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Sample records for carbon 16 target

  1. Thick backed carbon targets via mechanical rolling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For targets requiring thick backing foils, the straight-forward and usual method is to deposit the target material directly on the backing by thermal evaporation. In some instances the reverse is more desirable, adding a backing to an already existing target foil, for example. A recent study involving measurement of the lifetime of the first 2+ excited state in 36Ar by the Doppler shift attenuation method required 0.5 mg/cm2 natural carbon targets on thick (18 mg/cm2) gold and lead backings. Problems of delamination had arisen after beam irradiation using thick gold backings for these experiments. Carbon target foils were then prepared by mechanical rolling in direct contact with a thick lead backing using an intermediate layer of indium to assure good adhesion of the layers. Details of the method will be discussed. (author)

  2. On the Chinese Carbon Reduction Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michinori Uwasu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In November 2009, China pledged a 40–45% decrease in CO2 emissions per GDP by 2020, as compared with the 2005 level. Although carbon intensity (emission targets by nature are ambiguous, this study demonstrates that China’s pledge is consistent with the current Chinese domestic agenda that simultaneously pursues economic growth and energy security. The target numbers in the pledge seem reasonable, given the technological feasibility and measures, considered along with the assumption that moderate economic growth will occur. However, the study also argues that financial and institutional constraints exist as potential obstacles to achieving the target if the trend of the current economic tendencies continues.

  3. Carbonic anhydrases as targets for medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, Claudiu T; Scozzafava, Andrea

    2007-07-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are zinc enzymes acting as efficient catalysts for the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate. 16 different alpha-CA isoforms were isolated in mammals, where they play crucial physiological roles. Some of them are cytosolic (CA I, CA II, CA III, CA VII, CA XIII), others are membrane-bound (CA IV, CA IX, CA XII, CA XIV and CA XV), CA VA and CA VB are mitochondrial, and CA VI is secreted in saliva and milk. Three acatalytic forms are also known, the CA related proteins (CARP), CARP VIII, CARP X and CARP XI. Representatives of the beta-delta-CA family are highly abundant in plants, diatoms, eubacteria and archaea. The catalytic mechanism of the alpha-CAs is understood in detail: the active site consists of a Zn(II) ion co-ordinated by three histidine residues and a water molecule/hydroxide ion. The latter is the active species, acting as a potent nucleophile. For beta- and gamma-CAs, the zinc hydroxide mechanism is valid too, although at least some beta-class enzymes do not have water directly coordinated to the metal ion. CAs are inhibited primarily by two classes of compounds: the metal complexing anions and the sulfonamides/sulfamates/sulfamides possessing the general formula RXSO(2)NH(2) (R=aryl; hetaryl; perhaloalkyl; X=nothing, O or NH). Several important physiological and physio-pathological functions are played by CAs present in organisms all over the phylogenetic tree, related to respiration and transport of CO(2)/bicarbonate between metabolizing tissues and the lungs, pH and CO(2) homeostasis, electrolyte secretion in a variety of tissues/organs, biosynthetic reactions, such as the gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis among others (in animals), CO(2) fixation (in plants and algae), etc. The presence of these ubiquitous enzymes in so many tissues and in so different isoforms represents an attractive goal for the design of inhibitors with biomedical applications. Indeed, CA inhibitors are clinically used as

  4. Laser ablation of carbon targets placed in a liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, A. A.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Garnov, S. V.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Kucherik, A. O.; Nogtev, D. S.; Osipov, A. V.

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental results on laser formation of carbon nanostructures produced during irradiation of a target placed in water. We have performed comparative experiments on laser heating of carbon targets by millisecond and femtosecond laser pulses. It is shown that under different conditions of laser irradiation of targets made of schungite, glassy carbon and pyrolytic graphite, different morphological types of micro- and nanostructured carbon are formed.

  5. Fungal Taxa Target Different Carbon Substrates in Harvard Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, C. A.; Allison, S. D.; Wallenstein, M. D.; Mellilo, J. M.; Treseder, K. K.

    2006-12-01

    The mineralization of soil organic carbon is a major component of the global carbon cycle and is largely controlled by soil microbial communities. However, little is known about the functional roles of soil microbes or whether different microbial taxa target different carbon substrates under natural conditions. To examine this possibility, we assessed the community composition of active fungi by using a novel nucleotide analog technique in soils from the Harvard Forest. We hypothesized that fungal community composition would shift in response to the addition of different substrates and that specific fungal taxa would respond differentially to particular carbon sources. To test this hypothesis, we added a nucleotide analog probe directly to soils in conjunction with one of five carbon compounds of increasing recalcitrance: glycine, sucrose, cellulose, tannin-protein complex, and lignin. During 48 hour incubations, the nucleotide analog was incorporated into newly replicated DNA of soil organisms that proliferated following the addition of the substrates. In this way, we labeled the DNA of microbes that respond to a particular carbon source. Labeled DNA was isolated and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were sequenced and analyzed to identify active fungi to near-species resolution. Diversity analyses at the ≥97% sequence similarity level indicated that taxonomic richness was greater under cellulose (Shannon Index: 3.23 ± 0.11 with ± 95% CI) and lignin (2.87 ± 0.15) additions than the other treatments (2.34 ± 0.16 to 2.64 ± 0.13). In addition, community composition of active fungi shifted under glycine, sucrose, and cellulose additions. Specifically, the community under glycine was significantly different from communities under control, cellulose, and tannin-protein (Ptannin-protein and slightly increased in response to lignin and sucrose. This confirms our hypothesis that particular taxa respond differently to specific

  6. Family- and Genus-Level 16S rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes for Ecological Studies of Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    J. Gulledge; Ahmad, A; Steudler, P. A.; Pomerantz, W. J.; Cavanaugh, Colleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria play a major role in the global carbon cycle, degrade xenobiotic pollutants, and have the potential for a variety of biotechnological applications. To facilitate ecological studies of these important organisms, we developed a suite of oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of methanotroph-specific 16S rRNA from environmental samples. Two probes target methanotrophs in the family Methylocystaceae (type II methanotrophs) as a group. No oligonucleotide signature...

  7. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  8. Fabrication of multilayer graded density carbon aerogel target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multilayer graded density carbon aerogel target was fabricated, which is considered to be an excellent unique target for ICF experiments and shock wave research. By polymerization reaction of resorcinol and formaldehyde and via a self-made flexible mould, a series of carbon aerogel unit sheets were obtained. Their thickness ranges from 100 to 580 μm and density ranges from 50 to 400 mg·cm-3. With low density(10 mg·cm-3) SiO2 aerogel as the bonding agent, a 5-layer graded density carbon aerogel target was fabricated. This work was focused on the microstructure of C/SiO2 aerogel interface. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray phase contrast imaging method were used to observe the monolithic structure of the multilayer target and characterize the surface and internal microstructure of its unit sheets. The results show that the thickness of the bonding agent is approximately 15 μm, far less than that of carbon aerogel sheets. In addition, the C/SiO2 aerogel interface is smooth, and the formation of the target is homogeneous. (authors)

  9. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Bronfman, L

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to chieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. We study the molecular gas in a region of 86.'4 x 86.'4 in size using CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0) line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 and 100 microns images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km/s and -8.5 km/s (component 1 and component 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Halpha emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, whilst component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and t...

  10. 48 CFR 52.216-16 - Incentive Price Revision-Firm Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive Price Revision-Firm Target. 52.216-16 Section 52.216-16 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... liquidation of progress payments, then that portion may, instead of being refunded, be added to...

  11. Fabrication of multilayer graded density peeled-carbon-aerogel target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → 5-Layer graded density (50-400 mg cm-3) carbon aerogel target was fabrication. → Ultra-low density (10 mg cm-3) SiO2 aerogel as a bonding agent. → Thickness of each unit sheet ranged from 100 to 580 μm. → Several surface micro-treatments were used to peel off the 150 nm dense layer. → As a potential target for shock wave experiments. -- Abstract: As a potential target for shock wave experiments, the multilayer graded density carbon aerogel target was prepared. Firstly, carbon aerogel sheets with varying thickness and density were fabricated by polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde by a self-made flexible micro-mould. Secondly, with ultra-low density (10 mg cm-3) SiO2 aerogel as a bonding agent, a 5-layer graded density carbon aerogel target was obtained. The thickness of each unit sheet ranged from 100 to 580 μm, and the density ranged from 50 to 400 mg cm-3. We focused on fabrication of unit sheets, peeling off their dense layers (about 150 nm) and research of C/SiO2 aerogel interface microstructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray phase contrast imager and surface profiler were used to observe the multilayer structure and characterize the surface and internal microstructure of unit sheets. The results showed that the target fabricated by such method possessed multilayer graded density structure with homogeneous C/SiO2 interface and excellent formability.

  12. Holmium target fragmentation induced by intermediate energy 12C and 16O ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target fragment (40 12C, 272 MeV 16O, 442 MeV12C, 1020 MeV 12C, and 1635 MeV 16O with 165Ho. Target fragment isobaric yields were deduced from these measurements. Trans-target nuclides were identified for all reaction systems. Nuclides up to 4 Z-units above the target were identified for 208 MeV 12C and 272 MeV 16O induced reactions, to 3 Z-units above the target for 442 MeV 12C and 1020 MeC 12C induced reactions, and to 2 Z-units above the target for 1635 MeV 16O induced reactions. Fission was observed to decrease between 17 MeV/A and 37 MeV/A from 13% of the reaction cross section to 4% for 12C induced reactions. No fission contribution was observed for 1020 MeV 12C and 1635 MeV 16O induced interactions

  13. Bremsstrahlung in carbon thick targets by proton incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subtraction of the continuum from an X-ray spectrum emitted by proton bombardment is usually carried out by means of a mathematical fitting. The purpose of the present work is to develop an analytical function to model the continuous spectrum generated in a PIXE experiment for different incident beam energies in carbon thick targets. With this purpose, PIXE spectra of a carbon bulk sample were measured in an ion accelerator. The proton beam energies were varied between 0.7 MeV and 2 MeV and the X-rays generated were collected by an energy dispersive spectrometer. The spectra analysis was performed taking into account the main effects underlying the production of the continuous spectrum. Nevertheless, for the cases considered here, it was found that the atomic bremsstrahlung is the most important and other contributions were neglected. The experimental spectra from carbon thick targets were corrected by self-absorption and detector efficiency. The results show that the spectral shape corresponding to thick targets corrected by these effects is similar to the functional behavior presented by thin targets

  14. Identification of hookworm DAF-16/FOXO response elements and direct gene targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infective stage of the parasitic nematode hookworm is developmentally arrested in the environment and needs to infect a specific host to complete its life cycle. The canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum is an excellent model for investigating human hookworm infections. The transcription factor of A. caninum, Ac-DAF-16, which has a characteristic fork head or "winged helix" DNA binding domain (DBD, has been implicated in the resumption of hookworm development in the host. However, the precise roles of Ac-DAF-16 in hookworm parasitism and its downstream targets are unknown. In the present study, we combined molecular techniques and bioinformatics to identify a group of Ac-DAF-16 binding sites and target genes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The DNA binding domain of Ac-DAF-16 was used to select genomic fragments by in vitro genomic selection. Twenty four bound genomic fragments were analyzed for the presence of the DAF-16 family binding element (DBE and possible alternative Ac-DAF-16 bind motifs. The 22 genes linked to these genomic fragments were identified using bioinformatics tools and defined as candidate direct gene targets of Ac-DAF-16. Their developmental stage-specific expression patterns were examined. Also, a new putative DAF-16 binding element was identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that Ac-DAF-16 is involved in diverse biological processes throughout hookworm development. Further investigation of these target genes will provide insights into the molecular basis by which Ac-DAF-16 regulates its downstream gene network in hookworm infection.

  15. The prospects for polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None of the materials presently in common use for polarized proton targets has a pure carbon nuclear background. The alcohols and diols contain some oxygen, and the ammonia and amine-based materials contain nitrogen and/or other noncarbon species. In the latter cases the noncarbon nuclei are measurably polarized as a concomitant of the process used to polarize the hydrogen nuclei. The relative simplicity of a pure carbon background would be advantageous for most types of scattering experiments and perhaps crucial for some. In addition to simplifying the kinematics of background events, pure carbon is relatively easy to prepare as a ''dummy'' target for background subtraction. Also, in such a target material, 13C-enrichment would yield a clean polarized 13C material. In this note I explore the possibilities for such materials, touching upon only what I consider to be the ''high'' points. The subject matter is capable of nearly endless ramification and speculation. In fact, owing to a general lack of relevant experimental data, even this relatively brief note contains much that is speculative to some degree

  16. 48 CFR 16.403-2 - Fixed-price incentive (successive targets) contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.403-2... (successive targets) contract specifies the following elements, all of which are negotiated at the outset: (i... adjustment under other contract clauses providing for equitable adjustment or other revision of the...

  17. Carbon nanotubes: an emerging drug carrier for targeting cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Vaibhav; Yadav, Pragya; Bhattacharya, Shiv Sankar; Mishra, Arun Kumar; Verma, Navneet; Verma, Anurag; Pandit, Jayanta Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility, and specificity to cells, various cancer cells have been explored with CNTs for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters, cell viability, cytotoxicty, and drug delivery in tumor cells. This review attempts to highlight all aspects of CNTs which render them as an effective anticancer drug carrier and imaging agent. Also the potential application of CNT in targeting metastatic cancer cells by entrapping biomolecules and anticancer drugs has been covered in this review. PMID:24872894

  18. 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph A. Krzycki

    2005-09-15

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on 2004 Molecular Basis of Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism Gordon Conference - August 1-6, 2004 was held at Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA from August 1-6, 2004. The Conference was well-attended with 117 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, 'free time' was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  19. Targeting B16 tumors in vivo with peptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Wilson; Zhang, Xuan; Bekah, Devesh; Teodoro, Jose G.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and peptide conjugation on the biodistribution of ultrasmall (2.7 nm) gold nanoparticles in mice bearing B16 melanoma allografts. Nanoparticles were delivered intravenously, and biodistribution was measured at specific timepoints by organ digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. All major organs were examined. Two peptides were tested: the cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD, which targets integrins); and a recently described peptide derived from the myxoma virus. We found the greatest specific tumor delivery using the myxoma peptide, with or without PEGylation. Un-PEGylated cRGD performed poorly, but PEGylated RGD showed a significant transient collection in the tumor. Liver and kidney were the primary targets of all constructs. None of the particles were able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Although it was able to deliver Au to B16 cells, the myxoma peptide did not show any cytotoxic activity against these cells, in contrast to previous reports. These results indicate that the effect of passive targeting by PEGylation and active targeting by peptides can be independent or combined, and that they should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis when designing new nanosystems for targeted therapies. Both myxoma peptide and cRGD should be considered for specific targeting to melanoma, but a thorough investigation of the cytotoxicity of the myxoma peptide to different cell lines remains to be performed.

  20. Bacterial carbonic anhydrases as drug targets: towards novel antibiotics ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ClaudiuT.Supuran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the a-, b-, and/or g-CA families. In the last decade, the a-CAs from Neisseria spp. and Helicobacter pylori as well as the b-class enzymes from Escherichia coli, H. pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Brucella spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica and Haemophilus influenzae have been cloned and characterized in detail. For some of these enzymes the X-ray crystal structures were determined, and in vitro and in vivo inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates reported. Although efficient inhibitors have been reported for many such enzymes, only for Nessseria spp., H. pylori, B. suis and S. pneumoniae enzymes it has been possible to evidence inhibition of bacterial growth in vivo. Thus, bacterial CAs represent promising targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems of the clinically used such agents but further studies are needed to validate these and other less investigated enzymes as novel drug targets

  1. Revised Stellar Properties of Kepler Targets for the Quarter 1-16 Transit Detection Run

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Daniel; Matthews, Jaymie M; Pinsonneault, Marc H; Gaidos, Eric; García, Rafael A; Hekker, Saskia; Mathur, Savita; Mosser, Benoît; Torres, Guillermo; Bastien, Fabienne A; Basu, Sarbani; Bedding, Timothy R; Chaplin, William J; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Fleming, Scott W; Guo, Zhao; Mann, Andrew W; Rowe, Jason F; Serenelli, Aldo M; Smith, Myron A; Stello, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    We present revised properties for 196,468 stars observed by the NASA Kepler Mission and used in the analysis of Quarter 1-16 (Q1-Q16) data to detect and characterize transiting exoplanets. The catalog is based on a compilation of literature values for atmospheric properties (temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity) derived from different observational techniques (photometry, spectroscopy, asteroseismology, and exoplanet transits), which were then homogeneously fitted to a grid of Dartmouth stellar isochrones. We use broadband photometry and asteroseismology to characterize 11,532 Kepler targets which were previously unclassified in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC). We report the detection of oscillations in 2,762 of these targets, classifying them as giant stars and increasing the number of known oscillating giant stars observed by Kepler by ~20% to a total of ~15,500 stars. Typical uncertainties in derived radii and masses are ~40% and ~20% for stars with photometric constraints only, and ~5-15% and ~10%...

  2. Progress on polarized target materials with pure carbon background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A previous note reviewed methods for the paramagnetic doping of materials for spin-polarized solid targets and some of the history of attempts to apply those methods to hydrocarbons. Since the earlier work on hydrocarbons had yielded, at best, rather mediocre results, that note also speculated on some ways to extend and, possibly, to improve upon the earlier work. The sharpest focus was on the light (number of carbons less than six) alkanes, since these are the hydrocarbons that have the highest hydrogen contents (approx-gt 17wt %) and therefore require the least degree of polarization to be interesting. This present note summarizes the subsequent work done, to date, exploring some of the issues related to the chemical doping method. The main areas of progress have been in the literature search, experimental results on glass formation by alkanes, and a polarizing test of a ''prototype'' hydrocarbon

  3. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO₂ hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4-8.3) × 10⁵ s(-1) and kcat/KM values of (4.7-8.5) × 10⁷ M(-1)·s(-1). In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3-90.5 nM). The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2-88.5 nM). Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets. PMID:27322334

  4. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu T. Supuran

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1 are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3 × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM values of (4.7–8.5 × 107 M−1·s−1. In vitro inhibition studies with various classes of inhibitors, such as anions, sulfonamides and sulfamates, were also reported for the two β-CAs from this pathogen, LpCA1 and LpCA2. Inorganic anions were millimolar inhibitors, whereas diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfamate, sulfamide, phenylboronic acid, and phenylarsonic acid were micromolar ones. The best LpCA1 inhibitors were aminobenzolamide and structurally similar sulfonylated aromatic sulfonamides, as well as acetazolamide and ethoxzolamide (KIs in the range of 40.3–90.5 nM. The best LpCA2 inhibitors belonged to the same class of sulfonylated sulfonamides, together with acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorophenamide (KIs in the range of 25.2–88.5 nM. Considering such preliminary results, the two bacterial CAs from this pathogen represent promising yet underexplored targets for obtaining antibacterials devoid of the resistance problems common to most of the clinically used antibiotics, but further studies are needed to validate them in vivo as drug targets.

  5. Imaging and treating tumor vasculature with targeted radiolabeled carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ruggiero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Ruggiero1*, Carlos H Villa1*, Jason P Holland1, Shanna R Sprinkle1, Chad May2, Jason S Lewis1, David A Scheinberg1, Michael R McDevitt11Departments of Medicine and Radiology, Pharmacology and Molecular Therapeutics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA; 2ImClone Systems, New York, USA; *Ruggiero and Villa contributed equally to this workAbstract: Single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT constructs were covalently appended with radiometal-ion chelates (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid [DOTA] or desferrioxamine B [DFO] and the tumor neovascular-targeting antibody E4G10. The E4G10 antibody specifically targeted the monomeric vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad epitope expressed in the tumor angiogenic vessels. The construct specific activity and blood compartment clearance kinetics were significantly improved relative to corresponding antibody-alone constructs. We performed targeted radioimmunotherapy with a SWCNT-([225Ac]DOTA(E4G10 construct directed at the tumor vasculature in a murine xenograft model of human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T. The specific construct reduced tumor volume and improved median survival relative to controls. We also performed positron emission tomographic (PET radioimmunoimaging of the tumor vessels with a SWCNT-([89Zr]DFO(E4G10 construct in the same murine LS174T xenograft model and compared the results to appropriate controls. Dynamic and longitudinal PET imaging of LS174T tumor-bearing mice demonstrated rapid blood clearance (<1 hour and specific tumor accumulation of the specific construct. Incorporation of the SWCNT scaffold into the construct design permitted us to amplify the specific activity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio without detrimentally impacting the immunoreactivity of the targeting antibody moiety. Furthermore, we were able to exploit the SWCNT pharmacokinetic (PK profile to favorably alter the blood clearance and provide an advantage for rapid

  6. Is China’s carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The reasonability of Chinese government’s CO2 emissions reduction allocation plan is examined. • The stochastic convergence and β-convergence are tested using the provincial panel data. • Both fixed effects and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimators are utilized. • The provinces with high carbon intensity tend to experience faster reduction in carbon intensity, and vise versa. - Abstract: To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth “Five-year Plan” period (2011–2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 intensity of GDP because the convergence is one of the most important intrinsic economic characteristics that policy makers should take into account: if the convergence exists, the provinces with a higher CO2 intensity of GDP tend to experience a more rapid reduction in the intensity and therefore could share a heavier burden of the intensity reduction. The existence of stochastic convergence and β-convergence is verified by employing different estimation methods and using various estimation specifications. As a result, the direct policy implication is that provinces with high CO2 intensity should be assigned tougher reduction targets to cut CO2 intensity at higher speeds, while the provinces with low carbon intensity should be allowed to reduce the CO2 intensity at a relatively lower speed. Because some social and economic indicators such as GDP per capita, industrial structure and population density may influence CO2 intensity, the policy makers should take all these factors into consideration to design reasonable reduction target allocation plan

  7. Electromagnetic Dissociation of Target Nuclei by $^{16}$O and $^{32}$S Projectiles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the inclusive cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation (ED) of |1|9|7Au targets by 60 and 200~GeV/nucleon |1|6O and 200~ GeV/nucleon |3|2S projectiles. This is an extension of similar measurements carried out earlier at 2~GeV/nucleon. ED is a purely electromagnetic process occuring when a virtual photon is exchanged between projectile and target. The experiment emphasized precise measurement of total one-neutron-out cross sections. A secondary goal was to test the applicability of the concepts of factorization and limiting fragmentation at ultrarelativistic energies.\\\\ \\\\ Each individual target will be irradiated upstream and parasitic to experiment NA38 on the dimuon spectrometer. Cross sections for reactions of interest will be determined by off-line counting of the appropriate residual @g~ray activities in Ames, Iowa, USA. Preliminary results indicate an ED one-neutron removal cross section for 200~GeV/nucleon |1|6O projectiles on |1|9|7Au of approximately 0.45~barns. The result is ...

  8. Sox10 controls migration of B16F10 melanoma cells through multiple regulatory target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikjoo Seong

    Full Text Available It is believed that the inherent differentiation program of melanocytes during embryogenesis predisposes melanoma cells to high frequency of metastasis. Sox10, a transcription factor expressed in neural crest stem cells and a subset of progeny lineages, plays a key role in the development of melanocytes. We show that B16F10 melanoma cells transfected with siRNAs specific for Sox10 display reduced migratory activity which in turn indicated that a subset of transcriptional regulatory target genes of Sox10 is likely to be involved in migration and metastasis of melanoma cells. We carried out a microarray-based gene expression profiling using a Sox10-specific siRNA to identify relevant regulatory targets and found that multiple genes including melanocortin-1 receptor (Mc1r partake in the regulation of migration. We provide evidences that the effect of Sox10 on migration is mediated in large part by Mitf, a transcription factor downstream to Sox10. Among the mouse melanoma cell lines examined, however, only B16F10 showed robust down-regulation of Sox10 and inhibition of cell migration indicating that further dissection of dosage effects and/or cell line-specific regulatory networks is necessary. The involvement of Mc1r in migration was studied in detail in vivo using a murine metastasis model. Specifically, B16F10 melanoma cells treated with a specific siRNA showed reduced tendency in metastasizing to and colonizing the lung after being injected in the tail vein. These data reveal a cadre of novel regulators and mediators involved in migration and metastasis of melanoma cells that represents potential targets of therapeutic intervention.

  9. Intraoperative End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Concentrations: What Is the Target?

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Gary E.; Megan Way

    2011-01-01

    Recent publications suggest that target end-tidal carbon dioxide concentrations should be higher than values currently considered as acceptable. This paper presents evidence that end-tidal carbon dioxide values higher than concentrations that are currently targeted result in improved patient outcomes and are associated with a reduced incidence of postoperative complications.

  10. Tests of carbon targets for 12C+12C reactions at astrophysical energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a preliminary step towards measurements of the 12C +12 C reactions at astrophysical energies, we investigate the behaviour of targets under beam bombardment, specifically the quantitative relation between hydrogen and deuterium content of different carbon targets and target temperature. Experiments have taken place at the CIRCE accelerator in Caserta, Italy and preliminary results are presented here

  11. Bose-Einstein correlations in the target fragmentation region in 200A GeV 16O + nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlations between positive pions are investigated in the target fragmentation region of 200 A GeV 16O+nucleus collisions. The pions are measured with the Plastic Ball detector in the WA80 experiment at the CERN SPS. The target mass dependence of the radii and the correlation strength extracted by interferometry is studied. A new approach to the fit of the correlation functions is introduced. The correlation strength and both invariant and transverse radii increase with decreasing target mass. The transverse radius for 16O+C reactions appears to be much larger than the geometrical radius of the nuclei involved. For the Au target only a small fraction of the measured pions contributes to the apparent correlation. Hints for a much larger second component in 16O+Au reactions are observed. Rescattering phenomena may provide a clue to understand these phenomena. (orig.)

  12. Calculation of Lifetime of Charge-Exchanging Carbon Targets in Intense Heavy Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Kazacha, V I; Kamanin, D V

    2005-01-01

    Influence of the radiation damage and sublimation effects on the lifetime of carbon targets used for the accelerated ion beam extraction from cyclotrons by the charge-exchanging method is considered. The theoretical models permitting evaluation of the carbon target lifetime depending on their and ion beam parameters are presented both for the radiation damage and sublimation effects. It is shown that for the U-400 cyclotron carbon targets 50 $\\mu$g/cm$^{2}$ thick and for the ion beam flux density up to 100 p$\\mu$A/cm$^{2}$ the main effect defining the carbon target lifetime is the radiation damage. If the carbon target thickness and the ion beam flux density are greater, the target lifetime is defined already by the sublimation effect. In this connection "casting pipes" can be formed in the target, affecting on the mean energy and the energy distribution dispersion of the ion beam flied through the target. Comparison of measured and calculated target lifetimes is carried out

  13. Low carbon and clean energy scenarios for India: Analysis of targets approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low carbon energy technologies are of increasing importance to India for reducing emissions and diversifying its energy supply mix. Using GCAM, an integrated assessment model, this paper analyzes a targets approach for pushing solar, wind, and nuclear technologies in the Indian electricity generation sector from 2005 to 2095. Targets for these technologies have been constructed on the basis of Indian government documents, policy announcements, and expert opinions. Different targets have been set for the reference scenario and the carbon price scenario. In the reference scenario, wind and nuclear technologies exceed respective targets in the long run without any subsidy push, while solar energy requires subsidy push throughout the century in order to meet its high targets. In the short run, nuclear energy also requires significant subsidy, including a much higher initial subsidy relative to solar power, which is a result of its higher targets. Under a carbon price scenario, the carbon price drives the penetration of these technologies. Still, subsidy is required — especially in the short run when the carbon price is low. We also found that pushing solar, wind, and nuclear technologies leads to a decrease in share of CCS under the carbon price scenario and biomass under both the reference and carbon price scenarios. This is because low carbon technologies compete among themselves and substitute each other, thereby enhancing the need for subsidy or carbon price, highlighting that proposed targets are not set at efficient levels. In light of contemporary debate on external costs of nuclear energy, we also assess the sensitivity of the results to nuclear technology cost. We find that higher cost significantly decreases the share of nuclear power under both the reference and carbon price scenarios.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes: An Emerging Drug Carrier for Targeting Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Vaibhav Rastogi; Pragya Yadav; Shiv Sankar Bhattacharya; Arun Kumar Mishra; Navneet Verma; Anurag Verma; Jayanta Kumar Pandit

    2014-01-01

    During recent years carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been attracted by many researchers as a drug delivery carrier. CNTs are the third allotropic form of carbon-fullerenes which were rolled into cylindrical tubes. To be integrated into the biological systems, CNTs can be chemically modified or functionalised with therapeutically active molecules by forming stable covalent bonds or supramolecular assemblies based on noncovalent interactions. Owing to their high carrying capacity, biocompatibility,...

  15. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals. PMID:23560987

  16. Target fragmentation in proton-nucleus and 16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target remnants with Z16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon were measured in the angular range from 300 to 1600 (-1.7 16O-induced reactions (≅ 300 MeV/c) than in proton-induced reactions (≅ 130 MeV/c). The baryon rapidity distributions are roughly in agreement with one-fluid hydrodynamical calculations at 60 GeV/nucleon 16O+Au but are in disagreement at 200 GeV/nucleon, indicating the higher degree of transparency at the higher bombarding energy. Both, the transverse momenta of target spectators and the entropy produced in the target fragmentation region are compared to those attained in head-on collisions of two heavy nuclei at Bevalac energies. They are found to be comparable or do even exceed the values for the participant matter at beam energies of about 1-2 GeV/nucleon. (orig.)

  17. Legionella pneumophila Carbonic Anhydrases: Underexplored Antibacterial Drug Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC 4.2.1.1) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the hydration of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Many pathogenic bacteria encode such enzymes belonging to the α-, β-, and/or γ-CA families. In the last decade, enzymes from some of these pathogens, including Legionella pneumophila, have been cloned and characterized in detail. These enzymes were shown to be efficient catalysts for CO2 hydration, with kcat values in the range of (3.4–8.3) × 105 s−1 and kcat/KM ...

  18. Target and Beam-Target Spin Asymmetries in Exclusive $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ Electroproduction with 1.6 to 5.7 GeV Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Bosted, P E; Careccia, S; Dodge, G; Fersch, R; Kuhn, S E; Pierce, J; Prok, Y; Zheng, X; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Akbar, Z; Amaryan, M J; Pereira, S Anefalos; Asryan, G; Avakian, H; Badui, R A; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Batourine, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Bültmann, S; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Carman, D S; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Chetry, T; Ciullo, G; Clark, L; Colaneri, L; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; D'Angelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Dupre, R; Egiyan, H; Alaoui, A El; Fassi, L El; Eugenio, P; Fanchini, E; Fedotov, G; Filippi, A; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Fradi, A; Garçon, M; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Gleason, C; Gohn, W; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hanretty, C; Harrison, N; Hattawy, M; Heddle, D; Hicks, K; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Isupov, E L; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Joosten, S; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, A; Klein, F J; Kubarovsky, V; Kuleshov, S V; Lanza, L; Lenisa, P; Livingston, K; Lu, H Y; MacGregor, I J D; Markov, N; McCracken, M E; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Minehart, R; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Movsisyan, A; Munevar, E; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Net, L A; Ni, A; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, I; Osipenko, M; Ostrovidov, A I; Paremuzyan, R; Park, K; Pasyuk, E; Peng, P; Phelps, W; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Puckett, A J R; Raue, B A; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Rosner, G; Rossi, P; Roy, P; Sabatié, F; Salgado, C; Schumacher, R A; Seder, E; Sharabian, Y G; Simonyan, A; Skorodumina, Iu; Smith, G D; Sparveris, N; Stankovic, Ivana; Stepanyan, S; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Taiuti, M; Tian, Ye; Torayev, B; Ungaro, M; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Wood, M H; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J; Zhao, Z W; Zonta, I

    2016-01-01

    Beam-target double spin asymmetries and target single-spin asymmetries in exclusive $\\pi^+$ and $\\pi^-$ electroproduction were obtained from scattering of 1.6 to 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons from longitudinally polarized protons (for $\\pi^+$) and deuterons (for $\\pi^-$) using the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. The kinematic range covered is $1.11.5$ GeV. Very large target-spin asymmetries are observed for $W>1.6$ GeV. When combined with cross section measurements, the present results will provide powerful constraints on nucleon resonance amplitudes at moderate and large values of $Q^2$, for resonances with masses as high as 2.3 GeV.

