric carbon (GPC). In vitro biocompatibility tests have been carried out with model cell lines to demonstrate that ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of silver, as well as silver ion bombardment, can favorably influence the surface of GPC for biomedical applications

  18. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  19. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  20. Homologous recombination in Arabidopsis seeds along the track of energetic carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ting [University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzhai Road, Hefei 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agricultural Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Fanghua [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agricultural Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu Qingfang [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Bian Po, E-mail: bianpo@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agricultural Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang Jufang [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wu Yuejin; Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agricultural Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 350 Shushanhu Road, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Wenjian [Radiobiology Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 509 Nanchang Road, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Heavy ion irradiation has been used as radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors, and is also an inevitable health concern for astronauts in space mission. Unlike photons such as X-rays and {gamma}-rays, a high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ion has a varying energy distribution along its track. Therefore, it is important to determine the correlation of biological effects with the Bragg curve energy distribution of heavy ions. In this study, a continuous biological tissue equivalent was constructed using a layered cylinder of Arabidopsis seeds, which was irradiated with carbon ions of 87.5 MeV/nucleon. The position of energy loss peak in the seed pool was determined with CR-39 track detectors. The mutagenic effect in vivo along the path of carbon ions was investigated with the seeds in each layer as an assay unit, which corresponded to a given position in physical Bragg curve. Homologous recombination frequency (HRF), expression level of AtRAD54 gene, germination rate of seeds, and survival rate of young seedlings were used as checking endpoints, respectively. Our results showed that Arabidopsis S0 and S1 plants exhibited significant increases in HRF compared to their controls, and the expression level of AtRAD54 gene in S0 plants was significantly up-regulated. The depth-biological effect curves for HRF and the expression of AtRAD54 gene were not consistent with the physical Bragg curve. Differently, the depth-biological effect curves for the developmental endpoints matched generally with the physical Bragg curve. The results suggested a different response pattern of various types of biological events to heavy ion irradiation. It is also interesting that except for HRF in S0 plants, the depth-biological effect curves for each biological endpoint were similar for 5 Gy and 30 Gy of carbon irradiation.

  1. Rationale for carbon ion therapy in high-grade glioma based on a review and a meta-analysis of neutron beam trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The standard treatment of high-grade glioma is still unsatisfactory: the 2-year survival after radiotherapy being only 10-25%. A high linear energy transfer (Let) ionising radiotherapy has been used to overcome tumour radioresistance. An overview of the field is needed to justify future prospective controlled studies on carbon ion therapy. Materials and methods: A meta-analysis of clinical trials on neutron beam therapy and a literature review of clinical investigations on light ion use in high-grade glioma were carried out. Results: Four randomized controlled trials on neutron beam therapy were retained. The meta-analysis showed a non-significant 6% increase of two-year mortality (Relative risk [R.R.] 1.06 [0.97-1.15]) in comparison with photon therapy. Two phase I/II trials on carbon and neon ion therapy reported for glioblastoma 10% and 31% two-year overall survivals and 13.9 and 19.0 months median survivals, respectively. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that neutron beam therapy does not improve the survival of high-grade glioma patients while there is no definitive conclusion yet regarding carbon therapy. The ballistic accuracy and the improved biological efficacy of carbon ions renew the interest in prospective clinical trials on particle beam radiotherapy of glioma and let us expect favourable effects of dose escalation on patients survival. (author)

  2. Simulating demand for innovative radiotherapies : An illustrative model based on carbon ion and proton radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pommier, Pascal; Lievens, Yolande; Feschet, Fabien; Borras, Josep M.; Baron, Marie Helene; Shtiliyanova, Anastasiya; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Innovative therapies are not only characterized by major uncertainties regarding clinical benefit and cost but also the expected recruitment of patients An original model was developed to simulate patient recruitment to a costly particle therapy by varying layout of the facili

  3. Study on neutron radiation field of carbon ions therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jun-Kui; Li, Wu-Yuan; Yan, Wei-Wei; Chen, Xi-Meng; Mao, Wang; Pang, Cheng-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ions offer significant advantages for deep-seated local tumors therapy due to their physical and biological properties. Secondary particles, especially neutrons caused by heavy ion reactions should be carefully considered in treatment process and radiation protection. For radiation protection purposes, the FLUKA Code was used in order to evaluate the radiation field at deep tumor therapy room of HIRFL in this paper. The neutron energy spectra, neutron dose and energy deposition of carbon ion and neutron in tissue-like media was studied for bombardment of solid water target by 430MeV/u C ions. It is found that the calculated neutron dose have a good agreement with the experimental date, and the secondary neutron dose may not exceed one in a thousand of the carbon ions dose at Bragg peak area in tissue-like media.

  4. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E. N. M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy lo...

  5. The fragment ion distribution of C60 in close collision with fast carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the mass distribution of fragment ions of C60 produced by collisions with 15.6 MeV carbon ions in different charge states. Close collisions were selectively measured using the coincidence method with the change of the projectile charge state. For the electron capture and loss by C5+.6+ projectile ions, which are the K-electron processes, the multifragmentation was observed evidently. In L-electron loss channels of the C2+ projectile, the peaks of the multiply ionized C60 ions and the multiply ionized fullerene-like fragment ions are more intense or as intense as the small fragment ions. (author)

  6. Alanine Radiation Detectors in Therapeutic Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo;

        Radiotherapy with particles is getting more attention in Europe. New facilities for protons and heavier ions are finished, or near to the final status, some more are planed. Particle therapy with heavy ions is a challenge to dosimetry, since mixed particle fields occur in the peak region...... of the depth dose curves. Solid state detectors, such as diamond detectors, radiochromic films, TLDs and the amino acid alanine are used due to there good spatial resolution. If used in particle beams their response often exhibits a dependence on particle energy and type, so the acquired signal is not always...... proportional to absorbed dose. A model by Hansen and Olsen, based on the Track Structure Theory is available, which can predict the relative efficiency of some detectors, when the particle spectrum is known. For alanine detectors the model was successfully validated by Hansen and Olsen for several ion species...

  7. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellerbrock Malte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Methods Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Results Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc, mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR. Conclusion Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted.

  8. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc), mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia) but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR). Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted

  9. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD), moderately (MD) or poorly differentiated (PD). Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01). Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors

  10. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Su-Kyoung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12 is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. Methods CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD, moderately (MD or poorly differentiated (PD. Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Results Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01. Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Conclusions Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors.

  11. Toshiba's accelerator technology and approach toward higher performance and downsizing for heavy-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshiba has developed various systems and components for particle beam accelerators, and delivered a number of accelerator systems including for SPring-8, which is the world's largest-class synchrotron radiation facility, as well as for the Central Japan Synchrotron Radiation Facility (provisional name). Combining our proprietary technologies cultivated through our experience in the development of particle beam accelerators, we are promoting the development of an accelerator for heavy-ion radiotherapy. Toward the higher performance and downsizing of its accelerator, we are also focusing on the research and development of both an ion source applying laser beam technologies, and a superconducting deflecting magnet for accelerators. (author)

  12. Regional MLEM reconstruction strategy for PET-based treatment verification in ion beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ion beam radiotherapy, PET-based treatment verification provides a consistency check of the delivered treatment with respect to a simulation based on the treatment planning. In this work the region-based MLEM reconstruction algorithm is proposed as a new evaluation strategy in PET-based treatment verification. The comparative evaluation is based on reconstructed PET images in selected regions, which are automatically identified on the expected PET images according to homogeneity in activity values. The strategy was tested on numerical and physical phantoms, simulating mismatches between the planned and measured β+ activity distributions. The region-based MLEM reconstruction was demonstrated to be robust against noise and the sensitivity of the strategy results were comparable to three voxel units, corresponding to 6 mm in numerical phantoms. The robustness of the region-based MLEM evaluation outperformed the voxel-based strategies. The potential of the proposed strategy was also retrospectively assessed on patient data and further clinical validation is envisioned. (paper)

  13. Precision high-dose radiotherapy with helium-ion beams: treatment of malignant tumors in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of the Bragg peak and sharp penumbra of the helium-ion beam emphasize its importance in radiotherapy. Perhaps the best example of this type of treatment is that for the treatment of malignant melanoma of the eye. The authors treated 181 such patients, 46 in the last 12 months. They continue to have very encouraging results in this group. Only eight patients have had a recurrence of their tumor, and in all eight a second treatment, usually removal of the eye, has apparently cured the tumor. They have generally been able to preserve the pretreatment visual acuity as long as the edge of the tumor is at least 3-4 mm away from the optic disc or macula. Four different tumor doses have been used since this program was begun. The first 20 patients received 70 GyE; the dose was then raised to 80 GyE for the next 69 patients. The group of patients treated with 80 GyE began to develop an unacceptable incidence of glaucoma in the treated eye, so the dose was then decreased to 60 GyE. So far, 4 of 61 patients (or 7%) in the 60-GyE group have developed glaucoma

  14. Study on organosilicon plasma polymers implanted by carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeva, E; Yourukova, L; Kolentsov, K; Balabanov, S; Zhechev, D; Steflekova, V [Georgi Nadjakov Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Amov, B [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)], E-mail: eradeva@issp.bas.bg

    2008-05-01

    In the present work plasma polymer films obtained from hexamethyldisiloxane have been implanted by carbon ions at three different doses. The photoluminescent properties of the implanted polymers were investigated. The optical transmission of these polymer layers was investigated in the visible spectral region. Their electrical parameters were also measured. It was found that the resulting changes do not worsen the protective properties of the implanted polymer layer. The variations in the properties studied might be ascribed to the nanostructured carbon clusters formed on the polymer surface. The results obtained could form the basis for further optimization of the polymer structure by carbon ion implantation in view of applications in electroluminescent display structures.

  15. Ion-exchange behavior of alkali metals on treated carbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion-exchange behavior of trace quantities of the alkali-metal ions sodium and cesium, on activated carbon impregnated with zirconium phosphate (referred to here as ZrP), was studied. Impregnated carbon had twice as much ion-exchange activity as unimpregnated, oxidized carbon, and 10 times as much as commercial activated carbons. The distribution coefficient of sodium increased with increasing pH; the distribution coefficient of cesium decreased with increasing pH. Sodium and cesium were separated with an electrolytic solution of 0.1 M HCl. Preliminary studies indicated that 0.2 M potassium and cesium can also be separated. Distribution coefficients of the supported ZrP were determined by the elution technique and agreed within 20% of the values for pure ZrP calculated from the literature

  16. Chromosome inversions in lymphocytes of prostate cancer patients treated with X-rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To investigate the cytogenetic damage of the intrachange type in peripheral blood lymphocytes of patients treated for prostate cancer with different radiation qualities. Material and methods: Prostate cancer patients were enrolled in a clinical trial based at the Heidelberg University Hospital and at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research in 2006. Patients were treated either with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) alone or with a carbon-ion boost followed by IMRT. Blood samples were collected at the end of the therapy and the mBAND technique was used to investigate the cytogenetic damage of the inter and intrachange types. Moreover, the mBAND analysis was performed on healthy donor cells irradiated in vitro with X-rays or C-ions. Results: Our results show no statistically significant differences in the yield and the spectrum of chromosome aberrations among patients treated only with IMRT and patients receiving the combined treatment when similar target volumes and doses to the target are compared. Conclusion: The study suggests that the risks of normal tissue late effects and second malignancies in prostate cancer patients are comparable when heavy ions or IMRT radiotherapy are applied

  17. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Using Ion Pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W L; Johnson, M R

    2006-04-21

    We are developing a new way of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas based on ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, which can be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a nearly pure gas. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas. The slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. The simple, robust nature of the process lends itself to small separation plants. Although the energy cost of the ion pump is significant, we anticipate that it will be compete favorably with the current 35% energy penalty of chemical stripping systems in use at power plants. There is the distinct possibility that this simple method could be significantly more efficient than existing processes.

  18. Quality of Life in Men Treated With Carbon Ion Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prospectively assess patient quality of life (QOL) after carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for prostate cancer, using established questionnaires. Methods and Material: The subjects were 150 patients who underwent C-ion RT. Of these, 25 patients with low-risk prostate cancer received C-ion RT alone, whereas the remaining 125 patients with a high-risk tumor also received androgen deprivation therapy. Quality of life was assessed using the self-administered Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire in all patients three times. In addition, University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index (UCLA-PCI) was conducted in the low-risk patients. Results: The FACT-General (FACT-G) and FACT-P scores at 12 months after treatment averaged over all 150 patients showed no significant change compared with those before C-ion RT. In FACT-P subscales, emotional well-being increased significantly just after and 12 months after treatment. In contrast, physical well-being (PWB) and social/family well-being (S/FWB) decreased significantly at 12 months, whereas the prostate cancer subscale (PCS) decreased significantly just after treatment. Average scores for FACT-G, FACT-P, PWB, S/FWB, and PCS for the 125 patients receiving hormone therapy showed substantial detrimental changes at 12 months. In contrast, those of the 25 low-risk patients who had no hormone therapy showed no significant change. Similarly no significant change in the average of the UCLA-PCI scores in the low-risk patients was seen at 12 months. Conclusions: Average QOL parameters reported by patients with localized prostate cancer treated with C-ion RT, in the absence of hormone therapy, showed no significant decrease 12 months after C-ion RT

  19. The EGFR mutation status affects the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amornwichet, Napapat; Oike, Takahiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Nirodi, Chaitanya S.; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Makino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Yuka; HIROTA, YUKA; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kohno, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise to treat inoperable locally-advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a disease poorly controlled by standard chemoradiotherapy using X-rays. Since CIRT is an extremely limited medical resource, selection of NSCLC patients likely to benefit from it is important; however, biological predictors of response to CIRT are ill-defined. The present study investigated the association between the mutational status of EGFR and KRAS, driver genes frequen...

  20. Combined treatment of malignant salivary gland tumours with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and carbon ions: COSMIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local control in malignant salivary gland tumours is dose dependent. High local control rates in adenoid cystic carcinomas could be achieved by highly conformal radiotherapy techniques and particle (neutron/carbon ion) therapy. Considering high doses are needed to achieve local control, all malignant salivary gland tumours probably profit from the use of particle therapy, which in case of carbon ion treatment, has been shown to be accompanied by only mild side-effects. The COSMIC trial is a prospective, mono-centric, phase II trial evaluating toxicity (primary endpoint: mucositis ≥ CTCAE°3) and efficacy (secondary endpoint: local control, disease-free survival) in the combined treatment with IMRT and carbon ion boost in 54 patients with histologically proved (≥R1-resected, inoperable or Pn+) salivary gland malignancies. Patients receive 24 GyE carbon ions (8 fractions) and IMRT (50 Gy at 2.0 Gy/fraction). The primary objective of COSMIC is to evaluate toxicity and feasibility of the proposed treatment in all salivary gland malignancies. Clinical trial identifier NCT 01154270

  1. Fabrication of carbon nanostructures (nanodots, nanowires) by energetic ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanostructures were synthesized by energetic ion irradiation of Si-based gel films. These polymer-like films with different side groups and C concentrations were prepared by sol-gel chemistry and irradiated with Si or Au ions of different energies in the range 3 MeV-2 GeV. The shape and size of the formed carbon nanostructures was studied by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy. They exhibited a visible photoluminescence emission, due to their semiconducting nature and the confinement of excitons. The changes in the optical properties were correlated with the structural transformation of films, investigated by means of Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies. The role of carbon concentration, structure and energy transferred by ions on the luminescence properties are discussed

  2. Carbon stripper foils for high current heavy ion operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the proposed new heavy ion linac'at'GSI the installation of a carbon foil stripper section is under discussion. High duty factor as well as high current (but low duty factor) heavy ion beams were used for machine experiments. Long term tests were performed to check the carbon foil durability. Relevant beam parameters have been measured in three measurement campaigns. After beam testing stripper foils were analyzed with different offline methods. Additionally promising results of high current beam irradiation of rotating target wheels will be presented. In the transfer line to the SIS 18 the heavy ion beam is stripped to higher charge states in a thick carbon foil. The stripper foil is loaded with 3 % of the beam power. To avoid evaporation in a single beam pulse, the beam is rapidly swept over its width. Experiences collected during the last decade of foil stripper operation at GSI will be presented. (author)

  3. Ion-irradiation-induced defects in bundles of carbon nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Salonen, E; Nordlund, K

    2002-01-01

    We study the structure and formation yields of atomic-scale defects produced by low-dose Ar ion irradiation in bundles of single-wall carbon nanotubes. For this, we employ empirical potential molecular dynamics and simulate ion impact events over an energy range of 100-1000 eV. We show that the most common defects produced at all energies are vacancies on nanotube walls, which at low temperatures are metastable but long-lived defects. We further calculate the spatial distribution of the defects, which proved to be highly non-uniform. We also show that ion irradiation gives rise to the formations of inter-tube covalent bonds mediated by carbon recoils and nanotube lattice distortions due to dangling bond saturation. The number of inter-tube links, as well as the overall damage, linearly grows with the energy of incident ions.

  4. A simulation study of a dual-plate in-room PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ze; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Chen, Jin-Da; Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Guo, Zhong-Yan; Sun, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Wen-Xue; Wang, Jian-Song

    2013-01-01

    Carbon ion therapy have the ability to overcome the limitation of convertional radiotherapy due to its most energy deposition in selective depth, usually called Bragg peak, which results in increased biological effectiness. During carbon ion therapy, lots positron emitters such as $^{11}$C, $^{15}$O, $^{10}$C are generated in irradiated tissues by nuclear reactions. Immediately after patient irradiation, PET scanners can be used to measure the spatial distribution of positron emitters, which can track the carbon beam to the tissue. In this study, we designed and evaluated an dual-plate in-room PET scanner to monitor patient dose in carbon ion therapy, which is based on GATE simulation platform. A dual-plate PET is designed to avoid interference with the carbon beam line and with patient positioning. Its performance was compared with that of four-head and full-ring PET scanners. The dual-plate, four-head and full-ring PET scanners consisted of 30, 60, 60 detector modules, respectively, with a 36 cm distance be...

  5. Design of long distance localization and monitoring system of radiotherapy with heavy ion on HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to fulfill the requirement of monitoring and long distance control of patients lesion location information during the shallow and deep radiotherapy with heavy ion on the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR), the corresponding software and visual monitoring interface were developed, the integration of ion beam transport system and therapy equipment were completed. The embedded real-time control system was constructed by FPGA technology. The PCI bus and ADLINK's industrial control computer of PXI 3800 were used as communication interface and host computer respectively. The algorithm of the point by point comparison motion control was selected to achieve the position control. Through the test on the spot, the system is robust and reliable, and satisfies the design requirement. (authors)

  6. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Biesheuvel, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, c...

  7. On influence of irradiation by carbon ions on tantalum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data of experimental studies on tantalum surface structure change and it microhardness in the result of carbon ion implantation are presented. The tantalum samples with purity 99.96 % having cylindrical shape (height 55 mm and diameter 4.5-5 mm) after polish were irradiated by carbon ions with energy 60 keV in the range 5·1016-5·1018 cm-2 at the DIANA facility. The microhardness measurement has been conducted on the PMT-3 device on the irradiated surface and along samples cross section. The microstructure has been examined on the NEOFOT-21 optical microscope, and phase-structural transformations were studied on the 3.0 DRON X-ray diffractometer with application of CuKα radiation. It is determined, that under carbon ion implantation into tantalum surface layers the texture tantalum carbide phases and tantalum monocarbide arise. Post-radiation thermal annealing leads to tantalum monocarbide decay and tantalum carbide particle sizes increase. It is determined, that phases got under C+ implantation have introduction phase structure with dense atom packing. Ion doping leads to tantalum surface hardening. Hardening rate depends on the irradiation fluence. Maximal hardening has been observed on the surface, the maximal microhardness increase extension along whole samples thickness. Due to carbon ions implantation the microhardness is increasing in 3 times near surface, and up to 1.5-3 times over samples thickness

  8. Conducting carbon nanopatterns (nanowire) by energetic ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports the formation of conducting carbon nanopatterns (nano-wires) in a semi-inorganic polymer by irradiation with energetic ions. The conducting nano-patterns/wires are evidenced by conducting atomic force microscopy. The typical diameter of the conducting wires is observed to be about ∼50-200 nm. The density (spacing), growth direction and length of these carbon nanowires can be changed simply by ion fluence, angle of irradiation and the film thickness, respectively. The formation of conducting nanopatterns in an insulating matrix (polymers/gels) is correlated with the structural transformation of films, investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy

  9. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm-2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm-2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C3N4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C3N4 matrix was predominantly sp2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  10. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J; Fitzek, Markus M; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-05-01

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy. PMID:20371908

  11. Mutagenic effects of nitrogen and carbon ions on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of stevia were implanted by 60∼100 keV nitrogen ion and 75 keV carbon ion with various doses. The biological effects in M1 and mutation in M2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure and inhibited mitosis action in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. Energy effects of mitosis were presented between 75 keV and 60, 100 keV. As compared with γ-rays, the effects of ion beam were lower on chromosomal aberration but were higher on frequency of the mutation. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and M2 useful mutation induced by implantation of carbon ion was higher than those induced by implantation of nitrogen ion. Mutagenic effects of Feng1 x Ri Yuan and of Ri Yuan x Feng2 are higher than that of Ji Ning and Feng2

  12. Geant4 simulation for a study of a possible use of carbon ion pencil beams for the treatment of ocular melanomas with the active scanning system at CNAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, E.; Piersimoni, P.; Riccardi, C.; Rimoldi, A.; Tamborini, A.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study a possible use of carbon ion pencil beams (delivered with active scanning modality) for the treatment of ocular melanomas at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO). The promising aspect of carbon ions radiotherapy for the treatment of this disease lies in its superior relative radio-biological effectiveness (RBE). The Monte Carlo (MC) Geant4 10.00 toolkit was used to simulate the complete CNAO extraction beamline, with the active and passive components along it. A human eye modeled detector, including a realistic target tumor volume, was used as target. Cross check with previous studies at CNAO using protons allowed comparisons on possible benefits on using such a technique with respect to proton beams. Experimental data on proton and carbon ion beams transverse distributions were used to validate the simulation.

  13. Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center. Evolution of carbon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer treatments with high energy carbon beams have been initiated at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, GHMC, in March of this year. Aiming the wide spread of the carbon therapy, the grand design of the facility and a variety of R and D studies were conducted by HIMAC group of National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, in collaboration with Gunma University. The design concepts of the facility include the high reliability, high efficiency, and low construction and operation cost. The success of the facility will open up new era of the carbon therapy. (author)

  14. Broad-beam three-dimensional irradiation system for heavy-ion radiotherapy at HIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Futami, Y; Fujita, M; Tomura, H; Higashi, A; Matsufuji, N; Miyahara, N; Endo, M; Kawachi, K

    1999-01-01

    A three-dimensional irradiation system using a broad beam has been installed for heavy-ion cancer therapy at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) facility. Only the target region is irradiated at the 100% dose level; the dose level at other parts of irradiated tissues is less, using a range shifter, a multileaf collimator and a compensator. The devices are the same as those used in two-dimensional irradiation, except that the setting values of the devices can be dynamically changed during the treatment. The thickness of the absorber and the aperture of the multileaf collimator are dynamically controlled during irradiation, so that the Bragg peak is swept in the depth direction and the Bragg peak outside of the target volume is blocked by the multileaf collimator. The performance of this system was checked by irradiation of a phantom using a 290 MeV/nucleon carbon beam. The dose distribution realized by this three-dimensional irradiation agreed satisfactorily with the planned one.

  15. Processing of diamondlike carbon using plasma immersion ion deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma immersion ion deposition (PIID) has been used to synthesize hard amorphous hydrogenated carbon or diamondlike carbon (DLC) thin films on Si substrates with rf inductive plasmas of various Ar and C2H2 gas mixtures. The surface hardness and stress of the films were highly dependent on the magnitude of the total rf power and the pulse-bias duty factor. The ratios of the ion flux and the film deposition flux, Ji/Jd, were estimated and correlated with DLC film stress, hardness, and the amount of argon and hydrogen content retained. The DLC properties (hardness and film stress) were maximal when the Ji/Jd value ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The balance between ion-energy transfer and relaxation in the surface and subsurface carbon atoms may explain the DLC growth in this work. The role of ion-current flux in the PIID process was found to be as important as it is in conventional ion beam assisted deposition processing. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  16. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  17. Dose Response of Alanine Detectors Irradiated with Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type, when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behaviour of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results with model predictions....... Methods: Alanine detectors have been irradiated with carbon ions with an energy range of 89-400 MeV/u. The relative effectiveness of alanine has been measured in this regime. Pristine and spread out Bragg peak depth-dose curves have been measured with alanine dosimeters. The track-structure based alanine...... response model developed by J. Hansen and K. Olsen has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, and calculations were compared with experimental results. Results: Calculations of the relative effectiveness deviate less than 5% from the measured values for mono energetic beams. Measured depth...

  18. Comparison of the Effects of Carbon Ion and Photon Irradiation on the Angiogenic Response in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiotherapy resistance is a commonly encountered problem in cancer treatment. In this regard, stabilization of endothelial cells and release of angiogenic factors by cancer cells contribute to this problem. In this study, we used human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells to compare the effects of carbon ion and X-ray irradiation on the cells' angiogenic response. Methods and Materials: A549 cells were irradiated with biologically equivalent doses for cell survival of either carbon ions (linear energy transfer, 170 keV/μm; energy of 9.8 MeV/u on target) or X-rays and injected with basement membrane matrix into BALB/c nu/nu mice to generate a plug, allowing quantification of angiogenesis by blood vessel enumeration. The expression of angiogenic factors (VEGF, PlGF, SDF-1, and SCF) was assessed at the mRNA and secreted protein levels by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Signal transduction mediated by stem cell factor (SCF) was assessed by phosphorylation of its receptor c-Kit. For inhibition of SCF/c-Kit signaling, a specific SCF/c-Kit inhibitor (ISCK03) was used. Results: Irradiation of A549 cells with X-rays (6 Gy) but not carbon ions (2 Gy) resulted in a significant increase in blood vessel density (control, 20.71 ± 1.55; X-ray, 36.44 ± 3.44; carbon ion, 16.33 ± 1.03; number per microscopic field). Concordantly, irradiation with X-rays but not with carbon ions increased the expression of SCF and subsequently caused phosphorylation of c-Kit in endothelial cells. ISCK03 treatment of A549 cells irradiated with X-rays (6 Gy) resulted in a significant decrease in blood vessel density (X-ray, 36.44 ± 3.44; X-ray and ISCK03, 4.33 ± 0.71; number of microscopic field). These data indicate that irradiation of A549 cells with X-rays but not with carbon ions promotes angiogenesis. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that SCF is an X-ray-induced mediator of angiogenesis in A549 cells, a phenomenon that

  19. Ion Exclusion by Sub 2-nm Carbon Nanotube Pores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, F; Park, H G; Holt, J K; Stadermann, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Noy, A; Bakajin, O

    2008-04-09

    Carbon nanotubes offer an outstanding platform for studying molecular transport at nanoscale, and have become promising materials for nanofluidics and membrane technology due to their unique combination of physical, chemical, mechanical, and electronic properties. In particular, both simulations and experiments have proved that fluid flow through carbon nanotubes of nanometer size diameter is exceptionally fast compared to what continuum hydrodynamic theories would predict when applied on this length scale, and also, compared to conventional membranes with pores of similar size, such as zeolites. For a variety of applications such as separation technology, molecular sensing, drug delivery, and biomimetics, selectivity is required together with fast flow. In particular, for water desalination, coupling the enhancement of the water flux with selective ion transport could drastically reduce the cost of brackish and seawater desalting. In this work, we study the ion selectivity of membranes made of aligned double-walled carbon nanotubes with sub-2 nm diameter. Negatively charged groups are introduced at the opening of the carbon nanotubes by oxygen plasma treatment. Reverse osmosis experiments coupled with capillary electrophoresis analysis of permeate and feed show significant anion and cation rejection. Ion exclusion declines by increasing ionic strength (concentration) of the feed and by lowering solution pH; also, the highest rejection is observed for the A{sub m}{sup Z{sub A}} C{sub n}{sup Z{sub C}} salts (A=anion, C=cation, z= valence) with the greatest Z{sub A}/Z{sub C} ratio. Our results strongly support a Donnan-type rejection mechanism, dominated by electrostatic interactions between fixed membrane charges and mobile ions, while steric and hydrodynamic effects appear to be less important. Comparison with commercial nanofiltration membranes for water softening reveals that our carbon nanotube membranes provides far superior water fluxes for similar ion

  20. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Carbon-ion exposure reduced cell growth. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human leukemia cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for leukemia cells. (author)

  1. Modification of diamond-like carbon by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were irradiated with swift heavy ion beams of varying energy and angles of incidence. The irradiation created electrically conducting tracks in the DLC-films by transforming sp3 into sp2 bonds. The DLC-films were analyzed by conductive atomic force microscopy. The images were used to identify ion impact sites, and I-V-Spectroscopy was applied to determine the conductivity of the tracks. High energy ions (2.2 GeV, Au25+) created tracks with ohmic conductivity in the case of perpendicular bombardment, whereas grazing irradiation results in tracks that show mainly tunneling behavior. Low energy ions (100 MeV, Xe23+) created tracks which exhibit tunneling behaviour after perpendicular incidence irradiation, but irradiation under 1 did not result in conductive tracks.

  2. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cavoto, G; Cocina, F; Ferretti, J; Polosa, A D

    2016-01-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (~ 10 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with ...

  3. WIMP detection and slow ion dynamics in carbon nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavoto, G.; Cirillo, E. N. M.; Cocina, F.; Ferretti, J.; Polosa, A. D.

    2016-06-01

    Large arrays of aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), open at one end, could be used as target material for the directional detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles (WIMPs). As a result of a WIMP elastic scattering on a CNT, a carbon ion might be injected in the body of the array and propagate through multiple collisions within the lattice. The ion may eventually emerge from the surface with open end CNTs, provided that its longitudinal momentum is large enough to compensate energy losses and its transverse momentum approaches the channeling conditions in a single CNT. Therefore, the angle formed between the WIMP wind apparent orientation and the direction of parallel carbon nanotube axes must be properly chosen. We focus on very low ion recoil kinetic energies, related to low mass WIMPs (≈ 11 GeV) where most of the existing experiments have low sensitivity. Relying on some exact results on two-dimensional lattices of circular obstacles, we study the low energy ion motion in the transverse plane with respect to CNT directions. New constraints are obtained on how to devise the CNT arrays to maximize the target channeling efficiency.

  4. Gated ion transport through dense carbon nanotube membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Miao; Funke, Hans H; Falconer, John L; Noble, Richard D

    2010-06-23

    Gated ion diffusion is found widely in hydrophobic biological nanopores, upon changes in ligand binding, temperature, transmembrane voltage, and mechanical stress. Because water is the main media for ion diffusion in these hydrophobic biological pores, ion diffusion behavior through these nanochannels is expected to be influenced significantly when water wettability in hydrophobic biological nanopores is sensitive and changes upon small external changes. Here, we report for the first time that ion diffusion through highly hydrophobic nanopores (approximately 3 nm) showed a gated behavior due to change of water wettability on hydrophobic surface upon small temperature change or ultrasound. Dense carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes with both 3-nm CNTs and 3-nm interstitial pores were prepared by a solvent evaporation process and used as a model system to investigate ion diffusion behavior. Ion diffusion through these membranes exhibited a gated behavior. The ion flux was turned on and off, apparently because the water wettability of CNTs changed. At 298 K, ion diffusion through dense CNT membranes stopped after a few hours, but it dramatically increased when the temperature was increased 20 K or the membrane was subjected to ultrasound. Likewise, water adsorption on dense CNT membranes increased dramatically at a water activity of 0.53 when the temperature increased from 293 to 306 K, indicating capillary condensation. Water adsorption isotherms of dense CNT membranes suggest that the adsorbed water forms a discontinuous phase at 293 K, but it probably forms a continuous layer, probably in the interstitial CNT regions, at higher temperatures. When the ion diffusion channel was opened by a temperature increase or ultrasound, ions diffused through the CNT membranes at a rate similar to bulk diffusion in water. This finding may have implications for using CNT membrane for desalination and water treatment. PMID:20504021

  5. Coprecipitation of alkali metal ions with calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coprecipitation of alkali metal ions Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+ with calcium carbonate has been studied experimentally and the following results have been obtained: (1) Alkali metal ions are more easily coprecipitated with aragonite than with calcite. (2) The relationship between the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with aragonite and their ionic radii shows a parabolic curve with a peak located at Na+ which has approximately the same ionic radius as Ca2+. (3) However, the amounts of alkali metal ions coprecipitated with calcite decrease with increasing ionic radius of alkali metals. (4) Our results support the hypothesis that (a) alkali metals are in interstitial positions in the crystal structure of calcite and do not substitute for Ca2+ in the lattice, but (b) in aragonite, alkali metals substitute for Ca2+ in the crystal structure. (5) Magnesium ions in the parent solution increase the amounts of alkali metal ions (Li+, Na+, K+ and Rb+) coprecipitated with calcite but decrease those with aragonite. (6) Sodium-bearing aragonite decreases the incorporation of other alkali metal ions (Li+, K+ and Rb+) into the aragonite. (author)

  6. Contribution of secondary particles to the dose in 12C radiotherapy and other heavy ion beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jadrníčková, Iva; Spurný, František; Molokanov, A. G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, 1-4 (2007), s. 657-659. ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : secondery particles * radiotherapy * LET spectrometer Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2007

  7. Dose- and time-dependent gene expression alterations in prostate and colon cancer cells after in vitro exposure to carbon ion and X-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrontherapy is an advanced form of radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (such as protons and carbon ions). Compared with conventional radiotherapy, the main advantages of carbon ion therapy are the precise absorbed dose localization, along with an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE). This high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. Currently, hadrontherapy is being used for the treatment of specific types of cancer. Previous in vitro studies have shown that, under certain circumstances, exposure to charged particles may inhibit cell motility and migration. In the present study, we investigated the expression of four motility-related genes in prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell lines after exposure to different radiation types. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5 and 2 Gy) of accelerated 13C-ions at the GANIL facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays. Clonogenic assays were performed to determine the RBE. RT-qPCR analysis showed dose- and time-dependent changes in the expression of CCDC88A, FN1, MYH9 and ROCK1 in both cell lines. However, whereas in PC3 cells the response to carbon ion irradiation was enhanced compared with X-irradiation, the effect was the opposite in Caco-2 cells, indicating cell-type–specific responses to the different radiation types. (author)

  8. Pore-size ion-size correlations for carbon supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiola, John

    2009-08-01

    Carbon supercapacitors, which are energy storage devices that use ion adsorption on the surface of highly porous materials to store charge, have numerous advantages over other power-source technologies, but could realize further gains if their electrodes were properly optimized. This could lead to fleet-wide improvements in economy, performance, lifetime and environmental impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), as well as enable or advance many other applications. To determine correlations between ion-size and pore-size in carbon supercapacitors, we generated a well-characterized set of porous carbide-derived carbons (CDC) with average pore sizes from 0.6 to 2.25 nm and used them to probe the limits of understanding. Performing the first systematic study of the effect of pore size on capacitance showed that, in general, decreasing the pore size below the size of the solvated ion, or to precisely the size of the ionic liquid ion, allowed higher accumulation of charge. Using CDC with properly tuned porosity showed excellent performance in H2SO 4, ˜200 F/g, and performance superior to all prior reported results in organic (CH3CH2)4NBF4 (TEABF 4) electrolytes as well as l-ethyl-3-methyl immidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid, ˜150 F/g. This work conclusively showed that precisely matching the pore size with the ion size is the key factor for maximizing capacitance. Understanding that pores significantly larger than the effective ion size do not have large contributions to energy storage, work on dense porous CDC films on conductive substrates showed ˜100% larger volumetric capacitance than any previously reported. Depositing patterned films of carbide and electrical contacts could lead to microfabricated energy storage devices directly on a chip, or built up in layers for performances yet unrealized.

