WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon ion beams

  1. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  2. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse. PMID:22380206

  3. Intensive irradiation of carbon nanotubes by Si ion beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Zhichun; LI Qintao; YAN Long; GONG Jinlong; ZHU Dezhang; ZHU Zhiyuan

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were irradiated with 40 keV Si ion beam to a dose of 1×1017 cm-2. The multiple-way carbon nanowire junctions and the Si doping in carbon nanowires were realized. Moreover, the formation processes of carbon nanowire junctions and the corresponding mechanism were studied.

  4. Dose Response of Alanine Detectors Irradiated with Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The dose response of the alanine detector shows a dependence on particle energy and type, when irradiated with ion beams. The purpose of this study is to investigate the response behaviour of the alanine detector in clinical carbon ion beams and compare the results with model predictions....... Methods: Alanine detectors have been irradiated with carbon ions with an energy range of 89-400 MeV/u. The relative effectiveness of alanine has been measured in this regime. Pristine and spread out Bragg peak depth-dose curves have been measured with alanine dosimeters. The track-structure based alanine...... response model developed by J. Hansen and K. Olsen has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, and calculations were compared with experimental results. Results: Calculations of the relative effectiveness deviate less than 5% from the measured values for mono energetic beams. Measured depth...

  5. Response of SOI image sensor to therapeutic carbon ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumura, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Carbon ion radiotherapy is known as a less invasive cancer treatment. The radiation quality is an important parameter to evaluate the biological effect and the clinical dose from the measured physical dose. The performance of SOPHIAS detector, which is the SOI image sensor having a wide dynamic range and large active area, was tested by using therapeutic carbon ion beam at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center (GHMC). It was shown that the primary carbon and secondary particles can be distinguishable by SOPHIAS detector. On the other hand, a LET dependence was observed especially at the high LET region. This phenomenon will be studied by using the device simulator together with Monte Carlo simulation.

  6. Dual ion beam deposition of carbon films with diamondlike properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamondlike films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  7. Kinetics of ion beam deposition of carbon at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growth rates of carbon films grown by ion beam deposition using methane gas were measured in situ as a function of deposition conditions. The methane pressure dependence of the growth rate was used to measure the cross-section for charge exchange. Variations in deposition rate per incident energetic particle found for each ion energy were related to ion current density. It was found that rates of growth per incident energetic specie were (i) largest for the smallest current densities, (ii) decreased monotonically with increasing current density, and (iii) were consistently larger than can be explained by deposition directly from the energetic flux alone. These observations were interpreted in terms of irradiation-induced surface interactions which promote chemisorption of methane physisorbed from the ambient atmosphere. (orig.)

  8. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm-2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm-2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C3N4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C3N4 matrix was predominantly sp2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  9. Primary result of application of carbon ion beam and gamma ray for rice breeding improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Carbon ion beam have been recently attracted as mutagens. A characteristic feature of ion beams is their ability to deposit high energy on a target, densely and locally, as opposed to low linear energy transfer radiation such as gamma rays and X rays. In Vietnam, application of carbon ion beam just starting through cooperation FNCA between Japan and ASEAN countries from 2009. In this report, we want to report primary result of application carbon ion beam and gamma ray for rice breeding improvement of Khang dan 18. Through primary experimental for optimum dose for carbon ion beam we found that the dose of 40 and 60 Gy was suitable for Khang dan variety treatment. Based on optimum dose 40 and 60 Gy of carbon ion beam and 150 and 200 Gy of gamma ray we irradiated for Khang dan variety. The higher dose, the lower seed set ratio were determined both ion beam and gamma ray. Especial in carbon ion beam experiment at the dose of 60 Gy was 39.18% in small experiment and more than 20% seed set ratio at the real experiment. At M4 generation, in the experiment with carbon ion beam at the dose of 60 Gy we received mutant which increase the weight of 1000 seeds (23.0 g) compare to the control 19.7 g meanwhile experiment with gamma ray at the dose of 200 Gy we received some mutant not much change in the seed weight. This may show that carbon ion beam more effective than gamma ray in term of change some characteristics of rice. (author)

  10. Beam test of compact ECR ion source for carbon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion source for medical facilities should have characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability and long operation time without maintenance (one year or more). Based on the proto type compact source, a 10 GHz compact ECR ion source with all permanent magnets has been developed. Peaks of the mirror magnetic field along the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, respectively, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The result of beam tests shows that a C4+ intensity of 530 μA was obtained under an extraction voltage of 45 kV. This paper describes the design detail and the experimental results for the new source. (author)

  11. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development

  12. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shornikov, A.; Wenander, F.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  13. Alanine Radiation Detectors in Therapeutic Carbon Ion Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Jäkel, Oliver; Palmans, Hugo;

        Radiotherapy with particles is getting more attention in Europe. New facilities for protons and heavier ions are finished, or near to the final status, some more are planed. Particle therapy with heavy ions is a challenge to dosimetry, since mixed particle fields occur in the peak region...... of the depth dose curves. Solid state detectors, such as diamond detectors, radiochromic films, TLDs and the amino acid alanine are used due to there good spatial resolution. If used in particle beams their response often exhibits a dependence on particle energy and type, so the acquired signal is not always...... proportional to absorbed dose. A model by Hansen and Olsen, based on the Track Structure Theory is available, which can predict the relative efficiency of some detectors, when the particle spectrum is known. For alanine detectors the model was successfully validated by Hansen and Olsen for several ion species...

  14. Ion beam deposition of amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, John C.; Mirtich, Michael J.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon films were deposited on silicon, quartz, and potassium bromide substrates from an ion beam. Growth rates were approximately 0.3 micron/hour. The films were featureless and amorphous and contained only carbon and hydrogen in significant amounts. The density and carbon/hydrogen ratio indicate the film is a hydrogen deficient polymer. One possible structure, consistent with the data, is a random network of methylene linkages and tetrahedrally coordinated carbon atoms.

  15. Calculation of Lifetime of Charge-Exchanging Carbon Targets in Intense Heavy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Kazacha, V I; Kamanin, D V

    2005-01-01

    Influence of the radiation damage and sublimation effects on the lifetime of carbon targets used for the accelerated ion beam extraction from cyclotrons by the charge-exchanging method is considered. The theoretical models permitting evaluation of the carbon target lifetime depending on their and ion beam parameters are presented both for the radiation damage and sublimation effects. It is shown that for the U-400 cyclotron carbon targets 50 $\\mu$g/cm$^{2}$ thick and for the ion beam flux density up to 100 p$\\mu$A/cm$^{2}$ the main effect defining the carbon target lifetime is the radiation damage. If the carbon target thickness and the ion beam flux density are greater, the target lifetime is defined already by the sublimation effect. In this connection "casting pipes" can be formed in the target, affecting on the mean energy and the energy distribution dispersion of the ion beam flied through the target. Comparison of measured and calculated target lifetimes is carried out

  16. Optical properties of ion-beam-deposited ion-modified diamondlike (a-C:H) carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamondlike carbon (DLC) is a hard, semitransparent material usually containing varying amounts of hydrogen. These materials have numerous potential applications, including use as coatings for infrared optics, and as such, the effects of damaging irradiation is of practical interest. In this paper we present results of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometric (VASE) studies of ion-beam-deposited DLC films. These films have been further modified by directing 1-MeV gold ions, as well as 6.4-MeV fluorine ions, through the DLC and into the underlying silicon substrates, and the percentage of hydrogen in the film was measured versus fluence using proton recoil analysis. Optical analysis was performed assuming the Lorentz oscillator model. Three versions were used: one oscillator, two oscillator (with one fixed in energy), and two oscillator with all parameter variable. The latter model fits the VASE data extremely well, and the two oscillators can be interpreted as involving π to π* and σ to σ* band transitions. With ion modification the oscillators shift to lower photon energy, consistent with reduction in hydrogen concentration and possible increased graphitization

  17. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  18. Experimental control of the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Munib

    2008-12-15

    The laser generation of energetic high quality beams of protons and heavier ions has opened up the door to a plethora of applications. These beams are usually generated by the interaction of a short pulse high power laser with a thin metal foil target. They could already be applied to probe transient phenomena in plasmas and to produce warm dense matter by isochoric heating. Other applications such as the production of radioisotopes and tumour radiotherapy need further research to be put into practice. To meet the requirements of each application, the properties of the laser-accelerated particle beams have to be controlled precisely. In this thesis, experimental means to control the beam properties of laser-accelerated protons and carbon ions are investigated. The production and control of proton and carbon ion beams is studied using advanced ion source designs: Experiments concerning mass-limited (i.e. small and isolated) targets are conducted. These targets have the potential to increase both the number and the energy of laser-accelerated protons. Therefore, the influence of the size of a plane foil target on proton beam properties is measured. Furthermore, carbon ion sources are investigated. Carbon ions are of particular interest in the production of warm dense matter and in cancer radiotherapy. The possibility to focus carbon ion beams is investigated and a simple method for the production of quasi-monoenergetic carbon ion beams is presented. This thesis also provides an insight into the physical processes connected to the production and the control of laser-accelerated ions. For this purpose, laser-accelerated protons are employed to probe plasma phenomena on laser-irradiated targets. Electric fields evolving on the surface of laser-irradiated metal foils and hollow metal foil cylinders are investigated. Since these fields can be used to displace, collimate or focus proton beams, understanding their temporal and spatial evolution is crucial for the design of

  19. Optical and Scratch Resistant Properties of Diamondlike Carbon Films Deposited with Single and Dual Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul, Michael T.; Bogdanski, Michael S.; Banks, Bruce A.; Mirtich, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited using both single and dual ion beam techniques utilizing filament and hollow cathode ion sources. Continuous DLC films up to 3000 A thick were deposited on fused quartz plates. Ion beam process parameters were varied in an effort to create hard, clear films. Total DLC film absorption over visible wavelengths was obtained using a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer. An ellipsometer, with an Ar-He laser (wavelength 6328 A) was used to determine index of refraction for the DLC films. Scratch resistance, frictional, and adherence properties were determined for select films. Applications for these films range from military to the ophthalmic industries.

  20. Geant4 Simulation Study of Dose Distribution and Energy Straggling for Proton and Carbon Ion Beams in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dose distribution and energy straggling for proton and carbon ion beams in water are investigated by using a hadrontherapy model based on the Geant4 toolkit. By gridding water phantom in N×N×N voxels along X, Y and Z axes, irradiation dose distribution in all the voxels is calculated. Results indicate that carbon ion beams have more advantages than proton beams. Proton beams have bigger width of the Bragg peak and broader lateral dose distribution than carbon ion beams for the same position of Bragg peaks. Carbon ion has a higher local ionization density and produces more secondary electrons than proton, so carbon ion beams can achieve a higher value of relative biological effectiveness.

  1. Cancer stem cells: The potential of carbon ion beam radiation and new radiosensitizers (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sung-Jae; Ishii, Hideshi; Tamari, Keisuke; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Nishida, Naohiro; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Koseki, Jun; Fukusumi, Takahito; Hasegawa, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Hisataka; Hamabe, Atsushi; Miyo, Masaaki; Noguchi, Kozo; Seo, Yuji; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small population of cells in cancer with stem-like properties such as cell proliferation, multiple differentiation and tumor initiation capacities. CSCs are therapy-resistant and cause cancer metastasis and recurrence. One key issue in cancer therapy is how to target and eliminate CSCs, in order to cure cancer completely without relapse and metastasis. To target CSCs, many cell surface markers, DNAs and microRNAs are considered as CSC markers. To date, the majority of the reported markers are not very specific to CSCs and are also present in non-CSCs. However, the combination of several markers is quite valuable for identifying and targeting CSCs, although more specific identification methods are needed. While CSCs are considered as critical therapeutic targets, useful treatment methods remain to be established. Epigenetic gene regulators, microRNAs, are associated with tumor initiation and progression. MicroRNAs have been recently considered as promising therapeutic targets, which can alter the therapeutic resistance of CSCs through epigenetic modification. Moreover, carbon ion beam radiotherapy is a promising treatment for CSCs. Evidence indicates that the carbon ion beam is more effective against CSCs than the conventional X-ray beam. Combination therapies of radiosensitizing microRNAs and carbon ion beam radiotherapy may be a promising cancer strategy. This review focuses on the identification and treatment resistance of CSCs and the potential of microRNAs as new radiosensitizers and carbon ion beam radiotherapy as a promising therapeutic strategy against CSCs. PMID:26330103

  2. Generation of intense pulsed ion beam by a Br type magnetically insulated ion diode with carbon plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To apply the pulsed heavy ion beam (PHIB) to an implantation process of semiconductor, purity of the ion beam is very important. To obtain a pure PHIB we have proposed a new type of accelerator using bipolar pulse. To develop the accelerator we are developing a new type of Br ion diode using a carbon plasma gun. By using the plasma gun, ion source plasma of ion current density approx. = 30 A/cm2 was obtained. The Br ion diode was successfully operated with plasma gun at diode voltage approx. = 100 kV, diode current approx. = 1 kA, pulse duration approx. = 200 ns and 3 A/cm2 of ion current density was obtained. (author)

  3. Dosimetric characterization of a microDiamond detector in clinical scanned carbon ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinelli, Marco; Prestopino, G., E-mail: giuseppe.prestopino@uniroma2.it; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [INFN—Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, Roma 00133 (Italy); Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A.; Mairani, A. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Raffaele, L. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, Catania 95123, Italy and Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Magro, G. [INFN—Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Pavia, Via U. Bassi 6, Pavia 27100, Italy and Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: To investigate for the first time the dosimetric properties of a new commercial synthetic diamond detector (PTW microDiamond) in high-energy scanned clinical carbon ion beams generated by a synchrotron at the CNAO facility. Methods: The detector response was evaluated in a water phantom with actively scanned carbon ion beams ranging from 115 to 380 MeV/u (30–250 mm Bragg peak depth in water). Homogeneous square fields of 3 × 3 and 6 × 6 cm{sup 2} were used. Short- and medium-term (2 months) detector response stability, dependence on beam energy as well as ion type (carbon ions and protons), linearity with dose, and directional and dose-rate dependence were investigated. The depth dose curve of a 280 MeV/u carbon ion beam, scanned over a 3 × 3 cm{sup 2} area, was measured with the microDiamond detector and compared to that measured using a PTW Advanced Markus ionization chamber, and also simulated using FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The detector response in two spread-out-Bragg-peaks (SOBPs), respectively, centered at 9 and 21 cm depths in water and calculated using the treatment planning system (TPS) used at CNAO, was measured. Results: A negligible drift of detector sensitivity within the experimental session was seen, indicating that no detector preirradiation was needed. Short-term response reproducibility around 1% (1 standard deviation) was found. Only 2% maximum variation of microDiamond sensitivity was observed among all the evaluated proton and carbon ion beam energies. The detector response showed a good linear behavior. Detector sensitivity was found to be dose-rate independent, with a variation below 1.3% in the evaluated dose-rate range. A very good agreement between measured and simulated Bragg curves with both microDiamond and Advanced Markus chamber was found, showing a negligible LET dependence of the tested detector. A depth dose curve was also measured by positioning the microDiamond with its main axis oriented orthogonally to the beam

  4. Geant4 Simulation Study of Dose Distribution and Energy Straggling for Proton and Carbon Ion Beams in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Qiang; Zhang Zheng; Li Yang

    2016-01-01

    Dose distribution and energy straggling for proton and carbon ion beams in water are investigated by using a hadrontherapy model based on the Geant4 toolkit. By gridding water phantom in N×N×N voxels along X, Y and Z axes, irradiation dose distribution in all the voxels is calculated. Results indicate that carbon ion beams have more advantages than proton beams. Proton beams have bigger width of the Bragg peak and broader lateral dose distribution than carbon ion beams for the same position o...

  5. Clinical output factors for carbon-ion beams passing through polyethylene

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Risa; Himukai, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A recent study suggested that polyethylene (PE) range compensators would cause extra carbon-ion attenuation by 0.45%/cm due to limitations in water equivalence. The present study aims to assess its influence on tumor dose in carbon-ion radiotherapy. Methods: Carbon-ion radiation was modeled to be composed of primary carbon ions and secondary particles. For these components, tumor dose fraction and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) were estimated at a reference depth in the middle of spread-out Bragg peak. The PE effect was estimated for clinical carbon-ion beams and was partially tested by experiment. The two-component model was integrated into a treatment-planning system, with which the PE effect on tumor dose was investigated in two clinical cases. Results: The fluence and clinical attenuation coefficients for dose decrease per polyethylene thickness were estimated to be 0.1%-0.3%/cm and 0.2%-0.4%/cm, depending on energy and modulation of clinical carbon-ion beams. In the treatment-planning s...

  6. Charge equilibrium of a laser-generated carbon-ion beam in warm dense matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using ion carbon beams generated by high intensity short pulse lasers we perform measurements of single shot mean charge equilibration in cold or isochorically heated solid density aluminum matter. We demonstrate that plasma effects in such matter heated up to 1 eV do not significantly impact the equilibration of carbon ions with energies 0.045-0.5 MeV/nucleon. Furthermore, these measurements allow for a first evaluation of semiempirical formulas or ab initio models that are being used to predict the mean of the equilibrium charge state distribution for light ions passing through warm dense matter. (authors)

  7. Interfacial electrical properties of ion-beam sputter deposited amorphous carbon on silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. A.; Woollam, J. A.; Chung, Y.; Banks, B.

    1983-01-01

    Amorphous, 'diamond-like' carbon films have been deposited on Si substrates, using ion-beam sputtering. The interfacial properties are studied using capacitance and conductance measurements. Data are analyzed using existing theories for interfacial electrical properties. The density of electronic states at the interface, along with corresponding time constants are determined.

  8. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J; Fitzek, Markus M; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2010-05-01

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient's body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several simple analytical formulas previously developed for proton beams for their ability to calculate WET values for materials exposed to beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions. Experimentally measured heavy charged particle beam ranges and WET values from an iterative numerical method were compared with the WET values calculated by the analytical formulas. In most cases, the deviations were within 1 mm. We conclude that the analytical formulas originally developed for proton beams can also be used to calculate WET values for helium, carbon and iron ion beams with good accuracy. PMID:20371908

  9. Blister formation in tungsten by hydrogen and carbon mixed ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blister formation in tungsten has been studied by mixed carbon and hydrogen ion beam irradiation. The beam ion energies were 1.0 keV and 300 eV, and the fluence was in the range of 1024-1025 ions m-2. It was found that a little amount of carbon impurity in the beam affected blister formation. A large number of blisters with various sizes were observed on the surface of tungsten at 653 K when the carbon concentration was more than 0.35%. When the carbon concentration was 0.11%, no blisters larger than 1.0 μm were observed. When the carbon concentration was 2.35%, a carbon layer developed on the tungsten surface, and again, no blisters were observed. The effect of target temperature on blister formation was also investigated: the sizes and numbers of the blisters were the largest when the tungsten was irradiated at 653 K; when the sample was irradiated at 388 or 873 K, no blisters larger than 1.0 μm were observed

  10. Carbon ion beam focusing using laser irradiated heated diamond hemispherical shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offermann, Dustin T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flippo, Kirk A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gaillard, Sandrine A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Experiments preformed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Trident Laser Facility were conducted to observe the acceleration and focusing of carbon ions via the TNSA mechanism using hemispherical diamond targets. Trident is a 200TW class laser system with 80J of 1 {micro}m, short-pulse light delivered in 0.5ps, with a peak intensity of 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}. Targets where Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamonds formed into hemispheres with a radius of curvature of 400{micro}m and a thickness of 5{micro}m. The accelerated ions from the hemisphere were diagnosed by imaging the shadow of a witness copper mesh grid located 2mm behind the target onto a film pack located 5cm behind the target. Ray tracing was used to determine the location of the ion focal spot. The TNSA mechanism favorably accelerates hydrogen found in and on the targets. To make the carbon beam detectable, targets were first heated to several hundred degrees Celsius using a CW, 532nm, 8W laser. Imaging of the carbon beam was accomplished via an auto-radiograph of a nuclear activated lithium fluoride window in the first layer of the film pack. The focus of the carbon ion beam was determined to be located 630 {+-} 110 {micro}m from the vertex of the hemisphere.

  11. Tribological properties of ion beam deposited diamond-like carbon film on silicon nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article reports on the physical characterization and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited on structural Si3N4 substrates. The films were deposited by the direct ion beam deposition technique. The ion beam was produced by plasma discharge of pre-mixed methane and hydrogen gas in a Kaufman-type ion source. The deposited films were found to be amorphous and contained about 70% carbon and 30% hydrogen. The friction coefficient of an uncoated Si3N4 ball on a DLC coated Si3N4 disc starts at about 0.2, then decreases rapidly to 0.1-0.15 with increasing sliding distance. Increasing humidity results in a slight increase in friction coefficient, but a significant decrease in wear factor. The wear factor for the tests at ≅60% rh (relative humidity) are about an order of magnitude smaller than the tests at 3% rh. (orig.)

  12. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  13. Effects of evolving surface morphology on yield during focused ion beam milling of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate evolving surface morphology during focused ion beam bombardment of C and determine its effects on sputter yield over a large range of ion dose (1017-1019 ions/cm2) and incidence angles (Θ = 0-80o). Carbon bombarded by 20 keV Ga+ either retains a smooth sputtered surface or develops one of two rough surface morphologies (sinusoidal ripples or steps/terraces) depending on the angle of ion incidence. For conditions that lead to smooth sputter-eroded surfaces there is no change in yield with ion dose after erosion of the solid commences. However, for all conditions that lead to surface roughening we observe coarsening of morphology with increased ion dose and a concomitant decrease in yield. A decrease in yield occurs as surface ripples increase wavelength and, for large Θ, as step/terrace morphologies evolve. The yield also decreases with dose as rippled surfaces transition to have steps and terraces at Θ = 75o. Similar trends of decreasing yield are found for H2O-assisted focused ion beam milling. The effects of changing surface morphology on yield are explained by the varying incidence angles exposed to the high-energy beam.

  14. Biological intercomparison using gut crypt survivals for proton and carbon-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle therapy depends on biological information for the dose prescription. Relative biological effectiveness or RBE for this requirement could basically be provided by experimental data. As RBE values of protons and carbon ions depend on several factors such as cell/tissue type, biological endpoint, dose and fractionation schedule, a single RBE value could not deal with all different radiosensitivities. However, any biological model with accurate reproducibility is useful for comparing biological effectiveness between different facilities. We used mouse gut crypt survivals as endpoint, and compared the cell killing efficiency of proton beams at three Japanese facilities. Three Linac X-ray machines with 4 and 6 MeV were used as reference beams, and there was only a small variation (coefficient of variance<2%) in biological effectiveness among them. The RBE values of protons relative to Linac X-rays ranged from 1.0 to 1.11 at the middle of a 6-cm SOBP (spread-out Bragg peak) and from 0.96 to 1.01 at the entrance plateau. The coefficient of variance for protons ranged between 4.0 and 5.1%. The biological comparison of carbon ions showed fairly good agreement in that the difference in biological effectiveness between National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS)/ Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heavy Ion Synchrotron (SIS) was 1% for three positions within the 6-cm SOBP. The coefficient of variance was <1.7, <0.6 and <1.6% for proximal, middle and distal SOBP, respectively. We conclude that the inter-institutional variation of biological effectiveness is smaller for carbon ions than protons, and that beam-spreading methods of carbon ions do not critically influence gut crypt survival. (author)

  15. Tilting of carbon encapsulated metallic nanocolumns in carbon-nickel nanocomposite films by ion beam assisted deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Muecklich, Arndt; Zschornak, Matthias; Wintz, Sebastian; Gemming, Sibylle; Abrasonis, Gintautas [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Oates, Thomas W. H. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaft, ISAS e.V., Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Luis Endrino, Jose [Surfaces and Coatings Department, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, c/Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Baehtz, Carsten; Shalimov, Artem [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF-510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Rossendorf Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2012-07-30

    The influence of assisting low-energy ({approx}50-100 eV) ion irradiation effects on the morphology of C:Ni ({approx}15 at. %) nanocomposite films during ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is investigated. It is shown that IBAD promotes the columnar growth of carbon encapsulated metallic nanoparticles. The momentum transfer from assisting ions results in tilting of the columns in relation to the growing film surface. Complex secondary structures are obtained, in which a significant part of the columns grows under local epitaxy via the junction of sequentially deposited thin film fractions. The influence of such anisotropic film morphology on the optical properties is highlighted.

  16. Mutagenic effects of carbon ion beam irradiations on dry Lotus japonicus seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanwei; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Du, Yan; Yu, Lixia; Feng, Hui; Mu, Jinhu; Chen, Yuze

    2016-09-01

    Carbon ion beam irradiation is a powerful method for creating mutants and has been used in crop breeding more and more. To investigate the effects of carbon ion beams on Lotus japonicus, dry seeds were irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam at dosages of 0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy. The germination rate, survival rate and root length of M1 populations were explored and the dose of 400 Gy was selected as the median lethal dose (LD50) for a large-scale mutant screening. Among 2472 M2 plants, 127 morphological mutants including leaf, stem, flower and fruit phenotypic variation were found, and the mutation frequency was approximately 5.14%. Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) assays were utilized to investigate the DNA polymorphism between seven mutants and eight plants without phenotypic variation from M2 populations. No remarkable differences were detected between these two groups, and the total polymorphic rate was 0.567%.

  17. Deposition of diamond like carbon films by using a single ion gun with varying beam source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jin-qiu; Chen Zhu-ping

    2001-01-01

    Diamond like carbon films have been successfully deposited on the steel substrate, by using a single ion gun with varying beam source. The films may appear blue, yellow and transparent in color, which was found related to contaminants from the sample holder and could be avoided. The thickness of the films ranges from tens up to 200 nanometers, and the hardness is in the range 20 to 30 GPa. Raman analytical results reveal the films are in amorphous structure. The effects of different beam source on the films structure are further discussed.

  18. Mechanical and tribological properties of carbon thin film with tungsten interlayer prepared by Ion beam assisted deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčák, P.; Černý, F.; Tolde, Z.; Sepitka, J.; Gregora, Ivan; Daniš, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, FEB (2013). ISSN 2314-4874 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : carbon coatings * ion beam deposition * XRD * nanoindentation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/630156

  19. Dual-ion-beam deposition of carbon films with diamond-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtich, M. J.; Swec, D. M.; Angus, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A single and dual ion beam system was used to generate amorphous carbon films with diamond like properties. A methane/argon mixture at a molar ratio of 0.28 was ionized in the low pressure discharge chamber of a 30-cm-diameter ion source. A second ion source, 8 cm in diameter was used to direct a beam of 600 eV Argon ions on the substrates (fused silica or silicon) while the deposition from the 30-cm ion source was taking place. Nuclear reaction and combustion analysis indicate H/C ratios for the films to be 1.00. This high value of H/C, it is felt, allowed the films to have good transmittance. The films were impervious to reagents which dissolve graphitic and polymeric carbon structures. Although the measured density of the films was approximately 1.8 gm/cu cm, a value lower than diamond, the films exhibited other properties that were relatively close to diamond. These films were compared with diamond like films generated by sputtering a graphite target.

  20. The influence of lateral beam profile modifications in scanned proton and carbon ion therapy: a Monte Carlo study

    CERN Document Server

    Parodi, K; Kraemer, M; Sommerer, F; Naumann, J; Mairani, A; Brons, S

    2010-01-01

    Scanned ion beam delivery promises superior flexibility and accuracy for highly conformal tumour therapy in comparison to the usage of passive beam shaping systems. The attainable precision demands correct overlapping of the pencil-like beams which build up the entire dose distribution in the treatment field. In particular, improper dose application due to deviations of the lateral beam profiles from the nominal planning conditions must be prevented via appropriate beam monitoring in the beamline, prior to the entrance in the patient. To assess the necessary tolerance thresholds of the beam monitoring system at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center, Germany, this study has investigated several worst-case scenarios for a sensitive treatment plan, namely scanned proton and carbon ion delivery to a small target volume at a shallow depth. Deviations from the nominal lateral beam profiles were simulated, which may occur because of misaligned elements or changes of the beam optic in the beamline. Data have been an...

  1. Distribution of hydrogen peroxide-dependent reaction in a gelatin sample irradiated by carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the amount and distribution of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in a solid gelatin sample irradiated by heavy ion (carbon) beam. We irradiated the gelatin sample, which contained a nitroxyl radical (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl, TEMPOL), with a 290-MeV/nucleon carbon beam (-128 Gy). To verify the distribution of H2O2 generation in the irradiated sample, we employed both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods based on H2O2-dependent paramagnetic loss of TEMPOL. We obtained a distribution profile of the H2O2-dependent reaction in the gelatin sample when we irradiated gelatin samples with carbon beams with several different linear energy transfer (LET) values. Because the profiles of oxygen consumption in the gelatin sample measured by L-band EPR oxymetry and of the H2O2-dependent reaction have almost the same shape, the profile of the H2O2-dependent reaction can be used as an estimation of the profile of the generation of H2O2. The H2O2 profile in one intact gelatin sample scanned by 7-tesla MR imaging showed a similar shape as a result of the EPR experiment. We obtained several hundreds of micromolars of H2O2 generated in a gelatin sample irradiated by carbon beam when 200 Gy was given at the surface of the sample. H2O2 distribution was almost flat, with only a slight peak just before the end of the beam. (author)

  2. Relative biological effects of carbon ion beams on mouse intestinal crypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basaki, Kiyoshi; Abe, Yoshinao [Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Akaizawa, Takashi; Ando, Soichiro; Ando, Koichi

    1998-03-01

    The relative biological effect (RBE) of carbon ion beams on mouse intestinal crypt cells were studied. Survival fractions of apoptotic sensitive cells, mitotic delay and colony assay were used for endpoints. Female C3H mice were total body irradiated using a carbon ion beam (290 MeV/u, 6 cm SOBP) at the National Institute of Radiological Science. For counting apoptosis and mitosis, the animals were irradiated either at LET of 70 keV/mm or 40 keV/mm. Fifteen minutes after irradiation, the mice received vincristine sulfate (0.8 mg/kg) and were sacrificed 2 hours and 45 minutes later. For colony assay, the animals were irradiated at an LET of 70 keV/mm and were sacrificed 3.5 days later. Jejunum were excised, fixed and cut into slices. The slides were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Apoptosis-pyknotic cell- and mitosis were counted and survival fractions of apoptotic sensitive cells and mitotic delay time were obtained. The number of colonies were counted and survival fractions per circumference were obtained. Using these endpoints, RBEs were obtained. For survival fractions of apoptotic sensitive cells, no LET difference was observed and RBE was 1.7. For mitotic delay time, RBE was 2.3 and 1.7 at an LET of 70 keV/mm and 40 keV/mm, respectively. For colony assay, the RBE was 2.0-2.1. The different RBEs from three endpoints of the jejunal crypt may reflect each nature of the radiosensitivity to the carbon ion beam. In summary that mitotic delay time exhibited the same RBE as colony assay and RBE regarding apoptosis was less than those RBEs. (author)

  3. Mutational effects of γ-rays and carbon ion beams on Arabidopsis seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihara, Ryouhei; Nozawa, Shigeki; Hase, Yoshihiro; Narumi, Issay; Hidema, Jun; Sakamoto, Ayako N

    2013-01-01

    To assess the mutational effects of radiation on vigorously proliferating plant tissue, the mutation spectrum was analyzed with Arabidopsis seedlings using the plasmid-rescue method. Transgenic plants containing the Escherichia coli rpsL gene were irradiated with γ-rays and carbon ion beams (320-MeV 12C6+), and mutations in the rpsL gene were analyzed. Mutant frequency increased significantly following irradiation by γ-rays, but not by 320-MeV 12C6+. Mutation spectra showed that both radiatio...

  4. Evaluation of plastic materials for range shifting, range compensation, and solid-phantom dosimetry for carbon-ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Kanematsu, Nobuyuki; Ogata, Risa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Beam range control is the essence of radiotherapy with heavy charged particles. In conventional broad-beam delivery, fine range adjustment is achieved by insertion of range shifting and compensating materials. Ideally, such material should be water equivalent as well as that for dosimetry. In this study, we evaluated dosimetric water equivalency of four common plastics, HDPE, PMMA, PET, and POM, by uniformity of effective densities for carbon-ion-beam interactions. Methods: Using the Bethe formula for stopping, the Gottschalk formula for multiple scattering, and the Sihver formula for nuclear interactions, we calculated the effective densities of the plastics for these interactions. We tested HDPE, PMMA, and POM in carbon-ion-beam experiment and measured attenuations of carbon ions, which were compared with empirical linear-attenuation-model calculations. Results: The theoretical calculations resulted in reduced multiple scattering and increased nuclear interactions for HDPE compared to water, which ...

  5. Radiation biophysical studies with mammalian cells and a modulated carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese hamster (V-79) and human kidney (T-1) cells were irradiated in stirred suspensions placed at various positions in the plateau and extended Bragg peak of a 400-MeV/amu carbon ion beam. The range of the ions was modulated by a lead (translational) ridge filter and a brass (spiral) ridge filter designed to produce extended peaks of approximately 4 and 10 cm, respectively. Stationary-phase and G1-phase populations of Chinese hamster cells were found to have different absolute radiosensitivities which, in turn, were different from that of asynchronous human kidney cells. The increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) observed as carbon ions were slowed down and stopped in water was similar for the three cell populations at doses greater than 400 rad. At lower doses the RBE was greater for the hamster cell populations than for the human kidney cells. The gain in RBE (at the 50% survival level) between the plateaus and the middle region of the extended peaks was approximately 2.0 and 1.7 for the 4- and 10-cm extended peaks, respectively. Oxygen enhancement ratios (OER) were determined at the 10% survival levels with stationary-phase populations of hamster cells. Values of 2.8, 2.65, and 1.65 were obtained for the OER of 220-kV x rays, plateau carbon, and the middle region of the 4-cm carbon peak, respectively. Across the 10-cm carbon peak the OER was found to vary between values of 2.4 to 1.55 from the proximal to distal positions

  6. Transplantation of ES cells to Parkinson model rat irradiated with carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to make a new Parkinson disease model using carbon ion beam. We irradiated right medial forebrain bundle of adult SD rats with charged carbon particles (290 MeV/nucleon, Mono peak, 150 Gy) and damaged right dopaminergic neurons pathway. To irradiate precisely, rats were set in the stereotactic frame with ear bars. Four weeks after the irradiation, behavioral test and in vitro autoradiography showed hemi-Parkinson model as well as 6-OHDA lesioned rats. Pathological examinations showed cell death, gliosis and inflammations at the irradiated area. However, no obvious alteration was observed at the surrounding normal tissue. These results indicated utility and validity of this method. (author)

  7. Effects of carbon ion beam irradiation on the shoot regeneration from in vitro axillary bud explants of the Impatiens hawkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Li, Ping; Dong, Xicun; Qu, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qiang

    Accelerated ion beams is an excellent mutagen in plant breeding which can induce higher mutation frequencies and wider mutation spectrum than those of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations, such as X-rays (Okamura et al. 2003, Yamaguchi et al. 2003). Mutation breeding operation of two Saintpaulia ionahta cultivars using the method combining plant tissue culture technique and carbon ion beam irradiations were set out at Institute of Modern Physics from 2005 (Zhou et al. 2006). The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiations on regenerated shoots of Impatiens hawkeri from another kind of explants named in vitro axillary buds explants were studied recently. The biology endpoints in this study included relative number of roots (RNR), relative length of roots (RLR), relative height of shoots (RHS), relative number of nodes (RNN), survival fraction (SF) and morphology changes in the regenerated shoots. The experimental results showed that carbon ion beams inhibited the root and stem developments of axillary bud explants more severely than X-rays did. And the 50% lethal dose (LD50 ) is about 23.3 Gy for the carbon ion beam and 49.1 Gy for the X-rays, respectively. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Impatiens hawkeri with respect to X-rays according to 50% SF was about two. Secondly, the percentage of shoots regenerated with malformed shoots including curliness, carnification, nicks in all Impatiens hawkeri axillary bud explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 55.6%, while the highest number for the 40 Gy X-ray irradiation was 40%. Last, many regenerated shoots whose vascular bundle fused together were obtained only from explants irradiated with carbon ion beams. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the axillary explants of Impatiens hawkeri is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy

  8. Integration and evaluation of automated Monte Carlo simulations in the clinical practice of scanned proton and carbon ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of beam interaction and transport in matter are increasingly considered as essential tools to support several aspects of radiation therapy. Despite the vast application of MC to photon therapy and scattered proton therapy, clinical experience in scanned ion beam therapy is still scarce. This is especially the case for ions heavier than protons, which pose additional issues like nuclear fragmentation and varying biological effectiveness. In this work, we present the evaluation of a dedicated framework which has been developed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center to provide automated FLUKA MC simulations of clinical patient treatments with scanned proton and carbon ion beams. Investigations on the number of transported primaries and the dimension of the geometry and scoring grids have been performed for a representative class of patient cases in order to provide recommendations on the simulation settings, showing that recommendations derived from the experience in proton therapy cannot be directly translated to the case of carbon ion beams. The MC results with the optimized settings have been compared to the calculations of the analytical treatment planning system (TPS), showing that regardless of the consistency of the two systems (in terms of beam model in water and range calculation in different materials) relevant differences can be found in dosimetric quantities and range, especially in the case of heterogeneous and deep seated treatment sites depending on the ion beam species and energies, homogeneity of the traversed tissue and size of the treated volume. The analysis of typical TPS speed-up approximations highlighted effects which deserve accurate treatment, in contrast to adequate beam model simplifications for scanned ion beam therapy. In terms of biological dose calculations, the investigation of the mixed field components in realistic anatomical situations confirmed the findings of previous groups so far reported only in

  9. Investigations on the quality of treatment plans for carbon ion radiotherapy. Beam delivery systems and radiobiological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillmann, Clarissa

    2014-07-01

    In a worldwide effort in research and development, radiation therapy with carbon ions has evolved to a technologically challenging but clinically very promising treatment option for cancer patients. To further improve patient benefit, optimal use of the physical and biological characteristics of carbon ions as well as of the available technologies should be made. The present thesis investigates the impact of different beam delivery systems and radiobiological models on the quality of treatment plans in carbon ion radiotherapy. The results of the study may provide pointers as to the role and the possible future implementation of the different techniques and radiobiological models in existing and upcoming particle therapy centers.

  10. Charged particle's flux measurement from PMMA irradiated by 80 MeV/u carbon ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Bellini, F; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Muraro, S; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Vitale, E; Voena, C

    2012-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is an emerging technique in cancer therapy that uses beams of charged particles. To meet the improved capability of hadrontherapy in matching the dose release with the cancer position, new dose monitoring techniques need to be developed and introduced into clinical use. The measurement of the fluxes of the secondary particles produced by the hadron beam is of fundamental importance in the design of any dose monitoring device and is eagerly needed to tune Monte Carlo simulations. We report the measurements done with charged secondary particles produced from the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. Charged secondary particles, produced at 90$\\degree$ with respect to the beam axis, have been tracked with a drift chamber, while their energy and time of flight has been measured by means of a LYSO scintillator. Secondary protons have been identified exploiting the energy and time of flight in...

  11. Carbon-ion beam irradiation kills X-ray-resistant p53-null cancer cells by inducing mitotic catastrophe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napapat Amornwichet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To understand the mechanisms involved in the strong killing effect of carbon-ion beam irradiation on cancer cells with TP53 tumor suppressor gene deficiencies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA damage responses after carbon-ion beam or X-ray irradiation in isogenic HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines with and without TP53 (p53+/+ and p53-/-, respectively were analyzed as follows: cell survival by clonogenic assay, cell death modes by morphologic observation of DAPI-stained nuclei, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs by immunostaining of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX, and cell cycle by flow cytometry and immunostaining of Ser10-phosphorylated histone H3. RESULTS: The p53-/- cells were more resistant than the p53+/+ cells to X-ray irradiation, while the sensitivities of the p53+/+ and p53-/- cells to carbon-ion beam irradiation were comparable. X-ray and carbon-ion beam irradiations predominantly induced apoptosis of the p53+/+ cells but not the p53-/- cells. In the p53-/- cells, carbon-ion beam irradiation, but not X-ray irradiation, markedly induced mitotic catastrophe that was associated with premature mitotic entry with harboring long-retained DSBs at 24 h post-irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: Efficient induction of mitotic catastrophe in apoptosis-resistant p53-deficient cells implies a strong cancer cell-killing effect of carbon-ion beam irradiation that is independent of the p53 status, suggesting its biological advantage over X-ray treatment.

  12. Blister formation on tungsten surface by irradiating hydrogen and carbon mixed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mixed carbon and hydrogen beam was irradiated on to tungsten materials. In the case in which the carbon concentration and sample temperature were 0.95% and 653 K, respectively, large numbers and blisters of various sizes were formed. But in a low carbon concentration or high temperature case, no significant blisters were formed. It was found that carbon impurities in the beam play an important role in blister formation. (author)

  13. Precise measurement of single carbon nanocoils using focused ion beam technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasushi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Kunimoto, Ryuji; Iida, Tamio; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Ue, Hitoshi; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a precise resistivity measurement system for quasi-one-dimensional nanomaterials using a focused ion beam. The system enables the resistivity of carbon nanocoils (CNCs) to be measured and its dependence on coil geometry to be elucidated. At room temperature, the resistivity of CNCs tended to increase with coil diameter, while that of artificially graphitized CNCs remained constant. These contrasting behaviors indicate coil-diameter-induced enhancement in structural disorder internal to CNCs. Low-temperature resistivity measurements performed on the CNCs revealed that electron transport through the helical axis is governed by the variable range hopping mechanism. The characteristic temperature in variable range hopping theory was found to systematically increase with coil diameter, which supports our theory that the population of sp2-domains in CNCs decreases considerably with coil diameter.

  14. Generation of oxygen, carbon and metallic ion beams by a compact microwave source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small microwave ion source fabricated from a quartz tube and enclosed externally by a cavity has been operated with different geometries and for various gases in a cw mode. This source has been used to generate oxygen ion beams with energy as low as 5.5 eV. Beam energy spread has been measured to be less than 1 eV. By installing different metal plates on the front extraction electrode, metallic ion beams such as (Be, Cu, Al, etc.) can be produced

  15. Measurement of contact resistance of multiwall carbon nanotubes by electrical contact using a focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have found many potential applications but using CNTs as building blocks for nanoelectronics is still challenging. Various micro- and nanofabrication techniques including focused ion beam (FIB) are therefore being developed for combining CNTs into a nanodevice or to help assess the electrical properties of integrated CNTs. In this paper, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are assembled between a pair of gold (Au) electrodes by dielectrophoresis (DEP). Contact resistances of MWNT-Au and, in particular, MWNT-MWNT are measured with the help of making electrical connections between a MWNT and electrodes by FIB induced tungsten deposition. A method for resistance calculation is presented which considers the contact length of MWNTs. Under the conditions of this research, measured conducting resistances of MWNTs were from 1–10 kΩ/μm and the contact resistance of MWNTs with Au was around 100 kΩ μm. The contact resistance between MWNTs varied depending on contact configurations and could be as low as 50 KΩ. The effect of FIB parameters on the measurement results is discussed.

  16. Measurement of contact resistance of multiwall carbon nanotubes by electrical contact using a focused ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Libao, E-mail: lan@heut.edu.cn [College of Mechanical Engineering, Hebei United University, Tangshan, Hebei, 063009 (China); Friedrich, Craig R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering - Engineering Mechanics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have found many potential applications but using CNTs as building blocks for nanoelectronics is still challenging. Various micro- and nanofabrication techniques including focused ion beam (FIB) are therefore being developed for combining CNTs into a nanodevice or to help assess the electrical properties of integrated CNTs. In this paper, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are assembled between a pair of gold (Au) electrodes by dielectrophoresis (DEP). Contact resistances of MWNT-Au and, in particular, MWNT-MWNT are measured with the help of making electrical connections between a MWNT and electrodes by FIB induced tungsten deposition. A method for resistance calculation is presented which considers the contact length of MWNTs. Under the conditions of this research, measured conducting resistances of MWNTs were from 1-10 k{Omega}/{mu}m and the contact resistance of MWNTs with Au was around 100 k{Omega} {mu}m. The contact resistance between MWNTs varied depending on contact configurations and could be as low as 50 K{Omega}. The effect of FIB parameters on the measurement results is discussed.

  17. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  18. Friction and Wear of Ion-Beam-Deposited Diamondlike Carbon on Chemical-Vapor-Deposited, Fine-Grain Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wu, Richard L. C.; Lanter, William C.