  19. Design of an intense muon source with a carbon and mercury target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, D.; Berg, J. S.; Neuffer, D.; Ding, X.

    2015-05-03

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  20. Multi-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor cell targeting biological transporters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were prepared and applied as tumor cell targeting biological transporters. A positive charge was introduced on SWNTs to get high loading efficiency of fluorescein (FAM) labeled short double strands DNA (20 base pairs). The SWNTs were encapsulated with the folic acid modified phospholipids for active targeting into tumor cell. The tumor cell-targeting properties of these multi-functionalized SWNTs were investigated by active targeting into mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells. The experimental results show that these multi-functionalized SWNTs have good tumor cell targeting property

  1. Design of an Intense Muon Source with a Carbon and Mercury Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratakis, Diktys [Brookhaven; Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven; Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Ding, Xiaoping [UCLA

    2015-06-01

    In high-intensity sources, muons are produced by firing high energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons which are captured and accelerated. In the present study, we examine the performance of the channel for two different target scenarios: one based on liquid mercury and another one based on a solid carbon target. We produce distributions with the two different target materials and discuss differences in particle spectrum near the sources. We then propagate the distributions through our capture system and compare the full system performance for the two target types.

  2. Estrogen Receptor α(ERα) Target Gene LRP16 Interacts with ERα and Enhances Receptor's Transcriptional Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei-dong; ZHAO Ya-li; WU Zhi-qing; MENG Yuan-guang; ZANG Li; MU Yi-ming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: It has been shown that LRP16 is an estrogen-induced gene through its receptor (Erα). Although there is evidence demonstrating that inhibition of LRP16 gene expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells partially attenuates its estrogen-responsiveness, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. Here, the effect of LRP16 expression on the ER( signaling transduction was investigated. Methods: Cotransfection assays were used to measure the effect of LRP16 on ER(-mediated transcriptional activity. GST-pulldown and immunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays were employed to investigate the physical interaction of LRP16 and Erα. The mammalian two-hybrid method was used to map the functional interaction region. Results: the results of cotransfection assays demonstrated that the transcriptional activities of Erα were enhanced in a LRP16 dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 in the presence of estrogen, however, it was abolished in the absence of E2 in MCF-7 cells. The physical interaction of LRP16 and Erα proteins was confirmed by GST-pulldown in vitro and CoIP in vivo assays, which was enhanced by E2 but not dependent on its presence. Furthermore, the results of the mammalian two-hybrid assays indicated that the binding region of Erα to LRP16 located at the A/B AF-1 functional domain and E2 stimulated the binding of LRP16 to the full-length Erα molecule but not to the A/B region alone. Conclusion: These results support a role for estrogenically regulated LRP16 as an Erα coactivator, providing a positive feedback regulatory loop for Erα signal transduction. Based on this function of LRP16, we propose that Erα-positive breast cancer patients with high expression of LRP16 might benefit from targeting LRP16 therapy.

  3. Hyaluronic acid modified mesoporous carbon nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery to CD44-overexpressing cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Long; Jiao, Jian; Cui, Yu; Guo, Jingwen; Han, Ning; Di, Donghua; Chang, Di; Wang, Pu; Jiang, Tongying; Wang, Siling

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, hyaluronic acid (HA) functionalized uniform mesoporous carbon spheres (UMCS) were synthesized for targeted enzyme responsive drug delivery using a facile electrostatic attraction strategy. This HA modification ensured stable drug encapsulation in mesoporous carbon nanoparticles in an extracellular environment while increasing colloidal stability, biocompatibility, cell-targeting ability, and controlled cargo release. The cellular uptake experiments of fluorescently labeled mesoporous carbon nanoparticles, with or without HA functionalization, demonstrated that HA-UMCS are able to specifically target cancer cells overexpressing CD44 receptors. Moreover, the cargo loaded doxorubicin (DOX) and verapamil (VER) exhibited a dual pH and hyaluronidase-1 responsive release in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, VER/DOX/HA-UMCS exhibited a superior therapeutic effect on an in vivo HCT-116 tumor in BALB/c nude mice. In summary, it is expected that HA-UMCS will offer a new method for targeted co-delivery of drugs to tumors overexpressing CD44 receptors.

  4. Novel treatment option for MUC16-positive malignancies with the targeted TRAIL-based fusion protein Meso-TR3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics represents an ongoing challenge in the field of drug development. TRAIL is a promising cancer drug but its activity profile could benefit from a cancer-selective delivery mechanism, which would reduce potential side effects and increase treatment efficiencies. We recently developed the novel TRAIL-based drug platform TR3, a genetically fused trimer with the capacity for further molecular modifications such as the addition of tumor-directed targeting moieties. MUC16 (CA125) is a well characterized biomarker in several human malignancies including ovarian, pancreatic and breast cancer. Mesothelin is known to interact with MUC16 with high affinity. In order to deliver TR3 selectively to MUC16-expressing cancers, we investigated the possibility of targeted TR3 delivery employing the high affinity mesothelin/MUC16 ligand/receptor interaction. Using genetic engineering, we designed the novel cancer drug Meso-TR3, a fusion protein between native mesothelin and TR3. The recombinant proteins were produced with mammalian HEK293T cells. Meso-TR3 was characterized for binding selectivity and killing efficacy against MUC16-positive cancer cells and controls that lack MUC16 expression. Drug efficacy experiments were performed in vitro and in vivo employing an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. Similar to soluble mesothelin itself, the strong MUC16 binding property was retained in the Meso-TR3 fusion protein. The high affinity ligand/receptor interaction was associated with a selective accumulation of the cancer drug on MUC16-expressing cancer targets and directly correlated with increased killing activity in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model of ovarian cancer. The relevance of the mesothelin/MUC16 interaction for attaching Meso-TR3 to the cancer cells was verified by competitive blocking experiments using soluble mesothelin. Mechanistic studies using soluble DR5-Fc and caspase blocking assays confirmed

  5. Group-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to identify thermophilic bacteria in marine hydrothermal vents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, HJM; Prieur, D; Jeanthon, C

    1997-01-01

    Four 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed for the detection of thermophilic members of the domain Bacteria known to thrive in marine hydrothermal systems, We developed and characterized probes encompassing most of the thermophilic members of the genus Bacillus, most species of the

  6. Use of laser spectroscopy to measure the 13C/12C and 18O/16O compositions of carbonate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Shaun L L; Dipple, Gregory M; Dong, Feng; Baer, Douglas S

    2011-03-15

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of carbonate minerals are utilized throughout the earth and environmental sciences for various purposes. Here, we demonstrate the first application of a prototype instrument, based on off-axis integrated cavity output laser spectroscopy, to measure the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of CO(2) gas evolved from the acidification of carbonate minerals. The carbon and oxygen isotope ratios were recorded from absorption spectra of (12)C(16)O(16)O, (13)C(16)O(16)O, and (12)C(16)O(18)O in the near-infrared wavelength region. The instrument was calibrated using CaCO(3) minerals with known δ(13)C(VPDB) and δ(18)O(VSMOW) values, which had been previously calibrated by isotope ratio mass spectrometry relative to the international isotopic standards NBS 18 and NBS 19. Individual analyses are demonstrated to have internal precision (1 SE) of better than 0.15‰ for δ(13)C and 0.6‰ for δ(18)O. Analysis of four carbonate standards of known isotopic composition over 2 months, determined using the original instrumental calibration, indicates that analyses are accurate to better than 0.5‰ for both δ(13)C and δ(18)O without application of standard-sample-standard corrections. PMID:21341717

  7. Multiple targets of carbon monoxide gas in the intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic relapsing and remitting inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract. It is important to investigate the precise pathogenesis of IBD, to evaluate new anti-inflammatory agents, and to develop novel drugs. Carbon monoxide (CO) has emerged as an important regulator of acute and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory effects is only partially understood. Recent reports have demonstrated that CO could play a role in the functional modulation of epithelial and immunological cells in the intestine. In this short review, we have highlighted the recent findings that CO stimulates the epithelial cell restitution and FGF production from myofibroblasts. CO was also shown to regulate T cell activation and differentiation, and to activate macrophages. Finally, we have discussed the direction of translational research with respect to launching a novel agent for releasing CO in the intestine. PMID:27095232

  8. Carbon Ion Radiotherapy in Advanced Hypofractionated Regimens for Prostate Cancer: From 20 to 16 Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tohru [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi, E-mail: h_tsuji@nirs.go.jp [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Akakura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Shimazaki, Jun [Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tsujii, Hirohiko [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the effects of differences in dose fractionation on late radiation toxicity and biochemical control in patients with prostate cancer treated with carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT). Methods and Materials: A total of 740 prostate cancer patients who received C-ion RT between April 2000 and February 2009 were analyzed. Of those, 664 patients followed for at least 1 year were analyzed with regard to late radiation toxicity. Biochemical relapse-free (BRF) and overall survival (OS) rates in patient subgroups with each dose-fractionation were analyzed. Results: Only 1 case of grade 3 genitourinary (GU) morbidity was observed in 20 fractions, and none of the patients developed higher grade morbidities. The incidence of late GU toxicity in patients treated with 16 fractions was lower than that of patients treated with 20 fractions. The OS rate and BRF rate of the entire group at 5 years were 95.2% and 89.7%, respectively. The 5-year BRF rate of the patients treated with 16 fractions of C-ion RT (88.5%) was comparable to that of the patients treated with 20 fractions (90.2%). Conclusion: C-ion RT of 57.6 GyE (the physical C-ion dose [Gy] Multiplication-Sign RBE) in 16 fractions could offer an even lower incidence of genitourinary toxicity and comparable BRF rate than that in 20 fractions. Advancement in hypofractionation could be safely achieved with C-ion RT for prostate cancer.

  9. Spatial targeting of conservation tillage to improve water quality and carbon retention benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservation tillage reduces soil erosion and improves water quality in agricultural watersheds. However, the benefits of conservation tillage in carbon sequestration are the subject of controversy. Public funds are provided to farms to encourage the adoption of conservation tillage. Given the economic costs, the targeting of areas likely to achieve the greatest environmental benefits has become an important policy-making issue. A geographic information system (GIS) based modelling framework which integrated hydrologic, soil organic matter, and farm models to evaluate the spatial targeting of conservation tillage was presented. A case study applying the framework in the Fairchild Creek watershed in Ontario indicated that targeting conservation tillage based on sediment abatement goals can achieve comparable carbon retention benefits in terms of the percentage reduction of base carbon losses. Targeted subcatchments for conservation tillage varied across the watershed based on benefit to cost ratios. Conservation tillage patterns based on carbon retention goals showed similar results to sediment abatement goals but slight differences were observed because of different carbon content in the soils. The results indicated that sediment abatement may be used as an indicator in setting up program goals. The impacts of conservation programs can then be evaluated based on calibrated and validated hydrologic models in conjunction with monitoring data. Results also showed that setting carbon retention may lead to higher costs in order to achieve corresponding sediment abatement benefits. Carbon retention may not be suitable for setting as a stand-alone environmental goal for conservation programs because of the difficulties in verifying the impacts and the discrepancies between carbon and sediment benefits. It was concluded that the modelling results have important policy implications for the design of conservation stewardship programs that aim to achieve environmental

  10. Study of the potential of low carbon energy development and its contribution to realize the reduction target of carbon intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appraising low carbon energy potential in China and studying its contribution to China's target of cutting CO2 emissions by 40–45% per unit of GDP by 2020 is crucial for taking countermeasures against climate change and identifying low carbon energy development strategies. This paper presents two scenarios and evaluates the development potential for low carbon energy and its various sources. Based on the evaluation, we analyze how low carbon energy contributes to achieving China's national target of carbon intensity reduction. We draw several conclusions from the analysis. First, low carbon energy will contribute 9.74% (minimum) to 24.42% (maximum) toward the 2020 carbon intensity target under three economic development schemes. Second, the contribution will decrease when the GDP growth rate increases. Third, to maintain the same contribution with high GDP growth rates, China should not only strengthen its investment and policy stimulation for low carbon energy but also simultaneously optimize economic structures and improve carbon productivity. - Highlights: ► Low carbon energy can substitute at least 659.5 Mtce of fossil energy in 2020. ► Potential of hydropower ranks first among all low carbon energy sources in 2020. ► Low carbon energy will contribute at least 9.47% to reach carbon target in 2020. ► China should formulate and implement comprehensive measures to cut carbon emission.

  11. Novel 1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones as potential anticancer agents targeting Hsp90.

    OpenAIRE

    Montoir, David; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Tonnerre, Alain; Juin, Philippe; Duflos, Muriel; Bazin, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    International audience Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent chaperone known to be overexpressed in many cancers. This way, Hsp90 is an important target for drug discovery. Novobiocin, an aminocoumarin antibiotic, was reported to inhibit Hsp90 targeting C-terminal domain, and showed anti-proliferative properties, leading to the development of new and more active compounds. Consequently, a new set of novobiocin analogs derived from 1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one scaffold was designed, synthesized and evalu...

  12. Bose-Einstein correlations in the target fragmentation region of 200 A GeV 16O + nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlations of positive pions are investigated in the target fragmentation region of 200 A GeV 16O + nucleus collisions. The pions are measured with the Plastic Ball detectors in the WA80 experiment at the CERN SPS. The detailed behaviour of the fitted parameters on rapidity, centrality and the number of spectator nucleons is studied. The data indicate a large source in central O + Au collisions for ylab ≤ 0. The observations are compatible with a substantial amount of rescattering in the target. (orig.)

  13. Probabilistic quantification of allowable carbon emissions for meeting multiple climate targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinacher, M.; Joos, F.; Stocker, T. F.

    2013-12-01

    Climate targets are designed to inform policies that would limit the magnitude and impacts of climate change caused by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other substances. The target that is currently recognized by most world governments places a limit of two degrees Celsius on the global mean warming since preindustrial times. This would require large sustained reductions in carbon dioxide emissions during the twenty-first century and beyond. Such a global temperature target, however, is not sufficient to control many other quantities, such as transient sea level rise, ocean acidification, and net primary production on land. Here, using an Earth system model of intermediate complexity (EMIC) in an observation-informed Bayesian approach, we show that allowable carbon emissions are substantially reduced when multiple climate targets are set. We take into account uncertainties in physical and carbon cycle model parameters, radiative efficiencies, climate sensitivity, and carbon cycle feedbacks by varying nineteen key model parameters. A broad set of site-specific and gridded observational data from atmosphere, ocean, and land is used to constrain the model ensemble to realizations that are compatible with observations. Within this framework, we explore a broad range of economically feasible greenhouse gas scenarios from the integrated assessment community to determine the likelihood of meeting a combination of specific global and regional targets under various assumptions. For any given likelihood of meeting a set of such targets, the allowable cumulative emissions are greatly reduced from those inferred from the temperature target alone. Therefore, temperature targets alone are unable to comprehensively limit the risks from anthropogenic emissions.

  14. Predictive microbiology combined with metagenomic analysis targeted on the 16S rDNA : A new approach for food quality

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Ellouze, Mariem; Taminiau, Bernard; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas; Nezer, Carine

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The food spoilage process is mainly caused by alteration micro-organisms and classical culture-based methods have therefore been used to assess the microbiological quality of food. These techniques are simple to implement but may not be relevant to understand the modifications of the microbial ecology which occur in the food product in response to different changes in the environmental conditions. Metagenomic analysis targeted on 16S ribosomal DNA can bring about a solution to t...

  15. Identification of a new target of miR-16, Vacuolar Protein Sorting 4a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Adhikari

    Full Text Available The rationale was to utilize a bioinformatics approach to identify miRNA binding sites in genes with single nucleotide mutations (SNPs to discover pathways in heart failure (HF.The objective was to focus on the genes containing miRNA binding sites with miRNAs that were significantly altered in end-stage HF and in response to a left ventricular assist device (LVAD.BEDTools v2.14.3 was used to discriminate SNPs within predicted 3'UTR miRNA binding sites. A member of the miR-15/107 family, miR-16, was decreased in the circulation of end-stage HF patients and increased in response to a LVAD (p<0.001. MiR-16 decreased Vacuolar Protein Sorting 4a (VPS4a expression in HEK 293T cells (p<0.01. The SNP rs16958754 was identified in the miR-15/107 family binding site of VPS4a which abolished direct binding of miR-16 to the 3'UTR of VPS4a (p<0.05. VPS4a was increased in the circulation of end-stage HF patients (p<0.001, and led to a decrease in the number of HEK 293T cells in vitro (p<0.001.We provide evidence that miR-16 decreases in the circulation of end-stage HF patients and increases with a LVAD. Modeling studies suggest that miR-16 binds to and decreases expression of VPS4a. Overexpression of VPS4a decreases cell number. Together, these experiments suggest that miR-16 and VPS4a expression are altered in end-stage HF and in response to unloading with a LVAD. This signaling pathway may lead to reduced circulating cell number in HF.

  16. Targeted Killing of Cancer Cells In vivo and In vitro with EGF-directed Carbon Nanotube-based Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bhirde, Ashwin A; Patel, Vyomesh; Gavard, Julie; Zhang, Guofeng; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Leapman, Richard D.; Weigert, Roberto; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Rusling, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-based drug delivery holds great promise for cancer therapy. Herein we report the first targeted, in vivo killing of cancer cells using a drug-single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bioconjugate, and demonstrate efficacy superior to non-targeted bioconjugates. First line anti-cancer agent cisplatin and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were attached to SWNTs to specifically target squamous cancer, and the non-targeted control was SWNT-cisplatin without EGF. Initialin vitro imaging stud...

  17. A quartz-lined carbon-11 target: striving for increased yield and specific activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, Jacek; Larsen, Peter; Gillings, Nic

    2010-01-01

    The increased demand for high specific radioactivity neuroreceptor ligands for positron emission tomography (PET) requires the production of high specific radioactivity carbon-11 in high yields. We have attempted to address this issue with the development of a new quartz-lined aluminium target fo...

  18. MULTIDISCIPLINARY IMAGING OF ROCK PROPERTIES IN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS FOR FLOW-UNIT TARGETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen C. Ruppel

    2005-02-01

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the US contain large quantities of remaining oil and gas that constitute a huge target for improved diagnosis and imaging of reservoir properties. The resource target is especially large in carbonate reservoirs, where conventional data and methodologies are normally insufficient to resolve critical scales of reservoir heterogeneity. The objectives of the research described in this report were to develop and test such methodologies for improved imaging, measurement, modeling, and prediction of reservoir properties in carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs. The focus of the study is the Permian-age Fullerton Clear Fork reservoir of the Permian Basin of West Texas. This reservoir is an especially appropriate choice considering (a) the Permian Basin is the largest oil-bearing basin in the US, and (b) as a play, Clear Fork reservoirs have exhibited the lowest recovery efficiencies of all carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin.

  19. Synergistic active targeting of dually integrin αvβ3/CD44-targeted nanoparticles to B16F10 tumors located at different sites of mouse bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sanjun; Zhou, Min; Li, Xin; Hu, Min; Li, Chenwen; Li, Min; Sheng, Fangfang; Li, Zhuoheng; Wu, Guolin; Luo, Minghe; Cui, Huanhuan; Li, Ziwei; Fu, Ruoqiu; Xiang, Mingfeng; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Laichun

    2016-08-10

    Conventional enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) mediates the effects of many drugs, including the accumulation of nanocarriers at tumor sites, but its efficiency remains low. In this study, this limitation was overcome by developing a dual-targeting delivery system based on hyaluronan (HA, a major ligand of CD44) and tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac, a specific ligand of αvβ3), which was exploited to carry docetaxel (DTX) for the synergistic active targeting to tumors. First, a tetrac-HA (TeHA) conjugate was synthesized and grafted onto the surfaces of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) (TeHA-SLNs/DTX), with a high encapsulation efficiency of >91.6%. The resulting SLNs exhibited an approximately toroid morphology revealed using TEM. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of various formulations on CD44/αvβ3-enriched B16F10 cells were then assessed, and both results confirmed the selective uptake and high cytotoxicity of the TeHA-SLNs/DTX in a TeHA-dependent manner. In vivo imaging and vessel distribution tests revealed the efficiency of synergistic active targeting was higher than that of EPR-mediated passive targeting by the TeHA-SLNs to αvβ3-expressing tumor blood vessels and CD44-expressing tumor cells via selective targeting. Finally, in both xenograft tumor mice and in situ lung metastasis tumor mice, tumor growth was significantly inhibited by TeHA-SLNs/DTX. Therefore, TeHA-SLNs are an efficient system for the dual-targeted delivery of drugs to treat cancer in vivo. PMID:27235150

  20. Identification of Hookworm DAF-16/FOXO Response Elements and Direct Gene Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Gao; Zhengyuan Wang; John Martin; Sahar Abubucker; Xu Zhang; Makedonka Mitreva; John M Hawdon

    2010-01-01

    Background:The infective stage of the parasitic nematode hookworm is developmentally arrested in the environment and needs to infect a specific host to complete its life cycle. The canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) is an excellent model for investigating human hookworm infections. The transcription factor of A. caninum, Ac-DAF-16, which has a characteristic fork head or ‘‘winged helix’’ DNA binding domain (DBD), has been implicated in the resumption of hookworm development in the host...

  1. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, Tamara A.; Nicol, Clare; Cesur, Özlem [School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Travé, Gilles [UMR 7242 CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, Illkirch 67412 (France); Blair, George Eric; Stonehouse, Nicola J., E-mail: n.j.stonehouse@leeds.ac.uk [School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-24

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4) which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future.

  2. An RNA Aptamer Targets the PDZ-Binding Motif of the HPV16 E6 Oncoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a high-risk DNA tumour virus which is the primary causative agent of cervical cancer. Cell transformation arises from deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E6 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including p53 and proteins containing a PDZ domain. This study reports the first RNA aptamers to E6. These have been employed as molecular tools to further investigate E6-p53 and E6-PDZ interactions. This study is focussed on two aptamers (termed F2 and F4) which induced apoptosis in cells derived from an HPV16-transformed cervical carcinoma. The molecules were able to inhibit the interaction between E6 and PDZ1 from Magi1, with F2 being the most effective inhibitor. Neither of the aptamers inhibited E6-p53 interaction or p53 degradation. This study shows the specificity of this approach and highlights the potential benefits of the E6 aptamers as potential therapeutic or diagnostic agents in the future

  3. Study of 16O(12C,α20Ne)α for the investigation of carbon-carbon fusion reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bordeanu, C.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Nita, C.; Pantelica, D.; Petrascu, H.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Szücs, T.; Trache, L.; Tumino, A.; Velisa, G.

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-carbon fusion reaction represents a nuclear process of great interest in astrophysics, since the carbon burning is connected with the third phase of massive stars (M > 8 M⊙) evolution. In spite of several experimental works, carbon-carbon cross section has been measured at energy still above the Gamow window moreover data at low energy present big uncertainty. In this paper we report the results about the study of the 16O(12C,α 20Ne)α reaction as a possible three-body process to investigate 12C(12C,α)20Ne at astrophysical energy via Trojan Horse Method (THM). This study represents the first step of a program of experiments aimed to measure the 12C+12C cross section at astrophysical energy using the THM.

  4. Target nucleus fragmentation in 16O+(Ag, Br) interactions at 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multiplicity distributions of low-energetic target-associated particles from 200 A GeV oxygen-induced interactions with emulsion nuclei are presented. The experimental distributions are compared with distributions obtained using the Ranft and Fritiof simulation codes. It is found that the intra-nuclear cascade plays an important role in ion-induced interactions, similar to what is the case for hadron-induced interactions. (orig.)

  5. Is China's carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Hao; Hua Liao; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    To curb CO2 emissions, the Chinese government has announced ambitious goals to reduce the CO2 intensity of GDP, and the total target has been allocated to all Chinese provinces during the twelfth "Five-year Plan" period (2011-2015). Although setting the target allocation plan is an efficient way to achieve this goal, some key questions, including how the plan is designed, remained unanswered. From an economic perspective, this requires us to test for the existence of convergence in the CO2 in...

  6. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  7. Nanobiotechnology meets plant cell biology: Carbon nanotubes as organelle targeting nanocarriers

    KAUST Repository

    Bayoumi, Maged Fouad

    2013-01-01

    For years, nanotechnology has shown great promise in the fields of biomedical and biotechnological sciences and medical research. In this review, we demonstrate its versatility and applicability in plant cell biology studies. Specifically, we discuss the ability of functionalized carbon nanotubes to penetrate the plant cell wall, target specific organelles, probe protein-carrier activity and induce organelle recycling in plant cells. We also, shed light on prospective applications of carbon nanomaterials in cell biology and plant cell transformation. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Recombination measurements at low energies with Ar16+ and Ar18+ ions in a dense, cold electron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombination of multiply charged ions with electrons at very low relative energies has become a major topic of interest, due to the observation of rates which are enhanced beyond the expectations for radiative recombination. We present results for Ar16+ and Ar18+ ions from systematic measurements along the argon isonuclear sequence using a high density cold electron beam target (ne = 7 x 109 cm-3) at the UNILAC of GSI. The transverse and longitudinal temperatures of the electron beam were determined from DR resonance features observed with metastable Ar16+ (23S) ions. The rate at Erel = 0 for radiative recombination of completely stripped Ar18+ calculated with electron beam temperatures kTparallel = 0.002 eV, kTperpendicular = 0.2 eV amounts to α = 10-9 cm3 s-1. This is exceeded by nearly a factor of 10 by the rate measured in experiments with Ar18+ ions

  9. Identification of bacteria associated with underground parts of Crocus sativus by 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambardar, Sheetal; Sangwan, Naseer; Manjula, A; Rajendhran, J; Gunasekaran, P; Lal, Rup; Vakhlu, Jyoti

    2014-10-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L), an autumn-flowering perennial sterile plant, reproduces vegetatively by underground corms. Saffron has biannual corm-root cycle that makes it an interesting candidate to study microbial dynamics in its rhizosphere and cormosphere (area under influence of corm). Culture independent 16S rRNA gene metagenomic study of rhizosphere and cormosphere of Saffron during flowering stage revealed presence of 22 genera but none of the genus was common in all the three samples. Bulk soil bacterial community was represented by 13 genera with Acidobacteria being dominant. In rhizosphere, out of eight different genera identified, Pseudomonas was the most dominant genus. Cormosphere bacteria comprised of six different genera, dominated by the genus Pantoea. This study revealed that the bacterial composition of all the three samples is significantly different (P rhizosphere, cormosphere and bulk soil of Saffron, using cultivation independent 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomic approach. PMID:24989343

  10. Separation of carrier-free hafnium and lutetium radionuclides produced in 16O activated terbium metal target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahir, S; Banerjee, K; Nayak, D; Ramaswami, A; Das, N R

    2000-06-01

    Charged particle activation with approximately 88 MeV 16O7+ beam on natural terbium metal foil leads to the production of the short lived carrier-free radioisotopes 170,171Ta and their corresponding daughter products 170,171Hf and 170,171Lu in the target matrix. Liquid-liquid extraction with HDEHP diluted in cyclohexane was carried out for the separation of 170,171Hf and 170,171Lu from the bulk terbium in an aqueous HCl medium. PMID:10855668

  11. Separation of carrier-free hafnium and lutetium radionuclides produced in 16O activated terbium metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle activation with ∼88 MeV 16O7+ beam on natural terbium metal foil leads to the production of the short lived carrier-free radioisotopes 170,171Ta and their corresponding daughter products 170,171Hf and 170,171Lu in the target matrix. Liquid-liquid extraction with HDEHP diluted in cyclohexane was carried out for the separation of 170,171Hf and 170,171Lu from the bulk terbium in an aqueous HCl medium

  12. Novel 1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-ones as potential anticancer agents targeting Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoir, David; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Tonnerre, Alain; Juin, Philippe; Duflos, Muriel; Bazin, Marc-Antoine

    2016-08-25

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent chaperone known to be overexpressed in many cancers. This way, Hsp90 is an important target for drug discovery. Novobiocin, an aminocoumarin antibiotic, was reported to inhibit Hsp90 targeting C-terminal domain, and showed anti-proliferative properties, leading to the development of new and more active compounds. Consequently, a new set of novobiocin analogs derived from 1,6-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one scaffold was designed, synthesized and evaluated against two breast cancer cell lines. Subsequently, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were conducted on best candidates, finally Western Blot analysis was performed to measure their ability to induce degradation of Hsp90 client proteins. PMID:27153346

  13. MicroRNA-133 Controls Brown Adipose Determination in Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells by Targeting Prdm16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Hang; Pasut, Alessandra; Soleimani, Vahab D;

    2013-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells...... (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3'UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism of...... downregulated in mice exposed to cold, resulting in de novo generation of satellite cell-derived brown adipocytes. Therefore, microRNA-133 represents an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity....

  14. The effect of carbon distribution on deformation and cracking of Ni-16Cr-9Fe-C alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) tests and constant load tensile (CLT) tests were conducted on controlled purity Ni-16Cr-9Fe-C alloys. The amount and form of carbon were varied in order to investigate the roles of carbon in solution and as intergranular (IG) carbides in the deformation and IG cracking behavior in 360 C argon and primary water environments. Results show that the strength, ductility and creep resistance of these alloys are increased with carbon present in solid solution, while IG cracking on the fracture surface is suppressed. Alloys containing carbon in the form of IG carbides, however, exhibit reduced strength and ductility relative to carbon in solution, while maintaining high IG cracking resistance with respect to carbon-free alloys. CERT results of commercial alloy 600 and controlled purity, carbon containing alloys yield comparable failure strains and IG cracking amounts. CLT comparisons with creep tests of alloy 600 suggest that alloys containing IG carbides are more susceptible to creep than those containing all carbon in solid solution

  15. Preliminary results from collisions between 3.2-TeV 16O and target nuclei of C, Cu, and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary data is presented for the interactions of oxygen 16 with carbon, copper, and gold at 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon. This preliminary data included total charged-particle multiplicity distributions and transverse energy distributions. Ranges of transverse momentum per particle and of possible energy densities were discussed. The ultimate goal of the experiment was to search for the transition from hadronic matter to deconfined quark matter. Such a transition may occur in the finite volume of hadronic matter that is formed with high energy density in very high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is estimated that the required critical energy density may be reached in central collisions between sufficiently large nuclei, provided that the degree of nuclear stopping is high enough to concentrate a large fraction of the available center of mass energy at mid-rapidity. Thus the immediate goal of the experiment was to study the extent of stopping and the nature of the baryon-poor excited nuclear matter in the rapidity range intermediate between the projectile and the target rapidities. The experiment also sought to investigate the fragmentation region associated with the target remnants. The experimental arrangement consisted of the following detector systems: the Plastic Ball, several charged-particle multiplicity arrays, the Wall Calorimeter, SAPHIR (Single-Arm Photon Detector for Heavy Ion Reactions), the time-of-flight wall, and the Zero-Degree Calorimeter. 15 refs., 3 figs

  16. Equilibrium thickness of carbon target interacting with nitrogen and neon ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkova, Yu. A.; Novikov, N. V.; Teplova, Ya. A.

    2016-04-01

    The method for calculation of the target thickness which is required for the formation of equilibrium charge distribution of ions is proposed. The description of nonequilibrium processes is based on empirical estimations of charge-exchange cross sections, taking the density effect for solids into account. The variation of the average charge and the width of the nonequilibrium charge distribution as a function of the target thickness is analyzed. The results of calculations for nitrogen and neon ions in carbon are compared with experimental data.