  9. Dual ion beam deposition of carbon films with diamondlike properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamondlike films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  10. Influence of Age on the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation for Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imaoka, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: t_imaoka@nirs.go.jp [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Nishimura, Mayumi; Daino, Kazuhiro [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kokubo, Toshiaki [Department of Technical Support and Development, Research Development and Support Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Doi, Kazutaka [Regulatory Sciences Research Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Iizuka, Daisuke [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Molecular Radiobiology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nishimura, Yukiko [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Okutani, Tomomi [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Takabatake, Masaru [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiological Sciences, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya [Radiobiology for Children' s Health Program, Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The risk of developing secondary cancer after radiotherapy, especially after treatment of childhood cancers, remains a matter of concern. The high biological effects of carbon-ion radiation have enabled powerful radiotherapy, yet the approach is commonly restricted to the treatment of adults. Susceptibility of the fetus to particle radiation–induced cancer is also unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of carbon-ion irradiation in childhood on breast carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: We irradiated female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages (embryonic days 3, 13, and 17 and 1, 3, 7, and 15 weeks after birth) with {sup 137}Cs γ rays or a 290-MeV/u monoenergetic carbonion beam (linear energy transfer, 13 keV/μm). All animals were screened weekly for mammary carcinoma by palpation until they were 90 weeks old. Results: Irradiation of fetal and mature (15-week-old) rats with either radiation source at a dose of 0.2 or 1 Gy did not substantially increase the hazard ratio compared with the nonirradiated group. Dose responses (0.2-2.0 Gy) to γ rays were similar among the groups of rats irradiated 1, 3, and 7 weeks after birth. The effect of carbon ions increased along with the age at the time of irradiation, indicating relative biological effectiveness values of 0.2 (−0.3, 0.7), 1.3 (1.0, 1.6), and 2.8 (1.8, 3.9) (mean and 95% confidence interval) for animals that were 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings imply that carbonion therapy may be associated with a risk of secondary breast cancer in humans, the extent of which may depend on the age of the patient at the time of irradiation.

  11. Influence of Age on the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ion Radiation for Induction of Rat Mammary Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The risk of developing secondary cancer after radiotherapy, especially after treatment of childhood cancers, remains a matter of concern. The high biological effects of carbon-ion radiation have enabled powerful radiotherapy, yet the approach is commonly restricted to the treatment of adults. Susceptibility of the fetus to particle radiation–induced cancer is also unclear. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of carbon-ion irradiation in childhood on breast carcinogenesis. Methods and Materials: We irradiated female Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages (embryonic days 3, 13, and 17 and 1, 3, 7, and 15 weeks after birth) with 137Cs γ rays or a 290-MeV/u monoenergetic carbonion beam (linear energy transfer, 13 keV/μm). All animals were screened weekly for mammary carcinoma by palpation until they were 90 weeks old. Results: Irradiation of fetal and mature (15-week-old) rats with either radiation source at a dose of 0.2 or 1 Gy did not substantially increase the hazard ratio compared with the nonirradiated group. Dose responses (0.2-2.0 Gy) to γ rays were similar among the groups of rats irradiated 1, 3, and 7 weeks after birth. The effect of carbon ions increased along with the age at the time of irradiation, indicating relative biological effectiveness values of 0.2 (−0.3, 0.7), 1.3 (1.0, 1.6), and 2.8 (1.8, 3.9) (mean and 95% confidence interval) for animals that were 1, 3, and 7 weeks of age, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings imply that carbonion therapy may be associated with a risk of secondary breast cancer in humans, the extent of which may depend on the age of the patient at the time of irradiation

  12. Study of the magnets used for a mobile isocenter carbon ion gantry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design of a mobile isocenter carbon ion gantry was carried out in the framework of the Particle Training Network for European Radiotherapy (PARTNER) and Union of Light Ion Centres in Europe (ULICE) projects. To validate the magnets used in this gantry, Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations were performed with COMSOL multiphysics; the purpose was to evaluate the magnetic field quality and the influence of additional support structures for correctors, 90° bending dipole and quadrupoles, both in dynamic and static regimes. Due to the low ramp rates, the dynamic effects do not disturb the homogeneity and the magnetic field level. The differences between the stationary field and the corresponding dynamic field after the end of the ramps are in the order of 10-4; it implies that the magnets can be operated without significant field lag at the nominal ramp rate. However, even in static regime the magnetic length of corrector magnet decreases by 5% when the rotator mechanical structure is considered. The simulations suggest an optimization phase of the correctors in the rotator. (author)

  13. Effects of glycine betaine on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we investigated the effects of glycine betaine (GB) on bone marrow death and intestinal damage by gamma rays or carbon ions. C3H/He female mice received an i.p.-injection of GB before or after whole-body irradiation with gamma rays or 50 keV μm-1 carbon ions. The irradiated mice were observed to determine the mortality for 30 days after exposure. Mice were also killed at 3.5 days after the exposure to determine the intestinal damage. The numbers of crypts per transverse circumference were counted using a microscope. For the bone marrow death, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the percentage survival for both radiations. For the intestinal damage, GB (93 mg GB per mouse) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crypt survival for gamma rays, but not for carbon ions. GB might be a potential protector against normal tissue damage as a side effect in radiotherapy. (authors)

  14. Isotopic anomaly for carbon ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drentje, A G; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M

    2010-02-01

    In many experiments methods were applied to increase the highly charged ion output from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source; the gas-mixing method is still generally being applied. The dominant role of the masses of the ions in the gas-mixture was apparent. Two basically differing mechanisms could to first order explain most of the observations. A significant mass effect showed up in a mixture of oxygen isotopes, the so-called oxygen anomaly; so far that effect could be explained in zeroth order only. The anomaly was observed later for nitrogen isotopes as well. In the present experiment it is shown that the anomaly also exists for carbon isotopes, where the necessity of feeding the source with carbon-hydrogen compounds brings about an essential different experimental fact. PMID:20192439

  15. The temperature and carbonate ion influence on Pleistocene high latitude planktonic foraminiferal carbon isotopic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, C.; Foreman, A. D.; Munson, J.; Slowey, N. C.; Hodell, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Establishing a credible record of the carbon isotopic composition of high latitude surface ocean DIC over ice ages has been an enormous challenge, because the possible archives of this important variable in deep sea sediments all incorporate complex effects of the biomineralization process. For example, culture experiments (by Spero and colleagues) demonstrate a strong temperature and carbonate ion effect on the carbon isotopic composition of G. bulloides--the taxon of planktonic foraminifera that is most abundant in the majority of subpolar sediment sequences. Here we capitalize on the fortuitous observation of exceptionally strong covariation between the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of G. bulloides in multiple sediment sequences from the Benguela upwelling region. The covariation is most clear during Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (an interval when the isotopic composition of the seawater was least variable) and undoubtedly results from the precipitation of tests under variable conditions of temperature and carbonate ion. The unusually clear isotopic relationship in planktonic foraminifera observed off Namibia constitutes a field calibration of the biomineralization effects observed in culture, and we apply it to previously published high latitude carbon isotopic records throughout the Southern Ocean. We find that many of the excursions toward lower planktonic foraminiferal δ13C that have been interpreted previously as the upwelling of nutrient rich water during deglaciations are better explained as increases in upper ocean temperature and carbonate ion. Conversely, the excursions toward high δ13C during ice age intervals that have been interpreted previously as increased export production (purportedly stimulated by dust) are also better explained by temperature and carbonate ion variability. After removal of the inferred temperature and carbonate ion signal from the planktonic foraminiferal time series, the residual is essentially (but not exactly) the same

  16. Precise measurement of prompt photon emission for carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C

    2011-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the information provided by single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. This paper reports the measurements of the spectrum and rate of such photons produced from the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of INFN, Catania, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. The differential production rate for photons with energy E > 2 MeV and emitted at 90 degree is found to be $dN_{\\gamma}/(dN_C d\\Omega)=(2.92\\pm 0.19)\\times 10^{-2}$sr$^{-1}$.

  17. Activated carbon is an electron-conducting amphoteric ion adsorbent

    CERN Document Server

    Biesheuvel, P M

    2015-01-01

    Electrodes composed of activated carbon (AC) particles can desalinate water by ion electrosorption. To describe ion electrosorption mathematically, accurate models are required for the structure of the electrical double layers (EDLs) that form within electrically charged AC micropores. To account for salt adsorption also in uncharged ACs, an "attraction term" was introduced in modified Donnan models for the EDL structure in ACs. Here it will be shown how instead of using an attraction term, chemical information of the surface structure of the carbon-water interface in ACs can be used to construct an alternative EDL model for ACs. This EDL model assumes that ACs contain both acidic groups, for instance due to carboxylic functionalities, and basic groups, due to the adsorption of protons to the carbon basal planes. As will be shown, this "amphoteric Donnan" model accurately describes various data sets for ion electrosorption in ACs, for solutions of NaCl, of CaCl2, and mixtures thereof, as function of the exter...

  18. Kinetics of ion beam deposition of carbon at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth rates of carbon films grown by ion beam deposition using methane gas were measured in situ as a function of deposition conditions. The methane pressure dependence of the growth rate was used to measure the cross-section for charge exchange. Variations in deposition rate per incident energetic particle found for each ion energy were related to ion current density. It was found that rates of growth per incident energetic specie were (i) largest for the smallest current densities, (ii) decreased monotonically with increasing current density, and (iii) were consistently larger than can be explained by deposition directly from the energetic flux alone. These observations were interpreted in terms of irradiation-induced surface interactions which promote chemisorption of methane physisorbed from the ambient atmosphere. (orig.)

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on carbon nanotube field emission x-ray technology. We report on a Monte Carlo based feasibility study of the compact MRT system design. Methods: Monte Carlo calculations were performed using EGSnrc-based codes. The proposed small animal research MRT device design includes carbon nanotube cathodes shaped to match the corresponding MRT collimator apertures, a common reflection anode with filter, and a MRT collimator. Each collimator aperture is sized to deliver a beam width ranging from 30 to 200 μm at 18.6 cm source-to-axis distance. Design parameters studied with Monte Carlo include electron energy, cathode design, anode angle, filtration, and collimator design. Calculations were performed for single and multibeam configurations. Results: Increasing the energy from 100 kVp to 160 kVp increased the photon fluence through the collimator by a factor of 1.7. Both energies produced a largely uniform fluence along the long dimension of the microbeam, with 5% decreases in intensity near the edges. The isocentric dose rate for 160 kVp was calculated to be 700 Gy/min/A in the center of a 3 cm diameter target. Scatter contributions resulting from collimator size were found to produce only small (<7%) changes in the dose rate for field widths greater than 50 μm. Dose vs depth was weakly dependent on filtration material. The peak-to-valley ratio varied from 10 to 100 as the separation between adjacent microbeams varies from 150 to 1000 μm. Conclusions: Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate

  20. Neutron imaging of ion transport in mesoporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ketki; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Walker, Lakeisha M H; Voisin, Sophie; Mayes, Richard T; Kiggans, Jim O; Yiacoumi, Sotira; DePaoli, David W; Dai, Sheng; Tsouris, Costas

    2013-07-28

    Neutron imaging is presented as a tool for quantifying the diffusion of ions inside porous materials, such as carbon electrodes used in the desalination process via capacitive deionization and in electrochemical energy-storage devices. Monolithic mesoporous carbon electrodes of ∼10 nm pore size were synthesized based on a soft-template method. The electrodes were used with an aqueous solution of gadolinium nitrate in an electrochemical flow-through cell designed for neutron imaging studies. Sequences of neutron images were obtained under various conditions of applied potential between the electrodes. The images revealed information on the direction and magnitude of ion transport within the electrodes. From the time-dependent concentration profiles inside the electrodes, the average value of the effective diffusion coefficient for gadolinium ions was estimated to be 2.09 ± 0.17 × 10(-11) m(2) s(-1) at 0 V and 1.42 ± 0.06 × 10(-10) m(2) s(-1) at 1.2 V. The values of the effective diffusion coefficient obtained from neutron imaging experiments can be used to evaluate model predictions of the ion transport rate in capacitive deionization and electrochemical energy-storage devices. PMID:23756558

  1. Carbon Ionic Conductors for use in Novel Carbon-Ion Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin H. Cocks; W. Neal Simmons; Paul A. Klenk

    2005-11-01

    Carbon-consuming fuel cells have many potential advantages, including increased efficiency and reduced pollution in power generation from coal. A large amount of work has already been done on coal fuel cells that utilize yttria-stabilized zirconium carbide as an oxygen-ion superionic membrane material. But high-temperature fuel cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconium require partial combustion of coal to carbon monoxide before final oxidation to carbon dioxide occurs via utilization of the oxygen- ion zirconia membrane. A carbon-ion superionic membrane material would enable an entirely new class of carbon fuel cell to be developed, one that would use coal directly as the fuel source, without any intervening combustion process. However, a superionic membrane material for carbon ions has not yet been found. Because no partial combustion of coal would be required, a carbon-ion superionic conductor would allow the direct conversion of coal to electricity and pure CO{sub 2} without the formation of gaseous pollutants. The objective of this research was to investigate ionic lanthanide carbides, which have an unusually high carbon-bond ionicity as potential superionic carbide-ion conductors. A first step in this process is the stabilization of these carbides in the cubic structure, and this stabilization has been achieved via the preparation of pseudobinary lanthanide carbides. The diffusion rates of carbon have been measured in these carbides as stabilized to preserve the high temperature cubic structure down to room temperature. To prepare these new compounds and measure these diffusion rates, a novel, oxide-based preparation method and a new C{sup 13}/C{sup 12} diffusion technique have been developed. The carbon diffusion rates in La{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, Ce{sup 0.5}Er{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and La{sup 0.5}Y{sup 0.5}C{sub 2}, and Ce{sup 0.5}Tm0.5C{sub 2} modified by the addition of 5 wt %Be{sub 2}C, have been determined at temperatures from 850 C to 1150 C. The

  2. Carbon Cryogel and Carbon Paper-Based Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 6 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-5 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  3. Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Carbon Cryogels and Carbon Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nanofoams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  4. Measurements of Dose-Averaged Linear Energy Transfer Distributions in Water Using CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detector for Therapeutic Carbon Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Takeshi, Himukai; Kase, Yuki; Ochiai, Keiko; Komori, Masataka; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2005-12-01

    A CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector was used as a linear energy transfer (LET) detector for carbon ion radiotherapy. We compared dose-averaged LET distributions in water obtained using the CR-39 detector for a monoenergetic beam and spread-out Bragg peak beam by calculations using the one-dimensional heavy-ion transport code used in the current heavy-ion treatment planning. We confirmed that the CR-39 detector could measure the high LET particles that are dominant contributors to dose-averaged LET. On the other hand, the CR-39 result was overestimated in the tail region of the distal edge in depth-dose distributions, due to its detection limit for lower LET particles. However, physical dose in the region is quite small. Namely, the effect of this difference on the biological dose distribution is also small. These results demonstrate that the CR-39 detector is a useful detector for measuring the LET distribution in carbon ion radiotherapy.

  5. Carbon Nanotubes Produced from Ambient Carbon Dioxide for Environmentally Sustainable Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The cost and practicality of greenhouse gas removal processes, which are critical for environmental sustainability, pivot on high-value secondary applications derived from carbon capture and conversion techniques. Using the solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP), ambient CO2 captured in molten lithiated carbonates leads to the production of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high yield through electrolysis using inexpensive steel electrodes. These low-cost CO2-derived CNTs and CNFs are demonstrated as high performance energy storage materials in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Owing to synthetic control of sp3 content in the synthesized nanostructures, optimized storage capacities are measured over 370 mAh g–1 (lithium) and 130 mAh g–1 (sodium) with no capacity fade under durability tests up to 200 and 600 cycles, respectively. This work demonstrates that ambient CO2, considered as an environmental pollutant, can be attributed economic value in grid-scale and portable energy storage systems with STEP scale-up practicality in the context of combined cycle natural gas electric power generation.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes Produced from Ambient Carbon Dioxide for Environmentally Sustainable Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Stuart; Douglas, Anna; Ren, Jiawen; Carter, Rachel; Lefler, Matthew; Pint, Cary L

    2016-03-23

    The cost and practicality of greenhouse gas removal processes, which are critical for environmental sustainability, pivot on high-value secondary applications derived from carbon capture and conversion techniques. Using the solar thermal electrochemical process (STEP), ambient CO2 captured in molten lithiated carbonates leads to the production of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at high yield through electrolysis using inexpensive steel electrodes. These low-cost CO2-derived CNTs and CNFs are demonstrated as high performance energy storage materials in both lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries. Owing to synthetic control of sp(3) content in the synthesized nanostructures, optimized storage capacities are measured over 370 mAh g(-1) (lithium) and 130 mAh g(-1) (sodium) with no capacity fade under durability tests up to 200 and 600 cycles, respectively. This work demonstrates that ambient CO2, considered as an environmental pollutant, can be attributed economic value in grid-scale and portable energy storage systems with STEP scale-up practicality in the context of combined cycle natural gas electric power generation. PMID:27163042

  7. Development and characterization of a 2D scintillation detector for quality assurance in scanned carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, A.; Raffaele, L.; Mirandola, A.; Molinelli, S.; Viviani, C.; Spampinato, S.; Ciocca, M.

    2016-04-01

    At the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO Foundation), a two-dimensional high resolution scintillating dosimetry system has been developed and tested for daily Quality Assurance measurements (QA) in carbon ion radiotherapy with active scanning technique, for both single pencil beams and scanned fields produced by a synchrotron accelerator. The detector consists of a thin plane organic scintillator (25×25 cm2, 2 mm thick) coupled with a high spatial resolution CCD camera (0.25 mm) in a light-tight box. A dedicated Labview software was developed for image acquisition triggered with the beam extraction, data post-processing and analysis. The scintillator system was preliminary characterized in terms of short-term reproducibility (found to be within±0.5%), linearity with the number of particles (linear fit χ2 = 0.996) and dependence on particle flux (measured to be < 1.5 %). The detector was then tested for single beam spot measurements (Full Width at Half Maximum and position) and for 6×6 cm2 reference scanned field (determination of homogeneity) for carbon ions with energy from 115 MeV/u up to 400 MeV/u. No major differences in the investigated beam parameters measured with scintillator system and the radiochromic EBT3 reference films were observed. The system allows therefore real-time monitoring of the carbon ion beam relevant parameters, with a significant daily time saving with respect to films currently used. The results of this study show the suitability of the scintillation detector for daily QA in a carbon ion facility with an active beam delivery system.

  8. Production of defects in supported carbon nanotubes under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion irradiation of individual carbon nanotubes deposited on substrates may be used for making metallic nanowires and studying effects of disorder on the electronic transport in low-dimensional systems. In order to understand the basic physical mechanisms of radiation damage production in supported nanotubes, we employ molecular dynamics and simulate ion impacts on nanotubes lying on different substrates, such as platinum and graphite. We show that defect production depends on the type of the substrate and that the damage is higher for metallic heavy-atom substrates than for light-atom substrates, since in the former case sputtered metal atoms and backscattered recoils produce extra damage in the nanotube. We further study the behavior of defects upon high-temperature annealing and demonstrate that although ions may severely damage nanotubes in a local region, the nanotube carbon network can heal such a strong localized damage due to defect migration and dangling-bond saturation. We also show that after annealing the residual damage in nanotubes is independent of the substrate type. We predict the pinning of nanotubes to substrates through nanotube-substrate bonds that appear near irradiation-induced defects

  9. Ion solvation in propylene carbonate and its mixtures with water and methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solvodynamic radii and solvation numbers of some ions (including I-) in propylene carbonate as well as their solvodynamic radii in mixtures of propylene carbonate-water and propylene carbonate-methanol were determined. Effect of medium components and solvated ion characteristics on the process of ion solvation was considered. It is shown that small size anions in propylene carbonate are weakly solvated, whereas bulky lightly polarized anions interact strongly with the solvent. Addition of water or methanol to propylene carbonate leads to intensification of ion solvation

  10. Comparison of human chordoma cell-kill for 290 MeV/n carbon ions versus 70 MeV protons in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the pace of commissioning of new charged particle radiation therapy facilities is accelerating worldwide, biological data pertaining to chordomas, theoretically and clinically optimally suited targets for particle radiotherapy, are still lacking. In spite of the numerous clinical reports of successful treatment of these malignancies with this modality, the characterization of this malignancy remains hampered by its characteristic slow cell growth, particularly in vitro. Cellular lethality of U-CH1-N cells in response to different qualities of radiation was compared with immediate plating after radiation or as previously reported using the multilayered OptiCell™ system. The OptiCell™ system was used to evaluate cellular lethality over a broad dose-depth deposition range of particle radiation to anatomically mimic the clinical setting. Cells were irradiated with either 290 MeV/n accelerated carbon ions or 70 MeV accelerated protons and photons and evaluated through colony formation assays at a single position or at each depth, depending on the system. There was a cell killing of approximately 20–40% for all radiation qualities in the OptiCell™ system in which chordoma cells are herein described as more radiation sensitive than regular colony formation assay. The relative biological effectiveness values were, however, similar in both in vitro systems for any given radiation quality. Relative biological effectiveness values of proton was 0.89, of 13–20 keV/μm carbon ions was 0.85, of 20–30 keV/μm carbon ions was 1.27, and >30 keV/μm carbon ions was 1.69. Carbon-ions killed cells depending on both the dose and the LET, while protons depended on the dose alone in the condition of our study. This is the first report and characterization of a direct comparison between the effects of charged particle carbon ions versus protons for a chordoma cell line in vitro. Our results support a potentially superior therapeutic value of carbon particle irradiation

  11. In vitro co-culture experiments on prostate cancer and small intestine cells irradiated with carbon ions and x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) delivers the dose in many small irradiation fields of different beam direction to achieve a 3 dimensional tumour conformal dose overlapping with a maximum of normal tissue protection. In 2006 a study was started at GSI to treat prostate cancer patients with a boost irradiation of carbon ions in combination with an IMRT treatment administered at the Uniklinikum Heidelberg. The carbon ions are delivered in two opposing fields. So IMRT irradiation includes more normal tissue than carbon ion treatment but even here parts of the rectum and the bladder are in the irradiated field. This raises the question whether the irradiated tumor cells influence the normal cells (irradiated/ unirradiated) but also whether the normal irradiated cells influences normal tissue in a different way for carbon and photon irradiation. To study this problem, we established an in vitro co-culture model of prostate cancer and small intestine cells of the rat to simulate the patient treatment situation for analyzing tissue reaction exemplary. For characterization of the cells lines the parameters alpha and beta (linear quadratic model) for clonogenic survival were determined for x-rays and for carbon ions of different energies. For co-culture experiments unirradiated and irradiated cells were seeded together and the survival was analyzed

  12. Carbon-cluster formation from polymers caused by MeV-ion impacts and keV-cluster-ion impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehnelt, C. W.; van Stipdonk, M. J.; Schweikert, E. A.

    1999-06-01

    It has been observed that under MeV-ion bombardment of a polymer, such as polycarbonate (PC) or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), large quantities of carbon clusters (C-n and CnH-) are generated. However, when PC or PVDF is bombarded with keV atomic ions, very few carbon-cluster ions are produced. This different behavior was attributed to the different sputtering/desorption mechanisms for keV- and MeV-ion impacts. Low-energy keV ions deposit their energy into a solid through nuclear stopping, while MeV ions deposit their energy mainly through electronic stopping. The formation of carbon clusters is thought to be facilitated by the high-temperatures and high-energy densities produced in the region nearest the point of MeV-ion impact, the infratrack region. We have observed extensive carbon-cluster formation from PC and PVDF under keV-cluster-ion bombardment. Despite the vastly different velocities of the high- and low-energy projectiles, identical carbon-cluster trends are produced from MeV 252Cf fission fragments and 20-keV C+60 projectile impacts on the same target. This leads us to the conclusion that a polyatomic ion impact, which deposits its kinetic energy near the surface, may create a region of high-temperature and high-energy density that is similar to the infratrack of a MeV-ion impact.

  13. Brady-tachycardia syndrome after radiotherapy for lung cancer. Assessment by computed tomography and carbon-11 methionine positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 74-year-old male who had received radiotherapy (total 54 Gy) for right lung cancer 7 months earlier developed a symptomatic brady-tachycardia syndrome requiring the implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Chest CT showed a pulmonary tumor of 2-cm diameter in the right lower lobe with direct extension into the surrounding tissue, suggesting the possibility of cardiac invasion. Carbon-11 methionine positron emission tomography (PET) indicated the absence of visible invasion of the heart with lung cancer. The brady-tachycardia syndrome, therefore, was considered to be associated with sinus node injury due to radiation. Carbon-11 methionine PET metabolic imaging might play an important role in evaluating noninvasively the cause of the arrhythmia in this patient. (author)

  14. Radiative transitions in highly-stripped carbon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transition energies and weighted absorption oscillator strength (gf) values are evaluated for a number of dipole-allowed transitions in highly-charged ions Ne4+, Si8+, Ar12+ and Ti16+ belong to the astrophysically important carbon series employing the time-dependent coupled Hartree-Fock (TDCHF) theory. Estimated values compare favourably with other existing results and the new ones repoted here may constitute a useful set for reference. The large-Z behaviour of the gf values is also examined. (orig.)

  15. Regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon saturated with inorganic ions by cavitation united with ion exchange method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gao, Hong; Li, Yansheng; Yang, Huixin

    2011-06-01

    Using ion exchange resin as transfer media, regenerate powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbed inorganic ions by cavitation to enhance the transfer; we studied how the regeneration time and the mass ratio of resin and PAC influence the regeneration rate respectively through re-adsorption. The result showed that the effective regeneration of PAC saturated with inorganic ions was above 90% using ion exchange resin as media and transfer carrier, the quantity of PAC did not reduced but activated in the process. PMID:25084579

  16. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 1017 ions-cm− 2, 2.4 × 1017 ions-cm− 2, and 4.8 × 1017 ions-cm− 2. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation

  17. Dosimetric effects of residual uncertainties in carbon ion treatment of head chordoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate dose distribution variations due to setup errors and range uncertainties in image-guided carbon ion radiotherapy of head chordoma. Materials and methods: Ten treatment plans were retrospectively tested with TRiP98 against ±1.0 mm and ±1.0° setup errors, as observed in clinical routine, and 2.6% range uncertainty when 2 mm CTV-to-PTV margins were applied. Single-fraction simulations were compared with the total treatment dose in terms of DVH bands, conformity and inhomogeneity. The contribution of image processing artifacts on reported results was also discussed, as a function of the imaging dataset resolution. Results: Results showed that safety margins grant the conformal target coverage in presence of setup errors with D95CTV variations below 10% in 7 patients out of 10. Instead, the inclusion of range uncertainty yielded to appreciable dose degradation, reporting larger effects for CTV and dose conformity, whereas reduced impact is found on the organ-at-risk. The fractionation scheme positively affects dose conformity and inhomogeneity; conversely its influence on DVH bands is strongly related to the patient anatomy. Conclusion: Besides safety margins, setup and range uncertainties lead to non-negligible combined contribution. Systematical treatment plan robustness assessment against expected uncertainties is thus encouraged, selecting beam settings and fractionation schemes where homogeneity is preserved

  18. EUD-based biological optimization for carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Treatment planning for carbon ion therapy requires an accurate modeling of the biological response of each tissue to estimate the clinical outcome of a treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) accounts for this biological response on a cellular level but does not refer to the actual impact on the organ as a whole. For photon therapy, the concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) represents a simple model to take the organ response into account, yet so far no formulation of EUD has been reported that is suitable to carbon ion therapy. The authors introduce the concept of an equivalent uniform effect (EUE) that is directly applicable to both ion and photon therapies and exemplarily implemented it as a basis for biological treatment plan optimization for carbon ion therapy. Methods: In addition to a classical EUD concept, which calculates a generalized mean over the RBE-weighted dose distribution, the authors propose the EUE to simplify the optimization process of carbon ion therapy plans. The EUE is defined as the biologically equivalent uniform effect that yields the same probability of injury as the inhomogeneous effect distribution in an organ. Its mathematical formulation is based on the generalized mean effect using an effect-volume parameter to account for different organ architectures and is thus independent of a reference radiation. For both EUD concepts, quadratic and logistic objective functions are implemented into a research treatment planning system. A flexible implementation allows choosing for each structure between biological effect constraints per voxel and EUD constraints per structure. Exemplary treatment plans are calculated for a head-and-neck patient for multiple combinations of objective functions and optimization parameters. Results: Treatment plans optimized using an EUE-based objective function were comparable to those optimized with an RBE-weighted EUD-based approach. In agreement with previous results from photon

  19. EUD-based biological optimization for carbon ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brüningk, Sarah C., E-mail: sarah.brueningk@icr.ac.uk; Kamp, Florian; Wilkens, Jan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Str. 22, München 81675, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, Garching 85748 (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Treatment planning for carbon ion therapy requires an accurate modeling of the biological response of each tissue to estimate the clinical outcome of a treatment. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) accounts for this biological response on a cellular level but does not refer to the actual impact on the organ as a whole. For photon therapy, the concept of equivalent uniform dose (EUD) represents a simple model to take the organ response into account, yet so far no formulation of EUD has been reported that is suitable to carbon ion therapy. The authors introduce the concept of an equivalent uniform effect (EUE) that is directly applicable to both ion and photon therapies and exemplarily implemented it as a basis for biological treatment plan optimization for carbon ion therapy. Methods: In addition to a classical EUD concept, which calculates a generalized mean over the RBE-weighted dose distribution, the authors propose the EUE to simplify the optimization process of carbon ion therapy plans. The EUE is defined as the biologically equivalent uniform effect that yields the same probability of injury as the inhomogeneous effect distribution in an organ. Its mathematical formulation is based on the generalized mean effect using an effect-volume parameter to account for different organ architectures and is thus independent of a reference radiation. For both EUD concepts, quadratic and logistic objective functions are implemented into a research treatment planning system. A flexible implementation allows choosing for each structure between biological effect constraints per voxel and EUD constraints per structure. Exemplary treatment plans are calculated for a head-and-neck patient for multiple combinations of objective functions and optimization parameters. Results: Treatment plans optimized using an EUE-based objective function were comparable to those optimized with an RBE-weighted EUD-based approach. In agreement with previous results from photon

  20. Gel-based Multimodality (CT/MR) Phantoms for Ion Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Niebuhr, Nina Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    The importance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation therapy (RT) has been increasing over the past years. In ion RT, due to its high accuracy and sensitivity to small uncertainties, the treatment planning process based on computed tomography (CT) is currently extended towards MRI. For exploring the potential of new imaging techniques (such as MRI) multimodality phantoms are mandatory. Hereby, interaction properties with photon and ion radiation have to be adjusted i...

  1. Fabrication and Optimization of Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    OpenAIRE

    Somnhot, Parina

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries possess high energy and power densities, making them ideal candidates for energy storage requirements in various military applications. Commercially produced lithium-ion battery anodes are commonly graphitic carbon-based. However, graphitic carbons are limited in surface area and possess slow intercalation kinetics. The energy and power density demands of future technologies require improved lithium-ion battery performance. Carbon nanomaterials, such as carbide-derived c...

  2. Metal carbonates as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Lianyi; Ma, Rui; Wu, Kaiqiang; Shui, Miao; Lao, Mengmeng; Wang, Dongjie; Long, Nengbing; Ren, Yuanlong; Shu, Jie, E-mail: sergio_shu@hotmail.com

    2013-12-25

    Highlights: •Metal carbonates are probable anode materials for lithium ion batteries. •CoCO{sub 3}/C composite can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 2096.6 mAh g{sup −1} . •Co, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}O, and low-valence carbon are final lithiated products for CoCO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Six metal carbonates (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, SrCO{sub 3}, BaCO{sub 3}, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, CoCO{sub 3}) are tested and compared as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. The electrochemical results show that only CoCO{sub 3} is electrochemically active material and can deliver a high initial capacity of 1425.9 mAh g{sup −1}. The lithium storage mechanism in CoCO{sub 3} is studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction technique, ex situ infrared method, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and in situ X-ray diffraction technique. It is found that the electrochemical reactions between CoCO{sub 3} and Li firstly result in the formation of metal Co and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and then partial Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is further reduced into carbon (C{sup 0}), low-valence carbon (C{sup 2+}), and Li{sub 2}O. It also demonstrates that the electrochemical reaction between CoCO{sub 3} and Li is a partially reversible process. Based on these electrochemical results, it is obvious that narrow potential range can acquire a better reversibility for CoCO{sub 3}/Li batteries by suppressing particle pulverization. Besides, the comparison of CoCO{sub 3}, ball-milled CoCO{sub 3} and ball-milled CoCO{sub 3}/C composite also indicates that smaller active particle and carbon buffer are beneficial to obtain better cycling performance and higher reversible capacity.