    1996-01-01

    Friction and wear behavior of ion-beam-deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) films coated on chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD), fine-grain diamond coatings were examined in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, and humid air environments. The DLC films were produced by the direct impact of an ion beam (composed of a 3:17 mixture of Ar and CH4) at ion energies of 1500 and 700 eV and an RF power of 99 W. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with hemispherical CVD diamond pins sliding on four different carbon-base coating systems: DLC films on CVD diamond; DLC films on silicon; as-deposited, fine-grain CVD diamond; and carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond on silicon. Results indicate that in ultrahigh vacuum the ion-beam-deposited DLC films on fine-grain CVD diamond (similar to the ion-implanted CVD diamond) greatly decrease both the friction and wear of fine-grain CVD diamond films and provide solid lubrication. In dry nitrogen and in humid air, ion-beam-deposited DLC films on fine-grain CVD diamond films also had a low steady-state coefficient of friction and a low wear rate. These tribological performance benefits, coupled with a wider range of coating thicknesses, led to longer endurance life and improved wear resistance for the DLC deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond in comparison to the ion-implanted diamond films. Thus, DLC deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond films can be an effective wear-resistant, lubricating coating regardless of environment.

  19. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  20. Monte Carlo Calculations of Dose to Medium and Dose to Water for Carbon Ion Beams in Various Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Rochus; Petersen, Jørgen B.B.; Jäkel, Oliver;

    materials exposed to carbon ion beams. The scored track-length fluence spectrum Φi for a given particle i at the energy E, is multiplied with the mass stopping power for target material for calculating Dm . Similarly, Dw is calculated by multiplying the same fluence spectrum with the mass stopping power...... the PSTAR, ASTAR stopping power routines available at NIST1 and MSTAR2 provided by H. Paul et al. 3     Results For a pristine carbon ion beam we encountered a maximum deviation between Dw and Dm up to 8% for bone. In addition we investigate spread out Bragg peak configurations which dilutes the effect......1     Background In clinical practice the quantity dose to water (Dw ) is used as a reference standard for dosimeters and treatment planning systems. Treatment planning systems usually rely on analytical representation of the particle beam, which are normally expressed as dose with respect to water...

  1. Particle beam radiation therapy using carbon ions and protons for oligometastatic lung tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to analyze the efficacy and feasibility of particle beam radiation therapy (PBRT) using carbon ions and protons for the treatment of patients with oligometastatic lung tumors. A total of 47 patients with 59 lesions who underwent PBRT for oligometastatic lung tumors between 2003 and 2011 were included in this study. Patient median age was 66 (range, 39–84) years. The primary tumor site was the colorectum in 11 patients (23.4%), lung in 10 patients (21.3%) and a variety of other sites in 26 patients (55.3%). Thirty-one patients (66%) received chemotherapy prior to PBRT. Thirty-three lesions were treated with 320-MeV carbon ions and 26 were treated with 150- or 210-Mev protons in 1–4 portals. A median total dose of 60 (range, 52.8–70.2) GyE was delivered at the isocenter in 8 (range, 4–26) fractions. The median follow-up time was 17 months. The local control, overall survival and progression-free survival rates at 2 years were 79%, 54 and 27% respectively. PBRT-related toxicities were observed; six patients (13%) had grade 2 toxicity (including grade 2 radiation pneumonitis in 2) and six patients (13%) had grade 3 toxicity. Univariate analysis indicated that patients treated with a biologically equivalent dose of 10 (BED10) <110 GyE10, had a significantly higher local recurrence rate. Local control rates were relatively lower in the subsets of patients with the colorectum as the primary tumor site. No local progression was observed in metastases from colorectal cancer irradiated with a BED10 ≥ 110 GyE10. There was no difference in treatment results between proton and carbon ion therapy. PRBT is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of oligometastatic lung tumors. To further improve local control, high-dose PBRT with a BED10 ≥ 110 GyE10 may be promising. Further investigation of PBRT for lung oligometastases is warranted

  2. Development and characterization of a 2D scintillation detector for quality assurance in scanned carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, A.; Raffaele, L.; Mirandola, A.; Molinelli, S.; Viviani, C.; Spampinato, S.; Ciocca, M.

    2016-04-01

    At the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO Foundation), a two-dimensional high resolution scintillating dosimetry system has been developed and tested for daily Quality Assurance measurements (QA) in carbon ion radiotherapy with active scanning technique, for both single pencil beams and scanned fields produced by a synchrotron accelerator. The detector consists of a thin plane organic scintillator (25×25 cm2, 2 mm thick) coupled with a high spatial resolution CCD camera (0.25 mm) in a light-tight box. A dedicated Labview software was developed for image acquisition triggered with the beam extraction, data post-processing and analysis. The scintillator system was preliminary characterized in terms of short-term reproducibility (found to be within±0.5%), linearity with the number of particles (linear fit χ2 = 0.996) and dependence on particle flux (measured to be < 1.5 %). The detector was then tested for single beam spot measurements (Full Width at Half Maximum and position) and for 6×6 cm2 reference scanned field (determination of homogeneity) for carbon ions with energy from 115 MeV/u up to 400 MeV/u. No major differences in the investigated beam parameters measured with scintillator system and the radiochromic EBT3 reference films were observed. The system allows therefore real-time monitoring of the carbon ion beam relevant parameters, with a significant daily time saving with respect to films currently used. The results of this study show the suitability of the scintillation detector for daily QA in a carbon ion facility with an active beam delivery system.

  3. Tool steel ion beam assisted nitrocarburization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagonel, L.F. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: zagonel@ifi.unicamp.br; Alvarez, F. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    The nitrocarburization of the AISI-H13 tool steel by ion beam assisted deposition is reported. In this technique, a carbon film is continuously deposited over the sample by the ion beam sputtering of a carbon target while a second ion source is used to bombard the sample with low energy nitrogen ions. The results show that the presence of carbon has an important impact on the crystalline and microstructural properties of the material without modification of the case depth.

  4. Tool steel ion beam assisted nitrocarburization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nitrocarburization of the AISI-H13 tool steel by ion beam assisted deposition is reported. In this technique, a carbon film is continuously deposited over the sample by the ion beam sputtering of a carbon target while a second ion source is used to bombard the sample with low energy nitrogen ions. The results show that the presence of carbon has an important impact on the crystalline and microstructural properties of the material without modification of the case depth

  5. Fragmentation in Carbon Therapy Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Charara, Y M

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art Monte Carlo code HETC-HEDS was used to simulate spallation products, secondary neutron, and secondary proton production in A-150 Tissue Equivalent Plastic phantoms to investigate fragmentation of carbon therapy beams. For a 356 MeV/Nucleon carbon ion beam, production of charged particles heavier than protons was 0.24 spallation products per incident carbon ion with atomic numbers ranging from 1 through 5 (hydrogen to boron). In addition, there were 4.73 neutrons and 2.95 protons produced per incident carbon ion. Furthermore, as the incident energy increases, the neutron production rate increases at a rate of 20% per 10 MeV/nucleon. Secondary protons were created at a rate between 2.62-2.87 per carbon ion, while spallation products were created at a rate between 0.20-0.24 per carbon ion.

  6. Radiosensitivity of pimonidazole-unlabelled intratumour quiescent cell population to γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams and boron neutron capture reaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Hirayama, R; Matsumoto, Y; Uzawa, A; Suzuki, M.; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M.; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K.

    2013-01-01

    [Objectives] To detect the radiosensitivity of intratumour quiescent (Q) cells unlabelled with pimonidazole to accelerated carbon ion beams and the boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR). [Methods] EL4 tumour-bearing C57BL/J mice received 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) continuously to label all intratumour proliferating (P) cells. After the administration of pimonidazole, tumours were irradiated with γ-rays, accelerated carbon ion beams or reactor neutron beams with the prior administration of...

  7. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G; Thorn, A

    2013-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  8. Electron spin resonance investigations on ion beam irradiated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESR investigations on single-wall carbon nanotubes irradiated with accelerated protons, helium ions, and neon ions are reported. All spectra were accurately simulated assuming that the resonance line is a convolution of up to 4 lines originating from catalyst residues, amorphous carbon, and electrons delocalized over the conducting domains of nanotubes. The faint line observed in irradiated nanotubes at g > 2.25 was assigned to magnetic impurities. However, there are no sufficient data to confirm that this line is connected to radiation-induced magnetism in carbon nanotubes. The generation of paramagnetic defects due to the bombardment of single-wall carbon nanotubes by accelerated ions is reported. These data correlate with previous Raman and thermal investigations on the same single-wall carbon nanotubes and reveals their sensitivity to ionizing radiation. The temperature dependence of ESR spectra in the range 25-250 K was used to identify the components of the ESR spectra

  9. Carbon ion beam treatment in patients with primary and recurrent sacrococcygeal chordoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhl, Matthias; Jensen, Alexandra; Herfarth, Klaus [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Welzel, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ellerbrock, Malte; Haberer, Thomas [Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Jaekel, Oliver [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Heidelberg (Germany); Heidelberg Institute of Radiation Oncology (HIRO), Heidelberg (Germany); Deutsches Konsortium fuer Translationale Krebsforschung (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the results of high-dose radiation treatment using carbon ion therapy, alone or combined with intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT), in patients with sacral chordoma. Between 2009 and 2012, 56 patients with sacral chordoma were treated in our center. The tumor was located above S3 in 33 patients and in S3 or below in 23 patients. In all, 41 patients received radiation therapy for the primary tumor, while 15 patients were treated for the recurrent tumor. Toxicity was measured using NCI CTCAE v.4.03. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 23 patients were irradiated with carbon ions in combination with photon IMRT, while 33 received carbon ion therapy only. Forty-three patients had a macroscopic tumor at treatment start with a median tumor size (GTV) of 244 ml (range 5-1188 ml). The median total dose was 66 Gy (range 60-74 Gy; RBE). After a median follow-up time of 25 months, the 2- and 3-year local control probability was 76 % and 53 %, respectively. The overall survival rate was 100 %. Treatment for primary tumor and male patients resulted in significant better local control. No higher toxicity occurred within the follow-up time. High-dose photon/carbon ion beam radiation therapy is safe and, especially for primary sacral chordomas, highly effective. A randomized trial is required to evaluate the role of primary definitive hypofractionated particle therapy compared with surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy. (orig.) [German] Evaluierung der Ergebnisse nach hochdosierter Kohlenstoffionentherapie, allein oder in Kombination mit einer intensitaetsmodulierten Photonenbestrahlung (IMRT), bei Patienten mit einem sakralen Chordom. Zwischen 2009 und 2012 wurden 56 Patienten mit sakralen Chordomen in unserem Zentrum behandelt. Der Tumor war bei 33 Patienten oberhalb von S3 und bei 23 Patienten auf Hoehe von S3 oder unterhalb davon lokalisiert. Insgesamt

  10. Ion-beam and microwave-stimulated functionalization and derivatization of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makala, Raghuveer S.

    Derivatizing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with other low-dimensional nanostructures is of widespread interest for creating CNT-based nanocomposites and devices. Conventional routes based on wet-chemical oxidation or hydrophobic adsorption do not allow premeditated control over the location or spatial extent of functionalization. Moreover, aggressive oxidative treatments and agitation in corrosive environments lead to CNT shortening, damage, and incorporation of excess impurity concentrations. Thus, it is imperative to explore and develop alternative functionalization methods to overcome these shortcomings. The work presented in this thesis outlines two such methodologies: one based on focused ion irradiation for siteselective functionalization and the other that employs microwave-stimulation for mild, yet rapid and homogenous CNT functionalization. The utility of 10 and 30 kcV Ga+ focused ion beams (FIB) to thin, slice, weld, and alter the structure and composition at precise locations along the CNT axis is presented. This strategy of harnessing ion-beam-induced defect generation and doping is attractive for modulating chemical and electrical properties along the CNT length, and fabricate CNT-based heterostructures and networks. A novel approach that utilizes focused ion irradiation to site-selectively derivatize preselected segments of CNTs with controlled micro-/nano-scale lateral spatial resolution is demonstrated. Irradiation followed by air-exposure results in functionalized CNT segments ranging from the nanoscopic to the macroscopic scale. The functional moieties are utilized to site-selectively anchor Au nanoparticles, fluorescent nanospheres, an amino acid---lysine, a charge-transfer metalloprotein---azurin, and a photoactive protein---bacteriorhodopsin by means of electrostatic or covalent interactions. This approach is versatile and can be extended to obtaining other molecular moieties and derivatives opening up possibilities for building new types of nano

  11. Investigation of the dosimetric impact of a Ni-Ti fiducial marker in carbon ion and proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction. Fiducial markers based on a removable stent are currently used in image guided radiotherapy. Here it is investigated what the possible dosimetric impact of such a marker could be, if used in proton or carbon ion treatment. Material and methods. The simulations have been done using the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA with its default hadron therapy settings. A 3 cm long stent is approximated in FLUKA by stacking hollow tori. To simulate realistic clinical conditions a field 5 x 5 cm has been used, delivering a 5 cm wide spread out Bragg peak located 5 cm deep for protons and carbon ions. For protons fields mimicking active and passive beam delivery have been investigated. The stent has been arranged perpendicular, turned 45 degrees, and parallel to the beam axis. Results. The position of the 95% dose level shifts for carbon ions 7 mm in proximal direction for the marker perpendicular to the beam and 8 mm if the stent is turned 45 degree for a 1 x 1 cm dose binning on the centre beam axis. For the case where the stent was parallel to beam direction the 95% dose level shifts 26 mm. For active delivered protons, the shift of the 95% dose level is less. The shift for a perpendicular arranged marker is 6 mm, for 45 degrees turned it is 7 mm. For the case where the stent was oriented parallel to the beam, the observed shift is 21 mm. Dose inhomogeneities caused by straggling effects occur only near the distal edge of the field. Conclusions. The results of our investigations show that the Ni-Ti marker has a non negligible impact on the dose distributions for the used radiation types. However if the treatment plan rules out narrow angles between symmetry axis of the stent and the beam direction, this may be compensated.

  12. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grevillot, L.; Stock, M.; Vatnitsky, S.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular. A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design. A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients.

  13. Evaluation of beam delivery and ripple filter design for non-isocentric proton and carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims at selecting and evaluating a ripple filter design compatible with non-isocentric proton and carbon ion scanning beam treatment delivery for a compact nozzle. The use of non-isocentric treatments when the patient is shifted as close as possible towards the nozzle exit allows for a reduction in the air gap and thus an improvement in the quality of scanning proton beam treatment delivery. Reducing the air gap is less important for scanning carbon ions, but ripple filters are still necessary for scanning carbon ion beams to reduce the number of energy steps required to deliver homogeneous SOBP. The proper selection of ripple filters also allows a reduction in the possible transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities that could appear in non-isocentric conditions in particular.A thorough review of existing ripple filter designs over the past 16 years is performed and a design for non-isocentric treatment delivery is presented. A unique ripple filter quality index (QIRiFi) independent of the particle type and energy and representative of the ratio between energy modulation and induced scattering is proposed. The Bragg peak width evaluated at the 80% dose level (BPW80) is proposed to relate the energy modulation of the delivered Bragg peaks and the energy layer step size allowing the production of homogeneous SOBP. Gate/Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations have been validated for carbon ion and ripple filter simulations based on measurements performed at CNAO and subsequently used for a detailed analysis of the proposed ripple filter design.A combination of two ripple filters in a series has been validated for non-isocentric delivery and did not show significant transverse and depth-dose inhomogeneities. Non-isocentric conditions allow a significant reduction in the spot size at the patient entrance (up to 350% and 200% for protons and carbon ions with range shifter, respectively), and therefore in the lateral penumbra in the patients. (paper)

  14. A simulation study of a C-shaped in-beam PET system for dose verification in carbon ion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of hadrons such as carbon ions is being developed for the treatment of cancer. The effectiveness of such a technique is due to the eligibility of charged particles in delivering most of their energy near the end of the range, called the Bragg peak. However, accurate verification of dose delivery is required since misalignment of the hadron beam can cause serious damage to normal tissue. PET scanners can be utilized to track the carbon beam to the tumor by imaging the trail of the hadron-induced positron emitters in the irradiated volume. In this study, we designed and evaluated (through Monte Carlo simulations) an in-beam PET scanner for monitoring patient dose in carbon beam therapy. A C-shaped PET and a partial-ring PET were designed to avoid interference between the PET detectors and the therapeutic carbon beam delivery. Their performance was compared with that of a full-ring PET scanner. The C-shaped, partial-ring, and full-ring scanners consisted of 14, 12, and 16 detector modules, respectively, with a 30.2 cm inner diameter for brain imaging. Each detector module was composed of a 13×13 array of 4.0 mm×4.0 mm×20.0 mm LYSO crystals and four round 25.4 mm diameter PMTs. To estimate the production yield of positron emitters such as 10C, 11C, and 15O, a cylindrical PMMA phantom (diameter, 20 cm; thickness, 20 cm) was irradiated with 170, 290, and 350 AMeV 12C beams using the GATE code. Phantom images of the three types of scanner were evaluated by comparing the longitudinal profile of the positron emitters, measured along the carbon beam as it passed a simulated positron emitter distribution. The results demonstrated that the development of a C-shaped PET scanner to characterize carbon dose distribution for therapy planning is feasible.

  15. Cluster ion beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluster ions can be made by the supercooling due to adiabatic expansion of substances to be vaporized which are ejected from a nozzle. This paper is described on the recent progress of studies concerning the cluster beam. The technique of cluster ion beam has been applied for the studies of thermonuclear plasma, the fabrication of thin films, crystal growth and electronic devices. The density of cluster ion beam is larger than that of atomic ion beam, and the formation of thin films can be easily done in high vacuum. This method is also useful for epitaxial growth. Metallic vapour cluster beam was made by the help of jetting rare gas beam. Various beam sources were developed. The characteristics of these sources were measured and analyzed. (Kato, T.)

  16. Development of long-lived cluster and hybrid carbon stripper foils for high energy, high intensity ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed thin and thick long-lived carbon stripper foils for high energy, high intensity ion beams. The foil thicknesses are about 10 μg/cm2 (cluster foil) and 200 μg/cm2 (hybrid foil) for thin and thick, respectively. The thin foil is made by a controlled DC-arc discharge (CDAD) method, by using the size effect of the carbon particles. The size effect was the difference between the carbon particle sizes emitted from the cathode and the anode electrodes in the DC arc discharge, in which the particle size from the cathode is large (0.3 μmφ) and the other is small (0.003 μmφ). The thin foils composed of large particle size are not mechanically strong, but long-lived under low energy ion bombardment with a 3.2 MeV, 2-3 μA Ne+ beam. The mean lifetime is 900 mC/cm2 in average which corresponds to 25 times longer than that of commercially available standard foils. In this method, the key point in producing long-lived foils is to control the amount of carbon particles ablated from the cathode by adjusting temperature at the cathode emission spot. The thick hybrid carbon foils (multi-layer thickness about 200 μg/cm2) have been developed for use in 800 MeV, H+ ion beam at the Proton Storage Ring (PSR) of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The thick foils are prepared by means of the controlled ACDC arc discharge (CADAD) method, and are mechanically strong. The lifetime measurements of thick foils made by various methods were carried out using 800 MeV, 85-100 μA proton beams in the PSR. The foils made by the CADAD method showed very long lifetime, compared to other foils tested. (author)

  17. Carbon beam extraction with 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Oh, Byung-Hoon; Chang, Dae-Sik; Jeong, Sun-Chan

    2014-02-01

    A 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been made to produce C(4+) beam for using a carbon therapy facility and recently tested at KAERI. Highly charged carbon ions have been successfully extracted. When using only CO2 gas, the beam current of C(4+) was almost 14 μA at 15 kV extraction voltage. To get higher current of the C(4+) beam, while optimizing confinement magnetic field configuration (e.g., axial strengths at minimum and extraction side), gas-mixing (CO2/He), and biased disk were introduced. When the gas mixing ratio of the CO2/He gas is 1:8 at an operational pressure of 5 × 10(-7) mbar and the disk was biased to -150 V relative to the ion source body, the highest current of the C(4+) beam was achieved to be 50 μA, more than three times higher than previously observed only with CO2 gas. Some details on the operating conditions of the ECRIS were discussed. PMID:24593482

  18. Measurement of large angle fragments induced by 400 MeV n-1 carbon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, Andrey; Consiglio, Lucia; De Lellis, Giovanni; Di Crescenzo, Antonia; Lauria, Adele; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Patera, Vincenzo; Sirignano, Chiara; Tioukov, Valeri

    2015-09-01

    The use of carbon ion beams in radiotherapy presents significant advantages when compared to traditional x-ray. In fact, carbon ions deposit their energy inside the human body at the end of their range, the Bragg peak. Unlike x-ray beams, where the energy deposition decreases exponentially inside the irradiated volume, the shape of carbon beams is sharp and focused. Advantages are an increased energy released in the cancer volume while minimizing the irradiation to healthy tissues. Currently, the use of carbon beams is limited by the poor knowledge we have about the effects of the secondary fragments on the irradiated tissues. The secondary particles produced and their angular distribution is crucial to determine the global dose deposition. The knowledge of the flux of secondary particles plays a key role in the real time monitoring of the dose profile in hadron therapy. We present a detector based on nuclear emulsions for fragmentation measurements that performs a sub-micrometric tridimensional spatial resolution, excellent multi-particle separation and large angle track recognition. Nuclear emulsions are assembled in order to realize a hybrid detector (emulsion cloud chamber (ECC)) made of 300 μm nuclear emulsion films alternated with lead as passive material. Data reported here have been obtained by exposing two ECC detectors to the fragments produced by a 400 MeV n-1 12C beam on a composite target at the GSI laboratory in Germany. The ECC was exposed inside a more complex detector, named FIRST, in order to collect fragments with a continuous angular distribution in the range 47°-81° with respect to the beam axis. Results on the angular distribution of fragments as well as their momentum estimations are reported here.

  19. Measurement of large angle fragments induced by 400 MeV n−1 carbon ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of carbon ion beams in radiotherapy presents significant advantages when compared to traditional x-ray. In fact, carbon ions deposit their energy inside the human body at the end of their range, the Bragg peak. Unlike x-ray beams, where the energy deposition decreases exponentially inside the irradiated volume, the shape of carbon beams is sharp and focused. Advantages are an increased energy released in the cancer volume while minimizing the irradiation to healthy tissues. Currently, the use of carbon beams is limited by the poor knowledge we have about the effects of the secondary fragments on the irradiated tissues. The secondary particles produced and their angular distribution is crucial to determine the global dose deposition. The knowledge of the flux of secondary particles plays a key role in the real time monitoring of the dose profile in hadron therapy.We present a detector based on nuclear emulsions for fragmentation measurements that performs a sub-micrometric tridimensional spatial resolution, excellent multi-particle separation and large angle track recognition. Nuclear emulsions are assembled in order to realize a hybrid detector (emulsion cloud chamber (ECC)) made of 300 μm nuclear emulsion films alternated with lead as passive material.Data reported here have been obtained by exposing two ECC detectors to the fragments produced by a 400 MeV n−1 12C beam on a composite target at the GSI laboratory in Germany. The ECC was exposed inside a more complex detector, named FIRST, in order to collect fragments with a continuous angular distribution in the range 47°–81° with respect to the beam axis. Results on the angular distribution of fragments as well as their momentum estimations are reported here. (paper)

  20. Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices

    KAUST Repository

    Batra, Nitin M

    2015-10-09

    The use of electron and ion beam deposition to make devices containing discrete nanostructures as interconnectors is a well-known nanofabrication process. Classically, one-dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been electrically characterized by resorting to these beam deposition methods. While much attention has been given to the interconnectors, less is known about the contacting electrodes (or leads). In particular, the structure and chemistry of the electrode–interconnector interface is a topic that deserves more attention, as it is critical to understand the device behavior. Here, the structure and chemistry of Pt electrodes, deposited either with electron or ion beams and contacted to a CNT, are analyzed before and after thermally annealing the device in a vacuum. Free-standing Pt nanorods, acting as beam-deposited electrode models, are also characterized pre- and post-annealing. Overall, the as-deposited leads contain a non-negligible amount of amorphous carbon that is consolidated, upon heating, as a partially graphitized outer shell enveloping a Pt core. This observation raises pertinent questions regarding the definition of electrode–nanostructure interfaces in electrical devices, in particular long-standing assumptions of metal-CNT contacts fabricated by direct beam deposition methods.

  1. Structural changes of electron and ion beam-deposited contacts in annealed carbon-based electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Nitin M.; Patole, Shashikant P.; Abdelkader, Ahmed; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Deepak, Francis L.; Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2015-11-01

    The use of electron and ion beam deposition to make devices containing discrete nanostructures as interconnectors is a well-known nanofabrication process. Classically, one-dimensional materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been electrically characterized by resorting to these beam deposition methods. While much attention has been given to the interconnectors, less is known about the contacting electrodes (or leads). In particular, the structure and chemistry of the electrode-interconnector interface is a topic that deserves more attention, as it is critical to understand the device behavior. Here, the structure and chemistry of Pt electrodes, deposited either with electron or ion beams and contacted to a CNT, are analyzed before and after thermally annealing the device in a vacuum. Free-standing Pt nanorods, acting as beam-deposited electrode models, are also characterized pre- and post-annealing. Overall, the as-deposited leads contain a non-negligible amount of amorphous carbon that is consolidated, upon heating, as a partially graphitized outer shell enveloping a Pt core. This observation raises pertinent questions regarding the definition of electrode-nanostructure interfaces in electrical devices, in particular long-standing assumptions of metal-CNT contacts fabricated by direct beam deposition methods.

  2. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  3. Intense heavy ion beam-induced temperature effects in carbon-based stripper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the future FAIR facility, reliably working solid carbon stripper foils are desired for providing intermediate charge states to SIS18. With the expected high beam intensities, the foils experience enhanced degradation and limited lifetime due to severe radiation damage, stress waves, and thermal effects. This work presents systematic measurements of the temperature of different carbon-based stripper foils (amorphous, diamond-like, and carbon-nanotube based) exposed to 4.8 MeV/u U, Bi, and Au beams of different pulse intensities. Thermal and spectroscopic analyses were performed by means of infrared thermography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The resulting temperature depends on the foil thickness and strongly increases with increasing pulse intensity and repetition rate. (author)

  4. Characterization of nanometer-scale porosity in reservoir carbonate rock by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Bijoyendra; Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Mitra, Sushanta K; Vick, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    Sedimentary carbonate rocks are one of the principal porous structures in natural reservoirs of hydrocarbons such as crude oil and natural gas. Efficient hydrocarbon recovery requires an understanding of the carbonate pore structure, but the nature of sedimentary carbonate rock formation and the toughness of the material make proper analysis difficult. In this study, a novel preparation method was used on a dolomitic carbonate sample, and selected regions were then serially sectioned and imaged by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting series of images were used to construct detailed three-dimensional representations of the microscopic pore spaces and analyze them quantitatively. We show for the first time the presence of nanometer-scale pores (50-300 nm) inside the solid dolomite matrix. We also show the degree of connectivity of these pores with micron-scale pores (2-5 μm) that were observed to further link with bulk pores outside the matrix. PMID:22214656

  5. Induction of apoptosis in murione spleen lymphocytes using carbon ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the capacity of heavy ions to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes, mice have been irradiated with accelerated carbon ions (95 MeV/nucleon) at doses ranging from 0.1 to 4 Gy. Their spleens were removed 24 h later and gently dissociated to prepare a single cell suspension. Mononuclear cells were then maintained in culture at 37oC, and the occurrence of apoptosis in these cells was analysed 24 h later. Lymphocytes were also irradiated in vitro, in the presence of Ac-DEVD-CHO, a potent caspase-3 and -7 inhibitor. Results from three experiments performed at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL, Caen, France) are reported here. They indicate that carbon ions induce a marked, dose-dependent, reduction of the spleen weight and cellularity. However, in sharp contrast with spleen cells prepared from X-ray irradiated mice, only a slight increase of apoptosis is evidenced in cultured lymphocytes from mice irradiated with heavy ions. The significance of such results is discussed. So far, few data exist concerning the biological effects of heavy ions, in particular their capacity to induce apoptosis in lymphocytes; the present study provides useful clues for further investigations. (author)

  6. Formation of nanoscale carbon structures in the surface layer of metals under the impact of high intensity ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remnev, G.E., E-mail: remnev@hvd.tpu.ru [High-Voltage Research Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2a Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Uglov, V.V., E-mail: uglov@bsu.by [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Shymanski, V.I. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220030 (Belarus); Pavlov, S.K. [High-Voltage Research Institute at Tomsk Polytechnic University, 2a Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634028 (Russian Federation); Kuleshov, A.K. [Belarusian State University, 4 Nezavisimosti Ave., Minsk 220030 (Belarus)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Carbide phases in metals were formed by high-intense pulsed ion beam (HPIB) impact. • Tungsten and titanium carbides are characterized by nanoscale dimensions. • Carbides formation in surface layer provides its hardening. - Abstract: This work represents the results of phase composition and the mechanical properties of tungsten and titanium after high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HPIB) treatment. It was shown that nanoscale carbide particles are formed under the HPIB influence in the surface layers of metals. Raising the pulse number results in increase of volume fraction of the carbide phases. The microhardness is 1.5–2 times more than the initial value and wear resistance of the metals improves in response to alloying of tungsten and titanium with carbon atoms accompanied by the formation of carbides.

  7. Ion beam analysis of tungsten layers in EUROFER model systems and carbon plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ström, Petter; Petersson, Per; Rubel, Marek; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Brezinsek, Sebastijan; Kreter, Arkadi; Unterberg, Bernhard; Sergienko, Gennady; Sugiyama, Kazuyoshi

    2016-03-01

    The tungsten enriched surface layers in two fusion-relevant EUROFER steel model samples, consisting of an iron-tungsten mixture exposed to sputtering by deuterium ions, were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and medium energy ion scattering. Exposure conditions were the same for the two samples and the total amount of tungsten atoms per unit area in the enriched layers were similar (2 · 1015 and 2.4 · 1015 atoms/cm2 respectively), despite slightly different initial atomic compositions. A depth profile featuring exponential decrease in tungsten content towards higher depths with 10-20 at.% of tungsten at the surface and a decay constant between 0.05 and 0.08 Å-1 was indicated in one sample, whereas only the total areal density of tungsten atoms was measured in the other. In addition, two different beams, iodine and chlorine, were employed for elastic recoil detection analysis of the deposited layer on a polished graphite plate from a test limiter in the TEXTOR tokamak following experiments with tungsten hexafluoride injection. The chlorine beam was preferred for tungsten analysis, mainly because it (as opposed to the iodine beam) does not give rise to problems with overlap of forward scattered beam particles and recoiled tungsten in the spectrum.

  8. Hypofractionated carbon ion therapy delivered with scanned ion beams for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma – feasibility and clinical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photon-based radiation therapy does currently not play a major role as local ablative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Carbon ions offer distinct physical and biological advantages. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak, precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Furthermore, carbon ions have an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photons. A total of six patients with one or more HCC-lesions were treated with carbon ions delivered by the raster-scanning technique according to our clinical trial protocol. Diagnosis of HCC was confirmed by histology or two different imaging modalities (CT and MRI) according to the AASLD-guidelines. Applied fractionation scheme was 4 × 10 Gy(RBE). Correct dose application was controlled by in-vivo PET measurement of β + −activity in the irradiated tissue shortly after treatment. Patients were observed for a median time period of 11.0 months (range, 3.4 – 12.7 months). Imaging studies showed a partial response in 4/7 lesions and a stable disease in 3/7 lesions in follow-up CT- and MRI scans. Local control was 100%. One patient with multifocal intrahepatic disease underwent liver transplantation 3 months after carbon ion therapy. During radiotherapy and the follow-up period no severe adverse events have occurred. We report the first clinical results of patients with HCC undergoing carbon ion therapy using the rasterscanning technique at our institution. All patients are locally controlled and experienced no higher toxicities in a short follow-up period. Further patients will be included in our prospective Phase-I clinical trial PROMETHEUS-01 (NCT01167374)

  9. Equilibrium thickness of carbon target interacting with nitrogen and neon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu. A.; Novikov, N. V.; Teplova, Ya. A.

    2016-04-01

    The method for calculation of the target thickness which is required for the formation of equilibrium charge distribution of ions is proposed. The description of nonequilibrium processes is based on empirical estimations of charge-exchange cross sections, taking the density effect for solids into account. The variation of the average charge and the width of the nonequilibrium charge distribution as a function of the target thickness is analyzed. The results of calculations for nitrogen and neon ions in carbon are compared with experimental data.

  10. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... to the surface where the beam enters) are examined. For each plan the minimum,  maximum and the dose averaged LET of the PTV is calculated. The numbers are translated to OER using several sets of data found in literature for various cell lines. Results: We find a strong dependence of the dose average LET and OER...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  11. Compilation of erosion yields of metal-doped carbon materials by deuterium impact from ion beam and low temperature plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balden, M., E-mail: Martin.Balden@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Starke, P. [Lehrstuhl fuer Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Garcia-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Adelhelm, C.; Sauter, P.A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lopez-Galilea, I.; Ordas, N. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Fernandez, J.M. Ramos; Escandell, M. Martinez [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, University of Alicante, E-03690 Alicante (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    The erosion yield by deuterium impact was determined for various doped carbon-based materials. Ion beam bombardment with 30 and 200 eV at elevated temperatures (600-850 K) and low temperature plasma exposure with 30 eV ion energy ({approx}7 x 10{sup 20} ions/m{sup 2}s) and about 170 times higher thermal atomic deuterium flux at 300 K and 630 K were performed. The total yield of fine-grain graphites doped with 4 at.% Ti and Zr is reduced by a factor of 4 for 30 and 200 eV D impact at elevated temperatures at D fluences above 10{sup 24} m{sup -2} compared to undoped graphite. Extensive carbide particle loss can be excluded up to fluences of {approx}10{sup 25} m{sup -2}.

  12. Different effects of carbon ion beams and X-rays on clonogenic survival and DNA repair in human pancreatic cancer stem-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The effects of a carbon ion beam and X-rays on human pancreatic cancer stem-like cells were examined from the point of view of clonogenic survival and DNA repair. Materials and methods: Human pancreatic cancer stem-like cells were treated with and without carbon ion and X-ray irradiation, and then colony, spheroid and tumor formation assays as well as γH2AX foci formation assay were performed. Results: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of a carbon ion beam relative to X-ray for the MIA PaCa-2 and BxPc-3 cells at the D10 values were 1.85–2.10. The ability for colony, spheroid formation, and tumorigenicity from cancer stem-like CD44+/CD24+ cells is significantly higher than that from non-cancer stem-like CD44−/CD24−cells. FACS data showed that CD44+/CD24+ cells were more highly enriched after X-rays compared to carbon ion irradiation at isoeffective doses. The RBE values for the carbon ion beam relative to X-ray at the D10 levels for CD44+/CD24+ cells were 2.0–2.19. The number of γH2AX foci in CD44−/CD24− cells was higher than that of CD44+/CD24+ cells after irradiation with either X-ray or carbon ion beam. The number of γH2AX foci in CD44+/CD24+ cells was almost the same in the early time, but it persists significantly longer in carbon ion beam irradiated cells compared to X-rays. Conclusions: Carbon ion beam has superior potential to kill pancreatic cancer stem cell-like cells, and prolonged induction of DNA damage might be one of the pivotal mechanisms of its high radiobiological effects compared to X-rays.

  13. Multiply charged ion beams from solid substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mVINIS Ion Source has enabled us to obtain multiply charged ion beams from gases as well as from solid materials. The solid substance ion beams were produced by using two techniques: a) the evaporation of metals by using the inlet system based on mini-oven and b) the metal-ions-from volatile-compounds method (MIVOC) by using the modified gas inlet system. In the production of high current stable ion beams of solids with relatively high melting points (over 1000 deg) were made great efforts. The B3+ ion beam current of over 300 μA is one of the most intensive beams extracted until now. The obtained multiply charged ion beam spectra of solid substances (B, Fe and Zn) are presented as well as some of the corresponding experimental results achieved during the modification of polymers, carbon materials and fullerenes. (author)

  14. Carbon fiber composite targets for nuclear fusion technology: a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Magni, S; Milani, M; Tatti, F

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fiber composite (CFC) targets are investigated by a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) in a joint project aiming at the development of robust divertors in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These mockups are exposed to a plasma that simulates the off-normal thermal loads foreseen for ITER and display a rich, puzzling impact scenario. Morphological elements are identified at the exposed surface and beneath it, and are examined in order to point out the relevant processes involved. Each technique adopted is discussed and evaluated. PMID:18200678

  15. Experimental study of the water-to-air stopping power ratio of monoenergetic carbon ion beams for particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D.; Gemmel, A.; Jäkel, O.; Parodi, K.; Rietzel, E.

    2012-06-01

    Reference dosimetry with ionization chambers requires a number of chamber-specific and beam-specific calibration factors. For carbon ion beams, IAEA report TRS-398 yields a total uncertainty of 3% in the determination of the absorbed dose to water, for which the biggest contribution arises from the water-to-air stopping power ratio (sw, air), with an uncertainty of 2%. The variation of (sw, air) along the treatment field has been studied in several Monte Carlo works presented over the last few years. Their results were, in all cases, strongly dependent on the choice of mean ionization potentials (I-values) for air and water. A smaller dependence of (sw, air) with penetration depth was observed. Since a consensus on Iw, air and Iair has not yet been reached, the validity of such studies for clinical use cannot be assessed independently. Our approach is based on a direct experimental measurement of water-equivalent thicknesses of different air gaps at different beam energies. A theoretical expression describing the variation of the stopping power ratio with kinetic energy, sw,air(E), was derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula and fit to the measured data, yielding a coherent pair of Iw and Iair values with Iair/Iw = 1.157 ± 0.023. Additionally, the data from five different beam energies were combined in an average value of sw,air = 1.132 ± 0.003 (statistical) ± 0.003 (variation over energy range), valid for monoenergetic carbon ion beams at the plateau area of the depth dose distribution. A detailed uncertainty analysis was performed on the data, in order to assess the limitations of the method, yielding an overall standard uncertainty below 1% in sw,air(E). Therefore, when properly combined with the appropriate models for the fragment spectra, our experimental work can contribute to narrow the uncertainty margins currently in use in absorbed dose to water determination for dosimetry of carbon ion beam radiotherapy.

  16. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  17. D-methionine as a protector for heavy ion radiation-induced oral mucositis. Evaluation of RBE of carbon-ion beams for epithelial thickness on mouse tongues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate if D-methionine, the dextro-isomer of the common amino acid L-methionine, can prevent oral mucositis resulting from heavy ion irradiation during treatment for head and neck cancers. For the first study, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon-ion beams for epithelial thickness on mouse tongues was evaluated. The head of female C3H mice, 8 weeks old, were irradiated by five fractionated doses of carbon ion beams (290 MeV/u) or 150 kV X-rays to induce oral mucositis (ulcers on tongue). Six days after the last irradiation, mice were sacrificed. Excised tongues were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The thickness of the lingual epithelium was measured. The RBE of 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) (290 MeV/u) for epithelium on mouse tongues after fractionated doses is 1.82. It was almost the equivalent value as that for gut crypt survivals reported by enormous studies. (author)

  18. Geant4 simulation for a study of a possible use of carbon ion pencil beams for the treatment of ocular melanomas with the active scanning system at CNAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, E.; Piersimoni, P.; Riccardi, C.; Rimoldi, A.; Tamborini, A.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study a possible use of carbon ion pencil beams (delivered with active scanning modality) for the treatment of ocular melanomas at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO). The promising aspect of carbon ions radiotherapy for the treatment of this disease lies in its superior relative radio-biological effectiveness (RBE). The Monte Carlo (MC) Geant4 10.00 toolkit was used to simulate the complete CNAO extraction beamline, with the active and passive components along it. A human eye modeled detector, including a realistic target tumor volume, was used as target. Cross check with previous studies at CNAO using protons allowed comparisons on possible benefits on using such a technique with respect to proton beams. Experimental data on proton and carbon ion beams transverse distributions were used to validate the simulation.

  19. Establishment of Ion Beam Technology for Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have begun to investigate the characteristics of ion beams for inducing mutation from a molecular to a phenotypic level. Mutation induction rates were investigated using known visible Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes, such as glabra (gl) and transparent testa (tt). These observations indicated that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were twenty-fold higher than those induced by electrons. Molecular analyses showed that half of the mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. The common feature of mutations induced by ion beams is the deletion of several bases. It is possible that ion beams induce a limited number of large and irreparable DNA lesions, resulting in the production of null mutations that show a new mutant phenotype. Novel mutants, such as those that are UV-B resistant, have serrated petals and sepals, or lack anthocyanins, have been induced by 220 MeV carbon ions in Arabidopsis. The mutated genes were found to encode novel and key proteins for each process. In chrysanthemum and carnation, several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants that have never been produced by Gamma-rays or X-rays were induced by carbon ions. These observations indicate that the characteristics of mutations induced by ion beams are high frequency and broad spectrum, and produce novel mutants. Many breeding programmes are using mutants induced by ion beams and successfully producing useful new crop varieties. (author)

  20. Current State Of Proton And Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy At The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center (HIBMC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Fujii, Osamu; Terashima, Kazuki; Mima, Masayuki; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Ryohei; Hishikawa, Yoshio; Abe, Mitsuyuki

    2011-06-01

    HIBMC is the world's first facility to be able to use both proton (PRT) and carbon-ion radiotherapy (CiRT). The medically dedicated synchrotron can accelerate protons up to 230 MeV and carbon ions up to 320 MeV. From April 2001 to March 2010, the facility treated 3275 patients, with 2487 patients treated using PRT and 788 using CiRT. Particle radiotherapy was delivered to patients suffering from malignant tumors originating in the head and neck (502 patients), lungs (330), liver (539), prostate (1283), and the bone & soft tissue (130). The clinical results are as follows: (1) H & N tumors: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rates of patients with olfactory neuroblastoma, mucoepidermoid cancer, adenoid cystic cancer, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma was 100%, 86%, 78%, 78%, 66%, and 62%, respectively. (2) Lung cancer: For all 80 patients, the 3-year OS rate was 75% (Stage IA: 74%; Stage IB: 76%) and local control (LC) rate was 82% (IA: 87%; IB: 77%). Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity was observed in only 1 patient. These results are comparable to those obtained by surgery, and indicate proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy are safe and effective for stage I lung cancer. (3) Liver cancer: The 5-year LC rate for 429 tumor patient was 90%, and the 5-year OS rate for 364 patients was 38%. These results seem equivalent to those obtained by surgery or radio-frequency ablation. (4) Prostate cancer: In 290 patients treated by proton radiotherapy, five patients died from other disease in the median follow-up period of 62 months. Biochemical disease-free survival and OS rate at 5 years was 88.2% and 96.5%, respectively. Our proton radiotherapy showed excellent OS and biochemical disease-free survival rates with minimum late morbidities. PRT VS CiRT: From our retrospective analysis, it seems that there is no significant difference in the LC and OS rate in H&N, lung and liver cancer between PRT and CiRT.

  1. Current State Of Proton And Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy At The Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center (HIBMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIBMC is the world's first facility to be able to use both proton (PRT) and carbon-ion radiotherapy (CiRT). The medically dedicated synchrotron can accelerate protons up to 230 MeV and carbon ions up to 320 MeV. From April 2001 to March 2010, the facility treated 3275 patients, with 2487 patients treated using PRT and 788 using CiRT. Particle radiotherapy was delivered to patients suffering from malignant tumors originating in the head and neck (502 patients), lungs (330), liver (539), prostate (1283), and the bone and soft tissue (130). The clinical results are as follows: (1) H and N tumors: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rates of patients with olfactory neuroblastoma, mucoepidermoid cancer, adenoid cystic cancer, adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma was 100%, 86%, 78%, 78%, 66%, and 62%, respectively. (2) Lung cancer: For all 80 patients, the 3-year OS rate was 75%(Stage IA: 74%; Stage IB: 76%) and local control (LC) rate was 82%(IA: 87%; IB: 77%). Grade 3 pulmonary toxicity was observed in only 1 patient. These results are comparable to those obtained by surgery, and indicate proton therapy and carbon-ion therapy are safe and effective for stage I lung cancer. (3) Liver cancer: The 5-year LC rate for 429 tumor patient was 90%, and the 5-year OS rate for 364 patients was 38%. These results seem equivalent to those obtained by surgery or radio-frequency ablation. (4) Prostate cancer: In 290 patients treated by proton radiotherapy, five patients died from other disease in the median follow-up period of 62 months. Biochemical disease-free survival and OS rate at 5 years was 88.2% and 96.5%, respectively. Our proton radiotherapy showed excellent OS and biochemical disease-free survival rates with minimum late morbidities. PRT VS CiRT: From our retrospective analysis, it seems that there is no significant difference in the LC and OS rate in H and N, lung and liver cancer between PRT and CiRT.