  17. Advances in cancer therapy through the use of carbon nanotube-mediated targeted hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cornel Iancu, Lucian Mocan3rd Surgery Clinic, Department of Nanomedicine, “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, RomaniaAbstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are emerging versatile tools in nanomedicine applications, particularly in the field of cancer targeting. Due to diverse surface chemistry and unique thermal properties, CNTs can act as strong optical absorbers in near infrared light where biological systems prove to be highly transparent. The process of laser-mediated ablation of cancer cells marked with biofunctionalized CNTs is frequently termed “nanophotothermolysis.” This paper illustrates the potential of engineered CNTs as laser-activated photothermal agents for the selective nanophotothermolysis of cancer cells.Keywords: carbon nanotubes, cancer targeting, functionalization, optical excitation, cancer treatment

  18. Targeting one carbon metabolism with an antimetabolite disrupts pyrimidine homeostasis and induces nucleotide overflow

    OpenAIRE

    Ser, Zheng; GAO, XIA; Johnson, Christelle; Mehrmohamadi, Mahya; Liu, Xiaojing; Li, SiQi; Locasale, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-metabolite agents that affect nucleotide metabolism are frontline chemotherapy agents in several cancers and often successfully target one carbon metabolism. However, the precise mechanisms and resulting determinants of their therapeutic value are unknown. We show that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), a commonly used anti-metabolite therapeutic with varying efficacy, induces specific alterations to nucleotide metabolism by disrupting pyrimidine homeostasis. An integrative metabolomics analysis of ...

  19. Epitaxial α″-Fe16N2 Films Grown on NaCl (001)by Facing Target Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慈; 姜恩永; 许英华; 张宝峰; 吴萍

    2003-01-01

    There is a great interest in obtaining epitaxial α″ nitride phase of iron because of their special ferromagnetic properties. o″-Fe16 N2 thin films have been prepared by facing-target sputtering (FTS) onto NaCl (001) substrates in a mixture of argon(Ar) and N2 gases. The base pressure was 6 × 10 -5 Pa. During sputtering, the partial pressures of Ar and N2 gases were kept constant at 0.3 Pa and 0. 05 Pa respectively. The deposition rate was about 0.2 nm/s. The substrate temperature was held at about 100 ℃. Annealing of the films was sequentially carried out at 150 ℃ for 1 h in vacuum ( at least 10-4 Pa ) to obtain α″-phase. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations and X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the α″-Fe16N2 epitaxially grew on the NaCl substrates. It was found that the arrangement of the SAD patterns exhibits perfect symmetries. By using super-lattice reflections, the lattice constants a = b = (5.71 ±0.02) × 10 -1nm and c = (6.30 ±0.04) × 10-1nm of the α″-phase with a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure were determined, which was very close to the results obtained by Jack ( a = b = 5.72 × 10 - 1 nm, c = 6.29 × 10 - 1 nm). The X-ray diffraction patterns and the selected area-diffraction patterns showed that o″-Fe16 N2 epitaxially grew on the NaCl (001) substrate with orientation relationships α″-Fe16 N2 (001) || NaCl (001), α″-Fe16 N2 [ 001 ] || NaCl[001].

  20. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy. PMID:25873154

  1. Aberrant epilepsy-associated mutant Nav1.6 sodium channel activity can be targeted with cannabidiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Reesha R; Barbosa, Cindy; Brustovetsky, Tatiana; Brustovetsky, Nickolay; Cummins, Theodore R

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in brain isoforms of voltage-gated sodium channels have been identified in patients with distinct epileptic phenotypes. Clinically, these patients often do not respond well to classic anti-epileptics and many remain refractory to treatment. Exogenous as well as endogenous cannabinoids have been shown to target voltage-gated sodium channels and cannabidiol has recently received attention for its potential efficacy in the treatment of childhood epilepsies. In this study, we further investigated the ability of cannabinoids to modulate sodium currents from wild-type and epilepsy-associated mutant voltage-gated sodium channels. We first determined the biophysical consequences of epilepsy-associated missense mutations in both Nav1.1 (arginine 1648 to histidine and asparagine 1788 to lysine) and Nav1.6 (asparagine 1768 to aspartic acid and leucine 1331 to valine) by obtaining whole-cell patch clamp recordings in human embryonic kidney 293T cells with 200 μM Navβ4 peptide in the pipette solution to induce resurgent sodium currents. Resurgent sodium current is an atypical near threshold current predicted to increase neuronal excitability and has been implicated in multiple disorders of excitability. We found that both mutations in Nav1.6 dramatically increased resurgent currents while mutations in Nav1.1 did not. We then examined the effects of anandamide and cannabidiol on peak transient and resurgent currents from wild-type and mutant channels. Interestingly, we found that cannabidiol can preferentially target resurgent sodium currents over peak transient currents generated by wild-type Nav1.6 as well as the aberrant resurgent and persistent current generated by Nav1.6 mutant channels. To further validate our findings, we examined the effects of cannabidiol on endogenous sodium currents from striatal neurons, and similarly we found an inhibition of resurgent and persistent current by cannabidiol. Moreover, current clamp recordings show that cannabidiol reduces

  2. Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Stratigraphy of Mesoproterozoic Carbonate Sequences (1.6–1.4 Ga from Yanshan in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Yanshan, located in the northern part of North China, Mesoproterozoic carbonate sequences (1.6–1.4 Ga form a 10, 000 m thick succession in an aulacogen basin. Carbon and oxygen isotope (δ13O and δ18O, resp. data were obtained from 110 carbonate samples across three sections of these Mesoproterozoic deposits. From the early to late Mesoproterozoic, low negative values of δ13O appear, followed by low positive variation and then a stable increase. An abrupt decrease in δ13O values, with subsequent rapid increase, is found at the end of the Mesoproterozoic. During the whole Mesoproterozoic, δ18O shows a mainly negative trend and occasional highly negative isotopic shifts (from lower to upper deposits. Whole-rock carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and profiles must be studied to provide a paleogeochemical record that can be associated with paleocean sedimentary environments, temperature, biological productivity, and sea-level fluctuations. Results of the present study correlate well with other international carbon and oxygen isotope profiles, suggesting that a global marine geochemical system existed during the interval of 1.6–1.4 Ga under a globally united tectonic, sedimentary, and geochemical background.

  3. Properties of Diamond-Like Carbon Films Synthesized by Dual-Target Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cui; LI Guo-Qing; GOU Wei; MU Zong-Xin; ZHANG Cheng-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Smooth, dense and uniform diamond-like carbon films (DLC films) for industrial applications have successfully been prepared by dual-target unbalanced magnetron sputtering and the DLC characteristics of the films are confirmed by Raman spectra. It is found that the sputtering current of target plays an important role in the DLC film deposition. Deposition rate of 3.5μm/h is obtained by using the sputtering current of 30 A. The friction coefficient of the films is 0.2-0.225 measured by using a pin-on-disc microtribometer. The structure of the films tends to have a growth of sp3 bonds content at high sputtering current. The compressive residual stress in the films increases with the increasing sputtering current of the target.

  4. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradetti, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova (Italy); Biasetto, L. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Tecnica e Gestione dei Sistemi Industriali, Vicenza (Italy); Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Carturan, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Padova (Italy); Vasquez, J. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Padova (Italy); Zanonato, P. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova (Italy); Colombo, P. [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Padova (Italy); Jost, C.U. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville (United States); Stracener, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community. (orig.)

  5. Neutron-Rich Isotope Production Using a Uranium Carbide Carbon Nanotubes SPES Target Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradetti, Stefano [ORNL; Biasetto, Lisa [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Manzolaro, Mattia [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Scarpa, Daniele [ORNL; Carturan, S. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Andrighetto, Alberto [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Prete, Gianfranco [ORNL; Vasquez, Jose L [ORNL; Zanonato, P. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Padova, Italy; Colombo, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Padova, Italy; Jost, Carola [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  6. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradetti, S.; Biasetto, L.; Manzolaro, M.; Scarpa, D.; Carturan, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Prete, G.; Vasquez, J.; Zanonato, P.; Colombo, P.; Jost, C. U.; Stracener, D. W.

    2013-05-01

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community.

  7. Neutron-rich isotope production using a uranium carbide - carbon nanotubes SPES target prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPES (Selective Production of Exotic Species) project, under development at the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL), is a new-generation Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facility for the production of radioactive ion beams by means of the proton-induced fission of uranium. In the framework of the research on the SPES target, seven uranium carbide discs, obtained by reacting uranium oxide with graphite and carbon nanotubes, were irradiated with protons at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In the following, the yields of several fission products obtained during the experiment are presented and discussed. The experimental results are then compared to those obtained using a standard uranium carbide target. The reported data highlights the capability of the new type of SPES target to produce and release isotopes of interest for the nuclear physics community. (orig.)

  8. Carbon emission reduction targeting through process integration and fuel switching with mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► CO2 emissions reduction targeting for existing plant were categorized into three groups. ► Model for CO2 emissions reduction targeting via combination approach was developed. ► Effect of combination approach onto HEN area efficiency was discussed. ► Proposed execution strategy can avoid HEN area efficiency deterioration. -- Abstract: Carbon emission reduction targeting is an important and effective effort for industry to contribute in controlling greenhouse gases concentration in atmosphere. Graphical approach has been proposed for CO2 emissions reduction targeting via HEN retrofit and fuel switching. However, it involves potentially time consuming manual procedures and the quality of solutions produced greatly depends on designer’s experience and judgment. Besides, graphical approach hardly account for the cost factor during the design phase, thus potentially generate complex design. This paper introduces an MINLP model for simultaneous CO2 emissions reduction targeting via fuel switching and HEN retrofit. A sequential model execution was proposed along with the proposed model. The application of the model on a crude preheat train case study has demonstrated its workability to generate optimal solution for targeted CO2 emissions reduction at minimum payback period.

  9. Design of antibody-functionalized carbon nanotubes filled with radioactivable metals towards a targeted anticancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinato, Cinzia; Perez Ruiz de Garibay, Aritz; Kierkowicz, Magdalena; Pach, Elzbieta; Martincic, Markus; Klippstein, Rebecca; Bourgognon, Maxime; Wang, Julie Tzu-Wen; Ménard-Moyon, Cécilia; Al-Jamal, Khuloud T.; Ballesteros, Belén; Tobias, Gerard; Bianco, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we have devised the synthesis of a novel promising carbon nanotube carrier for the targeted delivery of radioactivity, through a combination of endohedral and exohedral functionalization. Steam-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been initially filled with radioactive analogues (i.e. metal halides) and sealed by high temperature treatment, affording closed-ended CNTs with the filling material confined in the inner cavity. The external functionalization of these filled CNTs was then achieved by nitrene cycloaddition and followed by the derivatization with a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed by several cancer cells. The targeting efficiency of the so-obtained conjugate was evaluated by immunostaining with a secondary antibody and by incubation of the CNTs with EGFR positive cells (U87-EGFR+), followed by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy or elemental analyses. We demonstrated that our filled and functionalized CNTs can internalize more efficiently in EGFR positive cancer cells.In the present work we have devised the synthesis of a novel promising carbon nanotube carrier for the targeted delivery of radioactivity, through a combination of endohedral and exohedral functionalization. Steam-purified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been initially filled with radioactive analogues (i.e. metal halides) and sealed by high temperature treatment, affording closed-ended CNTs with the filling material confined in the inner cavity. The external functionalization of these filled CNTs was then achieved by nitrene cycloaddition and followed by the derivatization with a monoclonal antibody (Cetuximab) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), overexpressed by several cancer cells. The targeting efficiency of the so-obtained conjugate was evaluated by immunostaining with a secondary antibody and by incubation of the CNTs with EGFR positive cells (U87

  10. Heterogeneous synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine and methyl carbonate in methanol over a CeO2 catalyst☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Cao; Huiquan Li; Xintao Li; Liguo Wang; Ganyu Zhu; Qing Tang

    2015-01-01

    The efficient synthesis of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDC) from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA) and methyl carbonate over a series of heterogeneous catalysts (e.g., MgO, Fe2O3, Mo2O3, and CeO2) was investigated. The reaction pathway was confirmed as an alcoholysis reaction through a series of designed experiments. Under optimized conditions, 100%HDA conversion with 83.1%HDCtotal and 16.9%polyurea was obtained using a one-step with high temperature procedure with CeO2 as the catalyst. A new two-step with variable temperature technol-ogy was developed based on the reaction pathway to reduce the polyurea yield. Using the proposed method, the HDCtotal yield reached 95.2%, whereas the polyurea yield decreased to 4.8%. The CeO2 catalyst showed high stability and did not exhibit any observable decrease in the HDC yield or any structural changes after four recycling periods. © 2014 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  11. Fusion cross sections of carbon isotopes obtained with an ionization chamber in active target mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon fusion has provided questions to both physicists and astronomers for at least the last 50 years. From fundamental nuclear structure to recent discoveries in stellar phenomena there are still open topics. Fusion in the 12C + 12C system show oscillations that are not present in neighboring systems and are yet not completely understood. Unexplained behavior in the threshold between 1p and 2s1d shells is seen as fusion cross sections show significant changes in systems which differ by only a nucleon. A new type of stellar explosions, called super bursts, in X-ray binaries were recently observed and are thought to require fusion of radioactive carbon isotopes for an explanation, opening new paths for stellar nucleosynthesis. These are a few interesting examples that motivated the development of a new measurement technique, which comprises a Multi Sampling Ionization Chamber (Music) operated in active target mode, with methane gas (C H4) as both counting gas and reaction target. This offers a high efficiency detection method where excitation functions can be sampled, using a single beam energy, in a range determined by the ionization gas pressure. This is a great advantage since it drastically reduces the measurement time and the data are automatically normalized. The high efficiency of the detector makes it ideal for experiments where the reaction cross section and/or the beam intensity are low, i.e. for processes involving radioactive nuclei. Using the Music, fusion cross sections in systems with carbon isotopes of mass numbers A = 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 impinging on a carbon-12 target have been measured. Beam energies of about 3 MeV/A were used for obtaining fusion excitation functions in the center of mass energy range between 10 and 20 MeV. In this contribution, the operation principle of the Music is discussed. Then, the experimental excitation functions are presented and compared with previous data (3when available) and different theoretical models

  12. Identification of planctomycetes with order-, genus-, and strain-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, D; Schlesner, H; Glöckner, F O; Amann, R; Pfeiffer, S; Thomm, M

    2004-04-01

    A specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe (PIR1223) for the genus Pirellula and a species-specific probe (RB454) for Pirellula sp. strain SH1 have been designed and optimized. Together with the already existing order-specific probe PLA886, the two newly designed probes were used to detect and identify planctomycetes, pirellulae, and close relatives of Pirellula sp. strain SH1 in different habitats. With the help of these probes for detection and identification, bacteria of the genus Pirellula were detected and cultivated from tissue of the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba and from the water column of the Kiel Fjord. An unexpected result was the close phylogenetic relationship of the isolate from the sponge and the brackish water habitat Kiel Fjord as revealed by DNA/DNA hybridization. PMID:14994173

  13. Vascular targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for near-infrared light therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for targeting carbon nanotubes to the tumor vasculature was tested using human endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with the F3 peptide using a polyethylene glycol linker to target nucleolin, a protein found on the surface of endothelial cells in the vasculature of solid tumors. Confocal microscopy and Raman analysis confirmed that the conjugate was internalized by actively dividing endothelial cells. Dividing endothelial cells were used to mimic these cells in the tumor vasculature. Incubation with the conjugate for 8 h or more caused significant cell death in both actively dividing endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, an effect that is hypothesized to be due to the massive uptake of the conjugate. This targeted cell killing was further enhanced when coupled with near-infrared laser treatment. For confluent (non-dividing) endothelial cells, no cytotoxic effect was seen for incubation alone or incubation coupled with laser treatment. These results are promising and warrant further studies using this conjugate for cancer treatment in vivo.

  14. Nuclear Structure Studies in the 132Sn Region: Safe Coulex with Carbon Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allmond, James M [ORNL; Stuchbery, Andrew E [ORNL; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Radford, David C [ORNL; Batchelder, J. C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Stone, N. J. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Varner, Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The collective and single-particle structure of nuclei in the 132Sn region was recently studied by Coulomb excitation and heavy-ion induced transfer reactions using carbon, beryllium, and titanium targets. In particular, Coulomb excitation was used determine a complete set of electromagnetic moments for the first 2+ states and one-neutron transfer was used to probe the purity and evolution of single-neutron states. These recent experiments were conducted at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at ORNL using a CsI-HPGe detector array (BareBall- CLARION) to detect scattered particles and emitted gamma rays from the in-beam reactions. A Bragg-curve detector was used to measure the energy loss of the various beams through the targets and to measure the radioactive beam compositions. A sample of the Coulomb excitation results is presented here with an emphasis placed on 116Sn. In particular, the safe Coulex criterion for carbon targets will be analyzed and discussed.

  15. Vascular targeted single-walled carbon nanotubes for near-infrared light therapy of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prickett, Whitney M.; Van Rite, Brent D.; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2011-11-01

    A new approach for targeting carbon nanotubes to the tumor vasculature was tested using human endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. Single-walled carbon nanotubes were functionalized with the F3 peptide using a polyethylene glycol linker to target nucleolin, a protein found on the surface of endothelial cells in the vasculature of solid tumors. Confocal microscopy and Raman analysis confirmed that the conjugate was internalized by actively dividing endothelial cells. Dividing endothelial cells were used to mimic these cells in the tumor vasculature. Incubation with the conjugate for 8 h or more caused significant cell death in both actively dividing endothelial cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, an effect that is hypothesized to be due to the massive uptake of the conjugate. This targeted cell killing was further enhanced when coupled with near-infrared laser treatment. For confluent (non-dividing) endothelial cells, no cytotoxic effect was seen for incubation alone or incubation coupled with laser treatment. These results are promising and warrant further studies using this conjugate for cancer treatment in vivo.

  16. 13C/12C and 18O/16O in calcium carbonate-cemented beach sands ('beach rocks')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the stable isotope composition (C13/C12 and O18/O16) of the cement and the local groundwater in Itaparica Island (Salvador-Brazil) is carried out to determine the origin of the carbonate cement. For area A, the cement has Δ13C = 9% showing that CO2 in groundwater charged by decay of organic material is the source of carbonate in the cement. Probably comentation occurs during loss of excess CO2 from groundwater as comes into an environment where loss of CO2 is possible . In area B, where the cements contain, on the average Δ18O v=1,3%, the cement is formed from carbonate typical of sea water or a mixture of sea water and fresh water. (Autor)

  17. Comparative study of fusion barrier distribution in 16O and 18O induced reactions on 232Th and 209Bi targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to investigate the influence of projectile excitations and transfer channels, quasi-elastic excitation function measurements with 16,18O projectile on two targets, one heavy (232Th) and the other a lighter target (209Bi) at energies around their Coulomb barrier are investigated. The results are compared with a new CC code CCFULL

  18. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  19. Separation of carrier free 176,177W and 176,177Ta radionuclides produced in 16O activated holmium metal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free radioisotopes of tungsten, 176,177W, and their corresponding daughter radionuclides 176,177Ta, have been produced in holmium target by heavy ion activation with 16O5+ beam. An attempt has been made to separate these carrier-free radionuclides from bulk holmium target through LLX using cation exchanger HDEHP. (author)

  20. Separation of carrier-free 176,177W and 176,177Ta produced in 16O irradiated holmium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free radionuclides of tungsten and tantalum, 176,177W and 176,177Ta have been produced by heavy ion activation of holmium target with 97 MeV 16O5+ beam. Radiochemical separation scheme has been developed to isolate tungsten and tantalum radionuclides from the holmium target matrix. (author)

  1. Uncertainties in key low carbon power generation technologies - Implication for UK decarbonisation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK government's economy-wide 60% carbon dioxide reduction target by 2050 requires a paradigm shift in the whole energy system. Numerous analytical studies have concluded that the power sector is a critical contributor to a low carbon energy system, and electricity generation has dominated the policy discussion on UK decarbonisation scenarios. However, range of technical, social and market challenges, combined with alternate market investment strategies mean that large scale deployment of key classes of low carbon electricity technologies is fraught with uncertainty. The UK MARKAL energy systems model has been used to investigate these long-term uncertainties in key electricity generation options. A range of power sector specific parametric sensitivities have been performed under a 'what-if' framework to provide a systematic exploration of least-cost energy system configurations under a broad, integrated set of input assumptions. In this paper results of six sensitivities, via restricted investments in key low carbon technologies to reflect their technical and political uncertainties, and an alternate investment strategies from perceived risk and other barriers, have been presented. (author)

  2. Targeting head and neck cancer stem cells to overcome resistance to photon and carbon ion radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Gérald; Maalouf, Mira; Boivin, Antony; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Beuve, Michael; Levy, Antonin; Jalade, Patrice; Fournier, Claudia; Ardail, Dominique; Magné, Nicolas; Alphonse, Gersende; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2014-02-01

    Although promising new radiation therapy techniques such as hadrontherapy are currently being evaluated in the treatment of head and neck malignancies, local control of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains low. Here, we investigated the involvement of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) in a radioresistant HNSCC cell line (SQ20B). Stem-like cells SQ20B/SidePopulation(SP)/CD44(+)/ALDH(high) were more resistant to both photon and carbon ion irradiation compared with non-CSCs. This was confirmed by a BrdU labeling experiment, which suggests that CSCs were able to proliferate and to induce tumorigenicity after irradiation. SQ20B/SP/CD44(+)/ALDH(high) were capable of an extended G2/M arrest phase in response to photon or carbon ion irradiation compared with non-CSCs. Moreover, our data strongly suggest that resistance of CSCs may result from an imbalance between exacerbated self-renewal and proliferative capacities and the decrease in apoptotic cell death triggering. In order to modulate these processes, two targeted pharmacological strategies were tested. Firstly, UCN-01, a checkpoint kinase (Chk1) inhibitor, induced the relapse of G2/M arrest and radiosensitization of SQ20B-CSCs. Secondly, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) resulted in an inhibition of ALDH activity, and induction of the differentiation and radiosensitization of SQ20B/SP/CD44(+)/ALDH(high) cells. The combination of ATRA and UCN-01 treatments with irradiation drastically decreased the surviving fraction at 2Gy of SQ20B-CSCs from 0.85 to 0.38 after photon irradiation, and from 0.45 to 0.21 in response to carbon ions. Taken together, our results suggest that the combination of UCN-01 and ATRA represent a promising pharmacological-targeted strategy that significantly sensitizes CSCs to photon or carbon ion radiation. PMID:23955575

  3. Mini-jets seen in cosmic ray interaction with carbon target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we use two different procedures by mini jets identification in cosmic ray particles interaction with carbon target chamber (C-jets) observed by Brazil-Japan Collaboration. This events concerns the overlapping energy region with CERN and FNAL collider experiments (√ s ∼ 500 GeV). Our results are discussed and interpreted in terms of fire-ball model and we find which those studies are common in many aspects with modern version of multi-particles production models such as quark-string inspired by QCD. (author). 4 refs, 6 figs

  4. How to trigger low carbon technologies by EU targets for 2030? An assessment of technology needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, H.; Van Breevoort, P.; Janeiro, L.; Winkel, T.

    2013-04-15

    The current EU framework for energy and climate policies up to 2020 consists of three headline targets: 20% reduction of GHG emissions compared to 2005, a 20% share of renewable energy in final energy consumption, and 20% primary energy savings compared to baseline developments. While progress on these 2020 targets is mixed, discussions in the EU about climate and energy policies and targets for the period after 2020 have started. Given the long cycles associated to energy and climate investments, agreement on a clear longer-term policy framework is critical to improve visibility for investors and avoid lock-in effects in inefficient or polluting technologies. Therefore, the European Commission published a Communication on 6 June 2012 on the need for a long term policy framework for renewable energy, and a Green Paper on the 2030 climate and energy policy framework on 27 March 2013. Against this background, the Dutch Ministries of Infrastructure and Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs requested PBL to create input for the European debate on climate targets and policies until and beyond 2030. Ecofys supported PBL by addressing the following two questions: (1) What steps are needed for selected key technology groups to achieve long term GHG emission reductions and what climate and energy policies are likely to trigger these steps?; and (2) What are the pros and cons of a 2030 policy framework with (a) a GHG reduction target only, and (b) targets for GHG reduction, renewable energy, and energy efficiency? The focus of the first question was on four technology groups, namely (1) energy efficiency in the built environment, notably for heat; (2) solar PV and wind energy; (3) advanced biofuels; (4) CO2 carbon capture and storage (CCS). An analysis of the steps needed for the deployment of the full GHG mitigation potential of the discussed technology groups shows that this will largely depend on the adoption of a wide range of policy instruments by EU Member

  5. Genomic organization of the human gene (CA5) and pseudogene for mitochondrial carbonic anhydrase V and their localization to chromosomes 16q and 16p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiro; Sly, W.S.; Batanian, J.R. [St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    Carbonic anhydrase V (CA V) is expressed in mitochondrial matrix in liver and several other tissues. It is of interest for its putative roles in providing bicarbonate to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase for ureagenesis and to pyruvate carboxylase for gluconeogenesis and its possible importance in explaining certain inherited metabolic disorders with hyperammonemia and hypoglycemia. Following the recent characterization of the cDNA for human CA V, we report the isolation of the human gene from two {lambda} genomic libraries and its characterization. The CA V gene (CA5) is approximately 50 kb long and contains 7 exons and 6 introns. The exon-intron boundaries are found in positions identical to those determined for the previously described CA II, CA III, and CA VII genes. Like the CA VII gene, CA5 does not contain typical TATA and CAAT promoter elements in the 5{prime} flanking region but does contain a TTTAA sequence 147 nucleotides upstream of the initiation codon. CA5 also contains a 12-bp GT-rich segment beginning 13 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal in the 3{prime} untranslated region of exon 7. FISH analysis allowed CA5 to be assigned to chromosome 16q24.3. An unprocessed pseudogene containing sequence homologous to exons 3-7 and introns 3-6 was also isolated and was assigned by FISH analysis to chromosome 16p11.2-p12. 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Functional single-walled carbon nanotubes/chitosan conjugate for tumor cells targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baoyan; Ou, Zhongmin; Xing, Da

    2009-08-01

    The application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the field of biomedicine is becoming an exciting topic because of their flexible structure and propensity for chemical functionalization. In this assay, a novel noncovalently functional SWCNTs based on a natural biocompatible polymer chitosan has been developed for tumor cells targeting. First, SWCNTs were modified by chitosan (CHIT-SWCNT). Second, CHIT-SWCNT was coupled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), based on the reaction between the isothiocyanate group of FITC and the primary amino group of chitosan. Third, the FITC functionalized CHIT-SWCNT was conjugated with folic acid (FA) after activation with EDC/NHS, based on the reaction between the NHS group of FA and the primary free amino group of chitosan to construct the functional SWCNT/CHIT conjugate, CHIT-SWCNT-FA. The fluorescence CHIT-SWCNT-FA has been used to detect tumor cells with confocal microscopy imaging technology. Our experimental results indicate that the novel CHIT-SWCNT-FA is soluble and stable in PBS, and it can be readily transported inside tumor cells. Combining the intrinsic properties of carbon nanotubes and the versatility of chitosan, CHIT-SWCNT can be used as potential devices for targeted drug delivery and tumor cell sensing. The proposed assay could provide a feasible alternative to presently available functional SWCNTs in biological applications.

  7. A new peptide ligand for targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX, identified through the phage display technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios Askoxylakis

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX is a transmembrane enzyme found to be overexpressed in various tumors and associated with tumor hypoxia. Ligands binding this target may be used to visualize hypoxia, tumor manifestation or treat tumors by endoradiotherapy. METHODS: Phage display was performed with a 12 amino acid phage display library by panning against a recombinant extracellular domain of human carbonic anhydrase IX. The identified peptide CaIX-P1 was chemically synthesized and tested in vitro on various cell lines and in vivo in Balb/c nu/nu mice carrying subcutaneously transplanted tumors. Binding, kinetic and competition studies were performed on the CAIX positive human renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52, the CAIX negative human renal cell carcinoma cell line CaKi 2, the human colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 and on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC. Organ distribution studies were carried out in mice, carrying SKRC 52 tumors. RNA expression of CAIX in HCT 116 and HUVEC cells was investigated by quantitative real time PCR. RESULTS: In vitro binding experiments of (125I-labeled-CaIX-P1 revealed an increased uptake of the radioligand in the CAIX positive renal cell carcinoma cell line SKRC 52. Binding of the radioligand in the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT 116 increased with increasing cell density and correlated with the mRNA expression of CAIX. Radioligand uptake was inhibited up to 90% by the unlabeled CaIX-P1 peptide, but not by the negative control peptide octreotide at the same concentration. No binding was demonstrated in CAIX negative CaKi 2 and HUVEC cells. Organ distribution studies revealed a higher accumulation in SKRC 52 tumors than in heart, spleen, liver, muscle, intestinum and brain, but a lower uptake compared to blood and kidney. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that CaIX-P1 is a promising candidate for the development of new ligands targeting human carbonic anhydrase IX.

  8. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit Dotan

    Full Text Available The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches.Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining.TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls.A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam radiation or chemotherapy, with

  9. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Trifiro, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid) act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches. Methods Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin) were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm) was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining. Results TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls. Conclusion A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam

  10. China's Voluntary Mitigation Target and Road of Low-carbon Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Jiankun

    2011-01-01

    China is going through a rapid development stage of industrialization and urbanization.Although tremendous achievements have been made in the aspects of energy conservation,improvement of energy effectiveness and development of new and renewable energies,because of the rapid development of economy,it is difficult to change the huge total amount and fast increase of CO2 emission in the near future.China has to confront the tough challenge to address global climate change.China plans to reduce carbon intensity,that is,CO2 emissions per unit GDP,by 40 to 45% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level.It is a strategic option to coordinate domestic sustainable development with coping with global climate change on the basis of China's national circumstances,representing the core content and key measures for transforming development pattern and realizing low-carbon development.To achieve the target,more capital and technology inputs are required for energy conservation and low-carbon development during the twelfth and Thirteenth Five Year Plan period than in the Eleventh Five Year Plan period.In addition,energy conservation achieved by structural adjustment,industrial upgrading and product value-added improvement is also expected to play a greater role.Therefore,China should strengthen technological innovation,make greater efforts to transform the development pattern,take advantage of the synergistic effect of policies and measures while coping with global climate change and building a domestic tow-oriented society.China should also establish an industrial system characterized by low-carbon emission.Then China will ultimately achieve a win-win situation in both domestic sustainable development and coping with global climate change.

  11. Measurement of proton-induced target fragmentation cross sections in carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K.; Nishio, T.; Tanaka, S.; Tsuneda, M.; Sugiura, A.; Ieki, K.

    2016-02-01

    In proton therapy, positron emitter nuclei are generated via the target nuclear fragmentation reactions between irradiated proton and nuclei constituting a human body. The proton-irradiated volume can be confirmed with measurement of annihilation γ-rays from the generated positron emitter nuclei. To achieve the high accuracy of proton therapy, in vivo dosimetry, i.e., evaluation of the irradiated dose during the treatment is important. To convert the measured activity distribution to irradiated dose, cross-sectional data for positron emitter production is necessary, which is currently insufficient in the treatment area. The purpose of this study is to collect cross-sectional data of 12C (p , pn)11C and 12C (p , p 2 n)10C reactions between the incident proton and carbon nuclei, which are important target nuclear fragmentation reactions, to estimate the range and exposure dose distribution in the patient's body. Using planar-type PET capable of measuring annihilation γ-rays at high positional resolution and thick polyethylene target, we measured cross-sectional data in continuous wide energy range. The cross section of 12C (p , pn)11C is in good agreement with existing experimental data. The cross section of 12C (p , p 2 n)10C is reported for the first data in the low-energy range of 67.6-10.5 MeV near the Bragg peak of proton beam.