  3. Complexation of europium(III) with carbonate ions in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium extraction behavior of Eu(III) studied in chloroform solutions containing 1-nitroso-2-naphthol (HA), either alone or combined with 2,2'-dipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) shows that the metal ion is extracted as either EuA3, EuA3.2,2'-dipyridyl, EuA3.phen, or EuA32TOPO, respectively. The synergic effect of phen or TOPO on the extraction of EU(III) with 1-nitrose-2-naphthol is more pronounced over that of 2,2'-dipyridyl. The carbonate complexation of EU(III) has been studied in 1.0 M ionic strength solutions at pH 8.0-9.0 and 250C using the synergic extraction system of 1-nitroso-2-naphthol and phen. The following complexes have been identified: EuCo+3, Eu(CO3)-2, Eu(CO3)3-3, and Eu(CO3)5-4; the results suggest that the first two species predominate at carbonate concentrations and pH similar to those found in most groundwaters. The formation constants of these species have been calculated at zero ionic strength using both SIT and ion pairing models

  4. Mass spectrometry of refractory black carbon particles from six sources: carbon-cluster and oxygenated ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Corbin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the major mass spectral features of different types of refractory carbonaceous particles, ionized after laser vapourization with an Aerodyne High-Resolution Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS. The SP-AMS was operated with a switchable 1064 nm laser and a 600 °C thermal vapourizer, yielding respective measurements of the refractory and non-refractory particle components. Six samples were investigated, all of which were composed primarily of refractory material: fuel-rich and fuel-lean propane/air diffusion-flame combustion particles; graphite-spark-generated particles; a commercial Fullerene-enriched Soot; Regal Black, a commercial carbon black; and nascent aircraft-turbine combustion particles. All samples exhibited a spectrum of carbon-cluster ions Cxn+ in their refractory mass spectrum. Smaller clusters (xxn+ distribution. For Fullerene Soot, fuel-rich-flame particles and spark-generated particles, significant Cxn+ clusters at x≫6 were present, with significant contributions from multiply-charged ions (n>1. In all six cases, the ions C1+ and C3+ contributed over 60% to the total C1x+ intensity. Furthermore, the ratio of these major ions C1+/C3+ could be used to predict whether significant Cxn+ signals with x>5 were present. When such signals were present, C1+/C3+ was close to 1. When absent, C1+/C3+ was Significant refractory oxygenated ions such as CO+ and CO2+ were also observed for all samples. We discuss these signals in detail for Regal Black, and describe their formation via decomposition of oxygenated moieties incorporated into the refractory carbon structure. These species may be of importance in atmospheric processes such as water uptake, aging and heterogeneous chemistry.

  5. Exposure to Carbon Ions Triggers Proinflammatory Signals and Changes in Homeostasis and Epidermal Tissue Organization to a Similar Extent as Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoniello, Palma; Wiedemann, Julia; Zink, Joana; Thoennes, Eva; Stange, Maike; Layer, Paul G.; Kovacs, Maximilian; Podda, Maurizio; Durante, Marco; Fournier, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The increasing application of charged particles in radiotherapy requires a deeper understanding of early and late side effects occurring in skin, which is exposed in all radiation treatments. We measured cellular and molecular changes related to the early inflammatory response of human skin irradiated with carbon ions, in particular cell death induction and changes in differentiation and proliferation of epidermal cells during the first days after exposure. Model systems for human skin from healthy donors of different complexity, i.e., keratinocytes, coculture of skin cells, 3D skin equivalents, and skin explants, were used to investigate the alterations induced by carbon ions (spread-out Bragg peak, dose-averaged LET 100 keV/μm) in comparison to X-ray and UV-B exposure. After exposure to ionizing radiation, in none of the model systems, apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Carbon ions triggered inflammatory signaling and accelerated differentiation of keratinocytes to a similar extent as X-rays at the same doses. High doses of carbon ions were more effective than X-rays in reducing proliferation and inducing abnormal differentiation. In contrast, changes identified following low-dose exposure (≤0.5 Gy) were induced more effectively after X-ray exposure, i.e., enhanced proliferation and change in the polarity of basal cells. PMID:26779439

  6. Exposure to carbon ions triggers pro-inflammatory signals, changes in homeostasis and epidermal tissue organization to a similar extent as photons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma eSimoniello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing application of charged particles in radiotherapy requires a deeper understanding of early and late side effects occurring in skin, which is exposed in all radiation treatments. We measured cellular and molecular changes related to the early inflammatory response of human skin irradiated with carbon ions, in particular cell death induction and changes in differentiation and proliferation of epidermal cells during the first days after exposure.Model systems for human skin from healthy donors of different complexity, i.e. keratinocytes, co-culture of skin cells, 3D skin equivalent and skin explants, were used to investigate the alterations induced by carbon ions (spread-out Bragg-peak, dose averaged LET 100 keV/µm in comparison to X-ray and UV-B exposure. After exposure to ionizing radiation, in none of the model systems apoptosis/necrosis was observed. Carbon ions triggered inflammatory signalling and accelerated differentiation of keratinocytes to a similar extent as X-rays at the same doses. High doses of carbon ions were more effective than X-rays in reducing proliferation and inducing abnormal differentiation. In contrast, changes identified following low dose exposure (≤ 0.5 Gy were induced more effectively after X-ray exposure, i.e. enhanced proliferation and change in the polarity of basal cells.

  7. Exploration of using CT values for treatment planning system to calculate the carbon ion incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the methods of using CT value for Carbon ion treatment planning system to calculate the Carbon ion incident energy. Methods: Bethe-Block formula and the formula for calculating the Car- bon ion range were analyzed to study the relationship of the range of Carbon ion beam (Single nuclear energy 80 MeV -50 MeV) in a variety of radiation equivalent material and the range of this energy Carbon ion beam in water. Procedure of Monte Carlo SRIM 2008 was used to verify the possibility of a constant range of proportional coefficient (Ci). The range of proportional coefficient (Ci) of radiation equivalent material and the CT value were fitted through Origin 8.0 software to study the of CT value and the range of proportional coefficient (Ci). The actual range of Carbon ion is equivalent to a range of water to incident Carbon ion energy. Results: There is a constant range of proportional coefficient (Ci) of the range of Carbon ion beam (Single nuclear energy 80 MeV ∼50 MeV) in a variety of radiation equivalent material and the range of this energy Carbon ion beam in water. There is a of CT value and the range of proportional coefficient (Ci) (r=0.999). The actual range of Carbon ion in radiation equivalent material can be equivalent to a range of the water. Conclusion: In this study, using CT values and a range of proportional coefficient (Ci), the actual required range of the tumor can accurately calculate the water equivalent range, and incident Carbon ion energy to the of Bragg peak. By the study, a new exploration for using CT technology, for Carbon ion treatment planning system was obtained. (authors)

  8. Adenovirus-mediated FIR demonstrated TP53-independent cell-killing effect and enhanced antitumor activity of carbon-ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Matsushita, K; Rahmutulla, B; Yamada, S; Shimada, H; Kubo, S; Hiwasa, T; Matsubara, H; Nomura, F

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy of carbon-ion beam with the far upstream element-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor, FIR, which interferes with DNA damage repair proteins, was proposed as an approach for esophageal cancer treatment with low side effects regardless of TP53 status. In vivo therapeutic antitumor efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus (E1 and E3 deleted adenovirus serotype 5) encoding human FIR cDNA (Ad-FIR) was demonstrated in the tumor xenograft model of human esophageal squamous cancer cells, TE-2. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer agent that introduces DNA breaks. The authors reported that Ad-FIR involved in the BLM-induced DNA damage repair response and thus applicable for other DNA damaging agents. To examine the effect of Ad-FIR on DNA damage repair, BLM, X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation were used as DNA damaging agents. The biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy used with carbon-ion irradiation are more expansive than low-LET conventional radiotherapy, such as X-rays or γ rays. High LET radiotherapy is suitable for the local control of tumors because of its high relative biological effectiveness. Ad-FIR enhanced BLM-induced DNA damage indicated by γH2AX in vitro. BLM treatment increased endogenous nuclear FIR expression in TE-2 cells, and P27Kip1 expression was suppressed by TP53 siRNA and BLM treatment. Further, Ad-FIRΔexon2, a dominant-negative form of FIR that lacks exon2 transcriptional repression domain, decreased Ku86 expression. The combination of Ad-FIR and BLM in TP53 siRNA increased DNA damage. Additionally, Ad-FIR showed synergistic cell toxicity with X-ray in vitro and significantly increased the antitumor efficacy of carbon-ion irradiation in the xenograft mouse model of TE-2 cells (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney's U-test) and was synergistic with the sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) value of 1.15. Therefore, Ad-FIR increased the cell-killing activity of the carbon-ion beam that avoids late

  9. Efficient Rejoining of DNA Double-Strand Breaks despite Increased Cell-Killing Effectiveness following Spread-Out Bragg Peak Carbon-Ion Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbeck, Nicole B; Topsch, Jana; Scholz, Michael; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma; Durante, Marco; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy of solid tumors with charged particles holds several advantages in comparison to photon therapy; among them conformal dose distribution in the tumor, improved sparing of tumor-surrounding healthy tissue, and an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the tumor target volume in the case of ions heavier than protons. A crucial factor of the biological effects is DNA damage, of which DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious. The reparability of these lesions determines the cell survival after irradiation and thus the RBE. Interestingly, using phosphorylated H2AX as a DSB marker, our data in human fibroblasts revealed that after therapy-relevant spread-out Bragg peak irradiation with carbon ions DSBs are very efficiently rejoined, despite an increased RBE for cell survival. This suggests that misrepair plays an important role in the increased RBE of heavy-ion radiation. Possible sources of erroneous repair will be discussed. PMID:26904506

  10. Efficient rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks despite increased cell-killing effectiveness following spread-out Bragg peak carbon-ion irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Bernadette Averbeck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of solid tumors with charged particles holds several advantages in comparison to photon therapy; among them conformal dose distribution in the tumor, improved sparing of tumor-surrounding healthy tissue, and an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE in the tumor target-volume in the case of ions heavier than protons. A crucial factor of the biological effects is DNA damage, of which DNA double strand breaks (DSBs are the most deleterious. The reparability of these lesions determines the cell survival after irradiation and thus the RBE. Interestingly, using phosphorylated H2AX as a DSB marker, our data in human fibroblasts revealed that after therapy-relevant spread-out Bragg Peak irradiation with carbon ions DSBs are very efficiently rejoined, despite an increased RBE for cell survival. This suggests that misrepair plays an important role in the increased RBE of heavy-ion radiation. Possible sources of erroneous repair will be discussed.

  11. Operations experience at the Bevalac radiotherapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the first years of Bevalac operation the biomedical effort concentrated on radiobiology work, laying the foundation for patient radiotherapy. A dedicated radiotherapy area was created in 1978, and in 1979 full-scale patient treatment was begun. As of now over 500 treatments with carbon, neon and argon beams have been delivered to about 50 patients, some as boosts from other modalities and some as complete heavy ion treatments. Up to 12 patients per day have been treated in this facility. Continuing efforts in refining techniques and operating procedures are increasing efficiency and accuracy of treatments, and are contributing to the alleviation of scheduling difficulties caused by the unique requirements of radiotherapy with human patients

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of a compact microbeam radiotherapy system based on carbon nanotube field emission technology

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Eric C.; Chang, Sha X.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is an experimental radiotherapy technique that has shown potent antitumor effects with minimal damage to normal tissue in animal studies. This unique form of radiation is currently only produced in a few large synchrotron accelerator research facilities in the world. To promote widespread translational research on this promising treatment technology we have proposed and are in the initial development stages of a compact MRT system that is based on ca...

  13. Ion Transport Characteristics of Individual Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes Mimic Those of Biological Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hasti; Shepard, Kenneth; Nuckolls, Colin

    2014-03-01

    Transmembrane ionic channels play a crucial role in vital cellular activities by regulating the transport of ions and fluid across the cell membrane. Their structural complexity and flexibility as well as their many unique operational features, however, make their investigation extremely difficult. The simple, atomically smooth and well-defined structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provides an excellent template for studying molecular transport at nanoscale. Additionally, CNTs have been suggested as analogues to biological pores since they share several common features such as nanometer size diameter, hydrophobic core and ultrafast water flow. Functionalizing the nanotube entrance can also mimic the selectivity filter of ion channels. In this work, we experimentally study ionic transport through individual single-walled CNTs connecting two fluid reservoirs as a function of pore properties and electrolyte type and concentration. We provide strong evidence that the electrostatic potentials arising from the ionized carboxyl groups at the pore entrance significantly influence the ion permeation in a manner consistent with a simple electrostatic mechanism. Lastly, the similarities of ionic transport mechanisms between individual single-walled CNTs and protein ion channels are discussed.

  14. Optical properties of ion-beam-deposited ion-modified diamondlike (a-C:H) carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) is a hard, semitransparent material usually containing varying amounts of hydrogen. These materials have numerous potential applications, including use as coatings for infrared optics, and as such, the effects of damaging irradiation is of practical interest. In this paper we present results of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometric (VASE) studies of ion-beam-deposited DLC films. These films have been further modified by directing 1-MeV gold ions, as well as 6.4-MeV fluorine ions, through the DLC and into the underlying silicon substrates, and the percentage of hydrogen in the film was measured versus fluence using proton recoil analysis. Optical analysis was performed assuming the Lorentz oscillator model. Three versions were used: one oscillator, two oscillator (with one fixed in energy), and two oscillator with all parameter variable. The latter model fits the VASE data extremely well, and the two oscillators can be interpreted as involving π to π* and σ to σ* band transitions. With ion modification the oscillators shift to lower photon energy, consistent with reduction in hydrogen concentration and possible increased graphitization

  15. Characterization of the interaction between therapeutical carbon ions and bone-like materials and related impact on treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is one of the most common and effective therapies for cancer. The treatment planning system for ions TRiP98 was developed at GSI, Darmstadt. In TRiP98, the interaction between primary radiation and tissue is modeled from experimental data measured in water and rescaled to other tissue. This approximation is not accurate enough for biological materials whose elemental composition besides density deviates significantly from water. The nuclear attenuation of carbon beams in bone-like materials was measured and an estimation of the fragmentation cross section was done. In parallel, the dose profile inhomogeneity predicted by TRiP98 at the interface between water and bones was investigated and measured at HIT (Heidelberg). A 3D treatment plan was delivered in a water phantom equipped with bone targets. Pin-point ionization chambers and X-ray dosimetric films were used for measuring the dose at different positions. As a further step, the measured cross sections of carbon ions in bone have been implemented in TRiP98. The comparison of the dose profiles calculated with the standard and benchmarked versions of the treatment planning will give an estimate of the improvement.

  16. The co-effect of collagen and magnesium ions on calcium carbonate biomineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of calcium carbonate biomineralization in the solution containing collagen and magnesium ions was studied in this paper. The results were characterized by using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect rules were obtained by the cooperation of collagen and magnesium ions in different concentration. The experiment results showed that in the presence of both collagen and magnesium ions, aragonite and vaterite were precipitated at low Mg/Ca ion concentration ratio, while only aragonite with regular spherical morphology was precipitated at high Mg/Ca ion concentration ratio. It indicated that collagen has a promotional effect on magnesium ions in controlling the polymorph of calcium carbonate crystal. A much wider range of calcium carbonate morphologies was observed in the presence of both collagen and magnesium ions. The experiments suggested that collagen acts in combination with magnesium ions to inhibit calcite crystal growth, while favoring the formation of aragonite crystals

  17. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallas, Raya R.; Huenemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I.; Greilich, Steffen [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Jaekel, Oliver [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany). Div. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology; National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany). Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO); Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy ''end-to-end'' tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification.

  18. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallas, Raya R; Hünemohr, Nora; Runz, Armin; Niebuhr, Nina I; Jäkel, Oliver; Greilich, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy "end-to-end" tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification. PMID:26189015

  19. An anthropomorphic multimodality (CT/MRI) head phantom prototype for end-to-end tests in ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increasing complexity of external beam therapy ''end-to-end'' tests are intended to cover every step from therapy planning through to follow-up in order to fulfill the higher demands on quality assurance. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important part of the treatment process, established phantoms such as the Alderson head cannot fully be used for those tests and novel phantoms have to be developed. Here, we present a feasibility study of a customizable multimodality head phantom. It is initially intended for ion radiotherapy but may also be used in photon therapy. As basis for the anthropomorphic head shape we have used a set of patient computed tomography (CT) images. The phantom recipient consisting of epoxy resin was produced by using a 3D printer. It includes a nasal air cavity, a cranial bone surrogate (based on dipotassium phosphate), a brain surrogate (based on agarose gel), and a surrogate for cerebrospinal fluid (based on distilled water). Furthermore, a volume filled with normoxic dosimetric gel mimicked a tumor. The entire workflow of a proton therapy could be successfully applied to the phantom. CT measurements revealed CT numbers agreeing with reference values for all surrogates in the range from 2 HU to 978 HU (120 kV). MRI showed the desired contrasts between the different phantom materials especially in T2-weighted images (except for the bone surrogate). T2-weighted readout of the polymerization gel dosimeter allowed approximate range verification.

  20. Carbon ion beam treatment in patients with primary and recurrent sacrococcygeal chordoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, Matthias; Jensen, Alexandra; Herfarth, Klaus [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Welzel, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ellerbrock, Malte; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the results of high-dose radiation treatment using carbon ion therapy, alone or combined with intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT), in patients with sacral chordoma. Between 2009 and 2012, 56 patients with sacral chordoma were treated in our center. The tumor was located above S3 in 33 patients and in S3 or below in 23 patients. In all, 41 patients received radiation therapy for the primary tumor, while 15 patients were treated for the recurrent tumor. Toxicity was measured using NCI CTCAE v.4.03. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 23 patients were irradiated with carbon ions in combination with photon IMRT, while 33 received carbon ion therapy only. Forty-three patients had a macroscopic tumor at treatment start with a median tumor size (GTV) of 244 ml (range 5-1188 ml). The median total dose was 66 Gy (range 60-74 Gy; RBE). After a median follow-up time of 25 months, the 2- and 3-year local control probability was 76 % and 53 %, respectively. The overall survival rate was 100 %. Treatment for primary tumor and male patients resulted in significant better local control. No higher toxicity occurred within the follow-up time. High-dose photon/carbon ion beam radiation therapy is safe and, especially for primary sacral chordomas, highly effective. A randomized trial is required to evaluate the role of primary definitive hypofractionated particle therapy compared with surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung der Ergebnisse nach hochdosierter Kohlenstoffionentherapie, allein oder in Kombination mit einer intensitaetsmodulierten Photonenbestrahlung (IMRT), bei Patienten mit einem sakralen Chordom. Zwischen 2009 und 2012 wurden 56 Patienten mit sakralen Chordomen in unserem Zentrum behandelt. Der Tumor war bei 33 Patienten oberhalb von S3 und bei 23 Patienten auf Hoehe von S3 oder unterhalb davon lokalisiert. Insgesamt

  1. Investigation of the dosimetric impact of a Ni-Ti fiducial marker in carbon ion and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. Fiducial markers based on a removable stent are currently used in image guided radiotherapy. Here it is investigated what the possible dosimetric impact of such a marker could be, if used in proton or carbon ion treatment. Material and methods. The simulations have been done using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA with its default hadron therapy settings. A 3 cm long stent is approximated in FLUKA by stacking hollow tori. To simulate realistic clinical conditions a field 5 x 5 cm has been used, delivering a 5 cm wide spread out Bragg peak located 5 cm deep for protons and carbon ions. For protons fields mimicking active and passive beam delivery have been investigated. The stent has been arranged perpendicular, turned 45 degrees, and parallel to the beam axis. Results. The position of the 95% dose level shifts for carbon ions 7 mm in proximal direction for the marker perpendicular to the beam and 8 mm if the stent is turned 45 degree for a 1 x 1 cm dose binning on the centre beam axis. For the case where the stent was parallel to beam direction the 95% dose level shifts 26 mm. For active delivered protons, the shift of the 95% dose level is less. The shift for a perpendicular arranged marker is 6 mm, for 45 degrees turned it is 7 mm. For the case where the stent was oriented parallel to the beam, the observed shift is 21 mm. Dose inhomogeneities caused by straggling effects occur only near the distal edge of the field. Conclusions. The results of our investigations show that the Ni-Ti marker has a non negligible impact on the dose distributions for the used radiation types. However if the treatment plan rules out narrow angles between symmetry axis of the stent and the beam direction, this may be compensated.

  2. Electron impact excitation of carbon and oxygen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an attempt at a comprehensive compilation of currently available theoretical data on electron impact excitation of carbon and oxygen ions. It is designed to be of use primarily to theoretical atomic physicists, allowing them a broader than usual view of how various approximations compare. We do not attempt to place an estimate on the accuracy to which any of the collision strengths are known. The reader may obtain some idea of the accuracy from the spread in the calculations. Further, we do not evaluate rate coefficients or make any comparison with observed results. We do provide simple analytic fits to the data, where possible, thus allowing the reader to make comparison with observation or evaluate rate coefficients if he desires. The present data contains little about resonance effects, due to the difficulty of their presentation. It is possible that resonances could make a considerable change in the average collision strength near threshold, and this topic requires further study

  3. Innershell ionization by fast protons, alpha particles and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this thesis is the study of inner-shell excitations of atoms induced by fast charged particle collisions. A new method is described for measuring the spectrum of delta-electrons emitted by 208Pb after excitation by 15 MeV protons or 50 MeV alpha particles. Experimental equipment is described. Results of both experiments are presented and compared with PWBA models and with calculations based on a semi-classical approximation. The small-impact-parameter ionization probabilities obtained are then compared with literature. Also small-impact-parameter measurements done with 100 MeV carbon ions are described. Besides K-shell measurements, the author also presents L-subshell ionization probability results for Pb. An appendix is added in which energy straggling problems in solid targets are treated. (Auth./G.J.P.)

  4. Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combs Stephanie E

    2010-11-01

    to now it was impossible to compare two different particle therapies, i.e. protons and carbon ions, directly at the same facility in connection with the treatment of low grade skull base chondrosarcomas. This trial is a phase III study to demonstrate that carbon ion radiotherapy (experimental treatment is not relevantly inferior and at least as good as proton radiotherapy (standard treatment with respect to 5 year LPFS in the treatment of chondrosarcomas. Additionally, we expect less toxicity in the carbon ion treatment arm. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01182753

  5. Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    particle therapies, i.e. protons and carbon ions, directly at the same facility in connection with the treatment of low grade skull base chondrosarcomas. This trial is a phase III study to demonstrate that carbon ion radiotherapy (experimental treatment) is not relevantly inferior and at least as good as proton radiotherapy (standard treatment) with respect to 5 year LPFS in the treatment of chondrosarcomas. Additionally, we expect less toxicity in the carbon ion treatment arm. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01182753

  6. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for causing fatal liver failure after partial hepatectomy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Miyamoto, Tadaaki; Kato, Hirotoshi; Otsu, Hiroshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    To evaluate the acute phase damage to liver by carbon ions, BALB/c mice were irradiated with carbon ions or X-rays after two-thirds partial hepatectomy, and their survival was followed. The 50% lethal dose within 60 days (LD{sub 50/60}) was 42.2{+-}0.25 Gy (standard error) for X-rays, and 22.7{+-}0.25 Gy for carbon ions. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions was 1.86 (95% confident limits: 1.69-2.04) as calculated from the LD{sub 50/60}. Mice irradiated at much higher doses, 60 Gy of X-rays or 24 Gy of carbon ions, showed significantly higher serum ammonia levels and lower serum albumin levels than normal, suggesting hepatic failure as a cause of death. Hepatocytes showed karyorrhexis and karyolysis in carbon ion irradiated and spotty necrosis in X-ray irradiated mice, suggesting nuclear damage. Mice irradiated with LD{sub 50} of X-rays or carbon ions had a remarkably lower bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index and mitotic index than control. Treatments with both BrdU and vincristine showed that none of the hepatocytes that synthesized DNA after irradiation completed mitosis, indicating G2 arrest. The liver weight of irradiated mice significantly decreased depending on the dose. Carbon ions as well as X-rays damaged hepatocytes directly and suppressed liver regeneration leading to fatal liver failure. (author)

  7. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Gaikwad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport of carbonate ions was explored through fiber supported solid membrane. A novel fiber supported solid membrane was prepared by chemical modification of cellulose fiber with citric acid, 2′2-bipyridine and magnesium carbonate. The factors affecting the permeability of carbonate ions such as immobilization of citric acid-magnesium metal ion -2′2-bipyridine complex (0 to 2.5 mmol/g range over cellulose fiber, carbon-ate ion concentration in source phase and NaOH concentration in receiving phase were investigated. Ki-netic of carbonate, sulfate, and nitrate ions was investigated through fiber supported solid membrane. Transport of carbonate ions with/without bubbling of CO2 (0 to 10 ml/min in source phase was explored from source to receiving phase. The novel idea is to explore the adsorptive transport of CO2 from source to receiving phase through cellulose fiber containing magnesium metal ion organic framework. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 25th November 2011; Revised: 17th December 2011; Accepted: 19th December 2011[How to Cite: A.G. Gaikwad. (2012. Transport of Carbonate Ions by Novel Cellulose Fiber Supported Solid Membrane. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 49– 57.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1225.49-57 ] | View in 

  8. Relative biological effectiveness of carbon ions for causing fatal liver failure after partial hepatectomy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the acute phase damage to liver by carbon ions, BALB/c mice were irradiated with carbon ions or X-rays after two-thirds partial hepatectomy, and their survival was followed. The 50% lethal dose within 60 days (LD50/60) was 42.2±0.25 Gy (standard error) for X-rays, and 22.7±0.25 Gy for carbon ions. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions was 1.86 (95% confident limits: 1.69-2.04) as calculated from the LD50/60. Mice irradiated at much higher doses, 60 Gy of X-rays or 24 Gy of carbon ions, showed significantly higher serum ammonia levels and lower serum albumin levels than normal, suggesting hepatic failure as a cause of death. Hepatocytes showed karyorrhexis and karyolysis in carbon ion irradiated and spotty necrosis in X-ray irradiated mice, suggesting nuclear damage. Mice irradiated with LD50 of X-rays or carbon ions had a remarkably lower bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling index and mitotic index than control. Treatments with both BrdU and vincristine showed that none of the hepatocytes that synthesized DNA after irradiation completed mitosis, indicating G2 arrest. The liver weight of irradiated mice significantly decreased depending on the dose. Carbon ions as well as X-rays damaged hepatocytes directly and suppressed liver regeneration leading to fatal liver failure. (author)

  9. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Mutants were prepared by heavy ion irradiation, examined the effect of physiologically active substances produced. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human cololectal cancer cells and breast cancer cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for cololectal and breast cancer cells. (author)

  10. Glass carbon surface modified by the fluorine ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Yoshikazu; Ishizuka, Masanori; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Isao; Uematu, Takahiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Mitsuo, Atsushi; Morikawa, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    Application of nano and micro fabrication techniques in industry requires solution to some crucial problems. One of the significant problems is the sticking interface between mold surface and imprinted polymer. In this study, we report a solution to the sticking interface problem by modification of nano imprinting mold using fluorine ion implantation. After the fluorine implantation, anti sticking layer appeared on the nano imprinting mold surface. After the implantation, a mold made from glass like carbon was patterned by focused ion beam lithography. The pattern was made up of word "TIRI". The line width was varied with 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm. The line depth was about 200 ˜ 300 nm. The average depth of implanted fluorine was approximately 90 nm. After imprinting, the resin was removed from the mold by mechanical lift-off process. Transferred pattern was observed and confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The pattern transferred from mold to resin was found to be successful.

  11. Glass carbon surface modified by the fluorine ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of nano and micro fabrication techniques in industry requires solution to some crucial problems. One of the significant problems is the sticking interface between mold surface and imprinted polymer. In this study, we report a solution to the sticking interface problem by modification of nano imprinting mold using fluorine ion implantation. After the fluorine implantation, anti sticking layer appeared on the nano imprinting mold surface. After the implantation, a mold made from glass like carbon was patterned by focused ion beam lithography. The pattern was made up of word “TIRI”. The line width was varied with 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 μm. The line depth was about 200 ∼ 300 nm. The average depth of implanted fluorine was approximately 90 nm. After imprinting, the resin was removed from the mold by mechanical lift-off process. Transferred pattern was observed and confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The pattern transferred from mold to resin was found to be successful.

  12. Imaging of carbon nanomembranes with helium ion microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Beyer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomembranes (CNMs prepared from aromatic self-assembled monolayers constitute a recently developed class of 2D materials. They are made by a combination of self-assembly, radiation-induced cross-linking and the detachment of the cross-linked SAM from its substrate. CNMs can be deposited on arbitrary substrates, including holey and perforated ones, as well as on metallic (transmission electron microscopy grids. Therewith, freestanding membranes with a thickness of 1 nm and macroscopic lateral dimensions can be prepared. Although free-standing CNMs cannot be imaged by light microscopy, charged particle techniques can visualize them. However, CNMs are electrically insulating, which makes them sensitive to charging. We demonstrate that the helium ion microscope (HIM is a good candidate for imaging freestanding CNMs due to its efficient charge compensation tool. Scanning with a beam of helium ions while recording the emitted secondary electrons generates the HIM images. The advantages of HIM are high resolution, high surface sensitivity and large depth of field. The effects of sample charging, imaging of multilayer CNMs as well as imaging artefacts are discussed.

  13. Glass carbon surface modified by the fluorine ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teranishi, Yoshikazu, E-mail: teranishi.yoshikazu@iri-tokyo.jp [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute (TIRI), Nishigaoka 3-13-10, Kitaku, Tokyo 115-8586 (Japan); Ishizuka, Masanori [Tokyo University, Inst. of Phys. and Chem. Res., RIKEN (Japan); Kobayashi, Tomohiro [Chuo University, Inst. of Phys. and Chem. Res., RIKEN (Japan); Nakamura, Isao; Uematu, Takahiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Mitsuo, Atsushi; Morikawa, Kazuo [Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute (TIRI), Nishigaoka 3-13-10, Kitaku, Tokyo 115-8586 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Application of nano and micro fabrication techniques in industry requires solution to some crucial problems. One of the significant problems is the sticking interface between mold surface and imprinted polymer. In this study, we report a solution to the sticking interface problem by modification of nano imprinting mold using fluorine ion implantation. After the fluorine implantation, anti sticking layer appeared on the nano imprinting mold surface. After the implantation, a mold made from glass like carbon was patterned by focused ion beam lithography. The pattern was made up of word 'TIRI'. The line width was varied with 300 nm, 500 nm, and 1 {mu}m. The line depth was about 200 {approx} 300 nm. The average depth of implanted fluorine was approximately 90 nm. After imprinting, the resin was removed from the mold by mechanical lift-off process. Transferred pattern was observed and confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM). The pattern transferred from mold to resin was found to be successful.

  14. Measurement of large angle fragments induced by 400 MeV n-1 carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Andrey; Consiglio, Lucia; De Lellis, Giovanni; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Lauria, Adele; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Patera, Vincenzo; Sirignano, Chiara; Tioukov, Valeri

    2015-09-01

    The use of carbon ion beams in radiotherapy presents significant advantages when compared to traditional x-ray. In fact, carbon ions deposit their energy inside the human body at the end of their range, the Bragg peak. Unlike x-ray beams, where the energy deposition decreases exponentially inside the irradiated volume, the shape of carbon beams is sharp and focused. Advantages are an increased energy released in the cancer volume while minimizing the irradiation to healthy tissues. Currently, the use of carbon beams is limited by the poor knowledge we have about the effects of the secondary fragments on the irradiated tissues. The secondary particles produced and their angular distribution is crucial to determine the global dose deposition. The knowledge of the flux of secondary particles plays a key role in the real time monitoring of the dose profile in hadron therapy. We present a detector based on nuclear emulsions for fragmentation measurements that performs a sub-micrometric tridimensional spatial resolution, excellent multi-particle separation and large angle track recognition. Nuclear emulsions are assembled in order to realize a hybrid detector (emulsion cloud chamber (ECC)) made of 300 μm nuclear emulsion films alternated with lead as passive material. Data reported here have been obtained by exposing two ECC detectors to the fragments produced by a 400 MeV n-1 12C beam on a composite target at the GSI laboratory in Germany. The ECC was exposed inside a more complex detector, named FIRST, in order to collect fragments with a continuous angular distribution in the range 47°-81° with respect to the beam axis. Results on the angular distribution of fragments as well as their momentum estimations are reported here.

  15. Measurement of large angle fragments induced by 400 MeV n−1 carbon ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of carbon ion beams in radiotherapy presents significant advantages when compared to traditional x-ray. In fact, carbon ions deposit their energy inside the human body at the end of their range, the Bragg peak. Unlike x-ray beams, where the energy deposition decreases exponentially inside the irradiated volume, the shape of carbon beams is sharp and focused. Advantages are an increased energy released in the cancer volume while minimizing the irradiation to healthy tissues. Currently, the use of carbon beams is limited by the poor knowledge we have about the effects of the secondary fragments on the irradiated tissues. The secondary particles produced and their angular distribution is crucial to determine the global dose deposition. The knowledge of the flux of secondary particles plays a key role in the real time monitoring of the dose profile in hadron therapy.We present a detector based on nuclear emulsions for fragmentation measurements that performs a sub-micrometric tridimensional spatial resolution, excellent multi-particle separation and large angle track recognition. Nuclear emulsions are assembled in order to realize a hybrid detector (emulsion cloud chamber (ECC)) made of 300 μm nuclear emulsion films alternated with lead as passive material.Data reported here have been obtained by exposing two ECC detectors to the fragments produced by a 400 MeV n−1 12C beam on a composite target at the GSI laboratory in Germany. The ECC was exposed inside a more complex detector, named FIRST, in order to collect fragments with a continuous angular distribution in the range 47°–81° with respect to the beam axis. Results on the angular distribution of fragments as well as their momentum estimations are reported here. (paper)

  16. Effects of Carbon Ions on Primary Cultures of Mouse Brain Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, K.; Ando, K.; Fujiwara, H.; Ando, S.

    Primary mixed cultures of astrocytes and microglia were obtained from neonatal mice, and were irradiated with high-LET carbon ions. Immunohistochemical staining showed astrocytes survived more prominently than microglia. Tagged with specific antibodies, astrocytes and microglia surviving after irradiation were counted by flow cytometry. Decreases in the number of microglia and astrocytes were detected at a dose as small as 2 Gy when Day 5 cultures were irradiated with 13 keV/μm carbon ions. When the cultures were irradiated on Day 10, the dose-dependent decrease of microglia was more prominent for 13 keV/μun carbon ions than 70 keV/μm carbon ions. Astrocytes showed a marginal decrease at Day 10 and Day 14. We concluded that microglia are more sensitive than astrocytes to carbon ions and X-rays, and that the radiosensitivity of microglia depends on both differentiation/proliferation status and radiation quality

  17. Carbon nanotube film anodes for flexible lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sora; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Kyung-Won; Cho, Daehwan; Jeong, Youngjin

    2015-04-01

    In this study, carbon nanotube (CNT) film anodes are prepared for use in flexible lithium ion batteries, and the electrochemical performance of the CNT film anodes is evaluated. The CNT films are synthesized via chemical vapor deposition and direct spinning. The films are heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere at a high temperature to study the effects of heat treatment on the battery performance. The electrodes made with the CNT films are characterized via charge-discharge test, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance measurement. The results indicate that batteries with films heat-treated under a nitrogen atmosphere show a higher capacity, which can be a result of their high crystalline perfection. The impedance analysis shows that a lower resistance at the interface can be obtained by using heat-treated films. The charge-discharge tests are carried out by adjusting the rate from C/2 to 10C, and when the rate slows from 10C to 1C, the capacity of the samples largely recovers. The nitrogen/heat-treated CNT film electrodes present a capacity that is twice as high, such as 2C, 5C, and 10C, than untreated CNT film electrodes. These results indicate that the carbon nanotube film anodes have high potential for use in portable and wearable computers due to their flexibility.