  2. Mutation induction by gamma-rays and carbon ion beam irradiation in banana (Musa spp.): a study with an emphasis on the response to Black sigatoka disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-rays and carbon ion beam irradiation methods were applied to study critical doses, genetic variability and the response to Black sigatoka disease. 'Cavendish Enano', 'Williams', 'Orito' and 'FHIA-01' cultivars of banana were studied. Both gamma-rays and carbon ion beam irradiation methods had different biological effects when banana explants were exposed to them. In both methods, increased dose caused increased mortality. 'FHIA-01' tolerated high doses of gamma-rays but was susceptible to high doses of carbon ion beam irradiation. The results suggest that the response in 'FHIA-01' can be explored using other dose intervals between 150 and 300 Gy. Weight and height were also reduced drastically when high doses of gamma-rays and carbon ion beams were applied. The LD50 of cultivars 'FHIA-01' and 'Orito' revealed high sensitivity to both gamma-rays and carbon ion beams. DNA deletion in 'FHIA-01' occurred by using gamma-rays at doses of 200 and 300 Gy, suggesting that 'FHIA-01' is definitely a promising cultivar with a high sensitivity response to gamma-ray exposure, and that there is a high chance of improving its fruit quality by mutation induction. Sigmoid drooping leaf, a putative mutation of 'FHIA-01', was generated. This mutation is heritable as mother plant and sucker showed the same characteristics. Future research could be conducted on the relationship of leaf shape to fruit quality and production. Hexaploid cells were detected by flow cytometry (five plants in 'Cavendish Enano' and one in 'Williams'), signifying that chromosome duplication can be induced by carbon ion beams. Variation in the leaves such as being abnormal, double, long, rudimentary, spindled and yellow spotted leaf was visible, suggesting that long-term chronic irradiation (gamma-rays) directly affects active cell division at the meristem level, resulting in severe damage or even death of the meristems. During the juglone toxin experiment on gamma-ray-irradiated plants, 20 plants were

  3. Study on suppression mechanism of electron emission from Mo grid coated with carbon film by dual ion beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is problematic that electrons are emitted from the Mo grid of pulsed-controlled grid traveling wave tubes, caused by the contamination of cathode evaporation material, i.e. BaO. Some studies show that a Mo grid coated with carbon can greatly suppress grid electron emission. However, the reason for the electron emission suppression is not completely clear. To understand the mechanism of electron emission suppression of a BaO/C/Mo system, carbon films were prepared on Mo substrates at room temperature by means of DIBSD (dual ion beam sputtering deposition), and BaO layers were coated by using a chemical method. Post-annealing was conducted under a flowing nitrogen ambient at 700 .deg. C for 1.5 hours. The structure of the as-deposited carbon films was evaluated by TEM, AES and Raman spectroscopy. The annealed samples, the BaO/ Mo and BaO/C/Mo systems, were analyzed by XPS. The results suggest that the chemical reaction between BaO and C at high temperature eliminates the concentrations of Ba or BaO on the surface of the C/Mo system. It can be believed that the high work function material used as the grid surface coating and elimination of BaO on its surface have a critical effect on grid electron emission suppression. Moreover, the carbon film was characterized by density, homogeneity and high adhesion, owing to the features of DIBSD.

  4. Radiosensitivity and Induction of Apoptosis by High LET Carbon Ion Beam and Low LET Gamma Radiation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu Ghorai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer treatment with high LET heavy ion beam, especially, carbon ion beam (12C, is becoming very popular over conventional radiotherapy like low LET gamma or X-ray. Combination of Poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor with xenotoxic drugs or conventional radiation (gamma or X-ray is the newer approach for cancer therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the radiosensitivity and induction of apoptosis by high LET 12C and low LET gamma radiation in HeLa and PARP-1 knocked down cells. We did comet assay to detect DNA breaks, clonogenic survival assay, and cell cycle analysis to measure recovery after DNA damage. We measured apoptotic parameters like nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. DNA damage, cell killing, and induction of apoptosis were significantly higher for 12C than gamma radiation in HeLa. Cell killing and apoptosis were further elevated upon knocking down of PARP-1. Both 12C and gamma induced G2/M arrest although the 12C had greater effect. Unlike the gamma, 12C irradiation affects DNA replication as detected by S-phase delay in cell cycle analysis. So, we conclude that high LET 12C has greater potential over low LET gamma radiation in killing cells and radiosensitization upon PARP-1 inhibition was several folds greater for 12C than gamma.

  5. The use of multi-gap resistive plate chambers for in-beam PET in proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Watts, David; Sauli, Fabio; Amaldi, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    On-line verification of the delivered dose during proton and carbon ion radiotherapy is currently a very desirable goal for quality assurance of hadron therapy treatment plans. In-beam positron emission tomography (ibPET), which can provide an image of the β+ activity induced in the patient during irradiation, which in turn is correlated to the range of the ion beam, is one of the modalities for achieving this goal. Application to hadron therapy requires that the scanner geometry be modified from that which is used in nuclear medicine. In particular, PET detectors that allow a sub-nanosecond time-of-flight (TOF) registration of the collinear photons have been proposed. Inclusion of the TOF information in PET data leads to more effective PET sensitivity. Considering the challenges inherent in the ibPET technique, namely limited β+ activity and the effect of biological washout due to blood flow, TOF-PET technologies are very attractive. In this context, the TERA Foundation is investigating the use of resistiv...

  6. Determination of the size distribution of carbon and trace elements in suspended particulate matter by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The size distribution of carbon and trace elements in suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected by a low pressure impactor has been investigated. Sampling was carried out at Setagaya, a typical residential area located southwest of Tokyo, Japan. The low pressure impactor has a cascade design with 12-stage collection plates, allowing the collection of size-fractionated SPM. It operates at a flow rate of 20 l/min. Elemental composition was determined by ion beam analysis, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). PIXE provided data for elements from Al to U while RBS supplied information on elements lighter than Al such as C and O. The analysis is fast, non-destructive and requires no sample preparation. It is very suitable for determination of elements in SPM. In this paper we discuss size distribution and element concentrations in SPM together with their weekly and seasonal variations

  7. Preparation of diamond-like carbon and boron nitirde films by high-intensity pulsed ion beam deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rej, D.J.; Davis, H.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Remnev, G.E. [Tomsk Polytechnic Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Nuclear Physics Institute.] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Intense ion beams (300-keV C{sup +}, O{sup +}, and H{sup +}, 20--30 kA, 50 to 400-ns pulsewidth, up to 0.3-Hz repetition rate) were used to prepare diamond-like carbon (DLC) and boron nitride (BN) films. Deposition rates of up to 25{plus_minus}5 nm/pulse were obtained with instantaneous rates exceeding 1 mm/s. Most films were uniform, light brown, translucent, and nonporous with some micron-size particulates. Raman and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy indicated the presence of DLC. The films possessed favorable electron field-emission characteristics desirable for cold-cathode displays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and transmission electron diffraction (TED) revealed that the C films contained diamond crystals with 25 to 125-nm grain size. BN films were composed of hexagonal, cubic and wurtzite phases.

  8. Protective Sliding Carbon-Based Nanolayers Prepared by Argon or Nitrogen Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Vlcak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure and the surface properties of samples coated by carbon-based nanolayer were investigated in an effort to increase the surface hardness and reduce the coefficient of friction of the Ti6Al4V alloy. Protective carbon-based nanolayers were fabricated by argon or nitrogen ion-beam assisted deposition at ion energy of 700 eV on Ti6Al4V substrates. The Raman spectra indicated that nanolayers had a diamond-like carbon character with sp2 rich bonds. The TiC and TiN compounds formed in the surface area were detected by X-ray diffraction. Nanoscratch tests showed increased adhesion of a carbon-based nanolayer deposited with ion assistance in comparison with a carbon nanolayer deposited without ion assistance. The results showed that argon ion assistance leads to greater nanohardness than a sample coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with nitrogen ion assistance. A more than twofold increase in nanohardness and a more than fivefold decrease in the coefficient of friction were obtained for samples coated by a carbon-based nanolayer with ion assistance, in comparison with the reference sample.

  9. Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Rui; Taddei, Phillip J.; Fitzek, Markus M.; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy charged particle beam radiotherapy for cancer is of increasing interest because it delivers a highly conformal radiation dose to the target volume. Accurate knowledge of the range of a heavy charged particle beam after it penetrates a patient’s body or other materials in the beam line is very important and is usually stated in terms of the water equivalent thickness (WET). However, methods of calculating WET for heavy charged particle beams are lacking. Our objective was to test several...

  10. Carbon-ion beams effectively induce growth inhibition and apoptosis in human neural stem cells compared with glioblastoma A172 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise in the treatment of glioblastoma, an aggressive X-ray–resistant brain tumor. However, since glioblastoma cells show a highly invasive nature, carbon-ion (C-ion) irradiation of normal tissues surrounding the tumor is inevitable. Recent studies have revealed the existence of neural stem cells in the adult brain. Therefore, the damaging effect of C-ion beams on the neural stem cells has to be carefully considered in the treatment planning of CIRT. Here, we investigated the growth and death mode of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and glioblastoma A172 cells after X-ray or C-ion beam irradiation. The X-ray dose resulting in a 50% growth rate (D50) was 0.8 Gy in hNSCs and 3.0 Gy in A172 cells, while the D50 for C-ion beams was 0.4 Gy in hNSCs and 1.6 Gy in A172 cells; the relative biological effectiveness value of C-ion beams was 2.0 in hNSCs and 1.9 in A172 cells. Importantly, both X-rays and C-ion beams preferentially induced apoptosis, not necrosis, in hNSCs; however, radiation-induced apoptosis was less evident in A172 cells. The apoptosis-susceptible nature of the irradiated hNSCs was associated with prolonged upregulation of phosphorylated p53, whereas the apoptosis-resistant nature of A172 cells was associated with a high basal level of nuclear factor kappa B expression. Taken together, these data indicate that apoptosis is the major cell death pathway in hNSCs after irradiation. The high sensitivity of hNSCs to C-ion beams underscores the importance of careful target volume delineation in the treatment planning of CIRT for glioblastoma. (author)

  11. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  12. Mutation induction by ion beams in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    The effect of ion beams such as C, He, and Ne ions was investigated on the mutation induction in plants with the expectation that ion beams of high linear energy transfer (LET) can frequently produce large DNA alternation such as inversion, translocation and large deletion rather than point mutation. Mutation frequency was investigated using Arabidopsis visible phenotype loci and was 8 to 33 fold higher for 220 MeV carbon ions than for electrons. Mutation spectrum was investigated on the flower color of chrysanthemum cv to find that flower mutants induced by ion beams show complex and stripe types rather than single color. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to investigate DNA alteration of mutations. In conclusion, the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are 1) high frequency, 2) broad mutation spectrum, and 3) novel mutants. (S. Ohno)

  13. Rationale for carbon ion therapy in high-grade glioma based on a review and a meta-analysis of neutron beam trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The standard treatment of high-grade glioma is still unsatisfactory: the 2-year survival after radiotherapy being only 10-25%. A high linear energy transfer (Let) ionising radiotherapy has been used to overcome tumour radioresistance. An overview of the field is needed to justify future prospective controlled studies on carbon ion therapy. Materials and methods: A meta-analysis of clinical trials on neutron beam therapy and a literature review of clinical investigations on light ion use in high-grade glioma were carried out. Results: Four randomized controlled trials on neutron beam therapy were retained. The meta-analysis showed a non-significant 6% increase of two-year mortality (Relative risk [R.R.] 1.06 [0.97-1.15]) in comparison with photon therapy. Two phase I/II trials on carbon and neon ion therapy reported for glioblastoma 10% and 31% two-year overall survivals and 13.9 and 19.0 months median survivals, respectively. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that neutron beam therapy does not improve the survival of high-grade glioma patients while there is no definitive conclusion yet regarding carbon therapy. The ballistic accuracy and the improved biological efficacy of carbon ions renew the interest in prospective clinical trials on particle beam radiotherapy of glioma and let us expect favourable effects of dose escalation on patients survival. (author)

  14. Establishment of ion beam breeding technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have first begun to investigate the characteristics of ion beams for inducing mutation from at molecular level to phenotypic level. Mutation induction rates were investigated using visible known Arabidopsis mutant phenotypes such as glabra(gl) and transparent testa(tt), indicating that mutation frequencies induced by carbon ions were 17-fold higher than those by electrons. Molecular analysis showed that half of mutants induced by ion beams possessed large DNA alterations, while the rest had point-like mutations. Both mutations induced by ion beams have common feature that deletion of several bases are predominantly induced. It is plausible that ion beams induce limited number of large and irreparable DNA damage, resulting in effectively producing null mutation that shows new mutant phenotype. On the other hands, novel mutants such as UV-B resistant, serrated petals and sepals, anthocyaninless, etc. have been induced by 220 MeV carbon ions in Arabidopsis. Those genes were also found to encode novel and key proteins for each mechanism. In chrysanthemum and carnation, several kinds of flower-color and flower-form mutants that have never produced by gamma rays or X rays were also induced by carbon ions. It is, therefore, indicated that the characteristics of ion beams for the mutation induction are high mutation frequency, broad mutation spectrum, and producing novel mutants. From these basic researches, recently a lot of practical studies on mutation breeding are being actively carried out and successfully producing useful new varieties. (author)

  15. Carbon-ion beams induce production of an immune mediator protein, high mobility group box 1, at levels comparable with X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray radiotherapy activates tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and increases in the serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) induced by X-ray irradiation play a pivotal role in activating anti-tumor immunity. Here, we examined whether carbon-ion beams, as well as X-rays, can induce HMGB1 release from human cancer cell lines. The study examined five human cancer cell lines: TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr. The proportion of cells surviving X- or carbon-ion beam irradiation was assessed in a clonogenic assay. The D10, the dose at which 10% of cells survive, was calculated using a linear–quadratic model. HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants were assessed by an ELISA. The D10 dose for X-rays in TE2, KYSE70, A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells was 2.1, 6.7, 8.0, 4.8 and 7.1 Gy, respectively, whereas that for carbon-ion beams was 0.9, 2.5, 2.7, 1.8 and 3.5 Gy, respectively. X-rays and carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of A549, NCI-H460 and WiDr cells at 72 h post-irradiation with a D10 dose. Furthermore, irradiation with X-rays or carbon-ion beams significantly increased HMGB1 levels in the culture supernatants of all five cell lines at 96 h post-irradiation. There was no significant difference in the amount of HMGB1 induced by X-rays and carbon-ion beams at any time-point (except at 96 h for NCI-H460 cells); thus we conclude that comparable levels of HMGB1 were detected after irradiation with iso-survival doses of X-rays and carbon-ion beams. (author)

  16. Ion Beam Extraction by Discrete Ion Focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An apparatus (900) and methods are disclosed for ion beam extraction. In an implementation, the apparatus includes a plasma source (or plasma) (802) and an ion extractor (804). The plasma source is adapted to generate ions and the ion extractor is immersed in the plasma source to extract a fraction......) in the space-charge surrounding the ion extractor. The strongly curved potential distribution focuses the extracted ions towards an opening (814) on a surface of the biased electrode thereby resulting in an ion beam....... of the generated ions. The ion extractor is surrounded by a space charge (810) formed at least in part by the extracted ions. The ion extractor includes a biased electrode (806) forming an interface with an insulator (808). The interface is customized to form a strongly curved potential distribution (812...

  17. Applications of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle accelerator was invented almost seven decades ago with the primary purpose to break the atomic nucleus. The broader inspiration, however, was to understand the structure of matter and the nature around us. Since then the accelerators have evolved enormously in terms of types, intricacies and sizes. They continue to play, primarily, the same role now also but have necessitated, over the years, invention and development of a large number of technologies that are being driven to cutting edge to meet the demands of scientists to carry their researches to unprecedented frontiers in various branches of science. While the first ever accelerator was built to break a 'simple' nucleus of lithium atom, the accelerators of today are trying to recreate the 'big bang' in the laboratory. They have been serving the scientists over the decades to discover new particles and fields. Charged particle accelerators are very commonly used to generate secondary beams for basic research and applications. The secondary beams include neutrons, antiprotons, mesons, neutrinos etc. In view of the experimentalists needs, accelerators have been developed both for electrons as well as ions. While the basic technologies do not differ much, the two varieties offer their own challenges. For each variety, the accelerator can be of linear type or circular type. Generally, a given accelerator accelerates either electrons or ions. In this report we shall be concerned only with the ion accelerators - more specifically about their applications. The accelerators most commonly used to accelerate ions are Cockroft Walton accelerator, Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, Van-de- Graaff accelerator, linear accelerator (linac), cyclotron and synchrotron. In many situations they may operate in combination and, rarely, there exists hybrid variety also. (author)

  18. Effects of a 2-step culture with cytokine combinations on megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis from carbon-ion beam-irradiated human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether the continuous treatment of two cytokine combinations is effective in megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells exposed to heavy ion beams, the effects of a 2-step culture by a combination of recombinant human interleukin-3 (IL-3)+stem cell factor (SCF)+thrombopoietin (TPO), which just slightly protected against carbon-ion beam-induced damages, and a combination of IL-3+TPO, which selectively stimulated the differentiation of the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to megakaryocytes and platelets, were examined. CD34+-hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells isolated from the human placental and umbilical cord blood were exposed to carbon-ion beams (linear energy transfer (LET)=50 keV/μm) at 2 Gy. These cells were cultured under three cytokine conditions. The number of megakaryocytes, platelets and hematopoietic progenitors were assessed using a flow cytometer and a clonogenic assay at 14 and 21 days after irradiation, respectively. However, the efficacy of each 2-step culture was equal or lower than that of using the IL-3+SCF+TPO combination alone and the 2-step culture could not induce megakaryocytes and platelets from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells exposed to high LET-radiation such as carbon-ion beams. Therefore, additional cytokines and/or hematopoietic promoting compounds might be required to overcome damage to hematopoietic cells by high LET radiation. (author)

  19. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Kim, V.; Schlitt, B.; Barth, W.; Groening, L.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Piriz, A. R.; Stöhlker, Th.; Vormann, H.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4 MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy-ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy-ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  20. Rapid phase-correlated rescanning irradiation improves treatment time in carbon-ion scanning beam treatment under irregular breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Takuji

    2016-05-01

    To shorten treatment time in pencil beam scanning irradiation, we developed rapid phase-controlled rescanning (rPCR), which irradiates two or more isoenergy layers in a single gating window. Here, we evaluated carbon-ion beam dose distribution with rapid and conventional PCR (cPCR). 4 dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) imaging was performed on 12 subjects with lung or liver tumors. To compensate for intrafractional range variation, the field-specific target volume (FTV) was calculated using 4DCT within the gating window (T20–T80). We applied an amplitude-based gating strategy, in which the beam is on when the tumor is within the gating window defined by treatment planning. Dose distributions were calculated for layered phase-controlled rescanning under an irregular respiratory pattern, although a single 4DCT data set was used. The number of rescannings was eight times. The prescribed doses were 48 Gy(RBE)/1 fr (where RBE is relative biological effectiveness) delivered via four beam ports to the FTV for the lung cases and 45 Gy(RBE)/2 fr delivered via two beam ports to the FTV for the liver cases. In the liver cases, the accumulated dose distributions showed an increased magnitude of hot/cold spots with rPCR compared with cPCR. The results of the dose assessment metrics for the cPCR and rPCR were very similar. The D 95, D max, and D min values (cPCR/rPCR) averaged over all the patients were 96.3  ±  0.9%/96.0  ±  1.2%, 107.3  ±  3.6%/107.1  ±  2.9%, and 88.8  ±  3.2%/88.1  ±  3.1%, respectively. The treatment times in cPCR and rPCR were 110.7 s and 53.5 s, respectively. rPCR preserved dose conformation under irregular respiratory motion and reduced the total treatment time compared with cPCR.

  1. Radioactive ion beams at SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive ion beam facility SPIRAL, presently under construction, will be based on the very high intensity heavy-ion beams (96AMeV at 6kW from He to Ar) at GANIL, France. The facility will produce radioactive ion beams using the ISOL method and a permanent magnet ECRIS which will allow for the production of multiple charged radioactive ions. The beam will be accelerated by a K=265 compact cyclotron and delivered into the existing experimental areas. The first tests for the production of radioactive ion beams have been undertaken with the test bench separator SIRa. A description of the facility, including the first results for the production of radioactive ion beams and perspectives are given. ((orig.))

  2. Radioactive ion beams at Spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive ion beam facility SPIRAL, presently under construction, will be based on the very high intensity heavy-ion beams (96A MeV at 6kW from He to Ar) at GANIL, France. The facility will produce radioactive ion beams using the ISOL method and a permanent magnet ECRIS which will allow for the production of multiple charged radioactive ions. The beam will be accelerated by a K = 265 compact cyclotron and delivered into the existing experimental areas. The first tests for the production of radioactive ion beams has been undertaken with the test bench separator SIRa. A description of the facility, including the first results for the production of radioactive ion beams and perspectives are given. (authors). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Ion-optically driven depth compensation for ion beam tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam delivery system for scanned carbon ion beam radiotherapy at GSI has been extended in research mode to irradiate moving targets. For beam tracking, the ion beam is adapted laterally as well as in range corresponding to the target's three dimensional (3D) motion. A beam tracking system with a motorized double wedge system for fast and accurate range adaptation has been developed. In addition to the current range adaptation system a much faster method for online energy modulation is being investigated where a fine focused ion beam is dynamically positioned, controlled by fast dipole magnets, on a small static wedge shaped absorber within the beam line. Experiments were performed at the therapy beam line to study the beam shift from central axis by the first dipole magnet up to the maximum limit where the beam can be deflected back to central axis by the second dipole magnet. Beam profiles were measured at different locations of the beam delivery system. The particle transmission was measured as well at the target position. Experiments were supported by Monte Carlo simulations for energy variation studies and for assessing the influence on beam profiles using MOCADI code

  4. Ion beam assisted film growth

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, T

    2012-01-01

    This volume provides up to date information on the experimental, theoretical and technological aspects of film growth assisted by ion beams.Ion beam assisted film growth is one of the most effective techniques in aiding the growth of high-quality thin solid films in a controlled way. Moreover, ion beams play a dominant role in the reduction of the growth temperature of thin films of high melting point materials. In this way, ion beams make a considerable and complex contribution to film growth. The volume will be essential reading for scientists, engineers and students working in thi

  5. Cleaning techniques for intense ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation of high power lithium ion beams on the SABRE (1TW) and PBFA-X (20 TW) accelerators have been limited by the parallel acceleration of contaminant ions. during the beam pulse lithium is replaced by protons and carbon ions. This replacement is accompanied by rapid impedance decay of the diode. The contaminant hydrogen and carbon is believed to originate from impurity molecules on the surface and in the bulk of the lithium ion source and its substrate material. Cleaning techniques designed to remove hydrocarbons from the ion source have been employed with some success in test stand experiments and on SABRE. The test stand experiments have shown that a lithium fluoride (LiF) ion source film can accrue dozens of hydrocarbon monolayers on its surface while sitting in vacuum. Application of 13.5 MHz RF discharge cleaning with 90% Ar/10% O2 can significantly reduce the surface hydrocarbon layers on the LiF film. On SABRE, combinations of RF discharge cleaning, anode heating, layering gold between the source film (LiF) and its substrate, and cryogenic cathode cooling produced an increase by a factor of 1.5--2 in the quantity of high energy lithium in the ion beam. A corresponding decrease in protons and carbon ions was also observed. Cleaning experiments on PBFA-X are underway. New designs of contamination resistant films and Li ion sources are currently being investigated

  6. Overview of light-ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This overview of light-ion beam therapy covers the following topics: a history of hadron therapy, light-ion beam therapy, beam fragmentation, the biological rationale for the clinical use of light ions, the physical parameters of clinical beams, distributions of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and linear energy transfer (LET), verification of treatment planning and delivery using charged particle beams, ion beam research in space biology, clinical trials using light ions, and the relationship between the present report and other IAEA and ICRU reports. There are plans for four national centres using light ions, in Germany, France, Austria, and Italy. There is an increasing interest in further initiatives and more countries are expressing interest in creating national projects, in particular Sweden, the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain and the UK. In Japan, another carbon-ion therapy facility project has started, and three additional facilities are planned. There are other initiatives for light-ion facilities in several locations in the USA, in China, and in Korea. (author)

  7. Fast ignition by quasimonoenergetic ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honrubia J.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of quasimonoenergetic ion beams for fast ignition (FI of fusion targets is investigated. Lithium, carbon, aluminium and vanadium ions have been considered here to determine the optimal kinetic energy for each ion type. Our calculations show that the ignition energies of those beams impinging on a standard fuel configuration are similar. However, they are obtained for very different ion energies. Assuming that the ions can be focused onto 10 μm spots, a new irradiation scheme that reduces substantially the ignition energies is proposed. The combination of using intermediate ions, such as 5.5 GeV vanadium, and the new irradiation scheme allows one to reduce the number of ions required for ignition by roughly three orders of magnitude when compared with the standard proton FI scheme.

  8. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Q

    2003-01-01

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements...

  9. Ions beams. Theory and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a presentation of the physical phenomena implied by ions beams (stopping power, defects creation), the implementation of ions beams is described (production, separation in terms of masses, experimental devices). Then, two use modes of ions beams are distinguished: analysis and synthesis. When the ion beam is destined to analysis, there are two possible experiments types. In the first case, the sample to be studied is the source of ions production and the analysis consists to separate in mass the ions extracted; this method is destructive. In the second case, the analysis results of the interaction between the light ions beam and a target: the sample. According to the nature of the analysis, different types of detectors can be used to quantify the energy of the particles diffused by the sample (fluorescence, back-scattering of particles). When ions beams are used as tools of controlled alterations of samples, several parameters (energy, flux, dose, nature of the beam, target temperature) are adjustable following to the searched objective (defects creation, ordering, synthesis of new phases or surfaces alteration). The typical experimental devices used for beams production (scheme of sources principle) and the environment of the sample are described in terms of the applications studied. (O.M.)

  10. Ion Beam Modification of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averback, B; de la Rubia, T D; Felter, T E; Hamza, A V; Rehn, L E

    2005-10-10

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, IBMM 2004, and is published by Elsevier-Science Publishers as a special issue of Nuclear Instruments and Methods B. The conference series is the major international forum to present and discuss recent research results and future directions in the field of ion beam modification, synthesis and characterization of materials. The first conference in the series was held in Budapest, Hungary, 1978, and subsequent conferences were held every two years at locations around the Globe, most recently in Japan, Brazil, and the Netherlands. The series brings together physicists, materials scientists, and ion beam specialists from all over the world. The official conference language is English. IBMM 2004 was held on September 5-10, 2004. The focus was on materials science involving both basic ion-solid interaction processes and property changes occurring either during or subsequent to ion bombardment and ion beam processing in relation to materials and device applications. Areas of research included Nanostructures, Multiscale Modeling, Patterning of Surfaces, Focused Ion Beams, Defects in Semiconductors, Insulators and Metals, Cluster Beams, Radiation Effects in Materials, Photonic Devices, Ion Implantation, Ion Beams in Biology and Medicine including New Materials, Imaging, and Treatment.

  11. Charge equilibrium of a laser-generated carbon-ion beam in warm dense matter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gauthier, M.; Chen, S.N.; Lévy, A.; Audebert, P.; Blancard, C.; Ceccotti, T.; Cerchez, M.; Doria, D.; Floquet, V.; Lamour, E.; Peth, C.; Romagnani, L.; Rozet, J.-P.; Scheinder, M.; Shepherd, R.; Toncian, T.; Vernhet, D.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, Marco; Faussurier, G.; Fuchs, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 13 (2013), "135003-1"-"135003-5". ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : fast heavy-ions * stopping powers * energy-loss * states * solids * distributions * surface * plasma * foil Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  12. Equipment for ion beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment has been designed to extend the scope of control of ion beam flux for an intensive ion beam source used for plasma injection in magnetic vessels. The control equipment is connected to the electromagnet power supply. A consumption regulator is fitted in the operating gas supply to the hollow cathode of the ion source. A circuit is also included for discharge voltage maintenance consisting of a control element and a discharge voltage pick-up. (M.D.). 1 fig

  13. Micromachining using focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focused ion beam (FIB) systems prove to be useful precision micromachining tools for a wide variety of applications. This micromachining technique includes scanning ion microscopy (SIM), micromachining by physical sputtering, and the ion-beam induced surface chemistry for etching and deposition. This technique is applied to image and modify IC's, to micromechanical applications, to modify the tip shape of tungsten emitters, and to prepare cross sections of selected regions for inspection in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). (orig.)

  14. Characterization of ion-beam-induced carbon deposition on WC-Co hard metal by microhardness, scratch and abrasive wear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like ion-beam-deposited carbon (i-C) layers were obtained on WC-Co cemented carbide using a mass-separated 12C beam at an energy of 500 eV and a deposition rate of 3 A s-1. The mechanical properties of these layers were probed using microhardness and scratch tests and abrasive wear measurements. All these tests revealed that the depositions possess an extremely high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate. In particular, a hardness of 75 GPa was obtained, which is considerably higher than that found on i-C films involving hydrogen. (orig.)

  15. Neutral beam production using negative ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1978-06-14

    Techniques for producing intense negative ion beams are discussed. These beams are required for intense neutral beam development at energies greater than 150 keV. Handling, acceleration, and stripping of negative ion beams are described.

  16. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future. PMID:20192368

  17. Effect of O2+, H2++ O2+, and N2++ O2+ ion-beam irradiation on the field emission properties of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of O2+, H2++ O2+, and N2++ O2+ ion-beam irradiation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) films on the chemical and electronic properties of the material is reported. The CNTs were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique (CVD) on silicon TiN coated substrates previously decorated with Ni particles. The Ni decoration and TiN coating were successively deposited by ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and afterwards the nanotubes were grown. The whole deposition procedure was performed in situ as well as the study of the effect of ion-beam irradiation on the CNTs by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman scattering, field-effect emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and field emission (FE) measurements were performed ex situ. The experimental data show that: (a) the presence of either H2+ or N2+ ions in the irradiation beam determines the oxygen concentration remaining in the samples as well as the studied structural characteristics; (b) due to the experimental conditions used in the study, no morphological changes have been observed after irradiation of the CNTs; (c) the FE experiments indicate that the electron emission from the CNTs follows the Fowler-Nordheim model, and it is dependent on the oxygen concentration remaining in the samples; and (d) in association with FE results, the XPS data suggest that the formation of terminal quinone groups decreases the CNTs work function of the material.

  18. Longitudinal compression of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the longitudinal compression of ion beams which is necessary in some designs of drivers intended to realize inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions. Taking space-charge forces in the beams into account, two compression schemes are investigated: the first preserves the longitudinal phase-space area of the beams, and the second allows an increase of the phase-space area. The compression-system parameters are optimized for an example of a driver for inertial thermonuclear fusion by heavy ions with an energy of 10 MJ and with a pulse length of 25 ns on the target

  19. Study of the time and space distribution of $\\beta^+$ emitters from $80\\ \\mega\\electronvolt/$u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    CERN Document Server

    Agodi, C; Cirrone, G A P; Collamati, F; Cuttone, G; De Lucia, E; De Napoli, M; Di Domenico, A; Faccini, R; Ferroni, F; Fiore, S; Gauzzi, P; Iarocci, E; Marafini, M; Mattei, I; Paoloni, A; Patera, V; Piersanti, L; Romano, F; Sarti, A; Sciubba, A; Voena, C

    2012-01-01

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear $511\\ \\kilo\\electronvolt$ photons produced by positrons annihilation from $\\beta^+$ emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the $511\\ \\kilo\\electronvolt$ photons emitted after the interactions of a $80\\ \\mega\\electronvolt / u$ fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the $\\beta^+$ rate was parametrized and the dominance of $^{11}C$ emitters over the other species ($^{13}N$, $^{15}O$, $^{14}O$) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating $\\beta^+$ emitters $A_0=(10.3\\pm0.7)\\cdot10^{-3}$. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from $\\beta^+$ emitters was also meas...

  20. Study of the time and space distribution of {beta}{sup +} emitters from 80MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation on PMMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agodi, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cirrone, G.A.P. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Collamati, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Cuttone, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); De Napoli, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud dell' INFN, Catania (Italy); Di Domenico, A.; Faccini, R.; Ferroni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Fiore, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Gauzzi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Iarocci, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l' Ingegneria, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M., E-mail: michela.marafini@roma1.infn.it [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma Tre Universita di Roma, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Paoloni, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); and others

    2012-07-15

    Proton and carbon ion therapy is an emerging technique used for the treatment of solid cancers. The monitoring of the dose delivered during such treatments and the on-line knowledge of the Bragg peak position is still a matter of research. A possible technique exploits the collinear 511keV photons produced by positrons annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters created by the beam. This paper reports rate measurements of the 511keV photons emitted after the interactions of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) of INFN, with a poly-methyl methacrylate target. The time evolution of the {beta}{sup +} rate was parametrized and the dominance of {sup 11}C emitters over the other species ({sup 13}N, {sup 15}O, {sup 14}O) was observed, measuring the fraction of carbon ions activating {beta}{sup +} emitters to be (10.3{+-}0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}. The average depth in the PMMA of the positron annihilation from {beta}{sup +} emitters was also measured, D{sub {beta}{sup +}}=5.3{+-}1.1mm, to be compared to the expected Bragg peak depth D{sub Bragg}=11.0{+-}0.5mm obtained from simulations.

  1. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  2. Measurements of Dose-Averaged Linear Energy Transfer Distributions in Water Using CR-39 Plastic Nuclear Track Detector for Therapeutic Carbon Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Takeshi, Himukai; Kase, Yuki; Ochiai, Keiko; Komori, Masataka; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Kanai, Tatsuaki

    2005-12-01

    A CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector was used as a linear energy transfer (LET) detector for carbon ion radiotherapy. We compared dose-averaged LET distributions in water obtained using the CR-39 detector for a monoenergetic beam and spread-out Bragg peak beam by calculations using the one-dimensional heavy-ion transport code used in the current heavy-ion treatment planning. We confirmed that the CR-39 detector could measure the high LET particles that are dominant contributors to dose-averaged LET. On the other hand, the CR-39 result was overestimated in the tail region of the distal edge in depth-dose distributions, due to its detection limit for lower LET particles. However, physical dose in the region is quite small. Namely, the effect of this difference on the biological dose distribution is also small. These results demonstrate that the CR-39 detector is a useful detector for measuring the LET distribution in carbon ion radiotherapy.

  3. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm2 in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 μm. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  4. Structural properties and surface wettability of Cu-containing diamond-like carbon films prepared by a hybrid linear ion beam deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (Cu-DLC) films were deposited on Si/glass substrate by a hybrid ion beam deposition system. The Cu concentration (0.1–39.7 at.%) in the film was controlled by varying the sputtering current. The microstructure and composition of Cu-DLC films were investigated systematically. The surface topography, roughness and surface wettability of the films were also studied. Results indicated that with increasing the Cu concentration, the water contact angle of the films changed from 66.8° for pure carbon film to more than 104.4° for Cu-DLC films with Cu concentration larger than 24.4 at.%. In the hydrophilic region, the polar surface energy decreased from 30.54 mJ/m2 for pure carbon film to 2.48 mJ/m2 for the film with Cu 7.0 at.%. - Highlights: • Cu-containing diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a hybrid ion beam system. • Cu-containing DLC films exhibited a wide range of water contact angle. • The water contact angles vary with the surface energies and surface roughness

  5. Ion beam surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Nak Bae; Woo, Hyung Joo; Kim, Joon Kon; Kim, Gi Dong; Choi, Han Woo; Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Shim, Sang Kwun [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    Light elements in semiconductors, superconductors, magnetic or optical storage devices and surface hardened metals may have serious effects on the electrical, chemical and physical properties. Nevertheless, it is extremely difficult to quantitatively analyze their contents with conventional surface analysis tools like SIMS, AES, ESCA. The ERD-TOF (Elastic Recoil Detection - by Time Of Flight) method has recently been developed in a few prominent accelerator laboratories and proved to be very useful for such quantitative depth profiling of light elements. This project aims to construct an ERD-TOF system which can provide routine service of light elements analysis of thin films. The TOF spectrometer used in the system can be also utilized in HIRBS (Heavy Ion Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) for the better resolution and sensitivity than the conventional He RBS in certain cases. The works performed this year are: 1) Optimization of the ERD-TOF system for the practical use. 2) Construction of a separate HIRBS line. 3) Development of the analysis computer program and improvement of the data acquisition system. 4) Construction of the new vacuum chamber with an automatic target controller. The optimization has been done by considering such parameters as mass resolution, depth resolution, accessible depth, detection sensitivity. All these parameters have strong correlations with the sort, energy and dose of the beams to be used, the detection angle, target angle and flight length. In a practical analysis system, one cannot change the system parameter every time although there exists only one optimum condition for one measurement. Therefore, a condition is deduced which is applicable to majority of general semiconductor samples. For the practical analysis service a separate HIRBS line has been constructed. The line use the same TOF spectrometer as ERD line but the shape of the chambers are slightly modified. A computer program DoERD is written for the rapid analysis

  6. Diagnosing light ion beam diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture begins with a discussion of diagnostics in ion-beam diodes. This will include electromagnetic measurements, measurements of the electron cloud, and measurements of anode plasmas. A few minutes will be spent on diagnostics of distributed ion sources required for one class of ion diodes, the plasma-filled versions, which require high-density, highly ionized sources of very uniform plasma. The measurements of the beam characteristics will then be discussed. This will be broken into two regions; the region near the diode where diagnostics are generally extensions of those used in other fields; and the region near focus where new diagnostics have been developed

  7. Risk of simulated microgravity on testicular injury induced by high-LET carbon-ion beams in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the impact of simulated microgravity on acute injury induced by low doses of carbon ions in male reproductive organs of mice, and determined alterations in spermatogenic function and expression levels of apoptotic factors in mice following exposure to acute irradiation after 7 days of simulated microgravity. The results demonstrated that significant reductions in spermatozoa, primary spermatocytes and spermatogonia, and increased globular cells in seminiferous tubule and pro-apoptotic proteins were observed in the group exposed to over 0.4 Gy irradiation. Collectively, the data suggest that lesions inflicted by simulated microgravity are not markedly modified by lower doses of irradiation (0.2 Gy) in mouse testis compared to the control group. However, testicular impairments were markedly evident in the group exposed to higher doses of carbon ions plus simulated microgravity, which may be due at least in part to elevated apoptosis initiated by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in germ cells. (authors)

  8. Molecular characterization of microbial mutations induced by ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan); Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)], E-mail: ichida@riken.jp; Matsuyama, Tomoki [Cellular Biochemistry Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi [Accelerator Operation Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hayashi, Yoriko [Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Fukunishi, Nobuhisa [Accelerator Operation Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Abe, Tomoko [Accelerator Applications Research Group, Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Koba, Takato [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Matsudo, Chiba 271-8510 (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    A positive selection system for gene disruption using a sucrose-sensitive transgenic rhizobium was established and used for the molecular characterization of mutations induced by ion beam irradiations. Single nucleotide substitutions, insertions, and deletions were found to occur in the sucrose sensitivity gene, sacB, when the reporter line was irradiated with highly accelerated carbon and iron ion beams. In all of the insertion lines, fragments of essentially the same sequence and of approximately 1188 bp in size were identified in the sacB regions. In the deletion lines, iron ions showed a tendency to induce larger deletions than carbon ions, suggesting that higher LET beams cause larger deletions. We found also that ion beams, particularly 'heavier' ion beams, can produce single gene disruptions and may present an effective alternative to transgenic approaches.

  9. Simulation study on light ions identification methods for carbon beams from 95 to 400 MeV/A

    CERN Document Server

    Salvador, S; Fontbonne, J M; Dudouet, J; Colin, J; Cussol, D

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been performed in order to evaluate the efficiencies of several light ions identification techniques. The detection system was composed with layers of scintillating material to measure either the deposited energy or the time-of-flight of ions produced by nuclear reactions between 12C projectiles and a PMMA target. Well known techniques such as (DELTA) E--Range, (DELTA) E--E--ToF and (DELTA)E--E are presented and their particle identification efficiencies are compared one to another regarding the generated charge and mass of the particle to be identified. The simulations allowed to change the beam energy matching the ones proposed in an hadron therapy facility, namely from 95 to 400 MeV/A.

  10. Carbon beams, production and acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Installation, test and working conditions of a new negative-ion facility of the Salazar EN tandem are briefly described. Carbon is the material used for the test and the heavy ion stripping phenomenon is reviewed. (author)

  11. High energy ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations have been made on the parameters which can be used to control the mixing profiles, and the width of intermixed layers in film-substrate systems being irradiated by high energy heavy ion beams. The samples were irradiated by ion beams of Au, Cu, and Si with energies of 1.5 to 3 MeV. Typical examples of the RBS spectra are presented and discussions are made on the extent of contribution of binary collisions on the interfacial mixing. The experimental and simulation results show that the interfacial mixing is dominated by the binary collisions. (author)

  12. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    CERN Document Server

    Honrubia, J J

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects such as ion beam divergence not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point have been analysed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  13. Adenovirus-mediated FIR demonstrated TP53-independent cell-killing effect and enhanced antitumor activity of carbon-ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Matsushita, K; Rahmutulla, B; Yamada, S; Shimada, H; Kubo, S; Hiwasa, T; Matsubara, H; Nomura, F

    2016-01-01

    Combination therapy of carbon-ion beam with the far upstream element-binding protein (FBP)-interacting repressor, FIR, which interferes with DNA damage repair proteins, was proposed as an approach for esophageal cancer treatment with low side effects regardless of TP53 status. In vivo therapeutic antitumor efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus (E1 and E3 deleted adenovirus serotype 5) encoding human FIR cDNA (Ad-FIR) was demonstrated in the tumor xenograft model of human esophageal squamous cancer cells, TE-2. Bleomycin (BLM) is an anticancer agent that introduces DNA breaks. The authors reported that Ad-FIR involved in the BLM-induced DNA damage repair response and thus applicable for other DNA damaging agents. To examine the effect of Ad-FIR on DNA damage repair, BLM, X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation were used as DNA damaging agents. The biological effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy used with carbon-ion irradiation are more expansive than low-LET conventional radiotherapy, such as X-rays or γ rays. High LET radiotherapy is suitable for the local control of tumors because of its high relative biological effectiveness. Ad-FIR enhanced BLM-induced DNA damage indicated by γH2AX in vitro. BLM treatment increased endogenous nuclear FIR expression in TE-2 cells, and P27Kip1 expression was suppressed by TP53 siRNA and BLM treatment. Further, Ad-FIRΔexon2, a dominant-negative form of FIR that lacks exon2 transcriptional repression domain, decreased Ku86 expression. The combination of Ad-FIR and BLM in TP53 siRNA increased DNA damage. Additionally, Ad-FIR showed synergistic cell toxicity with X-ray in vitro and significantly increased the antitumor efficacy of carbon-ion irradiation in the xenograft mouse model of TE-2 cells (P=0.03, Mann-Whitney's U-test) and was synergistic with the sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) value of 1.15. Therefore, Ad-FIR increased the cell-killing activity of the carbon-ion beam that avoids late

  14. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if

  15. Effects of beam interruption time on tumor control probability in single-fractionated carbon-ion radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaniwa, T.; Kanematsu, N.; Suzuki, M.; Hawkins, R. B.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy treatment plans are designed on the assumption that the beams are delivered instantaneously, irrespective of actual dose-delivery time structure in a treatment session. As the beam lines are fixed in the vertical and horizontal directions at our facility, beam delivery is interrupted in multi-field treatment due to the necessity of patient repositioning within the fields. Single-fractionated treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is such a case, in which four treatment fields in multiple directions are delivered in one session with patient repositioning during the session. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the period of dose delivery, including interruptions due to patient repositioning, on tumor control probability (TCP) of NSCLC. All clinical doses were weighted by relative biological effectiveness (RBE) evaluated for instantaneous irradiation. The rate equations defined in the microdosimetric kinetic model (MKM) for primary lesions induced in DNA were applied to the single-fractionated treatment of NSCLC. Treatment plans were made for an NSCLC case for various prescribed doses ranging from 25 to 50 Gy (RBE), on the assumption of instantaneous beam delivery. These plans were recalculated by varying the interruption time τ ranging from 0 to 120 min between the second and third fields for continuous irradiations of 3 min per field based on the MKM. The curative doses that would result in a TCP of 90% were deduced for the respective interruption times. The curative dose was 34.5 Gy (RBE) for instantaneous irradiation and 36.6 Gy (RBE), 39.2 Gy (RBE), 41.2 Gy (RBE), 43.3 Gy (RBE) and 44.4 Gy (RBE) for τ = 0 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min, respectively. The realistic biological effectiveness of therapeutic carbon-ion beam decreased with increasing interruption time. These data suggest that the curative dose can increase by 20% or more compared to the planned dose if the

  16. Comparison between computed and measured response of silicon strip detectors exposed to carbon, calcium and ruthenium ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of silicon strip detectors exposed to energetic heavy ions in the energy interval from 0.3 up to 1.4 GeV/u has been measured at the SIS accelerator at GSI. The energy deposit spectra are characterized by their mean values and widths. The carbon data, at various energies, agree within the accuracy of the measurements with the computed response of the detector. The measured widths of the energy deposit spectra for ruthenium are narrower than those calculated by the appropriate Vavilov distributions. Energetic δ-rays overflowing from the silicon detector is considered as a possible explanation for the disagreement between computed and measured widths

  17. Comparison between computed and measured response of silicon strip detectors exposed to carbon, calcium and ruthenium ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codino, A. E-mail: antonio.codino@codino-pc.pg.infn.it; Plouin, F.; Bellachioma, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Checcucci, B.; Federico, C.; Lanfranchi, M.; Maffei, P.; Miozza, M.; Vocca, H

    2003-09-01

    The response of silicon strip detectors exposed to energetic heavy ions in the energy interval from 0.3 up to 1.4 GeV/u has been measured at the SIS accelerator at GSI. The energy deposit spectra are characterized by their mean values and widths. The carbon data, at various energies, agree within the accuracy of the measurements with the computed response of the detector. The measured widths of the energy deposit spectra for ruthenium are narrower than those calculated by the appropriate Vavilov distributions. Energetic {delta}-rays overflowing from the silicon detector is considered as a possible explanation for the disagreement between computed and measured widths.