  12. Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as Rationally Designed Vehicles for Tumor-Targeted Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based tumor-targeted drug delivery system (DDS) has been developed, which consists of a functionalized SWNT linked to tumor-targeting modules as well as prodrug modules. There are three key features of this nanoscale DDS: (a) use of functionalized SWNTs as a biocompatible platform for the delivery of therapeutic drugs or diagnostics, (b) conjugation of prodrug modules of an anticancer agent (taxoid with a cleavable linker) that is activated to its cytotoxic form inside the tumor cells upon internalization and in situ drug release, and (c) attachment of tumor-recognition modules (biotin and a spacer) to the nanotube surface. To prove the efficacy of this DDS, three fluorescent and fluorogenic molecular probes were designed, synthesized, characterized, and subjected to the analysis of the receptor-mediated endocytosis and drug release inside the cancer cells (L1210FR leukemia cell line) by means of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The specificity and cytotoxicity of the conjugate have also been assessed and compared with L1210 and human noncancerous cell lines. Then, it has unambiguously been proven that this tumor-targeting DDS works exactly as designed and shows high potency toward specific cancer cell lines, thereby forming a solid foundation for further development.

  13. An Environmentally Benign Access to Dimethylated 1,6-Dihydropyrimidines Using Dimethyl Carbonate as Methylating Agent under Microwave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xi-Cun; QUAN Zheng-Jun; ZHANG Zhang

    2008-01-01

    An environmentally benign procedure for dimethylated 1,6-dihydropyrimidines has been developed by the reaction of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thiones with dimethyl carbonate, a non-toxic and environmentally friendly reagent.The methylation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione was promoted by MgO and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) under microwave.This protocol avoids the use of strong bases and highly toxic methylating agents such as methyl halide or dimethyl sulfate.Additionally, the possible role of MgO/TBAB in the reaction was also presented.

  14. Interactions of 13.6-GeV/nucleon 16O and 28Si with carbon, aluminum, and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for forming 24Na and 18F by the interactions of 13.6-GeV/nucleon 16O and 28Si ions with Al and for forming 24Na in 16O interactions with Cu have been measured relative to the cross section for forming 11C from carbon. The results are generally consistent with energy-independent inclusive cross sections (limiting fragmentation) for heavy ions between ∼2 and 13.6 GeV/nucleon. However, comparison of the heavy-ion data with those for high-energy protons indicates a significantly weaker dependence on projectile size than that predicted by the factorization hypothesis for σC(11C), σAl(18F), and σAl(24Na). The dependence is slightly stronger in the case of σCu(24Na)

  15. Framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national carbon Emissions reduction target: Focused on educational facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the increase in greenhouse gas emissions has increased the global warming potential, an international agreement on carbon emissions reduction target (CERT) has been formulated in Kyoto Protocol (1997). This study aimed to develop a framework for the analysis of the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT. To verify the feasibility of the proposed framework, educational facilities were used for a case study. This study was conducted in six steps: (i) selection of the target school; (ii) establishment of the reference model for the target school; (iii) energy consumption pattern analysis by target school; (iv) establishment of the energy retrofit model for the target school; (v) economic and environmental assessment through the life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analysis; and (vi) establishment of the low-carbon scenario in 2020 to achieve the national CERT. This study can help facility managers or policymakers establish the optimal retrofit strategy within the limited budget from a short-term perspective and the low-carbon scenario 2020 to achieve the national CERT from the long-term perspective. The proposed framework could be also applied to any other building type or country in the global environment

  16. Quantification of uncultured Ruminococcus obeum-like bacteria in human fecal samples with fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry using 16S ribosomal RNA targeted probes

    OpenAIRE

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Ben-Amor, K.; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Schut, F; Akkermans, A. D. L.; Vos, de, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted probe was designed and validated in order to quantify the number of uncultured Ruminococcus obeum-like bacteria by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). These bacteria have frequently been found in 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries prepared from bacterial communities in the human intestine. Thirty-two reference strains from the human intestine, including a phylogenetically related strain and strains of some other Ruminococcus species, were used as negative controls and...

  17. Quantification of Uncultured Ruminococcus obeum-Like Bacteria in Human Fecal Samples by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and Flow Cytometry Using 16S rRNA-Targeted Probes

    OpenAIRE

    Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; Schut, Frits; Akkermans, Antoon D. L.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2002-01-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted probe was designed and validated in order to quantify the number of uncultured Ruminococcus obeum-like bacteria by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). These bacteria have frequently been found in 16S ribosomal DNA clone libraries prepared from bacterial communities in the human intestine. Thirty-two reference strains from the human intestine, including a phylogenetically related strain and strains of some other Ruminococcus species, were used as negative controls and...

  18. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes as tumor-targeting MRI contrast agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lin Hou,* Huijuan Zhang,* Yating Wang, Lili Wang, Xiaomin Yang, Zhenzhong ZhangSchool of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: A tumor-targeting carrier, hyaluronic acid (HA-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs, was explored to deliver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents (CAs targeting to the tumor cells specifically. In this system, HA surface modification for SWCNTs was simply accomplished by amidation process and could make this nanomaterial highly hydrophilic. Cellular uptake was performed to evaluate the intracellular transport capabilities of HA-SWCNTs for tumor cells and the uptake rank was HA-SWCNTs> SWCNTs owing to the presence of HA, which was also evidenced by flow cytometry. The safety evaluation of this MRI CAs was investigated in vitro and in vivo. It revealed that HA-SWCNTs could stand as a biocompatible nanocarrier and gadolinium (Gd/HA-SWCNTs demonstrated almost no toxicity compared with free GdCl3. Moreover, GdCl3 bearing HA-SWCNTs could significantly increase the circulation time for MRI. Finally, to investigate the MRI contrast enhancing capabilities of Gd/HA-SWCNTs, T1-weighted MR images of tumor-bearing mice were acquired. The results suggested Gd/HA-SWCNTs had the highest tumor-targeting efficiency and T1-relaxivity enhancement, indicating HA-SWCNTs could be developed as a tumor-targeting carrier to deliver the CAs, GdCl3, for the identifiable diagnosis of tumor.Keywords: gadolinium, magnetic resonance, SWCNTs, hyaluronic acid, contrast agent

  19. L-[METHYL-11C] Methionine Positron Emission Tomography for Target Delineation in Malignant Gliomas: Impact on Results of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the importance of 11C-methionine (MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) for clinical target volume (CTV) delineation. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study analyzed 16 patients with malignant glioma (4 patients, anaplastic astrocytoma; 12 patients, glioblastoma multiforme) treated with surgery and carbon ion radiotherapy from April 2002 to Nov 2005. The MET-PET target volume was compared with gross tumor volume and CTV, defined by using computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Correlations with treatment results were evaluated between positive and negative extended volumes (EVs) of the MET-PET target for CTV. Results: Mean volumes of the MET-PET targets, CTV1 (defined by means of high-intensity volume on T2-weighted MRI), and CTV2 (defined by means of contrast-enhancement volume on T1-weighted MRI) were 6.35, 264.7, and 117.7 cm3, respectively. Mean EVs of MET-PET targets for CTV1 and CTV2 were 0.6 and 2.2 cm3, respectively. The MET-PET target volumes were included in CTV1 and CTV2 in 13 (81.3%) and 11 patients (68.8%), respectively. Patients with a negative EV for CTV1 had significantly greater survival rate (p = 0.0069), regional control (p = 0.0047), and distant control time (p = 0.0267) than those with a positive EV. Distant control time also was better in patients with a negative EV for CTV2 than those with a positive EV (p = 0.0401). Conclusions: For patients with malignant gliomas, MET-PET has a possibility to be a predictor of outcome in carbon ion radiotherapy. Direct use of MET-PET fused to planning computed tomography will be useful and yield favorable results for the therapy

  20. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 Targets and Restrains Mouse B16 Melanoma and 4T1 Breast Tumors through Expression of Azurin Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunlei; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu; Zhang, XiangLi; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Fu; Wu, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that intravenously administered bacteria can target and proliferate in solid tumors and then quickly be released from other organs. Here, we employed the tumor-targeting property of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to inhibit mouse B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast tumors through the expression of azurin protein. For this purpose, recombinant azurin-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 was developed. The levels of in vitro and in vivo azurin secretion in the engineered bacteriu...

  1. Molecular basis of the targeting of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage by VP16 derivatives conjugated to triplex-forming oligonucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Maria; Guianvarc'h, Dominique; Oussedik, Kahina; Halby, Ludovic; Garbesi, Anna; Dauzonne, Daniel; Monneret, Claude; Osheroff, Neil; Giovannangeli, Carine; Arimondo, Paola B.

    2006-01-01

    Human topoisomerase II (topo II) is the cellular target for a number of widely used antitumor agents, such as etoposide (VP16). These agents ‘poison’ the enzyme and induce it to generate DNA breaks that are lethal to the cell. Topo II-targeted drugs show a limited sequence preference, triggering double-stranded breaks throughout the genome. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that some of these breaks induce chromosomal translocations that lead to specific types of leukaemia (called tre...

  2. Multifunctional hybrid-carbon nanotubes: new horizon in drug delivery and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh Kumar; Jain, Narendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as an intriguing nanotechnological tool for numerous biomedical applications including biocompatible modules for the bioactives delivery ascribed to their unique properties, such as greater loading efficiency, biocompatibility, non-immunogenicity, high surface area and photoluminescence, that make them ideal candidate in pharmaceutical and biomedical science. The design of multifunctional hybrid-CNTs for drug delivery and targeting may differ from the conventional drug delivery system. The conventional nanocarriers have few limitations, such as inappropriate availability of surface-chemical functional groups for conjugation, low entrapment/loading efficiency as well as stability as per ICH guidelines with generally regarded as safe (GRAS) prominences. The multifunctional hybrid-CNTs will sparked and open a new door for researchers, scientist of the pharmaceutical and biomedical arena. This review summarizes the vivid aspects of CNTs like characterization, supramolecular chemistry of CNTs-dendrimer, CNTs-nanoparticles, CNTs-quantum dots conjugate for delivery of bioactives, not discussed so far. PMID:26147085

  3. Low-density carbonized composite foams for direct-drive laser ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design for a direct-drive, high-gain laser inertial confinement fusion target calls for the use of a low-density, low-atomic-number foam to confine and stabilize liquid deuterium-tritium (DT) in a spherical-shell configuration. Over the past two years, we have successfully developed polystyrene foams (PS) and carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams (CRF) for that purpose. Both candidates are promising materials with unique characteristics. PS has superior mechanical strength and machinability, but its relatively large thermal contraction is a significant disadvantage. CRF has outstanding wettability and dimensional stability in liquid DT; yet it is much more fragile than PS. To combine the strengths of both materials, we have recently developed a polymer composite foam which exceeds PS in mechanical strength, but retains the wettability and dimension stability of CRF. This paper will discuss the preparation, structure, and properties of the polymer composite foams. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Effects of functionalization on the targeting site of carbon nanotubes inside cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are currently being investigated for a variety of applications, including contrast agents for medical imaging1. However before they can be used commercially it is necessary to assess whether they enter cells, the site they target within the cell and whether they cause any cytotoxicity. Here we characterize uptake of unlabelled, acid-treated, COO- functionalized SWNTs by human monocyte derived macrophage cells using both low-loss and energy loss spectroscopy and compare our findings to previous work on unpurified SWNTs. The acid-treated SWNTs were less aggregated within cells than unpurified SWNTs. Acid treatment was found to affect the distribution of intracellular SWNTs. Bundles, and also individual acid treated SWNTs, were found frequently inside lysosomes, cytoplasm and also inserting into the plasma membrane whereas unpurified non-functionalised SWNTs entered lysosomes and occasionally the nucleus.

  5. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B16 induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u 12C6+ ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B16. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau ∝85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  6. Carbon ion induced DNA double-strand breaks in melanophore B{sub 16}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zengquan; Zhou Guangming; Wang Jufang; He Jing; Li Qiang; Li Wenjian; Xie Hongmei; Cai Xichen; Tao Huang; Dang Bingrong; Han Guangwu [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Inst. of Modern Physics; Gao Qingxiang [Lanzhou Univ. (China)

    1997-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in melanophore B{sub 16} induced by plateau and extended Bragg peak of 75 MeV/u {sup 12}C{sup 6+} ions were studied by using a technique of inverse pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PIGE). DNA fragment lengths were distributed in two ranges: the larger in 1.4 Mbp-3.2 Mbp and the smaller in less than 1.2 Mbp. It indicates that distribution of DNA fragments induced by heavy ion irradiation is not stochastic and there probably are sensitive sites to heavy ions in DNA molecules of B{sub 16}. Percentage of DNA released from plug (PR) increased and trended towards a quasi-plateau {proportional_to}85% as dose increased. Content of the larger fragments decreased and flattened with increasing dose while content of the smaller ones increased and trended towards saturation. (orig.)

  7. Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory%Conflict and Coordination Problem of Carbon Tax' Diversity Targets in China-Based on the Tax Optimization Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Gang

    2011-01-01

    Among all the emission reduction measures, carbon tax is recognized as the most effective way to protect our climate. That is why the Chinese government has recently taken it as a tax reform direction, In the current economic analysis, the design of carbon tax is mostly based on the target to maximize the efficiency However, based on the theory of tax system optimization, we should also consider other policy objectives, such as equity, revenue and cost, and then balance different objectives to achieve the suboptimum reform of carbon tax system in China.

  8. Phase transformations in low-carbon manganese steel 6Mn16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of phase transformations of the austenite of 6Mn16 steel during continuous cooling are presented in a CCT diagram. Manganese partitioning between ferrite and austenite during intercritical annealing is enhanced by prior soft annealing. Due to the increased Mn concentration in austenite, the temperatures BS and MS have decreased, as compared to those achieved during cooling from the complete austenite region.

  9. [Targeting of type IV carbonic anhydrases in Capan-1 human pancreatic duct cells is concomitant of the polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, A; Fanjul, M; Hollande, E

    1996-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrases II and IV play an essential role in the synthesis and secretion of HCO3- ions in pancreatic duct cells. Secretion of these ions is regulated by the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) chloride channel. In the present study, the expression of carbonic anhydrases IV and their targeting to plasma membranes were examined during the growth of human pancreatic duct cells in vitro. Human cancerous pancreatic duct cells of Capan-1 cell line which polarize during their growth were used. We show that: a) these cells express carbonic anhydrases IV continuously during growth in culture, and the expression depends on the stage of growth and the conformation of the cells; b) carbonic anhydrases IV are seen in the cytoplasm in non-polarized cells, but become progressively anchored to plasma membranes as the cells polarize, being targeted to the apical membranes of polarized cells; c) the subcellular distribution of carbonic anhydrases IV indicates that these enzymes are synthetized in rough endoplasmic reticulum and then transported towards the plasma membrane using the classical secretory pathway through the Golgi apparatus. The results indicated that targeting of carbonic anhydrases IV in Capan-1 cells is linked to cellular polarization. PMID:8881572

  10. Phosphatidylserine targets single-walled carbon nanotubes to professional phagocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarjun V Konduru

    Full Text Available Broad applications of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT dictate the necessity to better understand their health effects. Poor recognition of non-functionalized SWCNT by phagocytes is prohibitive towards controlling their biological action. We report that SWCNT coating with a phospholipid "eat-me" signal, phosphatidylserine (PS, makes them recognizable in vitro by different phagocytic cells - murine RAW264.7 macrophages, primary monocyte-derived human macrophages, dendritic cells, and rat brain microglia. Macrophage uptake of PS-coated nanotubes was suppressed by the PS-binding protein, Annexin V, and endocytosis inhibitors, and changed the pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Loading of PS-coated SWCNT with pro-apoptotic cargo (cytochrome c allowed for the targeted killing of RAW264.7 macrophages. In vivo aspiration of PS-coated SWCNT stimulated their uptake by lung alveolar macrophages in mice. Thus, PS-coating can be utilized for targeted delivery of SWCNT with specified cargoes into professional phagocytes, hence for therapeutic regulation of specific populations of immune-competent cells.

  11. Potential Probiotic Escherichia coli 16 Harboring the Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene Improves Gastrointestinal Tract Colonization and Ameliorates Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasant Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the beneficial effects of potential probiotic E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin (vgb gene, associated with bacterial respiration under microaerobic condition, on gastrointestinal (GI colonization and its antioxidant activity on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity in Charles Foster rats. In vitro, catalase activity in E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp was 1.8 times higher compared to E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp control. In vivo, E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp not only was recovered in the fecal matter after 70 days of oral administration but also retained antibacterial activities, whereas E. coli 16 (pUC-gfp was not detected. Oral administration of 200 and 500 μL/kg body weight of CCl4 to rats at weekly interval resulted in elevated serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase (SGPT and serum glutamyl oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT levels compared to controls. Rats prefed with E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp demonstrated near to normal levels for SGPT and SGOT, whereas the liver homogenate catalase activity was significantly increased compared to CCl4 treated rats. Thus, pUC8:16gfp plasmid encoding vgb improved the growth and GI tract colonization of E. coli 16. In addition, it also enhanced catalase activity in rats harboring E. coli 16 (pUC8:16gfp, thereby preventing the absorption of CCl4 to GI tract.

  12. Indazole, Pyrazole, and Oxazole Derivatives Targeting Nitric Oxide Synthases and Carbonic Anhydrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccallini, Cristina; Di Matteo, Mauro; Vullo, Daniela; Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Carradori, Simone; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Giampietro, Letizia; Pandolfi, Assunta; Supuran, Claudiu T; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-08-19

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an essential endogenous mediator with a physiological role in the central nervous system as neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. A growing number of studies have demonstrated that abnormal nitrergic signaling is a crucial event in the development of neurodegeneration. In particular, the uncontrolled production of NO by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, it is well recognized that specific isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) physiologically modulate crucial pathways of signal processing and that low expression of CA affects cognition, leading to mental retardation, Alzheimer's disease, and aging-related cognitive impairments. In light of this, dual agents that are able to target both NOS (inhibition) and CA (activation) could be useful drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, aging, and other neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work, we show the design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of new nitrogen-based heterocyclic compounds. Among the tested molecules, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1H-indazol-5-yl)propanamide hydrochloride (10 b) was revealed to be a potent dual agent, able to act as a selective nNOS inhibitor and activator of the hCA I isoform. PMID:27377568

  13. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luís F. F.; Krais, John J.; Van Rite, Brent D.; Ramesh, Rajagopal; Resasco, Daniel E.; Harrison, Roger G.

    2013-09-01

    This paper focuses on the targeting of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for the treatment of breast cancer with minimal side effects using photothermal therapy. The human protein annexin V (AV) binds specifically to anionic phospholipids expressed externally on the surface of tumour cells and endothelial cells that line the tumour vasculature. A 2 h incubation of the SWNT-AV conjugate with proliferating endothelial cells followed by washing and near-infrared (NIR) irradiation at a wavelength of 980 nm was enough to induce significant cell death; there was no significant cell death with irradiation or the conjugate alone. Administration of the same conjugate i.v. in BALB/c female mice with implanted 4T1 murine mammary at a dose of 0.8 mg SWNT kg-1 and followed one day later by NIR irradiation of the tumour at a wavelength of 980 nm led to complete disappearance of implanted 4T1 mouse mammary tumours for the majority of the animals by 11 days since the irradiation. The combination of the photothermal therapy with the immunoadjuvant cyclophosphamide resulted in increased survival. The in vivo results suggest the SWNT-AV/NIR treatment is a promising approach to treat breast cancer.

  14. Spherical cauliflower-like carbon dust formed by interaction between deuterium plasma and graphite target and its internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulated experiments to produce carbon dust particles with cauliflower structure have been performed in a liner plasma device, NAGDIS-II by exposing high density deuterium plasma to a graphite sample (IG-430U). Formation of carbon dust depends on the surface temperature and the incident ion energy. At a surface temperature 600-700 K, a lot of isolated spherical dust particles are observed on the graphite target. The internal structure of an isolated dust particle was observed with Focused Ion Beam (FIB) system and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) in detail. FIB analysis clearly shows there exist honey-combed cell structure with thin carbon walls in the dust particle and the dust particle grows from the graphite surface. TEM image also shows that the dust particle is made of amorphous carbon with crystallized grains with diameters of 10-50 nm.

  15. Dynamic polarization and relaxation of protons in 1,6-hexanediol and 1,8-octanediol a feasibility study for a frozen spin polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Borghini, M; Udo, Fred; Weymuth, P

    1972-01-01

    Results are given of an experiment to test 1,6-hexanediol and 1,8- octanediol for their suitability as materials for polarized proton targets. The samples are doped with 15% Cr/sup V/-glycol complexes. Polarization results are reported at temperatures between 0.4 K and 1.0 K. Relaxation times in different magnetic fields are measured for hexanediol down to 270 mK, for octanediol down to 54 mK. Conclusions are drawn for the parameters of a frozen spin target. (28 refs).

  16. Assessment of experimental d-PIGE γ-ray production cross sections for 12C, 14N and 16O and comparison with absolute thick target yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csedreki, L.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, Á. Z.

    2016-08-01

    Measured differential cross sections for deuteron induced γ-ray emission from the reactions 12C(d,pγ)13C, (Eγ = 3089 keV), 14N(d,pγ)15N (Eγ = 8310 keV) and 16O(d,pγ)17O (Eγ = 871 keV) available in the literature were assessed. In order to cross check the assessed γ-ray production cross section data, thick target γ-yields calculated from the differential cross sections were compared with available measured thick target yields. Recommended differential cross section data for each reaction were deduced for particle induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) applications.

  17. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas; Taminiau, Bernard; Leclercq, Mathilde; Nezer, Carine; Crevecoeur, Sébastien; Ferauche, Céline; Detry, Emilie; Delcenserie, Véronique; Daube, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for ...

  18. Transverse energy production in the target fragmentation region in 16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged pion yields and transverse energies of baryons are measured for the reaction 16O+Cu, Ag, Au at 60 and 200 A GeV bombarding energy in the target fragmentation region employing the Plastic Ball detector. Only little dependence of the measured quantities on the bombarding energy is found. The data are compared with the multi-chain fragmentation model of Ranft. As a result it turns out that a leading order formation zone cascade is not sufficient to explain the baryon yield and the transverse energies of baryons in the target fragmentation region. (orig.)

  19. Transverse energy production in the target fragmentation region in 16O-nucleus reactions at 60 and 200 A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged pion yields and transverse energies of baryons are measured for the reaction 16O+Cu, Ag, Au at 60 and 200 AGeV bombarding energy in the target fragmentation region employing the Plastic Ball detector. Only little dependence of the measured quantities on the bombarding energy is found. The data are compared with the Multi-Chain Fragmentation Model of Ranft. As a result it turns out that a leading order formation zone cascade is not sufficient to explain the baryon yield and the transverse energies of baryons in the target fragmentation region. (orig.)

  20. In vivo imaging and specific targeting of P-glycoprotein expression in multidrug resistant nude mice xenografts with [125I]MRK-16 monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors is associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression. In vivo quantitation of Pgp may allow MDR to be evaluated noninvasively prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to radiolabel MRK-16, a monoclonal antibody that targets an external epitope of P-glycoprotein, and perform in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in a MDR xenograft nude mouse model. MRK-16 was labeled with 125I by the iodogen method, with subsequent purification by size exclusion chromatography. Groups of 10 Balb/c mice were each xenografted with colchicine-resistant or -sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines, respectively. Whole body clearance and tumor uptake over time was quantitated by gamma camera imaging, and biodistribution studies were performed with [125]MRK-16 and an isotype matched control antibody, A33. Quantitative autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors was also evaluated to confirm specific targeting of [125I]MRK-16. Peak tumor uptake was at 2-3 days post-injection, and was significantly greater in resistance compared to sensitive tumors (mean % injected dose/g ± SD) (18.76 ± 2.94 vs 10.93 ± 0.96; p 125I]MRK-16 was confirmed by comparison to [131I]A33 in biodistribution studies, and localized to cellular components of tissue stroma by comparison of histologic and autoradiographic sections of sensitive and resistant tumors. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a 4.5-fold difference in P-glycoprotein expression between sensitive and resistant cell lines without colchicine selective pressure. We conclude that in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in MDR tumors can be performed with [125I]MRK-16. These findings suggest a potential clinical application for radiolabeled MRK-16 in the in vivo evaluation of multidrug resistance in tumors

  1. Targeting carbonic anhydrase IX by nitroimidazole based sulfamides enhances the therapeutic effect of tumor irradiation: A new concept of dual targeting drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) plays an important role in pH regulation processes critical for tumor cell growth and metastasis. We hypothesize that a dual targeting bioreductive nitroimidazole based anti-CAIX sulfamide drug (DH348) will reduce tumor growth and sensitize tumors to irradiation in a CAIX dependent manner. Material and methods: The effect of the dual targeting anti-CAIX (DH348) and its single targeting control drugs on extracellular acidification and radiosensitivity was examined in HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells. Tumor growth and time to reach 4× start volume (T4×SV) was monitored for animals receiving DH348 (10 mg/kg) combined with tumor single dose irradiation (10 Gy). Results: In vitro, DH348 reduced hypoxia-induced extracellular acidosis, but did not change hypoxic radiosensitivity. In vivo, DH348 monotherapy decreased tumor growth rate and sensitized tumors to radiation (enhancement ratio 1.50) without systemic toxicity only for CAIX expressing tumors. Conclusions: A newly designed nitroimidazole and sulfamide dual targeting drug reduces hypoxic extracellular acidification, slows down tumor growth at nontoxic doses and sensitizes tumors to irradiation all in a CAIX dependent manner, suggesting no “off-target” effects. Our data therefore indicate the potential utility of a dual drug approach as a new strategy for tumor-specific targeting

  2. Reacting to Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Carbon Tax to Meet Emission Targets.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Metcalf

    2009-01-01

    In previous papers I have described a revenue and distributionally neutral approach to reducing U.S. greenhouse gas emissions that uses a carbon tax. The revenue from the carbon tax is used to finance an environmental earned income tax credit designed to be distributionally neutral. The carbon tax reform proposal is also revenue neutral and avoids conflating carbon policy with debates over the appropriate size of the federal budget. This paper describes a variant to address concerns of enviro...

  3. Metagenomic analysis targeted on the 16S ribosomal DNA to study the quality of meat : a example with raw minced beef meat

    OpenAIRE

    Delhalle, Laurent; Taminiau, Bernard; Nezer, Carine; Daube, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium and some other European countries. This meat preparations due to their raw nature, is highly sensitive to bacterial spoilage. A better understanding of the bacterial content of this product will thus be insightful to control the risk of spoilage. Metagenomics targeted on the 16S ribosomal DNA has appeared as a powerful tool to study bacterial composition of food samples. The aim of this study is to identify the bacterial populatio...

  4. Identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium species isolated from food with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes by colony hybridization and PCR.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, P; Pfefferkorn, A; Teuber, M; Meile, L

    1997-01-01

    A Bifidobacterium genus-specific target sequence in the V9 variable region of the 16S rRNA has been elaborated and was used to develop a hybridization probe. The specificity of this probe, named lm3 (5'-CGGGTGCTI*CCCACTTTCATG-3'), was used to identify all known type strains and distinguish them from other bacteria. All of the 30 type strains of Bifidobacterium which are available at the German culture collection Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, 6 commercially available ...

  5. miR-15a/16 Enhances Radiation Sensitivity of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Targeting the TLR1/NF-κB Signaling Pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Many miRNAs have been identified as essential issues and core determining factors in tumor radiation. Recent reports have demonstrated that miRNAs and Toll-like receptors could exert reciprocal effects to control cancer development in various ways. However, a novel role of miR-15a/16 in enhancing radiation sensitivity by directly targeting TLR1 has not been reported, to our knowledge. Methods and Materials: Bioinformatic analyses, luciferase reporter assay, biochemical assays, and subcutaneous tumor establishment were used to characterize the signaling pathways of miRNA-15a/16 in response to radiation treatment. Results: First, an inverse correlation between the expression of miR-15a/16 and TLR1 protein was revealed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and normal lung tissues. Next, we corroborated that miR-15a/16 specifically bound to TLR1 3′UTR and inhibited the expression of TLR1 in H358 and A549 cells. Furthermore, miR-15a/16 downregulated the activity of the NF-κB signaling pathway through TLR1. In addition, overexpression of miR-15a/16 inhibited survival capability and increased radiation-induced apoptosis, resulting in enhancement of radiosensitivity in H358 and A549 cells. Finally, subcutaneous tumor bearing NSCLC cells in a nude mice model was established, and the results showed that combined groups (miR-15a/16 + radiation) inhibited tumor growth more significantly than did radiation alone. Conclusions: We mainly elucidate that miRNA-15a/16 can enhance radiation sensitivity by regulating the TLR1/NF-κB signaling pathway and act as a potential therapeutic approach to overcome radioresistance for lung cancer treatment

  6. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  7. Molecular basis of the targeting of topoisomerase II-mediated DNA cleavage by VP16 derivatives conjugated to triplex-forming oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Maria; Guianvarc'h, Dominique; Oussedik, Kahina; Halby, Ludovic; Garbesi, Anna; Dauzonne, Daniel; Monneret, Claude; Osheroff, Neil; Giovannangeli, Carine; Arimondo, Paola B

    2006-01-01

    Human topoisomerase II (topo II) is the cellular target for a number of widely used antitumor agents, such as etoposide (VP16). These agents 'poison' the enzyme and induce it to generate DNA breaks that are lethal to the cell. Topo II-targeted drugs show a limited sequence preference, triggering double-stranded breaks throughout the genome. Circumstantial evidence strongly suggests that some of these breaks induce chromosomal translocations that lead to specific types of leukaemia (called treatment-related or secondary leukaemia). Therefore, efforts are ongoing to decrease these secondary effects. An interesting option is to increase the sequence-specificity of topo II-targeted drugs by attaching them to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFO) that bind to DNA in a highly sequence-specific manner. Here five derivatives of VP16 were attached to TFOs. The active topo II poisons, once linked, induced cleavage 13-14 bp from the triplex end where the drug was attached. The use of triple-helical DNA structures offers an efficient strategy for targeting topo II-mediated cleavage to DNA specific sequences. Finally, drug-TFO conjugates are useful tools to investigate the mechanistic details of topo II poisoning. PMID:16598074

  8. Targeted mutagenesis of the human papillomavirus type 16 E2 transactivation domain reveals separable transcriptional activation and DNA replication functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, H; Yasugi, T; Benson, J D; Dowhanick, J J; Howley, P M

    1996-03-01

    The E2 gene products of papillomavirus play key roles in viral replication, both as regulators of viral transcription and as auxiliary factors that act with E1 in viral DNA replication. We have carried out a detailed structure-function analysis of conserved amino acids within the N-terminal domain of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) E2 protein. These mutants were tested for their transcriptional activation activities as well as transient DNA replication and E1 binding activities. Analysis of the stably expressed mutants revealed that the transcriptional activation and replication activities of HPV16 E2 could be dissociated. The 173A mutant was defective for the transcriptional activation function but retained wild-type DNA replication activity, whereas the E39A mutant wild-type transcriptional activation function but was defective in transient DNA replication assays. The E39A mutant was also defective for HPV16 E1 binding in vitro, suggesting that the ability of E2 protein to form a complex with E1 appears to be essential for its function as an auxiliary replication factor. PMID:8627680

  9. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  10. Facile Carbonization of Microporous Organic Polymers into Hierarchically Porous Carbons Targeted for Effective CO2 Uptake at Low Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuai; He, Jianqiao; Zhu, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Dongyang; Yu, Guipeng; Pan, Chunyue; Guan, Jianguo; Tao, Kai

    2016-07-20

    The advent of microporous organic polymers (MOPs) has delivered great potential in gas storage and separation (CCS). However, the presence of only micropores in these polymers often imposes diffusion limitations, which has resulted in the low utilization of MOPs in CCS. Herein, facile chemical activation of the single microporous organic polymers (MOPs) resulted in a series of hierarchically porous carbons with hierarchically meso-microporous structures and high CO2 uptake capacities at low pressures. The MOPs precursors (termed as MOP-7-10) with a simple narrow micropore structure obtained in this work possess moderate apparent BET surface areas ranging from 479 to 819 m(2) g(-1). By comparing different activating agents for the carbonization of these MOPs matrials, we found the optimized carbon matrials MOPs-C activated by KOH show unique hierarchically porous structures with a significant expansion of dominant pore size from micropores to mesopores, whereas their microporosity is also significantly improved, which was evidenced by a significant increase in the micropore volume (from 0.27 to 0.68 cm(3) g(-1)). This maybe related to the collapse and the structural rearrangement of the polymer farmeworks resulted from the activation of the activating agent KOH at high temperature. The as-made hierarchically porous carbons MOPs-C show an obvious increase in the BET surface area (from 819 to 1824 m(2) g(-1)). And the unique hierarchically porous structures of MOPs-C significantly contributed to the enhancement of the CO2 capture capacities, which are up to 214 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 1 bar) and 52 mg g(-1) (at 273 K and 0.15 bar), superior to those of the most known MOPs and porous carbons. The high physicochemical stabilities and appropriate isosteric adsorption heats as well as high CO2/N2 ideal selectivities endow these hierarchically porous carbon materials great potential in gas sorption and separation. PMID:27332739

  11. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Design, synthesis and structural characterization of new heteroaryl-N-carbonylbenzenesulfonamides targeting druggable human carbonic anhydrase isoforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buemi, M. R.; De Luca, L.; Ferro, S.; Bruno, E.; Ceruso, M.; Supuran, C. T.; Pospíšilová, K.; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Gitto, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, Sep 18 (2015), s. 223-232. ISSN 0223-5234 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : human carbonic anhydrase * isoquinoline * quinoline * X-ray * molecular docking Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  12. Provincial allocation of carbon emission reduction targets in China: An approach based on improved fuzzy cluster and Shapley value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to determine carbon emission reduction target allocation based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm, and Shapley decomposition (PSO–FCM–Shapley) is proposed in this study. The method decomposes total carbon emissions into an interaction result of four components (i.e., emissions from primary, secondary, and tertiary industries, and from residential areas) which composed totally by 13 macro influential factors according to the KAYA identity. Then, 30 provinces in China are clustered into four classes according to the influential factors via the PSO–FCM clustering method. The key factors that determine emission growth in the provinces representing each cluster are investigated by applying Shapley value decomposition. Finally, based on guaranteed survival emissions, the reduction burden is allocated by controlling the key factors that decelerate CO2 emission growth rate according to the present economic development level, energy endowments, living standards, and the emission intensity of each province. A case study of the allocation of CO2 intensity reduction targets in China by 2020 is then conducted via the proposed method. The per capita added value of the secondary industry is the primary factor for the increasing carbon emissions in provinces. Therefore, China should limit the growth rate of its secondary industry to mitigate emission growth. Provinces with high cardinality of emissions have to shoulder the largest reduction, whereas provinces with low emission intensity met the minimum requirements for emission in 2010. Fifteen provinces are expected to exceed the national average decrease rates from 2011 to 2020. - Highlights: • A PSO–FCM–Shapley approach for carbon emission reduction target allocation is proposed. • Provinces of China are clustered into four classes based on factors influencing carbon emissions. • Provinces with large total emissions and high emission intensity

  13. Proton, Helium and Carbon Radiation Beam Targeting Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen and Halogenated Species in TRIM-SRIM Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays proton beam radiation therapy is considered in few centers for management of malignancies. This study is aimed to explore the effect of proton, helium or carbon irradiation on free radicals. This study was conducted in department of Physiology/Medical physics, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq during October 2009. TRIM-SRIM software version 1998 and2003 were used for computed Bragg peak and for calculated the effect of proton, helium and carbon ions against free radicals related to oxygen, nitrogen and halogen species. The lowest stopping power near Bragg's peak of proton targeting free radicals was against superoxide anion and its curve (the stopping power against energy) was shifted down while that of peroxynitrite(ONOO-) was shifted up. The stopping powers of helium targeting all studied free radicals were lower than corresponding proton irradiation but it required higher energy. Lower stopping power of carbon irradiation targeted hydroxyl(OH-) and halogenated radicals than the other reactive species were observed. It concludes that such from of external beam irradiation is associated with direct scavenging effect on free radicals of whatever sources.