  18. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/μm also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/μm in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/μm were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/μ steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  19. Mouse skin damages caused by fractionated irradiation with carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, K.; Chen, Y.J.; Ohira, C.; Nojima, K.; Ando, S.; Kobayashi, N.; Ohbuchi, T.; Shimizu, W. [Space and Particle Radiation Science Research Group, Chiba (Japan); Koike, S.; Kanai, T. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan). Div. of Accelerator Physics

    1997-09-01

    We have investigated carbon-dose responses of early and late skin damages after daily fractionations to the mouse leg. Depilated legs were irradiated with 7 different positions within 290 MeV/u carbon beams. Fractionation schedules were 1, 2, 4 and 8 daily fractions. Skin reaction was scored every other day for 32 days. Five highest scores in individual mice were averaged, and used as averaged peak reaction. The isoeffect doses to produce an averaged peak skin reaction of 3.0 (moist desquamation) on dose-response curves were calculated with 95% confidence limit. The isoeffect dose for control gamma rays constantly increased with an increase in the number of fraction. The isoeffect doses in low LET carbon ions of 14- and 20 keV/{mu}m also increased up to 4 fractions, but did not increase when 4 fractions increased to 8 fractions. The saturation of isoeffect dose was more prominently observed for 40 keV/{mu}m in such that the isoeffect doses did not change among 2, 4 and 8 fractions. The isoeffect doses for LET higher than 50 keV/{mu}m were smaller than those for lower LET. However, the isoeffect doses for 50-, 60-, 80- and 100 keV/{mu} steadily increased with an increase in the number of fraction and did not show any saturation up to 8 fractions. Relation between LET and RBE was linear for all fractionation schedules. The slope of regression line in 4 fractions was steepest, and significantly (P<0.05) different from that in 1 fraction. (orig.)

  20. Randomized phase II study evaluating a carbon ion boost applied after combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide versus a proton boost after radiochemotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma: The CLEOPATRA Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combs Stephanie E

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment standard for patients with primary glioblastoma (GBM is combined radiochemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ. Radiation is delivered up to a total dose of 60 Gy using photons. Using this treatment regimen, overall survival could be extended significantly however, median overall survival is still only about 15 months. Carbon ions offer physical and biological advantages. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increase relative biological effectiveness (RBE, which can be calculated between 2 and 5 depending on the GBM cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Protons, however, offer an RBE which is comparable to photons. First Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results in a small and heterogeneous patient collective. Methods/Design In the current Phase II-CLEOPATRA-Study a carbon ion boost will be compared to a proton boost applied to the macroscopic tumor after surgery at primary diagnosis in patients with GBM applied after standard radiochemotherapy with TMZ up to 50 Gy. In the experimental arm, a carbon ion boost will be applied to the macroscopic tumor up to a total dose of 18 Gy E in 6 fractions at a single dose of 3 Gy E. In the standard arm, a proton boost will be applied up to a total dose 10 Gy E in 5 single fractions of 2 Gy E. Primary endpoint is overall survival, secondary objectives are progression-free survival, toxicity and safety. Discussion The Cleopatra Trial is the first study to evaluate the effect of carbon ion radiotherapy within multimodality treatment of primary glioblastoma in a randomized trial comparing this innovative treatment of the treatment standard, consisitng of photon radiotherapy in combination with temozolomide. Trial Registration ISRCTN37428883 and NCT01165671

  1. Effect of intense laser and energetic ion irradiation on Raman modes of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of intense laser and energetic ion irradiation on Raman vibrational modes of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes have been investigated. The intensity ratio of D and G modes decreases with increase in laser power density and remains almost constant with decrease of laser power density. The intensity ratio of D mode to G mode for ion irradiated Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes decreases at low fluence (4 x 1011 ions/cm2) and increases further with increase in ion fluence. The results show that ion irradiation at low fluence and laser irradiation lead to purification/ordering of the nanotubes.

  2. Generation of intense pulsed ion beam by a Br type magnetically insulated ion diode with carbon plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To apply the pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) to an implantation process of semiconductor, purity of the ion beam is very important. To obtain a pure PHIB we have proposed a new type of accelerator using bipolar pulse. To develop the accelerator we are developing a new type of Br ion diode using a carbon plasma gun. By using the plasma gun, ion source plasma of ion current density approx. = 30 A/cm2 was obtained. The Br ion diode was successfully operated with plasma gun at diode voltage approx. = 100 kV, diode current approx. = 1 kA, pulse duration approx. = 200 ns and 3 A/cm2 of ion current density was obtained. (author)

  3. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low wo...

  4. Late quaternary fluctuations in carbonate and carbonate ion content in the northern Indian ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.S.

    =] of the water bathing the core tops, were computed from different GEOSECS staions for the Westrn and Eastern Indian Ocean separately (Table 2,3 & 4, Fig. 9 &14). GEOSECS taion Nos. 417,420 and 425 whic lie along a transect in the westrn Indian Ocean...-normalized carbonate ion (CO3=*) range from 90 to 125µmol kg-1 in the tropical region of the world oceans with a weight los of 0.3 ± 0.05µg mol -1kg-1 (Broecker and Clark, 201d). Botm water CO3=* concentration bathing the core tops are in the range of 88 to 13 μmolkg-1...

  5. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  6. Carbon-ion beams effectively induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human neural stem cells compared with glioblastoma A172 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise in the treatment of glioblastoma, an aggressive X-ray–resistant brain tumor. However, since glioblastoma cells show a highly invasive nature, carbon-ion (C-ion) irradiation of normal tissues surrounding the tumor is inevitable. Recent studies have revealed the existence of neural stem cells in the adult brain. Therefore, the damaging effect of C-ion beams on the neural stem cells has to be carefully considered in the treatment planning of CIRT. Here, we investigated the growth and death mode of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and glioblastoma A172 cells after X-ray or C-ion beam irradiation. The X-ray dose resulting in a 50% growth rate (D50) was 0.8 Gy in hNSCs and 3.0 Gy in A172 cells, while the D50 for C-ion beams was 0.4 Gy in hNSCs and 1.6 Gy in A172 cells; the relative biological effectiveness value of C-ion beams was 2.0 in hNSCs and 1.9 in A172 cells. Importantly, both X-rays and C-ion beams preferentially induced apoptosis, not necrosis, in hNSCs; however, radiation-induced apoptosis was less evident in A172 cells. The apoptosis-susceptible nature of the irradiated hNSCs was associated with prolonged upregulation of phosphorylated p53, whereas the apoptosis-resistant nature of A172 cells was associated with a high basal level of nuclear factor kappa B expression. Taken together, these data indicate that apoptosis is the major cell death pathway in hNSCs after irradiation. The high sensitivity of hNSCs to C-ion beams underscores the importance of careful target volume delineation in the treatment planning of CIRT for glioblastoma. (author)

  7. Higher Initial DNA Damage and Persistent Cell Cycle Arrest after Carbon Ion Irradiation Compared to X-irradiation in Prostate and Colon Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetens, Annelies; Konings, Katrien; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Verslegers, Mieke; Soors, Els; Tabury, Kevin; Grégoire, Vincent; Baatout, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The use of charged-particle beams, such as carbon ions, is becoming a more and more attractive treatment option for cancer therapy. Given the precise absorbed dose-localization and an increased biological effectiveness, this form of therapy is much more advantageous compared to conventional radiotherapy, and is currently being used for treatment of specific cancer types. The high ballistic accuracy of particle beams deposits the maximal dose to the tumor, while damage to the surrounding healthy tissue is limited. In order to better understand the underlying mechanisms responsible for the increased biological effectiveness, we investigated the DNA damage and repair kinetics and cell cycle progression in two p53 mutant cell lines, more specifically a prostate (PC3) and colon (Caco-2) cancer cell line, after exposure to different radiation qualities. Cells were irradiated with various absorbed doses (0, 0.5, and 2 Gy) of accelerated 13C-ions at the Grand Accélérateur National d’Ions Lourds facility (Caen, France) or with X-rays (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 Gy). Microscopic analysis of DNA double-strand breaks showed dose-dependent increases in γ-H2AX foci numbers and foci occupancy after exposure to both types of irradiation, in both cell lines. However, 24 h after exposure, residual damage was more pronounced after lower doses of carbon ion irradiation compared to X-irradiation. Flow cytometric analysis showed that carbon ion irradiation induced a permanent G2/M arrest in PC3 cells at lower doses (2 Gy) compared to X-rays (5 Gy), while in Caco-2 cells the G2/M arrest was transient after irradiation with X-rays (2 and 5 Gy) but persistent after exposure to carbon ions (2 Gy). PMID:27148479

  8. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    Carbon nanomaterials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and graphene have emerged as leading additives for high capacity nanocomposite lithium ion battery electrodes due to their ability to improve electrode conductivity, current collection efficiency, and charge/discharge rate for high power applications. In this work, the these nanomaterials have been developed and their properties have been fine-tuned to help solve fundamental issues in conventional lithium ion battery electrodes. Towards this end, the application of SWCNTs in lithium-ion anodes has been studied. As-grown SWCNTs possess a distribution of physical and electronic structures, and it is of high interest to determine which subpopulations of SWCNTs possess the highest lithiation capacity and to develop processing methods that can enhance the lithiation capacity of underperforming SWCNT species. Towards this end, SWCNT electronic type purity is controlled via density gradient ultracentrifugation, enabling a systematic study of the lithiation of SWCNTs as a function of metal versus semiconducting content. Experimentally, vacuum filtered freestanding films of metallic SWCNTs are found to accommodate lithium with an order of magnitude higher capacity than their semiconducting counterparts. In contrast, SWCNT film densification leads to the enhancement of the lithiation capacity of semiconducting SWCNTs to levels comparable to metallic SWCNTs, which is corroborated by theoretical calculations. To understand the interaction of the graphene with lithium ions and electrolyte species during electrochemical we use Raman spectroscopy in a model system of monolayer graphene transferred on a Si(111) substrate and density functional theory (DFT) to investigate defect formation as a function of lithiation. This model system enables the early stages of defect formation to be probed in a manner previously not possible with commonly-used reduced graphene oxide or multilayer graphene substrates. Using ex

  9. Calculation of stopping power ratios for carbon ion dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithner, Oksana; Andreo, P.; Sobolevsky, N.; Hartmann, G.; Jäkel, O.

    2006-05-01

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinical carbon ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used, which is a newly developed version where substantial modifications were implemented on its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1 (Gudowska et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1933-58). The code was completely rewritten replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe-Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. In addition, the code includes optionally MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data. The fragmentation model was verified and its parameters were also adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. It has been used to compute the physical quantities needed for the calculation of stopping power ratios, swater,air, of carbon beams. Compared with the recommended constant value given in the IAEA Code of Practice, the differences found in the present investigations varied between 0.5% and 1% at the plateau region, respectively for 400 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u beams, and up to 2.3% in the vicinity of the Bragg peak for 50 MeV/u.

  10. Primary result of application of carbon ion beam and gamma ray for rice breeding improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Carbon ion beam have been recently attracted as mutagens. A characteristic feature of ion beams is their ability to deposit high energy on a target, densely and locally, as opposed to low linear energy transfer radiation such as gamma rays and X rays. In Vietnam, application of carbon ion beam just starting through cooperation FNCA between Japan and ASEAN countries from 2009. In this report, we want to report primary result of application carbon ion beam and gamma ray for rice breeding improvement of Khang dan 18. Through primary experimental for optimum dose for carbon ion beam we found that the dose of 40 and 60 Gy was suitable for Khang dan variety treatment. Based on optimum dose 40 and 60 Gy of carbon ion beam and 150 and 200 Gy of gamma ray we irradiated for Khang dan variety. The higher dose, the lower seed set ratio were determined both ion beam and gamma ray. Especial in carbon ion beam experiment at the dose of 60 Gy was 39.18% in small experiment and more than 20% seed set ratio at the real experiment. At M4 generation, in the experiment with carbon ion beam at the dose of 60 Gy we received mutant which increase the weight of 1000 seeds (23.0 g) compare to the control 19.7 g meanwhile experiment with gamma ray at the dose of 200 Gy we received some mutant not much change in the seed weight. This may show that carbon ion beam more effective than gamma ray in term of change some characteristics of rice. (author)

  11. Radiosensitivity and Induction of Apoptosis by High LET Carbon Ion Beam and Low LET Gamma Radiation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Ghorai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment with high LET heavy ion beam, especially, carbon ion beam (12C, is becoming very popular over conventional radiotherapy like low LET gamma or X-ray. Combination of Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor with xenotoxic drugs or conventional radiation (gamma or X-ray is the newer approach for cancer therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the radiosensitivity and induction of apoptosis by high LET 12C and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa and PARP-1 knocked down cells. We did comet assay to detect DNA breaks, clonogenic survival assay, and cell cycle analysis to measure recovery after DNA damage. We measured apoptotic parameters like nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. DNA damage, cell killing, and induction of apoptosis were significantly higher for 12C than gamma radiation in HeLa. Cell killing and apoptosis were further elevated upon knocking down of PARP-1. Both 12C and gamma induced G2/M arrest although the 12C had greater effect. Unlike the gamma, 12C irradiation affects DNA replication as detected by S-phase delay in cell cycle analysis. So, we conclude that high LET 12C has greater potential over low LET gamma radiation in killing cells and radiosensitization upon PARP-1 inhibition was several folds greater for 12C than gamma.

  12. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, David; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistiv...

  13. Investigation of physiologically active products obtained from carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particles such as carbon-ions are superior to X-rays or gamma-rays in the physical and biological characteristics. The propose research project is aimed to provide new insights on antibiotic development. Product(s) from carbon-ion irradiated microorganera suppressed growth of human leukemia cells and mammary tumor cells. This product(s) induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells. We suggested that carbon-ion irradiated actinomycetes produce antitumor active product(s) for leukemia cells and mammary tumor cells. (author)

  14. Ion beam deposition of amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, John C.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon films were deposited on silicon, quartz, and potassium bromide substrates from an ion beam. Growth rates were approximately 0.3 micron/hour. The films were featureless and amorphous and contained only carbon and hydrogen in significant amounts. The density and carbon/hydrogen ratio indicate the film is a hydrogen deficient polymer. One possible structure, consistent with the data, is a random network of methylene linkages and tetrahedrally coordinated carbon atoms.

  15. G(2)-M phase-correlative bystander effects are co-mediated by DNA-PKcs and ATM after carbon ion irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Konishi, Teruaki; Kobayashi, Alisa; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Uchihori, Yukio; Xie, Yuexia; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Wenjian; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) may have significant implications to the efficiency of radiotherapy. Although cellular radiosensitivity relies on cell cycle status, it is largely unknown how about the relationship between RIBE and cell cycle distribution, much less the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the lung cancer A549 cells were synchronized into different cell cycle phases of G1, S and G2/M and irradiated with high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ions. By treating nonirradiated cells with the conditioned medium from these irradiated cells, it was found that the G2-M phase cells had the largest contribution to RIBE. Meanwhile, the activity of DNA-PKcs but not ATM was increased in the synchronized G2-M phase cells in spite of both of them were activated in the asynchronous cells after carbon ion irradiation. When the G2-M phased cells were transferred with DNA-PKcs siRNA and ATM siRNA individually or treated with an inhibitor of either DNA-PKcs or ATM before carbon ion irradiation, the RIBE was effectively diminished. These results provide new evidence linking cell cycle to bystander responses and demonstrate that DNA-PKcs and ATM are two associated factors in co-regulating G2-M phase-related bystander effects. PMID:26774662

  16. Behavior of the extraction of metallic ions in carbonate medium, using N-benzoylphenylhydroxylamine (BPHA) - benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of separating quantitatively trace impurities like Cu, Fe, In and Pb, present in uranium base materials of nuclear grade, is demonstrated. A solvent extraction is employed which makes use of -benzoylphenylhydroxylamine(BPHA)-benzene solution and separation is effected in a medium containing 252 moles per liter of sodium-uranyl tricarbonate at pH of 9,0. Carbonate ions under such conditions inhibit uranium extraction by masking uranyl ion-BPHA reaction. The uranyl ions show a demasking action, releasing, thereby, Pb(II) ions which are being extracted from carbonate medium. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry technique is used to obtain the experimental data

  17. Carbon-ion beams induce production of an immune mediator protein, high mobility group box 1, at levels comparable with X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiotherapy activates tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and increases in the serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by X-ray irradiation play a pivotal role in activating anti-tumor immunity. Here, we examined whether carbon-ion beams, as well as X-rays, can induce HMGB1 release from human cancer cell lines. The study examined five human cancer cell lines: TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr. The proportion of cells surviving X- or carbon-ion beam irradiation was assessed in a clonogenic assay. The D10, the dose at which 10% of cells survive, was calculated using a linear–quadratic model. HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants were assessed by an ELISA. The D10 dose for X-rays in TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells was 2.1, 6.7, 8.0, 4.8 and 7.1 Gy, respectively, whereas that for carbon-ion beams was 0.9, 2.5, 2.7, 1.8 and 3.5 Gy, respectively. X-rays and carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells at 72 h post-irradiation with a D10 dose. Furthermore, irradiation with X-rays or carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of all five cell lines at 96 h post-irradiation. There was no significant difference in the amount of HMGB1 induced by X-rays and carbon-ion beams at any time-point (except at 96 h for NCI-H460 cells); thus we conclude that comparable levels of HMGB1 were detected after irradiation with iso-survival doses of X-rays and carbon-ion beams. (author)

  18. A Binary Cyclic Carbonates-Based Electrolyte Containing Propylene Carbonate and Trifluoropropylene Carbonate for 5 V Lithium-Ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A binary cyclic carbonates-based electrolyte containing propylene carbonate and trifluoropropylene carbonate with an optimized volume ratio is successfully applied for 5 V lithium-ion batteries. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •A binary solvent electrolyte containing TFPC and PC is used for high-voltage LIBs. •Volume ratio of TFPC/PC is a crucial factor affecting the physical and electrochemical properties. •The binary solvent can maintain a stable liquid phase in a broad temperature range. •Graphite anode works well in the electrolyte of 1 mol dm−3 LiPF6-TFPC/PC (1:2). •The optimized electrolyte has good compatibility with 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode. -- Abstract: To widen the operating potential window of electrolyte used for lithium-ion batteries, a binary cyclic carbonates-based electrolyte containing propylene carbonate (PC) and trifluoropropylene carbonate (TFPC) with an optimized volume ratio has been successfully proposed. The main function of additive TFPC is to establish a stable SEI layer on graphite electrode and suppress the intercalation reaction of PC molecules. Unlike the previous works, where the TFPC/PC involved electrolyte was simply estimated at a certain volume ration and recognized as an unfavorable system, in this work, the physical properties of the electrolyte solutions with a series of volume ratios of TFPC/PC and their electrochemical performances in a graphite/Li cell and 5 V LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4/Li cell have been systematically studied. The electrolyte of 1 mol dm−3 LiPF6-TFPC/PC (1:2) is adopted as the optimized system due to its high ionic conductivity, low viscosity, broad operating potential window, wide liquid temperature range (−50 ∼ 240 °C) and suitable film-forming property. Both the graphite and LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrodes were found to exhibit high reversible capacity and superb rate performance in the optimized electrolyte, making us have a new recognition of this important binary solvent

  19. Characterization of surface enhancement of carbon ion-implanted TiN coatings by metal vapor vacuum arc ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C L

    2002-01-01

    The modification of the surfaces of energetic carbon-implanted TiN films using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion implantation was investigated, by varying ion energy and dose. The microhardness, microstructure and chemical states of carbon, implanted on the surface layer of TiN films, were examined, as functions of ion energy and dose, by nanoindenter, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that the microhardness increased from 16.8 up to 25.3 GPa and the friction coefficient decreased to approximately 0.2, depending on the implanted ion energy and dose. The result is attributed to the new microcrystalline phases of TiCN and TiC formed, and carbon concentration saturation of the implanted matrix can enhance the partial mechanical property of TiN films after MEVVA treatment. The concentration distribution, implantation depth and chemical states of carbon-implanted TiN coatings depended strongly on the ion dose and...

  20. Carbonized-leaf Membrane with Anisotropic Surfaces for Sodium-ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbian; Shen, Fei; Luo, Wei; Dai, Jiaqi; Han, Xiaogang; Chen, Yanan; Yao, Yonggang; Zhu, Hongli; Fu, Kun; Hitz, Emily; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-01-27

    A simple one-step thermal pyrolysis route has been developed to prepare carbon membrane from a natural leaf. The carbonized leaf membrane possesses anisotropic surfaces and internal hierarchical porosity, exhibiting a high specific capacity of 360 mAh/g and a high initial Coulombic efficiency of 74.8% as a binder-free, current-collector-free anode for rechargeable sodium ion batteries. Moreover, large-area carbon membranes with low contact resistance are fabricated by simply stacking and carbonizing leaves, a promising strategy toward large-scale sodium-ion battery developments. PMID:26727650

  1. Protons from carbon ion fragmentation at 0.3–2.0 GeV/nucleon: Comparison with models of ion-ion interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yields of protons at 3.5° from carbon ion fragmentation at energies of T0 = 0.3, 0.6, 0.95, and 2.0 GeV/nucleon on a Be target were measured in the FRAGM experiment at TWA-ITEP heavy-ion facility. Proton momentum spectra cover both the region of the fragmentation maximum and the cumulative region. The differential cross sections span six orders of its magnitude. The spectra are compared with the predictions of four models of ion-ion interactions: LAQGSM03.03, SHIELD-HIT, QMD, and BC

  2. Thermal property tuning in aligned carbon nanotube films and random entangled carbon nanotube films by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Chen, Di; Wang, Xuemei [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Bykova, Julia S.; Zakhidov, Anvar A. [The Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Ion irradiation effects on thermal property changes are compared between aligned carbon nanotube (A-CNT) films and randomly entangled carbon nanotube (R-CNT) films. After H, C, and Fe ion irradiation, a focusing ion beam with sub-mm diameter is used as a heating source, and an infrared signal is recorded to extract thermal conductivity. Ion irradiation decreases thermal conductivity of A-CNT films, but increases that of R-CNT films. We explain the opposite trends by the fact that neighboring CNT bundles are loosely bonded in A-CNT films, which makes it difficult to create inter-tube linkage/bonding upon ion irradiation. In a comparison, in R-CNT films, which have dense tube networking, carbon displacements are easily trapped between touching tubes and act as inter-tube linkage to promote off-axial phonon transport. The enhancement overcomes the phonon transport loss due to phonon-defect scattering along the axial direction. A model is established to explain the dependence of thermal conductivity changes on ion irradiation parameters including ion species, energies, and current.

  3. Thermal property tuning in aligned carbon nanotube films and random entangled carbon nanotube films by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion irradiation effects on thermal property changes are compared between aligned carbon nanotube (A-CNT) films and randomly entangled carbon nanotube (R-CNT) films. After H, C, and Fe ion irradiation, a focusing ion beam with sub-mm diameter is used as a heating source, and an infrared signal is recorded to extract thermal conductivity. Ion irradiation decreases thermal conductivity of A-CNT films, but increases that of R-CNT films. We explain the opposite trends by the fact that neighboring CNT bundles are loosely bonded in A-CNT films, which makes it difficult to create inter-tube linkage/bonding upon ion irradiation. In a comparison, in R-CNT films, which have dense tube networking, carbon displacements are easily trapped between touching tubes and act as inter-tube linkage to promote off-axial phonon transport. The enhancement overcomes the phonon transport loss due to phonon-defect scattering along the axial direction. A model is established to explain the dependence of thermal conductivity changes on ion irradiation parameters including ion species, energies, and current

  4. The morphology and structure of one-dimensional carbon-carbon composite under high-fluence ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianova, N.N.; Borisov, A.M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninsky Gori, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Mashkova, E.S. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Leninsky Gori, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: es_mashkova@mail.ru; Virgiliev, Yu.S. [NIIgraphite, Electrodnaya 2, 111141 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    The temperature dependences of the ion-induced electron emission yield {gamma}(T), the crystal structure, and the morphology of a surface layer of the one-dimensional carbon fiber composite KUP-VM (1D) under high-fluence (10{sup 18}-10{sup 19} ion/cm{sup 2}) irradiation with 30 keV N{sub 2}{sup +} ions at normal incidence both perpendicular and parallel to the fiber directions have been studied. The target temperature has been varied during continuous irradiation from T = -180 to 400 deg. C. The surface analysis has been performed by the RHEED, SEM and RBS techniques. The surface microgeometry was studied using laser goniophotometry (LGP). It has been found that ion irradiation results in a loss of anisotropy of the surface layer structure because of amorphization at room temperature or recrystallization at a temperature higher than the ion-induced annealing temperature. The fiber morphology anisotropy remains under ion irradiation.

  5. The morphology and structure of one-dimensional carbon-carbon composite under high-fluence ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependences of the ion-induced electron emission yield γ(T), the crystal structure, and the morphology of a surface layer of the one-dimensional carbon fiber composite KUP-VM (1D) under high-fluence (1018-1019 ion/cm2) irradiation with 30 keV N2+ ions at normal incidence both perpendicular and parallel to the fiber directions have been studied. The target temperature has been varied during continuous irradiation from T = -180 to 400 deg. C. The surface analysis has been performed by the RHEED, SEM and RBS techniques. The surface microgeometry was studied using laser goniophotometry (LGP). It has been found that ion irradiation results in a loss of anisotropy of the surface layer structure because of amorphization at room temperature or recrystallization at a temperature higher than the ion-induced annealing temperature. The fiber morphology anisotropy remains under ion irradiation.

  6. Electrical resistance of diamond implanted at liquid nitrogen temperature with carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon ion implantation of diamond to high fluence, below the temperature at which diamond growth can occur, usually leads to black layers of high conductivity. This study shows that for a low enough temperature of the diamond during implantation, a black layer with high electrical resistance can develop. In particular, carbon ion implantation at liquid nitrogen temperature, leads to an implanted layer with electrical resistance about one million times higher than the resistance obtained for implantation at temperatures above room temperature. (author)

  7. Electron spin resonance investigations on ion beam irradiated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR investigations on single-wall carbon nanotubes irradiated with accelerated protons, helium ions, and neon ions are reported. All spectra were accurately simulated assuming that the resonance line is a convolution of up to 4 lines originating from catalyst residues, amorphous carbon, and electrons delocalized over the conducting domains of nanotubes. The faint line observed in irradiated nanotubes at g > 2.25 was assigned to magnetic impurities. However, there are no sufficient data to confirm that this line is connected to radiation-induced magnetism in carbon nanotubes. The generation of paramagnetic defects due to the bombardment of single-wall carbon nanotubes by accelerated ions is reported. These data correlate with previous Raman and thermal investigations on the same single-wall carbon nanotubes and reveals their sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The temperature dependence of ESR spectra in the range 25-250 K was used to identify the components of the ESR spectra

  8. Peripheral nerve regeneration through a silicone chamber implanted with negative carbon ions: Possibility to clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeguchi, Ryosuke; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Tadashi; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether a tube with its inner surface implanted with negative-charged carbon ions (C- ions) would enable axons to extend over a distance greater than 10 mm. The tube was found to support nerves regenerating across a 15-mm-long inter-stump gap. We also investigated whether a C- ion-implanted tube pretreated with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration. The C- ion implanted tube accelerated nerve regeneration, and this effect was enhanced by bFGF. Silicone treated with C- ions showed increased hydrophilic properties and cellular affinity, and axon regeneration was promoted with this increased biocompatibility.

  9. Clinical results of carbon ion radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal cancer is still difficult to treat even using the particle therapy. However, because of their excellent dose distribution, cancer surrounded by gastrointestinal tract such as pancreatic cancer and local recurrence of colorectal cancer after surgery becomes to be treated by particle beam with curative intent. The usefulness of particle beam is reported in the patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer and patents who received preoperative irradiation with resectable pancreatic cancer. In addition, the postoperative recurrence of rectal cancer is reported to achieve more than 90 percent of local control by particle beam. (author)

  10. Electrochemical properties of carbon materials implanted with high energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon materials have some allotropes such as diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon. These allotropes show significantly different natures depending on their structures. Ion implantation has two different effects on the modification of material surface layers, that is, the structural modification induced by the energy radiation accompanying ion beam bombardment, and the composition change introduced by doping surface layers with different elements. Carbon materials have been used as fuel, tools, electrical conductors, chemical instruments, electrochemical electrodes and composite materials because of their natures, such as the brightness and hardness of diamond and the chemical stability and electro-conductivity of black carbon. For all these uses, the surface properties are important, accordingly, ion implantation is an important technique for modifying the surface layers. In this paper, the main features of the ion implantation on the surface modification of diamond and glassy carbon substrates, and the chemical and electrochemical properties of glassy carbon implanted with various elements are reported. The electrode characteristics of ion-implanted glassy carbon are affected by the composition change and the change to amorphous form. (K.I.)

  11. Interaction of small hydrocarbon ions and Ar(+) with carbon-fibre-composite surfaces at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keim, A.; Rasul, B.; Endstrasser, N.; Scheier, P.; Märk, T. D.; Herman, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 306, 2-3 (2011), s. 204-209. ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ion-surface collisions * Ar+ and hydrocarbon ions * carbon-fibre-composite surface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.549, year: 2011

  12. Collisions of fast, highly stripped carbon, niobium, and lead ions with molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The range of experimental confirmation of our scaling rule for electron loss from a hydrogen atom in collision with a heavy, highly stripped ion has been considerably broadened by new measurements on carbon-, niobium-, and lead-ion projectiles in molecular hydrogen

  13. Molecular dynamics study of radiation damage and microstructure evolution of zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes under carbon ion incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Tang, Xiaobin; Chen, Feida; Huang, Hai; Liu, Jian; Chen, Da

    2016-07-01

    The radiation damage and microstructure evolution of different zigzag single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated under incident carbon ion by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The radiation damage of SWCNTs under incident carbon ion with energy ranging from 25 eV to 1 keV at 300 K showed many differences at different incident sites, and the defect production increased to the maximum value with the increase in incident ion energy, and slightly decreased but stayed fairly stable within the majority of the energy range. The maximum damage of SWCNTs appeared when the incident ion energy reached 200 eV and the level of damage was directly proportional to incident ion fluence. The radiation damage was also studied at 100 K and 700 K and the defect production decreased distinctly with rising temperature because radiation-induced defects would anneal and recombine by saturating dangling bonds and reconstructing carbon network at the higher temperature. Furthermore, the stability of a large-diameter tube surpassed that of a thin one under the same radiation environments.

  14. Metal Ions Extraction with Glucose Derivatives as Chelating Reagents in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chen YANG; Hai Jian YANG

    2006-01-01

    A series of glucose derivatives have been used as chelating reagents to extract metal ions in supercritical carbon dioxide. With perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid tetraethylammonium salt as additive, glucose derivatives were selective for Sr2+ and Pb2+ extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide.

  15. Modifying the electronic structure of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes by Ar+ ion irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolvanen, A.; Buchs, G.; Ruffieux, P.; Gröning, P.; Gröning, O.; Krasheninnikov, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Local controllable modification of the electronic structure of carbon nanomaterials is important for the development of carbon-based nanoelectronics. By combining density-functional theory simulations with Ar-ion-irradiation experiments and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectrosc

  16. Enhancement of SPHK1 in vitro by carbon ion irradiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells after carbon ion irradiation. Methods and Materials Three OSCC cell lines (HSC2, Ca9-22, and HSC3) were irradiated with accelerated carbon ion beams or X-rays using three different doses. The cellular sensitivities were determined by clonogenic survival assay. To identify genes the expression of which is influenced by carbon ion irradiation in a dose-dependent manner, we performed Affymetrix GeneChip analysis with HG-U133 plus 2.0 arrays containing 54,675 probe sets. The identified genes were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool to investigate the functional network and gene ontology. Changes in mRNA expression in the genes were assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results We identified 98 genes with expression levels that were altered significantly at least twofold in each of the three carbon-irradiated OSCC cell lines at all dose points compared with nonirradiated control cells. Among these, SPHK1, the expression of which was significantly upregulated by carbon ion irradiation, was modulated little by X-rays. The function of SPHK1 related to cellular growth and proliferation had the highest p value (p = 9.25e-7 to 2.19e-2). Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed significantly elevated SPHK1 expression levels after carbon ion irradiation (p < 0.05), consistent with microarray data. Clonogenic survival assay indicated that carbon ion irradiation could induce cell death in Ca9-22 cells more effectively than X-rays. Conclusions Our findings suggest that SPHK1 helps to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and processes underlying the biologic response to carbon ion beams in OSCC

  17. A moderator ion exchange model to predict carbon-14 behaviour during operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-14 emissions from CANDU 6 stations are reduced through the removal of inorganic carbon ions by the ion exchange (IX) columns in the moderator purification system. A model has been developed to simulate the ion exchange behaviour of anions and cations present in the moderator. The model can be used to generate breakthrough curves for IX columns. Results from the program were compared to breakthrough curves generated by a small-scale experimental facility as well as data collected from Wolsong-3 where the IX column remained in service well past the recommended time. In both cases, the breakthrough curves were similar to the collected data. (author)

  18. Charge equilibrium of a laser-generated carbon-ion beam in warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ion carbon beams generated by high intensity short pulse lasers we perform measurements of single shot mean charge equilibration in cold or isochorically heated solid density aluminum matter. We demonstrate that plasma effects in such matter heated up to 1 eV do not significantly impact the equilibration of carbon ions with energies 0.045-0.5 MeV/nucleon. Furthermore, these measurements allow for a first evaluation of semiempirical formulas or ab initio models that are being used to predict the mean of the equilibrium charge state distribution for light ions passing through warm dense matter. (authors)

  19. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeongwoon Hwang; Jisoon Ihm; Kwang-Ryeol Lee; Seungchul Kim

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV). As the incident energy decrease...