  18. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Qing

    2003-03-10

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O{sub 2}{sup +}, BF{sub 2}{sup +}, P{sup +} etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF{sub 2}{sup +}, over 90% of O{sub 2}{sup +} and P{sup +} have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He{sup +} beam is as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O{sub 2}{sup +} ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O{sub 2}{sup +} ions with the dose of 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features

  19. Maskless, resistless ion beam lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the dimensions of semiconductor devices are scaled down, in order to achieve higher levels of integration, optical lithography will no longer be sufficient for the needs of the semiconductor industry. Alternative next-generation lithography (NGL) approaches, such as extreme ultra-violet (EUV), X-ray, electron-beam, and ion projection lithography face some challenging issues with complicated mask technology and low throughput. Among the four major alternative NGL approaches, ion beam lithography is the only one that can provide both maskless and resistless patterning. As such, it can potentially make nano-fabrication much simpler. This thesis investigates a focused ion beam system for maskless, resistless patterning that can be made practical for high-volume production. In order to achieve maskless, resistless patterning, the ion source must be able to produce a variety of ion species. The compact FIB system being developed uses a multicusp plasma ion source, which can generate ion beams of various elements, such as O2+, BF2+, P+ etc., for surface modification and doping applications. With optimized source condition, around 85% of BF2+, over 90% of O2+ and P+ have been achieved. The brightness of the multicusp-plasma ion source is a key issue for its application to maskless ion beam lithography. It can be substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. Measured brightness of 2 keV He+ beam is as high as 440 A/cm2 · Sr, which represents a 30x improvement over prior work. Direct patterning of Si thin film using a focused O2+ ion beam has been investigated. A thin surface oxide film can be selectively formed using 3 keV O2+ ions with the dose of 1015 cm-2. The oxide can then serve as a hard mask for patterning of the Si film. The process flow and the experimental results for directly patterned poly-Si features are presented. The formation of shallow pn-junctions in bulk silicon wafers by scanning focused P+ beam implantation at

  20. The dynamics of radiation damage by focused ion beams in the ion beam synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics were covered: direct ion implantation, focused ion beams, cobalt silicides (CoSi2), RBS, ion beam synthesis, CoSi2 ion beam synthesis by focused ion beams in Si(111), germanium FIB implantation in Si(111), radiation damage at FIB implantation, models and simulation. (WL)

  1. Development of digital reconstructed radiography software at new treatment facility for carbon-ion beam scanning of National Institute of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the accuracy of carbon ion beam scanning therapy, we have developed a graphical user interface-based digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR) software system for use in routine clinical practice at our center. The DRR software is used in particular scenarios in the new treatment facility to achieve the same level of geometrical accuracy at the treatment as at the imaging session. DRR calculation is implemented simply as the summation of CT image voxel values along the X-ray projection ray. Since we implemented graphics processing unit-based computation, the DRR images are calculated with a speed sufficient for the particular clinical practice requirements. Since high spatial resolution flat panel detector (FPD) images should be registered to the reference DRR images in patient setup process in any scenarios, the DRR images also needs higher spatial resolution close to that of FPD images. To overcome the limitation of the CT spatial resolution imposed by the CT voxel size, we applied image processing to improve the calculated DRR spatial resolution. The DRR software introduced here enabled patient positioning with sufficient accuracy for the implementation of carbon-ion beam scanning therapy at our center.

  2. Ion beam analysis fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nastasi, Michael; Wang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis: Fundamentals and Applications explains the basic characteristics of ion beams as applied to the analysis of materials, as well as ion beam analysis (IBA) of art/archaeological objects. It focuses on the fundamentals and applications of ion beam methods of materials characterization.The book explains how ions interact with solids and describes what information can be gained. It starts by covering the fundamentals of ion beam analysis, including kinematics, ion stopping, Rutherford backscattering, channeling, elastic recoil detection, particle induced x-ray emission, and nucle

  3. Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B10H14) and carborane (C2B10H12) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of electron and ion beam irradiation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes: The effects on failure by inner tube sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of nanotube structures with electron and ion beams has been used to produce functionalized nanotubes and fundamentally new structures, including junctions. Here, we build on previous studies to investigate the low-energy electron and ion (Ar and CF3) beam irradiation of triple-walled carbon nanotubes that consist entirely of either chiral or armchair tubes. Effective incident energies of 50 eV/ion and 50 keV/electron are considered. The approach is classical molecular dynamic simulations using reactive empirical bond-order potentials and the primary knock-on atom approach to model the effects of electron irradiation. The results indicate that these various irradiation processes produce local damage to the nanotubes that includes crosslinking, that the degree of damage depends to some degree on the chirality of the nanotubes, and that the radial distribution of crosslinks depends significantly on the irradiating particle. Importantly, the effect of these crosslinks, and their radial distribution along the circumference of the nanotube, on the tendency of multiwalled nanotubes to fail by the sword-in-sheath mechanism is examined

  5. Materials Science with Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bernas, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.

  6. Radiosensitivity of cancer cells against carbon-ion beams in an aspect of the p53 gene status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can easily understand that radiation sensitivities of cancer cells are dependent on the status of cancer-related genes. It is important to clarify which genes affect radiation sensitivity and reflect the effectiveness of radiation therapy for cancer cells. We have studied about the function of a tumor suppressor gene of p53, because p53 controls apoptosis, cell cycle and DNA repair from an aspect of important roles in cell fate. By analysis of function of p53 gene, therefore, we aim to predict the therapeutic effectiveness and to select the modalities of cancer therapies such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hyperthermia. As a final goal, we want to accept the most effective therapy, namely tailor-made cancer therapy, for each patient. Here, we introduce that carbon-beam therapy induced the expression of p53-independent apoptosis-related genes and NO radicals in mutated p53 cancer cells. (author)

  7. Microlocalization during ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three techniques were investigated for identifying microregions of the sample examined by an ion beam during analysis. First, the feasibility of obtaining topographic information by detecting bursts of secondary electrons as individual ions strike the sample was studied. The efficiency of detection was sensitive to sample/detector geometry and to detector operation parameters. Second, the author wanted to determine the location where each ion passed through the sample by detecting the ions with a phosphor coupled with a position sensitive detector. Initially, he used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to detect light from the phosphor. The PMT was sufficiently sensitive both to detect the light emitted upon bombardment of the phosphor by a single ion and to provide a start signal for particle-induced desorption time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Third, two track recording materials for locating where the ions passed through the sample were evaluated. The polycarbonate track detector recorded the integrated beam spot image, which was revealed with post-analysis etching and SEM observation. The fluorophlogopite track detector recorded tracks which could be observed by TEM without etching

  8. Synergistic effect of heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin and X-rays, but not carbon-ion beams, on lethality in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of a heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), in combination with X-rays or carbon-ion beams on cell killing in human oral squamous cell carcinoma LMF4 cells. Cell survival was measured by colony formation assay. Cell-cycle distribution was analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression of DNA repair-related proteins was investigated by western blotting. The results showed 17-AAG to have synergistic effects on cell lethality with X-rays, but not with carbon-ion beams. The 17-AAG decreased G2/M arrest induced by X-rays, but not by carbon-ion beams. Both X-ray and carbon-ion irradiation up-regulated expression of non-homologous end-joining-associated proteins, Ku70 and Ku80, but 17-AAG inhibited only X-ray-induced up-regulation of these proteins. These results show that 17-AAG with X-rays releases G2/M phase arrest; cells carrying misrepaired DNA damage then move on to the G1 phase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the radiosensitization effect of 17-AAG is not seen with carbon-ion beams because 17-AAG does not affect these changes. (author)

  9. Influence of deposition parameters on surface roughness and mechanical properties of boron carbon nitride coatings synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron carbon nitride (BCN) coatings were deposited on Si(100) wafers and Si3N4 disks by using ion beam assisted deposition from a boron carbide target. The BCN coatings were synthesized by the reaction between boron and carbon vapor as well as nitrogen ion simultaneously. The influence of deposition parameters such as ion acceleration voltage, ion acceleration current density and deposition ratio on the surface roughness and mechanical properties of the BCN coatings was investigated. The surface roughness was determined by using atomic force microscopy and the mechanical properties of the BCN coatings were evaluated by nano-indentation tests and friction tests in N2 gas. The composition and chemical bonding of the BCN coatings were analyzed by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that the lower deposition rate, the smaller surface roughness and higher nano-hardness the BCN coatings were. The BCN coating with the smoothest surface (R a = 0.25 nm and R P-V = 2.8 nm) and the highest nanohardness of 33 GPa as well as excellent friction property were obtained at 0.5 nm/s and the nitrogen ions were generated at 2.0 kV and 60 μA/cm2, and the chemical composition of this BCN coating was 49 at.% B, 42 at.% C and 9 at.% N. Moreover, there were several bonding states such as B-N, B-C and C-N with B-C-N hybridization in this BCN coating

  10. Electron-Beam Ion Source MIS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INP develops and produces electron-beam ion sources of multicharged ions. These ion sources provide a high density of the electron beam in the ionization area at the ion trap ≥ 103 A/cm2. They produce multicharge ions of various elements, both gaseous and solid ones. These ion sources successfully employ the technique of the dozed inlet of solid elements atoms into the ion trap

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of the relative biological effectiveness for DNA double strand breaks from 300 MeV u−1 carbon-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 300 MeV u−1 carbon-ion beams at different depths in a cylindrical water phantom of 10 cm radius and 30 cm long. RBE values for the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSB), a biological endpoint closely related to cell inactivation, are estimated for monoenergetic and energy-modulated carbon ion beams. Individual contributions to the RBE from primary ions and secondary nuclear fragments are simulated separately. These simulations are based on a multi-scale modelling approach by first applying the FLUKA (version 2011.2.17) transport code to estimate the absorbed doses and fluence energy spectra, then using the MCDS (version 3.10A) damage code for DSB yields. The approach is efficient since it separates the non-stochastic dosimetry problem from the stochastic DNA damage problem. The MCDS code predicts the major trends of the DSB yields from detailed track structure simulations. It is found that, as depth is increasing, RBE values increase slowly from the entrance depth to the plateau region and change substantially in the Bragg peak region. RBE values reach their maxima at the distal edge of the Bragg peak. Beyond this edge, contributions to RBE are entirely from nuclear fragments. Maximum RBE values at the distal edges of the Bragg peak and the spread-out Bragg peak are, respectively, 3.0 and 2.8. The present approach has the flexibility to weight RBE contributions from different DSB classes, i.e. DSB0, DSB+ and DSB++. (paper)

  12. Buffer gas cooling of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling action of a buffer gas on ions contained within it can be used to cool an ion beam, thereby greatly improving its emittance and energy spread. It can also be used to greatly enhance the collection of an ion beam in an electromagnetic trap. The basic principles will be introduced in the context of a prototype system for such a beam cooler

  13. Recent innovations in carbon-ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, hospital-based facilities for carbon-ion radiotherapy are being constructed and proposed in Europe and Asia. During the next few years, several new facilities will be opened for carbon-ion radiotherapy in the world. These facilities in operation or under construction are categorized in two types by the beam shaping method used. One is the passive beam shaping method that is mainly improved and systematized for routine clinical use at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), Japan. The other method is active beam shaping which is also known as beam scanning adopted at Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI)/Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT), Germany. In this paper an overview of some technical aspects for beam shaping is reported. The technique of passive beam shaping is established for stable clinical application and has clinical result of over 4000 patients in HIMAC. In contrast, clinical experience of active beam shaping is about 400 patients, and there is no clinical experience to respiratory moving target. A great advantage of the active beam shaping method is patient-specific collimator-less and compensator-less treatment. This may be an interesting potential for adaptive radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO2, Al2O3, Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW)

  15. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  16. Under-response of a PTW-60019 microDiamond detector in the Bragg peak of a 62 MeV/n carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomme, S; Hopfgartner, J; Vynckier, S; Palmans, H

    2016-06-21

    To investigate the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of the response of a PTW-60019 Freiburg microDiamond detector, its response was compared to the response of a plane-parallel Markus chamber in a 62 MeV/n mono-energetic carbon ion beam. Results obtained with two different experimental setups are in agreement. As recommended by IAEA TRS-398, the response of the Markus chamber was corrected for temperature, pressure, polarity effects and ion recombination. No correction was applied to the response of the microDiamond detector. The ratio of the response of the Markus chamber to the response of the microDiamond is close to unity in the plateau region. In the Bragg peak region, a significant increase of the ratio is observed, which increases to 1.2 in the distal edge region. Results indicate a correlation between the under-response of the microDiamond detector and high LET values. The combined relative standard uncertainty of the results is estimated to be 2.38% in the plateau region and 12% in the distal edge region. These values are dominated by the uncertainty of alignment in the non-uniform beam and the uncertainty of range determination. PMID:27224547

  17. Under-response of a PTW-60019 microDiamond detector in the Bragg peak of a 62 MeV/n carbon ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossomme, S.; Hopfgartner, J.; Vynckier, S.; Palmans, H.

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of the response of a PTW-60019 Freiburg microDiamond detector, its response was compared to the response of a plane-parallel Markus chamber in a 62 MeV/n mono-energetic carbon ion beam. Results obtained with two different experimental setups are in agreement. As recommended by IAEA TRS-398, the response of the Markus chamber was corrected for temperature, pressure, polarity effects and ion recombination. No correction was applied to the response of the microDiamond detector. The ratio of the response of the Markus chamber to the response of the microDiamond is close to unity in the plateau region. In the Bragg peak region, a significant increase of the ratio is observed, which increases to 1.2 in the distal edge region. Results indicate a correlation between the under-response of the microDiamond detector and high LET values. The combined relative standard uncertainty of the results is estimated to be 2.38% in the plateau region and 12% in the distal edge region. These values are dominated by the uncertainty of alignment in the non-uniform beam and the uncertainty of range determination.

  18. The relative biological effectiveness for carbon and oxygen ion beams using the raster-scanning technique in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Habermehl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aim of this study was to evaluate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE of carbon (12C and oxygen ion (16O-irradiation applied in the raster-scanning technique at the Heidelberg Ion beam Therapy center (HIT based on clonogenic survival in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines compared to photon irradiation. METHODS: Four human HCC lines Hep3B, PLC, HepG2 and HUH7 were irradiated with photons, 12C and 16O using a customized experimental setting at HIT for in-vitro trials. Cells were irradiated with increasing physical photon single doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 Gy and heavy ion-single doses of 0, 0.125, 0.5, 1, 2, 3 Gy (12C and 16O. SOBP-penetration depth and extension was 35 mm +/-4 mm and 36 mm +/-5 mm for carbon ions and oxygen ions respectively. Mean energy level and mean linear energy transfer (LET were 130 MeV/u and 112 keV/um for 12C, and 154 MeV/u and 146 keV/um for 16O. Clonogenic survival was computated and relative biological effectiveness (RBE values were defined. RESULTS: For all cell lines and both particle modalities α- and β-values were determined. As expected, α-values were significantly higher for 12C and 16O than for photons, reflecting a steeper decline of the initial slope of the survival curves for high-LET beams. RBE-values were in the range of 2.1-3.3 and 1.9-3.1 for 12C and 16O, respectively. CONCLUSION: Both irradiation with 12C and 16O using the raster-scanning technique leads to an enhanced RBE in HCC cell lines. No relevant differences between achieved RBE-values for 12C and 16O were found. Results of this work will further influence biological-adapted treatment planning for HCC patients that will undergo particle therapy with 12C or 16O.

  19. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  20. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure study for optimization of hard diamond-like carbon film formation with Ar cluster ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film deposited using C60 vapor with simultaneous irradiation of an Ar cluster ion beam was characterized by a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), in order to optimize the hard DLC film deposition conditions. Contents of sp2 orbitals in the films, which were estimated from NEXAFS spectra, are 30% lower than that of a conventional DLC film deposited by a RF plasma method. Those contents were obtained under the flux ratio of the C60 molecules to the Ar cluster ions to range from 1 to 20, at 5keV of Ar cluster ion acceleration energy. Average hardness of the films was 50 GPa under these flux ratios. This hardness was three times higher than that of a conventional DLC film. Furthermore, the lowest sp2 content and above-mentioned high hardness were obtained at room temperature of the substrate when the depositions were performed in the range of the substrate temperature from room temperature to 250degC. (author)

  2. Near edge X-ray absorption fine structure study for optimization of hard diamond-like carbon film formation with Ar cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, T; Kanda, K; Shimizugawa, Y; Toyoda, N; Matsui, S; Yamada, I; Tsubakino, H; Matsuo, J

    2003-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) film deposited using C sub 6 sub 0 vapor with simultaneous irradiation of an Ar cluster ion beam was characterized by a near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), in order to optimize the hard DLC film deposition conditions. Contents of sp sup 2 orbitals in the films, which were estimated from NEXAFS spectra, are 30% lower than that of a conventional DLC film deposited by a RF plasma method. Those contents were obtained under the flux ratio of the C sub 6 sub 0 molecules to the Ar cluster ions to range from 1 to 20, at 5keV of Ar cluster ion acceleration energy. Average hardness of the films was 50 GPa under these flux ratios. This hardness was three times higher than that of a conventional DLC film. Furthermore, the lowest sp sup 2 content and above-mentioned high hardness were obtained at room temperature of the substrate when the depositions were performed in the range of the substrate temperature from room temperature to 250degC. (author)

  3. Pragmatic development of a laser ion source for intense highly-charged ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, applications of high-charge-state (including fully stripped) heavy-ion beams have been attracting interest in both physics and industry. To enhance their usefulness, more intense beams are required. Cancer therapy using carbon ions is a particularly promising heavy-ion beam application. Due to advances in laser technology, the laser ion source (LIS) has become one of the most popular sources for generating highly charged and intense heavy-ion beams. The project to develop a high-intensity LIS was started on June 2009. In our project, whose ultimate goal is to apply a heavy-ion accelerator for cancer therapy, we have almost completed designing the LIS, and manufacturing will commence soon. We intend to measure the source performance by performing plasma and beam tests up until the end of March 2011. We will report the outline and a progress of the project. (author)

  4. Carbon stripper foils for high current heavy ion operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the proposed new heavy ion linac'at'GSI the installation of a carbon foil stripper section is under discussion. High duty factor as well as high current (but low duty factor) heavy ion beams were used for machine experiments. Long term tests were performed to check the carbon foil durability. Relevant beam parameters have been measured in three measurement campaigns. After beam testing stripper foils were analyzed with different offline methods. Additionally promising results of high current beam irradiation of rotating target wheels will be presented. In the transfer line to the SIS 18 the heavy ion beam is stripped to higher charge states in a thick carbon foil. The stripper foil is loaded with 3 % of the beam power. To avoid evaporation in a single beam pulse, the beam is rapidly swept over its width. Experiences collected during the last decade of foil stripper operation at GSI will be presented. (author)

  5. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  6. The effects of carbon foil on beams in stripping-accumulation of a heavy-ion synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripping-injection scheme is adopted in the synchrotron of an accelerator complex named as HITFiL. HITFIL is dedicated to cancer therapy. High intensity can be reached by using the stripping-injection as the limit of Liouville's theorem is broken due to charge-exchange. But unavoidable traversals of the circulating beams through the foil may cause beam-losses and deteriorations of beam quality, including: 1) beam-losses caused by an alteration of the particles' charge state; 2) emittance growth caused by Multiple Coulomb Scattering; and 3) decrease of mean-momentum and growth of momentum spread induced by energy loss and energy loss straggling. In this paper, the model of particle-foil interaction is established by Monte Carlo processes. The effects of the stripping foil on beams are studied based on an improvement of the ACCSIM code. (authors)

  7. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanned ion beam therapy of intra-fractionally moving tumors requires motion mitigation. GSI proposed beam tracking and performed several experimental studies to analyse the dosimetric precision of the system for scanned carbon beams. A beam tracking system has been developed and integrated in the scanned carbon ion beam therapy unit at GSI. The system adapts pencil beam positions and beam energy according to target motion. Motion compensation performance of the beam tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films, a range telescope, a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers, and cell samples for biological dosimetry. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the beam tracking system. All detector systems showed comparable data for a moving setup when using beam tracking and the corresponding stationary setup. Within the target volume the mean relative differences of ionization chamber measurements were 0.3% (1.5% standard deviation, 3.7% maximum). Film responses demonstrated preserved lateral dose gradients. Measurements with the range telescope showed agreement of Bragg peak depth under motion induced range variations. Cell survival experiments showed a mean relative difference of -5% (-3%) between measurements and calculations within the target volume for beam tracking (stationary) measurements. The beam tracking system has been successfully integrated. Full functionality has been validated dosimetrically in experiments with several detector types including biological cell systems

  8. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraft Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scanned ion beam therapy of intra-fractionally moving tumors requires motion mitigation. GSI proposed beam tracking and performed several experimental studies to analyse the dosimetric precision of the system for scanned carbon beams. Methods A beam tracking system has been developed and integrated in the scanned carbon ion beam therapy unit at GSI. The system adapts pencil beam positions and beam energy according to target motion. Motion compensation performance of the beam tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films, a range telescope, a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers, and cell samples for biological dosimetry. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the beam tracking system. Results All detector systems showed comparable data for a moving setup when using beam tracking and the corresponding stationary setup. Within the target volume the mean relative differences of ionization chamber measurements were 0.3% (1.5% standard deviation, 3.7% maximum. Film responses demonstrated preserved lateral dose gradients. Measurements with the range telescope showed agreement of Bragg peak depth under motion induced range variations. Cell survival experiments showed a mean relative difference of -5% (-3% between measurements and calculations within the target volume for beam tracking (stationary measurements. Conclusions The beam tracking system has been successfully integrated. Full functionality has been validated dosimetrically in experiments with several detector types including biological cell systems.

  9. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, relevant advances on graphene as a building block of integrated circuits (ICs have been demonstrated. Graphene growth and device fabrication related processing has been steadily and intensively powered due to commercial interest; however, there are many challenges associated with the incorporation of graphene into commercial applications which includes challenges associated with the synthesis of this material. Specifically, the controlled deposition of single layer large single crystal graphene on arbitrary supports, is particularly challenging. Previously, we have reported the first demonstration of the transformation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon (FIBID-C into patterned graphitic layers by metal-assisted thermal treatment (Ni foils. In this present work, we continue exploiting the FIBID-C approach as a route for graphene deposition. Here, thin patterned Fe layers are used for the catalysis of graphenization and graphitization. We demonstrate the formation of high quality single and few layer graphene, which evidences, the possibility of using Fe as a catalyst for graphene deposition. The mechanism is understood as the minute precipitation of atomic carbon after supersaturation of some iron carbides formed under a high temperature treatment. As a consequence of the complete wetting of FIBID-C and patterned Fe layers, which enable graphene growth, the as-deposited patterns do not preserve their original shape after the thermal treatment

  10. The ion beam opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma opening switches (POS's) have shown excellent characteristics in pulsed power applications. Proposed POS scaling predicts that the fastest opening time for a given conducted current should occur using a high-velocity low-density plasma as the switch medium. The ion beam opening switch (IBOS) uses a charge-neutral ion beam of 100-300 kV, ≤ 120 A/cm/sup 2/ as the switch ''plasma''. Its velocity of up to 600 cm/μs and density of -- 10/sup 12//cm/sup 3/ make this a very fast low-density plasma compared with typical 10 cm/μs and 10/sup 13//cm/sup 3/ POS plasmas. The IBOS has conducted ≥ 70 kA flowing in a parallel-plate transmission line driven by a 4-Ω pulser. IBOS opening time is load dependent, being ≤4 ns into a 15-nH load and about twice as long into a 4-Ω electron diode load. However, switch impedance is not zero during the entire conduction time, rising to ≥ 3 Ω by the time of peak current. Peak current conducted before opening does not vary linearly with either injected ion current or switch axial length. Instead, the conduction current scales with plasma density in the switch, and is nearly independent of switch area until the area is restricted to a narrow (-- 1 cm) strip. In this experimental geometry, replacing the IBOS with a standard POS gave essentially identical behavior, except first, an order of magnitude less injected flux was required to conduct a given current with the POS than with IBOS, corresponding to similar injected plasma densities for the two types of switches; second, clear evidence of J X B motion of the POS plasma was seen, while none was evident with IBOS

  11. Structural disorder in ion irradiated carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ion irradiation on carbon based materials are reviewed laying emphasis on the well known ability of carbon to have different kinds of bonding configuration with the surrounding atoms. It was found that two kinds of bonding configuration of the carbon atoms are allowed in solid amorphous carbon phases. These rearrange the four valence electrons of carbon into sp2 (trigonal bond) and sp3 (tetrahedral bond) hybridizations. Driving the trigonal carbon fraction (x), the physical and chemical nature of solid carbon materials can change in a dramatic way ranging from metallic (x∼100%) to insulating (x∼0%) through semiconductor properties. The amount of the tetrahedral (or trigonal) carbon atoms can be controlled by ion beam irradiation, using suitable conditions and/or introducing foreign species such as hydrogen or silicon by the implantation technique. In hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon-carbon alloys (a-Si1-xCx:H), the ion beam effects are able to produce stable and reproducible compounds, achieved by tuning the hydrogen (silicon) concentration with well defined equilibrium curves between the trigonal carbon fraction and hydrogen (silicon) content. Raman spectroscopy and temperature dependent conductivity experiments performed on these alloys suggest clustering effects in samples with high carbon content (x∼0.5) due to the strong binding energy of the C-C double bond with respect to C-Si and Si-Si. Several models and theoretical studies such as the 'random covalent network' (RCN) and molecular dynamics calculations have been used to fit the experimental results. It is shown that, while RCN models are highly inaccurate because of the clustering effects, molecular dynamics calculation data are very close to the experimental measured physical properties and confirm the ability of the trigonal carbon to cluster in graphite-like aggregate

  12. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  13. ORNL positive ion neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral beam group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has constructed neutral beam generators for the ORMAK and PLT devices, is presently constructing neutral beam devices for the ISX and PDX devices, and is contemplating the construction of neutral beam systems for the advanced TNS device. These neutral beam devices stem from the pioneering work on ion sources of G. G. Kelley and O. B. Morgan. We describe the ion sources under development at this Laboratory, the beam optics exhibited by these sources, as well as some theoretical considerations, and finally the remainder of the beamline design

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of carbon ion radiotherapy for Human Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Chengguo; Yao, Zeen; Xu, Junkui; Li, Wuyuan; Yuan, Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Carbon ion is the mostly common used particle in heavy ion radiotherapy. In this paper, carbon ion dose in tumor treatment for human eye was simulated with FLUKA code, 80 MeV/u carbon beam was irradiated into the human eye from two directions, The first is from the lateral-forward direction which was a typical therapeutic condition, maximum dose was deposited in the tumor volume. The second one was that beam irradiated into eyes from the forward direction which may cause certain medical accident. The calculated results are compared with other reports. The agreement indicates that this method can be used for treatment plan in heavy ion radiotherapy.

  15. Ion beam steering with a high intensity electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional theory, steering or bending an ion beam of high energy and high current requires very intense magnetic fields, which are both uneconomical and bulky. This problem is even more severe for a singly charged ion beam with very high atomic number, which requires large magnetic field energy both to bend and also to focus the beam against its self electric field. In this paper we present a new and simple technique, which will substantially alleviate these problems

  16. Simulation studies for ion beam extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, M.M.; Zakhary, S.G. [Atomic Energy, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center. Accelerators and Ion Sources Dept.], e-mail: moustafa82003@yahoo.com

    2009-06-15

    The characteristics of the ion beam extracted from an ion sources were investigated using computer code SIMION 3 D Version 7.0. It has been used to evaluate the extraction system in order to produce an ion beam with high current and low beam emittance. The results show that the shape of the extraction electrode plays an important role in ion beam formation. Comparison has been made between two extraction systems, Pierce extraction electrode and spherical extraction electrode. The results show that the spherical extraction system yields ion extraction beam with lower emittance and radius than that the Pierce system. The simulation can provide the basis for optimizing the extraction system and the acceleration gap for ion source. (author)

  17. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1976-01-01

    Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field.......Self-excited electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in an ion-beam-plasma system produced in a DP-operated Q-machine. The frequency of the waves showed the theoretically predicted variation with the magnetic field....

  18. Carbon beam dosimetry using VIP polymer gel and MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantemiris, I; Petrokokkinos, L; Angelopoulos, A;

    2009-01-01

    VIP polymer gel dosimeter was used for Carbon ion beam dosimetry using a 150 MeV/n beam with 10 Gy plateau dose and a SOBP irradiation scheme with 5 Gy Bragg peak dose. The results show a decrease by 8 mm in the expected from Monte Carlo simulation range in water, suggesting that the dosimeter is...

  19. Unstable Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Waves Exited by an Ion Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens;

    1976-01-01

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewha...... smaller than that of the beam. The dispersion relation was in good agreement with theory.......Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves were observed in a quiescent cesium plasma into which a low‐energy beam of sodium ions was injected. The instability appeared when the beam velocity was above 12 times the ion thermal velocity. The waves propagated along the magnetic field with a velocity somewhat...

  20. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangst, J.S.

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid.

  1. Laser cooling of a stored ion beam: A first step towards crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses: a brief introduction to storage rings; crystalline beams; laser cooling of ion beams; description of astrid-the experimental setup; first experiments with lithium 7 ion beam; experiments with erbium 166 ion beams; further experiments with lithium 7 ion beams; beam dynamics, laser cooling,and crystalline beams in astrid; possibilities for further study in astrid

  2. Focused Ion Beam Technology for Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmaier, J. P.; Bach, L.; Forchel, A.

    2003-08-01

    High-resolution proximity free lithography was developed using InP as anorganic resist for ion beam exposure. InP is very sensitive on ion beam irradiation and show a highly nonlinear dose dependence with a contrast function comparable to organic electron beam resists. In combination with implantation induced quantum well intermixing this new lithographic technique based on focused ion beams is used to realize high performance nano patterned optoelectronic devices like complex coupled distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers.

  3. Light ion beam fusion research at ILE, Osaka University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve a cannonball target implosion with a focused power density of 1014 W/cm2, the authors have proposed a two-stage charge stripping ion diode as light ion beam inertial confinement fusion driver and developed an induction voltage adder, Reiden-SHVS (4 MV, 40 kA, 100 ns). A ramped voltage waveform from 1.5 MW to 3.2 MV during 70 ns was successfully generated by transit time control between pulse line and induction cavities. Beam bunching experiments with ramped voltage were performed by using a carbon plasma injection ion source (up to 400 A/cm2), which offered a first turn-on ion source without neutrals. The rise time of the carbon beam current became approximately half its value during 25 cm of flight path, because of bunching. In two-stage diode experiments, the second diode was operated as an ion beam injected diode. The ion current density measured behind the second diode was several times the simple Child-Langmuir value. The results indicate the formation of a virtual anode in the ion beam injected diode. A two-stage charge stripping diode was demonstrated. A plastic stripping foil was located between the two diodes. The spectrum and charge states of the carbon ions were in agreement with a calculation where the effects of charge stripping and recombination in the stripping foil were included. The experimental results showed that the multistage diode is promising, by accelerating ions to higher energies, as a driver of inertial confinement fusion. (author). 9 refs, 6 figs

  4. Rabi Wave Packets and Peculiarities of Raman Scattering in Carbon Nanotubes, Produced by High Energy Ion Beam Modification of Diamond Single Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Yearchuck, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    QED-model for multichain coupled qubit system, proposed in \\cite{Part1}, was confirmed by Raman scattering studies of quasi-1D carbon zigzag-shaped nanotubes (CZSNTs), produced by high energy ion beam modification of natural diamond single crystals. Multichain coupled qubit system represents itself Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice, formed in CZSNTs plus quantized external electromagnetic (EM) field. New quantum optics phenomenon - Rabi waves, predicted in \\cite{Slepyan_Yerchak} has experimentally been identified for the first time. It is shown, that Raman spectra in quasi-1D CZSNTs are quite different in comparison with well known Raman spectra in 2D those ones. They characterized by semiclassical consideration by the only one vibronic mode of Su-Schriffer-Heeger $\\sigma$-polaron lattice instead of longitudinal and transverse optical phonon $G^+$ and $G^-$modes and the out-of-plane radial breathing mode, which are observed in Raman spectra of 2D single wall nanotubes. It is consequence of 2D - 1D ...

  5. Radioactive Ion Beam Development at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Stracener, Dan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Bilheux, Jean-Christophe; Blackmon, Jeff C; Carter, Ken; Dowling, Darryl; Juras, Raymond; Kawai, Yoko; Kronenberg, Andreas; Liu, Yuan; Meigs, Martha; Müller, Paul; Spejewski, Eugene H; Tatum, A

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive beams are produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) technique. Radioactive nuclei are produced in a thick target via irradiation with energetic light ions (protons, deuterons, helium isotopes) and then post-accelerated to a few MeV/nucleon for use in nuclear physics experiments. An overview of radioactive beam development at the HRIBF will be presented, including ion source development, improvements in the ISOL production targets, and a description of techniques to improve the quality (intensity and purity) of the beams. Facilities for radioactive ion beam development include two ion source test facilities, a target/ion source preparation and quality assurance facility, and an in-beam test facility where low intensity production beams are used. A new test facility, the High Power Target Laboratory, will be available later this year. At this facility, high intensity production beams will be available t...

  6. Production of high intensity heavy ion beams for the experiments on a gas-filled separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-filled separator of heavy ions induced reactions products permits a substantial suppression of the background from primary beam ions. This feature allows one to obtain an extremely intensive ion beam from the cyclotron U-400. Experimental studies were performed to investigate the operation of various stripping carbon foils. 7 refs.; 2 figs

  7. Beam-beam observations in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); White, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been operating since 2000. Over the past decade, thanks to the continuously increased bunch intensity and reduced β*s at the interaction points, the maximum peak luminosity in the polarized proton operation has been increased by more than two orders of magnitude. In this article, we first present the beam-beam observations in the previous RHIC polarized proton runs. Then we analyze the mechanisms for the beam loss and emittance growth in the presence of beam-beam interaction. The operational challenges and limitations imposed by beam-beam interaction and their remedies are also presented. In the end, we briefly introduce head-on beam-beam compensation with electron lenses in RHIC.

  8. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  9. Ion-beam nitriding of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salik, Joshua (Inventor); Hubbell, Theodore E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A surface of a steel substrate is nitrided without external heating by exposing it to a beam of nitrogen ions under low pressure, a pressure much lower than that employed for ion-nitriding. An ion source is used instead of a glow discharge. Both of these features reduce the introduction of impurities into the substrate surface.

  10. Electron beam ion traps and their applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Ya-Ming; Roger HUTTON

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction to the historical background and current status of electron beam ion traps (EBITs)is presented. The structure and principles of an EBIT for producing highly charged ions are described. Finally,EBITs as a potential tool in hot-plasma diagnostics and in studying frontier problems of highly charged ion physicsare discussed.

  11. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  12. Light and heavy ion beam analysis of thin biological sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques to thin biological sections (ThBS) presents unique challenges in sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis. These samples are often the end product of expensive, time-consuming experiments, which involve many steps that require careful attention. Analysis via several techniques can maximise the information that is collected from these samples. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectroscopy are two generally non-destructive IBA techniques that use the same MeV ions and can be performed simultaneously. The use of heavy ion PIXE applied to thick samples has, in the past, resulted in X-ray spectra of a poorer quality when compared to those obtained with proton beams. One of the reasons for this is the shorter probing depth of the heavy ions, which does not affect thin sample analysis. Therefore, we have investigated and compared 3-MeV proton and 36-MeV carbon ion beams on 7-μm thick mouse brain sections at the ANSTO Heavy ion microprobe (HIMP). The application of a 36-MeV C4+ ion beam for PIXE mapping of ThBS on thin Si3N4 substrate windows produced spectra of high quality that displayed close to a nine-times gain in signal yield (Z2/q) when compared to those obtained for 3-MeV protons for P, S, Cl and K but not for Fe, Cu and Zn. Image quality was overall similar; however, some elements showed better contrast and features with protons whilst others showed improved contrast with a carbon ion beam. RBS spectra with high enough counting statistics were easily obtained with 3-MeV proton beams resulting in high resolution carbon maps, however, the count rate for nitrogen and oxygen was too low. The results demonstrate that on thin samples, 36-MeV C4+ will produce good quality PIXE spectra in less time; therefore, carbon ions may be advantageous depending on which element is being studied. However, these advantages may be outweighed by the inherent disadvantages including

  13. Robust Collimation Control of Laser-Generated Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, S; Kamiyama, D; Nagashima, T; Barada, D; Gu, Y J; Li, X; Yu, Q; Kong, Q; Wang, P X

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of a structured collimation device is discussed for an intense-laser-produced ion beam. In this paper the ion beam collimation is realized by the solid structured collimation device, which produces the transverse electric field; the electric field contributes to reduce the ion beam transverse velocity and collimate the ion beam. Our 2.5 dimensional particle-in cell simulations demonstrate that the collimation device is rather robust against the changes in the laser parameters and the collimation target sizes. The intense short-pulse lasers are now available, and are used to generate an ion beam. The issues in the laser ion acceleration include an ion beam collimation, ion energy spectrum control, ion production efficiency, ion energy control, ion beam bunching, etc. The laser-produced ion beam tends to expand in the transverse and longitudinal directions during the ion beam propagation. The ion beam collimation is focused in this paper.

  14. Enhanced field electron emission from aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod arrays prepared by reactive ion beam etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Qin, Shi-Qiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao; Chang, Sheng-Li; Li, Hui-Hui; Yuan, Ji-Ren

    2016-05-01

    Homogeneous diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on Si supports by a pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition system. Using DLC films masked by Ni nanoparticles as precursors, highly aligned diamond-like carbon nanorod (DLCNR) arrays were fabricated by the etching of inductively coupled radio frequency oxygen plasma. The as-prepared DLCNR arrays exhibit excellent field emission properties with a low turn-on field of 2.005 V μm‑1 and a threshold field of 4.312 V μm‑1, respectively. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were employed to determine the chemical bonding structural change of DLC films before and after etching. It is confirmed that DLC films have good connection with Si supports via the formation of the SiC phase, and larger conductive sp2 domains are formed in the as-etched DLC films, which play essential roles in the enhanced field emission properties for DLCNR arrays.

  15. Intense non-relativistic cesium ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed the One Ampere Cesium Injector as a proof of principle source to supply an induction linac with a high charge density and high brightness ion beam. This is studied here. An electron beam probe was developed as the major diagnostic tool for characterizing ion beam space charge. Electron beam probe data inversion is accomplished with the EBEAM code and a parametrically adjusted model radial charge distribution. The longitudinal charge distribution was not derived, although it is possible to do so. The radial charge distribution that is derived reveals an unexpected halo of trapped electrons surrounding the ion beam. A charge fluid theory of the effect of finite electron temperature on the focusing of neutralized ion beams (Nucl. Fus. 21, 529 (1981)) is applied to the problem of the Cesium beam final focus at the end of the injector. It is shown that the theory's predictions and assumptions are consistent with the experimental data, and that it accounts for the observed ion beam radius of approx. 5 cm, and the electron halo, including the determination of an electron Debye length of approx. 10 cm

  16. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe26+ approximately 4x1010 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 1012 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 1010 from the 5x10mm2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached

  17. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  18. Silicon nitride layers on tool steel produced by ion beam mixing and ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon nitride layers on tool steel are produced both, by Kr+ implantation into reactively sputtered Si3N4 on steel (ion beam mixing) and N2+ implantation into evaporated Si on steel (ion beam assisted deposition). Atomic concentration profiles of Fe and Si measured by RBS and XPS show interface mixing. After ion beam assisted deposition complete Si-N compound formation takes place as shown by XPS. Ion beam mixing of Si3N4/steel decreases the etch rate in hydrochloric acid by 50% with respect to uncovered steel. After flash lamp annealing the ion irradiated silicon nitride layer becomes stable against the aggressive acid used. (author)

  19. Numerical Simulation Multicomponent Ion Beam Transport form ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaLei; SongMingtao; ZhangZimin; CaoYun

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate the transport of multi-components ion beam extracted from an ECR ion source, we have developed a multi-charged ion beam transport program named MCIBS 1.0. The program is dedicated to numerical simulation of the behavior of highly-charged ion beam and optimization of beam optics in transport lines and is realized on a PC with Windows user interface of Microsoft Visual Basic. Among all the ions with different charge states in the beam, the exchanges of electrons between highly charged ions and low charged ions or neutral,atoms of residual gas are taken into account by using classical Molecular Over-barrier Model and Monte Carlo method. An advanced Windows graphical interface makes it; comfortable and friendly for the user to operate in an interactive mode. The present program is used for the numerical calculation and optimization of beam optics in a transport line consisting of various magnetic elements, such as dipole magnet, quadrupole and so on. It is possible to simultaneously simulate 200,000 particles, in a transport line of 340 m at most, and show every particle orbit. Beam cross section graphics and emittance phase pictures can be also shown at any position in the transport line.

  20. Ion beam induced alignment of semiconductor nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epitaxially grown GaAs nanowires were irradiated with different kinds of energetic ions. The growth substrates were GaAs, and the nanowires grow under an angle of 35 circle. A bending of the nanowires was observed under ion beam irradiation, where the direction and magnitude of the bending depends on the energy, the species, and fluence of the incident ions. By choosing suitable ion beam parameters the nanowires could be realigned towards the ion beam direction. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms, computer simulations of the ion irradiation were done using a special version of TRIM which accounts for the geometry of the nanowires. The simulated distributions indicate vacancy and interstitial formation within the implantation cascade as the key mechanism for bending.

  1. Beam-quality measurements on heavy ion therapeutic beam of HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluence spectra of fragment particles caused by spallation reactions between heavy ion beams and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate; Lucite) target were measured with ΔE-E counter telescope method for each fragmented element. Measurements were carried out for carbon beams of 290 MeV/nucleon and 400 MeV/nucleon at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), and 135 MeV/nucleon carbon beam at RIKEN Ring Cyclotron with changing the thickness of target material. Incident beam was broadened with a pair of wobbler magnets and a scatterer, in the same way of clinical trials which have been carrying out at HIMAC. Results were compared with the calculational expectations. (author)

  2. Development of MeV cluster ion beams and irradiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Yuichi; Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi; Arakawa, Kazuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Hirata, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    The production and acceleration of cluster ion beams were developed by using a sputtering ion source and a tandem accelerator. Molecular beams of iron oxides were produced from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder prepared as the specimen of the ion source and accelerated to energy of MeV range. Defect densities in silicon and polycarbonate targets by irradiation were compared between monoatomic carbon ions and carbon cluster beams (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}). Beam currents by injection of carbon cluster beams (C{sub 8}) were measured for various targets such as Si, Al, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and polycarbonate. The target and time dependence of the beam currents were originated from sputtered ions due to water molecules and oxides adhered at the surface of the targets. (Y. Kazumata)

  3. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Lili

    2007-09-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 {micro}m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  4. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 (micro)m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  5. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Van Kampen, C. L.; Babbush, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic prosthesis fixation, and dental implants.