  14. A DFT study on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed divergent reactions of 1,6-enyne carbonates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xing Hui Zhang; Zhi Yuan Geng; Teng Niu; Ke Tai Wang

    2015-03-01

    The reaction mechanisms of palladium-catalyzed divergent reactions of 1,6-enyne carbonates have been investigated using DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) (LanL2DZ for Pd) level. Solvent effects on these reactions have been considered by the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the solvent (DMF). The formation of vinylidenepyridines and vinylidenepyrrolidines were generated through 5-exo-dig cyclization or 6-endo-dig cyclization. Our calculation results suggested the following: (i) The first step of the whole cycle is the rate-determining step, which causes allenic palladium intermediate through two plausible pathways. This intermediate provides the corresponding products and releases the palladium catalyst by a subsequent hydrogen transfer and elimination process. (ii) For the catalyst CH3OPdH, the reaction could occur through two possible pathways, but 5-exo-dig cyclization is favoured over 6-endo-dig cyclization. However, when the hydrogen atom is substituted with a phenyl group, the energy barriers for 5-exo-dig cyclization or 6-endo-dig cyclization become relatively high, 18.0–28.5 kcal/mol. The computational results provide good explanation for the experimental observations.

  15. An RNA aptamer provides a novel approach for the induction of apoptosis by targeting the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Nicol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 is a high-risk DNA tumour virus, which is a major causative agent of cervical cancer. Cellular transformation is associated with deregulated expression of the E6 and E7 oncogenes. E7 has been shown to bind a number of cellular proteins, including the cell cycle control protein pRb. In this study, RNA aptamers (small, single-stranded oligonucleotides selected for high-affinity binding to HPV16 E7 were employed as molecular tools to further investigate these protein-protein interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is focused on one aptamer (termed A2. Transfection of this molecule into HPV16-transformed cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation (shown using real-time cell electronic sensing and MTT assays due to the induction of apoptosis (as demonstrated by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining. GST-pull down and bead binding assays were used to demonstrate that the binding of A2 required N-terminal residues of E7 known to be involved in interaction with the cell cycle control protein, pRb. Using a similar approach, A2 was shown to disrupt the interaction between E7 and pRb in vitro. Furthermore, transfection of HPV16-transformed cells with A2 appeared to result in the loss of E7 and rise in pRb levels, as observed by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This paper includes the first characterisation of the effects of an E7 RNA aptamer in a cell line derived from a cervical carcinoma. Transfection of cells with A2 was correlated with the loss of E7 and the induction of apoptosis. Aptamers specific for a number of cellular and viral proteins have been documented previously; one aptamer (Macugen is approved for clinical use and several others are in clinical trials. In addition to its role as a molecular tool, A2 could have further applications in the future.

  16. Targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 16S rRNA gene to detect and differentiate Legionella pneumophila and non-Legionella pneumophila species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-08-01

    A PCR-based method targeting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 16S rRNA gene was developed for differential identification of Legionella pneumophila and non-Legionella pneumophila. Based on the bioinformatics analysis for 176 Legionella 16S rRNA gene fragments of 56 different Legionella species, a set of SNPs, A(628)C(629) was found to be highly specific to L. pneumophila strains. A multiplex assay was designed that was able to distinguish sites with limited sequence heterogeneity between L. pneumophila and non-L. pneumophila in the targeted 16S rRNA gene. The assay amplified a 261-bp amplicon for Legionella spp. and a set of 203- and 97-bp amplicons only specific to L. pneumophila species. Among 49 ATCC strains and 284 Legionella isolates from environmental water and clinical samples, 100 % of L. pneumophila and non-L. pneumophila strains were correctly identified and differentiated by this assay. The assay presents a more rapid, sensitive and alternative method to the currently available PCR-sequencing detection and differentiation method. PMID:27112927

  17. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Design, synthesis and structural characterization of new heteroaryl-N-carbonylbenzenesulfonamides targeting druggable human carbonic anhydrase isoforms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buemi, M. R.; De Luca, L.; Ferro, S.; Bruno, E.; Ceruso, M.; Supuran, C. T.; Pospíšilová, K.; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Gitto, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 102, SEP 18 (2015), s. 223-232. ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05677S Grant ostatní: Fondo di Ateneo per la Ricerca (PRA)(IT) ORME09SPNC Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Human carbonic anhydrase * Isoquinoline * Quinoline * X-ray * Molecular docking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.447, year: 2014

  18. 16S rRNA-targeted probes for specific detection of Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. by fluorescent in situ hybridization in biohydrogen producing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Bg 115, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark); Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Patthalung 93110 (Thailand); Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Hat-Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet Bg 115, DK-2800, Kgs Lyngby (Denmark)

    2008-11-15

    16S rRNA gene targeted oligonucleotide probes for specific detection of genera Thermoanaerobacterium (Tbm1282), Caldicellulosiruptor (Ccs432), and specie Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum (Tbmthsacc184) were designed and used to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. The designed probes were checked for their specificity and then validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization with target microorganisms and non-target microorganisms. Thermoanaerobacterium spp., T. thermosaccharolyticum and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. were detected with the probes designed with coverage of 75%, 100% and 93%, respectively. Thermophilic (60 C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with sucrose and another, fed with palm oil mill effluent comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers: Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (49% and 36%), T. thermosaccharolyticum (16% and 10%), phylum Firmicutes (low G+C) gram positive bacteria (15% and 27%). Extreme-thermophilic (70 C) hydrogen producing reactors, one fed with xylose and another, fed with lignocellulosic hydrolysate comprised of following major groups of hydrogen producers: Caldicellulosiruptor spp. (40.5% and 20.5%), phylum Firmicutes (low G+C) gram positive bacteria (17% and 20%), Archaea (7% and 8.5%), and Thermoanaerobacterium spp. (0% and 5%). Results obtained, showed good applicability of the probes Tbm1282, Tbmthsacc184 and Ccs432 for specific detection and quantification of thermophilic and extreme-thermophilic hydrogen producers in complex environments. (author)

  19. Deviations from pure target fragmentation in 94A MeV 16O induced heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of low energy, 1A MeV - 6A MeV, medium size, Z = 3 -17, fragments in 16O + 27Al, 48Ti, 197Au reactions at 94A MeV has been studied. In addition to a fragmentation component with about 15A MeV/c parallel- and transverse momentum shifts, another component with larger momentum width is needed to describe the results. The momentum transfer and momentum distributions of heavier fragments are resonably well described by a VUU prescription whereas the large momentum transfer component indicates the decay from excited primary fragments is important. (authors)

  20. Melanoma-targeted delivery system (part 2): Synthesis, radioiodination and biological evaluation in B16F0 bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aissi, Radhia; Miladi, Imen; Chezal, Jean-Michel; Chavignon, Olivier; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Moreau, Emmanuel

    2016-09-14

    Here we report the synthesis and radiolabelling with iodine-125 of a melanoma-selective prodrug (17a*) and its parent drug IUdR. The in vivo and ex vivo biodistributions of [(125)I](17a*) and [(125)I]IUdR were evaluated in a model of melanoma B16F0-bearing mice. The pharmacokinetic profile of [(125)I](17a*) suggests rapid release of the active drug [(125)I]IUdR after i.v. administration of [(125)I](17a*). Preliminary metabolism studies in dedicated compartments (i.e. blood, urine and tumour) yielded results consistent with this hypothesis. PMID:27214141

  1. ANUSANSKAR: a 16 channel frontend electronics (FEE) ASIC targeted for silicon pixel array detector based prototype Alice FOCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANUSANSKAR is a 16 channel pulse processing ASIC with analog multiplexed output designed in 0.7 um standard CMOS technology with each channel consisting of CSA, Semi Gaussian pulse shaper, DC cancellation and pedestal control, track and hold, output buffer blocks. The ASIC's analog multiplexed output can be read serially in daisy-chain topology. Testing, characterization and validation of ANUSANSKAR ASIC as readout for prototype ALICE forward calorimeter (FOCAL) has been carried out in PS beam line at CERN with up to 6 GeV of pion and electron beam. This paper describes the ANUSANSKAR ASIC along with the experimental results. (author)

  2. Effects of substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power on the structural and tribological properties of carbon nitride coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wangpf@szu.edu.cn [Institute of Nanosurface Science and Engineering, College of Mechatronics and Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Takeno, Takanori [Laboratory of Nanointerface Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Fontaine, Julien [Laboratoire de Tribologie et Dynamique des Systèmes, UMR 5513 – CNRS/Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Bâtiment H10, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Écully Cedex (France); Aono, Masami [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Defense Academy, 1-10-20 Hashirimizu, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan); Adachi, Koshi [Laboratory of Nanointerface Engineering, Division of Mechanical Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-1, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Miki, Hiroyuki [Center for Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-3, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Effects of substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power on the structural and tribological properties of carbon nitride (CN{sub x}) coatings are investigated. CN{sub x} coatings are fabricated by a hybrid coating process with the combination of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF PECVD) and DC magnetron sputtering at various substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power in the order of −400 V 200 W, −400 V 100 W, −800 V 200 W, and −800 V 100 W. The deposition rate, N/C atomic ratio, and hardness of CN{sub x} coatings as well as friction coefficient of CN{sub x} coating sliding against AISI 52100 pin in N{sub 2} gas stream decrease, while the residual stress of CN{sub x} coatings increases with the increase of substrate bias voltage and the decrease of target sputtering power. The highest hardness measured under single stiffness mode of 15.0 GPa and lowest residual stress of 3.7 GPa of CN{sub x} coatings are obtained at −400 V 200 W, whereas the lowest friction coefficient of 0.12 of CN{sub x} coatings is achieved at −800 V 100 W. Raman and XPS analysis suggest that sp{sup 3} carbon bonding decreases and sp{sup 2} carbon bonding increases with the variations in substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power. Optical images and Raman characterization of worn surfaces confirm that the friction behavior of CN{sub x} coatings is controlled by the directly sliding between CN{sub x} coating and steel pin. Therefore, the reduction of friction coefficient is attributed to the decrease of sp{sup 3} carbon bonding in the CN{sub x} coating. It is concluded that substrate bias voltage and target sputtering power are effective parameters for tailoring the structural and tribological properties of CN{sub x} coatings. - Highlights: • Various CN{sub x} coatings are produced using a unique hybrid coating process. • Structural and tribological properties of CN{sub x} coatings are investigated. • The lowest friction

  3. In vivo imaging and specific targeting of P-glycoprotein expression in multidrug resistant nude mice xenografts with [{sup 125}I]MRK-16 monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Andrew M.; Rosa, Eddie; Mehta, Bippin M.; Divgi, Chaitanya R.; Finn, Ronald D.; Biedler, June L.; Tsuruo, Takashi; Kalaigian, Hovannes; Larson, Steven M

    1995-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors is associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression. In vivo quantitation of Pgp may allow MDR to be evaluated noninvasively prior to treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to radiolabel MRK-16, a monoclonal antibody that targets an external epitope of P-glycoprotein, and perform in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in a MDR xenograft nude mouse model. MRK-16 was labeled with {sup 125}I by the iodogen method, with subsequent purification by size exclusion chromatography. Groups of 10 Balb/c mice were each xenografted with colchicine-resistant or -sensitive neuroblastoma cell lines, respectively. Whole body clearance and tumor uptake over time was quantitated by gamma camera imaging, and biodistribution studies were performed with [{sup 125}]MRK-16 and an isotype matched control antibody, A33. Quantitative autoradiography and immunohistochemistry analysis of tumors was also evaluated to confirm specific targeting of [{sup 125}I]MRK-16. Peak tumor uptake was at 2-3 days post-injection, and was significantly greater in resistance compared to sensitive tumors (mean % injected dose/g {+-} SD) (18.76 {+-} 2.94 vs 10.93 {+-} 0.96; p < 0.05). Quantitative autoradiography verified these findings (19.13 {+-} 0.622 vs 12.08 {+-} 0.38, p < 0.05). Specific binding of [{sup 125}I]MRK-16 was confirmed by comparison to [{sup 131}I]A33 in biodistribution studies, and localized to cellular components of tissue stroma by comparison of histologic and autoradiographic sections of sensitive and resistant tumors. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated a 4.5-fold difference in P-glycoprotein expression between sensitive and resistant cell lines without colchicine selective pressure. We conclude that in vivo quantitation of P-glycoprotein in MDR tumors can be performed with [{sup 125}I]MRK-16. These findings suggest a potential clinical application for radiolabeled MRK-16 in the in vivo evaluation of multidrug resistance in tumors.

  4. Reversal of dendritic phenotypes in 16p11.2 microduplication mouse model neurons by pharmacological targeting of a network hub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizinsky, Katherine D; Diaz-Castro, Blanca; Forrest, Marc P; Schürmann, Britta; Bach, Anthony P; Martin-de-Saavedra, Maria Dolores; Wang, Lei; Csernansky, John G; Duan, Jubao; Penzes, Peter

    2016-07-26

    The architecture of dendritic arbors contributes to neuronal connectivity in the brain. Conversely, abnormalities in dendrites have been reported in multiple mental disorders and are thought to contribute to pathogenesis. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are genetic alterations that are associated with a wide range of mental disorders and are highly penetrant. The 16p11.2 microduplication is one of the CNVs most strongly associated with schizophrenia and autism, spanning multiple genes possibly involved in synaptic neurotransmission. However, disease-relevant cellular phenotypes of 16p11.2 microduplication and the driver gene(s) remain to be identified. We found increased dendritic arborization in isolated cortical pyramidal neurons from a mouse model of 16p11.2 duplication (dp/+). Network analysis identified MAPK3, which encodes ERK1 MAP kinase, as the most topologically important hub in protein-protein interaction networks within the 16p11.2 region and broader gene networks of schizophrenia-associated CNVs. Pharmacological targeting of ERK reversed dendritic alterations associated with dp/+ neurons, outlining a strategy for the analysis and reversal of cellular phenotypes in CNV-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:27402753

  5. Targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes for the treatment of breast cancer using photothermal therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Luis Filipe Ferreira

    To develop a therapeutic system with cancer cell selectivity, the present study evaluated a possible specific and localized tumor treatment. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the external face of the cell membrane is almost completely exclusive to cancer cells and endothelial cells in the tumor vasculature. The human protein annexin V is known to have strong calcium-dependent binding to anionic phospholipids such as PS. This protein was studied for targeting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to the vasculature of breast tumors. The synthesis of the protein annexin V, by a pET vector in Escherichia coli, constitutes the first phase of this study. Recombinant annexin V was purified from the cell lysate supernatant by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The overall production of purified annexin V protein was 50 mg/L. The binding ability of the protein annexin V was evaluated by determining the dissociation constant when incubated with proliferating human endothelial cells in vitro. The dissociation constant, Kd, was measured to be 0.8 nM, indicating relatively strong binding. This value of Kd is within the range reported in the literature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were functionalized with annexin V using two intermediate linkers (containing FMOC and DSPE) resulting in stable suspensions. The SWNT and protein concentrations were 202 mg/L and 515 mg/L, respectively, using the linker with DSPE (average of nine preparations). The conjugation method that used the DSPE-PEG-maleimide linker allowed to successfully conjugate the SWNTs with final concentrations approximately five times higher than the linker containing FMOC. The conjugation method used has a non-covalent nature, and therefore the optical properties of the nanotubes were preserved. The conjugate was also visually observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM), allowing to verify the presence of the protein annexin V on the surface of the nanotubes, with an height ranging between 2

  6. Walking alone? How the UK’s carbon targets compare with its competitors’

    OpenAIRE

    Bassi, Samuela; Fankhauser, Samuel; Green, Fergus; Nachmany, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Headline issue: The UK Government is reviewing the fourth carbon budget for the period 2023-27. The Committee on Climate Change has recommended that the budget, which was originally legislated in 2011, should remain unchanged. That is, the UK should plan to cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 50 per cent, relative to 1990 levels, by 2025 — the midpoint of the fourth carbon budget period. The fourth carbon budget has been criticised for committing the UK to a unilateral, and potentially econo...

  7. The DYW Subgroup PPR Protein MEF35 Targets RNA Editing Sites in the Mitochondrial rpl16, nad4 and cob mRNAs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Brehme

    Full Text Available RNA editing in plant mitochondria and plastids alters specific nucleotides from cytidine (C to uridine (U mostly in mRNAs. A number of PLS-class PPR proteins have been characterized as RNA recognition factors for specific RNA editing sites, all containing a C-terminal extension, the E domain, and some an additional DYW domain, named after the characteristic C-terminal amino acid triplet of this domain. Presently the recognition factors for more than 300 mitochondrial editing sites are still unidentified. In order to characterize these missing factors, the recently proposed computational prediction tool could be of use to assign target RNA editing sites to PPR proteins of yet unknown function. Using this target prediction approach we identified the nuclear gene MEF35 (Mitochondrial Editing Factor 35 to be required for RNA editing at three sites in mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana. The MEF35 protein contains eleven PPR repeats and E and DYW extensions at the C-terminus. Two T-DNA insertion mutants, one inserted just upstream and the other inside the reading frame encoding the DYW domain, show loss of editing at a site in each of the mRNAs for protein 16 in the large ribosomal subunit (site rpl16-209, for cytochrome b (cob-286 and for subunit 4 of complex I (nad4-1373, respectively. Editing is restored upon introduction of the wild type MEF35 gene in the reading frame mutant. The MEF35 protein interacts in Y2H assays with the mitochondrial MORF1 and MORF8 proteins, mutation of the latter also influences editing at two of the three MEF35 target sites. Homozygous mutant plants develop indistinguishably from wild type plants, although the RPL16 and COB/CYTB proteins are essential and the amino acids encoded after the editing events are conserved in most plant species. These results demonstrate the feasibility of the computational target prediction to screen for target RNA editing sites of E domain containing PLS-class PPR proteins.

  8. Preparation method of carbon aerogels as the target materials of laser inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels with high RC ratio (molar ratio of resorcinol to catalyst) are prepared by using sol-gel process. They can be dried at ambient conditions by solvent substitution. Carbon aerogels are formed by pyrolyzing the RF aerogels, and the grain and pore size, density and specific surface area of aerogels can be controlled by adjusting the RC ratio and the concentration of resorcinol. The micro-structure of the porous carbon aerogels is measured by SEM and BET

  9. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  10. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiwei, Zhang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: taylorzww@gmail.com [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  11. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 targets and restrains mouse B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast tumors through expression of azurin protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlei; Zhang, Youming; Xia, Liqiu; Zhang, Xiangli; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Fu; Wu, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that intravenously administered bacteria can target and proliferate in solid tumors and then quickly be released from other organs. Here, we employed the tumor-targeting property of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 to inhibit mouse B16 melanoma and 4T1 breast tumors through the expression of azurin protein. For this purpose, recombinant azurin-expressing E. coli Nissle 1917 was developed. The levels of in vitro and in vivo azurin secretion in the engineered bacterium were determined by immunochemistry. Our results demonstrated that B16 melanoma and orthotopic 4T1 breast tumor growth were remarkably restrained and pulmonary metastasis was prevented in immunocompetent mice. It is worth noting that this therapeutic effect partially resulted from the antitumor activity of neutrophils and lymphocytes due to inflammatory responses caused by bacterial infections. No toxicity was observed in the animal during the experiments. This study indicates that E. coli Nissle 1917 could be a potential carrier to deliver antitumor drugs effectively for cancer therapy. PMID:22923405

  12. Emission of relativistic heavy fragments at wide angles from the interaction of 58 GeV 16O ions with thick copper target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation has been studied with track detection methods. Heavy fragments produced in the interaction of 58 GeV 16O with thick copper target have been investigated using 10 cm thick stacks of PADC (sometimes called CR-39) nuclear track detectors placed at 25 deg. with respect to the direction of the incoming beam. A computer-controlled automatic scanning system was employed to 'trace' the etched damaged trails in respective detectors of the PADC stack. Heavy reaction products producing 'through-tracks' in consecutive sheets of 0.82 mm of PADC detectors were observed. The spatial distribution of these tracks with end points at various depths have been recorded. After calibration it has been concluded that these 'through-tracks' should be due to relativistic O, N and C. These fragments are emitted from the interaction of 58 GeV 16O ions with thick copper target, their actual number is very tiny. The differential angular cross-section for their formation was found to decrease with increasing angle with respect to the incident beam direction

  13. Catalysis over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 of the methoxycarbonylation of 1,6-hexanediamine with dimethyl carbonate to form dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Da-Lei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alkoxycarbonylation of diamines with dialkyl carbonates presents promising route for the synthesis of dicarbamates, one that is potentially 'greener' owing to the lack of a reliance on phosgene. While a few homogeneous catalysts have been reported, no heterogeneous catalyst could be found in the literature for use in the synthesis of dicarbamates from diamines and dialkyl carbonates. Because heterogeneous catalysts are more manageable than homogeneous catalysts as regards separation and recycling, in our study, we hydrothermally synthesized and used pure berlinite (AlPO4 and zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4 as heterogeneous catalysts in the production of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from 1,6-hexanediamine (HDA and dimethyl carbonate (DMC. The catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, FT-IR and XPS. Various influencing factors, such as the HDA/DMC molar ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio, were investigated systematically. Results The XRD characterization identified a berlinite structure associated with both the AlPO4 and ZnAlPO4 catalysts. The FT-IR result confirmed the incorporation of zinc into the berlinite framework for ZnAlPO4. The XPS measurement revealed that the zinc ions in the ZnAlPO4 structure possessed a higher binding energy than those in ZnO, and as a result, a greater electron-attracting ability. It was found that ZnAlPO4 catalyzed the formation of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate from the methoxycarbonylation of HDA with DMC, while no activity was detected on using AlPO4. Under optimum reaction conditions (i.e. a DMC/HDA molar ratio of 8:1, reaction temperature of 349 K, reaction time of 8 h, and ZnAlPO4/HDA ratio of 5 (mg/mmol, a yield of up to 92.5% of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (with almost 100% conversion of HDA was obtained. Based on these results, a possible mechanism for the methoxycarbonylation over ZnAlPO4 was also proposed. Conclusion As a heterogeneous

  14. The oncofusion protein FUS-ERG targets key hematopoietic regulators and modulates the all-trans retinoic acid signaling pathway in t(16;21) acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, A M; Prange, K H M; Reijnders, B; Mandoli, A; Nguyen, L N; Stunnenberg, H G; Martens, J H A

    2016-04-14

    The ETS transcription factor ERG has been implicated as a major regulator of both normal and aberrant hematopoiesis. In acute myeloid leukemias harboring t(16;21), ERG function is deregulated due to a fusion with FUS/TLS resulting in the expression of a FUS-ERG oncofusion protein. How this oncofusion protein deregulates the normal ERG transcription program is unclear. Here, we show that FUS-ERG acts in the context of a heptad of proteins (ERG, FLI1, GATA2, LYL1, LMO2, RUNX1 and TAL1) central to proper expression of genes involved in maintaining a stem cell hematopoietic phenotype. Moreover, in t(16;21) FUS-ERG co-occupies genomic regions bound by the nuclear receptor heterodimer RXR:RARA inhibiting target gene expression and interfering with hematopoietic differentiation. All-trans retinoic acid treatment of t(16;21) cells as well as FUS-ERG knockdown alleviate the myeloid-differentiation block. Together, the results suggest that FUS-ERG acts as a transcriptional repressor of the retinoic acid signaling pathway. PMID:26148230

  15. Carbon fiber composite targets for nuclear fusion technology: a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, F; Magni, S; Milani, M; Tatti, F

    2007-01-01

    Carbon fiber composite (CFC) targets are investigated by a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope (FIB/SEM) in a joint project aiming at the development of robust divertors in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). These mockups are exposed to a plasma that simulates the off-normal thermal loads foreseen for ITER and display a rich, puzzling impact scenario. Morphological elements are identified at the exposed surface and beneath it, and are examined in order to point out the relevant processes involved. Each technique adopted is discussed and evaluated. PMID:18200678

  16. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: Design, synthesis and structural characterization of new heteroaryl-N-carbonylbenzenesulfonamides targeting druggable human carbonic anhydrase isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Maria Rosa; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Bruno, Elvira; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Pospíšilová, Klára; Brynda, Jiří; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Gitto, Rosaria

    2015-09-18

    A set of heteroaryl-N-carbonylbenzenesulfonamides has been designed, synthesized, and screened as inhibitors of human carbonic anhydrases (hCAs). The new sulfonamide derivatives were tested against hCA I, hCA II, hCA VII, hCA IX, and hCA XII isoforms using acetazolamide (AAZ, 1) and topiramate (TPM, 2) as reference compounds. Six compounds were low nanomolar inhibitors of tumor-associated hCA IX isoform (Ki values 1500 for compound 5c). Thus, these compounds can offer the opportunity to highlight the interactions preventing the inhibition of hCA VII mainly expressed in central nervous system. Thereby, we used structural and computational techniques to study in depth the interaction with hCAs. In an effort to confirm the inhibitory action we determined crystal structures of five selected heteroaryl-N-carbonylbenzenesulfonamides (4a, 4b, 4e, 5c, and 5e) in complex with hCA II. Moreover, to explore the lack of inhibitory effects of selected compounds (e.g.4b and 5c) we also performed docking studies into hCA VII catalytic site. PMID:26276436

  17. Effects of additions of carbon nanotubes on the thermoelectric properties of Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prepare Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6, the starting materials were loaded in the stoichiometric ratio into silica tubes and then heated at 1000 K. The reaction products were mixed and divided into four equal parts. The first sample was used as a reference sample called bulk. For the remaining samples, 1%, 2% and 3% by mass of MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) were added by ball-milling. These materials were then subjected to consolidation by hot-pressing at 850 K and 56 MPa. Their transport properties were determined and compared to study the influence of MWCNT on the transport properties of Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructural and nanostructural features of the samples, and Raman characterization was performed to look for changes induced by ball-milling and hot-pressing of the nanotubes. Mainly due to a largely reduced thermal conductivity by 40% and a slightly reduced power factor, the figure-of-merit was improved by 25% after addition of 3 mass% of MWCNT. - Graphical abstract: Figure-of-merit of various Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6/CNT composites. - Highlights: • Various composites of Ni0.05Mo3Sb5.4Te1.6 with carbon nanotubes were synthesized and characterized. • In each case, the thermoelectric figure-of-merit increases rapidly with increasing temperature. • With increasing amount of carbon nanotubes, the thermal conductivity decreases more than the electrical conductivity. • The composite with 3% carbon nanotubes performs better than the bulk material by 25%

  18. Octa-ammonium POSS-conjugated single-walled carbon nanotubes as vehicles for targeted delivery of paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Naderi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties. Furthermore, novel properties can be developed by attachment or encapsulation of functional groups. These unique properties facilitate the use of CNTs in drug delivery. We developed a new nanomedicine consisting of a nanocarrier, cell-targeting molecule, and chemotherapeutic drug and assessed its efficacy in vitro. Methods: The efficacy of a single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-based nanoconjugate system is assessed in the targeted delivery of paclitaxel (PTX to cancer cells. SWCNTs were oxidized and reacted with octa-ammonium polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (octa-ammonium POSS to render them biocompatible and water dispersable. The functionalized SWCNTs were loaded with PTX, a chemotherapeutic agent toxic to cancer cells, and Tn218 antibodies for cancer cell targeting. The nanohybrid composites were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, and ultraviolet–visible–near-infrared (UV–Vis–NIR. Additionally, their cytotoxic effects on Colon cancer cell (HT-29 and Breast cancer cell (MCF-7 lines were assessed in vitro. Results: TEM, FTIR, and UV–Vis–NIR studies confirmed side-wall functionalization of SWCNT with COOH-groups, PTX, POSS, and antibodies. Increased cell death was observed with PTX–POSS–SWCNT, PTX–POSS–Ab–SWCNT, and free PTX compared to functionalized-SWCNT (f-SWCNT, POSS–SWCNT, and cell-only controls at 48 and 72 h time intervals in both cell lines. At all time intervals, there was no significant cell death in the POSS–SWCNT samples compared to cell-only controls. Conclusion: The PTX-based nanocomposites were shown to be as cytotoxic as free PTX. This important finding indicates successful release of PTX from the nanocomposites and further reiterates the potential of SWCNTs to deliver drugs directly to targeted cells and tissues.