  20. Tilting of carbon encapsulated metallic nanocolumns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite films by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Muecklich, Arndt; Zschornak, Matthias; Wintz, Sebastian; Gemming, Sibylle; Abrasonis, Gintautas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Oates, Thomas W. H. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaft, ISAS e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Luis Endrino, Jose [Surfaces and Coatings Department, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Baehtz, Carsten; Shalimov, Artem [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2012-07-30

    The influence of assisting low-energy ({approx}50-100 eV) ion irradiation effects on the morphology of C:Ni ({approx}15 at. %) nanocomposite films during ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is investigated. It is shown that IBAD promotes the columnar growth of carbon encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The momentum transfer from assisting ions results in tilting of the columns in relation to the growing film surface. Complex secondary structures are obtained, in which a significant part of the columns grows under local epitaxy via the junction of sequentially deposited thin film fractions. The influence of such anisotropic film morphology on the optical properties is highlighted.

  1. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. ► MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS–CO–Cys). ► MPCS–CO–Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. ► Heavy metal ions such as Pb2+ and Cd2+ can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  2. Experimental study of the water-to-air stopping power ratio of monoenergetic carbon ion beams for particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D.; Gemmel, A.; Jäkel, O.; Parodi, K.; Rietzel, E.

    2012-06-01

    Reference dosimetry with ionization chambers requires a number of chamber-specific and beam-specific calibration factors. For carbon ion beams, IAEA report TRS-398 yields a total uncertainty of 3% in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, for which the biggest contribution arises from the water-to-air stopping power ratio (sw, air), with an uncertainty of 2%. The variation of (sw, air) along the treatment field has been studied in several Monte Carlo works presented over the last few years. Their results were, in all cases, strongly dependent on the choice of mean ionization potentials (I-values) for air and water. A smaller dependence of (sw, air) with penetration depth was observed. Since a consensus on Iw, air and Iair has not yet been reached, the validity of such studies for clinical use cannot be assessed independently. Our approach is based on a direct experimental measurement of water-equivalent thicknesses of different air gaps at different beam energies. A theoretical expression describing the variation of the stopping power ratio with kinetic energy, sw,air(E), was derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula and fit to the measured data, yielding a coherent pair of Iw and Iair values with Iair/Iw = 1.157 ± 0.023. Additionally, the data from five different beam energies were combined in an average value of sw,air = 1.132 ± 0.003 (statistical) ± 0.003 (variation over energy range), valid for monoenergetic carbon ion beams at the plateau area of the depth dose distribution. A detailed uncertainty analysis was performed on the data, in order to assess the limitations of the method, yielding an overall standard uncertainty below 1% in sw,air(E). Therefore, when properly combined with the appropriate models for the fragment spectra, our experimental work can contribute to narrow the uncertainty margins currently in use in absorbed dose to water determination for dosimetry of carbon ion beam radiotherapy.

  3. Comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with intensity modulated particle therapy (IMPT) using fixed beams or an ion gantry for the treatment of patients with skull base meningiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the potential improvement in treatment planning for patients with skull base meningioma using IMRT compared to carbon ion or proton beams with and without a gantry. Five patients originally treated with photon IMRT were selected for the study. Ion beams were chosen using a horizontal beam or an ion gantry. Intensity controlled raster scanning and the intensity modulated particle therapy mode were used for plan optimization. The evaluation included analysis of dose-volume histograms of the target volumes and organs at risk. In comparison with carbon and proton beams only with horizontal beams, carbon ion treatment plans could spare the OARs more and concentrated on the target volumes more than proton and photon IMRT treatment plans. Using only a horizontal fixed beam, satisfactory plans could be achieved for skull base tumors. The results of the case studies showed that using IMPT has the potential to overcome the lack of a gantry for skull base tumors. Carbon ion plans offered slightly better dose distributions than proton plans, but the differences were not clinically significant with established dose prescription concepts

  4. The Anion Effect on Li+ Ion Coordination Structure in Ethylene Carbonate Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Bo; Shen, Yuneng; Yang, Xueming; Yuan, Kaijun; Vetere, Valentina; Mossa, Stefano; Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Zhang, Yufan; Zheng, Junrong

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries are an attractive alternative power source for a wide variety of applications. To optimize their performances, a complete description of the solvation properties of the ion in the electrolyte is crucial. A comprehensive understanding at the nanoscale of the solvation structure of lithium ions in nonaqueous carbonate electrolytes is, however, still unclear. We have measured by femtosecond vibrational spectroscopy the orientational correlation time of the CO stretching mode of Li+-bound and Li+-unbound ethylene carbonate molecules, in LiBF4, LiPF6, and LiClO4 ethylene carbonate solutions with different concentrations. Surprisingly, we have found that the coordination number of ethylene carbonate in the first solvation shell of Li+ is only two, in all solutions with concentrations higher than 0.5 M. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the presence of anions in the first coordination shell modifies the generally accepted tetrahedral structure of the complex, all...

  5. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water

  6. Copper ions removal from water using functionalized carbon nanotubes–mullite composite as adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tofighy, Maryam Ahmadzadeh; Mohammadi, Toraj, E-mail: torajmohammadi@iust.ac.ir

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • CNTs–mullite composite was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. • The prepared composite was modified with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan. • The modified CNTs–mullite composites were used as novel adsorbents. • Copper ion removal from water by the prepared adsorbents was performed. • Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was synthesized by direct growth of carbon nanotubes on mullite particles via chemical vapor deposition method using cyclohexanol and ferrocene as carbon precursor and catalyst, respectively. The carbon nanotubes–mullite composite was oxidized with concentrated nitric acid and functionalized with chitosan and then used as a novel adsorbent for copper ions removal from water. The results demonstrated that modification with concentrated nitric acid and chitosan improves copper ions adsorption capacity of the prepared composite, significantly. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and two kinetic models were applied to fit the experimental data. The carbon nanotubes growth on mullite particles to form the carbon nanotubes–mullite composite with further modification is an inherently safe approach for many promising environmental applications to avoid some concerns regarding environment, health and safety. It was found that the modified carbon nanotubes–mullite composite can be considered as an excellent adsorbent for copper ions removal from water.

  7. Successive ionization of positive ions of carbon and nitrogen by electron bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of deep ionization of heavy ions are described. The applications of such studies in atomic physics, plasma physics and space physics are discussed. Investigations using intersecting ion-electron beams, shifted beams and ion trap sources are described, and data are presented for multi-charged ions of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. A detailed description of the development of the IEL (electron beam ionizer) source, and the KRION (cryogenic version) source is given, and further data for the multiple ionization of carbon and nitrogen are given for charge states up to C6+ and N7+. The advantages and disadvantages of the KRION source are discussed, and preliminary studies of a new torroidal ion trap source (HIRAC) are presented. (11 figs, 57 refs) (U.S.)

  8. Improvement of polydimethylsiloxane guide tube for nerve regeneration treatment by carbon negative-ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, H. E-mail: tsuji@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Izukawa, M.; Ikeguchi, R.; Kakinoki, R.; Sato, H.; Gotoh, Y.; Ishikawa, J

    2003-05-01

    Modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) rubber by negative ion-implantation was investigated for improvement of nerve regeneration property. The PDMS rubber surface was found to have more hydrophilic property after carbon negative-ion implantation than before. At the conditions of 10 keV and 3.0 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, the contact angle decreased to 83 deg. from 100 deg. . The reason of the hydrophilic modification is due to hydrophilic functional groups such as hydroxyl formed at the surface by radiation effect of ion implantation. The in vivo regeneration test of rat sciatic nerve was performed by using 18-mm-long PDMS rubber tubes with inner diameter of 2 mm, the inner surface of which was implanted with carbon negative ions at the above conditions. At 24 weeks after the clinical surgery, the sciatic nerve was regenerated through the tube between the proximal and distal nerve stumps.

  9. Field-effect ion-transport devices with carbon nanotube channels: schematics and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated field-effect ion-transport devices based on carbon nanotubes by using classical molecular dynamics simulations under applied external force fields, and we present model schematics that can be applied to the nanoscale data storage devices and unipolar ionic field-effect transistors. As the applied external force field is increased, potassium ions rapidly flow through the nanochannel. Under low external force fields, thermal fluctuations of the nanochannels affect tunneling of the potassium ions whereas the effects of thermal fluctuations are negligible under high external force fields. Since the electric current conductivity increases when potassium ions are inserted into fullerenes or carbon nanotubes, the field effect due to the gate, which can modify the position of the potassium ions, changes the tunneling current between the drain and the source.

  10. Field-effect ion-transport devices with carbon nanotube channels: schematics and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Yul; Kang, Jeong Won; Byun, Ki Ryang; Kang, Eu Seok; Hwang, Ho Jung [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jun Ha; Lee, Hoong Joo [Sangmyung University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Oh Keun [Semyung University, Jecheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Min [Chung-Cheong University, Cheongwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-15

    We investigated field-effect ion-transport devices based on carbon nanotubes by using classical molecular dynamics simulations under applied external force fields, and we present model schematics that can be applied to the nanoscale data storage devices and unipolar ionic field-effect transistors. As the applied external force field is increased, potassium ions rapidly flow through the nanochannel. Under low external force fields, thermal fluctuations of the nanochannels affect tunneling of the potassium ions whereas the effects of thermal fluctuations are negligible under high external force fields. Since the electric current conductivity increases when potassium ions are inserted into fullerenes or carbon nanotubes, the field effect due to the gate, which can modify the position of the potassium ions, changes the tunneling current between the drain and the source.

  11. Li-ion capacitors with carbon cathode and hard carbon/stabilized lithium metal powder anode electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W. J.; Zheng, J. P.

    2012-09-01

    A lithium-ion capacitor was developed using a mixture of stabilized lithium metal powder and hard carbon as the anode electrode, while activated carbon was used as the cathode. A specific energy of approximately 82 Wh kg-1 was obtained based on the weight of electrode materials; however, when the electrolyte, separator, and current collectors were included, the specific energy of an assembled Li-ion capacitor was about 25 Wh kg-1. The capacitor was able to deliver over 60% of the maximum energy at a discharge C-rate of 44C. Through continuous galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling, the capacitance of the Li-ion capacitor degraded less than 3% over 600 cycles.

  12. Ion-radical intermediates of the radiation-chemical transformations of organic carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, Ekaterina S.; Sosulin, Ilya S.; Saenko, Elizaveta V.; Feldman, Vladimir I.

    2016-07-01

    The spectral features and reactions of ion-radical intermediates produced from organic carbonates in low-temperature matrices were investigated by EPR spectroscopy and quantum-chemical calculations. It was shown that radical cations of diethyl carbonate and dimethyl carbonate underwent intramolecular hydrogen transfer to yield alkyl-type species, as was suggested previously. Meanwhile, radical cation of EC demonstrates a ring cleavage even at 77 K, while radical cation of PC is probably intrinsically stable and undergo an ion-molecule reaction with a neighboring neutral molecule in dimers or associates. Radical anions were obtained in glassy matrices of diethyl ether or perdeuteroethanol. The radical anions of linear carbonates show photoinduced fragmentation to yield the corresponding alkyl radicals; such process may also occur directly under radiolysis. Radical anions of cyclic carbonates are relatively stable and yield only trace amounts of fragmentation products under similar conditions.

  13. Nucleation and growth of carbon onions by means of simultaneous electron microscopic observation under ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-situ and ex-situ TEM observation was performed in copper implanted with carbon ions at temperature from 570 K to 973 K. Carbon clusters, such as carbon onions (concentric graphic spheres) and nanocapsules (concentric graphitic spheres with cavities), were observed with amorphous carbon layers. Statistics of cluster size as a function of implantation temperature, ion fluence and substrate crystallinity revealed the nucleation processes of the clusters. One is the formation of graphitic layers on grain boundaries. The other is the nucleation of graphitic cages, probably fullerenes, due to both high concentration of carbon atoms and high amount of radiation damage. Simultaneous observation of microstructural evolution under implantation revealed that onions were formed inside the substrate not surface and that they segregate at surface due to radiation-enhanced evaporation. (author)

  14. Influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Saoudi, Fethi; Chiha, Mahdi; Pétrier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    The influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonolytic degradation of cationic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), in water was investigated. As a consequence of ultrasonic cavitation that generates .OH radicals, carbonate radicals were secondary products of water sonochemistry when it contains dissolved bicarbonate or carbonate ions. The results clearly demonstrated the significant intensification of sonolytic destruction of RhB in the presence of bicarbonate and carbonate, especially at lower dye concentrations. Degradation intensification occurs because carbonate radicals sonochemically formed undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals. The generated carbonate radicals are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as RhB. Therefore, at low dye concentrations, carbonate radical presents a more selective reactivity towards RhB molecules than hydroxyl radical. In the presence of bicarbonate, degradation rate reached a maximum at 3 g L(-1) bicarbonate, but subsequent addition retards the destruction process. In RhB solutions containing carbonate, the oxidation rate gradually increased with increasing carbonate concentration up to 10 g L(-1) and slightly decreased afterward. Carbonate radicals sonochemically generated are suitable for total removal of COD of sonicated RhB solutions. PMID:19910116

  15. Advanced carbon materials/olivine LiFePO4 composites cathode for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunli; Xue, Zhigang; Wen, Sheng; Ye, Yunsheng; Xie, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    In the past two decades, LiFePO4 has undoubtly become a competitive candidate for the cathode material of the next-generation LIBs due to its abundant resources, low toxicity and excellent thermal stability, etc. However, the poor electronic conductivity as well as low lithium ion diffusion rate are the two major drawbacks for the commercial applications of LiFePO4 especially in the power energy field. The introduction of highly graphitized advanced carbon materials, which also possess high electronic conductivity, superior specific surface area and excellent structural stability, into LiFePO4 offers a better way to resolve the issue of limited rate performance caused by the two obstacles when compared with traditional carbon materials. In this review, we focus on advanced carbon materials such as one-dimensional (1D) carbon (carbon nanotubes and carbon fibers), two-dimensional (2D) carbon (graphene, graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon (carbon nanotubes array and 3D graphene skeleton), modified LiFePO4 for high power lithium ion batteries. The preparation strategies, structure, and electrochemical performance of advanced carbon/LiFePO4 composite are summarized and discussed in detail. The problems encountered in its application and the future development of this composite are also discussed.

  16. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of Small-Molecule Solids at Cryogenic Temperatures. 1. Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide

    OpenAIRE

    Jonkman, Harry T.; Michl, Josef

    1981-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectra of solid nitrogen and carbon monoxide were observed at 15 K. The effects of the nature and energy of the primary probe ion were investigated. Direct charge transfer, inelastic momentum transfer, association reactions, and ion-molecule reactions all seem to contribute to the formation of the secondary charged particles. With the heavier probe ions extensive cluster formation was observed.

  17. The Experimental Measurement of the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Carbon Ions with Different Qualities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jufang; LI Wenjian

    2008-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions with linear energy transfer (LET) of 172 keV/μm and 13.7 keV/μm were determined in this study. The clonogenic survival and premature terminal differentiation were measured on normal human fibroblasts AG01522C and NHDF after exposure of the cells to 250 kV X-rays and carbon ions with different qualities. RBE was determined for these two biological end points. The results showed that the measured RBE10 with a survival fraction of 10% was 3.2 for LET 172 keV/μm, and 1.33 for LET 13.7 keV/μm carbon ions. RBE for a doubling of post-mitotic fibroblasts (PMF) in the population was 2.8 for LET 172 keV/μm, and 1 for LET 13.7 keV/μm carbon ions. For the carbon ion therapy, a high RBE value on the Bragg peak results in a high biological dose on the tumour. The tumour cells can be killed effectively. At the same time, the dose on healthy tissue would be reduced accordingly. This will lighten the late effect such as fibrosis on normal tissue.

  18. Calculation of Lifetime of Charge-Exchanging Carbon Targets in Intense Heavy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Kazacha, V I; Kamanin, D V

    2005-01-01

    Influence of the radiation damage and sublimation effects on the lifetime of carbon targets used for the accelerated ion beam extraction from cyclotrons by the charge-exchanging method is considered. The theoretical models permitting evaluation of the carbon target lifetime depending on their and ion beam parameters are presented both for the radiation damage and sublimation effects. It is shown that for the U-400 cyclotron carbon targets 50 $\\mu$g/cm$^{2}$ thick and for the ion beam flux density up to 100 p$\\mu$A/cm$^{2}$ the main effect defining the carbon target lifetime is the radiation damage. If the carbon target thickness and the ion beam flux density are greater, the target lifetime is defined already by the sublimation effect. In this connection "casting pipes" can be formed in the target, affecting on the mean energy and the energy distribution dispersion of the ion beam flied through the target. Comparison of measured and calculated target lifetimes is carried out

  19. Effects of beer administration in mice on acute toxicities induced by X rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the tissue specificity of radioprotection by beer, which was previously found for human lymphocytes. C3H/He female mice, aged 14 weeks, received an oral administration of beer, ethanol or saline at a dose of 1 ml/mouse 30 min before whole-body irradiation with 137Cs γ rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The dicentrics of chromosome aberrations in spleen cells were significantly (p0 (slope of a dose-survival curve) for γ rays and carbon ions as well. Beer administration significantly (p50/30 (radiation dose required to kill 50% of mice within 30 days) for γ rays and carbon ions. Ethanol-administration also significantly (p50/30 value for γ rays, but not for carbon ions. It is concluded that beer administration reduces the radiation injury caused by photons and carbon ions, depending on the tissue type. Radioprotection by beer administration is not solely due to OH radical-scavenging action by the ethanol contained in beer. (author)

  20. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIQiang; ZHOUGuang-Ming; 等

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5,200 and 700keV/um were measured,respectively,Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves.They are 7.86±0.17,10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.59um2 in turn.With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value,relative biological effectiveness at 10%,20%,50%and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions,The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5keV/um had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs.It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200keV/um for carbon ions.

  1. Killing effect of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accelerated carbon ions and RBE determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Survival curves of Chinese hamster V79 cells exposed to accclerated carbon ions with linear energy transfers of 125.5, 200 and 700 keV/μm were measured, respectively. Inactivation cross sections corresponding to the irradiation above were deduced from the V79 cell survival curves. They are 7.86±0.17, 10.44±1.11 and 32.32±3.58 μm2 in turn. With the surviving response of V79 cells to 60Co γ-rays as a reference value, relative biological effectiveness at 10%, 20%, 50% and 80% survival levels were given for the accelerated carbon ions. The results showed that carbon ions with LET of 125.5 keV/μm had a higher value of RBE at all the four survival levels than the carbon ions with other LETs. It was prompted that the maximum value of RBE for the V79 cell surviving as the biological endpoint emerged at the LET below 200 keV/μm for carbon ions.

  2. Determination of carbon distributions in quenched and partitioned microstructures using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-modal characterization technique, which combines nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (Nano-SIMS) with a spatial resolution of ∼100 nm and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) to determine carbon distributions in austenite and martensite in a quenched and partitioned (Q&P) Fe–0.29C–2.95Mn–1.59Si steel is presented. Significant carbon enrichment of austenite was measured with decreased levels of carbon in martensite, supporting the carbon partitioning mechanism. Fresh untempered martensite could be identified, and different degrees of enrichment were observed for blocky and lath austenite

  3. Characterization of silicon- and carbon-based composite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years development of active materials for negative electrodes has been of great interest. Special attention has been focused on the active materials possessing higher reversible capacity than that of conventional graphite. In the present work the electrochemical performance of some carbon/silicon-based materials has been analyzed. For this purpose various silicon-based composites were prepared using such carbon materials as graphite, hard carbon and graphitized carbon black. An analysis of charging-discharging processes at electrodes based on different carbon materials has shown that graphite modified with silicon is the most promising anode material. It has also been revealed that the irreversible capacity mainly depends on the content of Si. An optimum content of Si has been determined with taking into account that high irreversible capacity is not suitable for practical application in lithium-ion batteries. This content falls within the range of 8-10 wt%. The reversible capacity of graphite modified with 8 wt% carbon-coated Si was as high as 604 mAh g-1. The irreversible capacity loss with this material was as low as 8.1%. The small irreversible capacity of the material allowed developing full lithium-ion rechargeable cells in the 2016 coin cell configuration. Lithium-ion batteries based on graphite modified with silicon show gravimetric and volumetric specific energy densities which are higher by approximately 20% than those for a lithium-ion battery based on natural graphite

  4. Characterization of silicon and carbon dual ion-implanted metals with a nano-indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dual ion implantation of silicon and carbon into copper (99.9%), iron (99.9%), SKD11 steel and SUS304 austenitic stainless steels was carried out with a MeV energy ion accelerator. The cross-section of the implanted layer were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The surface layers of the implanted substrates were investigated with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The hardness of the samples was tested with a nano-indentation. It was found with XPS Si (2p) spectra and TEM that a part of the Si ions and C ions formed an amorphous layer of SiC, carbide and metals by dual ion-implantation. The hardness of the dual ion-implanted steels were improved. The mechanism of hardness was suggested by cross-sectional TEM images. (author)

  5. Ion-implanted Mechanism of the Deposition Process for Diamond-Like Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xue-Min; WU Wei-Dong; WANG Yu-Ying; WANG Hai-Ping; GE Fang-Fang; TANG Yong-Jian; JU Xin

    2011-01-01

    Due to the local densification, high-energy C and doped ions can greatly affect the bonding configurations of diamond-like carbon films. We investigate the corresponding affection of different incident ions with energy from WeV to 600eV by Monte Carlo methods. The ion-implanted mechanism called the subplantation (for C, N, O, W, Y, etc.) is confirmed. Obvious thermal effect could be induced by the subplantation of the incident ions. Further, the subplantation of C ions is proved by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The observation from an atomic force microscope (AFM) indicates that the initial implantation of C ions might result in the final primitive-cell-like morphology of the smooth film (in an area of 1.2 mm × 0.9 mm, rms roughness smaller than 20 nm by Wyko).

  6. Effects of Carbon Structure and Surface Oxygen on the Carbon's Performance as the Anode in Lithium-Ion Battery Determined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2000-01-01

    Four carbon materials (C1, C2, C3, and C4) were tested electrochemically at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to determine their performance in lithium-ion batteries. They were formed as shown in the figure. This process caused very little carbon loss. Products C1 and C3 contained very little oxygen because of the final overnight heating at 540 C. Products C2 and C4, on the other hand, contained small amounts of basic oxide. The electrochemical test involved cycles of lithium intercalation and deintercalation using C/saturated LiI-50/50 (vol %) ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC)/Li half cell. The cycling test, which is summarized in the table, resulted in three major conclusions. The capacity of the carbon with a basic oxide surface converges to a constant 1. value quickly (within 4 cycles), possibly because the oxide prevents solvent from entering the carbon structure and, therefore, prolongs the carbon s cycle life. Under certain conditions, the disordered carbon can store more lithium than its 2. precursor. These samples and their precursor can intercalate at 200 mA/g and deintercalate at 3. a rate of 2000 mA/g without significant capacity loss.

  7. Carbon plasma immersion ion implantation of nickel-titanium shape memory alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, R W Y; Yeung, K W K; Liu, X Y; Chu, P K; Chung, C Y; Lu, W W; Cheung, K M C; Chan, D

    2005-05-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys possess super-elasticity in addition to the well-known shape memory effect and are potentially suitable for orthopedic implants. However, a critical concern is the release of harmful Ni ions from the implants into the living tissues. We propose to enhance the corrosion resistance and other surface and biological properties of NiTi using carbon plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D). Our corrosion and simulated body fluid tests indicate that either an ion-mixed amorphous carbon coating fabricated by PIII&D or direct carbon PIII can drastically improve the corrosion resistance and block the out-diffusion of Ni from the materials. Our tribological tests show that the treated surfaces are mechanically more superior and cytotoxicity tests reveal that both sets of plasma-treated samples favor adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts. PMID:15585228

  8. Swift heavy ion irradiation of metal containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaseov, P. A.; Protopopova, V. S.; Karabeshkin, K. V.; Shubina, E. N.; Mishin, M. V.; Koskinen, J.; Mohapatra, S.; Tripathi, A.; Avasthi, D. K.; Titov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Thin carbon films were grown at room temperature on (0 0 1) n-Si substrate using dual cathode filtered vacuum arc deposition system. Graphite was used as a source of carbon atoms and separate metallic electrode was simultaneously utilized to introduce Ni or Cu atoms. Films were irradiated by 100 MeV Ag7+ ions to fluences in the range 1 × 1010-3 × 1011 cm-2. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, Raman scattering, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy in conductive mode were used to investigate film properties and structure change under irradiation. Some conductive channels having metallic conductivity type were found in the films. Number of such channels is less than number of impinged ions. Presence of Ni and Cu atoms increases conductivity of those conductive channels. Fluence dependence of all properties studied suggests different mechanisms of swift heavy ion irradiation-induced transformation of carbon matrix due to different chemical effect of nickel and copper atoms.

  9. Benchmarking nuclear models of FLUKA and GEANT4 for carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, TT; Quesada, J M; Bohlen, T T; Cerutti, F; Gudowska, I; Ferrari, A; Mairani, A

    2010-01-01

    As carbon ions, at therapeutic energies, penetrate tissue, they undergo inelastic nuclear reactions and give rise to significant yields of secondary fragment fluences. Therefore, an accurate prediction of these fluences resulting from the primary carbon interactions is necessary in the patient's body in order to precisely simulate the spatial dose distribution and the resulting biological effect. In this paper, the performance of nuclear fragmentation models of the Monte Carlo transport codes, FLUKA and GEANT4, in tissue-like media and for an energy regime relevant for therapeutic carbon ions is investigated. The ability of these Monte Carlo codes to reproduce experimental data of charge-changing cross sections and integral and differential yields of secondary charged fragments is evaluated. For the fragment yields, the main focus is on the consideration of experimental approximations and uncertainties such as the energy measurement by time-of-flight. For GEANT4, the hadronic models G4BinaryLightIonReaction a...

  10. Removal of Lead (II Ions from Aqueous Solutions onto Activated Carbon Derived from Waste Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Erdem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of lead (II ions from aqueous solutions was carried out using an activated carbon prepared from a waste biomass. The effects of various parameters such as pH, contact time, initial concentration of lead (II ions, and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis after adsorption reveals the accumulation of lead (II ions onto activated carbon. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze equilibrium data. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of activated carbon was found to be 476.2 mg g−1. The kinetic data were evaluated and the pseudo-second-order equation provided the best correlation. Thermodynamic parameters suggest that the adsorption process is endothermic and spontaneous.

  11. Formation of carbon nanostructures containing single-crystalline cobalt carbides by ion irradiation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhipeng; Yusop, Zamri; Ghosh, Pradip; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tanemura, Masaki

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a diameter of 17 nm, and carbon nanoneedles (CNNs) with sharp tips have been synthesized on graphite substrates by ion irradiation of argon ions with the Co supplies rate of 1 and 3.4 nm/min, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, combined with selected area electron diffraction patterns has been used to identify the chemical composition and crystallinity of these carbon nanostructures. The CNFs were found to be amorphous in nature, while the structures of the CNNs consisted of cubic CoCx, orthorhombic Co2C and Co3C depending on the cobalt content in the CNNs. The diameter of the carbide crystals was almost as large as the diameter of the CNN. Compared to the ion-induced nickel carbides and iron carbides, the formation of single-crystalline cobalt carbides might be due to the high temperature produced by the irradiation.

  12. Formation of carbon nanostructures containing single-crystalline cobalt carbides by ion irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with a diameter of 17 nm, and carbon nanoneedles (CNNs) with sharp tips have been synthesized on graphite substrates by ion irradiation of argon ions with the Co supplies rate of 1 and 3.4 nm/min, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, combined with selected area electron diffraction patterns has been used to identify the chemical composition and crystallinity of these carbon nanostructures. The CNFs were found to be amorphous in nature, while the structures of the CNNs consisted of cubic CoCx, orthorhombic Co2C and Co3C depending on the cobalt content in the CNNs. The diameter of the carbide crystals was almost as large as the diameter of the CNN. Compared to the ion-induced nickel carbides and iron carbides, the formation of single-crystalline cobalt carbides might be due to the high temperature produced by the irradiation.

  13. Modeling of Sheath Ion-Molecule Reactions in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hash, David B.; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.

    2004-01-01

    In many plasma simulations, ion-molecule reactions are modeled using ion energy independent reaction rate coefficients that are taken from low temperature selected-ion flow tube experiments. Only exothermic or nearly thermoneutral reactions are considered. This is appropriate for plasma applications such as high-density plasma sources in which sheaths are collisionless and ion temperatures 111 the bulk p!asma do not deviate significantly from the gas temperature. However, for applications at high pressure and large sheath voltages, this assumption does not hold as the sheaths are collisional and ions gain significant energy in the sheaths from Joule heating. Ion temperatures and thus reaction rates vary significantly across the discharge, and endothermic reactions become important in the sheaths. One such application is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of carbon nanotubes in which dc discharges are struck at pressures between 1-20 Torr with applied voltages in the range of 500-700 V. The present work investigates The importance of the inclusion of ion energy dependent ion-molecule reaction rates and the role of collision induced dissociation in generating radicals from the feedstock used in carbon nanotube growth.

  14. Preparation of graphene on Cu foils by ion implantation with negative carbon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on few-layer graphene synthesized on Cu foils by ion implantation using negative carbon cluster ions, followed by annealing at 950 °C in vacuum. Raman spectroscopy reveals IG/I2D values varying from 1.55 to 2.38 depending on energy and dose of the cluster ions, indicating formation of multilayer graphene. The measurements show that the samples with more graphene layers have fewer defects. This is interpreted by graphene growth seeded by the first layers formed via outward diffusion of C from the Cu foil, though nonlinear damage and smoothing effects also play a role. Cluster ion implantation overcomes the solubility limit of carbon in Cu, providing a technique for multilayer graphene synthesis. (paper)

  15. Investigation of different-ligand complexes of holmium and erbium with NTA and carbonate ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Found out have been the optimum conditions for the formation of the lantanides (Ln) multiligand complexes with the nitriletriacetic acid (NTA) and the carbonate-ion. It has been established that the components correlation in complex compounds is equal to 1:1:1. Computed have been the values of the oscillator forces of the absorption bands, that conform to the ''supersensitive'' migration of the multiligand complexes, It is shown that the increment in the oscillator forces, the induced entering of one carbonate-ion into the Ln-NTA complex molecule conforms to about 1/4 of the oscillator forces increment during the migration from the aquo ion to the [Ln(CO3)4]5- complex carbonaceous ion

  16. Photoluminescence and reflectivity of polymethylmethacrylate implanted by low-energy carbon ions at high fluences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Photoluminescence was studied in carbon implanted polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). ► A significant photoluminescence enhancement occurred at ion fluence of 5 × 1016 cm−2. ► Photoluminescence and Raman responses revealed carbon nanoclustered structures. ► Reflectivity of carbon implanted PMMA depended on both ion fluence and wavelength. ► A noticeable reflectivity modification appeared at ion fluence of 1 × 1016 cm−2. - Abstract: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) specimens were implanted with 30 keV carbon ions in a fluence range of 1 × 1016 to 2 × 1017 cm−2, and photoluminescence (PL) and reflectivity of the implanted samples were examined. A luminescent band with one peak was found in PL spectra excited by 480 nm line, but its intensity did not vary in parallel with ion fluence. The strongest PL occurred at the fluence of 5 × 1016 cm−2. Results from visible-light-excited micro-Raman spectra indicated that the formation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon structures in subsurface layer and their evolutions with ion fluence could be responsible for the observed PL responses. Measurements of the small-angle reflectance spectra from both the implanted and rear surfaces of samples in the ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) range demonstrated a kind of both fluence-dependent and wavelength-related reflectivity variations, which were attributed to the structural changes induced by ion implantation. A noticeable reflectivity modification, which may be practically used, could be found at the fluence of 1 × 1016 cm−2.

  17. Photoluminescence and reflectivity of polymethylmethacrylate implanted by low-energy carbon ions at high fluences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jun; Zhu Fei; Zhang Bei; Liu Huixian; Jia Guangyi [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu Changlong, E-mail: liuchanglong@tju.edu.cn [School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials Physics and Preparing Technology, Institute of Advanced Materials Physics Faculty of Science, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence was studied in carbon implanted polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A significant photoluminescence enhancement occurred at ion fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photoluminescence and Raman responses revealed carbon nanoclustered structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reflectivity of carbon implanted PMMA depended on both ion fluence and wavelength. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A noticeable reflectivity modification appeared at ion fluence of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. - Abstract: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) specimens were implanted with 30 keV carbon ions in a fluence range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}, and photoluminescence (PL) and reflectivity of the implanted samples were examined. A luminescent band with one peak was found in PL spectra excited by 480 nm line, but its intensity did not vary in parallel with ion fluence. The strongest PL occurred at the fluence of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. Results from visible-light-excited micro-Raman spectra indicated that the formation of hydrogenated amorphous carbon structures in subsurface layer and their evolutions with ion fluence could be responsible for the observed PL responses. Measurements of the small-angle reflectance spectra from both the implanted and rear surfaces of samples in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) range demonstrated a kind of both fluence-dependent and wavelength-related reflectivity variations, which were attributed to the structural changes induced by ion implantation. A noticeable reflectivity modification, which may be practically used, could be found at the fluence of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}.

  18. Unity yield conditions for sputtering of graphite by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selfsputtering yields for graphite have been investigated as function of ion energy, target temperature and angle of incidence. While the yield for normal incidence at room temperature never exceeds unity, both enhanced temperature and grazing angle of incidence can lead to a selfsputtering larger than one. Theoretical predictions of 100% ion reflection at angles of incidence above 850 could not be observed for energies smaller than 300 eV. The data are interpolated to construct regions of selfsputtering larger than unity in the energy versus angle-of-incidence space for temperatures up to 1900 K. (orig.)

  19. Highly stable linear carbonate-containing electrolytes with fluoroethylene carbonate for high-performance cathodes in sodium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwon; Lee, Jaegi; Kim, Hyungsub; Kang, Kisuk; Choi, Nam-Soon

    2016-07-01

    Employing linear carbonates such as dimethyl carbonate (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and diethyl carbonate (DEC) as electrolyte solvents provides an opportunity to design appropriate electrolyte systems for high-performance sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). However, in practice, the use of linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is quite challenging because linear carbonates readily decompose at Na metal electrodes or sodiated anodes. One of the promising approaches is using an electrolyte additive to resolve the critical problems related to linear carbonates. Our investigation reveals that remarkable enhancement in electrochemical performance of Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathodes with linear carbonate-containing electrolytes is achieved by using a fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) additive. Importantly, the initial Coulombic efficiency of the Na deposition/stripping on a stainless steel (SS) electrode is drastically improved from 16% to 90% by introducing the FEC additive into ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC)/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M NaClO4. The underlying mechanism of FEC at the electrode-electrolyte interface is clearly demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, the Na4Fe3(PO4)2(P2O7) cathode in EC/PC/DEC (5/3/2, v/v/v)/0.5 M sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) with FEC delivers a discharge capacity of 90.5 mAh g-1 at a current rate of C/2 and exhibits excellent capacity retention of 97.5% with high Coulombic efficiency of 99.6% after 300 cycles at 30 °C.