  6. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, B. A.; Weigand, A. J.; Babbush, C. A.; Vankampen, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    Electron bombardment ion thrusters used as ion sources have demonstrated a unique capability to vary the surface morphology of surgical implant materials. The microscopically rough surface texture produced by ion beam sputtering of these materials may result in improvements in the biological response and/or performance of implanted devices. Control of surface roughness may result in improved attachment of the implant to soft tissue, hard tissue, bone cement, or components deposited from blood. Potential biomedical applications of ion beam texturing discussed include: vascular prostheses, artificial heart pump diaphragms, pacemaker fixation, percutaneous connectors, orthopedic pros-thesis fixtion, and dental implants.

  7. Microchannel plate based detector for a heavy ion beam spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.I.

    1979-10-01

    The design parameters and operating characteristics of the detector used in the Brutus and Fannie heavy ion beam spectrometers at the SuperHILAC facility are described. The detector utilizes a 25 mm diameter microchannel plate array to obtain gains of 10/sup 2/ to 10/sup 8/ with a linear dynamic range of 10/sup 3/. It has had over three years of almost maintenance-free service, detecting ion beams from carbon to xenon with energies between 1.2 and 8.5 MeV per nucleon.

  8. Microchannel plate based detector for a heavy ion beam spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design parameters and operating characteristics of the detector used in the Brutus and Fannie heavy ion beam spectrometers at the SuperHILAC facility are described. The detector utilizes a 25 mm diameter microchannel plate array to obtain gains of 102 to 108 with a linear dynamic range of 103. It has had over three years of almost maintenance-free service, detecting ion beams from carbon to xenon with energies between 1.2 and 8.5 MeV per nucleon

  9. BEAM-FOIL SPECTROSCOPY OF CHLORINE AND SULFUR IONS

    OpenAIRE

    Frot, D.; Barchewitz, R.; Cukier, M.; Dei-Cas, R.; Bruneau, J

    1987-01-01

    We report on the measurement of spectra of highly stripped chlorine and sulfur ions in the energy ranges of, respectively, 2900 - 3500 eV and 2300 - 2600 eV. The spectra have been obtained after excitation of ions travelling through a thin carbon foil . X-rays emitted by the emerging beam are analyzed with a Johanntype bent crystal spectrometer. The observation angle with respect to the beam axis is 54°. The interpretation of the spectra is performed by comparing experimental results with Mul...

  10. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  11. Primary beams of an electron beam ion source (EBIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron guns for the ion sources of the SATURN II facility were tested and compared with models. The guns tested were a gun with 36 mm diameter cathode, 7 mm, 4 mm, 4 mm with insulated Whenelt, and 8 mm. A lanthanium hexaboride cathode is presented. For the primary ion beams, zeolite and plasma sources were realized. In DIONE, which will replace CRYEBIS as ion source in SATURNE, the density of the electron beam compressed within the maximum magnetic field can be evaluated. Results indicate a factor of 3 improvement compared with CRYEBIS. Lithium sources can be used, but gas sources do not produce significant improvements

  12. Ion Beam Energy Calibration Method for Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam energy calibration methods, i e : nuclear reaction method, magnetic field method and calorimeter method were elaborated and studied from its advantage and disadvantage in this paper. Ion beam energy calibration method for accelerator using the method of magnetic field on 3 MV Tandem Accelerator have been carried out at Tiara, JAERI, Japan. The result showed that the energy of ion beam current is 43.56 keV. The result of study conclude that nuclear reaction method generally used to calibrate ion beam energy at the accelerator of energy larger than 2 MeV, calorimetric method for the accelerator electron including linac, magnetic field method for all particle type of accelerator. (author)

  13. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10-7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  14. Applications of focused ion beams in microelectronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the conclusions of the RSRE programme on the application of focused ion beams in microelectronics and review the literature published in this field. We discuss the design and performance of focused beam implanters and the viability of their application to semiconductor device fabrication. Applications in the areas of lithography, direct implantation and micromachining are discussed in detail. Comparisons are made between the use of focused ion beams and existing techniques for these fabrication processes with a strong emphasis placed on the relative throughputs. We present results on a novel spot size measurement technique and the effect of beam heating on resist. We also present the results of studies into implantation passivation of resist to oxygen plasma attack as basis for a dry development lithography scheme. A novel lithography system employing flood electron exposure from a photocathode which is patterned by a focused ion beam which can also be used to repair mask defects is considered. (author)

  15. Polyvinylpyrrolidone surface modification with SiOx containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H/SiOx) and nitrogen-doped a-C:H/SiOx films using Hall-type closed drift ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study SiOx containing amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H/SiOx) and nitrogen-doped a-C:H/SiOx (a-C:H:N/SiOx) films were deposited on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) templates of variable thickness using a Hall-type closed drift ion beam source with constant irradiation parameters. A detailed surface characterization was followed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) topography images, surface morphology parameters, height distribution histograms and bearing ratio curves with hybrid parameters. The AFM analysis directly showed that the a-C:H/SiOx/PVP and a-C:H:N/SiOx/PVP composite films represent different morphologies with characteristic surface textures. Surface adhesive properties were evaluated by measuring the force required to separate the AFM tip from the surface by means of AFM force-distance curves. The variance in adhesion force detected was lower for a-C:H/SiOx/PVP composite films due to lower structural homogeneity of the surfaces. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis was performed to study the blend behavior of PVP upon a-C:H/SiOx and a-C:H:N/SiOx direct ion beam deposition. It was determined that interfacial interactions of PVP with the direct ion beam induced changes in the carbonyl group of the PVP and are dependent on the carrier gas used for the synthesis of the amorphous hydrogenated carbon films. - Highlights: ► Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) surface was modified with diamond-like carbon (DLC). ► Hall-type closed drift ion beam source was used for synthesis of DLC films. ► Surface morphological, adhesive properties and blend behavior were studied. ► Depending on thickness of PVP different surface textures were obtained. ► Changes in carbonyl group of PVP upon modification with DLC were observed

  16. Construction of ion beam pulse radiolysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, Norihisa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Domae, Masafumi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Murakami, Takeshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24 MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3} and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals were observed. (author)

  17. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, N.W.; Marwick, A.D.; Roberto, J.B. (eds.) (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA); International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  18. Ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research programs discussed at the materials research society symposia on ion beam processing of advanced electronic materials. Major topics include: shallow implantation and solid-phase epitaxy; damage effects; focused ion beams; MeV implantation; high-dose implantation; implantation in III-V materials and multilayers; and implantation in electronic materials. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  19. Development of functional materials by application of ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovation of materials accelerates the advance of technology. To rockets which increase the flight range by more than 10 km if the weight is reduced by 0.5 kg, new materials are employed without stint for their bodies and engines. However, generally new materials require valuable metals and special manufacturing method, therefore, the cost is high, and the shapes of products are limited. As the process for realizing the materials having excellent wear resistance and corrosion resistance at low cost, the process being highlighted is ion beam mixing. Functionally gradient materials (FGM) are now developed by Japanese researchers in aviation and space fields. In this report, ion beam mixing is taken up, and its application to the synthesis of FGMs and the use of FGMs as the thermal shielding material for the combustors of space planes are described. The ion beam mixing system of Hitachi type was developed. The ion beam mixing is the processing technology of injecting ions into the surface of a base material and carrying out evaporating deposition, and the thin films of new materials such as ceramics can be freely formed. As the example of relaxing thermal stress with FGM, carbon fiber-reinforced carbon material coated with SiC was examined. The application of ZrO2/Cu FGM to space use is studied. (K.I.)

  20. Superintense ion beam with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikova, Galina

    2008-04-01

    The energy density of ion beam accumulated in a storage ring can be increased dramatically with using of space charge compensation as was demonstrated in experiments [1]. The intensity of said superintense beam can be far greater than a space charge limit without space charge compensation. The model of secondary plasma build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delayed electrons has been presented and discussed. This model can be used for explanation of bunched beam instability with electron surviving after gap, for prediction of e-cloud generation in coasting and long bunches beam, and can be important for pressure rise in worm and cold sections of storage rings. A fast desorption by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a ``first pulse Instability''. Application of this model for e-p instability selfstabilization and superintense circulating beam accumulation is considered. Importance of secondary plasma for high perveance ion beam stabilization in ion implantation will be considered. Preliminary results of simulation of electron and ion accumulation will be presented. [1]. Belchenko et al., Xth International Particle Accelerator Conference, Protvino, 1977, Vol. 2, p. 287.

  1. Hemocompatibility of DLC coatings synthesized by ion beam assisted deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam-assisted diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings have beenused for growing the human platelet, fibrinogen, and albumin in the control environment in order to assess their hemocompatibility. The hard carbon films were prepared on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) at room temperature using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). Raman spectroscopic analysis proved that the carbon films on PMMA are diamond-like with a higher fraction of sp\\+3 bonds in the structure of mixed sp\\+2+sp\\+3 bonding. The blood protein adsorption tests showed that DLC coatings can adsorb more albumin and are slightly more fibrinogen than the PMMA chosen as a control sample. The platelets adhered on DLC coatings were reduced significantly in number. These results indicate good hemocompatibility of DLC coatings.

  2. Plasma-Based Ion Beam Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam sources cover a broad spectrum of scientific and technical applications delivering ion currents between less than 1 mA and about 100 A at acceleration voltages between 100 V and 100 kV. The ions are mostly generated by electron collisions in a gas discharge and then extracted from the discharge plasma, focused and post-accelerated by single- or multi-aperture electrode systems. Some important applications require the neutralization of the exhausted beam either by charge exchange or by admixture of electrons. In the first part of the paper, the theory of ionization by electron impact, the energy and carrier balances in the plasma, and the extraction and focusing mechanisms will be outlined. The principles of the preferred gas discharges and of the ion beam sources based on them are discussed; i.e. of the Penning, bombardment, arc, duoplasmatron, radio frequency, and microwave types. In the second part of the paper, the special requirements of the different applications are described together with the related source hardware. One distinguishes: 1. Single-aperture ion sources producing protons, heavy ions, isotope ions, etc. for particle accelerators, ion microprobes, mass spectrometers, isotope separators, etc.; quality determinative quantities are brightness, emittance, energy width, etc. 2. Broad-beam multi-aperture injector sources for fusion machines with positive or negative deuterium ions; very high beam densities, small portions of molecular ions, flat beam profiles with small divergence angles, etc. are required. 3. Broad-beam multi-aperture ion thrusters for space propulsion operated with singly charged xenon ions; high efficiencies, reliable operation, and long lifetimes are most important. Spin-offs are applied in industry for material processing. Referring to these applications, the following sources will be described in some detail: 1. Cold cathode and filament driven sources, capillary arc and plasmatron types, microwave and ECR-sources. 2

  3. Focusing a deterministic single-ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We focus down an ion beam consisting of single 40Ca+ ions to a spot size of a few micrometers using an einzel lens. Starting from a segmented linear Paul trap, we have implemented a procedure that allows us to deterministically load a predetermined number of ions by using the potential shaping capabilities of our segmented ion trap. For single-ion loading, an efficiency of 96.7(7)% has been achieved. These ions are then deterministically extracted out of the trap and focused down to a 1σ-spot radius of (4.6±1.3) μm at a distance of 257 mm from the trap center. Compared to previous measurements without ion optics, the einzel lens is focusing down the single-ion beam by a factor of 12. Due to the small beam divergence and narrow velocity distribution of our ion source, chromatic and spherical aberration at the einzel lens is vastly reduced, presenting a promising starting point for focusing single ions on their way to a substrate.

  4. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C+ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr2+ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed

  5. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs

  6. Ion-beam channeling in a quasicrystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed ion-beam channeling in a quasicrystal. For 1-MeV 4He+ ions in icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe the maximum effect found is 36%. The full width at half maximum of the observed dips is 1.3 degree. The effect persists up to great depths (>200 nm), thus showing a high degree of ordering in this phase

  7. Ion beam source construction and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of a new shape cold cathode Penning ion source to be suitable for some applications. In this work, many trials have been made to reach the optimum dimensions of the new shape of cold Molybdenum cathode Penning ion source with radial extraction. The high output ion beam can be extracted in a direction transverse to the discharge region. The new shape cold cathode Penning ion source consists of Copper cylindrical hollow anode of 40 mm length, 12 mm diameter and has two similar cone ends of 15 mm length, 22 mm upper cone diameter and 12 mm bottom cone diameter. The two movable Molybdenum cathodes are fixed in Perspex insulator and placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. The Copper emission disc of 2 mm thickness and has central aperture of different diameters is placed at the middle of the anode for ion beam exit. The inner surface of the emission disc is isolated from the anode by Perspex insulator except an area of diameter 5 mm to confine the electrical discharge in this area. A movable Faraday cup is placed at different distances from the emission electrode aperture and used to collect the output ion beam from the ion source. The working gases are admitted to the ion source through a hole in the anode via a needle valve which placed between the gas cylinder and the ion source. The optimum anode- cathode distance, the uncovered area diameter of the emission disc, the central aperture diameter of the emission electrode, the distance between emission electrode and Faraday cup have been determined using Argon gas. The optimum distances of the ion source were found to be equal to 6 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 cm respectively where stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current at low discharge current can be obtained. The discharge characteristics, ion beam characteristics, and the efficiency of the ion source have been measured at different operating conditions and different gas pressures using

  8. Cell survival in spheroids irradiated with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological investigations with accelerated heavy ions have been carried out regularly at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac for the past four years. Most of the cellular investigations have been conducted on cell monolayer and suspension culture systems. The studies to date suggest that heavy charged particle beams may offer some radiotherapeutic advantages over conventional radiotherapy sources. The advantages are thought to lie primarily in an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a decrease in the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER), and better tissue distribution dose. Experiments reported here were conducted with 400 MeV/amu carbon ions and 425 MeV/amu neon ions, using a rat brain gliosarcoma cell line grown as multicellular spheroids. Studies have been carried out with x-rays and high-energy carbon and neon ion beams. These studies evaluate high-LET (linear energy transfer) cell survival in terms of RBE and the possible contributions of intercellular communication. Comparisons were made of the post-irradiation survival characteristics for cells irradiated as multicellular spheroids (approximately 100 μm and 300 μm diameters) and for cells irradiated in suspension. These comparisons were made between 225-kVp x-rays, 400 MeV/amu carbon ions, and 425 MeV/amu neon ions

  9. Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produces high-quality beams of short-lived radioactive isotopes for nuclear science research, and is currently unique worldwide in the ability to provide neutron-rich fission fragment beams post-accelerated to energies above the Coulomb barrier. HRIBF is undergoing a multi-phase upgrade. Phase I (completed 2005) was construction of the High Power Target Laboratory to provide the on-going Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) development program with a venue for testing new targets, ion sources, and radioactive ion beam (RIB) production techniques with high-power beams. Phase II, which is on schedule for completion in September 2009, is the Injector for Radioactive Ion Species 2 (IRIS2), a second RIB production station that will improve facility reliability and accommodate new ion sources, new RIB production targets, and some innovative RIB purification techniques, including laser applications. The Phase III goal is to substantially improve facility performance by replacing or supplementing the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC) production accelerator with either a high-power 25-50 MeV electron accelerator or a high-current multi-beam commercial cyclotron. Either upgrade is applicable to R and D on isotope production for medical or other applications.

  10. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  11. Heavy ion linac as a high current proton beam injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Winfried; Adonin, Aleksey; Appel, Sabrina; Gerhard, Peter; Heilmann, Manuel; Heymach, Frank; Hollinger, Ralph; Vinzenz, Wolfgang; Vormann, Hartmut; Yaramyshev, Stepan

    2015-05-01

    A significant part of the experimental program at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is dedicated to pbar physics requiring a high number of cooled pbars per hour. The primary proton beam has to be provided by a 70 MeV proton linac followed by two synchrotrons. The new FAIR proton linac will deliver a pulsed proton beam of up to 35 mA of 36 μ s duration at a repetition rate of 4 Hz (maximum). The GSI heavy ion linac (UNILAC) is able to deliver world record uranium beam intensities for injection into the synchrotrons, but it is not suitable for FAIR relevant proton beam operation. In an advanced machine investigation program it could be shown that the UNILAC is able to provide for sufficient high intensities of CH3 beam, cracked (and stripped) in a supersonic nitrogen gas jet into protons and carbon ions. This advanced operational approach will result in up to 3 mA of proton intensity at a maximum beam energy of 20 MeV, 1 0 0 μ s pulse duration and a repetition rate of up to 2.7 Hz delivered to the synchrotron SIS18. Recent linac beam measurements will be presented, showing that the UNILAC is able to serve as a proton FAIR injector for the first time, while the performance is limited to 25% of the FAIR requirements.

  12. Laser-cooled continuous ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S. [and others

    1995-08-01

    A collaboration with a group in Arhus, Denmark, using their storage ring ASTRID, brought about better understanding of ion beams cooled to very low temperatures. The longitudinal Schottky fluctuation noise signals from a cooled beam were studied. The fluctuation signals are distorted by the effects of space charge as was observed in earlier measurements at other facilities. However, the signal also exhibits previously unobserved coherent components. The ions` velocity distribution, measured by a laser fluorescence technique suggests that the coherence is due to suppression of Landau damping. The observed behavior has important implications for the eventual attainment of a crystalline ion beam in a storage ring. A significant issue is the transverse temperature of the beam -- where no direct diagnostics are available and where molecular dynamics simulations raise interesting questions about equilibrium.

  13. Maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion projection lithography (IPL) technique called maskless micro-ion-beam reduction lithography (MMRL) is being studied for future dynamic random access memory and microprocessors manufacturing. In addition to minimum feature sizes of 50 nm or less required of next generation lithography, this MMRL system is proposed to completely eliminate the first stage of the conventional IPL system that contains the complicated beam optics design in front of the stencil mask and the mask itself. Its main components consist of a multi-cusp, rf plasma generator, a multi-beamlet extraction system, and an accelerator column for beam reduction. The viability of this MMRL system hinges upon the successful development of these components, most importantly the proposed all-electrostatic accelerator column. This article describes the different components of the MMRL system and its ion optics. Computational results of beam demagnification and optics optimization are also presented along with design progress of the prototype MMRL system. (c) 1999 American Vacuum Society

  14. Precise formation of geometrically focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometrically focused intense neutral beams for plasma diagnostic consist of many elementary beams formed by a multiaperture ion-optical system and aimed at the focal point. In real conditions, some of the elementary beams may have increased angular divergence and/or deviate from the intended direction, thus diminishing the neutral beam density at the focus. Several improvements to the geometrical focusing are considered in the article including flattening of the plasma profile across the emission surface, using of quasi-Pierce electrodes at the beam periphery, and minimizing the deviation of the electrodes from the spherical form. Application of these measures to the neutral beam Russian diagnostic injector developed in Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics allows an increase of neutral beam current density in the focus by ∼50%

  15. Irradiation damage and ion mobility in surface analysis by ion or electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron irradiation of contaminated surface or insulators modifies the surface composition when the current density is on the range of the actual current in micro-Auger analysis. This destructive dose is found to be about 1013 - 1014 electrons/cm2.s for an organic layer analysis or about 1016 - 1017 electrons/cm2.s for oxides, and for sulfur or carbon contaminated surface. The primary electron beam locally rises the surface temperature and ionizes the impurities all along its depth of penetration. Therefore it may induce a thermal diffusion of impurities, a thermal enhancement of the electron stimulated desorption cross section, or an electromigration of negative species as O-, C-. Simultaneous ion etching in ion profiling technique and electron beam irradiation modify the ion etching speed and profiles, and verifies the destructive effect of the electron beam. In AES or in scanning microscopy the secondary electron image contrast is very sensitive to the beam damage

  16. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration ion source showed that the dependence of beam radius on Q was consistent with space charge expansion. It was concluded that the beam was perveance-dominated with a charge neutralization fraction of approximately zero in the absence of neutralizing plasma. Since beam expansion occurred primarily due to space charge, the decrease in effective perveance due to neutralization by FEPS plasma can be inferred from the reduction in beam radius. Results on propagation of the ion beam through FEPS plasma demonstrate that after the FEPS is triggered, the beam radius decreases to its neutralized value in about 5 mus. The duration of neutralization was about 10 mus at a charging voltage VFEPS = 5.5 kV and 35 mus at VFEPS = 6.5 kV. With VFEPS = 6.5 kV, the transverse current density profile 33 cm downstream of the source had a Gaussian shape with xrms =5 mm, which corresponds to a half-angle divergence of 0.87°. The

  17. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs

  18. Injection line of 1+ ion beam for electron beam ion-charge breeding source and related beam elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main purpose of the electron beam ion-charge breeding source (EBIBS) is to produce highly pure and highly charged ion beam from single charge ion of stable or radioactive species. It can accept low emittance ion beam from either online or offline ECR ion sources (ECRIS). The emittance of the extracted beam is low at lower RF frequencies and magnetic field of the ECRIS. The beam at the position of extraction is approximately reproduced at the entrance of the electron collector of the EBIBS. The beam moves forward under the influence of the negative potential deep of the electron beam and enters the ionization region in solenoid field of the EBIBS. The injection line starts at the extraction region of the ECRIS. The assumed parameters of the extracted beam of 20 keV energy and 0.0732 GeV/c momentum for injection are 10 mm diameter and 30 mrad beam divergence cone. As mass number of the ions decreases the energy decreases for constant momentum of the ion beam. The value of the momentum or the beam rigidity is judiciously chosen to encompass the most of the isotopes of various elements. The beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet and passes the beam through a 90° bending magnet. The beam is analyzed also by the dipole magnet to remove the contaminants and the selected ion beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet magnet to pass through an electrostatic 90° bending elements. The beam approaches the opening of 16 mm diameter of the electron collector. A round beam of 12 mm diameter is achieved here with the help of a quadrupole triplet through point-to-point imaging from start to the end. The transport matrices for the electrostatic bending elements were calculated and incorporated into the TRANSPORT code. (author)

  19. Carbon Beam Radio-Therapy and Research Activities at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-therapy with carbon ion beam has been carried out since 1994 at HIMAC (Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) in NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). Now, many types of tumors can be treated with carbon beam with excellent local controls of the tumors. Stimulated with good clinical results, requirement of the dedicated compact facility for carbon beam radio-therapy is increased. To realize this requirement, design study of the facility and the R and D's of the key components in this design are promoted by NIRS. According successful results of these activities, the dedicated compact facility will be realized in Gunma University. In this facility, the established irradiation method is expected to use, which is passive irradiation method with wobbler magnets and ridge filter. In this presentation, above R and D's will be presented together with clinical results and basic research activities at HIMAC

  20. Hard three-dimensional sp2 carbon-bonded phase formed by ion beam irradiation of fullerene, a-C and polymeric a-C:H films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of new carbon amorphous phase through the ion irradiation of fullerene, a-C and polymeric a-C:H films is presented. The carbon films were subjected to N irradiation at 400 keV in the fluence range from 1013 to 3 x 1016 N cm-2. Modifications in the carbon structure, as function of the irradiation fluence, were investigated using the Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, UV-VIS-NearIR spectrophotometry and nanoindentation techniques. After high fluence, the three carbon samples were transformed into very similar hard (∼14 GPa) and non-hydrogenated amorphous carbon layers with very low optical gaps (∼0.2 eV) and an unusual sp2 rich-bonded atomic network. The mechanical properties of the irradiated films correlated with the bonding topologies of this new sp2 carbon phase are analyzed in terms of the constraint-counting model. The results show that the unusual rigidity was achieved by the distortion of the sp2 carbon bond angles, giving origin to a constrained three-dimensional sp2 carbon bonded network

  1. Nonlinear Evolution of the Ion-Ion Beam Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The criterion for the existence of vortexlike ion phase-space configurations, as obtained by a standard pseudopotential method, is found to coincide with the criterion for the linear instability for two (cold) counterstreaming ion beams. A nonlinear equation is derived, which demonstrates...... that this instability actually evolves into such phase-space configurations. A small, but nonzero, ion-temperature turns out to be essential for the saturation into stationary structures...

  2. Ion beams replace chrome plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal ion implantation is the process of altering surface properties by bombarding with high-energy metal ions. Because the process does not produce a coating, dimensions and bulk properties of the part remain unchanged, and implanted surfaces have no problems with adhesion, residual stress, or poor microstructure. Implanted surfaces can provide wear and/or corrosion resistance comparable with, or superior to, chrome plating. Furthermore, it is a relatively low-temperature process, which enables treatment of materials such as plastics, aluminum, and low-alloy steel. Furthermore, the performance of coatings can be improved by bombarding with ions during or after the coating process. Specifically, high-energy ions applied during deposition have been shown to reduce the required temperature for physical vapor deposition (PVD) systems, overcoming one of the major obstacles to replacing chromium plating with PVD coatings. This article will review the latest advances in metal-ion implantation equipment, with particular reference to economics and applications

  3. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, T; Cee, R; Haberer, T; Naas, B; Peters, A

    2012-02-01

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed. PMID:22380336

  4. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  5. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  6. Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 μm patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations below 25 nm, an ion source which delivers a beam with energy spread of less than 3 eV is desired. For this application, multicusp ion sources are being considered. We measure the longitudinal energy spread of the plasma ions by using a two-grid electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy spread of the extracted beam is measured by a high-voltage retarding-field energy analyzer. In order to obtain the transverse ion temperature, a parallel-plate scanner is being set up to study the beam emittance. In this paper, comparisons are made for different ion source configurations

  7. Proposed LLNL electron beam ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of energetic electrons with highly charged ions is of great importance to several research fields such as astrophysics, laser fusion and magnetic fusion. In spite of this importance there are almost no measurements of electron interaction cross sections for ions more than a few times ionized. To address this problem an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) is being developed at LLNL. The device is essentially an EBIS except that it is not intended as a source of extracted ions. Instead the (variable energy) electron beam interacting with the confined ions will be used to obtain measurements of ionization cross sections, dielectronic recombination cross sections, radiative recombination cross sections, energy levels and oscillator strengths. Charge-exchange recombinaion cross sections with neutral gasses could also be measured. The goal is to produce and study elements in many different charge states up to He-like xenon and Ne-like uranium. 5 refs., 2 figs

  8. Ion beam processing of Au nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nanoelectronics a nanowire forms an elemental building block enabling a charge transfer in complex nanostructures. Ion beam etching has been applied for downsizing of prefabricated Au nanowires in the sub-50 nm linewidth regime, aiming at achieving effective cross sections of less than 10 nm. Low energy Ar+ and Ga+ ions were employed for dry ion beam etching of Au nanowires. Nanometer-precise gradual downsizing to an effective diameter as small as 9 nm has been achieved when using Ar+ ions. In contrast, the chemical nature of Ga and its surface condensation into a nanosized phase turned out to act destructively on the nanowires' morphology, hampering the process of downsizing. In the surface nanocondensate Ga was found to coexist in both solid and liquid states, exhibiting polymorphism and peculiar dynamics under ion irradiation.

  9. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  10. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  11. Industrial Application of Ion Beams in KOMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the last 5 years, we have performed extensive R and D efforts by ion beam to characterize metallic, ceramic, polymeric materials and have supported users from a broad range of institutions, including a large number of industries. So, in this study, through verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, it is going to get it started, with cooperation of participatory company, to enter into markets with developed technology and products. Through the ion beam service to users by using ion beam facilities in KOMAC, we are successfully achieved several industrial applications by ion beams. Based on verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, we hope to get it started to enter markets with developed technology and products. Ion implantation technology, which is one of ultramodern technologies, can be used in enhancing chemical and physical properties of materials, such as anti-corrosion, wear resistance and electrical conductivity. Comparing with conventional surface modification technologies, it does not generate toxic wastes, which can threaten the environment. It provides precise control of surface thickness and strong adherence of surface material. Therefore, this technology will be used in surface modification along with steady improvement of ion implantation technology

  12. Industrial Application of Ion Beams in KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesang; Lee, Chanyoung; Kim, Bomsok; Choi, Hyukjun; Kim, Yongki; Kim, Hyungjin; Park, Jaewon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    For the last 5 years, we have performed extensive R and D efforts by ion beam to characterize metallic, ceramic, polymeric materials and have supported users from a broad range of institutions, including a large number of industries. So, in this study, through verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, it is going to get it started, with cooperation of participatory company, to enter into markets with developed technology and products. Through the ion beam service to users by using ion beam facilities in KOMAC, we are successfully achieved several industrial applications by ion beams. Based on verification on the industrialization feasibility by experiments, we hope to get it started to enter markets with developed technology and products. Ion implantation technology, which is one of ultramodern technologies, can be used in enhancing chemical and physical properties of materials, such as anti-corrosion, wear resistance and electrical conductivity. Comparing with conventional surface modification technologies, it does not generate toxic wastes, which can threaten the environment. It provides precise control of surface thickness and strong adherence of surface material. Therefore, this technology will be used in surface modification along with steady improvement of ion implantation technology.

  13. The Stockholm Electron Beam Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, E.; Liljeby, L.; Engstroem, A.; Bjoerkhage, M. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1993-03-01

    The electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, produces highly charged ions for injection into the heavy ion storage ring - CRYRING at the Manne Siegbahn Institute, and for low energy atomic physics experiments. It will also provide highly charged ions for the Stockholm-Mainz Penning trap scheduled for installation at MSI in early 1993. CRYSIS has produced ions up to Ar[sup 18+] and [sup 136]Xe[sup 49+] using electron beam currents of typically I[sub e] = 200-300 mA and current density j[sub e] = 100-200 A/cm[sup 2]. Continuous electron beams of energy E = 19 keV and current I[sub e] = 600 mA have been propagated through the source with transmission greater than 99.9%. Test beams of He[sup 2+] and N[sup 7+] extracted from the source in 50-100 [mu]s pulses have been injected into CRYRING with the entire CRYSIS platform raised to 20 kV. Ions of charge up to [sup 136]Xe[sup 44+] extracted in extended 50-100 ms pulses have been used in coincidence-type atomic physics experiments. The status of CRYSIS as of March 15, 1992 is reported. Improvements, modes of operation, and results are discussed. (orig.).

  14. Ion beams in silicon processing and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General trends in integrated circuit technology toward smaller device dimensions, lower thermal budgets, and simplified processing steps present severe physical and engineering challenges to ion implantation. These challenges, together with the need for physically based models at exceedingly small dimensions, are leading to a new level of understanding of fundamental defect science in Si. In this article, we review the current status and future trends in ion implantation of Si at low and high energies with particular emphasis on areas where recent advances have been made and where further understanding is needed. Particularly interesting are the emerging approaches to defect and dopant distribution modeling, transient enhanced diffusion, high energy implantation and defect accumulation, and metal impurity gettering. Developments in the use of ion beams for analysis indicate much progress has been made in one-dimensional analysis, but that severe challenges for two-dimensional characterization remain. The breadth of ion beams in the semiconductor industry is illustrated by the successful use of focused beams for machining and repair, and the development of ion-based lithographic systems. This suite of ion beam processing, modeling, and analysis techniques will be explored both from the perspective of the emerging science issues and from the technological challenges. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Ion beam modification of buckminsterfullerene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of thin films of buckminsterfullerene (C60) to energetic xenon ion impact is investigated. The diagnostics employed include Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopies, Cross-Sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. By combining the information obtained from these diagnostics with that from the dependence of the conductivity on ion dose, it is concluded that each C60 molecule completely disintegrates when hit by an energetic ion. The cross-section for the destruction of about 7 x 10-13 cm 2 for irradiation with 620 keV Xe ions. The disintegration occurs when C atoms are knocked-out of the molecule either directly by the impinging ion or by an energetic knock-on C atom with the damage cascade. This process is quite different from the Coulomb Explosion mechanism previously proposed in the literature. For very low ions doses (11 Xe/cm2) most of the C60 molecules remain intact; however this dose is sufficient to completely disrupt the ordering of the C60 molecules in the van der Waals bonded C60 solid. Disruption of the lattice ordering at such low doses is considered to be attributable to the weakness of the van der Waals forces which bind the C60 clusters together into the molecular solid. 13 refs., 7 figs

  16. The EGFR mutation status affects the relative biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amornwichet, Napapat; Oike, Takahiro; Shibata, Atsushi; Nirodi, Chaitanya S.; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Makino, Haruhiko; Kimura, Yuka; HIROTA, YUKA; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kohno, Takashi; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) holds promise to treat inoperable locally-advanced non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), a disease poorly controlled by standard chemoradiotherapy using X-rays. Since CIRT is an extremely limited medical resource, selection of NSCLC patients likely to benefit from it is important; however, biological predictors of response to CIRT are ill-defined. The present study investigated the association between the mutational status of EGFR and KRAS, driver genes frequen...

  17. Dose reporting in ion beam therapy. Proceedings of a meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the pioneering work in Berkeley, USA, ion beam therapy for cancer treatment is at present offered in Chiba and Hyogo in Japan, and Darmstadt in Germany. Other facilities are coming close to completion or are at various stages of planning in Europe and Japan. In all these facilities, carbon ions have been selected as the ions of choice, at least in the first phase. Taking into account this fast development, the complicated technical and radiobiological research issues involved, and the hope it raises for some types of cancer patients, the IAEA and the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements (ICRU) jointly sponsored a technical meeting held in Vienna, 23-24 June 2004. That first meeting was orientated mainly towards radiobiology: the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions versus photons, and related issues. One of the main differences between ion beam therapy and other modern radiotherapy techniques (such as proton beam therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy) is related to radiobiology and in particular the increased RBE of carbon ions compared to both protons and photons (i.e., high linear energy transfer (LET) versus low LET radiation). Another important issue for international agencies and commissions, such as the IAEA and the ICRU, is a worldwide agreement and harmonisation for reporting the treatments. In order to evaluate the merits of ion beam therapy, it is essential that the treatments be reported in a similar/comparable way in all centres so that the clinical reports and protocols can be understood and interpreted without ambiguity by the radiation therapy community in general. For the last few decades, the ICRU has published several reports containing recommendations on how to report external photon beam or electron beam therapy, and brachytherapy. A report on proton beam therapy, jointly prepared by the ICRU and the IAEA, is now completed and is being published in the ICRU series. In line with this

  18. High repetition rate intense ion beam diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetically insulated ion beam diode with a gas-breakdown plasma anode has been successfully developed recently. In this paper, the authors report the experiment results of operating a version of this diode at a 1-Hz repetition rate. Intense ion beams (100ns, 200Kv and 20kA per pulse) are generated by using an inductive voltage to breakdown an annular hydrogen gas puff (8.5cm mean radius, and 160cm2 in area), and magnetically driving the resulting plasma toward a magnetically insulated accelerating gap. The high voltage pulses on the accelerating gap are supplied using two thyratron switch chassises which are connected to the diode through a series of capacitors coupled with saturable inductors. To understand the operation of the diode, the anode plasma source and the extracted ion beams are characterized by using various diagnostics

  19. Neutral Beam Ion Loss Modeling for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical model, EIGOL, has been developed to calculate the loss rate of neutral beam ions from NSTX and the resultant power density on the plasma facing components. This model follows the full gyro-orbit of the beam ions, which can be a significant fraction of the minor radius. It also includes the three-dimensional structure of the plasma facing components inside NSTX. Beam ion losses from two plasma conditions have been compared: β = 23%, q0 = 0.8, and β = 40%, q0 = 2.6. Global losses are computed to be 4% and 19%, respectively, and the power density on the rf antenna is near the maximum tolerable levels in the latter case

  20. Application of Ion Beam Processing Technology in Production of Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola G. Bannikov, Javed A. Chattha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the applicability of Ion Beam Processing Technology for making catalysts has been inves-tigated. Ceramic substrates of different shapes and metal fibre tablets were implanted by platinum ions and tested in nitrogen oxides (NOx and carbon monoxide (CO conversion reactions. Effectiveness of the implanted catalysts was compared to that of the commercially produced platinum catalysts made by impregnation. Platinum-implanted catalyst having fifteen times less platinum content showed the same CO conversion efficiency as the commercially pro-duced catalyst. It was revealed that the effectiveness of the platinum-implanted catalyst has complex dependence on the process parameters and the optimum can be achieved by varying the ions energy and the duration of implantation. Investigation of the pore structure showed that ion implantation did not decrease the specific surface area of the catalyst.Key Words: Catalyst, Ion Implantation, Noble metals.

  1. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction

  2. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sok; Lee, Chan young; Lee, Jae Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction.

  3. Ion implantation inhibits cell attachment to glassy polymeric carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implantation of MeV gold, oxygen, carbon ions into GPC alters the surface topography of GPC and enhances the already strong tendency for cells to attach to GPC. We have shown that implantation of silver ions near the surface strongly inhibits cell growth on GPC. Both enhanced adhesion of and inhibition of cell growth are desirable improvements on cardiac implants that have long been successfully fabricated from biocompatible glassy polymeric carbon (GPC). In vitro biocompatibility tests have been carried out with model cell lines to demonstrate that ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of silver, as well as silver ion bombardment, can favorably influence the surface of GPC for biomedical applications

  4. Ion beam modification of surfaces for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human life expectancy increased significantly within the last century. Hence, medical care must ever be improved. Optimizing artificial replacements such as hip joints or stents etc. is of special interest. For this purpose, new materials are constantly developed or known ones modified. This work focused on the possibility to change the chemistry and topography of biomedically relevant materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) by means of ion beam irradiation. Mass-separated ion beam deposition was used in order to synthesize DLC layers with a high sp3 content (> 70%), a sufficiently smooth surface (RMS<1 nm) and a manageable film thickness (50 nm). The chemistry of the DLC layers was changed by ion beam doping with different ion species (Ag,Ti) and concentrations. Additionally, the surface topography of silicon and titanium dioxide was altered by ion beam irradiation under non-perpendicular angle of incidence. The created periodic wave structures (so-called ripples) were characterized and their dependency on the ion energy was investigated. Moreover, ripples on silicon were covered with a thin DLC layer in order to create DLC ripples. The biocompatibility of all samples was investigated by adsorption experiments. For this purpose, human plasma fibrinogen (HPF) was used due to its ambiphilic character, which allows the protein to assume different conformations on materials with different hydrophilicities. Moreover, HPF is a crucial factor in the blood coagulation process. This work comes to the conclusion that the interaction of both, the surface chemistry and topography, has a strong influence on the adsorption behavior of HPF and thus the biocompatibility of a material. Both factors can be specifically tuned by means of ion beam irradiation.

  5. Plasma focus ion beam-scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements on plasma focus ion beams include various advanced techniques producing a variety of data which has yet to produce benchmark numbers. Recent numerical experiments using an extended version of the Lee Code has produced reference numbers and scaling trends for number and energy fluence of deuteron beams as functions of stored energy E0. At the pinch exit the ion number fluence (ions m-2) and energy fluence (J m-2) computed as 2.4-7.8×1020 and 2.2-33×106 respectively were found to be independent of E0 from 0.4 – 486 kJ. This work was extended to the ion beams for various gases. The results show that, for a given plasma focus, the fluence, flux, ion number and ion current decrease from the lightest to the heaviest gas except for trend-breaking higher values for Ar fluence and flux. The energy fluence, energy flux, power flow and damage factors are relatively constant from H2 to N2 but increase for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe due to radiative cooling and collapse effects. This paper reviews this work and in a concluding section attempts to put the accumulating large amounts of data into the form of a scaling law of beam energy Ebeam versus storage energy E0 taking the form for deuteron as: Ebeam = 18.2E01.23; where Ebeam is in J and E0 is in kJ. It is hoped that the establishment of such scaling laws places on a firm footing the reference quantitative ideas for plasma focus ion beams. (author)

  6. Ion beam shaping and downsizing of nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a new approach for progressive and well-controlled downsizing of nanostructures below the 10 nm scale. A low energetic ion beam (Ar+) is used for gentle surface erosion, progressively shrinking the dimensions with ∼1 nm accuracy. The method enables shaping of the nanostructure geometry and polishing of the surface. The process is clean room/high vacuum compatible being suitable for various applications. Apart from technological advantages, the method enables the study of various size phenomena on the same sample between sessions of ion beam treatment

  7. Ion beam irradiated optical channel waveguides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Banyasz, I.; Rajta, I.; Nagy, G. U. L.; Zolnai, Z.; Havránek, Vladimír; Pelli, S.; Veres, M.; Himics, L.; Berneschi, S.; Nunzi-Conti, G.; Righini, G. C.

    Vol. 8988. Washington: SPIE International, 2014, s. 898814. ISBN 978-0-8194-9901-1. ISSN 0277-786X. [Conference on Integrated Optics - Devices, materials, and Technologies XVIII. San Francisco (US), 03.02.2014-05.02.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : channel optical waveguides * ion beam irradiation * Er-doped tungsten-tellurite glass * bismuth germanate * SRIM simulation * phase contrast microscopy * micro Raman spectroscopy * focused ion beam Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  8. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T.

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  9. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M.

    2009-01-29

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  10. Generation of monoenergetic ion beams with a laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the generation of monoenergetic proton and ion beams from a laser-based particle accelerator is presented. This method utilizes the unique space-charge effects occurring during relativistic laser-plasma interactions on solid targets in combination with a dot-like particle source. Due to this unique interaction geometry, MeV proton beams with an intrinsically narrow energy spectrum were obtained, for the first time, from a micrometer-scale laser accelerator. Over the past three years, the acceleration scheme has been consistently improved to enhance both the maximum particle energy and the reliability of the setup. The achieved degree of reliability allowed to derive the first scaling laws specifically for monoenergetic proton beams. Furthermore, the acceleration scheme was expanded on other target materials, enabling the generation of monoenergetic carbon beams. The experimental work was strongly supported by the parallel development of a complex theoretical model, which fully accounts for the observations and is in excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The presented results have an extraordinarily broad scope way beyond the current thesis: The availability of monoenergetic ion beams from a compact laser-plasma beam source - in conjunction with the unique properties of laser-produced particle beams - addresses a number of outstanding applications in fundamental research, material science and medical physics, and will help to shape a new generation of accelerators. (orig.)

  11. Improvong alloys exploitation characteristics under powerful ion beams action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods of positron annihilation, X-ray diffraction analysis, mass spectroscopy of secondary ions, Auger-electron spectroscopy and metallographic investigations were used to study structures of high-speed R6M5 steel, T14K8 hard alloy and KNT-16, TN-20 tungsten-free alloys, irradiated by heavy-current carbon ion beams. Modified layer of complex structure of 50-100 mm thickness forms on the surface of samples under investigation irradiated by powerful ion beam. All structural changes taking place in the layer result to improvement of alloy exploitation characteristics: 1.5-2 time increase of microhardness and 2.2-3.5 time elevation of resistance to cutting as compared to reference check samples

  12. The effect of heavy-ion beams for tumor metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of carbon-ion beams (C-ions) for metastatic potential of malignant melanomas. B16/BL6 cells, a mouse malignant melanoma cell line having highly metastatic potential, were exposed to heavy-ion beams (C-ions) or photon beams (X-rays or γ-rays) in vitro or in vivo conditions. Survival curves showed higher cytotoxic effects of C-ions than X-rays. The abilities of migration, invasion and adhesion were significantly suppressed by C-ions with increment of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) values, however a part of those abilities enhanced by X-rays at low dose range (0.5-1.0 Gy) compared with controls. Interestingly, the enhancement ratios for the metastatic potentials, migration, invasion and adhesion were higher than those for cell killing. Local tumors implanted into right leg of mice (7.5±0.5 mm) were irradiated with C-ions (290 MeV/u, 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP)) or γ-rays (137Cs). Lung metastatic nodules arise from local tumors was counted as metastasis after irradiation. The metastasis was suppressed by radiations depending on the physical dose, and the effect of C-ions was significant. Additionally, the surviving fraction of each cell in a tumor was obtained by in vivo-in vitro assay, and biological equivalent dose were estimated. C-ions also significantly suppressed metastatic fraction compared with γ-rays when the metastasis was re-analyzed using the equivalent dose. It might suggest that C-ion inhibit metastasis at radiotherapy compared with low-LET photons. (author)

  13. Ion-beam channeling in a quasicrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Marchie van Voorthuysen, E.H.; Smulders, P.J.M. (Vakgroep Nucleaire Vaste Stof Fysica, University of Groningen, Westersingel 34, NL 9718 CM Groningen (Netherlands)); Werkman, R.D. (Vakgroep Vaste Stof Fysica, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 18, NL 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)); de Boer, J.L.; van Smaalen, S. (Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 16, NL 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands))

    1992-05-01

    We have observed ion-beam channeling in a quasicrystal. For 1-MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} ions in icosahedral Al-Cu-Fe the maximum effect found is 36%. The full width at half maximum of the observed dips is 1.3{degree}. The effect persists up to great depths ({gt}200 nm), thus showing a high degree of ordering in this phase.