  19. Effects of nimodipine and fructose-1,6-diphosphate on cerebral damage in carbon monoxide poisoning mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨俊卿; 赵晓辉; 周岐新; 蒋青松

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the dose- and time- dependent protective effects and the synergistic effects of nimodipine (NMDP) and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) against cerebral damage induced by acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in mice.Methods Male mice were exposed to CO 170 mL/kg, i.p. After CO intraperitonealy exposure, mortality of mice, change in memory function estimated by passive avoidance test, the pathomorphologic observation of brain tissue slices, as well as changes of activities of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase in cerebral tissue were studied. In dose-dependent protective effect study, NMDP (10.6, 5.3, 2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3, 0.67 g/kg) was injected ip, respectively 15 min after CO exposure. To study the time-effect relationship of drugs, NMDP (5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (1.3 g/kg) were administered ip respectively 15 minutes, 45 minutes and 120 minutes after CO exposure. The combination of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) was administered ip15 minutes, 45 min and 120 minutes after CO exposure to study the synergism of the two drugs.Results Either NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) or FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg) administered ip within 15 minutes after CO exposure significantly decreased the impairment of memory function and mortality rate induced by CO, inhibited the decrease of Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activity, blunted the rising of MAO-B activity and prevented the delayed hippocampal neuronal death in poisoning mice. To our surprise, the combined use of NMDP (2.7 mg/kg) and FDP (0.67 g/kg) within 15 minutes after CO exposure had similar effects to that in NMDP (10.6, 5.3 mg/kg) and FDP (2.6, 1.3 g/kg).Conclusions These results suggest that the impairment of CO on brain can be attenuated if NMDP or FDP are administered sufficiently and quickly as soon as possible after CO exposure and there exists a synergism of FDP and NMDP against CO poisoning damage.

  20. The sustainability challenge of meeting carbon dioxide targets in Europe by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union obligated itself to lower its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 20% below their 1990 level, by the year 2020. Carbon dioxide is the major GHG. To fulfil this obligation, the nations must meet the sustainability challenge of countering rising population plus affluence with the dematerialization of less energy per GDP plus the decarbonization of less carbon per energy. To test the feasibility of meeting the challenge, we analysed carbon dioxide emission during 1993-2004. Although emissions in the entire Union grew only by an average of 0.31% per year, emissions and their drivers varied markedly among the 27 member states. Dematerialization and decarbonization did occur, but not enough to offset the slight population growth plus rapidly increasing affluence. To fulfil its obligation in the next 12 years, the EU27 would have to counter its increasing population and affluence by a combined dematerialization and decarbonization 1.9-2.6 times faster than during 1993-2004. Hence, fulfilling its obligation by addressing fossil carbon emissions alone is very unlikely

  1. The sustainability challenge of meeting carbon dioxide targets in Europe by 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union obligated itself to lower its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 20% below their 1990 level, by the year 2020. Carbon dioxide is the major GHG. To fulfil this obligation, the nations must meet the sustainability challenge of countering rising population plus affluence with the dematerialization of less energy per GDP plus the decarbonization of less carbon per energy. To test the feasibility of meeting the challenge, we analysed carbon dioxide emission during 1993-2004. Although emissions in the entire Union grew only by an average of 0.31% per year, emissions and their drivers varied markedly among the 27 member states. Dematerialization and decarbonization did occur, but not enough to offset the slight population growth plus rapidly increasing affluence. To fulfil its obligation in the next 12 years, the EU27 would have to counter its increasing population and affluence by a combined dematerialization and decarbonization 1.9-2.6 times faster than during 1993-2004. Hence, fulfilling its obligation by addressing fossil carbon emissions alone is very unlikely. (author)

  2. Gastric Hyperplasia in Mice With Targeted Disruption of the Carbonic Anhydrase Gene Car9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortova Gut, M.; Parkkila, S.; Vernerová, Z.; Rohde, E.; Závada, Jan; Höcker, M.; Pastorek, J.; Karttunen, T.; Gibadulinová, G.; Závadová, Zuzana; Knobeloch, K. P.; Wiedenmann, B.; Svoboda, Jan; Horak, I.; Pastoreková, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 12 (2002), s. 1889-1903. ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Keywords : Carbonic Anhydrases * Knock-aou * Differantiation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.440, year: 2002

  3. Gastric hyperplasia in mice with targeted disruption of the carbonic anhydrase gene Car9

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortova-Gut, M.; Parkkila, S.; Vernerová, Z.; Rohde, E.; Závada, Jan; Hocker, M.; Pastorek, J.; Karttunen, T.; Gibadulinová, A.; Závadová, Zuzana; Knobeloch, K.-P.; Wiedernmann, B.; Svoboda, Jan; Horak, I.; Pastoreková, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 6 (2002), s. 1889-1903. ISSN 0016-5085 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV312/96/K205 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse carbonic anhydrase Car9 * gastric hyperplasia Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.440, year: 2002

  4. Deep, noninvasive imaging and surgical guidance of submillimeter tumors using targeted M13-stabilized single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Debadyuti; Bagley, Alexander F; Na, Young Jeong; Birrer, Michael J; Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Belcher, Angela M

    2014-09-23

    Highly sensitive detection of small, deep tumors for early diagnosis and surgical interventions remains a challenge for conventional imaging modalities. Second-window near-infrared light (NIR2, 950-1,400 nm) is promising for in vivo fluorescence imaging due to deep tissue penetration and low tissue autofluorescence. With their intrinsic fluorescence in the NIR2 regime and lack of photobleaching, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are potentially attractive contrast agents to detect tumors. Here, targeted M13 virus-stabilized SWNTs are used to visualize deep, disseminated tumors in vivo. This targeted nanoprobe, which uses M13 to stably display both tumor-targeting peptides and an SWNT imaging probe, demonstrates excellent tumor-to-background uptake and exhibits higher signal-to-noise performance compared with visible and near-infrared (NIR1) dyes for delineating tumor nodules. Detection and excision of tumors by a gynecological surgeon improved with SWNT image guidance and led to the identification of submillimeter tumors. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the promise of targeted SWNT nanoprobes for noninvasive disease monitoring and guided surgery. PMID:25214538

  5. Mamizu climate policy: an evaluation of Japanese carbon emissions reduction targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter evaluates Japan's so-called 'Mamizu' climate policies proposed in mid-2009 in terms of the implied rates of decarbonization of the Japanese economy for short-term and long-term targets. The letter uses the Kaya identity to structure the evaluation, employing both a bottom up approach (based on projections of future Japanese population, economic growth, and technology) and a top down approach (deriving implied rates of decarbonization consistent with the targets and various rates of economic growth). Both approaches indicate that the Japanese economy would have to achieve rates of decarbonization of 2.6% to meet a 2020 target of reducing emissions by 15% below 2005 levels, and 5.0% to meet a 2050 target of an 80% reduction below 2005 levels. A target of 25% below 1990 emissions proposed by the opposition party (which subsequently formed a government following elections in August 2009) implies a rate of decarbonization of 4.6% annually to 2020. The letter argues that international criticism of Japanese Mamizu climate policy proposals as being too weak was unfounded, and if anything, the proposals may have been too ambitious. In either case, climate policy would be strengthened through the support of a diversity of approaches to decarbonization.

  6. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: prompt photons produced by $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O ion beams in a PMMA target

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, Ilaria; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Frallicciardi, Paola Maria; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Marafini, Michela; Muraro, Silvia; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Toppi, Marco; Traini, Giacomo; Voena, Cecilia; Battistoni, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle beams are used in Particle Therapy (PT) to treat oncological patients due to their selective dose deposition in tissues and to their high biological effect in killing cancer cells with respect to photons and electrons used in conventional radiotherapy. Nowadays, protons and carbon ions are used in PT clinical routine but, recently, the interest on the potential application of helium and oxygen beams is growing due to their reduced multiple scattering inside the body and increased linear energy transfer, relative biological effectiveness and oxygen enhancement ratio. The precision of PT demands for online dose monitoring techniques, crucial to improve the quality assurance of treatments. The beam range confined in the irradiated target can be monitored thanks to the neutral or charged secondary radiation emitted by the interactions of hadron beams with matter. Prompt photons are produced by nuclear de-excitation processes and, at present, different dose monitoring and beam range verification t...

  7. Chemical investigations of isotope separation on line target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive ion beams (RIBs) are of significant interest in a number of applications. Isotope separation on line (ISOL) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to CO/sub x/ and NOmaterials are potential construction materials for the above-mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermochromatography setup with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the production of tracers for atmospheric chemistry (PROTRAC) facility at the Paul Schener Institute in Villigen...

  8. Effect of C–O Bonding on the Stability and Energetics of High-Energy Nitrogen-Carbon Molecules N10C2 and N16C2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Strout

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecules consisting of nitrogen have been the subject of much attention due to their potential as high-energy materials. Complex molecules consisting entirely of nitrogen can be subject to rapid decomposition, and therefore other atoms are incorporated into the structure to enhance stability. Previous studies have explored the incorporation of carbon atoms into otherwise all-nitrogen cages molecules. The current study involves two such cages, N10C2 and N16C2, whose structures are derived from N12 and N18, respectively. The N10C2 and N16C2 cages in this study are modified by bonding groups O3 and CO3 to determine the effect on the relative energies between the isomers and on the thermodynamic energy release properties. Energetic trends for N10C2 and N16C2 are calculated and discussed.

  9. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior. PMID:22709270

  10. Assessing the environmental potential of carbon dioxide utilization: A graphical targeting approach

    OpenAIRE

    Dumont, Marie-Noëlle

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) has the potential to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use. However, the conversion of CO2 is intrinsically difficult due to its low energetic state. Thus, a positive environmental effect of a CO2-consuming reaction cannot be taken for granted. In this work, we therefore present a graphical method to identify promising reaction schemes using CO2 as a feedstock. Reactant mixtures leading to minimal life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emission...

  11. Targeting energy generation and carbon footprint for waste management and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Kravanja, Zdravko; Klemeš, Jiri; Čuček, Lidija; Varbanov, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Waste to Energy (WTE) processing carries a trade-off between energy extractionfrom the waste and the energy for waste management - collection, transport and treatment. Major performance indicators are the Primary Energy Savings (PES), Carbon Footprint (CFP) and especially the cost. This presentation analyses the significance of the factors in this trade-off introducing a new indicator - the Waste Energy Potential Utilisation (WPU). The results indicate that the impact of the logistics and ene...

  12. Reaction dynamics of {sup 34-38}Mg projectile with carbon target using Glauber model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shama, Mahesh K., E-mail: maheshphy82@gmail.com [School of Physics and Material Sciences, Thapar University Patiala-147004 (India); Department of Applied Sciences, Chandigarh Engineering College, Landran Mohali-140307 (India); Panda, R. N. [Department of Physics, ITER, Shiksha O Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar-751030 (India); Sharma, Manoj K. [School of Physics and Material Sciences, Thapar University Patiala-147004 (India); Patra, S. K. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya marg Bhubneswar-751005 (India)

    2015-08-28

    We have studied nuclear reaction cross-sections for {sup 34-38}Mg isotopes as projectile with {sup 12}C target at projectile energy 240AMeV using Glauber model with the conjunction of densities from relativistic mean filed formalism. We found good agreement with the available experimental data. The halo status of {sup 37}Mg is also investigated.

  13. Reaction dynamics of 34-38Mg projectile with carbon target using Glauber model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied nuclear reaction cross-sections for 34-38Mg isotopes as projectile with 12C target at projectile energy 240AMeV using Glauber model with the conjunction of densities from relativistic mean filed formalism. We found good agreement with the available experimental data. The halo status of 37Mg is also investigated

  14. Features of the total disintegration events of heavy emulsion targets caused by 4.5 A GeV/c 16O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dong-Hai; Liu Fang; He Chun-Le; Zhao Hui-Hua; Jia Hui-Ming; Li Xue-Qin; Li Zhen-Yu; Li Jun-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Total disintegration events produced by 4.5 A GeV/c 16O-AgBr interactions are analysed to investigate the characteristics of secondary charged particles produced in such collisions. The multiplicity distributions of grey, black, and relativistic charged particles can be well represented by Gaussian distribution. The average multiplicity of grey particles is found to increase with the mass of projectile increasing, while that of black particles is found to decrease with the mass of projectile increasing. This result is in good agreement with the prediction of fireball model. Finally, the linear dependence between grey and black particles is observed, but there is no distinct dependence between the production of relativistic charged particles and the target excitation.

  15. A 16-Channel high-resolution time and charge measurement module for the external target experiment in the CSR of HIRFL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High precision time measurement is required in the readout of the neutron wall and TOF walls in the external target experiment of the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) project in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Considering the time walk correction, both time and charge are measured in the readout electronics. In this 16-channel measurement module, time and charge information are digitized by TDCs at the same time based on the Time-Over-Threshold (TOT) method; meanwhile, by employing high-density ASIC chips, the electronics complexity is effectively reduced. Test results indicate that this module achieves a time resolution better than 25 ps and a charge resolution better than 5% over the input amplitude range from 50 mV to 3 V. (authors)

  16. The miR-15a/miR-16-1 cluster controls prostate cancer progression by targeting multiple oncogenic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among men. Despite its high incidence, the molecular and genetic events involved in prostate cancer development and progression remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding, single-stranded RNAs of ∼ 22 nucleotides that constitute a novel class of gene regulators likely involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The first indication that miRNAs can have a role in tumorigenesis came from a recent study showing an association between B-cell chronic leukaemia (B-CLL) and the deletion or downregulation of two clustered miRNA genes, miR-15a and miR-16, located at 13q14 and targeting Bcl-2 mRNA. Deletion within this locus has been found in different tumor types, including prostate cancer, in which it correlates with tumor progression and metastases 1-4

  17. Preliminary results from collisions between 3.2-TeV 16O and target nuclei of C, Cu, and Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have presented preliminary WA80 data from interactions of 16O with C, Cu, and Au at 60 and 200 GeVnucleon. These have included total charged-particle multiplicity distributions and transverse energy distributions. Ranges of transverse momentum per particle and of possible energy densities were discussed. Some of the unique features of WA80 were stressed. These are: complete coverage of the target rapidity region, complete coverage of charged-particle multiplicity measurement, and measurement of intrinsic photons. WA80 was the only experiment with no magnetic analysis and the only large-scale experiment to obtain production data during the 1986 run which did not involve, primarily, the reconfiguration of an existing SPS experiment

  18. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  19. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [18F]fluorine substitution at the 16α-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16α-[18F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ERα and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for 18F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16α-position for 18F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [18F]fluoride at the 16-18F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 1618F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators

  20. The importance of cellular internalization of antibody-targeted carbon nanotubes in the photothermal ablation of breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) convert absorbed near infrared (NIR) light into heat. The use of CNTs in the NIR-mediated photothermal ablation of tumor cells is attractive because the penetration of NIR light through normal tissues is optimal and the side effects are minimal. Targeted thermal ablation with minimal collateral damage can be achieved by using CNTs attached to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). However, the role that the cellular internalization of CNTs plays in the subsequent sensitivity of the target cells to NIR-mediated photothermal ablation remains undefined. To address this issue, we used CNTs covalently coupled to an anti-Her2 or a control MAb and tested their ability to bind, internalize, and photothermally ablate Her2+ but not Her2- breast cancer cell lines. Using flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, and confocal Raman microscopy, we observed the gradual time-dependent receptor-mediated endocytosis of anti-Her2-CNTs whereas a control MAb-CNT conjugate did not bind to the cells. Most importantly, the Her2+ cells that internalized the MAb-CNTs were more sensitive to NIR-mediated photothermal damage than cells that could bind to, but not internalize the MAb-CNTs. These results suggest that both the targeting and internalization of MAb-CNTs might result in the most effective thermal ablation of tumor cells following their exposure to NIR light.

  1. Ribbon target assembly using carbon graphite for secondary emission type beam profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a secondary emission type beam profile monitor with graphite ribbons as a beam target. The graphite is excellent in endurance against heat load, and that they are thin as 1.6-2.0 micron and low z (=6) is advantage for reducing beam loss. Furthermore, since ribbons emits larger amount of electrons than ordinal metal wires because of larger surface, the monitor has higher sensitivity. On the other hands, in case of multi-ribbon type, uniformity of secondary electron emission is required for accurate measurement. For the uniform emission, not only surface homogeneity, but also evenness for each ribbon width is needed. A suitable manufacturing method to make ribbon target from graphite-foil, and emission uniformity has been studied. (author)

  2. X-ray film chamber with carbon target of Tien-Shan complex array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray films were exposed inside the ionization calorimeter under 74g/sq cm of carbon and 5 cm of lead. The X-ray film chamber area is 35 sq. m. Moving X-ray films were used, 50% of the events, which yield incidence time, were identified with corresponding extensive air showers (EAS). For such events the size spectrum of associated EAS was derived. Two methods of energy measurement using X-ray films and ionization calorimeter were compared. The energy transfer from selected hadrons to electromagnetic components is illustrated. It is found that in cascades with high energy release into electromagnetic components the hadron component is practically absent

  3. L-shell ionization in high-z targets by carbon and silicon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-shell ionization in Ho, Er, Tm, Ta, W, Tl, Pb and Bi by 20 Mev carbon ions and 37.5 Mev silicon ions has been investigated. The observed L/sub //alpha/sub L//gamma/ x-ray intensity ratios are compared with the estimates based on PWBA and BEA calculations. The energy shifts in the L/sub //alpha/, L/sub //gamma/sub //1 and L/sub //gamma/sub //4 x-rays are attributed to the presence of M shell spectator vacancies. 7 refs

  4. Carbon dioxide mitigation target of China in 2020 and key economic sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China proposed a CO2 mitigation target in 2020 to deal with anthropogenic global climate change. Chinese policy makers mainly focus on three factors comprising consumption structure changes, energy technology development, and new energy increments. In addition, sectoral CO2 reduction is increasingly concerned in the world. Thus, it is significant to investigate integrated impacts of three factors to China's CO2 mitigation target as well as to identify key economic sectors for achieving this target. In this study, energy demand and CO2 emission in 2020 are predicted. Five scenarios are generated to illustrate the contributions of three factors. In addition, twelve key economic sectors for reducing energy demand and CO2 emission are identified from both production and final demand perspectives. Under integrated impacts of three factors, China's CO2 intensity per unit gross domestic product in 2020 will decrease by about 43.9% in 2020 than 2005 level. In the short term, China's CO2 mitigation will be highly dependent on energy technology development. In the long term, it will mainly rely on reshaped consumption structure changes and new energy development. In addition, China's future policies should focus on 12 identified key economic sectors. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand and CO2 emission in 2020 are predicted. ► Integrated impacts of three factors can achieve CO2 mitigation target in 2020. ► Twelve key sectors for China's CO2 mitigation are identified on a life cycle basis. ► In the short term, China's CO2 mitigation highly depends on technology development. ► In the long term, it relies on reshaped structure changes and new energy sources

  5. Chemical Investigations of ISOL target units for carbon and nitrogen beams

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, H; Gäggeler, H W; Köster, U

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive Ion Beams (RIB) are of significant interest in a number of applications. ISOL (Isotope Separation On Line) facilities provide RIB with high beam intensities and good beam quality. An atom that is produced within the ISOL target will first diffuse out from the target material. During the effusion towards the transfer line and into the ion source the many contacts with the surrounding surfaces may cause unacceptable delays in the transport and, hence, losses of the shorter-lived isotopes. We performed systematic chemical investigations of adsorption in a temperature and concentration regime relevant for ISOL targets and ion source units, with regard to COx and NOx on Al2O3 and SiO2. These materials are potential construction materials for the above mentioned areas. Off-line and on-line tests have been performed using a gas thermo-chromatography set-up with radioactive tracers. The experiments were performed at the PROTRAC facility at Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland.

  6. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the Thomas Washington Cruise TUNES-3 in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (WOCE Section P16C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyet, C. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (United States); Guenther, P.R.; Keeling, C.D.; Talley, L.D. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kozyr, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1996-12-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), total alkalinity (TALK), hydrographic, and chemical data during the Research Vessel Thomas Washington Expedition TUNES-3 in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean (Section P16C). Conducted as a part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, on August 31, 1991, and finished in Honolulu, Hawaii, on October 1, 1991. WOCE Meridional Section P16C along 150{degree}W and between 18{degree}S and 19{degree}N was completed during the 31-day expedition. All 105 hydrographic and 8 large-volume stations were completed to the full water column depth. Station spacing was 30 nautical miles (nm), except between 3{degree}N and 3{degree}S where it was 10 nm. Twenty-five bio-optics stations were sampled for the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study, and at 21 stations carbon dioxide measurements were provided for the US Department of Energy`s CO{sub 2} program. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Section P16C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth sensor; and bottle salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-11, CFC-12, TCO{sub 2}, and TALK. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  7. Negative ion productions in high velocity collision between small carbon clusters and Helium atom target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured absolute double capture cross section of Cn+ ions (n=1,5) colliding, at 2.3 and 2.6 a.u velocities, with an Helium target atom and the branching ratios of fragmentation of the so formed electronically excited anions Cn−*. We also measured absolute cross section for the electronic attachment on neutral Cn clusters colliding at same velocities with He atom. This is to our knowledge the first measurement of neutral-neutral charge exchange in high velocity collision.

  8. Carbonic anhydrase enzyme as a potential therapeutic target for experimental trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Abeer E; Ashour, Dalia S; Abou Rayia, Dina M; Bedeer, Asmaa E

    2016-06-01

    Trichinellosis is a globally distributed helminthic infection. There is a considerable interest in developing new anti-helminthic drugs affecting all the developmental stages of Trichinella. Acetazolamide (carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor) involves a novel mechanism of action by inhibiting such an essential enzyme for parasite metabolism. This work aimed to study the effect of acetazolamide against different stages of T. spiralis in experimental animals. Mice were divided into three groups: group I: infected and treated with acetazolamide on day 2 post infection (P.I.), group II: infected and treated with acetazolamide on day 12 P.I., and group III: infected non-treated. From each group, small intestine and muscles were removed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Also, total adult and muscle larval count were estimated. We found that acetazolamide was effective in reduction of both adult and muscle larval counts. When given early, the effect was more pronounced on the adults (62.7 %). However, the efficacy of the drug against muscle larvae was increased when given late (63 %). Improvement of the intestinal histopathological changes was observed in all the treated groups. Degeneration of encysted larvae with minimal pathologic changes of infected skeletal muscle was observed in the treated groups. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 showed a statistically significant decrease in the intestinal and muscle tissues in all treated groups as compared to the control group. In conclusion, the present study revealed that acetazolamide, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, could be a promising drug against both adults and larvae of T. spiralis. PMID:26979731

  9. A graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere as a novel photochemical internalization agent for targeted and stimuli-responsive cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Chen, Zhaowei; Wang, Zhenzhen; Li, Wei; Ju, Enguo; Yan, Zhengqing; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-06-01

    As a novel technique, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been employed as a new approach to overcome endo/lysosomal restriction, which is one of the main difficulties in both drug and gene delivery. However, the complicated synthesis procedure (usually requiring the self-assembly of polymers, photosensitizers and cargos) and payload specificity greatly limit its further application. In this paper, we employ a highly fluorescent graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (GHCNS) to simultaneously serve as a PCI photosensitizer, an imaging agent and a drug carrier. The surface modification of GHCNS with multifunctional polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) endows the system with colloidal stability, biocompatibility and cancer cell targeting ability. After CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis, the nanosystem is embedded in endo/lysosomal vesicles and HA could be specially degraded by hyaluronidase (Hyal), inducing open pores. In the following, with visible light illumination, GHCNS could produce ROS that effectively induced lipid peroxidation and caused endo/lysosomal membrane break, accelerating the cytoplasmic release of the drug in the targeted and irradiated cells. As a result, significantly increased therapeutic potency and specificity against cancer cells could be achieved.As a novel technique, photochemical internalization (PCI) has been employed as a new approach to overcome endo/lysosomal restriction, which is one of the main difficulties in both drug and gene delivery. However, the complicated synthesis procedure (usually requiring the self-assembly of polymers, photosensitizers and cargos) and payload specificity greatly limit its further application. In this paper, we employ a highly fluorescent graphitic hollow carbon nitride nanosphere (GHCNS) to simultaneously serve as a PCI photosensitizer, an imaging agent and a drug carrier. The surface modification of GHCNS with multifunctional polysaccharide hyaluronic acid (HA) endows the system with colloidal

  10. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO2 and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO2 emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO2 emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  11. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets: Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ram M., E-mail: ram.m.shrestha@gmail.co [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Rajbhandari, Salony [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO{sub 2} and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO{sub 2} emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case.

  12. Energy and environmental implications of carbon emission reduction targets. Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Rajbhandari, Salony [School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2010-09-15

    This paper analyzes the sectoral energy consumption pattern and emissions of CO{sub 2} and local air pollutants in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It also discusses the evolution of energy service demands, structure of energy supply system and emissions from various sectors under the base case scenario during 2005-2050. A long term energy system planning model of the Kathmandu Valley based on the MARKet ALlocation (MARKAL) framework is used for the analyses. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the least cost options to achieve CO{sub 2} emission reduction targets of 10%, 20% and 30% below the cumulative emission level in the base case and also discusses their implications for total cost, technology-mix, energy-mix and local pollutant emissions. The paper shows that a major switch in energy use pattern from oil and gas to electricity would be needed in the Valley to achieve the cumulative CO{sub 2} emission reduction target of 30% (ER30). Further, the share of electricity in the cumulative energy consumption of the transport sector would increase from 12% in the base case to 24% in the ER30 case. (author)

  13. Multi-functionalized hyaluronic acid nanogels crosslinked with carbon dots as dual receptor-mediated targeting tumor theranostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xu; Han, Yu; Pei, Mingliang; Zhao, Xubo; Tian, Kun; Zhou, Tingting; Liu, Peng

    2016-11-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based theranostic nanogels were designed for the tumor diagnosis and chemotherapy, by crosslinking the folate-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) modified hyaluronic acid (FA-PEG-HA) with carbon dots (CDs) for the first time. Due to the extraordinary fluorescence property of the integrated CDs, the theranostic nanogels could be used for the real-time and noninvasive location tracking to cancer cells. HA could load Doxorubicin (DOX) via electrostatic interaction with a drug-loading capacity (DLC) of 32.5%. The nanogels possessed an ideal release of DOX in the weak acid environment, while it was restrained in the neutral media, demonstrating the pH-responsive controlled release behavior. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake results clearly illustrated that most DOX was released and accumulated in the cell nuclei and killed the cancer cells efficaciously, due to their dual receptor-mediated targeting characteristics. PMID:27516286

  14. Invariant mass spectrum and α-n correlation function studied in the fragmentation of 6He on a carbon target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momentum distributions and invariant mass spectra from the breakup of 6He ions with an energy of 240 MeV/u interacting with a carbon target have been studied. The data were used to extract information about the reaction mechanism which is influenced by the structure of 6He. It is found that the dominant reaction mechanism is a two-step process: knock out of one neutron followed by the decay of the 5He resonance. The shape of the (α+n) two-body invariant mass spectrum is interpreted as mainly reflecting the 5He ground state which is a Jπ=3/2- resonance. However, no evidence for correlations between α particles and neutrons is observed in the momentum widths of the distributions. It is demonstrated that a combined analysis of the two-body invariant mass spectrum and an appropriate correlation function may be used to determine the properties of the intermediate resonance. (orig.)