  20. Carbon nanotubes as masks against ion irradiation: An insight from atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments show that carbon nanotubes can be used as masks against ion irradiation to make metallic nanowires of a few nanometers in width. In order to ascertain the limitations of this technique, we use molecular dynamics and simulate ion irradiation of multiwalled nanotubes. We derive an equation which for a given nanowire material allows one to estimate the theoretical limit on the minimum width of the wire which can be made using this technique

  1. Regularities of ion-electron emission of one-dimensional carbon-based composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature dependence of ion-electron emission yield, γ(T), developed topography and surface crystalline structure of carbon-based composite material KUP- VM under high-fluence 30 keV N2+ ion irradiation has been studied. Complex two-stage nature of γ(T) dependence is formed due to the process of dynamic annealing of the radiation damage in structural components of composite material

  2. Electron impact excitation of carbon-like ions: An assessment of the available theoretical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron impact excitation of ions of the carbon-like isoelectronic sequence from O III to Fe XXI is reviewed starting from previous critical compilations. Comparisons between results obtained from the distorted-wave and the R-matrix methods have been made. The effective collision strengths have been compared along the sequence. The isoelectronic trends should be useful in interpolating data for ions where no specific calculations are available. 24 refs., 23 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Encapsulation of α-Particle–Emitting 225Ac3+ Ions Within Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Michael L.; Villa, Carlos H.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Law, Justin J.; Scheinberg, David A.; Wilson, Lon J.

    2016-01-01

    225Ac3+ is a generator of α-particle–emitting radionuclides with 4 net α-particle decays that can be used therapeutically. Targeting 225Ac3+ by use of ligands conjugated to traditional bifunctional chelates limits the amount of 225Ac3+ that can be delivered. Ultrashort, single-walled carbon nanotubes (US-tubes), previously demonstrated as sequestering agents of trivalent lanthanide ions and small molecules, also successfully incorporate 225Ac3+. Methods Aqueous loading of both 225Ac3+ ions and Gd3+ ions via bath sonication was used to construct 225Ac@gadonanotubes (225Ac@GNTs). The 225Ac@GNTs were subsequently challenged with heat, time, and human serum. Results US-tubes internally loaded with both 225Ac3+ ions and Gd3+ ions show 2 distinct populations of 225Ac3+ ions: one rapidly lost in human serum and one that remains bound to the US-tubes despite additional challenge with heat, time, and serum. The presence of the latter population depended on cosequestration of Gd3+ and 225Ac3+ ions. Conclusion US-tubes successfully sequester 225Ac3+ ions in the presence of Gd3+ ions and retain them after a human serum challenge, rendering 225Ac@GNTs candidates for radioimmunotherapy for delivery of 225Ac3+ ions at higher concentrations than is currently possible for traditional ligand carriers. PMID:25931476

  4. Comparison of the effects of photon versus carbon ion irradiation when combined with chemotherapy in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterization of combination effects of chemotherapy drugs with carbon ions in comparison to photons in vitro. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line WiDr was tested for combinations with camptothecin, cisplatin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. In addition three other human tumour cell lines (A549: lung, LN-229: glioblastoma, PANC-1: pancreas) were tested for the combination with camptothecin. Cells were irradiated with photon doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy or carbon ion doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Gy. Cell survival was assessed using the clonogenic growth assay. Treatment dependent changes in cell cycle distribution (up to 12 hours post-treatment) were measured by FACS analysis after propidium-iodide staining. Apoptosis was monitored for up to 36 hours post-treatment by Nicoletti-assay (with qualitative verification using DAPI staining). All cell lines exhibited the well-known increase of killing efficacy per unit dose of carbon ion exposure, with relative biological efficiencies at 10% survival (RBE10) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7 for the different cell lines. In combination with chemotherapy additive toxicity was the prevailing effect. Only in combination with gemcitabine or cisplatin (WiDr) or camptothecin (all cell lines) the photon sensitivity was slightly enhanced, whereas purely independent toxicities were found with the carbon ion irradiation, in all cases. Radiation-induced cell cycle changes displayed the generally observed dose-dependent G2-arrest with little effect on S-phase fraction for all cell lines for photons and for carbon ions. Only paclitaxel showed a significant induction of apoptosis in WiDr cell line but independent of the used radiation quality. Combined effects of different chemotherapeutics with photons or with carbon ions do neither display qualitative nor substantial quantitative differences. Small radiosensitizing effects, when observed with photons are decreased with carbon ions. The data support the idea that a radiochemotherapy with common

  5. Oxidation processes on conducting carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2012-11-21

    The oxidation processes at the interface between different types of typical carbon additives for lithium-ion batteries and carbonates electrolyte above 5 V versus Li/Li+ were investigated. Depending on the nature and surface area of the carbon additive, the irreversible capacity during galvanostatic cycling between 2.75 and 5.25 V versus Li/Li+ could be as high as 700 mAh g-1 (of carbon). In the potential region below 5 V versus Li/Li+, high surface carbon additives also showed irreversible plateaus at about 4.1-4.2 and 4.6 V versus Li/Li+. These plateaus disappeared after thermal treatments at or above 150 °C in inert gas. The influence of the irreversible capacity of carbon additives on the overall performances of positive electrodes was discussed. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  6. MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites as superior anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MnO-carbon hybrid nanofiber composites are fabricated by electrospinning polyimide/manganese acetylacetonate precursor and a subsequent carbonization process. The composition, phase structure and morphology of the composites are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The results indicate that the composites exhibit good nanofibrous morphology with MnO nanoparticles uniformly encapsulated by carbon nanofibers. The hybrid nanofiber composites are used directly as freestanding anodes for lithium-ion batteries to evaluate their electrochemical properties. It is found that the optimized MnO-carbon nanofiber composite can deliver a high reversible capacity of 663 mAh g−1, along with excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. The superior performance enables the composites to be promising candidates as an anode alternative for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

  7. Two-Dimensional Porous Carbon: Synthesis and Ion-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyu; Luo, Jiayan; Lv, Wei; Wang, Da-Wei; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2015-09-23

    Their chemical stability, high specific surface area, and electric conductivity enable porous carbon materials to be the most commonly used electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors (also known as supercapacitors). To further increase the energy and power density, engineering of the pore structures with a higher electrochemical accessible surface area, faster ion-transport path and a more-robust interface with the electrolyte is widely investigated. Compared with traditional porous carbons, two-dimensional (2D) porous carbon sheets with an interlinked hierarchical porous structure are a good candidate for supercapacitors due to their advantages in high aspect ratio for electrode packing and electron transport, hierarchical pore structures for ion transport, and short ion-transport length. Recent progress on the synthesis of 2D porous carbons is reported here, along with the improved electrochemical behavior due to enhanced ion transport. Challenges for the controlled preparation of 2D porous carbons with desired properties are also discussed; these require precise tuning of the hierarchical structure and a clarification of the formation mechanisms. PMID:26207982

  8. Irradiation effect of carbon negative-ion implantation on polytetrafluoroethylene for controlling cell-adhesion property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommani, Piyanuch; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Sato, Hiroko; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takaoka, Gikan H.

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated the irradiation effect of negative-ion implantation on the changes of physical surface property of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for controlling the adhesion property of stem cells. Carbon negative ions were implanted into PTFE sheets at fluences of 1 × 10 14-1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2 and energies of 5-20 keV. Wettability and atomic bonding state including the ion-induced functional groups on the modified surfaces were investigated by water contact angle measurement and XPS analysis, respectively. An initial value of water contact angles on PTFE decreased from 104° to 88° with an increase in ion influence to 1 × 10 16 ions/cm 2, corresponding to the peak shifting of XPS C1s spectra from 292.5 eV to 285 eV with long tail on the left peak-side. The change of peak position was due to decrease of C-F 2 bonds and increase of C-C bonds with the formation of hydrophilic oxygen functional groups of OH and C dbnd O bonds after the ion implantation. After culturing rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for 4 days, the cell-adhesion properties on the C --patterned PTFE were observed by fluorescent microscopy with staining the cell nuclei and their actin filament (F-actin). The clear adhesion patterning of MSCs on the PTFE was obtained at energies of 5-10 keV and a fluence of 1 × 10 15 ions/cm 2. While the sparse patterns and the uncontrollable patterns were found at a low fluence of 3 × 10 14 ions/cm 2 and a high fluence of 3 × 10 15 ions/cm 2, respectively. As a result, we could improve the surface wettability of PTFE to control the cell-adhesion property by carbon negative-ion implantation.

  9. In-treatment tests for the monitoring of proton and carbon-ion therapy with a large area PET system at CNAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, V.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Camarlinghi, N.; Ciocca, M.; Collini, F.; Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A. C.; Lucenò, S.; Molinelli, S.; Pullia, M.; Sportelli, G.; Zaccaro, E.; Del Guerra, A.

    2016-07-01

    One of the most promising new radiotherapy techniques makes use of charged particles like protons and carbon ions, rather than photons. At present, there are more than 50 particle therapy centers operating worldwide, and many new centers are being constructed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is considered a well-established non-invasive technique to monitor range and delivered dose in patients treated with particle therapy. Nuclear interactions of the charged hadrons with the patient tissue lead to the production of β+ emitting isotopes (mainly 15O and 11C), that decay with a short lifetime producing a positron. The two 511 keV annihilation photons can be detected with a PET detector. In-beam PET is particularly interesting because it could allow monitoring the ions range also during dose delivery. A large area dual head PET prototype was built and tested. The system is based on an upgraded version of the previously developed DoPET prototype. Each head covers now 15×15 cm2 and is composed by 9 (3×3) independent modules. Each module consists of a 23×23 LYSO crystal matrix (2 mm pitch) coupled to H8500 PMT and is readout by custom front-end and a FPGA based data acquisition electronics. Data taken at the CNAO treatment facility in Pavia with proton and carbon beams impinging on heterogeneous phantoms demonstrate the DoPET capability to detect the presence of a small air cavity in the phantom.

  10. Determination of total dissolved inorganic carbon in freshwaters by reagent-free ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesello, Stefano; Tartari, Gabriele; Giacomotti, Paola; Mosello, Rosario; Cavalli, Silvano

    2006-06-16

    Studies of inorganic carbon cycle in natural waters provide important information on the biological productivity and buffer capacity. Determination of total inorganic carbon, alkalinity and dissolved carbon dioxide gives an indication of the balance between photosynthesis and respiration by biota, both within the water column and sediments, and carbon dioxide transfers from the water column to the atmosphere. There are few methods to measure and distinguish the different forms of inorganic carbon, but all require a measure or an indirect quantification of total inorganic carbon. A direct measurement of TIC in water is made possible by the introduction of electrolytic generated hydroxide eluent in ion chromatography which allows to detect a chromatographic peak for carbonate. The advantage of this method is that all the inorganic forms of carbon are converted in carbonate at eluent pH and can be detected as a single peak by conductivity detection. Repeatability of carbonate peak was evaluated at different levels from 0.02 to 6 mequiv.l(-1) both in high purity water and in real samples and ranged from 1 to 9%. The calibration curve was not linear and has to be fitted by a quadratic curve. Limit of detection was estimated to be 0.02 mequiv.l(-1). Accuracy has been estimated by comparing ion chromatography method with total inorganic carbon calculated from alkalinity and pH. The correlation between the two methods was good (R(2)=0.978, n=141). The IC method has been applied to different typologies of surface waters (alpine and subalpine lakes and rivers) characterised by different chemical characteristics (alkalinity from 0.05 to 2 mequiv.l(-1) and pH from 6.7 to 8.5) and low total organic carbon concentrations. This analytical method allowed to describe the distribution of TIC along the water column of two Italian deep lakes. PMID:16620857

  11. Coaxial carbon/metal oxide/aligned carbon nanotube arrays as high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Fengliu; Zhou, Haitao; Tran, Trung Dung; Melandsø Buan, Marthe Emelie; Vullum-Bruer, Fride; Rønning, Magnus; Walmsley, John Charles; Chen, De

    2014-05-01

    Coaxial carbon/metal oxide/aligned carbon nanotube (ACNT) arrays over stainless-steel foil are reported as high-performance binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries. The coaxial arrays were prepared by growth of ACNTs over stainless-steel foil followed by coating with metal oxide and carbon. The carbon/manganese oxide/ACNT arrays can deliver an initial capacity of 738 mAh g(-1) with 99.9 % capacity retention up to 100 cycles and a capacity of 374 mAh g(-1) at a high current density of 6000 mA g(-1). The external carbon layer was recognized as a key component for high performance, and the mechanism of performance enhancement was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The layer increases rate capability by enhancing electrical conductivity and maintaining a low mass-transfer resistance and also improves cyclic stability by avoiding aggregation of metal-oxide particles and stabilizing the solid electrolyte interface. The resultant principle of rational electrode design was applied to an iron oxide-based system, and similar improvements were found. These coaxial nanotube arrays present a promising strategy for the rational design of high-performance binder-free anodes for lithium ion batteries. PMID:24578068

  12. Stability and kinetics of uranyl ion complexation by macrocycles in propylene carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermodynamic study of uranyl ion complexes formation with different macrocyclic ligands was realized in propylene carbonate as solvent using spectrophotometric and potentiometric techniques. Formation kinetics of two UO2 complexes: a crown ether (18C6) and a coronand (22) was studied by spectrophotometry in propylene carbonate with addition of tetraethylammonium chlorate 0.1M at 250C. Possible structures of complexes in solution are discussed

  13. Adsorption of rare earth ions using carbonized polydopamine nano carbon shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓琦; LUO Huimin; Shannon M. Mahurin; LIU Rui; HOU Xisen; DAI Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Herein we reported the structure effects of carbon nano-shells prepared by the carbonization of polydopamine for the ad-sorption of rare earth elements (REEs) for the first time. Solid carbon spheres, 60 nm carbon shells and 500 nm carbon shells were prepared and evaluated for adsorption and desorption of REEs. The adsorption performance of carbon nano-shells for REEs was far superior to the solid carbon spheres. In addition, the effect of acidity on the adsorption and desorption properties was discussed. The good adsorption performance of the carbon nano-shells could be attributed to their pore structure, specific surface area, and the pres-ence of both amine and carbonyl groups from the grafted dopamine.

  14. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  15. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C. Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O.; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S.

    2014-07-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  16. Thermal management of a Li-ion battery using carbon fiber-PCM composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of latent and sensible heat capabilities has made phase change materials (PCMs) very useful in a variety of heat transfer applications. The main purpose of using the phase change material in lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery thermal management systems (BTMs) is to mitigate the excessive temperature rise in the cells and to create uniform temperature distribution within the battery pack. In this work, carbon fibers were added to a PCM to enhance its heat transfer potentials. Various strategies were adopted to manage temperature distribution around a single AA-battery-like simulator. The effects of carbon fiber size and weight percent within the PCM on thermal performance were studied. Experimental results have indicated that a mixture of PCM with 2-mm-long carbon fibers and mass percentage of 0.46% showed the best thermal performance for which the maximum temperature rise in the battery simulator can be reduced by up to 45%. - Graphical abstract: The schematic of the experimental setup and data acquisition system (1-power source 2-container 3-battery module 4-thermocouples 5-temperature indicator 6-data acquisition system). - Highlights: • Thermal performance of a Li-ion battery simulator is studied in the presence of PCM. • The effect of carbon fiber on heat transfer enhancement is examined. • Better thermal management can be achieved by the presence of carbon fiber in PCM. • Both carbon fiber mass fraction and length play crucial role in thermal management

  17. Blister formation in tungsten by hydrogen and carbon mixed ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blister formation in tungsten has been studied by mixed carbon and hydrogen ion beam irradiation. The beam ion energies were 1.0 keV and 300 eV, and the fluence was in the range of 1024-1025 ions m-2. It was found that a little amount of carbon impurity in the beam affected blister formation. A large number of blisters with various sizes were observed on the surface of tungsten at 653 K when the carbon concentration was more than 0.35%. When the carbon concentration was 0.11%, no blisters larger than 1.0 μm were observed. When the carbon concentration was 2.35%, a carbon layer developed on the tungsten surface, and again, no blisters were observed. The effect of target temperature on blister formation was also investigated: the sizes and numbers of the blisters were the largest when the tungsten was irradiated at 653 K; when the sample was irradiated at 388 or 873 K, no blisters larger than 1.0 μm were observed

  18. Computational Evaluation of Amorphous Carbon Coating for Durable Silicon Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoon Hwang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structural, mechanical, and electronic properties of graphite-like amorphous carbon coating on bulky silicon to examine whether it can improve the durability of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries using molecular dynamics simulations and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. Structural models of carbon coating are constructed using molecular dynamics simulations of atomic carbon deposition with low incident energies (1–16 eV. As the incident energy decreases, the ratio of sp2 carbons increases, that of sp3 decreases, and the carbon films become more porous. The films prepared with very low incident energy contain lithium-ion conducting channels. Also, those films are electrically conductive to supplement the poor conductivity of silicon and can restore their structure after large deformation to accommodate the volume change during the operations. As a result of this study, we suggest that graphite-like porous carbon coating on silicon will extend the lifetime of the silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries.

  19. Thin film Li-Ion batteries with carbon anode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Merta, J.; Bludská, Jana; Jakubec, Ivo

    Brno: University of Technology Brno, 2003, s. 37-40. ISBN 80-214-2298-X. [Advanced Batteries and Accumulators /4./. Brno (CZ), 15.06.2003-19.06.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : carbon anode Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  20. Generation of MeV carbon and fluorine ions by subnanosecond laser pulses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; Velyhan, Andriy; Jungwirth, Karel; Krouský, Eduard; Láska, Leoš; Rohlena, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Ullschmied, Jiří

    Paris : European Physical Society, 2008 - (Lalousis, P.; Moustaizis, S.), P4.133/1-P4.133/4 ISBN 2-914771-52-5. - (ECA. 32D). [EPS Plasma Physics Conference /35./. Hersonissos (GR), 09.06.2008-13.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523; CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : laser ion sources * carbon ions * fluorine ions * effective accelerating voltage Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  1. Optical and Scratch Resistant Properties of Diamondlike Carbon Films Deposited with Single and Dual Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul, Michael T.; Bogdanski, Michael S.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited using both single and dual ion beam techniques utilizing filament and hollow cathode ion sources. Continuous DLC films up to 3000 A thick were deposited on fused quartz plates. Ion beam process parameters were varied in an effort to create hard, clear films. Total DLC film absorption over visible wavelengths was obtained using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer. An ellipsometer, with an Ar-He laser (wavelength 6328 A) was used to determine index of refraction for the DLC films. Scratch resistance, frictional, and adherence properties were determined for select films. Applications for these films range from military to the ophthalmic industries.

  2. Dosimetric characterization of a microDiamond detector in clinical scanned carbon ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G., E-mail: giuseppe.prestopino@uniroma2.it; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN—Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, Roma 00133 (Italy); Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A.; Mairani, A. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, Catania 95123, Italy and Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Magro, G. [INFN—Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via U. Bassi 6, Pavia 27100, Italy and Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate for the first time the dosimetric properties of a new commercial synthetic diamond detector (PTW microDiamond) in high-energy scanned clinical carbon ion beams generated by a synchrotron at the CNAO facility. Methods: The detector response was evaluated in a water phantom with actively scanned carbon ion beams ranging from 115 to 380 MeV/u (30–250 mm Bragg peak depth in water). Homogeneous square fields of 3 × 3 and 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} were used. Short- and medium-term (2 months) detector response stability, dependence on beam energy as well as ion type (carbon ions and protons), linearity with dose, and directional and dose-rate dependence were investigated. The depth dose curve of a 280 MeV/u carbon ion beam, scanned over a 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} area, was measured with the microDiamond detector and compared to that measured using a PTW Advanced Markus ionization chamber, and also simulated using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The detector response in two spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs), respectively, centered at 9 and 21 cm depths in water and calculated using the treatment planning system (TPS) used at CNAO, was measured. Results: A negligible drift of detector sensitivity within the experimental session was seen, indicating that no detector preirradiation was needed. Short-term response reproducibility around 1% (1 standard deviation) was found. Only 2% maximum variation of microDiamond sensitivity was observed among all the evaluated proton and carbon ion beam energies. The detector response showed a good linear behavior. Detector sensitivity was found to be dose-rate independent, with a variation below 1.3% in the evaluated dose-rate range. A very good agreement between measured and simulated Bragg curves with both microDiamond and Advanced Markus chamber was found, showing a negligible LET dependence of the tested detector. A depth dose curve was also measured by positioning the microDiamond with its main axis oriented orthogonally to the beam

  3. B and N ion implantation into carbon nanotubes: Insight from atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By employing atomistic computer simulations with empirical potential and density functional force models, we study B/N ion implantation onto carbon nanotubes. We simulate irradiation of single-walled nanotubes with B and N ions and show that up to 40% of the impinging ions can occupy directly the sp2 positions in the nanotube atomic network. We further estimate the optimum ion energies for direct substitution. Ab initio simulations are used to get more insight into the structure of the typical atomic configurations which appear under the impacts of the ions. As annealing should further increase the number of sp2 impurities due to dopant atom migration and annihilation with vacancies, we also study migration of impurity atoms over the tube surface. Our results indicate that irradiation-mediated doping of nanotubes is a promising way to control the nanotube electronic and even mechanical properties due to impurity-stimulated crosslinking of nanotubes

  4. Beam test of compact ECR ion source for carbon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion source for medical facilities should have characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability and long operation time without maintenance (one year or more). Based on the proto type compact source, a 10 GHz compact ECR ion source with all permanent magnets has been developed. Peaks of the mirror magnetic field along the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, respectively, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The result of beam tests shows that a C4+ intensity of 530 μA was obtained under an extraction voltage of 45 kV. This paper describes the design detail and the experimental results for the new source. (author)

  5. Particle therapy for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck. A single-institution retrospective comparison of proton and carbon ion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demizu, Y.; Fujii, O.; Terashima, K.; Mima, M.; Hashimoto, N.; Fuwa, N. [Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Niwa, Y. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Akagi, T. [Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Department of Radiation Physics, Tatsuno, Hyogo (Japan); Daimon, T. [Hyogo College of Medicine, Department of Biostatistics, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Murakami, M. [Dokkyo Medical University, Center for Radiation Oncology, Shimotsuga-gun, Tochigi (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    To retrospectively analyze treatment outcomes after particle therapy using protons or carbon ions for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (HNMM) at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, as well as to compare proton therapy (PT) and carbon ion therapy (CIT). Data from 62 HNMM patients without metastasis, treated with PT or CIT between October 2003 and April 2011 were analyzed. Median patient age was 70.5 years (range 33-89 years). Of the total patients, 33 (53 %) had received PT and 29 (47 %) had undergone CIT. Protocols for 65 or 70.2 GyE in 26 fractions were used for both ion types. Median follow-up was 18.0 months (range 5.2-82.7 months). The 1-/2-year overall survival (OS) and local control (LC) rates were 93 %/61 % and 93 %/78 % for all patients, 91 %/44 % and 92 %/71 % for the PT patients and 96 %/62 % and 95 %/59 % for the CIT patients, respectively. No significant differences were observed between PT and CIT. Local recurrence was observed in 8 patients (PT: 5, CIT: 3) and 29 (PT: 18, CIT: 11) experienced distant metastases. Acute reactions were acceptable and all patients completed the planned radiotherapy. Regarding late toxicity, grade 3 or greater events were observed in 5 patients (PT: 3, CIT: 2), but no significant difference was observed between PT and CIT. Our single-institution retrospective analysis demonstrated that particle therapy for HNMM achieved good LC, but OS was unsatisfactory. There were no significant differences between PT and CIT in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. (orig.)

  6. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, M.; Dauvergne, D.; Dedes, G.; Krimmer, J.; Ray, C.; Testa, E., E-mail: e.testa@ipnl.in2p3.fr; Testa, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 |(France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); De Rydt, M. [IPNL, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS/IN2P3, UMR 5822, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, Leuven B-3001 (Belgium); Freud, N.; Létang, J. M. [CREATIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Centre Léon Bérard, 69008 Lyon (France)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF{sub 2} and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of

  7. Technical Note: Experimental carbon ion range verification in inhomogeneous phantoms using prompt gammas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to experimentally assess the possibility to monitor carbon ion range variations—due to tumor shift and/or elongation or shrinking—using prompt-gamma (PG) emission with inhomogeneous phantoms. Such a study is related to the development of PG monitoring techniques to be used in a carbon ion therapy context. Methods: A 95 MeV/u carbon ion beam was used to irradiate phantoms with a variable density along the ion path to mimic the presence of bone and lung in homogeneous humanlike tissue. PG profiles were obtained after a longitudinal scan of the phantoms. A setup comprising a narrow single-slit collimator and two detectors placed at 90° with respect to the beam axis was used. The time of flight technique was applied to allow the selection between PG and background events. Results: Using the positions at 50% entrance and 50% falloff of the PG profiles, a quantity called prompt-gamma profile length (PGPL) is defined. It is possible to observe shifts in the PGPL when there are absolute ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. Quantitatively, for an ion range shift of −1.33 ± 0.46 mm (insertion of a Teflon slab), a PGPL difference of −1.93 ± 0.58 mm and −1.84 ± 1.27 mm is obtained using a BaF2 and a NaI(Tl) detector, respectively. In turn, when an ion range shift of 4.59 ± 0.42 mm (insertion of a lung-equivalent material slab) is considered, the difference is of 4.10 ± 0.54 and 4.39 ± 0.80 mm for the same detectors. Conclusions: Herein, experimental evidence of the usefulness of employing PG to monitor carbon ion range using inhomogeneous phantoms is presented. Considering the homogeneous phantom as reference, the results show that the information provided by the PG emission allows for detecting ion range shifts as small as 1–2 mm. When considering the expected PG emission from an energy slice in a carbon ion therapy scenario, the experimental setup would allow to retrieve the same PGPL as the high statistics of the

  8. Particle radiotherapy for patients with H and N malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle beams have a characteristic called the Bragg peak, which is a peak formed at a fixed depth in the body depending on the acceleration energy. Utilizing this property, a high dose can be concentrated in the target tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissues. Proton and carbon ion beams have a higher linear energy transfer (LET) than X-rays. The relative biological effectiveness of proton and carbon ion beams compared with X-rays (=1) is estimated to be 1.1 and 3.0, respectively. Therefore, we can expect particle radiotherapy to be effective for patients with radio-resistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, adenoidcystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. As of the end of July 2011, there were 9 particle institutes operating in Japan; the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center was established in May 2001 as a leading project of the ''Hyogo Cancer Strategy''. One major characteristic is that the Center can generate both proton and carbon ion beams. Locally advanced nasal, paranasal or salivary gland cell tumors are good candidates for particle radiotherapy. Downsizing of the accelerator, price reduction of the machine, broad use of particle therapy in the field of clinical oncology, and intensity modulated particle therapy are future challenges. (author)

  9. Field—ion microscopy observation of single—walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆祥; 顾镇南; 等

    2002-01-01

    Field-ion microscopy(FIM),a tool for surface analysis with atomic resolution,has been employed to observe the end structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes(SWCNTs).FIM images revealed the existence of open SWCNT ends,Amorphous carbon atoms were also observed to occur around SWCNTs and traditional field evaporation failed to remove them.Heat treatment was found to be efficacious in altering the end structures of SWCNT bundles.Carbon and oxygen atoms released from heated tungsten filament are believed to be responsible for the decoration imposed on the SWCNT ends.

  10. V2O5/Mesoporous Carbon Composite as a Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABSTRACT: V2O5/mesoporous carbon composite has been prepared by an ultrasonically assisted method followed by a sintering process. The as-prepared V2O5/mesoporous carbon material containing 90 wt% V2O5 shows better electrochemical performance, with capacity of 163 mA h g−1 after 100 cycles at the current density of 500 mA g−1, as well as better charge/discharge rate capability for lithium storage than V2O5 nanoparticles. The improved electrochemical performance indicates that the V2O5/mesoporous carbon composite could be used as a promising cathode material for lithium ion batteries

  11. Development of an electrohydrodynamic ion-drag micropump using three-dimensional carbon micromesh electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropump using three-dimensional carbon micromesh electrodes was developed. The carbon micromesh electrodes were created by the pyrolysis of SU-8 structures. The carbon electrodes and microchannel were formed on a quartz substrate, and the microchannel was sealed by an SU-8 slab structure. The pumping behaviors were evaluated using Fluorinert as a non-conductive sample solution. The maximum pressure and volume flow rate were approximately 23 Pa and 400 nL/min, respectively, under an applied voltage of 500 V. (paper)

  12. Ion implanted pyrolitic carbon for the hip prosthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Hip joint arthroplasty is a successful surgical procedure, but loosening induced by polyethylene wear debris continues to be a problem. Fine grained isotropic graphite (POCO ZXF-5Q) coated with Pyrolite (trademark of Carbomedics Inc.) combines biocompatibility, strength and tribological properties which could be utilised in a hip prosthesis. Some preliminary work has been conducted on this material, and the effect nitrogen ion implantation has on its wear resistance. Finite element analysis was conducted on a femoral head of a canine hip prosthesis with diameter 19mm made from POCO ZXF-5Q . An optimum design was obtained after design variables such as taper angle and width, internal recess radius, crown thickness were varied so that internal stresses were minimised. This was then translated into an human sized femoral head with diameter 28mm, which was subjected to mechanical testing. Loading was at 20 deg C to the taper, with loading rate 10kN/s used in static loading, whilst fatigue testing was carried out between 300 - 3000N at 30Hz for 107 cycles. Pin-on-disc wear testing was carried out using a CSEM Tribometer. A 1N load was applied to 6mm diameter pins. Wear track radii were 11 and 13mm, with linear velocity 5cm/s and sliding distance 2.5km. Test temperature was 37±1degC with Ringer solution and bovine serum being used as lubricant. Nitrogen implanted samples were irradiated to a dose of 5x1016 ions.cm-2 at 50keV. Static testing was carried out to loads of 8000N and all five POCO ZXF-5Q femoral heads tested survived. Then three of these pre-tested femoral heads were subjected to fatigue testing and no failures occured before 107 cycles. Wear was reduced by nitrogen ion implantation only when an irradiated pin was tested against as polished Pyrolite. Nitrogen ion implanted Pyrolite on a POCO ZXF-5Q substrate may have clinical potential. The substrate has appropriate mechanical properties, and nitrogen ion implantation can improve the already

  13. Carbonation of wollastonite(001) competing hydration: microscopic insights from ion spectroscopy and density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberto C; Cho, Kyeongjae; Brüner, Philipp; Welle, Alexander; Gerdes, Andreas; Thissen, Peter

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we report about the influence of the chemical potential of water on the carbonation reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) as a model surface of cement and concrete. Total energy calculations based on density functional theory combined with kinetic barrier predictions based on nudge elastic band method show that the exposure of the water-free wollastonite surface to CO2 results in a barrier-less carbonation. CO2 reacts with the surface oxygen and forms carbonate (CO3(2-)) complexes together with a major reconstruction of the surface. The reaction comes to a standstill after one carbonate monolayer has been formed. In case one water monolayer is covering the wollastonite surface, the carbonation is no more barrier-less, yet ending in a localized monolayer. Covered with multilayers of water, the thermodynamic ground state of the wollastonite completely changes due to a metal-proton exchange reaction (also called early stage hydration) and Ca(2+) ions are partially removed from solid phase into the H2O/wollastonite interface. Mobile Ca(2+) reacts again with CO2 and forms carbonate complexes, ending in a delocalized layer. By means of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry images, we confirm that hydration can lead to a partially delocalization of Ca(2+) ions on wollastonite surfaces. Finally, we evaluate the impact of our model surface results by the meaning of low-energy ion-scattering spectroscopy combined with careful discussion about the competing reactions of carbonation vs hydration. PMID:25648453

  14. Selective removal of nitrate ion using a novel composite carbon electrode in capacitive deionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hwan

    2012-11-15

    We fabricated nitrate-selective composite carbon electrodes (NSCCEs) for use in capacitive deionization to remove nitrate ions selectively from a solution containing a mixture of anions. The NSCCE was fabricated by coating the surface of a carbon electrode with the anion exchange resin, BHP55, after grinding the resin into fine powder. BHP55 is known to be selective for nitrate ions. We performed desalination experiments on a solution containing 5.0 mM NaCl and 2.0 mM NaNO(3) using the NSCCE system constructed with the fabricated electrode. The selective removal of nitrate in the NSCCE system was compared to a membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) system constructed with ion exchange membranes and carbon electrodes. The total quantity of chloride and nitrate ions adsorbed onto the unit area of the electrode in the MCDI system was 25 mmol/m(2) at a cell potential of 1.0 V. The adsorption of nitrate ions was 8.3 mmol/m(2), accounting for 33% of the total. In contrast, the total anion adsorption in the NSCCE system was 34 mmol/m(2), 36% greater than the total anion adsorption of the MCDI system. The adsorption of nitrate ions was 19 mmol/m(2), 2.3-times greater than the adsorption in the MCDI system. These results showed that the ions were initially adsorbed by an electrostatic force, and the ion exchange reactions then occurred between the resin powder in the coated layer and the solution containing mixed anions. PMID:22980574

  15. Ion exclusion by sub-2-nm carbon nanotube pores

    OpenAIRE

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Park, Hyung Gyu; Holt, Jason K.; Stadermann, Michael; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Noy, Aleksandr; Bakajin, Olgica

    2008-01-01

    Biological pores regulate the cellular traffic of a large variety of solutes, often with high selectivity and fast flow rates. These pores share several common structural features: the inner surface of the pore is frequently lined with hydrophobic residues, and the selectivity filter regions often contain charged functional groups. Hydrophobic, narrow-diameter carbon nanotubes can provide a simplified model of membrane channels by reproducing these critical features in a simpler and more robu...