  14. Concept design of a radioactive ion beam thick target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept design procedure of a thick target used in generating Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) is described. The harsh terms of target material and temperature condition for this purpose are discussed, and several kinds of candidate target materials are listed. Design of a carbon target matrix and its water cooling heat-sink system, and calculation of three-dimensional temperature distributions of the target system are given. The result shows that the thick target has a capacity to receive proton beam of power up to 14 kW, meanwhile its temperature can be maintained at 1300∼2000 degree C. (3 refs., 6 figs.)

  15. Modelling beam transport and biological effectiveness to develop treatment planning for ion beam radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Grzanka, Leszek

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy with carbon ions is a novel technique of cancer radiotherapy, applicable in particular to treating radioresistant tumours at difficult localisations. Therapy planning, where the medical physicist, following the medical prescription, finds the optimum distribution of cancer cells to be inactivated by their irradiation over the tumour volume, is a basic procedure of cancer radiotherapy. The main difficulty encountered in therapy planning for ion radiotherapy is to correctly account for the enhanced radiobiological effectiveness of ions in the Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) region over the tumour volume. In this case, unlike in conventional radiotherapy with photon beams, achieving a uniform dose distribution over the tumour volume does not imply achieving uniform cancer cell inactivation. In this thesis, an algorithm of the basic element (kernel) of a treatment planning system (TPS) for carbon ion therapy is developed. The algorithm consists of a radiobiological part which suitably corrects for ...

  16. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodali, P.

    1998-01-01

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness.

  17. Mechanical and tribological properties of ion beam-processed surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of this work was to broaden the applications of well-established surface modification techniques and to elucidate the various wear mechanisms that occur in sliding contact of ion-beam processed surfaces. The investigation included characterization and evaluation of coatings and modified surfaces synthesized by three surface engineering methods; namely, beam-line ion implantation, plasma-source ion implantation, and DC magnetron sputtering. Correlation among measured properties such as surface hardness, fracture toughness, and wear behavior was also examined. This dissertation focused on the following areas of research: (1) investigating the mechanical and tribological properties of mixed implantation of carbon and nitrogen into single crystal silicon by beam-line implantation; (2) characterizing the mechanical and tribological properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings processed by plasma source ion implantation; and (3) developing and evaluating metastable boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) compound coatings for mechanical and tribological properties. The surface hardness of a mixed carbon-nitrogen implant sample improved significantly compared to the unimplanted sample. However, the enhancement in the wear factor of this sample was found to be less significant than carbon-implanted samples. The presence of nitrogen might be responsible for the degraded wear behavior since nitrogen-implantation alone resulted in no improvement in the wear factor. DLC coatings have low friction, low wear factor, and high hardness. The fracture toughness of DLC coatings has been estimated for the first time. The wear mechanism in DLC coatings investigated with a ruby slider under a contact stress of 1 GPa was determined to be plastic deformation. The preliminary data on metastable BCN compound coatings indicated high friction, low wear factor, and high hardness

  18. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  19. Substrate heating measurements in pulsed ion beam film deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J.C.; Davis, H.A.; Rej, D.J.; Waganaar, W.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tallant, D.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Materials Science and Engineering Dept.; Thompson, M.O. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) films have been deposited at Los Alamos National Laboratory by pulsed ion beam ablation of graphite targets. The targets were illuminated by an intense beam of hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen ions at a fluence of 15-45 J/cm{sup 2}. Ion energies were on the order of 350 keV, with beam current rising to 35 kA over a 400 ns ion current pulse. Raman spectra of the deposited films indicate an increasing ratio of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} bonding as the substrate is moved further away from the target and further off the target normal. Using a thin film platinum resistor at varying positions, we have measured the heating of the substrate surface due to the kinetic energy and heat of condensation of the ablated material. This information is used to determine if substrate heating is responsible for the lack of DLC in positions close to the target and near the target normal. Latest data and analysis will be presented.

  20. Negative ion beam formation, transport and acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The BNL Neutral Beam Development Group is working on the development of negative ion based neutral beam systems, using high current density surface plasma sources of the magnetron and hollow cathode discharge (HCD) type. With the magnetron source, the plan is to transport a 2A D/sup -/ beam through a bending magnet before acceleration to 200 keV. In experiments with a pulsed magnetron, 0.4A of H/sup -/ was transported through a 90/sup 0/, n = 1, bending magnet with 80% transmission. With the lower operating pressure in the HCD source, close coupled acceleration will be applied. The MEQALAC, RFQ, and a dc accelerating scheme with periodic quadrupole focusing are considered for reaching higher energies. A preliminary experiment was performed with quadrupole beam transport and a 3.8 mA beam was transported through a series of twelve quadrupoles, with 3 mm apertures and a total length of 7.2 cm.

  1. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xi, E-mail: chenxi@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Heidbrink, W. W. [University of California Irvine, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hanson, J. M. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  2. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O7+ and 1.15 emA of O6+, more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar13+, Ca13+, Fe13+, Co14+ and Kr18+, and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr26+, Xe28+, Au35+, Bi34+ and U34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe36+, Au46+, Bi47+ and U48+. An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  3. Electron-beam diagnostic for space-charge measurement of an ion beam

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Shuman, Derek B.; Ludvig, Jozsef; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Waldron, William L.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Vanecek, David L.; Hannink, Ryan; Amezcua, Monserrat

    2003-01-01

    An electron beam diagnostic system for measuring the charge distribution of an ion beam without changing its properties is presently under development for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) beam physics studies. Conventional diagnostics require temporary insertion of sensors into the beam, but these capture it, or significantly alter its properties. In this new diagnostic a low energy, low current electron beam is scanned transversely across the ion beam; the measured electron beam deflection is use...

  4. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  5. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  6. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4. PMID:26932119

  7. Study of ion beam mixing in Pt/Co bilayer by ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam mixing of the Pt/Co bilayers (400 A/700 A) were carried out using 600 keV Pt+ ions with fluences ranging from 1 x 1015 ions/cm2 to 1.2 x 1016 ions/cm2 at room temperature. The sputtering of top Pt layer and the diffusion of platinum and cobalt caused by the ion beam at the interface were revealed by RBS. The interface broadening variance for each fluence was extracted from the RBS spectra after subtracting the contribution to broadening variance due to surface roughness as measured by AFM. The linear dependence of interface broadening variance with fluence shows that ion beam mixing is diffusion controlled in Pt/Co bilayers

  8. Realization of a scanning ion beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this thesis, a scanning ion beam monitor has been developed in order to measure on-line fluence spatial distributions. This monitor is composed of an ionization chamber, Hall Effect sensors and a scintillator. The ionization chamber set between the beam exit and the experiment measures the ion rate. The beam spot is localized thanks to the Hall Effect sensors set near the beam sweeping magnets. The scintillator is used with a photomultiplier tube to calibrate the ionization chamber and with an imaging device to calibrate the Hall Effect sensors. This monitor was developed to control the beam lines of a radiobiology dedicated experimentation room at GANIL. These experiments are held in the context of the research in hadron-therapy. As a matter of fact, this new cancer treatment technique is based on ion irradiations and therefore demands accurate knowledge about the relation between the dose deposit in biological samples and the induced effects. To be effective, these studies require an on-line control of the fluence. The monitor has been tested with different beams at GANIL. Fluence can be measured with a relative precision of ±4% for a dose rate ranging between 1 mGy/s and 2 Gy/s. Once permanently set on the beam lines dedicated to radiobiology at GANIL, this monitor will enable users to control the fluence spatial distribution for each irradiation. The scintillator and the imaging device are also used to control the position, the spot shape and the energy of different beams such as those used for hadron-therapy. (author)

  9. Laser spectroscopy on the heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the presented report the perspectives of the study of the electric charge and current space distributions in the nuclei by laser spectroscopy methods on the beams of the fast multiple charged ions are discussed. The calculations of both the level energies and widths in the H-like and He-like ions and of the isotopic shifts and hyperfine splitting in the optical spectra of these ions are performed. The project of the experimental set-up for these measurements is considered. (author)

  10. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-03-01

    Achieving the ultimate limits of lithographic resolution and material performance necessitates engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. With the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of 2D materials, such as graphene-based nanoelectronics, is coming to the forefront as a tool for fabrication and surface manipulation. However, the effects of using a Ne focused-ion-beam on the fidelity of structures created out of 2D materials have yet to be explored. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene nanostructures and explore their mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we are able to ascertain changes in the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of Ne+ beam milled graphene nanostructures and surrounding regions. Additionally, we are able to link localized defects around the milled graphene to ion milling parameters such as dwell time and number of beam passes in order to characterize the induced changes in mechanical and electromechanical properties of the graphene surface.

  11. Ion beam deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium hydroxyapatite has been sputtered on glass and Ti-6Al-4V substrates using a 1.5 kV argon ion beam. The films have been examined by X- ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and adhesion testing. Results of this experimentation are presented

  12. Nanopillar Fabrication with Focused Ion Beam Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuzmin, Oleksii V.; Pei, Yutao T.; De Hosson, Jeff T. M.

    2014-01-01

    A versatile method to fabricate taper-free micro-/nanopillars of large aspect ratio was developed with focused ion beam (FIB) cutting. The key features of the fabrication are a FIB with an incident angle of 90 degrees to the long axis of the pillar that enables milling of the pillar sideways avoidin

  13. Ion-electron recombination in merged-beams experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis, studies of recombination processes applying the technique of merged beams of fast ions and electrons are described. The main advantage of this technique is that the low relative velocity of ions and electrons necessary for these investigations can be achieved, at the same time as the velocity of the ions relative to the molecules of the residual gas is high. The high ion velocity leads to a very low reaction cross section for the leading contribution to the background signal, the capture of electrons in collisions with residual gas molecules. The experimental technique is described, emphasizing the electron beam velocity distribution and its relation to the energy resolution of the experiments. The presentation of the process of electron cooling is aimed at introducing this process as a tool for merged-beams experiments in storage rings rather than investigating the process itself. The non-resonant process of radiative recombination for non-fully stripped ions, showing evidence of incomplete screening is presented. Experimental investigation of dielectronic recombination is presented. Results of measurements of this process for He-like ions form the Aarhus single-pass experiment and the Heidelberg storage ring experiment are compared. Recombination is reduced from being the aim of the investigation to being a tool for high-precision measurements of the lifetimes of the 1s2s 3S metastable states of HE-like ions of boron, carbon, and nitrogen, performed at the Heidelberg storage ring. The experiment is concerned with the process of dissociative recombination of molecular hydrogen ions. The discussion of this experiment emphasizes the distribution of population on the different vibrational levels of the ions in the initial state. In particular, a laser photo-dissociation technique was introduced to reduce the number of initial levels in the experiment. (EG) 24 refs

  14. MedAustron - Ion-Beam Therapy and Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MedAustron is a synchrotron-based light-ion beam therapy center for cancer treatment as well as for clinical and non-clinical research, currently in the commissioning phase in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. Recently, the first proton beam was transported successfully to one of the four irradiation rooms. Whilst the choice of basic machine parameters was driven by medical requirements, i.e. 60 MeV protons and 120 MeV/A to 400 MeV/A carbon ions, the accelerator complex design was also optimized to offer flexibility for research operation. The potential of the synchrotron is being exploited to increase the maximum proton energy far beyond the medical needs to up to 800 MeV, for experimental physics applications, mainly in the areas of proton scattering and detector research. The accelerator layout allows for the installation of up to four ion source-spectrometer units, to provide various ion types besides the clinical used protons and carbon ions. Besides experimental physics, the two main non-clinical research disciplines are medical radiation physics and radiation biology. To decouple research and medical operation, a dedicated irradiation room for non-clinical research was included providing the installation of different experiments. In addition, several labs have been equipped with appropriate devices for preparing and analyzing radio-biological samples. This presentation gives a status overview over the whole project and highlights the non-clinical research opportunities at MedAustron. (Author)

  15. Effect of heavy ion beams on intratumoral radioresistant tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the radiobiological effect of heavy ion beams on radioresistant and radiosensitive human tumor cells. Tumors of human origin, an ependymoblastoma (EB) with wild-type (wt) p53, a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) with wt p53, and a glioblastoma (GB) with mutant-type (mt) p53, were transplanted to nude mice, and the mice were irradiated with carbon ion beams (290 MeV/u) or 200 kV X-rays. Tumors were excised 4, 6, or 24 hours after 2 Gy irradiation. A part of each tumor was fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin. Thin sections were stained with H.E., GFAP or TUNEL for microscopic study. Total RNA was extracted for cDNA microarray analysis. In wt-p53 tumors, apoptosis increased 4 or 6 hours after irradiation. The tumors with wt-p53 showed significant changes in gene expression following 2 Gy irradiation. Pathway analysis of up- and down-regulated genes demonstrated that apoptosis, p53 signaling pathway, and cell cycle are involved significantly. There was little difference between the gene expression profiles induced by carbon ion beams and those by X-rays. In contrast, the tumor with mt-p53 showed much less change in gene expression after 2 Gy irradiation. But, the tumor showed significant changes 4, 6, or 24 hours after 8 Gy or 16 Gy irradiation, and the gene expression profiles induced by carbon ion beams were different from those by X-rays. p53, caspases, Fas, and TRAIL were not involved in the pathways, but NF-kB and IAP were suggested to be involved. (author)

  16. 4He2+ and H2+ ion beam separation on ''Sokol'' IBA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two separation methods of 4He2+ and H2+ ion beams have been tested on ''Sokol'' IBA facility of NSC KIPT: use of existing beam-bending magnet and electrostatic analyzer, dissociation of H2+ ions when the beam passes through the carbon film. It is shown that these methods allow to decrease essentially the H2+ ion content in the 4He2+ beam.

  17. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88double-prime Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured

  19. Storage rings for radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, F.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Steck, M.

    2008-10-01

    Storage rings for radioactive heavy ions can be applied for a wide range of experiments in atomic and nuclear physics. The rare isotope beams are produced in flight via fragmentation or fission of high-intensity primary ions and they circulate in the storage ring at moderately relativistic energies (typically between 0.1 GeV/u up to 1 GeV/u). Due to their production mechanism they are usually highly charged or even fully stripped. The circulating radioactive heavy ion beams can be used to measure nuclear properties such as masses and decay times, which, in turn, can depend strongly on the ionic charge state. The storage rings must have large acceptances and dynamic apertures. The subsequent application of stochastic precooling of the secondary ions which are injected with large transverse and longitudinal emittances, and electron cooling to reach very high phase space densities has turned out to be a helpful tool for experiments with short-lived ions having lifetimes down to a few seconds. Some of these experiments have already been performed at the experimental storage ring ESR at GSI. The storage ring complex of the FAIR project is intended to enhance significantly the range of experimental possibilities. It is planned to extend the scope of experimental possibilities to collisions with electron or antiproton beams.

  20. Laser-cooled bunched ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, J.P.; Hangst, J.S.; Nielsen, J.S. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In collaboration with the Arhus group, the laser cooling of a beam bunched by an rf electrode was investigated at the ASTRID storage ring. A single laser is used for unidirectional cooling, since the longitudinal velocity of the beam will undergo {open_quotes}synchrotron oscillations{close_quotes} and the ions are trapped in velocity space. As the cooling proceeds the velocity spread of the beam, as well as the bunch length is measured. The bunch length decreases to the point where it is limited only by the Coulomb repulsion between ions. The measured length is slightly (20-30%) smaller than the calculated limit for a cold beam. This may be the accuracy of the measurement, or may indicate that the beam still has a large transverse temperature so that the longitudinal repulsion is less than would be expected from an absolutely cold beam. Simulations suggest that the coupling between transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom is strong -- but this issue will have to be resolved by further measurements.

  1. A comparison study between atomic and ionic nitrogen doped carbon films prepared by ion beam assisted cathode arc deposition at various pulse frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison study of microstructure and bonds composition of carbon nitride (CNx) films fabricated at atomic and ionic nitrogen source by pulse cathode arc method was presented. The relative fractions of CN/CC bonds, N-sp3C/N-sp2C and graphite-like/pyridine-like N bonding configurations in the CN films were evaluated by combining C1s and N1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with the hardness and optical band gap measurement. The dependence of microstructure (quantity, size and disordering degree of Csp2 clusters) of CNx films on the nitrogen source and pulse frequency was determined by Raman spectroscopy. Films with high atomic ratio of nitrogen/carbon (0.17) and high hardness were produced at ionic nitrogen source and low pulse frequency. The results showed that ionic nitrogen source facilitated the formation of CN bonds and N-sp2C bonding configurations (mainly in graphite-like N form). Moreover presenting an optimum pulse frequency (∼10 Hz) leaded to the most nitrogen coordinated with sp3-C and the highest ratio of CN/CC bonds in the CNx films. An equilibrium action mechanism might exist between the quantity and energy of carbon and nitrogen ions/atoms, giving more nitrogen-incorporated carbon materials. These allow us to obtain the high content of N-Csp3 bonding and expected bonding structure by optimizing pulse frequency and nitrogen source.

  2. Structural changes in bunched crystalline ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the spatial distribution of bunched crystalline ion beams in the radio frequency quadrupole storage ring PALLAS are presented for different ratios of the longitudinal and the transverse confinement strengths. The length of highly elongated crystalline ion bunches and its dependence on the bunching voltage is compared to predictions for a one-dimensional ion string and three-dimensional space-charge-dominated beams. The length is found to be considerably shorter than that predicted by the models. Furthermore, the scaling of the length with the bunching voltage is shown to differ from the expected inverse cube root scaling. These differences can partially be attributed to the formation of a mixed crystalline structure. Additionally, a concise mapping of the structural transition from a string to a zig-zag configuration as a function of the ratio of the confinement strengths is presented, which in a similar way deviates from the predictions

  3. Structural changes in bunched crystalline ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, M; Schätz, T; Habs, D

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the spatial distribution of bunched crystalline ion beams in the radio frequency quadrupole storage ring PALLAS are presented for different ratios of the longitudinal and the transverse confinement strengths. The length of highly elongated crystalline ion bunches and its dependence on the bunching voltage is compared to predictions for a one-dimensional ion string and three-dimensional space-charge-dominated beams. The length is found to be considerably shorter than that predicted by the models. Furthermore, the scaling of the length with the bunching voltage is shown to differ from the expected inverse cube root scaling. These differences can partially be attributed to the formation of a mixed crystalline structure. Additionally, a concise mapping of the structural transition from a string to a zig-zag configuration as a function of the ratio of the confinement strengths is presented, which in a similar way deviates from the predictions.

  4. Isobar Separators for Radioactive Ion Beam Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, J D; Wollnik, H

    1998-10-05

    A radioactive ion beam facility - in short a RIB facility - produces ions of short-lived nuclei and accelerates them to energies of 0.1...10 MeV per nucleon or even higher. In this process it is important that the resulting RIB beams are free from nuclei of neighboring isobars or of neighboring elements. This task requires the production and ionization of the nuclei of interest as well as separating them from all others with a high-mass resolving power and small-mass cross contaminations. When constructing such a facility it also is very important to find ways that allow the accelerated ions to be provided to different experiments at least quasi simultaneously.

  5. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  6. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  7. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  8. Ions kinematics in an electrostatic ion beam trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2004-06-01

    In this study, I have tried to provide a better understanding of the dynamics of ions inside an electrostatic ion beam trap. The electrostatic ion trap allows to store ions moving between two electrostatic mirrors. Although the trap has been developed already seven years ago, no direct measurement of the transversal velocity distribution of the ions has been performed. Such quantity is central for understanding the conditions under which a beam should be produced (mainly emittance) in order to be trapped by such a device. The data I have obtained during the course of this work are based on an experimental technique which relies on the direct imaging of the particles exiting the trap, as well as on numerical simulations of the ion trajectories inside the trap. I have personally been involved in the hardware development of the imaging system, the data acquisition and analysis of the data as well as il all numerical calculations presented here. These results allow us to obtain, for the first time, experimental information on the transverse phase space of the trap, and contribute to the overall understanding of the ion motion in this system. (author)

  9. Ion beam induced adhesion improvement of metal layers - a comparative study on composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adhesion of thin layers of metals like Al, Cu, Cr, Ti etc. on polymer, ceramic or composite substrates is of great importance for microelectronics (printed circuits, packaging), and materials science. Therefore investigations on the adhesion improvement of copper on high temperature thermoplasts, carbon fibre reinforced polymers (CFK) and pure carbon by ion bombardment were undertaken. Ion beam mixing as well as ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) was applied. It was shown that the electronic stopping power is the most important parameter for adhesion in the case of ion beam mixing by non-reactive ions. Reactive ions, especially metals, add an important chemical effect when stopped near the interface. IBAD Cu-layers have only good adhesion properties when prepared by low energy ion bombardment or with reactive intermediate layers. ((orig.))

  10. Mobile ions on carbonate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Treavor A.; Martin, Scot T.

    2005-07-01

    Surface ions move during the dissolution and growth of minerals. The present study investigates the density and the mobility of surface ions and the structure of the adsorbed water layer with changes in relative humidity (RH). The time evolution of the polarization force, which is induced by an electrically biased tip of an atomic force microscope, shows that the density and the mobility of surface ions increase with rising humidity, a finding which is consistent with increasing surface hydration. A marked change in the observations above 55% RH indicates a transition from a water layer formed by heteroepitaxial two-dimensional growth at low RH to one formed by multilayer three-dimensional growth at high RH. A comparison of the results of several rhombohedral carbonates ( viz. CaCO 3, FeCO 3, ZnCO 3, MgCO 3, and MnCO 3) shows that a long relaxation time of the polarization force at high RH is predictive of a rapid dissolution rate. This finding is rationalized by long lifetimes in terrace positions and hence greater opportunities for detachment of the ion to aqueous solution (i.e., dissolution). Our findings on the density and the mobility of surface ions therefore help to better constrain mechanistic models of hydration, ion exchange, and dissolution/growth.

  11. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  12. Dosimetry auditing procedure with alanine dosimeters for light ion beam therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ableitinger, Alexander; Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Herrmann, Rochus;

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose In the next few years the number of facilities providing ion beam therapy with scanning beams will increase. An auditing process based on an end-to-end test (including CT imaging, planning and dose delivery) could help new ion therapy centres to validate their entire logistic...... chain of radiation delivery. An end-to-end procedure was designed and tested in both scanned proton and carbon ion beams, which may also serve as a dosimetric credentialing procedure for clinical trials in the future. The developed procedure is focused only on physical dose delivery and the validation...... of about 3%. Conclusions Alanine dosimeters are suitable detectors for dosimetry audits in ion beam therapy and the presented end-to-end test is feasible. If further studies show similar results, this dosimetric audit could be implemented as a credentialing procedure for clinical proton and carbon beam...

  13. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  14. Evaluation of the specific damage induced by heavy-ion beams on human hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To clarify the effects of X-ray or heavy-ion beams on the myeloid differentiation pathways from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), the CD34''+ cells derived from human placental/umbilical cord blood were exposed to X-irradiation (0.5 Gy and 1.5 Gy) or monoenergetic carbon-ion beams (linear energy transfer (LET)=50 keV/μm, 0.5 Gy and 1.5 Gy), and then were assayed for their surviving fraction stimulated with five cytokine combination (G-CSF + GM-CSF + IL-3 + SCF + EPO). In addition, the exposed cells were cultured in serum-free medium supplemented with same cytokine for 14 days. The total progenitor cells, colony-forming cells (CFC) including granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, erythroid progenitors and granulocyte-erythroid-macrophage-megakaryocyte progenitors were assessed. All progenitors were far more sensitive to carbon-ion beams than to X-rays. In addition, the number of total mononuclear cells that could be expanded by liquid culture was significantly decreased in carbon-ion beam-irradiated cells compared to X-irradiated cells. However, no significant difference was observed in the cell surface antigens expressed on the generated cells derived from X-irradiated cells and carbon-ion beam-irradiated cells. These results showed that carbon-ion beams inflicted severe damage on their clonogenic potential of myeloid HSPCs; however, no significant influence was observed on the differentiation pathway. (author)

  15. Allotropic conversion of carbon-related films by using energy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy beams such as ion and laser beams are employed to convert of C60 molecules into another carbon allotropes. The ion beam deposition (IBD) technique is effective to study the nucleation process by changing several growth parameters (beam energy, substrate temperature and ion species). The 12CHx+ (x = 0-4) ions with different energies (50-200 eV) are incident on two kinds of substrates (Si(111) and Ir(100)/MgO(100)) at room temperature and 700 deg C. Immersed nanosize diamonds are found in amorphous films in all cases. The topological features obtained in IBD are compared with laser processing experiments

  16. Applications of ion beam analysis workshop. Workshop handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on applications of ion beam analysis was held at ANSTO, immediate prior to the IBMM-95 Conference in Canberra. It aims was to review developments and current status on use of ion beams for analysis, emphasizing the following aspects: fundamental ion beam research and secondary effects of ion beams; material sciences, geological, life sciences, environmental and industrial applications; computing codes for use in accelerator research; high energy heavy ion scattering and recoil; recent technological development using ion beams. The handbook contains the workshop's program, 29 abstracts and a list of participants

  17. Robust Collimation Control of Laser-Generated Ion Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Kawata, S; Takano, M.; Kamiyama, D.; T. Nagashima; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, X; Yu, Q; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of a structured collimation device is discussed for an intense-laser-produced ion beam. In this paper the ion beam collimation is realized by the solid structured collimation device, which produces the transverse electric field; the electric field contributes to reduce the ion beam transverse velocity and collimate the ion beam. Our 2.5 dimensional particle-in cell simulations demonstrate that the collimation device is rather robust against the changes in the laser parameters a...

  18. Fast Laser Cooling of Long Lived Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.; Osipov, A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Some peculiarities of fast laser cooling of long-lived ion beams in storage rings are discussed. Selective interaction of ions and broadband laser beam with sharp frequency and geometric edges is used while laser and ion beams are partially overlapped. The rates of change of the ion beam density in different regions of the phase space and at different moments of time in this scheme of cooling differ. That is why the generalized Robinson theorem valid for the infinitesimal phase space regions ...

  19. High intensity ion beam injection into the 88-inch cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Wutte, Daniela; Clark, Dave J.; Laune, Bernard; Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2000-01-01

    Low cross section experiments to produce super-heavy elements have increased the demand for high intensity heavy ion beams at energies of about 5 MeV/nucleon at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Therefore, efforts are underway to increase the overall ion beam transmission through the axial injection line and the cyclotron. The ion beam emittance has been measured for various ion masses and charge states. Beam transport simulations including space charge ...

  20. Ion beam emittance from an ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spädtke, P., E-mail: p.spaedtke@gsi.de; Lang, R.; Mäder, J.; Maimone, F.; Schlei, B. R.; Tinschert, K. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt (Germany); Biri, S.; Rácz, R. [MTA Atomki, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    Simulation of ion beam extraction from an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) is a fully 3 dimensional problem, even if the extraction geometry has cylindrical symmetry. Because of the strong magnetic flux density, not only the electrons are magnetized but also the Larmor radius of ions is much smaller than the geometrical dimension of the plasma chamber (Ø 64 × 179 mm). If we assume that the influence of collisions is small on the path of particles, we can do particle tracking through the plasma if the initial coordinates of particles are known. We generated starting coordinates of plasma ions by simulation of the plasma electrons, accelerated stochastically by the 14.5 GHz radio frequency power fed to the plasma. With that we were able to investigate the influence of different electron energies on the extracted beam. Using these assumptions, we can reproduce the experimental results obtained 10 years ago, where we monitored the beam profile with the help of viewing targets. Additionally, methods have been developed to investigate arbitrary 2D cuts of the 6D phase space. To this date, we are able to discuss full 4D information. Currently, we extend our analysis tool towards 5D and 6D, respectively.

  1. Elastic recoil detection using heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elastic Recoil Detection using heavy ion projectile beams allows compositional depth-profiling of materials to a depth of about 2.5 μm. The technique is sensitive to all chemical elements including hydrogen. It is particularly suited for the analysis of thin film materials. Large solid-angle position-sensitive gas ionization detectors have been developed for the efficient detection of the recoil ions. With the set-up at the Australian National University, measurement and analysis are greatly simplified by using a new detector design. A grid electrode allows a direct determination of the ion energy, while a divided anode enables the simultaneous detection of ions with largely different atomic numbers and also provides linear position information. A diverse spectrum of materials has been analyzed including photosensitive doped silica, high-Tc superconductors and dielectric films

  2. Fuel Target Implosion in Ion beam Inertial Confinement Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    The numerical results for the fuel target implosion are presented in order to clarify the target physics in ion beam inertial fusion. The numerical analyses are performed for a direct-driven ion beam target. In the paper the following issues are studied: the beam obliquely incidence on the target surface, the plasma effect on the beam-stopping power, the beam particle energy, the beam time duration, the target radius, the beam input energy and the non-uniformity effect on the fuel target performance. In this paper the beam ions are protons.

  3. Ion beam analytical techniques in atmospheric aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion beam analytical facility has been developed for application to atmospheric aerosol samples. It combines Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA). Elemental concentrations for elements heavier than silicon are determined with PIXE, with minimum detection limits of the order of 1 ng/cm2. Hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are determined with PESA. Minimum detection limits are 100, 15, 10 and 350 ng/cm2, respectively. Evaporative losses during analysis were investigated. The problem mainly applies to the light elements, such as elements present in organic compounds of relatively high saturation vapour pressure. The analytical facility, an external beam setup, allows a helium atmosphere to surround the sample. Quantitative analysis for compounds with saturation vapour pressure below about 10-5 torr (room temperature) is possible. A method for chemical speciation using multi-elemental ion beam techniques and thermography is presented; Ion Beam Thermography (IBT). Utilizing elemental thermal data and stoichiometry, chemical speciation is obtained. The influence of distant aerosol sources in southern Sweden was investigated using a three-station network. Multivariate statistical evaluation, based on SIMCA, revealed an elemental composition size dependence in the accumulation mode. The results indicate that transformation processes are more important than emission sources for the covariation of sulphur. A technique for the identification of outliers in a data set is presented, which is based on a three-step multivariate statistical evaluation. (author)

  4. Ion beam biotechnology and its application to maize breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid of 1980's, ion beam had been widely used in mutagenic breeding of various crops. Ion beam biotechnology had provided a new way for improving corn variety and creating new germplasm resources, and had promoted the development of maize breeding. The ion beam characteristics, the mutagenic mechanism and its application in maize breeding were described. (authors)

  5. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Kumar; G Rodrigues; U K Rao; C P Safvan; D Kanjilal; A Roy

    2002-11-01

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion beams ranging from a few keV to a few MeV for research in materials sciences, atomic and molecular physics is described. One of the important features of this facility is the availability of relatively large currents of multiply charged positive ions from an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source placed entirely on a high voltage platform. All the electronic and vacuum systems related to the ECR source including 10 GHz ultra high frequency (UHF) transmitter, high voltage power supplies for extractor and Einzel lens are placed on a high voltage platform. All the equipments are controlled using a personal computer at ground potential through optical fibers for high voltage isolation. Some of the experimental facilities available are also described.

  6. Decaborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development program is under way to develop steady-state intense ion sources for the two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low-energy boron beams are investigated using a decaborane compound [I. Yamada, W. L. Brown, J. A. Northby, and M. Sosnowski, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 79, 223 (1993)]. Presented here are the results from ITEP experiments using the Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated LaB6 cathode

  7. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  8. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented. PMID:20192366

  9. Neutralized ion beam modification of cellulose membranes for study of ion charge effect on ion-beam-induced DNA transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakrajang, K., E-mail: k.prakrajang@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sangwijit, K.; Anuntalabhochai, S. [Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanichapichart, P. [Membrane Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkla 90110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuld@fnrf.science.cmu.ac.th [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2012-02-01

    Low-energy ion beam biotechnology (IBBT) has recently been rapidly developed worldwide. Ion-beam-induced DNA transfer is one of the important applications of IBBT. However, mechanisms involved in this application are not yet well understood. In this study plasma-neutralized ion beam was applied to investigate ion charge effect on induction of DNA transfer. Argon ion beam at 7.5 keV was neutralized by RF-driven plasma in the beam path and then bombarded cellulose membranes which were used as the mimetic plant cell envelope. Electrical properties such as impedance and capacitance of the membranes were measured after the bombardment. An in vitro experiment on plasmid DNA transfer through the cellulose membrane was followed up. The results showed that the ion charge input played an important role in the impedance and capacitance changes which would affect DNA transfer. Generally speaking, neutral particle beam bombardment of biologic cells was more effective in inducing DNA transfer than charged ion beam bombardment.

  10. Electron Beam Ion Trap and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaming

    2013-03-01

    Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT), initially developed at LLNL, are sophisticated devices capable of acting both as highly charged ion (HCI) light sources and ion sources. As a HCI light source, they can basically provide light from emission states of any charge state of any element in the periodic table, hence almost unique for spectroscopic research. Furthermore, the emitting ions are almost at rest compared to those produced by heavy ion accelerators or storage rings, much less bothered with Doppler shifts and line broadening. Because of its flexibility in producing various ions, it is very good for studies along iso-electronic sequences, and along iso-nuclear charge sequences to reveal physical properties behind experimental phenomenon. In an EBIT, a thin plasma can be formed with basically any elements, and more important with almost mono-energy electrons. On top of this, the electron energy can be tuned in the range of few hundreds eV to above one hundred keV. This property made it possible to use an EBIT for detail studies of processes in hot plasmas, so as to make disentangling studies of hot plasmas and to assist plasma diagnostics for temperature, density, electromagnetic field, as well as ion moving...

  11. Ion beam therapy fundamentals, technology, clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The book provides a detailed, up-to-date account of the basics, the technology, and the clinical use of ion beams for radiation therapy. Theoretical background, technical components, and patient treatment schemes are delineated by the leading experts that helped to develop this field from a research niche to its current highly sophisticated and powerful clinical treatment level used to the benefit of cancer patients worldwide. Rather than being a side-by-side collection of articles, this book consists of related chapters. It is a common achievement by 76 experts from around the world. Their expertise reflects the diversity of the field with radiation therapy, medical and accelerator physics, radiobiology, computer science, engineering, and health economics. The book addresses a similarly broad audience ranging from professionals that need to know more about this novel treatment modality or consider to enter the field of ion beam therapy as a researcher. However, it is also written for the interested public an...

  12. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency

  13. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  14. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  15. Electron cooling of heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to the concept of phase-space compression of heavy-ion beams by electron cooling is given. Emphasis is put on a simple rather than a rigorous theoretical treatment of the underlying ideas. Some practical aspects are discussed in connection with a presentation of the designed cooling device for the ESR project of GSI Darmstadt. The problems of cooling-electron capture are briefly addressed. (HSI)

  16. Opportunities with accelerated Radioactive Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of the exciting and rapidly developing field of accelerated Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) production for nuclear and astrophysics research is presented. In particular, some scientific opportunities with RIBs are highlighted, the methods of RIB production are reviewed, and the existing and proposed facilities for this research are described. In addition, the ORNL RIB project, the only funded ISOL project employing an electrostatic accelerator, is described in some detail

  17. An undergraduate ion beam analysis laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope College (in Holland, Michigan) purchased a 1.7 MV tandem pelletron with nuclear micro-probe capability with funding from the US National Science Foundation in 2004. The purpose of this facility is to perform publishable research in a variety of applied fields, and to provide educational opportunities and sophisticated technical training for undergraduates that will enter the workforce in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Hope College has two senior investigators with experience in nuclear science and expertise with accelerators, and an institution with approximately 3200 undergraduates. The college also has a rich history of involving undergraduates in research and producing future Ph.D. scientists. The facility was installed and commissioned in October, 2004 and since that time hundreds of separate ion beam analysis experiments have been performed in fields as diverse as solid state physics, biochemistry, forensic science, electrochemistry, environmental science, mineralogy and palaeontology. Over 90% of the work has involved on-campus collaborations between different faculty members, and there are already over 50 different undergraduate research students that have been involved in ion beam analysis research. There are six manuscripts published or in press from this facility, with more than two dozen undergraduate co-authors. During the first four years, the facility has been operated entirely with undergraduates and a single technician who was trained to help maintain the facility. We have recently added a post-doctoral fellow to our research group to help with the large number of students that are interested in the research projects that have become possible with the new ion beam analysis facility. A brief tour of our facility and an overview of some of the successful research projects will be presented, plus some insights into best operating practices we have learned for maintaining a productive an ion beam analysis facility at an

  18. Measurement of ultra-low ion energy of decelerated ion beam using a deflecting electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thopan, P.; Suwannakachorn, D.; Tippawan, U.; Yu, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    In investigation on ultra-low-energy ion bombardment effect on DNA, an ion beam deceleration lens was developed for high-quality ultra-low-energy ion beam. Measurement of the ion energy after deceleration was necessary to confirm the ion beam really decelerated as theoretically predicted. In contrast to conventional methods, this work used a simple deflecting electrostatic field after the deceleration lens to bend the ion beam. The beam bending distance depended on the ion energy and was described and simulated. A system for the measurement of the ion beam energy was constructed. It consisted of a pair of parallel electrode plates to generate the deflecting electrical field, a copper rod measurement piece to detect ion beam current, a vernier caliper to mark the beam position, a stepping motor to translate the measurement rod, and a webcam-camera to read the beam bending distance. The entire system was installed after the ion-beam deceleration lens inside the large chamber of the bioengineering vertical ion beam line. Moving the measurement rod across the decelerated ion beam enabled to obtain beam profiles, from which the beam bending distance could be known and the ion beam energy could be calculated. The measurement results were in good agreement with theoretical and simulated results.

  19. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The longitudinal wall impedance instability is of great interest for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver because complete stabilization of this mode via momentum spread is impractical due to requirements of focusing the beam onto the inertial confinement fusion target. This instability is being studied with the WARPrz particle-in-cell code. The impedance of the induction linac modules is modeled as a wall impedance corresponding to a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel. We discuss simulations of the this instability, including reflections of perturbations off the beam end and the effects of finite temperature, and simulations of errors in intermittently-applied axial confining fields as a seed for this instability. We also present very long simulations in which we look for beam equilibria

  20. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to 1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that meeting were asked if they were interested in rewriting and extending their contributions as a submission to Nuclear Fusion. Technology papers were accepted because of the very nature of the subject. The submissions underwent the regular double-referee peer-review process

  1. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.; Donets, E. E.; Katagiri, K.; Noda, K.; Ponkin, D. O.; Ramzdorf, A. Yu.; Salnikov, V. V.; Shutov, V. B.

    2015-08-01

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 1010 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5 × 109 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 1011 C6+ ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the 11C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C4+ ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of 11C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated 11C4+ beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the 11C4+ beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.

  2. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, A. L.; Chen, J. E. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y. [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H{sup +} beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H{sup −} ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  3. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A. L.; Peng, S. X.; Ren, H. T.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, J. F.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2016-02-01

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H+ beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H- beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H- ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results.

  4. Study on space charge compensation in negative hydrogen ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative hydrogen ion beam can be compensated by the trapping of ions into the beam potential. When the beam propagates through a neutral gas, these ions arise due to gas ionization by the beam ions. However, the high neutral gas pressure may cause serious negative hydrogen ion beam loss, while low neutral gas pressure may lead to ion-ion instability and decompensation. To better understand the space charge compensation processes within a negative hydrogen beam, experimental study and numerical simulation were carried out at Peking University (PKU). The simulation code for negative hydrogen ion beam is improved from a 2D particle-in-cell-Monte Carlo collision code which has been successfully applied to H+ beam compensated with Ar gas. Impacts among ions, electrons, and neutral gases in negative hydrogen beam compensation processes are carefully treated. The results of the beam simulations were compared with current and emittance measurements of an H− beam from a 2.45 GHz microwave driven H− ion source in PKU. Compensation gas was injected directly into the beam transport region to modify the space charge compensation degree. The experimental results were in good agreement with the simulation results

  5. Two-beam type IH-RFQ linear accelerator for low-energy and high intensity heavy ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a two-beam type IH-RFQ (Interdigital H type Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac system to proof the principle of a multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac in Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology. The multi-beam type RFQ linac has several beam channels in a cavity for accelerating high intensity and low energy heavy ion beams. The developed system consists of a two-beam type IH-RFQ cavity as a prototype of the multi-beam type cavity, a two-beam type laser ion source with DPIS (Direct Plasma Injection Scheme) and beam analyzers mainly. A a result of the beam acceleration test, the linac system accelerates carbon ions from 5 keV/u to 60 keV/u and generates about 108 mA (2x54 mA/channel) in the total output current. In this paper, we describe the development of the linac system and some results of the beam acceleration test. (author)

  6. Ion accumulation and space charge neutralization in intensive electron beams for ion sources and electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS), Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT) and electron beams for electron cooling application have the beam parameters in the same ranges of magnitudes. EBIS and EBIT produce and accumulate ions in the beam due to electron impact ionization. The cooling electron beam accumulates positive ions from the residual gas in the accelerator chamber during the cooling cycle. The space charge neutralization of cooling beam is also used to reduce the electron energy spread and enhance the cooling ability. The advanced results of experimental investigations and theoretical models of the EBIS electron beams are applied to analyze the problem of beam neutralization in the electron cooling techniques. The report presents the analysis of the most important processes connected with ion production, accumulation and losses in the intensive electron beams of ion sources and electron cooling systems for proton and ion colliders. The inelastic and elastic collision processes of charged particles in the electron beams are considered. The inelastic processes such as ionization, charge exchange and recombination change the charge states of ions and neutral atoms in the beam. The elastic Coulomb collisions change the energy of particles and cause the energy redistribution among components in the electron-ion beams. The characteristic times and specific features of ionization, beam neutralization, ion heating and loss in the ion sources and electron cooling beams are determined. The dependence of negative potential in the beam cross section on neutralization factor is studied. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. Carbon ion radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) is the world's first heavy ion accelerator complex dedicated to medical use in a hospital environment. Carbon ion therapy offers the potential advantages of improved dose localization and enhanced biological effects. It has been suggested that carbon ion therapy is effective against radioresistant pancreatic cancer. In April 2000, clinical studies examining the treatment of pancreatic cancer with carbon ions were begun at the HIMAC. As of February 2010, 48 patients treated with preoperative carbon ion radiotherapy and 89 patients treated for locally advanced pancreatic cancer were enrolled into the clinical trials. Both protocols are still ongoing. The interim results of these clinical trials suggest that carbon ion radiotherapy provides good local control and offers a survival advantage for patients with otherwise hard to cure pancreatic cancer, without unacceptable morbidity. (author)

  8. Ion Beam Shepherd for Contactless Space Debris Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Bombardelli, C.; Pelaez, J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel concept for contactless active removal of large space debris is proposed exploiting the use of a high-speed targeted ion beam. The ion beam shepherd spacecraft (IBS) is equipped with an electric propulsion system generating a quasi-neutral plasma pointed against the space debris to remotely modify its orbit without physical contact with the latter. The beam shepherd must be equipped with a secondary propulsion system which counteracts the reaction force exerted by the ion beam hence k...

  9. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  10. The use of ion beam techniques in catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has become increasingly obvious recently that ion beam methods can make a significant contribution to the preparation and characterisation of heterogeneous catalysts. Normally such catalysts are composed of one or more metals or compounds dispersed over a high surface area support material, such as alumina or silica. It is important to be able to measure the relative concentrations of the catalytic components (and any associated impurities) over the support, and, to some extent, within the support. Proton Induced X-ray Emission is particularly appropriate for this purpose. It may be used also to identify the presence of poisoning elements which have been responsible for catalyst deactivation. However, one of the most common causes of catalyst deactivation is carbon deposition on to its exposed surfaces. In this case, a particularly useful diagnostic technique is Prompt Nuclear Activation Analysis, since it can be rendered specific for carbon to the exclusion of other associated elements. So far as catalyst preparation is concerned, there are of course many conventional chemical routes: for example, these may involve impregnating the support with suitable catalytic metal salts, thereby utilising the high surface area properties of the support to create the dispersion of the catalytic elements. However, it has now been realised that two ion beam techniques, namely ion implantation and sputtering, provide an alternative method of producing novel catalysts

  11. Preliminary Results of Ion Beam Extraction Tests on EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡纯栋

    2012-01-01

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system is one of the most important auxiliary plasma heating and current driving methods for fusion device. A high power ion beam of 3 MW with 80 keV beam energy in 0.5 s beam duration and a long pulse ion beam of 4 s with 50 keV beam energy ion beam extraction were achieved on the EAST neutral beam injector on the teststand. The preliminary results show that the EAST-NBI system was developed successfully on schedule.