  15. A 1.16 Ma record of carbon accumulation in western European peatland during the Oligocene from the Ballymoney lignite, Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Large, D.J. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    The Oligocene Ballymoney lignite in Northern Ireland is one of the thickest lignites in Europe and provides the potential for comparing Holocene and pre-Holocene peatland evolution and its response to long-term climate change on time scales much greater than 10 ka. Samples were collected from 50 m of lignite and analysed for {delta}{sup 13}C. Spectral analysis of the {delta}{sup 13}C record reveals that the record contains significant frequencies at 0.21 m{sup -1} and 1.12 m{sup -1}. These cycles are interpreted as the c. 100 ka eccentricity and 20 ka precession cycles, respectively. These cycles were then tuned and the duration was determined as 1.16 Ma with a carbon accumulation rate of 27 g C m{sup -2} a{sup -1}. If long-term changes in lignite {delta}{sup 13}C are related to changes in the delta C-13 of the exogenic carbon reservoir, and if the lignite Chattian age is accepted, then the lignite probably formed between 24.6 and 25.8 Ma. Comparison of the estimated carbon accumulation rate with other Cenozoic peatland carbon accumulation rates indicates that this rate appears to be insensitive to changes in the concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  16. The capture and storage of carbon dioxide emissions : a significant opportunity to help Canada meet its Kyoto targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage technology development in Canada was reviewed and the contribution that this technology could make to lower national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions was discussed. Other options to reducing GHG emissions include reducing energy consumption, increasing energy efficiency, adopting lower or zero carbon fuels and promoting the use of renewable energy sources. CO2 capture and storage technology involves the removal of CO2 from large sources such as power station stacks and using it where applicable, or storing it underground in geological reservoirs. The technology has potential in western Canada or in Atlantic Canada and its adjacent offshore where large fossil fuel users are located close to suitable underground reservoirs. The cost of CO2 capture is generally high because the technology is currently in the demonstration stage. The costs can be lowered when CO2 will have an economic value. It was suggested that the technology will be widely used when the costs are reduced to $20 per tonne from the current level of $35-50. The use of CO2 capture and storage technology has been included as an action plan in the First National Business Plan on Climate Change. The technology is also the main focus of a 10-year $1 billion research and development plan proposed by the Canadian Clean Power Coalition. The technology is attractive because it allows continued use of fossil fuels while simultaneously helping Canada meet its Kyoto target. 13 refs., 1 tab

  17. Doxorubicin conjugated functionalizable carbon dots for nucleus targeted delivery and enhanced therapeutic efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wang, Zheran; Wang, Ju; Jiang, Weihua; Jiang, Xuewei; Bai, Zhaoshi; He, Yunpeng; Jiang, Jianqi; Wang, Dongkai; Yang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared with free DOX. Thus, the DOX-CD conjugates may be exploited as promising drug delivery vehicles in cancer therapy.Carbon dots (CDs) have shown great potential in imaging and drug/gene delivery applications. In this work, CDs functionalized with a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS-CDs) were employed to transport doxorubicin (DOX) into cancer cells for enhanced antitumor activity. DOX was coupled to NLS-CDs (DOX-CDs) through an acid-labile hydrazone bond, which was cleavable in the weakly acidic intracellular compartments. The cytotoxicity of DOX-CD complexes was evaluated by the MTT assay and the cellular uptake was monitored using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Cell imaging confirmed that DOX-CDs were mainly located in the nucleus. Furthermore, the complexes could efficiently induce apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The in vivo therapeutic efficacy of DOX-CDs was investigated in an A549 xenograft nude mice model and the complexes exhibited an enhanced ability to inhibit tumor growth compared

  18. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis

  19. A modern literature review of carbon monoxide poisoning theories, therapies, and potential targets for therapy advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Joseph D; Josef, Christopher S; Feldman, Michael J; Spiess, Bruce D

    2015-08-01

    The first descriptions of carbon monoxide (CO) and its toxic nature appeared in the literature over 100 years ago in separate publications by Drs. Douglas and Haldane. Both men ascribed the deleterious effects of this newly discovered gas to its strong interaction with hemoglobin. Since then the adverse sequelae of CO poisoning has been almost universally attributed to hypoxic injury secondary to CO occupation of oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin. Despite a mounting body of literature suggesting other mechanisms of injury, this pathophysiology and its associated oxygen centric therapies persists. This review attempts to elucidate the remarkably complex nature of CO as a gasotransmitter. While CO's affinity for hemoglobin remains undisputed, new research suggests that its role in nitric oxide release, reactive oxygen species formation, and its direct action on ion channels is much more significant. In the course of understanding the multifaceted character of this simple molecule it becomes apparent that current oxygen based therapies meant to displace CO from hemoglobin may be insufficient and possibly harmful. Approaching CO as a complex gasotransmitter will help guide understanding of the complex and poorly understood sequelae and illuminate potentials for new treatment modalities. PMID:25997893

  20. Targeted delivery and controlled release of Paclitaxel for the treatment of lung cancer using single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Baodan; Tan, Li; Zheng, Runhui; Tan, Huo; Zheng, Lixia

    2016-11-01

    A new type of drug delivery system (DDS) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) for controlled-release of the anti-cancer drug Paclitaxel (PTX) was constructed in this study. Chitosan (CHI) was non-covalently attached to the SWNTs to improve biocompatibility. Biocompatible hyaluronan was also combined to the outer CHI layer to realise the specific targeting property. The results showed that the release of PTX was pH-triggered and was better at lower pH (pH5.5). The modified SWNTs showed a significant improvement in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may have enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and further promoted cell apoptosis. The results of western blotting indicated that the apoptosis-related proteins were abundantly expressed in A549 cells. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay and cell viability assay demonstrated that PTX-loaded SWNTs could destroy cell membrane integrity, thus inducing lower cell viability of the A549 cells. Thus, this targeting DDS could effectively inhibit cell proliferation and kill A549 cells, is a promising system for cancer therapy. PMID:27524057

  1. Study the structure of neutron deficient carbon isotopes: 10C and 11C. Elastic and inelastic scattering on proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to the study of the structure of neutron-deficient carbon isotopes: 10C and 11C. A theoretical model predicts a special behaviour for these nuclei: different deformations for neutron and proton densities. To test these predictions and to obtain information on the structure of these nuclei, we measured angular distribution for elastic and inelastic scattering on proton target with inverse kinematics at 40 MeV per nucleon. The angular distribution is deduced from the proton energy and angle scattering, measured by the MUST detector. Experimental set-up is completed with plastic detectors for scattered nucleus identification and with two CATS detectors for measurement of position and angle for each beam particle on the target. Angular distributions are calculated with an analytic method. This method is tested with a simulation and with 12C + p scattering analysis. Angular distributions are analysed in terms of a complex microscopic potential JLM with different microscopic matter densities. Elastic scattering gives an information on 10C and 11C matter root mean square radii. Both radii are larger than the one for the stable 12C isotope. Inelastic scattering is treated in DWBA approximation with microscopic transition densities. 10C inelastic scattering gives an information on neutron contribution of nucleus excitation. With 11C inelastic scattering, we could constrain transition densities and we could extract an information on the type of the transition. However, it is very difficult to confirm or to annul predictions of different deformations for proton and neutrons densities. (author)

  2. Evaluation of a Carbonic Anhydrase IX-Targeted Near-Infrared Dye for Fluorescence-Guided Surgery of Hypoxic Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Peng-Cheng; Roy, Jyoti; Putt, Karson S; Low, Philip S

    2016-05-01

    Proof-of-principle studies in ovarian, lung, and brain cancer patients have shown that fluorescence-guided surgery can enable removal of otherwise undetectable malignant lesions, decrease the number of cancer-positive margins, and permit identification of disease-containing lymph nodes that would have normally evaded resection. Unfortunately, the current arsenal of tumor-targeted fluorescent dyes does not permit identification of all cancers, raising the need to design new tumor-specific fluorescent dyes to illuminate the currently undetectable cancers. In an effort to design a more universal fluorescent cancer imaging agent, we have undertaken to synthesize a fluorophore that could label all hypoxic regions of tumors. We report here the synthesis, in vitro binding, and in vivo imaging of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye that is targeted to carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), i.e., a widely accepted marker of hypoxic tissues. The low molecular weight NIR probe, named Hypoxyfluor, is shown to bind CA IX with high affinity and accumulate rapidly and selectively in CA IX positive tumors. Because nearly all human cancers contain hypoxic regions that express CA IX abundantly, this NIR probe should facilitate surgical resection of a wide variety of solid tumors. PMID:27043317

  3. Crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in controlling the translocation and toxicity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiuli; Li, Yinxia; Li, Yiping; Zhao, Yunli; Ge, Ling; Wang, Haifang; Wang, Dayong

    2013-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression of their translocation into secondary targeted organs through the primary targeted organs. A biological barrier at the primary targeted organs contributed greatly to the control of MWCNTs translocation into secondary targeted organs, as indicated by functions of Mn-SODs required for prevention of oxidative stress in the primary targeted organs. Over-expression of Mn-SODs in primary targeted organs effectively suppressed the translocation and toxicity of MWCNTs. Our work highlights the crucial role of the biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. Our data also shed light on the future development of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) with improved biocompatibility and design of prevention strategies against ENMs toxicity.Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can be translocated into the targeted organs of organisms. We employed a model organism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the role of a biological barrier at the primary targeted organs in regulating the translocation and toxicity formation of MWCNTs. A prolonged exposure to MWCNTs at predicted environmental relevant concentrations caused adverse effects associated with both the primary and secondary targeted organs on nematodes. The function of PEGylated modification in reducing MWCNTs toxicity might be mainly due to the suppression

  4. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H2+, H3+) and composite (H-, H0) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author)

  5. Target particle and heat loads in low-triangularity L-mode plasmas in JET with carbon and beryllium/tungsten walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groth, M.; Brezinsek, S.; Belo, P.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Wiesen, S.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Brix, M.; Clever, M.; Coenen, J. W.; Eich, T.; Flanagan, J.; Giroud, C.; Huber, A.; Jachmich, S.; Kruezi, U.; Lehnen, M.; Lowry, C.; Maggi, C. F.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A. G.; Sergienko, G.; Sieglin, B.; Silva, C.; Sirinelli, A.; Stamp, M. F.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Divertor radiation profiles, and power and particle fluxes to the target have been measured in attached \\{JET\\} L-mode plasmas with carbon and beryllium/tungsten wall materials. In the beryllium/tungsten configuration, factors of 2–3 higher power loads and peak temperatures at the low field side tar

  6. Identification and quantification of Bifidobacterium species isolated from food with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes by colony hybridization and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P; Pfefferkorn, A; Teuber, M; Meile, L

    1997-01-01

    A Bifidobacterium genus-specific target sequence in the V9 variable region of the 16S rRNA has been elaborated and was used to develop a hybridization probe. The specificity of this probe, named lm3 (5'-CGGGTGCTI*CCCACTTTCATG-3'), was used to identify all known type strains and distinguish them from other bacteria. All of the 30 type strains of Bifidobacterium which are available at the German culture collection Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen, 6 commercially available production strains, and 34 closely related relevant strains (as negative controls) were tested. All tested bifidobacteria showed distinct positive signals by colony hybridization, whereas all negative controls showed no distinct dots except Gardnerella vaginalis DSM4944 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii DSM4902, which gave slight signals. Furthermore, we established a method for isolation and identification of bifidobacteria from food by using a PCR assay without prior isolation of DNA but breaking the cells with proteinase K. By this method, all Bifidobacterium strains lead to a DNA product of the expected size. We also established a quick assay to quantitatively measure Bifidobacterium counts in food and feces by dilution plating and colony hybridization. We were able to demonstrate that 2.1 x 10(6) to 2.3 x 10(7) colonies/g of sour milk containing bifidobacteria hybridized with the specific nucleotide probe. With these two methods, genus-specific colony hybridization and genus-specific PCR, it is now possible to readily and accurately detect any bifidobacteria in food and fecal samples and to discriminate between them and members of other genera. PMID:9097423

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of single-wall carbon nanotube-paclitaxel-folic acid conjugate as an anti-cancer targeting agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolifard, Sara; Biazar, Esmaeil; Pourshamsian, Khalil; Moslemin, Mohammad H

    2016-08-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) represent a novel nanomaterial applied in various nanotechnology fields because of their surface chemistry properties and high drug cargo capacity. In this study, SWCNT are pre-functionalized covalently with paclitaxel (PTX) - an anticancer drug, and folic acid (FA), as a targeting agent for many tumors. The samples are investigated and evaluated by different analyses such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), absorption spectroscopic measurements (UV-Visible), elemental analysis, and cell analyses with cancer cell line cultures. The results show good conjugation of the targeting molecule and the anticancer drug on the surface of the carbon nanotubes (CNT). This work demonstrates that the SWCNT-PTX-FA system is a potentially useful system for the targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. PMID:25783856

  8. 16S rRNA-targeted probes for specific detection of Thermoanaerobacterium spp., Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum, and Caldicellulosiruptor spp. by fluorescent in situ hybridization in biohydrogen producing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Prasertsan, P.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov;

    2008-01-01

    bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. The designed probes were checked for their specificity and then validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization with target microorganisms and non-target microorganisms. Thermoanaerobacterium spp., T. thermosaccharolyticum and Caldicellulosiruptor...

  9. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-23

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

  10. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare 1H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications

  11. Polynucleotide Probes That Target a Hypervariable Region of 16S rRNA Genes To Identify Bacterial Isolates Corresponding to Bands of Community Fingerprints

    OpenAIRE

    Heuer, Holger; Hartung, Kathrin; Wieland, Gabriele; Kramer, Ina; Smalla, Kornelia

    1999-01-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in ...

  12. Co-regulation of the DAF-16 target gene, cyp-35B1/dod-13, by HSF-1 in C. elegans dauer larvae and daf-2 insulin pathway mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy B Iser

    Full Text Available Insulin/IGF-I-like signaling (IIS has both cell autonomous and non-autonomous functions. In some cases, targets through which IIS regulates cell-autonomous functions, such as cell growth and metabolism, have been identified. In contrast, targets for many non-autonomous IIS functions, such as C. elegans dauer morphogenesis, remain elusive. Here, we report the use of genomic and genetic approaches to identify potential non-autonomous targets of C. elegans IIS. First, we used transcriptional microarrays to identify target genes regulated non-autonomously by IIS in the intestine or in neurons. C. elegans IIS controls expression of a number of stress response genes, which were differentially regulated by tissue-restricted IIS. In particular, expression of sod-3, a MnSOD enzyme, was not regulated by tissue-restricted IIS on the microarrays, while expression of hsp-16 genes was rescued back to wildtype by tissue restricted IIS. One IIS target regulated non-autonomously by age-1 was cyp-35B1/dod-13, encoding a cytochrome P450. Genetic analysis of the cyp-35B1 promoter showed both DAF-16 and HSF-1 are direct regulators. Based on these findings, we propose that hsf-1 may participate in the pathways mediating non-autonomous activities of age-1 in C. elegans.

  13. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained during the R/Vs Roger Revelle and Thomas Thompson repeat hydrography cruises in the Pacific Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 sections P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February, 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Feely, R. A. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabine, C. L. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Millero, F. J. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Langdon, C. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Dickson, A. G. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Fine, R. A. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Bullister, J. L. [Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States); Hansell, D. A. [University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Carlson, C. A. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Sloyan, B. M. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); McNichol, A. P. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Key, R. M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Byrne, R. H. [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Wanninkhof, R. [Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami, FL (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrients, total carbon dioxide (TCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, discrete CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), radiocarbon, δ13C, and underway carbon measurements performed during the P16S-2005 (9 January - 19 February 2005) and P16N-2006 (13 February - 30 March, 2006) cruises in the Pacific Ocean. The research vessel (R/V) Roger Revelle departed Papeete, Tahiti, on January 9, 2005 for the Repeat Section P16S, nominally along 150°W, ending in Wellington, New Zealand, on February 19. During this cruise, samples were taken from 36 depths at 111 CTD stations between 16°S and 71°S. The Repeat Section P16N, nominally along 152°W, consisted of two legs. Leg 1 started on February 13, 2006 in Papeete, Tahiti, and finished on March 3, in Honolulu, Hawaii. The R/V Thomas G. Thompson departed Honolulu for Leg 2 on March 10, 2006 and arrived in Kodiak, Alaska, on March 30. During the P16N cruises, samples were taken from 34 or 36 depths at 84 stations between 17°S and 56.28°N. The research conducted on these cruises was part of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of the Climate Variability Program (CLIVAR)/CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program. The P16S and P16N data sets are available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  14. Study of Target Fragmentation in the Interaction of 86 MeV/A $^{12}$Carbon with Tantalum, Bismuth and Uranium

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Using radiochemical techniques we will ; a)~~measure the target fragment mass and charge distributions from the interaction of 86~MeV/A |1|2C with Ta, Bi and U; ; b)~~measure the target fragment forward momentum and average kinetic energy using the thick target-thick catcher technique for the above reactions; and ; c)~~measure the target fragment angular and differential energy distributions using thin target-thin catcher techniques for the reactions with Ta and U. \\\\ \\\\ These measurements should allow us to better characterize the transition between low energy and realistic heavy ion reaction mechanisms.

  15. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  16. Secondary radiation measurements for particle therapy applications: prompt photons produced by $^{4}$He, $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O ion beams in a PMMA target

    OpenAIRE

    Mattei, Ilaria; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Frallicciardi, Paola Maria; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Marafini, Michela; Muraro, Silvia; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Piersanti, Luca; Pinci, Davide; Rucinski, Antoni; Russomando, Andrea; Sarti, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    Charged particle beams are used in Particle Therapy (PT) to treat oncological patients due to their selective dose deposition in tissues and to their high biological effect in killing cancer cells with respect to photons and electrons used in conventional radiotherapy. Nowadays, protons and carbon ions are used in PT clinical routine but, recently, the interest on the potential application of helium and oxygen beams is growing due to their reduced multiple scattering inside the body and incre...

  17. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same

  18. Measurement of analyzing powers of π+ and π- produced on a hydrogen and a carbon target with a 22-GeV/c incident polarized proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analyzing powers of π+ and π- were measured using an incident 22-GeV/c transversely polarized proton beam at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. A magnetic spectrometer measured π± inclusive asymmetries on a hydrogen and a carbon target. An elastic polarimeter with a CH2 target measured pp elastic-scattering asymmetries to determine the beam polarization using published data for the pp elastic analyzing power. Using the beam polarization determined from the elastic polarimeter and asymmetries from the inclusive spectrometer, analyzing powers AN for π± were determined in the xF and pT ranges (0.45-0.8) and (0.3-1.2 GeV/c), respectively. The analyzing power results are similar in both sign and character to other measurements at 200 and 11.7 GeV/c, confirming the expectation that high-energy pion inclusive analyzing powers remain large and relatively energy independent. This suggests that pion inclusive polarimetry may be a suitable method for measuring future beam polarizations at BNL RHIC or DESY HERA. Analyzing powers of π+ and π- produced on hydrogen and carbon targets are the same. Various models to explain inclusive analyzing powers are also discussed

  19. Influence of metallurgical phase transformation on crack propagation of 15-5PH stainless steel and 16MND5 low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the effects of phase transformations on crack propagation. We want to understand the changes of fracture toughness during welding. In this work, fracture toughness is expressed by J-integral. There are many experimental methods to obtain the critical toughness JIC but they are impractical for our investigation during phase transformation. That is the reason why we have proposed a method coupling mechanical tests, digital image correlation and finite element simulation. The fracture tests are implemented on pre-cracked single edge notched plate sample which is easy for machining and heat conduct during phase transformation. The tests are conducted at different temperatures until rupture. Digital image correlation gives us the displacement information on every sample. Each test is then simulated by finite element where the fracture toughness is evaluated by the method G-Theta at the crack propagation starting moment found by potential drop method and digital image correlation technical. Two materials have been studied, 15Cr-5Ni martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel and 16MND5 ferritic low carbon steel. For these two materials, different test temperatures were chosen before, during and after phase transformation for testing and failure characterization of the mechanical behavior. Investigation result shows that metallurgical phase transformation has an influence on fracture toughness and further crack propagation. For 15-5PH, the result of J1C shows that the as received 15-5PH has higher fracture toughness than the one at 200 C. The toughness is also higher than the original material after one cycle heat treatment probably due to some residual austenite. Meanwhile, pure austenite 15-5PH at 200 C has higher fracture toughness than pure martensitic 15-5PH at 200 C. For 16MND5, the result also proves that the phase transformation affects fracture toughness. The as received material has bigger J1C than the situation where it was heated

  20. Trends and implications for achieving VISION 2020 human resources for eye health targets in 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by the year 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, JJ; Chinanayi, F; Gilbert, A.; Pillay, D.; Fox, S; Jaggernath, J; Naidoo, K.; Graham, R.; Patel, D.; Blanchet, K

    2014-01-01

    Background Development of human resources for eye health (HReH) is a major global eye health strategy to reduce the prevalence of avoidable visual impairment by the year 2020. Building on our previous analysis of current progress towards key HReH indicators and cataract surgery rates (CSRs), we predicted future indicator achievement among 16 countries of sub-Saharan Africa by 2020. Methods Surgical and HReH data were collected from national eye care programme coordinators on six practitioner...

  1. Production of residual nuclei from irradiation of thin Pb-targets with protons up to 1.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for the proton-induced production of residual nuclei from natPb were determined for proton energies between 80 MeV and 1.6 GeV. A comparison with calculated cross sections using an INC/E-model as well as a semiempirical formula has been performed showing that for applications which depend on highly accurate data it is still necessary to measure cross sections. (orig.)

  2. Carbon Dioxide, Hydrographic, and Chemical Data Obtained During the R/V Ronald H. Brown Repeat Hydrography Cruise in the Atlantic Ocean: CLIVAR CO2 Section A16S_2005 (11 January - 24 February, 2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozyr, Alex [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    2006-08-30

    This report presents methods, and analytical and quality control procedures for salinity, oxygen, nutrient, inorganic carbon, organic carbon, chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), and bomb 14C system parameters performed during the A16S_2005 cruise, which took place from January 11 to February 24, 2005, aboard research vessel (R/V) Ronald H. Brown under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The R/V Ronald H. Brown departed Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 11, 2005, and ended its cruise in Fortaleza, Brazil, on February 24, 2005. The research conducted was one of a series of repeat hydrography sections jointly funded by NOAA and the National Science Foundation as part of the CLIVAR/CO2/repeat hydrography/tracer program. Samples were taken from 36 depths at 121 stations. The data presented in this report include the analyses of water samples for total inorganic carbon (TCO2), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), total alkalinity (TALK), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), CFC, 14C, hydrographic, and other chemical measurements. The R/V Ronald H. Brown A16S_2005 data set is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). The NDP consists of the oceanographic data files and this printed documentation, which describes the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  3. A pixel unit-cell targeting 16 ns resolution and radiation hardness in a column read-out particle vertex detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pixel unit cell (PUC) circuit architecture, optimized for a column read out architecture, is reported. Each PUC contains an integrator, active filter, comparator, and optional analog store. The time-over-threshold (TOT) discriminator allows an all-digital interface to the array periphery readout while passing an analog measure of collected charge. Use of (existing) radiation hard processes, to build a detector bump-bonded to a pixel readout array, is targeted. Here, emphasis is on a qualitative explanation of how the unique circuit implementation benefits operation for Super Collider (SSC) detector application

  4. In Vitro and In Vivo Comparison of Lymphocytes Transduced with a Human CD16 or with a Chimeric Antigen Receptor Reveals Potential Off-Target Interactions due to the IgG2 CH2-CH3 CAR-Spacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Clémenceau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was designed to compare two mechanisms of cellular recognition based on Ab specificity: firstly, when the anti-HER2 mAb trastuzumab bridges target cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes armed with a Fc receptor (ADCC and, secondly, when HER2 positive target cells are directly recognized by cytotoxic lymphocytes armed with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR. To compare these two mechanisms, we used the same cellular effector (NK-92 and the same signaling domain (FcεRIγ. The NK-92 cytotoxic cell line was transfected with either a FcγRIIIa-FcεRIγ (NK-92CD16 or a trastuzumab-based scFv-FcεRIγ chimeric receptor (NK-92CAR. In vitro, the cytotoxic activity against HER2 positive target cells after indirect recognition by NK-92CD16 was always inferior to that observed after direct recognition by NK-92CAR. In contrast, and somehow unexpectedly, in vivo, adoptive transfer of NK-92CD16 + trastuzumab but not of NK-92CAR induced tumor regression. Analysis of the in vivo xenogeneic system suggested that the human CH2-CH3 IgG2 used as a spacer in our construct was able to interact with the FcR present at the cell surface of the few NSG-FcR+ remaining immune cells. This interaction, leading to blockage of the NK-92CAR in the periphery of the engrafted tumor cells, stresses the critical role of the composition of the spacer domain.

  5. Recent results at the SIRa test bench: diffusion properties of carbon graphite and B4C targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diffusion properties of graphite targets with 1, 4 and 15 microns microstructure has been measured for He and Ar isotopes. An important enhancement of the diffusion efficiency for the smaller microstructure is observed. A releasing efficiency of the order of 100% was obtained for 6He (T1/2 = 806 ms) at a temperature of 1600 K. The diffusion and production properties of He isotopes in a target of B4C (Boron Carbide) have also been studied. Yields of 1.5 108 pps and 106 pps for 6He and 8He has been obtained. (authors)

  6. Recent results at the SIRa test bench: diffusion properties of carbon graphite and B{sub 4}C targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landre-Pellemoine, F.; Barue, C.; Gaubert, G.; Gibouin, S.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Kandri-Rody, S.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Marry, C.; Maunoury, L.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Stodel, C.; Rataud, J.P.; Villari, A.C.C. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A. [Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, LPC-ISMRa, CNRS-IN2P3, 14 - Caen (France); Lichtenthaler, R. [IFUSP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Bajeat, O.; Clapier, F.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lau, C.; Obert, J. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire (IN2P3/CNRS), 91 - Orsay (France); Bennett, R. [CLRC, RAL, Chilton Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The diffusion properties of graphite targets with 1, 4 and 15 microns microstructure has been measured for He and Ar isotopes. An important enhancement of the diffusion efficiency for the smaller microstructure is observed. A releasing efficiency of the order of 100% was obtained for {sup 6}He (T{sub 1/2} = 806 ms) at a temperature of 1600 K. The diffusion and production properties of He isotopes in a target of B{sub 4}C (Boron Carbide) have also been studied. Yields of 1.5 10{sup 8} pps and 10{sup 6} pps for {sup 6}He and {sup 8}He has been obtained. (authors)

  7. Nanostructured diamond-like carbon on digital versatile disc as a matrix-free target for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Hausberger, Peter; Kraushaar, Harald; Bonn, Günther K

    2008-10-01

    A nanostructured diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated digital versatile disk (DVD) target is presented as a matrix-free sample support for application in laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (LDI-MS). A large number of vacancies, defects, relative sp(2) carbon content, and nanogrooves of DLC films support the LDI phenomenon. The observed absorptivity of DLC is in the range of 305-330 nm (nitrogen laser, 337 nm). The universal applicability is demonstrated through different analytes like amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, peptides, and other metabolites. Carbohydrates and amino acids are analyzed as sodium and potassium adducts. Peptides are detectable in their protonated forms, which avoid the extra need of additives for ionization. A bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest is analyzed to demonstrate the performance for peptide mixtures, coupled with the material-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (MELDI) approach. The detection limit of the described matrix-free target is investigated to be 10 fmol/microL for [Glu(1)]-fibrinopeptide B (m/z 1570.6) and 1 fmol/microL for L-sorbose (Na(+) adduct). The device does not require any chemical functionalization in contrast to other matrix-free systems. The inertness of DLC provides longer lifetimes without any deterioration in the detection sensitivity. Broad applicability allows high performance analysis in metabolomics and peptidomics. Furthermore the DLC coated DVD (1.4 GB) sample support is used as a storage device for measured and processed data together with sampling on a single device. PMID:18729472

  8. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  9. Effects of additions of carbon nanotubes on the thermoelectric properties of Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandihalli, Nagaraj [Department of Chemistry and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Gorsse, Stéphane [Bordeaux INP, ICMCB, UPR 9048, 33600 Pessac (France); Kleinke, Holger, E-mail: kleinke@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Chemistry and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    To prepare Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}, the starting materials were loaded in the stoichiometric ratio into silica tubes and then heated at 1000 K. The reaction products were mixed and divided into four equal parts. The first sample was used as a reference sample called bulk. For the remaining samples, 1%, 2% and 3% by mass of MWCNT (multi-wall carbon nanotubes) were added by ball-milling. These materials were then subjected to consolidation by hot-pressing at 850 K and 56 MPa. Their transport properties were determined and compared to study the influence of MWCNT on the transport properties of Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the microstructural and nanostructural features of the samples, and Raman characterization was performed to look for changes induced by ball-milling and hot-pressing of the nanotubes. Mainly due to a largely reduced thermal conductivity by 40% and a slightly reduced power factor, the figure-of-merit was improved by 25% after addition of 3 mass% of MWCNT. - Graphical abstract: Figure-of-merit of various Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6}/CNT composites. - Highlights: • Various composites of Ni{sub 0.05}Mo{sub 3}Sb{sub 5.4}Te{sub 1.6} with carbon nanotubes were synthesized and characterized. • In each case, the thermoelectric figure-of-merit increases rapidly with increasing temperature. • With increasing amount of carbon nanotubes, the thermal conductivity decreases more than the electrical conductivity. • The composite with 3% carbon nanotubes performs better than the bulk material by 25%.

  10. 小鼠LRP16基因打靶载体的构建和同源重组型胚胎干细胞筛选%Construction of a LRP16 gene targeting vector and screening of homologously recombinant clone of embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍志强; 韩为东; 赵亚力; 司艺玲; 母义明; 孟元光; Masatoshi Nomura

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that LRP16 is an estrogen-responsive gene. Its expression level is strongly associated with the proliferation and invasive growth of human breast cancer cells.OBJECTIVE: To construct a LRP16 targeting vector and screen mouse embryonic stem cell clones with homolougous recombination of an inactive LRP16 gene.DESIGN: Constructing an inserting inactivation target by inserting SA-RIES-β geo expression cassette.SETTING: Bioregulatory Laboratory of the Third Medical Department of Kyushu University in Japan and Department of Molecular Biology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The materials used here were mainly provided by the Bioregulatory Laboratory, the Third Medical Department of Kyushu University in Japan. The mouse genomic library in pBeloBAC11 Vector was purchased from lnvitrogen Corp. The competent TopF10 was purchased from Beijing Tiangen Biotech Corp. pcDNA3.1(+) vector was kept in our laboratory. Mouse ES cells were provided by Kyushu University.METHODS: The experiment was performed in Kyushu University and Department of Molecular Biology of PLA General Hospital from November 2004 to May 2005. Targeting sequence of LRP16 gene was obtained from 129 mouse genomic Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes library based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening. The SA-RIES-β geo fragment was inserted within LRP16 fifth exon to inactivate LRP16. ES cells were screened with G418 and the homologously recombinant clone was identified by Southern blot analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clones with homologous recombination.RESULTS: The LRP16 fragment including exon 5 to 11 was subcloned into the pBluescript SK Ⅱvector. Restriction map demonstrated that the SA-IRES-β geo fragment was correctly inserted into the LRP16 fifth exon. Southern blot results showed that there was an ES clone with targeting sequence homologously inserted.CONCLUSION: A LRP16 gene targeting vector is constructed and a homologous recombinant is

  11. Determination of Each Province's Carbon Dioxide Reduction Target Based on Embodied Carbon Dioxide Emissions%基于隐含碳排放的碳减排目标研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增凯; 郭菊娥; 安尼瓦尔·阿木提

    2011-01-01

    中国政府以2005年为基年提出了碳减排指标,确定各省碳减排基数对于明确各省碳减排责任具有重要意义.本文结合“十一五”期间节能指标分解过程中存在的问题,分析了省际贸易中隐含的碳排放对于确定各省碳减排基数的影响,并分别基于生产者负责原则和消费者负责原则计算了“十二五”期间各省碳减排基数.计算结果表明:①将工业部门拆分为23个部门能够更加充分反映省际贸易结构差异对于隐含碳排放计算的影响;②省际贸易中隐含碳排放不仅在各省间有较大差异而且呈现出从中西部地区调往东部地区的整体转移方向;③不同原则下各省碳减排基数计算结果存在较大差异,消费者负责原则更加真实地反映了各地区实际减排责任,避免了部分省份通过省际调进代替本省生产的方式实现碳减排目标.%Measuring each province's carbon dioxide emissions is of great significance for the carbon reduction target, announced by Chinese Central Government, with 2005 as the base year. This paper firstly analyzes the existing problems of the energy conservation during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period and then studies the influence of embodied carbon dioxide emissions on the calculation of each province' s carbon emissions basis. Finally, each province' s carbon dioxide emissions of the base year are calculated based on two principles: the producer responsibility principle and the consumer responsibility principle. Several crucial conclusions are drawn as follows. First, dividing the industrial sector into 23 sectors adequately reflects the influence of the structural difference in inter-provincial trade on the calculation of the embodied carbon dioxide emissions. Second, the provincial differences of embodied carbon dioxide emissions are obvious. The transfer direction of embodied carbon dioxide emissions is from the central and western regions to the eastern

  12. Nonionic, water self-dispersible "hairy-rod" poly(p-phenylene)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer/carbon nanotube conjugates for targeted cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Merve; Colak, Demet Goen; Akin, Mehriban; Cianga, Ioan; Kukut, Manolya; Medine, E Ilker; Can, Mustafa; Sakarya, Serhan; Unak, Perihan; Timur, Suna; Yagci, Yusuf

    2012-09-10

    The generation and fabrication of nanoscopic structures are of critical technological importance for future implementations in areas such as nanodevices and nanotechnology, biosensing, bioimaging, cancer targeting, and drug delivery. Applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in biological fields have been impeded by the incapability of their visualization using conventional methods. Therefore, fluorescence labeling of CNTs with various probes under physiological conditions has become a significant issue for their utilization in biological processes. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and additional fluorophore-free approach for cancer cell-imaging and diagnosis by combining multiwalled CNTs with a well-known conjugated polymer, namely, poly(p-phenylene) (PP). In this approach, PP decorated with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) was noncovalently (π-π stacking) linked to acid-treated CNTs. The obtained water self-dispersible, stable, and biocompatible f-CNT/PP-g-PEG conjugates were then bioconjugated to estrogen-specific antibody (anti-ER) via -COOH functionalities present on the side-walls of CNTs. The resulting conjugates were used as an efficient fluorescent probe for targeted imaging of estrogen receptor overexpressed cancer cells, such as MCF-7. In vitro studies and fluorescence microscopy data show that these conjugates can specifically bind to MCF-7 cells with high efficiency. The represented results imply that CNT-based materials could easily be fabricated by the described approach and used as an efficient "fluorescent probe" for targeting and imaging, thereby providing many new possibilities for various applications in biomedical sensing and diagnosis. PMID:22866988

  13. Evaluation of the effects of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on newborn intestinal microbiota using a sequencing approach targeted to multi hypervariable 16S rDNA regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloisio, Irene; Quagliariello, Andrea; De Fanti, Sara; Luiselli, Donata; De Filippo, Carlotta; Albanese, Davide; Corvaglia, Luigi Tommaso; Faldella, Giacomo; Di Gioia, Diana

    2016-06-01

    Different factors are known to influence the early gut colonization in newborns, among them the perinatal use of antibiotics. On the other hand, the effect on the baby of the administration of antibiotics to the mother during labor, referred to as intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), has received less attention, although routinely used in group B Streptococcus positive women to prevent the infection in newborns. In this work, the fecal microbiota of neonates born to mothers receiving IAP and of control subjects were compared taking advantage for the first time of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology. Seven different 16S rDNA hypervariable regions (V2, V3, V4, V6 + V7, V8, and V9) were amplified and sequenced using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine. The results obtained showed significant differences in the microbial composition of newborns born to mothers who had received IAP, with a lower abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes as well as an overrepresentation of Proteobacteria. Considering that the seven hypervariable regions showed different discriminant ability in the taxonomic identification, further analyses were performed on the V4 region evidencing in IAP infants a reduced microbial richness and biodiversity, as well as a lower number of bacterial families with a predominance of Enterobacteriaceae members. In addition, this analysis pointed out a significant reduction in Bifidobacterium spp. strains. The reduced abundance of these beneficial microorganisms, together with the increased amount of potentially pathogenic bacteria, may suggest that IAP infants are more exposed to gastrointestinal or generally health disorders later in age. PMID:26971496

  14. Recent results at the SIRa test bench Diffusion properties of carbon graphite and B sub 4 C targets

    CERN Document Server

    Landre-Pellemoine, F; Bajeat, O; Barue, C; Bennett, R; Clapier, F; Ducourtieux, M; Gaubert, G; Gibouin, S; Huguet, Y; Jardin, P; Kandri-Rody, S; Lau, C; Lecesne, N; Leroy, R; Lewitowicz, M; Lichtenthäler, R; Marry, C; Maunoury, L; Obert, J; Orr, N A; Pacquet, J Y; Saint-Laurent, M G; Stodel, C; Rataud, J P; Villari, A C C

    2002-01-01

    The diffusion properties of graphite targets with 1, 4 and 15 microns microstructure has been measured for He and Ar isotopes. An important enhancement of the diffusion efficiency for the smaller microstructure is observed. A releasing efficiency of the order of 100% was obtained for sup 6 He (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 =806 ms) at a temperature of 1600 K. The diffusion and production properties of He isotopes in a target of B sub 4 C (boron carbide) have also been studied. Yields of 1.4x10 sup 8 pps and 5.0x10 sup 5 pps for sup 6 He and sup 8 He has been obtained.