  16. CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers for applications as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment. Uniform morphologies and microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrated that well-dispersed nanoparticles of CoSn intermetallic compound and Sn with diameter of about 30–50 nm embedded in carbon nanofibers were prepared after carbonization at 850 °C. Compared with pure carbon nanofibers without the nanoparticles, CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers showed a high reversible capacity and excellent cycling performance, resulting from the formation of CoSn intermetallic nanoparticles and buffering by the carbon nanofiber matrix. The nanofiber mats with good flexibility were utilized as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, and the CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers exhibited a good fibrous morphology after the discharge/charge processes. Results indicated that electrospinning could be a feasible method to prepare Co–Sn–C composite nanofibers as anodes in lithium-ion batteries

  17. CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers for applications as anode in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Weili; Luo, Chenghao; Li, Yu; Feng, Yiyu; Feng, Wei, E-mail: weifeng@tju.edu.cn; Zhao, Yunhui; Yuan, Xiaoyan, E-mail: yuanxy@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials (China)

    2013-09-15

    CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning followed by heat treatment. Uniform morphologies and microstructures were observed by scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrated that well-dispersed nanoparticles of CoSn intermetallic compound and Sn with diameter of about 30-50 nm embedded in carbon nanofibers were prepared after carbonization at 850 Degree-Sign C. Compared with pure carbon nanofibers without the nanoparticles, CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers showed a high reversible capacity and excellent cycling performance, resulting from the formation of CoSn intermetallic nanoparticles and buffering by the carbon nanofiber matrix. The nanofiber mats with good flexibility were utilized as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, and the CoSn/carbon composite nanofibers exhibited a good fibrous morphology after the discharge/charge processes. Results indicated that electrospinning could be a feasible method to prepare Co-Sn-C composite nanofibers as anodes in lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-05-22

    A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the "surface grafting from" approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL(-1) for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL(-1) for Gd(III) (S/N=3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels. PMID:25937109

  19. Benchmarking nuclear models of FLUKA and GEANT4 for carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As carbon ions, at therapeutic energies, penetrate tissue, they undergo inelastic nuclear reactions and give rise to significant yields of secondary fragment fluences. Therefore, an accurate prediction of these fluences resulting from the primary carbon interactions is necessary in the patient's body in order to precisely simulate the spatial dose distribution and the resulting biological effect. In this paper, the performance of nuclear fragmentation models of the Monte Carlo transport codes, FLUKA and GEANT4, in tissue-like media and for an energy regime relevant for therapeutic carbon ions is investigated. The ability of these Monte Carlo codes to reproduce experimental data of charge-changing cross sections and integral and differential yields of secondary charged fragments is evaluated. For the fragment yields, the main focus is on the consideration of experimental approximations and uncertainties such as the energy measurement by time-of-flight. For GEANT4, the hadronic models G4BinaryLightIonReaction and G4QMD are benchmarked together with some recently enhanced de-excitation models. For non-differential quantities, discrepancies of some tens of percent are found for both codes. For differential quantities, even larger deviations are found. Implications of these findings for the therapeutic use of carbon ions are discussed.

  20. Interfacial electrical properties of ion-beam sputter deposited amorphous carbon on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Chung, Y.; Banks, B.

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous, 'diamond-like' carbon films have been deposited on Si substrates, using ion-beam sputtering. The interfacial properties are studied using capacitance and conductance measurements. Data are analyzed using existing theories for interfacial electrical properties. The density of electronic states at the interface, along with corresponding time constants are determined.

  1. Benchmarking nuclear models of FLUKA and GEANT4 for carbon ion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlen, T T; Cerutti, F; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Gudowska, I; Mairani, A; Quesada, J M

    2010-10-01

    As carbon ions, at therapeutic energies, penetrate tissue, they undergo inelastic nuclear reactions and give rise to significant yields of secondary fragment fluences. Therefore, an accurate prediction of these fluences resulting from the primary carbon interactions is necessary in the patient's body in order to precisely simulate the spatial dose distribution and the resulting biological effect. In this paper, the performance of nuclear fragmentation models of the Monte Carlo transport codes, FLUKA and GEANT4, in tissue-like media and for an energy regime relevant for therapeutic carbon ions is investigated. The ability of these Monte Carlo codes to reproduce experimental data of charge-changing cross sections and integral and differential yields of secondary charged fragments is evaluated. For the fragment yields, the main focus is on the consideration of experimental approximations and uncertainties such as the energy measurement by time-of-flight. For GEANT4, the hadronic models G4BinaryLightIonReaction and G4QMD are benchmarked together with some recently enhanced de-excitation models. For non-differential quantities, discrepancies of some tens of percent are found for both codes. For differential quantities, even larger deviations are found. Implications of these findings for the therapeutic use of carbon ions are discussed. PMID:20844337

  2. Carbon ion beam focusing using laser irradiated heated diamond hemispherical shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Experiments preformed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident Laser Facility were conducted to observe the acceleration and focusing of carbon ions via the TNSA mechanism using hemispherical diamond targets. Trident is a 200TW class laser system with 80J of 1 {micro}m, short-pulse light delivered in 0.5ps, with a peak intensity of 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Targets where Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamonds formed into hemispheres with a radius of curvature of 400{micro}m and a thickness of 5{micro}m. The accelerated ions from the hemisphere were diagnosed by imaging the shadow of a witness copper mesh grid located 2mm behind the target onto a film pack located 5cm behind the target. Ray tracing was used to determine the location of the ion focal spot. The TNSA mechanism favorably accelerates hydrogen found in and on the targets. To make the carbon beam detectable, targets were first heated to several hundred degrees Celsius using a CW, 532nm, 8W laser. Imaging of the carbon beam was accomplished via an auto-radiograph of a nuclear activated lithium fluoride window in the first layer of the film pack. The focus of the carbon ion beam was determined to be located 630 {+-} 110 {micro}m from the vertex of the hemisphere.

  3. Reduction of friction and wear by ion-implanted carbonized photoresist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of ion-implanted carbonized photoresist layers (AZ 5210) on wear and friction is discussed in this paper. Photoresist, an organic resin, was used because of the simplicity of coating the sample, accurate control of the layer thickness, and high amount of carbon. The samples investigated were coated by conventional spin-on techniques with layer thicknesses varying from 0.2 μm to 2.2μm. Subsequent ion bombardment at energies of 200 keV and 1.4 MeV with doses ranging from 1x1016 cm-2 to 1x1017 cm-2 caused carburization, densification, and a mixing of the layer with the steel substrate. Transmission electron microscopy investigations, Raman spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and microhardness measurements confirmed the production of a hard, amorphous, hydrogen-containing (about 17%) carbon layer after implantation. The layers were deposited onto different steels (AISI 52100, AISI 440 B unhardened, and AISI M2) and after implantation of boron, aluminium, phosphorus, arsenic and titanium, showed a strongly reduced friction coefficient (lower than 0.2) and drastically reduced wear behaviour. The duration of the wear reduction depended on both the thickness of the carbonized photoresist layer and on the implanted ion dose. Doses of 5x1016 cm-2 for hard steels and doses of 1x1017 cm-2 for soft steels are necessary to produce a sufficient layer adhesion by ion beam mixing. (orig.)

  4. Enhanced wear resistance of production tools and steel samples by implantation of nitrogen and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years ion implantation has become a feasible technique for obtaining improved wear resistance of production tools. However, basic knowledge of how and in which cases ion implantation is working at its best is still needed. The present paper discusses structural and tribological investigations of carbon and nitrogen implanted steels. The nitrogen data were obtained mainly from field tests and the investigation of carbon implantations took place mainly in the laboratory. A study was made of how the tribological behaviour of implanted steels changes with different implantation parameters. The tribological laboratory investigations were carried out using pin-on-disc equipment under controlled test conditions, and deal with high dose carbon implantation (approximately (1-2)x1018 ions cm-2). The wear resistance of steels was enhanced dramatically, by up to several orders of magnitude. The field test results cover a broad range of ion implanted production tools, which showed a marked improvement in wear resistance. Nitrogen implanted tools are also compared with carbon and titanium implanted tools. (orig.)

  5. Wafer-scale synthesis of multi-layer graphene by high-temperature carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the synthesis of wafer-scale (4 in. in diameter) high-quality multi-layer graphene using high-temperature carbon ion implantation on thin Ni films on a substrate of SiO2/Si. Carbon ions were bombarded at 20 keV and a dose of 1 × 1015 cm−2 onto the surface of the Ni/SiO2/Si substrate at a temperature of 500 °C. This was followed by high-temperature activation annealing (600–900 °C) to form a sp2-bonded honeycomb structure. The effects of post-implantation activation annealing conditions were systematically investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Carbon ion implantation at elevated temperatures allowed a lower activation annealing temperature for fabricating large-area graphene. Our results indicate that carbon-ion implantation provides a facile and direct route for integrating graphene with Si microelectronics

  6. Geant4 Simulation Study of Dose Distribution and Energy Straggling for Proton and Carbon Ion Beams in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dose distribution and energy straggling for proton and carbon ion beams in water are investigated by using a hadrontherapy model based on the Geant4 toolkit. By gridding water phantom in N×N×N voxels along X, Y and Z axes, irradiation dose distribution in all the voxels is calculated. Results indicate that carbon ion beams have more advantages than proton beams. Proton beams have bigger width of the Bragg peak and broader lateral dose distribution than carbon ion beams for the same position of Bragg peaks. Carbon ion has a higher local ionization density and produces more secondary electrons than proton, so carbon ion beams can achieve a higher value of relative biological effectiveness.

  7. Rigid versus Flexible Ligands on Carbon Nanotubes for the Enhanced Sensitivity of Cobalt Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Pingping; Kraut, Nadine D; Feigel, Ian Matthew; Star, Alexander

    2013-02-26

    Carbon nanotubes have shown great promise in the fabrication of ultra-compact and highly sensitive chemical and biological sensors. Additional chemical functionalization schemes can controllably improve selectivity of the carbon nanotube-based sensors; however the exact transduction mechanism is still under debate. In this article we detail the synthesis and selective response of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) functionalized with polyazomethine (PAM) polymer towards the application of a specific trace metal ion detector. The response of the polymer system was compared to shape persistent macrocycle (MAC) comprised of identical ion coordination ligands. While ion detection with rigid MAC/SWNT chemiresistor was comparable to bare SWNT, flexible PAM offers significant SWNT signal amplification, allowing for picomolar detection of Co{sup 2+} ions with both selectivity and a fast response. We hypothesized that rearrangement of the flexible PAM on the SWNT network is a sensing mechanism which allows for ultrasensitive detection of metal ions. The electron transfer and polymer rearrangement on the SWNT was studied by a combination of optical spectroscopy and electrical measurements − ultimately allowing for a better understanding of fundamental mechanisms that prompt device response.

  8. Alternate dipping preparation of biomimetic apatite layers in the presence of carbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classical simulated body fluids method cannot be employed to prepare biomimetic apatites encompassing metallic ions that lead to very stable phosphates. This is the case for heavy metals such as uranium, whose presence in bone mineral after contamination deserves toxicological study. We have demonstrated that existing methods, based on alternate dipping into calcium and phosphate ions solutions, can be adapted to achieve this aim. We have also especially studied the impact of the presence of carbonate ions in the medium as these are necessary to avoid hydrolysis of the contaminating metallic cations. Both the apatite–collagen complex method and a standard chemical (STD) method employing only mineral solutions lead to biomimetic apatites when calcium and carbonate ions are introduced simultaneously. The obtained materials were fully characterized and we established that the STD method tolerates the presence of carbonate ions much better, and this leads to homogeneous samples. Emphasis was set on the repeatability of the method to ensure the relevancy of further work performed on series of samples. Finally, osteoblasts cultured on these samples also proved a similar yield and standard-deviation in their adenosine triphosphate content when compared to commercially available substrates designed to study of such cell cultures. (paper)

  9. A carbon cluster ion source for mass calibration at TRIGA-TRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA-TRAP is a high-precision penning trap mass spectrometer installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz in order to determine the masses of short-lived fission products and - in addition to that - also the masses of actinide elements ranging from uranium up to californium. In order to determine precisely the masses of the nuclides of interest, the superconducting magnet providing the strong magnetic field for the Penning trap has to be calibrated by measuring the cyclotron frequency of an ion with well-known mass, which is, if possible, an isobaric nuclide of the ion of interest. Therefore, the best possible choice for mass calibration is to use carbon clusters as mass references, as demonstrated at the ISOLTRAP facility at ISOLDE/CERN. A laser ablation ion source for the production of carbon clusters has been developed using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The design, current status, and results of the production of carbon cluster ions, using C60 and Sigradure registered samples, as well as other ions are presented

  10. Effects of Mo ion implantation on rolling contact fatigue behavior of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolling Contact Fatigue (RCF) is one of the most serious material surface damage problems encountered by many critical components, especially in ball-bearing applications. RCF is sensitive to the material strength, hardness, surface morphology, microstructure and stress status, which may be dramatically changed by surface modifications. In present work, the surface modification of molybdenum ion implantation into quenched carbon steel was employed, and RCF tests on the implanted specimens, as well as the unimplanted, were performed. It was found out that carbon steel specimens, with and without ion implantation, have the same fatigue damage characteristics. They both have circular and fan-like pits on the fatigue failed surfaces, with many spherical debris existing in the fan-like pits. However, molybdenum ion implantation reduced the rolling contact fatigue life of quenched carbon steel. The possible reasons are the following: the ion beam current is too large, which causes the specimen to undergo the annealing process and soften during the implantation process; the incident angles of ions are different for different spots of curve specimen surface, which causes the uneven distribution of residual stress. These will promote the crack initiation and propagation

  11. Effects of main traits of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the influence of carbon ion irradiation on important agronomic characters of sweet sorghum, dry seeds of Sweet Sorghum BJ0601 and BJ0602 were irradiated by 100 MeV/u 12C+6 ion beam to different doses at Heavy Ion Accelerator National Laboratory in Lanzhou (HIANLL). When matured, the main traits of sweet sorghum were measured. The correlation coefficient of five main agronomic characters, i.e. number of node, plant height, stalk diameter, sugar content and stem weight per plant, were analyzed using the SPSS 13.0 software. The results indicated that the obvious influence of sweet sorghum irradiated by carbon ion beam was observed. In addition, the correlation of main traits was studied. This study may provide rudimental data to select novel variety of sweet sorghum suited for fuel ethanol production. In addition, the average of sugar content of early mutant BJ0601-1 is higher than BJ0601 in M2, and the sugar content of sweet sorghum may be improved by carbon ion beam irradiation. (authors)

  12. Development of compact ECR ion source for carbon therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 10 GHz compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source with all permanent magnets has been developed. Peaks of the mirror magnetic field along the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, respectively, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The result of beam tests shows that a C4+ intensity of 500 μA was obtained under an extraction voltage of 30 kV. This paper describes the design detail and the experimental results for the new source. (author)

  13. Self-organized formation of metal-carbon nanostructures by hyperthermal ion deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannstein, I.K.

    2006-04-26

    The quasi-simultaneous deposition of mass-selected hyperthermal carbon and metal ions results in a variety of interesting film morphologies, depending on the metal used and the deposition conditions. The observed features are of the order of a few nanometres and are therefore interesting for future potential applications in the various fields of nanotechnology. The present study focuses on the structural analysis of amorphous carbon films containing either copper, silver, gold, or iron using amongst others Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The film morphologies found are as follows: copper-containing films consist of copper nanoclusters with sizes ranging from about 3 to 9 nm uniformly distributed throughout the amorphous carbon matrix. The cluster size hereby rises with the copper content of the films. The silver containing films decompose into a pure amorphous carbon film with silver agglomerates at the surface. Both, the gold- and the iron-containing films show a multilayer structure of metal-rich layers with higher cluster density separated by metal-depleted amorphous carbon layers. The layer distances are of the order of up to 15 nm in the case of gold-carbon films and 7 nm in the case of iron-carbon films. The formation of theses different structures cannot be treated in the context of conventional self-organization mechanisms basing upon thermal diffusion and equilibrium thermodynamics. Instead, an ion-induced atomic transport, sputtering effects, and the stability of small metal clusters were taken into account in order to model the structure formation processes. A similar multilayer morphology was recently also reported in the literature for metal-carbon films grown by magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to investigate, whether the mechanisms are the same as in the case of the ion beam deposited films described above, first experiments were conducted

  14. Sorption of uranium and thorium ions from nitric acid solution using HDEHP-Impregnated activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equilibrium measurements on the sorption of uranium and thorium ions from nitric acid solutions using di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric (HDEHP) impregnated activated carbon have been done using batch technique. Experimental isotherms, Ferundlish, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models. Of the models tested, D-R expression was found to represent the isotherms of both ions better over Th entire concentration range investigated than either Langmuir or Freundlish model. The changes in standard thermodynamic quantities (viz. Δ H, Δ S, and Δ G) were calculated and the maximum adsorption capacity of HDEHP impregnated carbon together with the mean free energy of both studied ions were determined using D-R approach

  15. Tribological properties of ion beam deposited diamond-like carbon film on silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article reports on the physical characterization and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on structural Si3N4 substrates. The films were deposited by the direct ion beam deposition technique. The ion beam was produced by plasma discharge of pre-mixed methane and hydrogen gas in a Kaufman-type ion source. The deposited films were found to be amorphous and contained about 70% carbon and 30% hydrogen. The friction coefficient of an uncoated Si3N4 ball on a DLC coated Si3N4 disc starts at about 0.2, then decreases rapidly to 0.1-0.15 with increasing sliding distance. Increasing humidity results in a slight increase in friction coefficient, but a significant decrease in wear factor. The wear factor for the tests at ≅60% rh (relative humidity) are about an order of magnitude smaller than the tests at 3% rh. (orig.)

  16. Electrosorptive desalination by carbon nanotubes and nanofibres electrodes and ion-exchange membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haibo; Gao, Yang; Pan, Likun; Zhang, Yanping; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo

    2008-12-01

    A novel membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) device, integrating both the advantages of carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers (CNTs-CNFs) composite film and ion-exchange membrane, was proposed with high removal efficiency, low energy consumption and low cost. The CNTs-CNFs film was synthesized by low pressure and low temperature thermal chemical vapor deposition. Several experiments were conducted to compare desalination performance of MCDI with capacitive deionization (CDI), showing that salt removal of the MCDI system was 49.2% higher than that of the CDI system. The electrosorption isotherms of MCDI and CDI show both of them follow Langmuir adsorption, indicating no change in adsorption behavior when ion-exchange membranes are introduced into CDI system. The better desalination performance of MCDI than that of CDI is due to the minimized ion desorption during electrosorption. PMID:18929385

  17. Investigation of response of CR-39, PM-355 and PM-500 types of nuclear track detectors to energetic carbon ions

    CERN Document Server

    Szydlowski, A; Jaskola, M; Sadowski, M; Korman, A; Kedzierski, J T; Kretschmer, W

    1999-01-01

    Samples of CR-39, PM-355, and PM-500 plastic detectors were irradiated with carbon ions of energy ranging from 0.9 MeV to 14.7 MeV. After the irradiation the detector samples were etched for a period from 2 hrs to 10 hrs. Dependence of track diameters on the ion energy values for different etching times, and dependence of V sub T /V sub B as a function of incident carbon-ion energy, are presented.

  18. Calibration of BAS-TR image plate response to high energy (3-300 MeV) carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Alejo, A.; Fernandez, J.; Cerchez, M.; Gray, R. J.; Hanton, F.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Najmudin, Z.; Neely, D.; Romagnani, L.; Ruiz, J. A.; Sarri, G.; Scullion, C.; Streeter, M.; Swantusch, M.; Willi, O.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the calibration of Fuji BAS-TR image plate (IP) response to high energy carbon ions of different charge states by employing an intense laser-driven ion source, which allowed access to carbon energies up to 270 MeV. The calibration method consists of employing a Thomson parabola spectrometer to separate and spectrally resolve different ion species, and a slotted CR-39 solid state detector overlayed onto an image plate for an absolute calibration of the IP signal. An empirical response function was obtained which can be reasonably extrapolated to higher ion energies. The experimental data also show that the IP response is independent of ion charge states.

  19. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  20. Hydronium-dominated ion transport in carbon-dioxide-saturated electrolytes at low salt concentrations in nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Jensen, Kristian; Kristensen, Jesper Toft; Crumrine, Andrew Michael;

    2011-01-01

    Nanochannel ion transport is known to be governed by surface charge at low ionic concentrations. In this paper, we show that this surface charge is typically dominated by hydronium ions arising from dissolution of ambient atmospheric carbon dioxide. Taking the hydronium ions into account, we model...

  1. Adsorption of Cd(II and Pb(II Ions from Aqueous Solution byActivated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder Mohammed Abdul-Hameed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal consider as major environmental pollutants. Many of industrial wastewater effluents contain a wide range of these heavy metals. The adsorption of Cd2+ and Pb2+ metal ions from aqueous solution by activated carbon was studied. The results showed that maximum adsorption capacity occurred at 486.9×10-3 mg/kg for Pb2+ ion and 548.8×10-3 mg/kg for Cd2+ ion. The adsorption in a mixture of the metal ions had a balancing effect on the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon. The adsorption capacity of each metal ion was affected by the presence of other metal ions rather than its presence individually. The study showed the presence of other heavy metals attribute to the reduction in the activated carbon capacity, and the adsorption process was found to obeys the Freundlich isotherm for both ions.

  2. Removal of Heavy Metal Ions with Acid Activated Carbons Derived from Oil Palm and Coconut Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhlesur M. Rahman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, batch adsorption experiments were carried out to investigate the suitability of prepared acid activated carbons in removing heavy metal ions such as nickel(II, lead(II and chromium(VI. Acid activated carbons were obtained from oil palm and coconut shells using phosphoric acid under similar activation process while the differences lie either in impregnation condition or in both pretreatment and impregnation conditions. Prepared activated carbons were modified by dispersing hydrated iron oxide. The adsorption equilibrium data for nickel(II and lead(II were obtained from adsorption by the prepared and commercial activated carbons. Langmuir and Freundlich models fit the data well. Prepared activated carbons showed higher adsorption capacity for nickel(II and lead(II. The removal of chromium(VI was studied by the prepared acid activated, modified and commercial activated carbons at different pH. The isotherms studies reveal that the prepared activated carbon performs better in low concentration region while the commercial ones in the high concentration region. Thus, a complete adsorption is expected in low concentration by the prepared activated carbon. The kinetics data for Ni(II, Pb(II and Cr(VI by the best selected activated carbon fitted very well to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  3. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Lv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m2/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li+ ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  4. Hierarchical mesoporous/microporous carbon with graphitized frameworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yingying; Fang, Yin; Qian, Xufang; Tu, Bo [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Zhangxiong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia); Asiri, Abdullah M. [Chemistry Department and The Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Zhao, Dongyuan, E-mail: dyzhao@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical meso-/micro-porous graphitized carbon with uniform mesopores and ordered micropores, graphitized frameworks, and extra-high surface area of ∼2200 m{sup 2}/g, was successfully synthesized through a simple one-step chemical vapor deposition process. The commercial mesoporous zeolite Y was utilized as a meso-/ micro-porous template, and the small-molecule methane was employed as a carbon precursor. The as-prepared hierarchical meso-/micro-porous carbons have homogeneously distributed mesopores as a host for electrolyte, which facilitate Li{sup +} ions transport to the large-area micropores, resulting a high reversible lithium ion storage of 1000 mA h/g and a high columbic efficiency of 65% at the first cycle.

  5. Compact ECR ion source with permanent magnets for carbon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion sources for the medical facilities should have the following characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability, and long operation time without trouble (1 year or longer). For this, a 10 GHz compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) with all permanent magnets was developed. The beam intensity and stability for C4+ were 280 e μA and better than 6% during 20 h with no adjustment of any source parameters. These results were acceptable for the medical requirements. Recently, many plans were proposed to construct the next generation cancer treatment facility. For such a facility we have designed an all permanent magnet ECRIS, in which a high magnetic field is chosen for increasing the beam intensity. The maximum mirror magnetic fields on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 32 cm and a length of 29.5 cm. Details of the design of this source and its background are described in this article

  6. Track structure of carbon ions: measurements and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, V; Colautti, P; Moro, D; Grosswendt, B

    2014-10-01

    The likelihood of radiation to produce clustered damages in irradiated biological tissue and the reparability of such damages are closely related to the stochastics of localised ionising interactions within small volumes of nanometre sizes, determined by the particle track structure. Track structure investigations in nanometre-sized volumes have been subject of research for several decades, mainly by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Today, the 'track-nanodosimeter', installed at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator complex of LNL, is a measuring device able to count the electrons produced in a 20-nm equivalent sensitive site (De Nardo et al. A detector for track-nanodosimetry. Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 484: , 312-326 (2002)). It allows studying track structure properties both in the near neighbourhood of a primary particle trajectory and separately in the penumbra region. An extended study for different ionising particles of medical interest has been recently performed with the track-nanodosimeter (Conte et al. Track structure of light ions: experiments and simulations. New J. Phys. 14: , 093010, (2012)). Here, new experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations for 240- and 96-MeV (12)C-ions are presented and discussed. PMID:24249779

  7. Preparation of re-constructed carbon nanosheet powders and their efficient lithium-ion storage mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Novel folding re-constructed carbon nanosheet powders (re-CNSs) with unique microstructure and higher lithium-ion storage capacity than prototype graphite powders are prepared. • The wrinkles on the surface of the re-CNSs play an important role on the enhanced lithium-ions storage and provide a new way to improve the capacity of anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). • A dislocation mechanism is used to describe the role of the wrinkles for the enhanced lithium-ion storage. - Abstract: Based on the re-construction idea of carbon nanomaterials, novel folding re-constructed carbon nanosheets (re-CNSs) with unique microstructure and higher lithium-ion storage capacity than prototype graphite powders are prepared. The nanoscale carbon-fragment suspension is firstly prepared through a successive chemical oxidation of graphite and ultrasonic crushing operation, and the re-CNS powders are then obtained by spray drying the suspension and a subsequent high-temperature reducing process. The as-prepared re-CNSs exhibit a folding appearance with a width of several micrometers, with a maximum initial specific capacity of 903 mAh g−1 for the re-CNSs sample thermally reduced at 500 °C (re-CNSs500). After 100 cycles, the reversible capacity is maintained at about 400 mAh g−1 for the re-CNSs500. The abundant carboxylic and hydroxide groups, edges, and defective sites of individual graphite oxide fragments facilitate the dislocation formation in the re-CNSs. In addition, a dislocation mechanism is thus used to describe the enhanced lithium-ion storage

  8. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or RBE for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, biological endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not deal with all different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance<2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/ Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  9. Nuclear point mass effects in the interaction of energetic ion with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Ping; Yan, Long; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Guo-Liang

    2016-03-01

    We have calculated deposited energies of various energetic ions in carbon nanotubes, to study nuclear point mass effects, with the help of a static Monte Carlo (MC) simulation program. As a result of nuclear point mass effects, we show that at the same incident energy, the ion-deposited energy maximizes, while its mass has intermediate mass values, such as 11B, 12C and 14N ion masses, under hundreds keV 4He, 11B, 12C, 14N, 20Ne, 28Si and 40Ar ion irradiations of a thin-walled carbon nanotube. We also show that at the same incident energy, the coordination defect number maximizes, while its mass has an intermediate mass (20Ne) value, under hundreds keV 4He, 20Ne and 40Ar ion irradiations of the thin-walled nanotube. We derive an ion-deposited energy formula to analyze these maximum phenomena, and compare the MC simulation results with the MD (molecular dynamics) ones.

  10. Induction of apoptosis in murione spleen lymphocytes using carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the capacity of heavy ions to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, mice have been irradiated with accelerated carbon ions (95 MeV/nucleon) at doses ranging from 0.1 to 4 Gy. Their spleens were removed 24 h later and gently dissociated to prepare a single cell suspension. Mononuclear cells were then maintained in culture at 37oC, and the occurrence of apoptosis in these cells was analysed 24 h later. Lymphocytes were also irradiated in vitro, in the presence of Ac-DEVD-CHO, a potent caspase-3 and -7 inhibitor. Results from three experiments performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL, Caen, France) are reported here. They indicate that carbon ions induce a marked, dose-dependent, reduction of the spleen weight and cellularity. However, in sharp contrast with spleen cells prepared from X-ray irradiated mice, only a slight increase of apoptosis is evidenced in cultured lymphocytes from mice irradiated with heavy ions. The significance of such results is discussed. So far, few data exist concerning the biological effects of heavy ions, in particular their capacity to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes; the present study provides useful clues for further investigations. (author)

  11. Charge and Mass Effects on Low Energy Ion Channeling in Carbon Nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; ZHENG Li-Ping; ZHANG Wei; XV Zi-Jian; REN Cui-Lan; HUAI Ping; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Channeling phenomena of He, Ne, Ar and Kr ions at energy (200-5000eV) in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with analytical potentials.The critical angles for the particles to be channeled in an SWCNT are analyzed.In the incident energy range of 200-5000 eV, it is found that the ion energy dependence of the critical angle obeys an improved Lindhard equation which is closely related to the ratio of nuclear charge number to atomic mass Z/M.The critical angle for different types of ions channeling in SWCNTs is determined by both the atomic nuclear charge and mass.%Channeling phenomena of He, Ne, Ar and Kr ions at energy (200-5000eV) in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation with analytical potentials. The critical angles for the particles to be channeled in an SWCNT are analyzed. In the incident energy range of 200-5000eV, it is found that the ion energy dependence of the critical angle obeys an improved Lindhard equation which is closely related to the ratio of nuclear charge number to atomic mass Z/M. The critical angle for different types of ions channeling in SWCNTs is determined by both the atomic nuclear charge and mass.

  12. Carbon Ion Radiation Therapy Improves the Prognosis of Unresectable Adult Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcoma of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingu, Keiichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko, E-mail: tsujii@nirs.go.jp [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Mizoe, Jun-Etsu; Hasegawa, Azusa; Bessho, Hiroki; Takagi, Ryo; Morikawa, Takamichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Tonogi, Morio [Department of Oral Medicine, Tokyo Dental College, Ichihara (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba (Japan); Yamada, Shogo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with 70.4 GyE for unresectable bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck. Methods and Materials: Twenty-seven patients (mean age, 46.2 years) were enrolled in this prospective study on C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fractions (fr) between April 2001 and February 2008. The primary end points were acute and late reactions of normal tissues, local control rate, and overall survival rate. The secondary end point was efficacy of the treatment in comparison to historical results with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE/16 fr. Results: The 3-year local control rate and overall survival rate for all patients were 91.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81.0-100%) and 74.1% (95% CI = 57.5-90.6%), respectively. Acute reaction of Grade 3 or more was observed in only 1 patient. With regard to late reactions, visual loss was observed in 1 patient and a Grade 3 reaction of the maxillary bone was observed in 4 patients. A comparison with historical results revealed that the local control rate with 70.4 GyE was significantly higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 91.8% vs. 23.6%, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the overall survival with 70.4 GyE tended to be higher than that with 57.6 or 64.0 GyE (3-year, 74.1% vs. 42.9%, p = 0.09). Conclusion: C-ion RT with 70.4 GyE/16 fr for bone and soft-tissue sarcoma of the adult head and neck appears to be effective with acceptable toxicities in comparison to conventional RT and C-ion RT with lower doses.

  13. Enhanced mercury ion adsorption by amine-modified activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Jianzhong [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Yang, John, E-mail: yangj@lincolnu.edu [Center of Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65102 (United States); Deng Baolin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2009-07-30

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic metals found in water and sediments. In an effort to develop an effective adsorbent for aqueous Hg removal, activated carbon (AC) was modified with an amino-terminated organosilicon (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, APTES). Surface properties of the APTES-modified AC (MAC) were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and potentiometry. The impacts of solvent, APTES concentration, reactive time and temperature on the surface modification were evaluated. The aqueous Hg adsorptive kinetics and capacity were also determined. Results demonstrated that the strong Hg-binding amine ligands were effectively introduced onto the AC surfaces through the silanol reaction between carbon surface functional groups (-COOH, -COH) and APTES molecules. The modification lowered the pH at the point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) to 4.54 from 9.6, favoring cation adsorption. MAC presented a faster rate of the Hg (II) adsorption and more than double adsorptive capacity as compared with AC.

  14. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com; Jauhari, Darshika

    2015-05-22

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL{sup −1}) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL{sup −1} for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL{sup −1} for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels.