  12. Carbon ion radiotherapy for sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of heavy ion therapy, its application to bone and soft tissue sarcomas and outline of its general state are described. The heavy ion therapy has advantages of its high dose distribution to the target and strong biological effect due to the Bragg peak formation and high linear energy transfer, respectively. The authors use carbon ion generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for the therapy of performance state 0-2 patients with the sarcomas unresectable, diagnosed pathologically, and of 60 y, 45% and teens, 8%) have been treated, whose tumor site has been the pelvis in 73%, volume >600 mL in 63%, tissue type of bone tumor in 70% (where cordoma has amounted to>200 cases). Five-year local control rate is found 71% and survival, 59%. In 175 therapeutically fresh cases with sacral cordoma of median age 67 y, with median clinical target volume 9 cm, treated with median dose 70.4 GyE/16 irradiations, the 8-y local control rate is found to be 69% and survival, 74%, within the median follow-up 54 months; with severe skin ulcer in 2 cases and deterioration of nervous dysfunction in 15 cases; suggesting the therapy is as effective and useful as surgical resection. At present, the therapy is not applicable to Japan health insurance. In the author's hospital, the heavy ion therapy has been conducted to total of >6,000 patients, which amounting to the largest number in the world. Now, 3 Japanese facilities can do the therapy as well and 3 countries in the world.(T.T.)

  13. Carbon ion radiotherapy for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams in the treatment of choroidal melanoma, with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Between January 2001 and August 2006, 67 patients with locally advanced or unfavorable-site choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Fifty-nine of the patients were followed up for more than 6 months and analyzed. Twenty-three patients (39%) developed neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 3 of them underwent enucleation because of the eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. The incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died by the date of analysis, 3 of distant metastasis and 2 of intercurrent diseases. All patients but one, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Eight patients developed distant metastasis, 5 in the liver and 3 in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 87.1%, 81.6%, and 98.0%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed either in tumor control or in normal tissue morbidity with the dose range applied. C-ion RT can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient anti-tumor effect, even in tumors of unfavorable size or site. (author)

  14. Persistent ion beam induced conductivity in zinc oxide nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes, Andreas; Niepelt, Raphael; Gnauck, Martin; Ronning, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    We report persistently increased conduction in ZnO nanowires irradiated by ion beam with various ion energies and species. This effect is shown to be related to the already known persistent photo conduction in ZnO and dubbed persistent ion beam induced conduction. Both effects show similar excitation efficiency, decay rates, and chemical sensitivity. Persistent ion beam induced conduction will potentially allow countable (i.e., single dopant) implantation in ZnO nanostructures and other mater...

  15. Accelerated ion beams for in-beam e-gamma spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio, JS; Vieu, C; Schuck, C; Meunier, R; Ledu, D; Lafoux, A; Lagrange, JM; Pautrat, M; Waast, B; Phillips, WR; Varley, BJ; Durell, JL; Dagnall, PG; Dorning, SJ; Jones, MA; Smith, AG; Bacelar, JCS; Rzaca-Urban, T; Folger, H; Vanhorenbeeck, J; Urban, W

    1998-01-01

    A few accelerated ion beam requirements for in-beam e-gamma spectroscopy are briefly reviewed as well as several features of the MP Tandem accelerator of IPN-Orsay and the accelerated ion-beam transport devices leading to the experimental area of in-beam e-gamma spectroscopy. In particular, the main

  16. Mutagenic effects of nitrogen and carbon ions on stevia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry seeds of stevia were implanted by 60∼100 keV nitrogen ion and 75 keV carbon ion with various doses. The biological effects in M1 and mutation in M2 were studied. The results showed that ion beam was able to induce variation on chromosome structure and inhibited mitosis action in root tip cells. The rate of cells with chromosome aberration was increased with the increase of ion beam energy and dose. Energy effects of mitosis were presented between 75 keV and 60, 100 keV. As compared with γ-rays, the effects of ion beam were lower on chromosomal aberration but were higher on frequency of the mutation. The rate of cell with chromosome aberration and M2 useful mutation induced by implantation of carbon ion was higher than those induced by implantation of nitrogen ion. Mutagenic effects of Feng1 x Ri Yuan and of Ri Yuan x Feng2 are higher than that of Ji Ning and Feng2

  17. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  18. Development of ion/proton beam equipment for industrial uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Lee, J. H.; Cho, Y. S.; Joo, P. K.; Kang, S. S.; Song, W. S.; Kim, H. J.; Chang, G. H.; Bang, S. W

    1999-12-01

    KAERI has possessed design and fabrication technologies of various ion sources including Duoplasmatron and DuoPiGatron developed by R and D projects of the long-term nuclear technology development program. In order to industrialize ion beam equipments utilizing these ion sources, a technology transfer project for a technology transfer project for a domestic firm has been performed. Under this project, engineers of the firm have been trained through classroom lectures of ion beam principles and OJT, an ion/proton beam equipment (DEMO equipment) has been designed, assembled and commissioned jointly with the engineers. Quality of the ion sources has been quantified, and technologies for ion beam equipment construction, functional test and application research have been developed. The DEMO equipment, which consists of an ion source, power supplies, vacuum, cooling and target systems, has been fabricated and tested to secure stability and reliability for industrial uses. Various characteristic tests including high voltage insulation, beam extraction, beam current measuring, etc. have been performed. This DEMO can be utilized for ion sources development as well as ion beam process development for various industrial products. Engineers of the firm have been trained for the industrialization of ion beam equipment and joined in beam application technology development to create industrial needs of beam equipment. (author)

  19. Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹文龙; 郭忠言; 刘冠华; 党建荣; 何锐荣; 周嗣信; 尹全民; 罗亦孝; 王义芳; 魏宝文; 孙志宇; 肖国青; 王金川; 江山红; 李加兴; 孟祥伟; 张万生; 秦礼军; 王全进

    1999-01-01

    Radioactive ion beam line in Lanzhou (RIBLL) has been constructed for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei and studies of exotic nuclei far from the β-stability line. It has been put into operation recently at the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator Lanzhou. RIBLL consists of two doubly achromatic parts with a solid acceptance ΔΩ≥6.5 msr, momentum acceptance Δp/p=±5% and maximum magnetic rigidity Bρmax=4.2 Tm. The second part of RIBLL serving as a spectrometer gives an element resolution Z/ΔZ>150 and mass resolution A/ΔA>300. The polarized secondary beams can be obtained by using a swinger dipole magnet to change the incident direction of primary projectile from 0°to 5°. The shortest lift time for secondary beams on RIBLL is less than 1μs. First experiments were performed with neutron rich nuclei for understanding the properties of halo nuclei and exotic nuclear reactions.

  20. Getting Ready for Ion-Beam Therapy Research in Austria - Building-up Research in Parallel with a Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With participation in ion-beam projects funded nationally or by the European Commission (EC), ion-beam research activities were started at the Medical University of Vienna in parallel with the design and construction of the ion-beam center MedAustron in Wiener Neustadt, 50 km from the Austrian capital. The current medical radiation physics research activities that will be presented comprise: (1) Dose calculation and optimization: ion-beam centers focus mostly on proton and carbon-ion therapy. However, there are other ion species with great potential for clinical applications. Helium ions are currently under investigation from a theoretical physics and biology perspective. (2) Image guided and adaptive ion-beam therapy: organ motion and anatomic changes have a severe influence in ion-beam therapy since variations in heterogeneity along the beam path have a significant impact on the particle range. Ongoing research focuses on possibilities to account for temporal variations of the anatomy during radiotherapy. Both during and between fractions also considering temporal variations in tumor biology. Furthermore, research focuses on particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) verification and the detection of prompt gammas for on-line verification of ion-beam delivery. (3) Basic and applied dosimetry: an end-to-end procedure was designed and successfully tested in both scanned proton and carbon-ion beams, which may also serve as a dosimetric credentialing procedure for clinical trials in the future. (Author)

  1. Plasma beam discharge in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the dissociation of carbon dioxide in nonequilibrium plasma of a stationary plasma-beam discharge. Experimental results of spectroscopic and probe measurements of plasma parameters are given. Moreover, a mass-spectrometric analysis of gaseous products of the chemical reactions is presented. In addition the measurement of the deposition rate of solid products by means of a quartz oscillator is described. The results show that plasma beam discharge is an effective tool for inducing plasma-chemical reactions. (author)

  2. A design of a rotating gantry for non-symmetric ion-therapy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, M

    1999-01-01

    An ion-optical design of a gantry for transport of ion beams having different emittances in the horizontal and vertical plane is presented. The ion-optical constraints making the beam spot at the gantry exit independent from the angle of gantry rotation are derived analytically. The generally formulated constraints are applied to an isocentric normal-conducting gantry transporting the beams with maximum beam rigidity of 6.6 Tm (e.g. 430 MeV/u carbon beam with a penetration range of 30 cm in water). The gantry is equipped with a two-direction magnetic raster scanning system. The ion-optical properties of the gantry are illustrated by computer simulations performed by the TRANSPORT code.

  3. Wien filter for cooled low-energy radioactive ion beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nummela, S; Dendooven, P; Heikkinen, P; Huikari, J; Nieminen, A; Jokinen, A; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubchenya, V.; Aysto, J

    2002-01-01

    A Wien filter for cooled radioactive ion beams has been designed at Ion Guide Isotope Separator On Line technique (IGISOL). The purpose of such device is to eliminate doubly charged ions from the mass separated singly charged ions, based on q = +2-->q = +1 charge exchange process in an ion cooler, T

  4. A radioactive ion beam facility using photofission

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, W T

    1999-01-01

    Use of a high-power electron linac as the driver accelerator for a Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility is proposed. An electron beam of 30 MeV and 100 kW can produce nearly 5x10 sup 1 sup 3 fissions/s from an optimized sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U target and about 60% of this from a natural uranium target. An electron beam can be readily transmitted through a thin window at the exit of the accelerator vacuum system and transported a short distance through air to a water-cooled Bremsstrahlung-production target. The Bremsstrahlung radiation can, in turn, be transported through air to the isotope-production target. This separates the accelerator vacuum system, the Bremsstrahlung target and the isotope-production target, reducing remote handling problems. The electron beam can be scanned over a large target area to reduce the power density on both the Bremsstrahlung and isotope-production targets. These features address one of the most pressing technological challenges of a high-power RIB facility, namely the production o...

  5. Evolution of particle beam technique ion beams for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 1,000 patients have been treated with carbon ions emerged from a medical synchrotron HIMAC. The treated patients had tumors in head and neck area, lung, liver, prostate, uterus, and other parts of body. Clinical studies show excellent results and the side effects are kept at extremely low levels. This paper describes a brief history of radiation therapy developed during the 20th Century, provides an outline of the theoretical background of radiation therapy, and shows the recent results of carbon therapy performed at National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS. The paper describes other facilities for charged particle therapy developed in this country and in other parts of the world. (author)

  6. Nuclear fragmentation of high-energy light-ion beams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light-ion beams ranging between carbon and neon with energies of a few hundred MeV/u offer favorable conditions for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. Nuclear fragmentation experiments are presented to study favorable therapy beams simultaneously in thick water target. Comparative measurements with 10B, 12C, 14N, 16O beams are described. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 4 figs

  7. Challenges of fabricating plasmonic and photonic structures with Neon ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leißner, Till; Fiutowski, Jacek; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.;

    -established electron beam lithography and focussed ion beam milling (FIB) using Gallium ions. These techniques, however, are to some extend limited in their resolution, and in addition Gallium and Carbon are implanted and deposited into the plasmonic structures during FIB process, potentially changing plasmonic...... properties. We are currently studying the capabilities of focussed Helium and Neon ion beam milling for the fabricating of plasmonic and photonic devices. We found that Neon ion beam milling enables us to prepare plasmonic structures, such as trenches (see Fig. 1) and V-grooves without doping and alloying...... effects specific to Galium FIB. Neon FIB milling is superior to Helium FIB milling in terms of the processing speed and smaller levels of implanted ions. From our perspective it is the most promising technique for the fabrication of individual plasmonic devices with a few nanometers precision. The main...

  8. Carbon Fiber Damage in Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Kroyer, T; Meyer, M; Sapinski, M

    2011-01-01

    Carbon fibers are commonly used as moving targets in beam wire scanners. The heating of the fiber due to energy loss of the particles travelling through is simulated with Geant4. The heating induced by the beam electromagnetic field is estimated with ANSYS. The heat transfer and sublimation processes are modelled. Due to the model nonlinearity, a numerical approach based on discretization of the wire movement is used to solve it for particular beams. Radiation damage to the fiber is estimated with SRIM. The model is tested with available SPS and LEP data and a dedicated damage test on the SPS beam is performed followed by a post-mortem analysis of the wire remnants. Predictions for the LHC beams are made.

  9. Fast ignition driven by quasi-monoenergetic ions: Optimal ion type and reduction of ignition energies with an ion beam array

    CERN Document Server

    Honrubia, J J; Hegelich, B M; Murakami, M; Enriquez, C D

    2014-01-01

    Fast ignition of inertial fusion targets driven by quasi-monoenergetic ion beams is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Light and intermediate ions such as lithium, carbon, aluminium and vanadium have been considered. Simulations show that the minimum ignition energies of an ideal configuration of compressed Deuterium-Tritium are almost independent on the ion atomic number. However, they are obtained for increasing ion energies, which scale, approximately, as Z^2, where Z is the ion atomic number. Assuming that the ion beam can be focused into 10 {\\mu}m spots, a new irradiation scheme is proposed to reduce the ignition energies. The combination of intermediate Z ions, such as 5.5 GeV vanadium, and the new irradiation scheme allows a reduction of the number of ions required for ignition by, roughly, three orders of magnitude when compared with the standard proton fast ignition scheme.

  10. High spin studies with radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variety of new research possibilities afforded by the culmination of the two frontier areas of nuclear structure: high spin and studies far from nuclear stability (utilizing intense radioactive ion beams) are discussed. Topics presented include: new regions of exotic nuclear shape (e.g. superdeformation, hyperdeformation, and reflection-asymmetric shapes); the population of and consequences of populating exotic nuclear configurations; and complete spectroscopy (i.e. the overlap of state of the art low-and high-spin studies in the same nucleus)

  11. Ion beam surface treatment: A new technique for thermally modifying surfaces using intense, pulsed ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinnett, R.W.; Buchheit, R.G.; Neau, E.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The emerging capability to produce high average power (10--300 kW) pulsed ion beams at 0.2{minus}2 MeV energies is enabling us to develop a new, commercial-scale thermal surface treatment technology called Ion Beam Surface Treatment (IBEST). This new technique uses high energy, pulsed ({le}500 ns) ion beams to directly deposit energy in the top 1--20 micrometers of the surface of any material. The depth of treatment is controllable by varying the ion energy and species. Deposition of the energy in a thin surface layer allows melft of the layer with relatively small energies (1--10J/cm2) and allows rapid cooling of the melted layer by thermal conduction into the underlying substrate. Typical cooling rates of this process (109 K/sec) are sufficient to cause amorphous layer formation and the production of non-equilibrium microstructures (nanocrystalline and metastable phases). Results from initial experiments confirm surface hardening, amorphous layer and nanocrystalline grain size formation, corrosion resistance in stainless steel and aluminum, metal surface polishing, controlled melt of ceramic surfaces, and surface cleaning and oxide layer removal as well as surface ablation and redeposition. These results follow other encouraging results obtained previously in Russia using single pulse ion beam systems. Potential commercialization of this surface treatment capability is made possible by the combination of two new technologies, a new repetitive high energy pulsed power capability (0.2{minus}2MV, 25--50 kA, 60 ns, 120 Hz) developed at SNL, and a new repetitive ion beam system developed at Cornell University.

  12. Electron temperature effects for an ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrogen high temperature plasma up to 200 eV is produced by acceleration of electrons in a hot hollow cathode discharge and is used as an ion beam source. Then, two characteristics are observed: A rate of the atomic ion (H+) number increases above 70%. A perveance of the ion beam increases above 30 times compared with that of a cold plasma, while a floating potential of an ion acceleration electrode approaches an ion acceleration potential (- 500 V) according as an increment of the electron temperature. Moreover, a neutralized ion beam can be produced by only the negative floating electrode without an external power supply. (author)

  13. Fuel Target Implosion in Ion beam Inertial Confinement Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    The numerical results for the fuel target implosion are presented in order to clarify the target physics in ion beam inertial fusion. The numerical analyses are performed for a direct-driven ion beam target. In the paper the following issues are studied: the beam obliquely incidence on the target surface, the plasma effect on the beam-stopping power, the beam particle energy, the beam time duration, the target radius, the beam input energy and the non-uniformity effect on the fuel target perf...

  14. Role of nitric oxide radicals in tumor and normal tissue responses against heavy ion-beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether radioadaptive responses were induced after irradiation with accelerated ion beams. To investigate whether apoptosis was induced in the unirradiated tissues by radiation-induced bystander responses after irradiation of mice with accelerated ion beams. Human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells transfected with wild-type p53 (H1299/wtp53 cells) were used. The cells were irradiated with accelerated neon (400 MeV/u, 31 keV/μm), carbon (290 MeV/u, 70 keV/μm), or iron (500 MeV/u, 200 keV/μm) ion beams. Then, the cells were allowed forming colonies. ICR male mice (Jcl: ICR) were used. The mice were irradiated on 2 days with accelerated carbon ion beams (290 MeV/u, 13 keV/μm) or argon ion beams (500 MeV/u, 90 keV/μm). The intestine and testis were excised 2 days after the last irradiation. These excised tissues were fixed, embedded in paraffin and made of thin-sections on slide glasses. Then the thin-sections of tissues were stained by the TUNEL method. A significant radioresistance of cells was observed when the cells were challengingly irradiated after the priming irradiation with accelerate neon or iron ion beams. These responses were mimicked by the treatment with nitric oxide generator, ISDN. A significant reduction of mutation rate of the hprt gene was observed when the cells were challengingly irradiated after the priming irradiation with accelerate neon or iron ion beams. This reduction was partially suppressed by NO radical scavenger, carboxy-PTIO. The apoptotic cells were obviously observed in unirradiated intestine and testis when mice were irradiated with carbon or argon ion beams across the upper body. The apoptosis as bystander response were partially suppressed by carboxy-PTIO into the peritoneal cavity. (author)

  15. Ion-beam-assisted deposition and ion beam synthesis of wear resistant coatings on technical surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ion implanter with a non-mass-separated ion beam, already used for experiments as well as industrial applications, was equipped with an electron-gun evaporator to allow for simultaneous or sequential implantation and coating. Using this equipment, ion-beam-assited deposition (IBAD) of different layers, and in particular the formation of layers of TiN on steel with very good adhesion, was possible. To produce TiN, titanium was evaporated and nitrogen was implanted. The maximum growth rate of the TiN films was 1 nm s-1. Examinations showed superior wear properties in comparison with ion-plated layers and an unusual high Knoop microhardness. Under certain experimental conditions, the stoichiometric ratio was found to be 1:1 even if the ion density was varied slightly, making the IBAD process easily controllable. The layers did not have the yellow color typical of ion-plated TiN layers but were neutral gray. Nevertheless, electron diffraction investigations confirmed the typical crystalline structure of TiN. Analytical investigations were performed and compared with those of ion-plated TiN. Details of the equipment, including operation conditions, as well as experimental results of film properties will be reported. (orig.)

  16. Focused ion beam irradiation effects on nanoscale freestanding thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focused ion beam (FIB) technique is a versatile tool for nanoscale manipulation, deposition and etching. However, degradation mechanisms which lead to residual stresses in materials exposed to high-energy ion beams are not well understood. In this study, we examine the evolution of residual stresses in 100 nm thick freestanding aluminum films subjected to typical ion beam exposures within a commercial FIB tool. Experimental results show that the magnitude of the residual stresses increase with cumulative ion beam exposure and that upper limits are attainable. Further investigation demonstrates that a decrease in ion beam current at constant acceleration-voltage augments the upper limits, which manifests itself in greater residual stresses. The stress gradients in thin films develop from surface modifications in the form of amorphous top layers, which are modeled as bilayer approximations. Experimental observations and analysis indicate that ion beam exposure effects on the mechanical properties of nanoscale thin films and nanostructures cannot be ignored

  17. Carbon nanostructures produced through ion irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Several nanostructures we produced by ion irradiation have been reviewed in this paper. By using ions to irradiate two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene targets respectively, it was found that small fullerenes C20 and C26 were grown, adding two members to the fullerene family. Meanwhile, crystalline diamonds also have been produced by Ar+ ions irradiation of graphite. In the experiment of double ions Ni+ and Ar+ irradiation, nanoscale argon bubbles formed. On the other side, when multi-wall carbon nanotubes were irradiated by C+, many MWCNTs evolved to amorphous carbon nanowires and amorphous carbon nanotubes. And there are possible welding in the crossed nanotubes.

  18. 9. Heavy ion beam driver and its interactions with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers 15 articles whose titles are: 1) Perspectives of the GSI accelerator complex (Darmstadt, Germany) for fusion driver studies, 2) Energy loss of 6 MeV/u 56Fe ions in Z-pinch helium plasma as a function of charge state and plasma density, 3) Creation of high-energy-density matter using intense beams of energetic heavy ions, 4) Space resolved charge state distribution of fast ions inside matter, 5) Beam final transport and focusing in heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion, 6) Beam-plasma interaction study with laser plasma induced from solid hydrogen, 7) Magnetized cylindrical targets for heavy ion fusion, 8) Beam-plasma experiments at Riken, 9) Repetitive induction module for ion acceleration, 10) Simulations of recent and future experiments on heating of rare gas solid by heavy ions, 11) Charge-changing processes of low-energy heavy ions in a dense non-hydrogenic plasma, 12) Development of high-brightness ion sources using moderate power lasers, 13) Induction beam buncher for relativistic heavy ion beams, 14) Simple calculation of surface layer thickness of various IFE reactor candidate material ablated by high fluence X-ray, and 15) Hydro processes in high temperature dense plasma under the impact of intense ion beams

  19. Important atomic physics issues for ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper suggests several current atomic physics questions important to ion beam fusion. Among the topics discussed are beam transport, beam-target interaction, and reactor design. The major part of the report is discussion concerning areas of research necessary to better understand beam-target interactions

  20. Exploration of using CT values for treatment planning system to calculate the carbon ion incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the methods of using CT value for Carbon ion treatment planning system to calculate the Carbon ion incident energy. Methods: Bethe-Block formula and the formula for calculating the Car- bon ion range were analyzed to study the relationship of the range of Carbon ion beam (Single nuclear energy 80 MeV -50 MeV) in a variety of radiation equivalent material and the range of this energy Carbon ion beam in water. Procedure of Monte Carlo SRIM 2008 was used to verify the possibility of a constant range of proportional coefficient (Ci). The range of proportional coefficient (Ci) of radiation equivalent material and the CT value were fitted through Origin 8.0 software to study the of CT value and the range of proportional coefficient (Ci). The actual range of Carbon ion is equivalent to a range of water to incident Carbon ion energy. Results: There is a constant range of proportional coefficient (Ci) of the range of Carbon ion beam (Single nuclear energy 80 MeV ∼50 MeV) in a variety of radiation equivalent material and the range of this energy Carbon ion beam in water. There is a of CT value and the range of proportional coefficient (Ci) (r=0.999). The actual range of Carbon ion in radiation equivalent material can be equivalent to a range of the water. Conclusion: In this study, using CT values and a range of proportional coefficient (Ci), the actual required range of the tumor can accurately calculate the water equivalent range, and incident Carbon ion energy to the of Bragg peak. By the study, a new exploration for using CT technology, for Carbon ion treatment planning system was obtained. (authors)

  1. Ion beam modification of biomedical polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research aiming at the application to medical materials by reforming polymers by ion beam irradiation began several years ago. The endowment of such properties as antithrombus, cell adhesion, antibacteria and so on has been reported, but as to the effect that the properties of materials exert to the interaction of living body tissues with the artificial materials, there are many unknown parts. The analyses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were carried out on the surface layer structures of polydimethyl siloxane which shows antithrombus property, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane which show cell adhesion property, collagen and the polystyrene coated with gelatine which show cell non adhesion property by ion beam irradiation, and their interaction with living body tissues was compared and examined. The development of the artificial internal organs at present in use owes much to the development of materials, however, still satisfactory material does not exist. The most urgently demanded property of materials is antithrombus. The results of the above analyses are reported. At present the considerable design of materials has become feasible, such as the ligand and receptor between living body tissues and artificial materials. Present surface analysis technology is steadily in progress. (K.I.)

  2. Rare ion beam development activity at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) post-accelerator type Rare Ion Beam (RIB) Facility has been developed at the Bidhan Nagar campus of VECC. The facility has been built around the K=130 room temperature cyclotron as the primary/driver accelerator. The RIBs are produced by bombarding thick targets with proton or alpha beam from the cyclotron. The reaction products are ionized and the RIB of interest is selected in an on-line isotope separator. The energy of the RIB at this stage is around 1.7 keV/u. The RIB is then accelerated in a series of linear accelerators : a heavy ion Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and two IH LINACS operating at 37.8 MHz followed by three more IH LINACS operating at 75.6 MHz. The transverse focusing during acceleration is achieved by quadrupoles and longitudinal focusing by five rebunching cavities and first two accelerating gaps in the fifth LINAC. A charge stripper will be used to increase the charge state of 415 keV/u ions after the third LINAC cavity. The RFQ and first three LINACS are designed for (charge to mass ratio) q/A2≥1/14 and later on for q/A2 ≥ 1/7. The beam energy at the end of the fifth IH cavity will be around 1.04 MeV/u. Further acceleration up to 2 MeV/u is planned using super-conducting Quarter Wave Resonators (QWR). Further to the RIB development activity at the Bidhan Nagar campus, an 'Advanced National facility for Unstable and Rare Isotope Beams' (ANURIB) is being designed which will be commissioned at the Rajarhat campus of VECC. The technical design report of the facility is being prepared at present. This facility will have a 50 MeV 2 mA super-conducting electron LINAC as the primary accelerator. The present status of the RIB development activity at VECC will be highlighted in this presentation. (author)

  3. Preliminary Experimental Study of Ion Beam Extraction of EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yong-Jian; HU Chun-Dong; LIU Sheng; XIE Ya-Hong; LIANG Li-Zhen; JIANG Cai-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Neutral beam injection is recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating.The preliminary data of ion beam extraction is obtained on the EAST neutral beam injector test-stand.Beam extraction from the ion source of EAST-NBI is verified by measuring the beam current with a Faraday cup and by analyzing the results obtained by means of water calorimetric measurement on the temperature rises of water cooling the accelerator electrodes.

  4. Radioactive ion beam production by the ISOL method for SPIRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is directly related to the SPIRAL project (Systeme de Production d'Ions Radioactifs Acceleres en Lignes) of which the start up will begin in September 2001 at GANIL (Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds) in Caen. This thesis primarily concerns the development of radioactive ion production systems (target/ion source) by the thorough study of each production stage of the ISOL (Isotopic Separation On Line) method: target and/or projectile fragmentation production, diffusion out of target material, effusion into the ion source and finally the ionization of the radioactive atoms. A bibliographical research and thermal simulations allowed us to optimize materials and the shape of the production and diffusion targets. A first target was optimized and made reliable for the radioactive noble gases production (argon, neon...). A second target dedicated to the radioactive helium production was entirely designed and realised (from the specifications to the 'off line' and 'on line' tests). Finally, a third target source system was defined for singly-charged radioactive alkaline production. The intensities of secondary beams planned for SPIRAL are presented here. A detailed study of the diffusion effusion efficiency for these various targets showed that the use of a fine microstructure carbon (grain size of 1 μm) improved the diffusion and showed the importance of thickness of the lamella for the short lived isotope effusion. (author)

  5. Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center. Evolution of carbon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer treatments with high energy carbon beams have been initiated at Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, GHMC, in March of this year. Aiming the wide spread of the carbon therapy, the grand design of the facility and a variety of R and D studies were conducted by HIMAC group of National Institute of Radiological Sciences, NIRS, in collaboration with Gunma University. The design concepts of the facility include the high reliability, high efficiency, and low construction and operation cost. The success of the facility will open up new era of the carbon therapy. (author)

  6. An ion beam deceleration lens for ultra-low-energy ion bombardment of naked DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thopan, P.; Prakrajang, K. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongkumkoon, P. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Suwannakachorn, D. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Yu, L.D., E-mail: yuldyuld@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ► An ion beam deceleration lens was designed and constructed. ► The deceleration lens was installed and tested. ► The decelerated ion beam energy was measured using an electrical field. ► Decelerated ultra-low-energy ion beam bombarded naked DNA. ► Ion beam with energy of a few tens of eV could break DNA strands. -- Abstract: Study of low-energy ion bombardment effect on biological living materials is of significance. High-energy ion beam irradiation of biological materials such as organs and cells has no doubt biological effects. However, ion energy deposition in the ion-bombarded materials dominantly occurs in the low-energy range. To investigate effects from very-low-energy ion bombardment on biological materials, an ion beam deceleration lens is necessary for uniform ion energy lower than keV. A deceleration lens was designed and constructed based on study of the beam optics using the SIMION program. The lens consisted of six electrodes, able to focus and decelerate primary ion beam, with the last one being a long tube to obtain a parallel uniform exiting beam. The deceleration lens was installed to our 30-kV bioengineering-specialized ion beam line. The final decelerated-ion energy was measured using a simple electrostatic field to bend the beam to range from 10 eV to 1 keV controlled by the lens parameters and the primary beam condition. In a preliminary test, nitrogen ion beam at 60 eV decelerated from a primary 20-keV beam bombarded naked plasmid DNA. The original DNA supercoiled form was found to change to relaxed and linear forms, indicating single or double strand breaks. The study demonstrated that the ion bombardment with energy as low as several-tens eV was possible to break DNA strands and thus potential to cause genetic modification of biological cells.

  7. Simulations of stable compact proton beam acceleration from a two-ion-species ultrathin foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report stable laser-driven proton beam acceleration from ultrathin foils consisting of two ion species: heavier carbon ions and lighter protons. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that the radiation pressure leads to very fast and complete spatial separation of the species. The laser pulse does not penetrate the carbon ion layer, avoiding the proton Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability. Ultimately, the carbon ions are heated and spread extensively in space. In contrast, protons always ride on the front of the carbon ion cloud, forming a compact high quality bunch. We introduce a simple three-interface model to interpret the instability suppression in the proton layer. The model is backed by simulations of various compound foils such as carbon-deuterium and carbon-tritium foils. The effects of the carbon ions' charge state on proton acceleration are also investigated. It is shown that with the decrease of the carbon ion charge state, both the RT-like instability and the Coulomb explosion degrade the energy spectrum of the protons. Finally, full 3D simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of the stable two-ion-species regime.

  8. Modeling the Biophysical Effects in a Carbon Beam Delivery Line using Monte Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Ilsung; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion beam therapy. In this study the biological effectiveness of a carbon ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. A carbon ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon beam transporting into media. An incident energy carbon ion beam in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model is applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetrating depth of the water phantom along the incident beam direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the water phantom depth.

  9. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  10. High-current negative-ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for transporting high-current, negative-ion beams are presented with particular emphasis on applications involving negative-hydrogen-ion beams. In addition to the usual matching and steering problems, particular attention must be paid to beam emittance growth in the transport system. Depending on the application, a number of approaches have been developed using both magnetic and electric lenses. I discuss the design considerations for transporting and matching these beams to radiofrequency quadrupole accelerators, and present a survey of the various types of beamlines now used for negative-ion beams

  11. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST.

  12. Ion-beam excitation of liquid argon

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, M; Heindl, T; Neumeier, A; Oberauer, L; Potzel, W; Roth, S; Schönert, S; Wieser, J; Ulrich, A

    2015-01-01

    The scintillation light of liquid argon has been recorded wavelength and time resolved with very good statistics in a wavelength interval ranging from 118 nm through 970 nm. Three different ion beams, protons, sulfur ions and gold ions, were used to excite liquid argon. Only minor differences were observed in the wavelength-spectra obtained with the different incident particles. Light emission in the wavelength range of the third excimer continuum was found to be strongly suppressed in the liquid phase. In time-resolved measurements, the time structure of the scintillation light can be directly attributed to wavelength in our studies, as no wavelength shifter has been used. These measurements confirm that the singlet-to-triplet intensity ratio in the second excimer continuum range is a useful parameter for particle discrimination, which can also be employed in wavelength-integrated measurements as long as the sensitivity of the detector system does not rise steeply for wavelengths longer than 190 nm. Using ou...

  13. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  14. On the propagation of a low energy oxygen ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive ion beams, in the range from about tens eV to several hundred eV are frequently used in RIE and RIBE etching systems. The experimental limitations in this energy range are severe and there are still many unsolved problems. Optimal ion beam focusing and maximum current beam at the substrate target are assured by the adequate ion beam neutralization. The electrons from the target plasma and also the secondary ones resulted from the ion-grid and ion-neutral interactions form a negative space charge that is involved in the ion beam neutralization. After the extraction, both the angular divergence and damping of the beam are essential to settle the position of the substrate. The beam angular divergence is established by the ion trajectories in the extraction region and also is strongly influenced by the ion beam neutralization. The shape and thickness of the space charge near the grid, which in turn is determined by the beam intensity, grid characteristics and target plasma parameters is necessary to be investigated. Positive ion bombardment plays an important role in the plasma treatments of polymers. This was the reason that investigations about the surface modifications of polymers in a positive oxygen ion beam-low density plasma (IB-LDP) system were carried out by our group [2-6]. In such system the electrons of the low-density target plasma neutralize the positive space charge of the beam and also that brought by the beam onto the polymer (insulator) surface. Results concerning the investigations of the IB-LDP system, in oxygen, by Langmuir probe method, in different experimental conditions are given in the present paper. They are compared with those obtained by using Monte Carlo method for elementary processes (ion charge transfer, electronic ionisation) in 'particle in cell' numerical simulation. (authors)

  15. A study of V79 cell survival after for proton and carbon ion beams as represented by the parameters of Katz' track structure model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzanka, Leszek; Waligórski, M. P. R.; Bassler, Niels

    Katz’s theory of cellular track structure (1) is an amorphous analytical model which applies a set of four cellular parameters representing survival of a given cell line after ion irradiation. Usually the values of these parameters are best fitted to a full set of experimentally measured survival...... curves available for a variety of ions. Once fitted, using these parameter values and the analytical formulae of the model calculations, cellular survival curves and RBE may be predicted for that cell line after irradiation by any ion, including mixed ion fields. While it is known that the Katz model...... parameters fitted to heavier ion data may yield unsatisfactory predictions of proton response, to our knowledge, no comprehensive data set which includes proton and heavier ion irradiations, measured in one laboratory, has been published. To study the consistency of evaluating parameters of this model from...

  16. Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane

  17. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions (∼λ2) is much greater (∼ 10 divided-by 15 orders) then Thompson one (∼ re2). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light (Δω/ω ∼ 10-4). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time

  18. New method of beam bunching in free-ion lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessonov, E.G. [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    An effective ion beam bunching method is suggested. This method is based on a selective interaction of line spectrum laser light (e.g. axial mode structure light) with non-fully stripped ion beam cooled in a storage rings, arranging the ion beam in layers in radial direction of an energy-longitudinal coordinate plane and following rotation of the beam at the right angle after switching on the RF cavity or undulator grouper/buncher. Laser cooling of the ion beam can be used at this position after switching off the resonator to decrease the energy spread caused by accelerating field of the resonator. A relativistic multilayer ion mirror will be produced this way. Both monochromatic laser beams and intermediate monochromaticity and bandwidth light sources of spontaneous incoherent radiation can be used for production of hard and high power electromagnetic radiation by reflection from this mirror. The reflectivity of the mirror is rather high because of the cross-section of the backward Rayleigh scattering of photon light by non-fully stripped relativistic ions ({approximately}{lambda}{sup 2}) is much greater ({approximately} 10{divided_by}15 orders) then Thompson one ({approximately} r{sub e}{sup 2}). This position is valid even in the case of non-monochromatic laser light ({Delta}{omega}/{omega} {approximately} 10{sup -4}). Ion cooling both in longitudinal plane and three-dimensional radiation ion cooling had been proposed based on this observation. The using of these cooling techniques will permit to store high current and low emittance relativistic ion beams in storage rings. The bunched ion beam can be used in ordinary Free-Ion Lasers as well. After bunching the ion beam can be extracted from the storage ring in this case. Storage rings with zero momentum compaction function will permit to keep bunching of the ion beam for a long time.

  19. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb+1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  20. Caborane beam from ITEP Bernas ion source for semiconductor implanters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seleznev, D.; Hershcovitch, A.; Kropachev, G.; Kozlov, A.; Kuibeda, R.; Koshelev, V.; Kulevoy, T.; Jonson, B.; Poole, J.; Alexeyenko, O.; Gurkova, E.; Oks, E.; Gushenets, V.; Polozov, S.; Masunov, E.

    2010-02-01

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for hundreds of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past 5 years. The difficulties of extraction and transportation of low energy boron beams can be solved by implanting clusters of boron atoms. In Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) the Bernas ion source successfully generated the beam of decaborane ions. The carborane (C{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 12}) ion beam is more attractive material due to its better thermal stability. The results of carborane ion beam generation are presented. The result of the beam implantation into the silicon wafer is presented as well.

  1. A New Technique for Diagnosing Multi-charged Ion Beams Produced by ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangZimin; ZhaoHongwei; CaoYun; MaLei; MaBaohua; LiJinyu; WangHui; FengYucheng; DuJunfeng

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the transmission properties of multi-charged ion beams between the ECR ion source and the analyzing magnet, a new diagnostic system composed of three Wien-filters with three single-wires has been built and installed on the IMP ECR source test bcnch. The single-wire is used to measure the beam profile and the beam density distribution, and the Wien-filter is used to measure the charge state distribution of ion beam.

  2. Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Y.; Araki, M.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Kunieda, S.; Kuriyama, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-10-01

    A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993.

  3. Physical studies of beam delivery system for proton and heavy ion treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report design and optimization of beam delivery system for proton and heavy ion particles, which will be constructed in charged particle therapy facility in Hyogo Prefecture. Penumbra sizes were calculated for different systems to optimize device parameters under considering effects of multiple scattering and energy loss of beam. It was found that penumbra size of carbon ion beam was about three times smaller than that of proton, and that devices which affect physically in particle delivery system should be placed as upstream as possible to reduce penumbra size. (author)

  4. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  5. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-09-15

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy.

  6. The beam optics of the Argonne Positive-Ion Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam optics for Phase I of the Argonne Positive-Ion Injector linac system have been studied for a representative set of beams. The results of this study indicate that high charge state beams from an ECR source can be accelerated without significantly increasing the transverse or longitudinal emittance of the initial beam. It is expected that the beam quality from the PII-ATLAS system will be at least as good as presently achieved with the tandem-ATLAS system

  7. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  8. Solar wind double ions beams and the heliospheric current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, C. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Phillips, J. L.; Goldstein, B. E.; Balogh, A.

    1995-01-01

    Double ion beams are often observed in the solar wind, but little work has been done in relating these beams to structures within the solar wind. Double ion beams are observed as beams of a given ion species and charge state occurring at two different energies. We use the three-dimensional ion plasma instrument on board the Ulysses spacecraft to look for evidence of such beams associated with the heliospheric current sheet. In a subset chosen independently of plasma parameters consisting of 8 of cover 47 crossings of the current sheet made during the inecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission we find that these double ion beams are always present on either side of the current sheet. The double beams are present in both the proton and helium species. The secondary beam typically has a higher helium abundance, which suggests that these beams are formed in the helium-rich corona rather than in interplanetary space. The double beams are not present in the interior of the current sheet. Neither collisions nor effects of plasma beta can account for the disappearance of the double beams inside the current sheet in all eight cases. We postulate that these beams are formed by reconnection occurring near the Sun in the boundary region between the open field lines of the coronal holes and the closed field line region of the heliospheric current sheet. Such a scenario would be consistent with previous X ray measurements which suggect that reconnection is occurring in this region.

  9. Effects of a dielectric material in an ion source on the ion beam current density and ion beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Y., E-mail: yutaka-fujiwara@aist.go.jp; Sakakita, H.; Nakamiya, A. [Department of Engineering Mechanics and Energy, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Hirano, Y.; Kiyama, S. [Innovative Plasma Processing Group, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    To understand a strong focusing phenomenon that occurs in a low-energy hydrogen ion beam, the electron temperature, the electron density, and the space potential in an ion source with cusped magnetic fields are measured before and after the transition to the focusing state using an electrostatic probe. The experimental results show that no significant changes are observed before or after the transition. However, we found unique phenomena that are characterized by the position of the electrostatic probe in the ion source chamber. Specifically, the extracted ion beam current density and energy are obviously enhanced in the case where the electrostatic probe, which is covered by a dielectric material, is placed close to an acceleration electrode.

  10. Uncertainty budget for Ion Beam Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 'Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement' (GUM), guidelines for the evaluation of the total uncertainty of an experiment are outlined in a manner to be adopted in all types of measurements. So far, this has not very strictly been implemented in the Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) community. In this paper, the situation for a, to some extent, typical IBA measurement is reviewed, and factors contributing to the total uncertainty are analysed and discussed. Also the propagation of uncertainties is discussed. How the result of a measurement should be presented, with an appropriate coverage factor resulting in a suitable interval for the uncertainty is also discussed. An example of an uncertainty budget for an analysis of quaternary bronzes is given as illustration

  11. Radioactive ion beam line of CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radioactive ion beam line designed to work at higher energy equivalent up to a magnetic rigidity of 10.64 Tm is going to be constructed at Lanzhou. It is to connect the main ring and the experiment ring of the HIRFL-CSR complex. The separator is mirror-symmetrically configured both in geometry and magnet strength, achieving a point-point and parallel-parallel image at its intermediate focal plane with maximum spatial dispersion. Achromatism is automatically realized at the final focal plane. The total length is about 26 meters. Its resolution power of magnetic rigidity is 1200 at +- 1% momentum deviation and +- 25 mrad divergence simultaneously. With sextupole- and octupole- magnets carefully positioned and powered, second and third-order aberrations are corrected to a large extent. The magnet design has already fulfilled

  12. PIXE and ion beam analysis in forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: University of Surrey has, for the past four years, collaborated with police institutions from across Europe and the rest of the world lo scope potential applications of ion beam analysis (IBA) in forensic science. In doing this we have consulted practitioners across a range of forensic disciplines, and critically compared IBA with conventional characterisation techniques to investigate the areas in which IBA can add evidential value. In this talk, the results of this feasibility study will be presented, showing the types of sample for which IBA shows considerable promise. We will show how a combination of PIXE with other IBA techniques (EBS, PIGE, MeV-SIMS) can be used to give unprecedented characterisation of forensic samples and comment on the significance of these results for forensic casework. We will also show cases where IBA not appear to add any significant improvement over conventional techniques. (author)

  13. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  14. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  15. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described

  16. An ion source with bunched beam release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a continuation of a preceding study, the possibility of bunched beam release from a FEBIAD-B2 ion source was investigated for the alkali metals, the alkaline-earths, aluminum, the transition elements scandium to nickel and for ytterbium. With an appropriate choice of the cooling/heating system and of the trap material, efficient bunching is reached for the alkalies, calcium, manganese and ytterbium, which have enthalpies of adsorption within the range 2.6 ≤ΔH, < 5 eV, the window useful for bunching. Utilizing deduced values of the mean sticking time at a surface of defined temperature, ΔH/sub a/-values up to approximately 6 eV can be determined. Thus the conditions can be specified which should allow bunching and chemical separation for various other elements that are too refractory for the present device. Experimental and semi-empirical ΔH/sub a/-values are in good agreement for the transition elements and aluminium but exhibit strong deviations for the alkali metals, the alkaline-earths, ytterbium and probably some other lanthanides. On-line mass separation of neutron-deficient isotopes of cadmium, indium and tin with a high degree of selectivity demonstrates the chemical separation power of bunched beam release

  17. RPC test with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Time-of-Flight (ToF) wall of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, conceptualized on the basis of high-resolution timing Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs), is intended to account for concise hadron identification at an unprecedented event rate of 10 MHz in Au+Au collisions. Comprehensive performance tests of several purpose-built multi-strip MRPC prototypes foreseen for different rate regions of the planned 120 m2 ToF wall are an essential instrument to study the response and the limitations of the current design. Such evaluation studies were carried out both under SIS-18 heavy-ion beam load at GSI in the fall of 2012 and under cosmic irradiation in the lab throughout the year 2013. Particle flux conditions of up to a few tens of kHz/cm2 as expected to impinge on the ToF wall in future CBM runs can be provided at the SIS-18 accelerator. A generic calibration scheme for MRPCs with strip read-out has been developed and will be described. Preliminary results concerning key characteristics like efficiency and timing resolution of a multi-strip MRPC demonstrator are presented, as well as an outlook to the specifications and requirements of a planned high-rate in-beam test at GSI in 2014.

  18. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  19. Ion beam induced defects in solids studied by optical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comins, J.D. [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Raman and Luminescence Laboratory, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)], E-mail: darrell.comins@wits.ac.za; Amolo, G.O. [Materials Physics Research Institute, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Derry, T.E.; Connell, S.H. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Erasmus, R.M. [Raman and Luminescence Laboratory, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Witcomb, M.J. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Electron Microscope Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2009-08-15

    Optical methods can provide important insights into the mechanisms and consequences of ion beam interactions with solids. This is illustrated by four distinctly different systems. X- and Y-cut LiNbO{sub 3} crystals implanted with 8 MeV Au{sup 3+} ions with a fluence of 1 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} result in gold nanoparticle formation during high temperature annealing. Optical extinction curves simulated by the Mie theory provide the average nanoparticle sizes. TEM studies are in reasonable agreement and confirm a near-spherical nanoparticle shape but with surface facets. Large temperature differences in the nanoparticle creation in the X- and Y-cut crystals are explained by recrystallisation of the initially amorphised regions so as to recreate the prior crystal structure and to result in anisotropic diffusion of the implanted gold. Defect formation in alkali halides using ion beam irradiation has provided new information. Radiation-hard CsI crystals bombarded with 1 MeV protons at 300 K successfully produce F-type centres and V-centres having the I{sub 3}{sup -} structure as identified by optical absorption and Raman studies. The results are discussed in relation to the formation of interstitial iodine aggregates of various types in alkali iodides. Depth profiling of I{sub 3}{sup -} and I{sub 5}{sup -} aggregates created in RbI bombarded with 13.6 MeV/A argon ions at 300 K is discussed. The recrystallisation of an amorphous silicon layer created in crystalline silicon bombarded with 100 keV carbon ions with a fluence of 5 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} during subsequent high temperature annealing is studied by Raman and Brillouin light scattering. Irradiation of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with 1 MeV protons with fluences from 1 x 10{sup 15} to 250 x 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup -2} induces visible darkening over a broad spectral region that shows three stages of development. This is attributed to the formation of defect clusters by a model of defect growth and

  20. Contribution to modelling sputtering by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From ion-matter interaction results, we have modelized sputtering by ion beams, for energies around 1 keV, in linear collisions regime, according to three approaches: analytic, semi-empiric and simulated. Some corrections to analytic approach have given better agreement to experiment. Semi-empiric approach predictions, compared to experiment, have given satisfactory results for mono-element target. Some input parameters, for used simulated program, have been proposed, for mono-elements, semi-conductives and binaries oxide targets. An iterative simulated model, validated by experiment, has deal with oxide steady targets. To predict deposited thickness profile on static then dynamic substrates, a simulated model, leaning on geometric considerations, has been brought into focus, compared to experiment and has given some satisfactories qualitative in truth quantitative results. With this proposed model, we can search for the best geometry to realize thin films deposition with very homogeneous thickness on large diameter substrates in I.B.S. and D.I.B.S. technics. (orig.)

  1. Lifetime obtained by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have fabricated green organic light-emitting diodes based on tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminium (Alq3) thin films. In order to favor the charge carriers transport from the anode, we have deposited a N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis (3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-diphenyl-4,4'-diamine (TPD) layer (hole transport layer) on a ITO anode. Cathode is obtained with a calcium layer covered with a silver layer. This silver layer is used to protect the other layers against oxygen during the OLED use. All the depositions are performed under vacuum and the devices are not exposed to air during their realisation. In order to improve the silver layer characteristics, we have realized this layer with the ion beam assisted deposition process. The aim of this process is to densify the layer and then reduce the permeation of H2O and O2. We have used argon ions to assist the silver deposition. All the OLEDs optoelectronic characterizations (I = f(V), L = f(V)) are performed in the ambient air. We compare the results obtained with the assisted layer with those obtained with a classical cathode realized by thermal unassisted evaporation. We have realized lifetime measurements in the ambient air and we discuss about the assisted layer influence on the OLEDs performances

  2. Micromachining using a focused ion beam miller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The focused ion beam (FIB) miller is becoming well established as a machine for the structural analysis of materials and for the rapid preparation of transmission electron microscope specimens. It has also been used for some time in the semiconducting materials industry for the analysis, repair and redesign of device materials. However, one emerging technique is the use of the FIB for micromachining. The FIB software can also be used to manufacture and machine components. This process can occur through converting software, typically in the form of bitmaps or TIF files, to proprietary 'stream' files. These files allow, often complex, patterns to be generated and milled into the specimen and thus the generation of micro-electromechanical systems. Frequently, this involves largely two-dimensional patterns and structures, however, more complex patterns and file types can be generated which allow, for example, device prototyping or the preparation of three-dimensional structures such as atom probe field ion microscope (APFIM) specimens. In this presentation the protocols for creating and using these files will be described together with examples of the patterns and its application to micromachining, device prototyping and APFIM specimens. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  3. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  4. Enhancement of neutral beam deposition in hydrogen discharge using carbon pellet injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central ion temperature in the large helical device (LHD), as measured by charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy, has been improved to a record 5.6 keV by combining 21 MW of neutral beam heating with the injection of a carbon pellet. The intensity of the neutral beam emission of the hydrogen Balmer line (Hα: n=3 → 2) was observed to weaken along the beam injection axis following the carbon pellet injection due to the increased beam attenuation. The beam-emission intensity was reconstructed by calculating the density distribution, and the beam-stopping coefficients, along a beam injection axis and was found to fit well to the measured beam-emission for a mixed hydrogen and carbon target plasma. The dynamics of the neutral beam deposition power and the carbon fraction were estimated from the beam-emission measurements using data from ADAS. We conclude that the beam deposition power in a carbon pellet discharge is enhanced over that of a pure hydrogen discharge. (author)

  5. High yields from the Stockholm electron beam ion source CRYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, R.; Bjoerkhage, M.; Carle, P.; Engstroem, Aa.; Liljeby, L.; Rouleau, G.; Wenander, F. [Manne Siegbahn Lab., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-04-01

    CRYSIS is an electron beam ion source (EBIS) with a superconducting solenoid. Highly charged ions are delivered to the acceleration and storage ring CRYRING, SMILETRAP and to low energy atomic and surface physics experiments. Stable electron beam currents up to 700 mA are obtained, in order to enhance the ion yield out of the EBIS. Measurements of the total charge per pulse at different working conditions and electron beam current density measurements were done. At electron beam currents of 600 mA yields up to 2.5 x 10{sup 10} charges per pulse could be measured. (orig.). 8 refs.

  6. Heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion studies in TIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HICF studies in Tokyo Institute of Technology are focused on beam-plasma interaction and acceleration of intense ion beams by inductive and RF methods. Two types of plasma targets have been developed by means of Z-pinch discharge and laser irradiation for the interaction experiments. Measurements of energy loss and charge exchange of heavy ions are conducted with those plasma targets. An inductive acceleration of light ions has been initiated with a Mendel type plasma gun connected to a magnetic core cavity. An RFQ linac generates an intense helium beam of sharp rise in order that a beam-induced plasma can be studied. (orig.)

  7. Reconstruction of negative hydrogen ion beam properties from beamline diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruf, Benjamin

    2014-09-25

    For the experimental fusion reactor ITER, which should show the feasibility of sustaining a fusion plasma with a positive power balance, some technology still has to be developed, amongst others also the plasma heating system. One heating technique is the neutral beam injection (NBI). A beam of fast deuterium atoms is injected into the fusion plasma. By heavy particle collisions the beam particles give their energy to the plasma. A NBI system consists of three major components. First, deuterium ions are generated in a low temperature, low pressure plasma of an ion source. At ITER, the requirements on the beam energy of 1 MeV cause the necessity of negative charged deuterium ions. Secondly, the ions are accelerated within an acceleration system with several grids, where the plasma grid is the first grid. The grids are on different descending high voltage potentials. The source itself is on the highest negative potential. Thirdly, the fast deuterium ions have to be neutralised. This thesis deals with the second step in the mentioned beam system, the ion acceleration and beam formation. The underlying experiments and measurements were carried out at the testbeds BATMAN (BAvarianTest MAchine for Negative ions) and ELISE (Extraction from a Large Ion Source Experiment) at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik Garching (IPP Garching). The main goal of this thesis is to provide a tool which allows the determination of the beam properties. These are beam divergence, stripping losses and beam inhomogeneity. For this purpose a particle trajectory code has been developed from scratch, namely BBC-NI (Bavarian Beam Code for Negative Ions). The code is able to simulate the whole beam and the outcome of several beam diagnostic tools. The data obtained from the code together with the measurements of the beam diagnostic tools should allow the reconstruction of the beam properties. The major beam diagnostic tool, which is used in this thesis, is the beam emission spectroscopy

  8. Lithium ion beam driven hohlraums for PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program, fusion capsules are driven with an intense x-ray radiation field produced when an intense beam of ions penetrates a radiation case and deposits energy in a foam x-ray conversion region. A first step in the program is to generate and measure these intense fields on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). Our goal is to generate a 100-eV radiation temperature in lithium ion beam driven hohlraums, the radiation environment which will provide the initial drive temperature for ion beam driven implosion systems designed to achieve high gain. In this paper, we describe the design of such hohlraum targets and their predicted performance on PBFA II as we provide increasing ion beam intensities

  9. Historical milestones and future prospects of cluster ion beam technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of technology for processing of surfaces by means of gas cluster ion beams began only about a quarter century ago even though fundamental research related to generation of gas clusters began much earlier. Industrial applications of cluster ion beams did not start to be explored until commercial equipment was first introduced to the ion beam community in around 2000. The technology is now evolving rapidly with industrial equipment being engineered for many diverse surface processing applications which are made possible by the unique characteristics of cluster-ion/solid-surface interactions. In this paper, important historical milestones in cluster ion beam development are described. Present activities related to a wide range of industrial applications in semiconductors, magnetic and optical devices, and bio-medical devices are reviewed. Several emerging new advances in cluster beam applications for the future are also discussed

  10. Historical milestones and future prospects of cluster ion beam technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Isao, E-mail: i-yamada@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-08-15

    Development of technology for processing of surfaces by means of gas cluster ion beams began only about a quarter century ago even though fundamental research related to generation of gas clusters began much earlier. Industrial applications of cluster ion beams did not start to be explored until commercial equipment was first introduced to the ion beam community in around 2000. The technology is now evolving rapidly with industrial equipment being engineered for many diverse surface processing applications which are made possible by the unique characteristics of cluster-ion/solid-surface interactions. In this paper, important historical milestones in cluster ion beam development are described. Present activities related to a wide range of industrial applications in semiconductors, magnetic and optical devices, and bio-medical devices are reviewed. Several emerging new advances in cluster beam applications for the future are also discussed.

  11. Stability of longitudinal motion in intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion using high energy heavy ion beams requires focussing of the igniting ion beams in longitudinal, as well as transverse, space at the pellet target. The focussing requirements set limits on the size of the beam emittances at the target, and obtaining sufficiently small emittances at the target requires sufficient stability in beam transport and acceleration from source to target, and an analysis of that stability is necessary for heavy ion fusion (HIF) accelerator design. Theoretical analysis is necessary since practical accelerator experience with high intensity non-relativistic ion beams has been limited. This analysis is particularly important for the case of a heavy ion induction linac, since previous induction linacs have been electron accelerators, and the highly relativistic electrons have negligible longitudinal motion. In this paper we present some results of our analysis of the stability of longitudinal motion

  12. Protective Sliding Carbon-Based Nanolayers Prepared by Argon or Nitrogen Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčák, P.; Jirka, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), 1697090. ISSN 1687-4110 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : carbon-based nanolayers * Ti6Al4V * nanotechnology Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.644, year: 2014

  13. Generation of a boron ion beam in a modified ion source for semiconductor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented here are results of experimental studies on the production of intense beams of boron ions using a modified Bernas-Calutron ion source. Instead of using the conventional boron-trifluoride gas, a solid lithium-boron-tetrafluoride compound was heated to release boron-trifluoride. For optimum ion source parameters the measured 25-41 mA of total ion beam current was composed of 70% singly charged and about 1% doubly charged boron ions

  14. Active steering of laser-accelerated ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for optical control of the spatial distribution of laser-accelerated ion beams is presented. An ultrashort laser pulse, tightly focused to relativistic intensities on a thin foil target, drives a beam of MeV ions. An auxiliary, nanosecond laser pulse drives a shock and locally deforms the initially flat target prior to the main pulse interaction. By changing the properties of the shock-driving laser pulse, the normal direction of the ion emitting surface is locally manipulated and the emission direction is thereby controlled. In the future, this method could be used to achieve dynamic control of the ion beam divergence

  15. Intense ion beams accelerated by relativistic laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Markus; Cowan, Thomas E.; Gauthier, Jean-Claude J.; Allen, Matthew; Audebert, Patrick; Blazevic, Abel; Fuchs, Julien; Geissel, Matthias; Hegelich, Manuel; Karsch, S.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, Jurgen; Pukhov, Alexander; Schlegel, Theodor

    2001-12-01

    We have studied the influence of the target properties on laser-accelerated proton and ion beams generated by the LULI multi-terawatt laser. A strong dependence of the ion emission on the surface conditions, conductivity, shape and material of the thin foil targets were observed. We have performed a full characterization of the ion beam using magnetic spectrometers, Thompson parabolas, radiochromic film and nuclear activation techniques. The strong dependence of the ion beam acceleration on the conditions on the target back surface was found in agreement with theoretical predictions based on the target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism. Proton kinetic energies up to 25 MeV have been observed.

  16. System for programmable micromachining by means of submicron ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system with submicron ion beam is described. Very bright ion beams are generated by electrohydrodynamic source and are focused in electrostatic ion-optical column. An octupole deflector is used for astigmatism correction and beam deviation. Stabilized power supply of all elements is ensured. Lines of 0.1 μm minimum width are obtained. The micromachining process is controlled by an automated system in CAMAC standard on line with Odrenok computer. Specific features of programmable micromachining and operation of the system in the mode of scanning ion microscope are considered

  17. Beam optics of the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Santra; P Singh

    2002-07-01

    The beam optics of the 6 MV folded tandem ion accelerator, that has recently been commissioned at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, is presented. Typical beam trajectories for proton and 12C beams under different conditions, are shown. The constraints on the design due to the use of the infrastructure of the Van de Graaff accelerator, which existed earlier, are discussed.

  18. High Density Pulsed Molecular Beam for Cold Ion Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kokish, M. G.; V.Rajagopal; Marler, J. P.; Odom, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    A recent expansion of cold and ultracold molecule applications has led to renewed focus on molecular species preparation under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Meanwhile, molecular beams have been used to study gas phase chemical reactions for decades. In this manuscript, we describe an apparatus that uses pulsed molecular beam technology to achieve high local gas densities, leading to faster reaction rates with cold trapped ions. We characterize the beam's spatial profile using the trapped ions ...

  19. Inertial-confinement fusion driven by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental concepts, current status and future prospects of heavy-ion-driven inertial-confinement fusion are described. Target physics issues are emphasized. An account is given of experimental programs now under way, including beam/plasma interaction and accelerator physics experiments. Plans for high-intensity-beam/target research using heavy-ion beams from the synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, FRG) are presented. (orig.)

  20. Inertial confinement fusion driven by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental concepts, current status and future prospects of heavy-ion-driven inertial confinement fusion are described. Target physics issues are emphasised. An account is given of experimental programmes now under way, including beam/plasma interaction and accelerator physics experiments. Plans for high-intensity beam/target research using heavy-ion beams from the synchrotron at GSI, Darmstadt, FRG are presented. (author)

  1. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  2. Biological Effects on Fruit Fly by N+ ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induced by low energy ion beam implantation has beenapplied widely both in plants and microbes. However, due to the vacuum limitation, such ion implantation into animals was never studied except for silkworm. In this study, Pupae of fruit fly were irradiated with different dosage N+ ions at energy 20 KeV to study the biological effect of ion beam on animal. The results showed a saddle-like curve exists between incubate rate and dosage. Damage of pupae by ion beam implantation was observed using scanning electron microscope. Some individuals with incomplete wing were obtained after implantation but no similar character was observed in their offspring. Furthermore, about 5.47% mutants with wide variation appeared in M1 generation. Therefore, ion beam implantation could be widely used for mutation breeding.

  3. Emittance Measurements for Beams Extracted from LECR3 Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaoYun; ZhaoHongwei; MaLei; ZhangZimin

    2003-01-01

    High quality ion beams are required by IMP cyclotron and atomic physics research, so it is important to research and measure beam emitt ance of ECR ion source. Intense beams extracted from ECR ion source usually have low energy, so it is suitable to use Electric-Sweep Scanner to measure the emittance. This kind of measurement is popularly used at ECR ion source, and it has some prominent merits such as high accuracy, very short time of data processing and easy expressing of the emittance pattern. So we designed and built this emittance scanner to measure emittance of the ion beams produced by LECR3 ion source. The structure of the ESS is shown in Fig.l, and the photo of the ESS is shown in Fig.2.

  4. Laser Ion Source Operation at the TRIUMF Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, J.; Bricault, P.; Dombsky, M.; Lavoie, J. P.; Gillner, M.; Gottwald, T.; Hellbusch, F.; Teigelhöfer, A.; Voss, A.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2009-03-01

    The TRIUMF Resonant Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) for radioactive ion beam production is presented, with target ion source, laser beam transport, laser system and operation. In this context aspects of titanium sapphire (TiSa) laser based RILIS and facility requirements are discussed and results from the first years of TRILIS RIB delivery are given.

  5. First negative ion beam measurement by the Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment (STRIKE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serianni, G., E-mail: gianluigi.serianni@igi.cnr.it; De Muri, M.; Veltri, P.; Bonomo, F.; Chitarin, G.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Valente, M. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Muraro, A. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma (SPIDER) test facility is under construction in Padova to optimise the operation of the beam source of ITER neutral beam injectors. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon-composite tiles. A small-scale version of the entire system has been employed in the BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions (BATMAN) testbed by arranging two prototype tiles in the vertical direction. The paper presents a description of the mini-STRIKE system and of the data analysis procedures, as well as some results concerning the BATMAN beam under varying operating conditions.

  6. First negative ion beam measurement by the Short-Time Retractable Instrumented Kalorimeter Experiment (STRIKE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G.; De Muri, M.; Muraro, A.; Veltri, P.; Bonomo, F.; Chitarin, G.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Valente, M.; Franzen, P.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-02-01

    The Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from Rf plasma (SPIDER) test facility is under construction in Padova to optimise the operation of the beam source of ITER neutral beam injectors. The SPIDER beam will be characterised by the instrumented calorimeter STRIKE, whose main components are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon-composite tiles. A small-scale version of the entire system has been employed in the BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions (BATMAN) testbed by arranging two prototype tiles in the vertical direction. The paper presents a description of the mini-STRIKE system and of the data analysis procedures, as well as some results concerning the BATMAN beam under varying operating conditions.

  7. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance

  8. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu, E-mail: jjli@uw.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-2600 (United States); Xie, Shuhong [Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, and Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology of Ministry of Education, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan (China); Liu, Xiaoyan [College of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, and Advanced Materials for Energy Institute, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401331 (China)

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  9. Bunching of a low-velocity ion beam and the development of beam diagnostic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An RF cavity resonator for bunching the low-velocity ions has been installed in the beam line from an ECR ion source on a test stand, and the bunch structure is observed by a Faraday cup with good frequency response characteristics. This test stand is originally for development of beam monitors. Owing to the introduction of the RF cavity, beam monitors for bunched beam observation can be tested. Reversely beam bunching characteristics of cavities can be examined on this test stand. Measurements of H, O and Ar beams bunched by an RF cavity equipped with a magnetic alloy are reported. The design of the Faraday cup is also described. (K. Yoshida)

  10. Tests of a Laser Ion Source at the Heidelberg Electron Beam Ion Trap

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov, V; Trinczek, M.; Werdich, A.; González Martínez, A.; Guo, P; X. Zhang; Braun, J.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J.; Höhr, C.; Ullrich, J.

    2003-01-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) has been designed and successfully tested for loading the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (H-EBIT) with ions of practically all solid-state elements. A pulsed YAG:Nd3þ laser (30 mJ, 8 ns) is used to produce plasma from a solid target. Lowly charged ions are extracted from the plasma and accelerated by a short high-voltage pulse, generating a pulsed ion beam with energy of up to 6 keV per charge. The ion beam is transported into the EBIT, decelerated and captured wit...

  11. Beam-Ion Instability in PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.; Kulikov, A.; Wang, Min-Huey; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    The instability in the PEP-II electron ring has been observed while reducing the clearing gap in the bunch train. We study the ion effects in the ring summarizing existing theories of the beam-ion interaction, comparing them with observations, and estimating effect on luminosity in the saturation regime. Considering the gap instability we suggest that the instability is triggered by the beam-ion instability, and discuss other mechanisms pertinent to the instability.

  12. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  13. Developing high brightness beams for heavy ion driven inertial fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.A.; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Grote, D. P.; Henestroza, E.; Leung, K.N.; Molvik, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers require large currents and bright beams. In this paper we review the two different approaches for building HIF injectors and the corresponding ion source requirements. The traditional approach uses large aperture, low current density ion sources, resulting in a very large injector system. A more recent conceptual approach merges high current density mini-beamlets into a large current beam in order to significantly reduce the size of the injector. Experimen...

  14. Research on biological effects of radioactive ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential importance of radioactive ion beams such as 9C, 8B and 8Li, representing double radiation sources coming from the external beams themselves and the delayed particles emitted internally, in medical use, cell radiobiological experiments using radioactive 8B beam and corresponding comparable 10B-ion beam were carried out in the secondary beam line (SBL) at Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). In these radiobiological experiments, biological endpoints such as survival fraction, micronucleus frequency and γ-H2AX focus induction at different penetration depths around the Bragg peaks along these beams were measured. Because human salivary gland (HSG) cancer cells were used in the experiments, it is hard to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the radioactive 8B beam exactly based on the results obtained in the radiobiological experiments. Therefore, normal cell line is expected to be employed in future experiments. In addition, a primary 10B beam of 100 MeV/u was used to produce radioactive 8Li beam under the conditions of 6 mm thick Beryllium target and 3.5 mm thick Aluminum degrader in the SBL at HIMAC. The lateral fluence distributions of the produced beam were measured at different penetration depths along the beam direction. To keep the uniformity of the irradiation field suitable for radiobiological experiments using the produced 8Li beam, a narrow momentum width has to be applied so that the beam intensity decreases. (author)

  15. Analysis of mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams at different LET in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate inactive and mutagenic effects of carbon beam at different LET, the inactivation cross section and mutation cross section induced by carbon beams of different LET values were investigated in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015. It was found that the maximum inactivation cross section of 4.37μm2, which was very close to the average nucleus cross section, was at LET of 120.0 keV/μm. The maximum mutation cross section was at LET of 96.0 keV/μm. Meanwhile, the highest mutagenicity of carbon ion was found around 58.2 keV/μm. It implied that the most efficient LET to induce mutation in survival yeasts was 58.2 keV/μm, which corresponded to energy of 35 MeV/u carbon beam. The most effective carbon beam to induce inactivation and mutation located at different energy region. (authors)

  16. Wave heating of an ion beam in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heating of a 26-keV trapped-ion beam by interaction with incident lower-hybrid RF power (as low as 5kW) was observed in the ATC plasma. We suggest that ion-cyclotron damping of lower hybrid waves by beam ions can account for the increase in beam energy. This process can explain the main features of the experiment: (1) preferential absorption in the perpendicular direction, (2) lack of absorption by the background plasma ions, and (3) low power requirement for absorption. Theory requires ksub(perpendicular)rhosub(i) approximately > (ω/ωsub(ci))sup(1/2). The relatively high perpendicular temperature of the beam ions (approximately 1keV), combined with one of several possibilities for RF energy at large ksub(perpendicular), allows the condition on ksub(perpendicular)rhosub(i) to be satisfied. Moreover, the large parallel energy of the beam ions plays a major role in broadening the harmonic resonances, thus making it possible for a large number of beam ions to resonate with the wave. Though the primary process is perpendicular absorption, there is also a net gain in parallel energy during a collision time due to pitch-angle scattering. The importance of this heating mechanism for large machines such as TFTR is discussed. For these machines, ions will be injected with large rhosub(i), making ion heating possible even with moderate values of ksub(perpendicular). (author)

  17. ITEP Bernas ion source with additional electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development program is underway to develop steady-state intense ion sources for the two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV. For the MeV range the investigations were focused on charge-state enhancement for ions generated by the modified Bernas ion sources. Based on the previously successful ITEP experience with the e-metal vapor vacuum arc ion source [e.g., Batalin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1900 (2004)], the injection of a high-energy electron beam into the Bernas ion source discharge region is expected to enhance the production of high charge states. Presented here are construction details and studies of electron-beam influence on the enhancement of ion-beam charge states generated by the modified Bernas ion source

  18. Quadrupole betatron accelerator for high current ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of a strong non-neutral ion ring in a quadrupole betatron field are investigated. Superimposed on the axial betatron field, it is shown that the quadrupole field is necessary for the stability of the orbits where the self-fields of the ion ring are not negligible. A closed algebraic expression for the ion limiting current is obtained in terms of the quadarupole field intensity, the channel radius, the transverse temperature of ion beam, and the strength of betatron field. According to the theoretical calculation, high energy ion beam with its current order of one kiloampere can easily be attainable

  19. Induced radioactivity of a GSO scintillator by secondary fragments in carbon ion therapy and its effects on in-beam OpenPET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Nitta, Munetaka; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Inadama, Naoko; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of induced radioactivity within in-beam PET scanner scintillators is of concern for its long-term clinical usage in particle therapy. To estimate the effects on OpenPET which we are developing for in-beam PET based on GSOZ (Zi doped Gd2SiO5), we measured the induced radioactivity of GSO activated by secondary fragments in a water phantom irradiation by a 12C beam with an energy of 290 MeV u‑1. Radioisotopes of Na, Ce, Eu, Gd, Nd, Pm and Tb including positron emitters were observed in the gamma ray spectra of the activated GSO with a high purity Ge detector and their absolute radioactivities were calculated. We used the Monte Carlo simulation platform, Geant4 in which the observed radioactivity was assigned to the scintillators of a precisely reproduced OpenPET and the single and coincidence rates immediately after one treatment and after one-year usage were estimated for the most severe conditions. Comparing the highest coincidence rate originating from the activated scintillators (background) and the expected coincidence rate from an imaging object (signal), we determined the expected signal-to-noise ratio to be more than 7 within 3 min and more than 10 within 1 min from the scan start time. We concluded the effects of scintillator activation and their accumulation on the OpenPET imaging were small and clinical long-term usage of the OpenPET was feasible.

  20. Pattern transfer on large samples using a sub-aperture reactive ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to sole Ar ion beam sputtering Reactive Ion Beam Etching (RIBE) reveals the main advantage of increasing the selectivity for different kind of materials due to chemical contributions during the material removal. Therefore RIBE is qualified to be an excellent candidate for pattern transfer applications. The goal of the present study is to apply a sub-aperture reactive ion beam for pattern transfer on large fused silica samples. Concerning this matter, the etching behavior in the ion beam periphery plays a decisive role. Using CF4 as reactive gas, XPS measurements of the modified surface exposes impurities like Ni, Fe and Cr, which belongs to chemically eroded material of the plasma pot as well as an accumulation of carbon (up to 40 atomic percent) in the beam periphery, respectively. The substitution of CF4 by NF3 as reactive gas reveals a lot of benefits: more stable ion beam conditions in combination with a reduction of the beam size down to a diameter of 5 mm and a reduced amount of the Ni, Fe and Cr contaminations. However, a layer formation of silicon nitride handicaps the chemical contribution of the etching process. These negative side effects influence the transfer of trench structures on quartz by changing the selectivity due to altered chemical reaction of the modified resist layer. Concerning this we investigate the pattern transfer on large fused silica plates using NF3-sub-aperture RIBE.

  1. Development of negative ion beam accelerators for high power neutral beam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 500 keV negative ion source for JT-60U and a 1 MeV ion source for ITER are being developed at JAERI. Beam acceleration test of the JT-60U negative ion source, that is designed to produce a 500 keV, 22 A D- beam for 10 S, has started. The ion source consists of a cesium seeded volume negative ion generator and a three-stage multi-aperture accelerator. Up to now, D- ion beam of 410 keV, 6.1 A, 0.2 s, 2.5MW was accelerated. This is the world record of deuterium negative ion beam current and negative ion beam power. On the other hand, to demonstrate negative ion acceleration up to an energy of 1 MeV for ITER, the authors constructed a five-stage electrostatic accelerator and a 1MV/1A test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF). The accelerator was conditioned up to a high voltage of 760 kV without beam. The H- ion beam was successfully accelerated up to the energy of 700 keV with a drain current of 230 mA for 1 s

  2. PYROLE: a program for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When performing Ion Beam Analysis, some calculations are currently carried out, such as particle energy loss inside a filter, energy-depth relationship, energy of a particle emitted by a specific nuclear reaction, scattering energy, etc ... Physicists are often led to write a specific computer code, solving their own problem. The context is quite different with teaching activities. Students, indeed, are concerned with solving themselves classical calculations with regard to interactions between matter and particles. Nevertheless, considering a number of different examples would take too much time. For this reason, a software has been carried out in our laboratory. PYROLE is a user friendly software, concerning hydrogen and helium energetic ions in the MeV range, designed to be used as a too-box ; a number of different options is proposed, according to each question to be answered separately, such as: - Range and stopping power table printing, -kinematic factor, - Rutherford cross section, - Thin film thickness by RBS, -Thickness computing from energy loss, - Energy loss in thin film, -Straggling, - Nuclear reaction (Q value, particle before and after a Mylar foil ...). PYROLE is currently used by the students during the training sessions. It also appears that PYROLE is currently used by the students during the training sessions. It also appears that PYROLE is often used bu the Scientists themselves, before and during their experiments. Some examples will be given, concerning analyses carried out in our laboratory. In this paper, the description of the different calculation processes and some application examples are given. (authors). 13 refs., 50 figs

  3. Regulation of free radical generation in a sample irradiated by heavy-ion beam. Density of hydroxyl radical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Density of hydroxyl radical (·OH) in gelatin samples caused by irradiation of carbon ion beam was investigated. ·OH was detected by EPR spin trapping technique using DMPO as a spin trapping agent. Gelatin samples containing several concentrations (7.7 to 1650 mM) of DMPO were irradiated by 290 MeV carbon mono beam using Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), applying several linear energy transfer (LET) (20 to 180 keV/μm) at the surface of the gelatin. The dose at the surface of the gelatin sample was 32 Gy. DMPO-OH (spin trapped ·OH) in irradiated samples were detected by X-band EPR spectrometer. The experiments were repeated using X-ray. Amount of DMPO-OH generated by carbon-ion beam was markedly lower than that by X-ray. For carbon-ion beam, amount of DMPO-OH decreased with increasing LET. The EPR signal intensity of DMPO-OH in X-ray-irradiated sample reached plateau around 30 mM DMPO; however, amount of DMPO-OH in carbon-beam-irradiated sample increased with concentration of DMPO added in the sample. This result suggests that ·OH generation around the truck of carbon ion beam was much dense compared with X-ray. (author)

  4. Coating of pellet pressing tool with 12C by ion beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pressing tools, used in the preparation of the samples needed for example for such nuclear elemental analysis methods as PIXE, PIGE and RBS, have been coated with a diamond-type 12C-layer by ion beam deposition. Using carbon-coated pressing tools prepared in this way contamination of the sample surfaces during the pill pressing operation is avoided. (orig.)

  5. The examinations on purity of ion beams emitted by plasmatic and thermoemission ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The composition of ion beam emitted by both Nielsen's type of plasmatic ion source and source with superficial ionization was examined. Investigations were connected with a design of simplified and chapper variant of implantator without ion beam analysis in magnetic field. The measurements were carried out using an isotope electromagnetic separator in the Institute of Physics at the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin. A considerable differentation in ion beam in respect of both ion charge and kind was observed. The impurities were caused by gases absorbed in source elements as well as by residual gases filled the apparatus. An important reason of impurities seems to be also a source ''store'' due to previous separations. The methods which enable to obtain pure ion beams of argon, nitrogen, zinc and aluminium are presented. Besides the optimum conditions for source work the pure ion beams are determined. (author)

  6. Examinations on purity of ion beams emitted by plasmatic and thermoemission ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maczka, D.; Mazur, J.; Wasiak, A. (Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland). Inst. Fizyki)

    1981-01-01

    The composition of ion beam emitted by both Nielsen's type of plasmatic ion source and source with superficial ionization was examined. Investigations were connected with a design of simplified and chapper variant of implantator without ion beam analysis in magnetic field. The measurements were carried out using an isotope electromagnetic separator in the Institute of Physics at the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University in Lublin. A considerable differentation in ion beam in respect of both ion charge and kind was observed. The impurities were caused by gases absorbed in source elements as well as by residual gases filled the apparatus. An important reason of impurities seems to be also a source ''store'' due to previous separations. The methods which enable to obtain pure ion beams of argon, nitrogen, zinc and aluminium are presented. Besides the optimum conditions for source work the pure ion beams are determined.

  7. Practical applications of ion beam and plasma processing for improving corrosion and wear protection

    CERN Document Server

    Klingenberg, M L; Wei, R; Demaret, J; Hirvonen, J

    2002-01-01

    A multi-year project for the US Army has been investigating the use of various ion beam and plasma-based surface treatments to improve the corrosion and wear properties of military hardware. These processes are intended to be complementary to, rather than competing with, other promising macro scale coating processes such high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) deposition, particularly in non-line-of- sight and flash chrome replacement applications. It is believed that these processes can improve the tribological and corrosion behavior of parts without significantly altering the dimensions of the part, thereby eliminating the need for further machining operations and reducing overall production costs. The ion beam processes chosen are relatively mature, low-cost processes that can be scaled-up. The key methods that have been considered under this program include nitrogen ion implantation into electroplated hard chrome, ion beam assisted chromium and chromium nitride coatings, and plasma-deposited diamond- like carbon an...

  8. Time-resolved ion beam induced charge collection (TRIBICC) in micro-electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The entire current transient induced by single 12 MeV Carbon ions was measured at a 5GHz analog bandwidth. A focused ion micro-beam was used to acquire multiple single ion transients at multiple locations of a single CMOS transistor. The current transients reveal clear and discernible contributions of drift and diffusive charge collection. Transients measured for drain and off-drain ion strikes compare well to 3D DAVINCI calculations. Estimates are presented for the drift assisted funneling charge collection depth

  9. Time-resolved ion beam induced charge collection (TRIBICC) in micro-electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, H. [Air Force Research Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walsh, D.S.; Sexton, F.W.; Doyle, B.L.; Aurand, J.F.; Dodd, P.E.; Flores, R.S.; Wing, N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-08-01

    The entire current transient induced by single 12 MeV Carbon ions was measured at a 5GHz analog bandwidth. A focused ion micro-beam was used to acquire multiple single ion transients at multiple locations of a single CMOS transistor. The current transients reveal clear and discernible contributions of drift and diffusive charge collection. Transients measured for drain and off-drain ion strikes compare well to 3D DAVINCI calculations. Estimates are presented for the drift assisted funneling charge collection depth.

  10. A study for the improvements of radio frequency ion source performance and ion beam quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work emphasis was given to improve ion beam obtained from the RF ion source. Thus, the objectives of this work are: a - Production of higher ion charge state which requires an intense plasma. This is achieved by the use of D.C magnetic field, the use of electron injection into the plasma, and the work run at optimum discharge pressure. b - Increasing the value of the extracted current. c - Improving ion beam quality by its interaction with electron beam. The production of multiply charged ions requires an intense plasma. This leads of the use of RF ion source with radial extraction, central constriction, and electron injection into plasma, together with magnetic field perpendicular to RF field. The plasma intensity could be increased from n e = 10 9 electrons/c m3 up to 10 12 electrons/cm 3. The ion beam was analyzed by a sector magnet and is found to contain a larger percentage of Ar +4 than that without electron injection. To improve ion source efficiency, this means increasing ion current for the same, or lower RF power and gas consumption. A new design of RF ion source of small size and having a magnetic mirror - like shape could yield a current up to 12 m. A at extracting voltage 3 K.V and pressure = 20 m.Torr. Electrons were injected into the ion beam from filaments around the beam . Such electrons decrease the space charge repulsive forces between the particles. Samples of the beam profiles are traced by ion beam scanner, with and without suppression to electrons . From these samples we could deduce a decrease of ion beam emittance due to the effect of beam neutralization, which agrees with the theoretical work made for the effect of neutralization on the beam emittance

  11. Correlation between ion beam parameters and physical characteristics of nanostructures fabricated by focused ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a study of the physical characteristics of the pillars of C, Pt and W grown by 10-30 keV Ga focused ion beam (FIB) as a function of Ga ion flux, and present a quantitative analysis of the elements using energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX). All the FIB grown pillars exhibit a rough morphology with whisker like protrusions on the cylindrical surface and broadening of the base as compared to the nominal size. For a constant fluence, the height of the pillar initially increases and then reduces after going through a maximum as a function of ion flux in all the cases. The compositional analysis shows good metallic quality for Pt structures but reveals significant contamination of Ga in C and Ga and C in W structures at higher ion fluxes. Explanation to all these observations has been sought in the light of secondary ion and electron effects and the different processes involved which lead to the FIB induced deposition

  12. A space charge compensation model for positive DC ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we revisit and extend a formula to predict the compensation of space charge in positive DC ion beams of non-relativistic energy, as they are for example found in the injector beam lines of heavy ion accelerator facilities.The original formula was presented in 1975 by Igor Gabovich et al. and takes into account the de-compensation through Coulomb collisions of the primary beam ions and the compensating electrons. We extend its usability to arbitrary (positive) charge states of the ions and non-quasineutral beams.The resulting formula compares well with measurements using a retarding field analyzer and a multi-species generalization of it was incorporated into beam transport simulations using the particle-in-cell code WARP

  13. Method and apparatus for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, James R.; Liu, Yuan; Havener, Charles C.

    2008-02-26

    Methods and apparatus are described for efficient photodetachment and purification of negative ion beams. A method of purifying an ion beam includes: inputting the ion beam into a gas-filled multipole ion guide, the ion beam including a plurality of ions; increasing a laser-ion interaction time by collisional cooling the plurality of ions using the gas-filled multipole ion guide, the plurality of ions including at least one contaminant; and suppressing the at least one contaminant by selectively removing the at least one contaminant from the ion beam by electron photodetaching at least a portion of the at least one contaminant using a laser beam.

  14. Laser Ion Acceleration Toward Future Ion Beam Cancer Therapy - Numerical Simulation Sudy-

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Barada, Daisuke; Kong, Qing; Gu, Yan Jun; Wang, Ping Xiao; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Ming

    2013-01-01

    Ion beam has been used in cancer treatment, and has a unique preferable feature to deposit its main energy inside a human body so that cancer cell could be killed by the ion beam. However, conventional ion accelerator tends to be huge in its size and its cost. In this paper a future intense-laser ion accelerator is proposed to make the ion accelerator compact. An intense femtosecond pulsed laser was employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching and the ion particle energy control. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions ...

  15. Modification of diamond-like carbon by ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were irradiated with swift heavy ion beams of varying energy and angles of incidence. The irradiation created electrically conducting tracks in the DLC-films by transforming sp3 into sp2 bonds. The DLC-films were analyzed by conductive atomic force microscopy. The images were used to identify ion impact sites, and I-V-Spectroscopy was applied to determine the conductivity of the tracks. High energy ions (2.2 GeV, Au25+) created tracks with ohmic conductivity in the case of perpendicular bombardment, whereas grazing irradiation results in tracks that show mainly tunneling behavior. Low energy ions (100 MeV, Xe23+) created tracks which exhibit tunneling behaviour after perpendicular incidence irradiation, but irradiation under 1 did not result in conductive tracks.

  16. A light ion beam driver for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) is being planned to develop high-grain, high-yield (200 MJ-1000 MJ) ICF targets for applications to nuclear weapons effects simulation, thermonuclear weapons physics, and energy production. It is expected that a 1000-MJ yield will require ∼10--20 MJ input energy to the target. The light-ion beam driver concept for the LMF consists of 36 accelerator modules that drive independent Li+ ion diodes. Each ion beam is extracted from an annular ion diode and propagated to a solenoidal lens located near the wall of the target chamber. This magnetic lens focuses the beam on to the pellet located at the center of the target chamber. The temporal shape of the power pulse delivered to the target is controlled by the synchronized firing of the accelerator modules. This paper presents a status of the light-ion beam LMF driver concept

  17. Gabor lens focusing of a negative ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palkovic, J.A.; Mills, F.E.; Schmidt, C.; Young, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    Gabor or plasma lenses have previously been used to focus intense beams of positive ions at energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV. It is the large electrostatic field of the non-neutral plasma in the Gabor lens which is responsible for the focusing. Focusing an ion beam with a given sign of charge in a Gabor lens requires a non-neutral plasma with the opposite sign of charge as the beam. A Gabor lens constructed at Fermilab has been used to focus a 30 keV proton beam with good optical quality. We discuss studies of the action of a Gabor lens on a beam of negative ions. A Gabor lens has been considered for matching an H/sup /minus// beam into an RFQ in the redesign of the low energy section of the Fermilab linac. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Gabor lens focusing of a negative ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor or plasma lenses have previously been used to focus intense beams of positive ions at energies from 10 keV to 5 MeV. It is the large electrostatic field of the non-neutral plasma in the Gabor lens which is responsible for the focusing. Focusing an ion beam with a given sign of charge in a Gabor lens requires a non-neutral plasma with the opposite sign of charge as the beam. A Gabor lens constructed at Fermilab has been used to focus a 30 keV proton beam with good optical quality. We discuss studies of the action of a Gabor lens on a beam of negative ions. A Gabor lens has been considered for matching an H/sup /minus// beam into an RFQ in the redesign of the low energy section of the Fermilab linac. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. Mechanical Design of Carbon Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Carbon Ion Optics are expected to provide much longer thruster life due to their resistance to sputter erosion. There are a number of different forms of carbon that have been used for fabricating ion thruster optics. The mechanical behavior of carbon is much different than that of most metals, and poses unique design challenges. In order to minimize mission risk, the behavior of carbon must be well understood, and components designed within material limitations. Thermal expansion of the thruster structure must be compatible with thermal expansion of the carbon ion optics. Specially designed interfaces may be needed so that grid gap and aperture alignment are not adversely affected by dissimilar material properties within the thruster. The assembled thruster must be robust and tolerant of launch vibration. The following paper lists some of the characteristics of various carbon materials. Several past ion optics designs are discussed, identifying strengths and weaknesses. Electrostatics and material science are not emphasized so much as the mechanical behavior and integration of grid electrodes into an ion thruster.

  20. Production of a highly charged uranium ion beam with RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higurashi, Y; Ohnishi, J; Nakagawa, T; Haba, H; Tamura, M; Aihara, T; Fujimaki, M; Komiyama, M; Uchiyama, A; Kamigaito, O

    2012-02-01

    A highly charged uranium (U) ion beam is produced from the RIKEN superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source using 18 and 28 GHz microwaves. The sputtering method is used to produce this U ion beam. The beam intensity is strongly dependent on the rod position and sputtering voltage. We observe that the emittance of U(35+) for 28 GHz microwaves is almost the same as that for 18 GHz microwaves. It seems that the beam intensity of U ions produced using 28 GHz microwaves is higher than that produced using 18 GHz microwaves at the same Radio Frequency (RF) power. PMID:22380180