  15. Double-ion imprinted polymer @magnetic nanoparticles modified screen printed carbon electrode for simultaneous analysis of cerium and gadolinium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Synthesis of a double-ion imprinted polymer for analysis of Ce(IV) and Gd(III). • Imprinted nano-beads were grown on MNPs-modified SPCE surface. • Voltammetric determination of both templates was carried out simultaneously. • Ultra-trace analysis with LOD (ng mL−1) 0.07 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 for Gd(III) is achieved. - Abstract: A typical, reproducible, and rugged screen printed carbon electrode, modified with dual-ion imprinted beads, was fabricated employing the “surface grafting from” approach. For this, the acyl chloride functionalized magnetic nanoparticles were first immobilized and chemically attached with a typical functional monomer (but-2-enedioic acid bis-[(2-amino-ethyl)-amide]) on the electrode surface. This was subsequently subjected to the thermal polymerization in the presence of template ions (Ce(IV) and Gd(III)), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate), initiator (AIBN), and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The modified sensor was used for the simultaneous analysis of both template ions in aqueous, blood serum, and waste-water samples, using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry which revealed two oxidation peaks for respective templates with resolution as much as 950 mV, without any cross reactivity, interferences and false-positives. The detection limits realized by the proposed sensor, under optimized conditions, were found to be as low as 0.07 ng mL−1 for Ce(IV) and 0.19 ng mL−1 for Gd(III) (S/N = 3) that could eventually be helpful for lanthanide estimation at stringent levels

  16. Experimental investigations on carbon ion scanning radiography using a range telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, I; Brons, S; Jäkel, O; Voss, B; Parodi, K

    2014-06-21

    Ion beams offer an excellent tumor-dose conformality due to their inverted depth-dose profile and finite range in tissue, the Bragg peak (BP). However, they introduce sensitivity to range uncertainties. Imaging techniques play an increasingly important role in ion beam therapy to support precise diagnosis and identification of the target volume at the planning stage as well as to ensure the correspondence between the planning and treatment situation at the actual irradiation. For the purpose of improved treatment quality, ion-based radiographic images could be acquired at the treatment site before or during treatment and be employed to monitor the patient positioning and to check the patient-specific ion range. This work presents the initial experimental investigations carried out to address the feasibility of carbon ion radiography at the Heidelberg ion therapy center using a prototype range telescope set-up and an active raster scanning ion beam delivery system. Bragg curves are measured with a stack of ionization chambers (IC) synchronously to the beam delivery. The position of the BP is extracted from the data by locating the channel of maximum current signal for each delivered beam. Each BP is associated to the lateral and vertical positions of the scanned raster point extrapolated from the beam monitor system to build up a radiography. The radiographic images are converted into water equivalent thickness (WET) based on two calibrations of the detector. Radiographies of two phantoms of different complexities are reconstructed and their image quality is analyzed. A novel method proposed to increase the nominal range resolution of the IC stack is applied to the carbon ion radiography of an Alderson head phantom. Moreover, an x-ray digitally reconstructed radiography of the same anthropomorphic head phantom is converted in WET through the clinically used ion range calibration curve and compared with the carbon ion radiography based on a γ-index approach

  17. Track structure of carbon ions: measurements and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The likelihood of radiation to produce clustered damages in irradiated biological tissue and the reparability of such damages are closely related to the stochastics of localised ionising interactions within small volumes of nanometre sizes, determined by the particle track structure. Track structure investigations in nanometre-sized volumes have been subject of research for several decades, mainly by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Today, the 'track-nano-dosimeter', installed at the TANDEM-ALPI accelerator complex of LNL, is a measuring device able to count the electrons produced in a 20-nm equivalent sensitive site (De Nardo et al. A detector for track-nanodosimetry. Nucl. Instrum. Methods. Phys. Res. A 484, 312-326 (2002)). It allows studying track structure properties both in the near neighbourhood of a primary particle trajectory and separately in the penumbra region. An extended study for different ionising particles of medical interest has been recently performed with the track-nano-dosimeter (Conte et al. Track structure of light ions: experiments and simulations. New J. Phys. 14, 093010, (2012)). Here, new experimental data and results of Monte Carlo simulations for 240- and 96-MeV 12C-ions are presented and discussed. In conclusion, it can be stated that the shape of the ionisation cluster-size distributions in the track-core region of particles' tracks results to be mainly determined by the mean free ionisation-path length of the primary particles. In the penumbra region, the shape of the distributions is almost independent of the impact parameter and also of the particle type and velocity. The probability of target hits changes with the quality of the primary particles, but the hit target experiences the same ionisation clustering, irrespectively of particle type and velocity. The relative frequency of target hits results to be proportional to the mean number of ionizations produced by the primary particle along a path length D. (authors)

  18. Nano-sized Fe3O4/carbon as anode material for lithium ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-sized Fe3O4/carbon material is prepared via a simple citric-nitrate combustion method combining with a hydrothermal carbon coating technique. The synthesized Fe3O4/carbon composite shows a high reversible specific capacity (ca. 850 mAh g−1 at 100 mA g−1; ca. 600 mAh g−1 at 500 mA g−1), good rate-capability as well as superior cycling stability as anode for lithium-ion batteries. The ameliorated electrochemical performance of Fe3O4/carbon electrode is associated to the nano-sized particle feature and the continuous carbon coating layer. The former provides short lithium-ion/electron diffusion distance, while the latter enables the fast electron transport pathways. Besides, the carbon layer can act as a protective component to prevent the active particle Fe3O4 from aggregation and pulverization during the charge/discharge processes. - Highlights: • Nano-sized Fe3O4/C was prepared by a simple citric-nitrate combustion process. • Fe3O4/C particles show core–shell structure. • Fe3O4/C powder displays high specific capacity and good cycling stability. • Fe3O4/C composite exhibits a superior rate-capability

  19. Ion irradiation of electronic-type-separated single wall carbon nanotubes: A model for radiation effects in nanostructured carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structural and electrical properties of electronic-type-separated (metallic and semiconducting) single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin-films have been investigated after irradiation with 150 keV 11B+ and 150 keV 31P+ with fluences ranging from 1012 to 1015 ions/cm2. Raman spectroscopy results indicate that the ratio of the Raman D to G′ band peak intensities (D/G′) is a more sensitive indicator of SWCNT structural modification induced by ion irradiation by one order of magnitude compared to the ratio of the Raman D to G band peak intensities (D/G). The increase in sheet resistance (Rs) of the thin-films follows a similar trend as the D/G′ ratio, suggesting that the radiation induced variation in bulk electrical transport for both electronic-types is equal and related to localized defect generation. The characterization results for the various samples are compared based on the displacement damage dose (DDD) imparted to the sample, which is material and damage source independent. Therefore, it is possible to extend the analysis to include data from irradiation of transferred CVD-graphene films on SiO2/Si substrates using 35 keV C+ ions, and compare the observed changes at equivalent levels of ion irradiation-induced damage to that observed in the SWCNT thin-film samples. Ultimately, a model is developed for the prediction of the radiation response of nanostructured carbon materials based on the DDD for any incident ion with low-energy recoil spectra. The model is also related to the defect concentration, and subsequently the effective defect-to-defect length, and yields a maximum defect concentration (minimum defect-to-defect length) above which the bulk electrical transport properties in SWCNT thin-films and large graphene-based electronic devices rapidly degrade when exposed to harsh environments.

  20. Validation of recent Geant4 physics models for application in carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lechner, A; Ivanchenko, V N

    2010-01-01

    Cancer treatment with energetic carbon ions has distinct advantages over proton or photon irradiation. In this paper we present a simulation model integrated into the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit (version 9.3) which enables the use of ICRU 73 stopping powers for ion transport calculations. For a few materials, revised ICRU 73 stopping power tables recently published by ICRU (P. Sigmund, A. Schinner, H. Paul, Errata and Addenda: ICRU Report 73 (Stopping of Ions Heavier than Helium), International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, 2009) were incorporated into Geant4, also covering media like water which are of importance in radiotherapeutical applications. We examine, with particular attention paid to the recent developments, the accuracy of current Geant4 models for simulating Bragg peak profiles of C-12 ions incident on water and polyethylene targets. Simulated dose distributions are validated against experimental data available in the literature, where the focus is on beam energies relevant to io...

  1. Interaction of Li{sup +} ions with ethylene carbonate (EC): Density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Mahesh Datt; Cho, Maenghyo [WCU Multiscale Mechanical Design Division, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyeongjae, E-mail: kjcho@utdallas.edu [WCU Multiscale Mechanical Design Division, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Electronic structures of Li{sup +} ion-ethylene carbonate (EC) complexes were studied by density functional theory. The structural, electronic and dynamical properties of Li{sup +}-EC complexes were studied for both an isolated EC molecule and clusters including Li{sup +} ion. Our structural analysis showed only one type of Li{sup +} coordination with EC through Li{sup +}...O=C which was supported by the vibration spectral analysis for interaction between Li{sup +} ion and a solvent (EC) molecule. It was analyzed that the solvation energy and Mulliken charge of Li+ ion solvated by EC molecule decrease with increase in number of EC molecule. However, electron affinity shows the opposite change. This analysis with solvation energy, electron affinity and Mulliken charge supported the stabilization of 4-coordinated solvation shell among [Li{sup +}(EC){sub n}]{sub n=1-5} complexes.

  2. Removal of nitrate ions from water by activated carbons (ACs)—Influence of surface chemistry of ACs and coexisting chloride and sulfate ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazunari; Amano, Yoshimasa; Aikawa, Masami; Machida, Motoi

    2013-07-01

    Adsorptive removal of nitrate ions in aqueous solution using activated carbons (ACs) was examined. After ash was removed from Filtrasorb 400 AC, oxidation and outgassing and several heat treatments were carried out to modify the textural and surface properties of ACs. AC oxidized with 8 M nitric acid followed by outgassing at 900 °C (Ox-9OG) exhibited the greatest Langmuir adsorption capacity and affinity for nitrate removal among the total 7 ACs examined. Influence of coexisting chloride and sulfate ions was investigated as well to inspect the nitrate adsorption sites. The highest amount of sites which adsorbed nitrate ions exclusively could be observed for Ox-9OG adsorbent even though as great as 250 times greater number of chloride or sulfate ions over nitrate ions were present in the same aqueous system. Some basic oxygen species on carbon were estimated to work as selective adsorption sites for nitrate ions.

  3. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yanyi; Liu Dawei; Zhang Qifeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Yu Danmei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Cao Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.ed [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO{sub 4}/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO{sub 4} electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  4. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanyi; Liu, Dawei; Zhang, Qifeng; Yu, Danmei; Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  5. Lithium iron phosphate/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes for high energy lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports sol-gel derived nanostructured LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite film cathodes exhibiting enhanced electrochemical properties and cyclic stabilities. LiFePO4/carbon films were obtained by spreading sol on Pt coated Si wafer followed by ambient drying overnight and annealing/pyrolysis at elevated temperature in nitrogen. Uniform and crack-free LiFePO4/carbon nanocomposite films were readily obtained and showed olivine phase as determined by means of X-Ray Diffractometry. The electrochemical characterization revealed that, at a current density of 200 mA/g (1.2 C), the nanocomposite film cathodes demonstrated an initial lithium-ion intercalation capacity of 312 mAh/g, and 218 mAh/g after 20 cycles, exceeding the theoretical storage capacity of conventional LiFePO4 electrode. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation performance could be attributed to the nanocomposite structure with fine crystallite size below 20 nm as well as the poor crystallinity which provides a partially open structure allowing easy mass transport and volume change associated with Li-ion intercalation. Moreover the surface defect introduced by carbon nanocoating could also effectively facilitate the charge transfer and phase transitions.

  6. Influence of electrolyte ion-solvent interactions on the performances of supercapacitors porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaux, C.; Matei Ghimbeu, C.; Dahbi, M.; Anouti, M.; Lemordant, D.; Béguin, F.; Vix-Guterl, C.; Raymundo-Piñero, E.

    2014-10-01

    The development of advanced and safe electrochemical supercapacitors or hybrid supercapacitors combining a battery electrode material such as graphite and a porous carbon electrode implies the use of new electrolytes containing a tetra-alkylammonium or lithium salt dissolved preferentially in a safe and environmentally friendly solvent such as alkylcarbonates. In those systems, the carbon porosity of the activated carbon electrode controls the electrochemical behavior of the whole device. In this work, it is demonstrated that electrolytes containing highly polarizing ions such as Li+ dissolved in polar solvents such as alkylcarbonates do not completely loss their solvation shell at the opposite of what is observed for poorly solvated cations like TEABF4. As a consequence, the optimal carbon pore size for obtaining the largest energy density, while keeping a high power density, is wider when strongly solvated cations, like Li+ are used than for conventional organic electrolytes using acetonitrile as solvent and TEA+ as salt cations. TEA+ cations are easily desolvated and hence are able to penetrate in small pores matching the dimensions of bare ions. The dissimilarity of behavior of alkylcarbonates and acetonitrile based electrolytes highlights the importance of ion-solvent interactions when searching the optimal porous texture for the electrode material.

  7. Response of a silicon telescope microdosimeter to 400 AMeV carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A monolithic silicon telescope consisting of a surface ΔE detector 2 μm in thickness coupled to an E detector about 500 μm in thickness made out of a single silicon wafer was recently proposed for the microdosimetric characterization of hadron beams. This device and its pixelated version are intended to be irradiated at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO, National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy, Pavia, Italy) with a 400 AMeV carbon ion beam. The response of the silicon microdosimeter under these conditions was calculated with Monte Carlo simulations by using the FLUKA code, in order to have reference available for comparison with the experimental results. - Highlights: • FLUKA simulations performed to study the response of silicon telescope to carbon ions. • Energy distribution of ions from carbon fragmentation were calculated. • Microdosimetric spectra corrected for tissue-equivalence were derived. • Feasibility of the ΔE stage telescope in a 400 AMeV carbon beam was demonstrated

  8. Carbon cloth supported vanadium pentaoxide nanoflake arrays as high-performance cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Construct a carbon cloth supported V2O5 nanoflake arrays. • V2O5 nanoflake arrays show high Li-storage properties. • Nanoflake arrays structure is favorable for fast ion and electron transfer - Abstract: Carbon cloth supported vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanoflake arrays are synthesized by a facile solvothermal deposition method. The V2O5 nanoflakes grow quasi-vertically to the carbon cloth and show a star-fruit like hierarchical structure composed of 3 − 4 secondary flakes with a thickness of ∼20 nm. When applied as cathode material for lithium ion batteries, the V2O5 nanoflake arrays exhibit a high capacity of 292 mAh g−1 at 0.5 C, and 94% capacity (275 mAh g−1) retained after 100 cycles. In addition, the V2O5 nanoflakes present an impressive high-rate capability with 62% capacity (181 mAh g−1) retention when the rate changes from 0.5 C to 10 C. The noticeable electrochemical performances are mainly due to the carbon cloth supported thin nanoflake array structure, which provides fast ion/electron transfer, sufficient contact between active materials and electrolyte, and alleviates the structure degradation caused by volume expansion during the cycling process

  9. Dynamic polarization effects in ion channeling through single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Da-Peng; Wang, You-Nian; Wei, Li; Mišković, Z. L.

    2005-08-01

    Ion channeling through a single-wall carbon nanotube is simulated by solving Newton’s equations for ion motion at intermediate energies, under the action of both the surface-atom repulsive forces and the polarization forces due to the dynamic perturbation of the nanotube electrons. The atomic repulsion is described by a continuum potential based on the Thomas-Fermi-Moliere model, whereas the dynamic polarization of the nanotube electrons is described by a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, giving rise to the transverse dynamic image force and the longitudinal stopping force. In the absence of centrifugal forces, a balance between the image force and the atomic repulsion is found to give rise to ion trajectories which oscillate over peripheral radial regions in the nanotube, provided the ion impact position is not too close to the nanotube wall, the impact angle is sufficiently small, and the incident speed is not too high. Otherwise, the ion is found to oscillate between the nanotube walls, passing over a local maximum of the potential in the center of the nanotube, which results from the image interaction. The full statistical analysis of 103 ion trajectories has been made to further demonstrate the actual effect of dynamic polarization on the ion channeling.

  10. Study of Exotic Ions in Superfluid Helium-4 Using a Carbon Nanotube Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have extended our measurements of the properties of exotic negatively-charged ions in superfluid helium-4. We measured the ion mobility using the time-of-of-flight method at temperatures in the range between 1.03 and 1.16 K. Ions were generated by an electrical discharge produced by applying a voltage to sharp tips in the helium vapor above the liquid surface. Previous studies by Ihas and Sanders, Eden and McClintock, and by our group used tungsten tips and were able to detect at least twelve exotic ions in addition to the normal electron bubble. In the present work we have experimented with tips each consisting of a stainless steel wire coated with carbon nanotubes. We have found that with these tips the strength of the exotic ion signal is substantially increased making it possible to detect several ions which previously could not be seen. The present data combined with the results of the previous studies indicate that there are at least eighteen exotic ions with different mobility

  11. Effects of evolving surface morphology on yield during focused ion beam milling of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate evolving surface morphology during focused ion beam bombardment of C and determine its effects on sputter yield over a large range of ion dose (1017-1019 ions/cm2) and incidence angles (Θ = 0-80o). Carbon bombarded by 20 keV Ga+ either retains a smooth sputtered surface or develops one of two rough surface morphologies (sinusoidal ripples or steps/terraces) depending on the angle of ion incidence. For conditions that lead to smooth sputter-eroded surfaces there is no change in yield with ion dose after erosion of the solid commences. However, for all conditions that lead to surface roughening we observe coarsening of morphology with increased ion dose and a concomitant decrease in yield. A decrease in yield occurs as surface ripples increase wavelength and, for large Θ, as step/terrace morphologies evolve. The yield also decreases with dose as rippled surfaces transition to have steps and terraces at Θ = 75o. Similar trends of decreasing yield are found for H2O-assisted focused ion beam milling. The effects of changing surface morphology on yield are explained by the varying incidence angles exposed to the high-energy beam.

  12. Ion exchange reactions in interaction of basic zirconium sulfate with sodium carbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic zirconium sulfates, extracted from basic zirconium chloride solution and zirconium disulfate solution, as well as products of their interaction with sodium carbonate solution, which was exposed and not exposed to hydrolysis, were investigated by chemical and NMR spectroscopy methods. It has been established that the process of interaction of the basic zirconium sulfate with sodium carbonate solutions sulfatocarbonatozicrconates and carbonatozirconates of sodium are sequentially formed. In this case carbonate groups, due to different strenght of addition of hydroxogroups in initial basic sulfates, substitute either SOsub(h)sup(2)-)- groups and H2O or SO42--and OH--groups, and sodium ions substitute H3O+-groups. Carbonate groups, if they have substituted sulfato- or hydroxogroup, during hydrolysis of carbonatozirconates are splitted out to a less degree

  13. Formation and growth mechanisms of ion-induced iron-carbon nanocomposites at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The irradiation of graphite surfaces with a simultaneous Fe supply have resulted into the development of various types of carbon nanocomposites. Their morphologies - diameter, density, length and apex angle strongly depend on the ratios of Fe deposition rate (DFe) to ion sputtering rate (Sion). By optimizing the ratio of DFe/Sion (2.40%), the denser and well-aligned Fe-carbon nanocomposite fibers (Fe-CNFs) could be obtained, whose average length and diameter were 0.95 μm and 17 nm, respectively. As confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, the Fe-CNFs with amorphous-like or fine-polycrystalline phase were surely composed of carbon and Fe. Two types of growth models have been employed to explain the formation of metal-carbon nanocomposites.

  14. Neuron attachment properties of carbon negative-ion implanted bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification of a bioabsorbable polymer of poly-lactic acid (PLA) by negative carbon ion implantation was investigated with resect to radiation effects on surface physical properties and nerve-cell attachment properties. Carbon negative ions were implanted to PLA at energy of 5-30 keV with a dose of 1014-1016 ions/cm2. Most C-implanted PLA samples showed contact angles near 80 deg. and almost same as that of unimplanted PLA, although a few samples at 5 keV and less 3x1014 ions/cm2 had contact angles larger than 90 deg. The attachment properties of nerve cells of PC-12h (rat adrenal phechromocytoma) in vitro were studied. PC-12h cells attached on the unimplanted region in C-implanted PLA samples at 5 and 10 keV. On the contrary, the nerve cells attached on only implanted region for the C-implanted PLA sample at 30 keV and 1x1015 ions/cm2

  15. Interaction vertex imaging (IVI) for carbon ion therapy monitoring: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton imaging can be seen as a powerful technique for online monitoring of ion range during carbon ion therapy irradiations. Indeed, a large number of secondary protons are created during nuclear reactions, and many of these protons are likely to escape from the patient even for deep-seated tumors, carrying accurate information on the reaction vertex position. Two detection techniques have been considered: (i) double-proton detection by means of two forward-located trackers and (ii) single-proton detection in coincidence with the incoming carbon ion detected by means of a beam hodoscope. Geant4 simulations, validated by proton yield measurements performed at GANIL and GSI, show that ion-range monitoring is accessible on a pencil-beam basis with the single-proton imaging technique. Millimetric precision on the Bragg peak position is expected in the ideal case of homogeneous targets. The uncertainties in more realistic conditions should be investigated, in particular the influence of tissue heterogeneity in the very last part of the ion path (about 20 mm). (paper)

  16. Dual-ion-beam deposition of carbon films with diamond-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamond like films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  17. Tetrapropylammonium ion influence on the synthesis of Pt Ru/carbon hybrids by hydrothermal carbonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PtRu/Carbon hybrid materials were prepared by hydrothermal carbonization using starch as carbon source and reducing agent and H2PtCl6.6H2O e RuCl3.xH2O as metals source and catalyst of the carbonization process. The materials were prepared in the following conditions: without pH adjustment, in the absence and in the presence of tetrapropylammonium chloride (TPACl), and adjusting the pH using potassium hydroxide (KOH) or tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH). The obtained materials were treated under argon atmosphere at 900 deg C and characterized by SEM/EDX, BET isotherm, XRD and TEM. The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by chronoamperometry. The material prepared using TPAOH showed the best performance for methanol electro-oxidation. (author)

  18. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10{sup 10} pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV/u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10{sup 8} or 10{sup 9} pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of

  19. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, M; Kitagawa, A

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 10(10) pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV∕u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 10(8) or 10(9) pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are

  20. Matrix elimination ion chromatography for determination of trace levels of anions in high purity lithium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium carbonate is used as a precursor in the synthesis of lithium-based ceramic, Li2TiO3, which is being considered as a promising solid breeder material in the tritium breeding blanket of thermonuclear fusion reactors . The presence of unwanted impurities in the precursor material can alter the ceramic properties of lithium titanate. Therefore a simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of anionic impurities in high purity lithium carbonate has been developed. The quantitative determination of various anionic impurities (fluoride, chloride and sulphate) simultaneously was carried out by anion exchange chromatography with suppressed conductometric detection. The large concentration of carbonate anion in the solution poses a challenge in the determination of other anions present at trace level. Therefore the matrix elimination was accomplished by adopting a sample pretreatment for the removal of large excess of carbonate from the sample matrix. Onguard H-cartridges were found most suitable for this purpose. The H-guard cartridge has a packing of high capacity strong acid cation exchange resin in the H form. During the pretreatment procedure, the lithium ion in the sample exchange with H+ of the resin while the carbonate is converted to carbonic acid with the help of H+ ions. The Onguard H-cartridges could be successfully used to remove the interfering carbonate quantitatively from the salt solution provided that the concentration of carbonate is well below the total capacity of the packing material of the cartridges. The developed method was validated for its accuracy and precision. The limit of detection for various anions was in the range 0.02-0.4 μg g-1 and the relative standard deviation was 3-5 % for the overall method

  1. Measurement of magnetic field induced by magnets of a synchrotron for carbon radiotherapy to establish a energy-saving operation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A carbon synchrotron for radiotherapy requires a considerable amount of electric power, typically a few megawatts. A large part of the energy is consumed by the magnets, especially the bending magnet of the synchrotron. They are generally operated continuously in order to maintain the stability of the magnetic field pattern, but they should be able to be switched off if the magnetic field is stable sufficiently. In this study, the magnetic field induced by a synchrotron bending magnet was measured during a variety of operation sequence. A 5, 10 and 20 minutes' interval causes little difference in the magnetic field before and after the interval when the flat top current level is unchanged. When the flat top current is changed drastically, it needs several tens of cycles to reach some stability. (author)

  2. Transport of carbon ion test particles and hydrogen recycling in the plasma of the Columbia tokamak ''HBT'' [High Beta Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon impurity ion transport is studied in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT), using a carbon tipped probe which is inserted into the plasma (ne ∼ 1 - 5 x 1014 (cm-3), Te ∼ 4 - 10 (eV), Bt ∼ 0.2 - 0.4(T)). Carbon impurity light, mainly the strong lines of CII(4267A, emitted by the C+ ions) and CIII (4647A, emitted by the C++ ions), is formed by the ablation or sputtering of plasma ions and by the discharge of the carbon probe itself. The diffusion transport of the carbon ions is modeled by measuring the space-and-time dependent spectral light emission of the carbon ions with a collimated optical beam and photomultiplier. The point of emission can be observed in such a way as to sample regions along and transverse to the toroidal magnetic field. The carbon ion diffusion coefficients are obtained by fitting the data to a diffusion transport model. It is found that the diffusion of the carbon ions is ''classical'' and is controlled by the high collisionality of the HBT plasma; the diffusion is a two-dimensional problem and the expected dependence on the charge of the impurity ion is observed. The measurement of the spatial distribution of the Hα emissivity was obtained by inverting the light signals from a 4-channel polychromator, the data were used to calculate the minor-radial influx, the density, and the recycling time of neutral hydrogen atoms or molecules. The calculation shows that the particle recycling time τp is comparable with the plasma energy confinement time τE; therefore, the recycling of the hot plasma ions with the cold neutrals from the walls is one of the main mechanisms for loss of plasma energy

  3. A pilot study on potential plasma hypoxia markers in the radiotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. Osteopontin, carbonic anhydrase IX and vascular endothelial growth factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostheimer, C.; Bache, M.; Guettler, A.; Vordermark, D. [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Kotzsch, M. [Technical University Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Hypoxic radioresistance plays a critical role in the radiotherapy of cancer and adversely impacts prognosis and treatment response. This prospective study investigated the interrelationship and the prognostic significance of several hypoxia-related proteins in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated by radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Pretreatment osteopontin (OPN), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) plasma levels were determined by ELISA in 55 NSCLC (M0) patients receiving 66 Gy curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiation. Marker correlation, association with clinicopathological parameters and the prognostic value of a biomarker combination was evaluated. All biomarkers were linearly correlated and linked to different clinical parameters including lung function, weight loss (OPN), gross tumor volume (VEGF) and T stage (CA IX). High OPN (p = 0.03), VEGF (p = 0.02) and CA IX (p = 0.04) values were significantly associated with poor survival. Double marker combination additively increased the risk of death by a factor of 2 and high plasma levels of the triple combination OPN/VEGF/CA IX yielded a 5.9-fold risk of death (p = 0.009). The combined assessment of OPN/VEGF/CA IX correlated independently with prognosis (p = 0.03) in a multivariate Cox regression model including N stage, T stage and GTV. This pilot study suggests that a co-detection augments the prognostic value of single markers and that the integration of OPN, VEGF and CA IX into a hypoxic biomarker profile for the identification of patients with largely hypoxic and radioresistant tumors should be further evaluated. (orig.) [German] Hypoxische Radioresistenz spielt eine kritische Rolle in der Radiotherapie maligner Tumoren und beeinflusst Prognose und Therapieansprechen negativ. Diese prospektive Studie untersuchte den Zusammenhang und die prognostische Bedeutung einiger hypoxieassoziierter Proteine bei Patienten mit nicht-kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom

  4. Adsorption of Ferricyanide Ion onActivated Carbon and γ-Alumina

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ketcha Mbadcam; G. F. Tchatat Wouaha; V. Hambate Gomdje

    2010-01-01

    Iron-cyanide complexes are present in soil and ground water due to anthropogenic inputs. We compared the adsorption of ferricyanide ion, on two commercial activated carbons (COM3 and COM4) and γ-alumina (A1G) in aqueous solution. Isotherm parameters obtained from batch experiments of iron-cyanide complex adsorption on these adsorbents were carried-out. The mass of the adsorbents were varied at 40 mg, 60 mg and 100 mg and the inorganic ion initial concentrations, Co also varied between 3.04×10...

  5. Effective Stress Reduction in Diamond Films on Alumina by Carbon Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方志军; 夏义本; 王林军; 张伟丽; 马哲国; 张明龙

    2002-01-01

    We show the effective stress reduction in diamond films by implanting carbon ions into alumina substrates prior to the diamond deposition. Residual stresses in the films are evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and a more reliable method for stress determination is presented for the quantitative measurement of stress evolution. It is found that compressive stresses in the diamond films can be partly offset by the compressive stresses in the alumina substrates, which are caused by the ion pre-implantation. At the same time, the difference between the offset by the pre-stressed substrates and the total stress reduction indicates that some other mechanisms are also active.

  6. Equilibrium thickness of carbon target interacting with nitrogen and neon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu. A.; Novikov, N. V.; Teplova, Ya. A.

    2016-04-01

    The method for calculation of the target thickness which is required for the formation of equilibrium charge distribution of ions is proposed. The description of nonequilibrium processes is based on empirical estimations of charge-exchange cross sections, taking the density effect for solids into account. The variation of the average charge and the width of the nonequilibrium charge distribution as a function of the target thickness is analyzed. The results of calculations for nitrogen and neon ions in carbon are compared with experimental data.

  7. The influence of ion bombardment on emission properties of carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chepusov, Alexander, E-mail: chepusov@iep.uran.ru [The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), 620016, 106 Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 620002, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Komarskiy, Alexander, E-mail: aakomarskiy@gmail.com [The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), 620016, 106 Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, 620002, 19 Mira Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, Vadim, E-mail: kuznetsov@iep.uran.ru [The Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), 620016, 106 Amundsen Street, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    When electric-vacuum device works its cathode surface experiences bombardment with ions of residual gases. Effects of ion bombardment impact on surface of field emission cathodes made of carbon materials may essentially change emission properties of such cathodes. It changes emission start electric field strength, voltage vs. current characteristic of material, its relief and electron structure of the surface layer. Field emission cathode operating mode, variation of radiation doses allow to obtain both good effects: maximal electric current, surface recovery – and negative ones: the worst emission properties and surface destruction, amorphization.

  8. L-shell ionization in high-z targets by carbon and silicon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-shell ionization in Ho, Er, Tm, Ta, W, Tl, Pb and Bi by 20 Mev carbon ions and 37.5 Mev silicon ions has been investigated. The observed L/sub //alpha/sub L//gamma/ x-ray intensity ratios are compared with the estimates based on PWBA and BEA calculations. The energy shifts in the L/sub //alpha/, L/sub //gamma/sub //1 and L/sub //gamma/sub //4 x-rays are attributed to the presence of M shell spectator vacancies. 7 refs

  9. In Situ Carbonized Cellulose-Based Hybrid Film as Flexible Paper Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shaomei; Feng, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Liu, Hongjiang; Miao, Miao; Fang, Jianhui; Shi, Liyi

    2016-01-20

    Flexible free-standing carbonized cellulose-based hybrid film is integrately designed and served both as paper anode and as lightweight current collector for lithium-ion batteries. The well-supported heterogeneous nanoarchitecture is constructed from Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), carbonized cellulose nanofiber (C-CNF) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using by a pressured extrusion papermaking method followed by in situ carbonization under argon atmospheres. The in situ carbonization of CNF/CNT hybrid film immobilized with uniform-dispersed LTO results in a dramatic improvement in the electrical conductivity and specific surface area, so that the carbonized paper anode exhibits extraordinary rate and cycling performance compared to the paper anode without carbonization. The flexible, lightweight, single-layer cellulose-based hybrid films after carbonization can be utilized as promising electrode materials for high-performance, low-cost, and environmentally friendly lithium-ion batteries. PMID:26727586

  10. Hard Carbon Wrapped in Graphene Networks as Lithium Ion Battery Anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hard carbon enveloped with graphene networks was fabricated by a facile and scalable method. In the constructed architecture, hard carbon offers large lithium storage and flexible graphene layers can provide a highly conductive matrix for enabling good contact between particles and facilitate the diffusion and transport of electrons and ions. As a consequence, the hybrid anode exhibits enhanced reversible capacity (500 mAh g−1 at current density of 20 mA g−1), rate capability (400 mAh g−1 at 0.2 C, 290 mAh g−1 at 1 C, 250 mAh g−1 at 2 C, and 200 mAh g−1 at 5 C, 1C = 400 mA g−1) and cycle performance. We believe that the outstanding synergetic effect between the graphene networks and the hard carbon structures induces the superior lithium storage performance of the overall electrode by maximally utilizing the electrochemically active graphene and hard carbon particles. As far as we know, the hard carbon/graphene hybrids were firstly fabricated as anode in lithium-ion batteries

  11. Asymmetric catalytic formation of quaternary carbons by iminium ion trapping of radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John J; Bastida, David; Paria, Suva; Fagnoni, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2016-04-14

    An important goal of modern organic chemistry is to develop new catalytic strategies for enantioselective carbon-carbon bond formation that can be used to generate quaternary stereogenic centres. Whereas considerable advances have been achieved by exploiting polar reactivity, radical transformations have been far less successful. This is despite the fact that open-shell intermediates are intrinsically primed for connecting structurally congested carbons, as their reactivity is only marginally affected by steric factors. Here we show how the combination of photoredox and asymmetric organic catalysis enables enantioselective radical conjugate additions to β,β-disubstituted cyclic enones to obtain quaternary carbon stereocentres with high fidelity. Critical to our success was the design of a chiral organic catalyst, containing a redox-active carbazole moiety, that drives the formation of iminium ions and the stereoselective trapping of photochemically generated carbon-centred radicals by means of an electron-relay mechanism. We demonstrate the generality of this organocatalytic radical-trapping strategy with two sets of open-shell intermediates, formed through unrelated light-triggered pathways from readily available substrates and photoredox catalysts--this method represents the application of iminium ion activation (a successful catalytic strategy for enantioselective polar chemistry) within the realm of radical reactivity. PMID:27075098

  12. Influence of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions on the properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongping; Benstetter, Günther; Lodermeier, Edgar; Vancea, Johann

    2003-09-01

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films have been grown on Ar+-beam-cleaned silicon substrates by changing the incident angle of energetic carbon ions produced in the plasma of pulsed cathodic vacuum arc discharge. Their surface roughness, deposition rate, composition, and mechanical and frictional properties as a function of the incident angle of energetic carbon ions were reported. The substrate holder can be rotated, and so an angle of deposition was defined as the angle of ion flux with respect to the substrate surface. While the deposition angle is varied from 20° to 59°, the root-mean-square (rms) roughness decreases from 0.5 to 0.1 nm, then it turns to increase at a slow rate when the deposition angle is over 77°. The variation correlates well with the one of hardness with the deposition angle and the films with lower rms roughness exhibit the higher hardness. The soft graphite-like surface layers existing at the surfaces of these films were revealed by atomic force microscopy-based nanowear tests and their thickness increases from 0.35 to 2.9 nm with the deposition angle decreasing from 90° to 30°. The soft surface layer thickness can have a great effect on the sp3 contents measured by x-ray photoelectron spectra. Nanoscale friction coefficient measurements were performed from lateral force microscopy by using a V-shaped Si3N4 cantilever. The low friction coefficients (0.076-0.093) of ta-C films can be attributed to their graphite-like surface structure. The implications of these results on the mechanisms proposed for the film formation were discussed.

  13. Geant4 Simulation Study of Dose Distribution and Energy Straggling for Proton and Carbon Ion Beams in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qiang; Zhang Zheng; Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Dose distribution and energy straggling for proton and carbon ion beams in water are investigated by using a hadrontherapy model based on the Geant4 toolkit. By gridding water phantom in N×N×N voxels along X, Y and Z axes, irradiation dose distribution in all the voxels is calculated. Results indicate that carbon ion beams have more advantages than proton beams. Proton beams have bigger width of the Bragg peak and broader lateral dose distribution than carbon ion beams for the same position o...

  14. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.;

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result...

  15. Field-ion microscopy observation of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆祥; 张耿民; 杜民; 金新喜; 侯士敏; 孙建平; 顾镇南; 赵兴钰; 刘惟敏; 吴锦雷; 薛增泉

    2002-01-01

    Field-ion microscopy (FIM), a tool for surface analysis with atomic resolution, has been employed to observethe end structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). FIM images revealed the existence of open SWCNTends. Amorphous carbon atoms were also observed to occur around SWCNTs and traditional field evaporation failedto remove them. Heat treatment was found to be efficacious in altering the end structures of SWCNT bundles. Carbonand oxygen atoms released from heated tungsten filament are believed to be responsible for the decoration imposed onthe SWCNT ends.

  16. Probing the complex ion structure in liquid carbon at 100 GPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, D; Vorberger, J; Gericke, D O; Bagnoud, V; Blažević, A; Cayzac, W; Frank, A; Gregori, G; Ortner, A; Otten, A; Roth, F; Schaumann, G; Schumacher, D; Siegenthaler, K; Wagner, F; Wünsch, K; Roth, M

    2013-12-20

    We present the first direct experimental test of the complex ion structure in liquid carbon at pressures around 100 GPa, using spectrally resolved x-ray scattering from shock-compressed graphite samples. Our results confirm the structure predicted by ab initio quantum simulations and demonstrate the importance of chemical bonds at extreme conditions similar to those found in the interiors of giant planets. The evidence presented here thus provides a firmer ground for modeling the evolution and current structure of carbon-bearing icy giants like Neptune, Uranus, and a number of extrasolar planets. PMID:24483747

  17. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ▪. Highlights: ► We demonstrate the in situ template syn