  15. Interaction of single and multi wall carbon nanotubes with the biological systems: tau protein and PC12 cells as targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinabad, Hojjat Alizadeh; Zarrabian, Alireza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Subtle changes in the structure of nanoparticles influence their surface tension and corresponding interaction with cells and proteins. Here, the interaction of the single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with different surface tension with tau protein was evaluated using a variety of techniques including far and near circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, and TEM evaluation. Also the cytotoxicity of SWCNT and MWCNT on the PC12 cell line as a model of nervous system cell line was investigated by the MTT, LDH, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry, caspase 3 activity, cell and membrane potential assays. It was observed that SWCNT induced more structural changes of tau protein relative to MWCNT/tau protein interaction. It was also revealed that SWCNT and MWCNT impaired the viability and complexity of PC12 cells in different modes of cytotoxicity. Analysis of cellular outcomes indicated that MWCNT in comparison with SWCNT resulted in induction of necrotic modes of cell death, whereas apoptotic modes of cell death were activated in SWCNT-incubated cells. Together these findings suggest that surface tension may be used to determine how nanoparticle structure affects neurotoxicity and protein conformational changes. PMID:27216374

  16. Interaction of single and multi wall carbon nanotubes with the biological systems: tau protein and PC12 cells as targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinabad, Hojjat Alizadeh; Zarrabian, Alireza; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Subtle changes in the structure of nanoparticles influence their surface tension and corresponding interaction with cells and proteins. Here, the interaction of the single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with different surface tension with tau protein was evaluated using a variety of techniques including far and near circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, Zeta potential, and TEM evaluation. Also the cytotoxicity of SWCNT and MWCNT on the PC12 cell line as a model of nervous system cell line was investigated by the MTT, LDH, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry, caspase 3 activity, cell and membrane potential assays. It was observed that SWCNT induced more structural changes of tau protein relative to MWCNT/tau protein interaction. It was also revealed that SWCNT and MWCNT impaired the viability and complexity of PC12 cells in different modes of cytotoxicity. Analysis of cellular outcomes indicated that MWCNT in comparison with SWCNT resulted in induction of necrotic modes of cell death, whereas apoptotic modes of cell death were activated in SWCNT-incubated cells. Together these findings suggest that surface tension may be used to determine how nanoparticle structure affects neurotoxicity and protein conformational changes. PMID:27216374

  17. Impact on estrogen receptor binding and target tissue uptake of [{sup 18}F]fluorine substitution at the 16{alpha}-position of fulvestrant (faslodex; ICI 182,780)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seimbille, Yann; Benard, Francois E-mail: francois.benard@USherbrooke.ca; Rousseau, Jacques; Pepin, Emilie; Aliaga, Antonio; Tessier, Guillaume; Lier, Johan E. van

    2004-08-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex; ICI 182,780) is a pure estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist recently approved for the treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in post-menopausal women with disease progression following antiestrogen therapy. Fulvestrant strongly binds to the ER and its mode of action consists of inhibition of ER dimerization leading to a down regulation of ER protein cellular levels. With the aim to develop a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging capable of predicting the potential therapeutic efficacy of selective ER modulators (SERM), we prepared three new 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-fulvestrant derivatives. These new radiopharmaceuticals were evaluated for their binding affinity to the human ER{alpha} and for their target tissue uptake in immature female rats. Substitution of one of the side-chain F-atoms of fulvestrant for {sup 18}F would have led to a product of low specific activity; instead we selected the 16{alpha}-position for {sup 18}F-labeling, which at least in the case of estradiol (ES) is well tolerated by the ER. Radiochemical synthesis proceeds by stereoselective introduction of the [{sup 18}F]fluoride at the 16-{sup 18}F-position of fulvestrant via opening of an intermediate O-cyclic sulfate followed by hydrolysis of the protecting methoxymethyl (MOM) ether and sulfate groups. Three analogs with different oxidation states of the side chain sulfur, i.e. sulfide, sulfone or sulfoxide (fulvestrant) were prepared. Introduction of the 16{sup 18}F-fluorine led to a dramatic decrease of the apparent binding affinity for ER, as reported by Wakeling et al. (Cancer Res. 1991;51:3867-73). Likewise, in vivo ER-mediated uterus uptake values in immature female rats were disappointing. Overall, our findings suggest that these new PET radiopharmaceuticals are not suitable as tracers to predict ER(+) breast cancer response to hormonal therapy with selective ER modulators.

  18. Preparation of carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel as the target materials of laser inertial-confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel is prepared by using sol-gel process and supercritical drying method, and carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde (CRF) aerogel with different microstructure is formed by pyrolyzing the RF aerogel at various temperature. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) are used to study the change of the ingredient of RF aerogel in order to find the best pyrolysis technique. The influence of the different pyrolysis temperature on the microstructure of CRF aerogel is studied by X-ray differ-action analysis. The results show that there are graphitic ribbons within the single particle of CRF aerogel, and the pyrolysis temperature and time has no significant influence on the microstructure of CRF aerogel

  19. Direct Solvent-Derived Polymer-Coated Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanodots with High Water Solubility for Targeted Fluorescence Imaging of Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Meng, Ying; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Chengyi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Jian; Wang, Jianxin; Huang, Rongqin

    2015-08-01

    Cancer imaging requires biocompatible and bright contrast-agents with selective and high accumulation in the tumor region but low uptake in normal tissues. Herein, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)-derived polymer-coated nitrogen-doped carbon nanodots (pN-CNDs) with a particle size in the range of 5-15 nm are prepared by a facile direct solvothermal reaction. The as-prepared pN-CNDs exhibit stable and adjustable fluorescence and excellent water solubility. Results of a cell viability test (CCK-8) and histology analysis both demonstrate that the pN-CNDs have no obvious cytotoxicity. Most importantly, the pN-CNDs can expediently enter glioma cells in vitro and also mediate glioma fluorescence imaging in vivo with good contrast via elevated passive targeting. PMID:25808813

  20. Comparative phenomics and targeted use of genomics reveals variation in carbon and nitrogen assimilation among different Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, S; Van Assche, A; de Jonge, R; Borneman, A R; Verreth, C; Troels, P; De Samblanx, G; Marchal, K; Van de Peer, Y; Willems, K A; Verstrepen, K J; Curtin, C D; Lievens, B

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested a correlation between genotype groups of Brettanomyces bruxellensis and their source of isolation. To further explore this relationship, the objective of this study was to assess metabolic differences in carbon and nitrogen assimilation between different B. bruxellensis strains from three beverages, including beer, wine, and soft drink, using Biolog Phenotype Microarrays. While some similarities of physiology were noted, many traits were variable among strains. Interestingly, some phenotypes were found that could be linked to strain origin, especially for the assimilation of particular α- and β-glycosides as well as α- and β-substituted monosaccharides. Based upon gene presence or absence, an α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase were found explaining the observed phenotypes. Further, using a PCR screen on a large number of isolates, we have been able to specifically link a genomic deletion to the beer strains, suggesting that this region may have a fitness cost for B. bruxellensis in certain fermentation systems such as brewing. More specifically, none of the beer strains were found to contain a β-glucosidase, which may have direct impacts on the ability for these strains to compete with other microbes or on flavor production. PMID:26135985

  1. The impact of future carbon dioxide emission reduction targets on U.S. electric sector water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Colin MacKay

    The U.S. electric sector's reliance on water makes it vulnerable to the impacts of climate change on water resources. Here we analyze how constraints on U.S. energy system carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions could affect water withdrawal and consumption in the U.S. electric sector through 2055. We use simulations of the EPA's U.S. 9-region (EPAUS9r) MARKAL least-cost optimization energy systems model with updated water use factors for electricity generating technologies. Model results suggest CO2 constraints could force the retirement of old power plants and drive increased use of low water-use renewable and nuclear power as well as natural gas CCS plants with more advanced cooling systems. These changes in electric sector technology mix reduce water withdrawal in all scenarios but increase water consumption in aggressive scenarios. Decreased electric sector water withdrawal would likely reduce electric sector vulnerability to climate change, but the rise in consumption could increase competition with other users.

  2. 全球长期减排目标与碳排放权分配原则%Long-Term Climate Change Mitigation Target and Carbon Permit Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建坤; 陈文颖; 滕飞; 刘滨

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate change mitigation target would highly constrain global carbon emissions in future.Carbon permit allocation under the long-term mitigation target would impact development space for all countries,involving the fundamental interests.Some developed countries advocate the principle of per capita emission convergence while China and other developing countries propose the principle of convergence of accumulative emission per capita to consider historical responsibility.If the latter is used for carbon permit allocation,CO_2 emissions of developed countries since the industrial revolution have far exceeded their allocated permits.Developed countries'high per capita emissions at present and for quite a long period in future would continue to occupy emission spaces for developing countries.Therefore,developed countries must commit deeper emission reduction rate for the next commitment period at the Copenhagen conference in order to achieve the emission pathway under the long-term emission reduction target,and to save necessary development space for developing countries.At the same time,developed countries should provide adequate financial and technical suppoa as compensation for their overuse of the development space for developing countries,to improve developing countries'capacity to respond to climate change under the framework of sustainable development.On the one hand,we should insist on the principle of equity to obtain reasonable emission space for our country in the international climate change negotiation;while on the other hand,we should enhance development toward low-carbon economy to protect global environment and to achieve sustainable development.%全球长期减排目标将对世界未来的碳排放形成严重制约,减排义务的分担原则涉及各国的发展空间,事关根本利益.部分发达国家倡导人均排放趋同原则,回避发达国家的历史责任,中国等发展中国家提出人均累积排放趋同原则,强调公

  3. Nanoparticles of 2-deoxy-D-glucose functionalized poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(trimethylene carbonate) for dual-targeted drug delivery in glioma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinyi; Xin, Hongliang; Ren, Qiuyue; Gu, Jijin; Zhu, Lingjun; Du, Fengyi; Feng, Chunlai; Xie, Yike; Sha, Xianyi; Fang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Based on the facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT) over-expression on both blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells, 2-deoxy-d-glucose modified poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(trimethylene carbonate) nanoparticles (dGlu-NP) were developed as a potential dual-targeted drug delivery system for enhancing the BBB penetration via GLUT-mediated transcytosis and improving the drug accumulation in the glioma via GLUT-mediated endocytosis. In vitro physicochemical characterization of the dual-targeted nanoparticulate system presented satisfactory size of 71 nm with uniform distribution, high encapsulation efficiency and adequate loading capacity of paclitaxel (PTX). Compared with non-glucosylated nanoparticles (NP), a significantly higher amount of dGlu-NP was internalized by RG-2 glioma cells through caveolae-mediated and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Both of the transport ratios across the in vitro BBB model and the cytotoxicity of RG-2 cells after crossing the BBB were significantly greater of dGlu-NP/PTX than that of NP/PTX. In vivo fluorescent image indicated that dGlu-NP had high specificity and efficiency in intracranial tumor accumulation. The anti-glioblastoma efficacy of dGlu-NP/PTX was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of Taxol and NP/PTX. Preliminary safety tests showed no acute toxicity to hematological system, liver, kidney, heart, lung and spleen in mice after intravenous administration at a dose of 100 mg/kg blank dGlu-NP per day for a week. Therefore, these results indicated that dGlu-NP developed in this study could be a potential dual-targeted vehicle for brain glioma therapy. PMID:24125772

  4. Accelerated killing of cancer cells using a multifunctional single-walled carbon nanotube-based system for targeted drug delivery in combination with photothermal therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyamohan P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prashanti Jeyamohan, Takashi Hasumura, Yutaka Nagaoka, Yasuhiko Yoshida, Toru Maekawa, D Sakthi Kumar Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary New Science, Toyo University, Kawagoe, Japan Abstract: The photothermal effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs in combination with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX for targeting and accelerated destruction of breast cancer cells is demonstrated in this paper. A targeted drug-delivery system was developed for selective killing of breast cancer cells with polyethylene glycol biofunctionalized and DOX-loaded SWCNTs conjugated with folic acid. In our work, in vitro drug-release studies showed that the drug (DOX binds at physiological pH (pH 7.4 and is released only at a lower pH, ie, lysosomal pH (pH 4.0, which is the characteristic pH of the tumor environment. A sustained release of DOX from the SWCNTs was observed for a period of 3 days. SWCNTs have strong optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR region. In this special spectral window, biological systems are highly transparent. Our study reports that under laser irradiation at 800 nm, SWCNTs exhibited strong light–heat transfer characteristics. These optical properties of SWCNTs open the way for selective photothermal ablation in cancer therapy. It was also observed that internalization and uptake of folate-conjugated NTs into cancer cells was achieved by a receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism. Results of the in vitro experiments show that laser was effective in destroying the cancer cells, while sparing the normal cells. When the above laser effect was combined with DOX-conjugated SWCNTs, we found enhanced and accelerated killing of breast cancer cells. Thus, this nanodrug-delivery system, consisting of laser, drug, and SWCNTs, looks to be a promising selective modality with high treatment efficacy and low side effects for cancer therapy. Keywords: cancer, nanotherapy, SWCNTs, targeted drug delivery

  5. Targeting of Carbon Ion-Induced G2 Checkpoint Activation in Lung Cancer Cells Using Wee-1 Inhibitor MK-1775.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongyu; Takahashi, Akihisa; Sejimo, Yukihiko; Adachi, Akiko; Kubo, Nobuteru; Isono, Mayu; Yoshida, Yukari; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The potent inhibitor of the cell cycle checkpoint regulatory factor Wee-1, MK-1775, has been reported to enhance non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell sensitivity to photon radiation by abrogating radiation-induced G2 arrest. However, little is known about the effects of this sensitizer after exposure to carbon (C)-ion radiation. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of C ions in combination with MK-1775 on the killing of NSCLC cells. Human NSCLC H1299 cells were exposed to X rays or C ions (290 MeV/n, 50 keV/μm at the center of a 6 cm spread-out Bragg peak) in the presence of MK-1775. The cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry and Western blotting. Radiosensitivity was determined using clonogenic survival assays. The mechanisms underlying MK-1775 radiosensitization were studied by observing H2AX phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe. G2 checkpoint arrest was enhanced 2.3-fold by C-ion exposure compared with X-ray exposure. Radiation-induced G2 checkpoint arrest was abrogated by MK-1775. Exposure to radiation resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic ratio and increased phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), the primary downstream mediator of Wee-1-induced G2 arrest. The Wee-1 inhibitor, MK-1775 restored the mitotic ratio and suppressed Cdk1 phosphorylation. In addition, MK-1775 increased H1299 cell sensitivity to C ions and X rays independent of TP53 status. MK-1775 also significantly increased H2AX phosphorylation and mitotic catastrophe in irradiated cells. These results suggest that the G2 checkpoint inhibitor MK-1775 can enhance the sensitivity of human NSCLC cells to C ions as well as X rays. PMID:26645158

  6. Carbon nanoparticles induce ceramide- and lipid raft-dependent signalling in lung epithelial cells: a target for a preventive strategy against environmentally-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peuschel Henrike

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution in lung epithelial cells induces pathogenic endpoints like proliferation, apoptosis, and pro-inflammatory reactions. The activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR is a key event responsible for signalling events involving mitogen activated protein kinases specific for these endpoints. The molecular events leading to receptor activation however are not well understood. These events are relevant for the toxicological evaluation of inhalable particles as well as for potential preventive strategies in situations when particulate air pollution cannot be avoided. The current study therefore had the objective to elucidate membrane-coupled events leading to EGFR activation and the subsequent signalling cascade in lung epithelial cells. Furthermore, we aimed to identify the molecular target of ectoine, a biophysical active substance which we described to prevent carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Methods Membrane signalling events were investigated in isolated lipid rafts from lung epithelial cells with regard to lipid and protein content of the signalling platforms. Using positive and negative intervention approaches, lipid raft changes, subsequent signalling events, and lung inflammation were investigated in vitro in lung epithelial cells (RLE-6TN and in vivo in exposed animals. Results Carbon nanoparticle treatment specifically led to an accumulation of ceramides in lipid rafts. Detailed analyses demonstrated a causal link of ceramides and subsequent EGFR activation coupled with a loss of the receptor in the lipid raft fractions. In vitro and in vivo investigations demonstrate the relevance of these events for carbon nanoparticle-induced lung inflammation. Moreover, the compatible solute ectoine was able to prevent ceramide-mediated EGFR phosphorylation and subsequent signalling as well as lung inflammation in vivo. Conclusion The data identify a so far unknown event in pro

  7. Integrated molecular targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors and destruction of breast cancer cells using single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular targeting and photodynamic therapy have shown great potential for selective cancer therapy. We hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the IGF1 receptor and HER2 cell surface antigens could be bound to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in order to concentrate SWCNT on breast cancer cells for specific near-infrared phototherapy. SWCNT functionalized with HER2 and IGF1R specific antibodies showed selective attachment to breast cancer cells compared to SWCNT functionalized with non-specific antibodies. After the complexes were attached to specific cancer cells, SWCNT were excited by ∼808 nm infrared photons at ∼800 mW cm-2 for 3 min. Viability after phototherapy was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells incubated with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids were still alive after photo-thermal treatment due to the lack of SWNT binding to the cell membrane. All cancerous cells treated with IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody/SWCNT hybrids and receiving infrared photons showed cell death after the laser excitation. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that all the cells treated with SWCNT/IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody complex were completely destroyed, while more than 80% of the cells with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids remained alive. Following multi-component targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors, integrated photo-thermal therapy in breast cancer cells led to the complete destruction of cancer cells. Functionalizing SWCNT with antibodies in combination with their intrinsic optical properties can therefore lead to a new class of molecular delivery and cancer therapeutic systems

  8. Integrated molecular targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors and destruction of breast cancer cells using single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Ning [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Lu Shaoxin [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Wickstrom, Eric [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 (United States); Panchapakesan, Balaji [Delaware MEMS and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2007-08-08

    Molecular targeting and photodynamic therapy have shown great potential for selective cancer therapy. We hypothesized that monoclonal antibodies that are specific to the IGF1 receptor and HER2 cell surface antigens could be bound to single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in order to concentrate SWCNT on breast cancer cells for specific near-infrared phototherapy. SWCNT functionalized with HER2 and IGF1R specific antibodies showed selective attachment to breast cancer cells compared to SWCNT functionalized with non-specific antibodies. After the complexes were attached to specific cancer cells, SWCNT were excited by {approx}808 nm infrared photons at {approx}800 mW cm{sup -2} for 3 min. Viability after phototherapy was determined by Trypan blue exclusion. Cells incubated with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids were still alive after photo-thermal treatment due to the lack of SWNT binding to the cell membrane. All cancerous cells treated with IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody/SWCNT hybrids and receiving infrared photons showed cell death after the laser excitation. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that all the cells treated with SWCNT/IGF1R and HER2 specific antibody complex were completely destroyed, while more than 80% of the cells with SWCNT/non-specific antibody hybrids remained alive. Following multi-component targeting of IGF1R and HER2 surface receptors, integrated photo-thermal therapy in breast cancer cells led to the complete destruction of cancer cells. Functionalizing SWCNT with antibodies in combination with their intrinsic optical properties can therefore lead to a new class of molecular delivery and cancer therapeutic systems.

  9. Amplified Expression of Fructose 1,6-Bisphosphatase in Corynebacterium glutamicum Increases In Vivo Flux through the Pentose Phosphate Pathway and Lysine Production on Different Carbon Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Judith; Klopprogge, Corinna; Zelder, Oskar; Heinzle, Elmar; Wittmann, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    The overexpression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) in Corynebacterium glutamicum leads to significant improvement of lysine production on different sugars. Amplified expression of FBPase via the promoter of the gene encoding elongation factor TU (EFTU) increased the lysine yield in the feedback-deregulated lysine-producing strain C. glutamicum lysCfbr by 40% on glucose and 30% on fructose or sucrose. Additionally formation of the by-products glycerol and dihydroxyacetone was significa...

  10. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the 3H to 3He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10-11. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10-12/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of 12C4+ to 16O5+ was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10-11, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for 12C4+-ions were under control at the 10-11 level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for 16O5+ due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10-10 could be achieved for the 12C/16O mass ratio measurement.

  11. High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy of 18O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850 and 7000 cm-1: Part III-Analysis and theoretical modeling of the 12C17O2, 16O12C17O, 17O12C18O, 16O13C17O and 17O13C18O spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Karlovets, E V; Mondelain, D; Kassi, S; Tashkun, S A; Perevalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    More than 19,700 transitions belonging to 11 isotopologues of carbon dioxide have been assigned in the room temperature absorption spectrum of highly 18O enriched carbon dioxide recorded by very high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 5851 and 6990 cm-1 (1.71-1.43 \\mum). This third and last report is devoted to the analysis of the bands of five 17O containing isotopologues present at very low concentration in the studied spectra: 16O12C17O, 17O12C18O, 16O13C17O, 17O13C18O and 12C17O2 (627, 728, 637, 738 and 727 in short hand notation). On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, a total of 1759, 1786, 335, 273 and 551 transitions belonging to 24, 24, 5, 4 and 7 bands were rovibrationally assigned for 627, 728, 637, 738 and 727, respectively. For comparison, only five bands were previously measured in the region for the 728 species. All the identified bands belong to the \\deltaP=8 and 9 series of transitions, where P=2V1+V2+3V3 is the polyad number (Vi are vibrational qua...

  12. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c - 12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gössling, C; Bunyatov, S; Krasnoperov, A; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereschenko, V; Di Capua, E; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, P; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Engel, R; Meurer, C; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Ferri, F; Paganoni, M; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Bagulya, A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Mezzetto, M; Dumarchez, J; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Bogomilov, M; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Martín-Albo, J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).

  13. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c-12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanesi, M. G.; Radicioni, E.; Edgecock, R.; Ellis, M.; Robbins, S.; Soler, F. J. P.; Gößling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Arce, P.; Artamonov, A.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Morone, M. C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Engel, R.; Meurer, C.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G. B.; Graulich, J. S.; Grégoire, G.; Kirsanov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, N.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; de Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, S.; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Martín-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential π± production cross-section in proton-carbon, proton-copper and proton-tin collisions in the range of pion momentum 100 MeV/ c≤p<800 MeV/ c and angle 0.35 rad≤θ<2.15 rad is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 GeV/ c to 12 GeV/ c hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections d2σ/dpdθ at four incident proton beam momenta (3 GeV/ c, 5 GeV/ c, 8 GeV/ c and 12 GeV/ c).

  14. Porous Carbon Spheres: Rational Design of Si/SiO2 @Hierarchical Porous Carbon Spheres as Efficient Polysulfide Reservoirs for High-Performance Li-S Battery (Adv. Mater. 16/2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Sarish; Guo, Shaojun; Hou, Yanglong

    2016-04-01

    S. Guo, Y. Hou, and S. Rehman develop a new class of silicon crosslinked with hierarchical porous carbon spheres usable as an efficient polysulfide reservoir for enhancing the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. As described on page 3167, the developed hybrid material adsorbs negatively charged polysulfides via both chemical and physical adsorption. Remarkably, the hybrid spheres show a high specific capacity, an excellent rate capability and long cyclability. PMID:27105813

  15. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π–π interaction. DSPE–PEG–COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (−24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC50: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  16. Docetaxel-loaded single-wall carbon nanohorns using anti-VEGF antibody as a targeting agent: characterization, in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, Nannan; Shu, Chang; Li, Ruixin; Ma, Xiaona; Li, Xuequan; Wang, Ran; Zhong, Wenying, E-mail: wyzhong@cpu.edu.cn [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Analytical Chemistry (China)

    2015-05-15

    A novel antitumor drug delivery system, docetaxel (DTX)-loaded oxidized single-wall carbon nanohorns (oxSWNHs) with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (mAb) as a target agent was constructed. DTX was absorbed onto the oxSWNHs via the physical adsorption or π–π interaction. DSPE–PEG–COOH was non-covalently wrapped to the hydrophobic surface of oxSWNHs to improve its water solubility and biocompatibility. The mAb was bonded to the PEG through amide bond. The DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb (DDS) exhibited suitable particle size (191.2 ± 2.1 nm), good particle size distribution (PDI: 0.196), and negative zeta potential (−24.3 ± 0.85 mV). These features enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and reduced the drug molecule uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. The in vitro drug release followed non-Fickian diffusion (n = 0.6857, R = 0.9924) with the cumulative release of DTX 59 ± 1.35 % at 72 h. Compared with free DTX, the DDS enhanced the cytotoxicity in MCF-7 cell lines in vitro efficiently (IC{sub 50}: 2.96 ± 0.6 μg/ml), and provided higher antitumor efficacy (TGI: 69.88 %) in vivo. The histological analysis indicated that the DDS had no significant side effect. Therefore, the new DDS is promising to attain higher pharmaceutical efficacy and lower side effects than free DTX for cancer therapy. The research demonstrated that DTX@oxSWNHs-PEG-mAb might have promising biomedical applications for future cancer therapy.

  17. The potential of carbon-11 and fluorine-18 chemistry: illustration through the development of positron emission tomography radioligands targeting the translocator protein 18 kDa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TSPO (translocator protein), also known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is up-regulated in the brain of subjects suffering from neuro-degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. Moreover, this overexpression has been proved to be linked to micro-glia activation making thus the TSPO a marker of choice of neuro-inflammatory processes and therefore a potential target for the development of radioligands for positron emission tomography imaging. The discovery of selective TSPO ligands and their labelling with the short-lived positron-emitter isotopes carbon-11 and fluorine-18 emerged in the mid-1980's with the preparation of the 3-iso-quinolinecarboxamide [11C]PK11195. To date, an impressive number of promising compounds - [11C]PK11195-challengers - have been developed; some radioligands - for example, [11C]PBR28, [11C]DPA-713, [18F]FEDAA1106 and [18F]DPA-714 - are currently used in clinical trials. As illustrated in this review, the methodologies applied for the preparation of these compounds remain mainly [11C]methylations using [11C]MeI or [11C]MeOTf and SN2- type nucleophilic aliphatic [18F]fluorinations - two processes illustrating the state-of-the-art arsenal of reactions that involves these two short-lived radioisotopes - but alternative processes, such as [11C]carbonylations using [11C]CO and [11C]COCl2 as well as SNAr-type nucleophilic [18F]fluorinations, have also been reported and as such, reviewed herein. (authors)

  18. Carbon transformations in deep granitic groundwater by attached bacterial populations characterized with 16S-rRNA gene sequencing technique and scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents molecular characterization of attached bacterial populations growing in slowly flowing (1-3 mm s-1) artesian groundwater from deep crystalline bed-rock of the Stripa research mine, south central Sweden. The assimilation rate of CO2 and lactate, and the lactate respiration rates were also determined. The bacteria studied grew in anoxic, high pH, 9-10, and low redox artesian groundwater flowing up through tubings from two levels of a borehole designated V2, 812-820 m and 970-1240 m below ground. The major groups of bacteria were found. Signature bases placed them in the appropriate systematic groups. All belonged to the Proteobacterial groups beta and gamma. One group was found only at the 812-820 m level, where it constituted 63% of the sequenced clones, whereas the second group existed almost exclusively and constituted 85% of the sequenced clones at the 970-1240 m level. The third group was equally distributed between the levels. A few other bacteria were also found. None of the 16S-rRNA genes from the dominating bacteria resembled any of the other by more than 90% similarity, and none of them resembled anything in the database by more than 96%. Temperature did not seem to have any effect on species composition at the deeper level. SEM images showed rods appearing in microcolonies. The difference in population diversity between the two levels studied presumably reflect the different environments. The earlier proposed presence of sulphate reducing bacteria could no be confirmed

  19. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C, R/V Knorr, October 1992--April 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, S.; Goddard, J.G.; Chipman, D.W.; Takahashi, Taro; Sutherland, S.C. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States). Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; Reid, J.L.; Swift, J.H.; Talley, L.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Scripps Institution of Oceanography

    1998-06-01

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide concentration (TCO{sub 2}) and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}) in discrete water samples collected during three expeditions of the Research Vessel (R/V) Knorr in the South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the first cruise (WOCE Section P16A/P17A) began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on October 6, 1992, and returned to Papeete on November 25, 1992. The second cruise (WOCE Section P17E/P19S) began in Papeete on December 4, 1992, and finished in Punta Arenas, Chile, on January 22, 1993. The third expedition (WOCE Section P19C) started in Punta Arenas, on February 22 and finished in Panama City, Panama, on April 13, 1993. During the three expeditions, 422 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P16A/P17A, P17E/P19S, and P19C included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen [measured by conductivity, temperature, and depth (CTD) sensor], as well as discrete measurements of salinity, oxygen, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-11, CFC-12), TCO{sub 2}, and pCO{sub 2} measured at 4 and 20 C. In addition, potential temperatures were calculated from the measured variables.

  20. Arsamas-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsamas - 16 is the Russian counterpart to Los Alamos. It is the place where the Soviets have developed their atomic bomb and where Andrej Sacharov has been working on the hydrogen bomb. Since 1946, the Soviet gevernment has been sending the best of the best of the country's scientists and engineers to work at this top secret research center and join their forces in the nuclear arms race with the U.S.A. The author of the book has been among the first journalists ever to meet the leading heads (one woman among them) of the institute for an interview. His report offers insight into the life and personality of the scientists as well as the current situation of the institute, telling about the motivation and sense of responsibility of individual interview partners or the mental background and conception of themselves as an outstanding group of nuclear experts, or their view of the future with regard to specific topics such as the growing danger of nuclear accidents, the problems encountered in disarmament measures, or the exodus of experts and resulting problems. (orig.)

  1. Carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and chemical data obtained in the Central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE sections P17S and P16S) during the tunes-2-expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    This data documentation discusses the procedures and methods used to measure total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), discrete partial pressure of TCO{sub 2} (pCO{sub 2}), and total alkalinity (TALK), during the Research Vessel (R/V) Thomas Washington TUNES Leg 2 Expedition in the central South Pacific Ocean. Conducted as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the cruise began in Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia, on July 16, 1991, and returned to Papeete on August 25, 1991. WOCE Meridional Sections P17S along 135{degrees} W and P16S along 150{degrees} W were completed during the 40-day expedition. A total of 97 hydrographic stations were occupied. Hydrographic and chemical measurements made along WOCE Sections P17S and P16S included pressure, temperature, salinity, and oxygen measured by conductivity, temperature and depth sensor; bottle salinity; oxygen; phosphate; nitrate; nitrite; silicate; CFC-12; CFC- 11; TCO{sub 2}; TALK; and pCO{sub 2} measured at 20{degrees}C. The TCO{sub 2} concentration in 1000 seawater samples was determined with a coulometric analysis system, the pCO{sub 2} in 940 water samples was determined with an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system, while the TALK concentration in 139 samples was determined on shore at the laboratory of C. Goyet of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution with an alkalinity titration system. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements for the Certified Reference Material (Batch {number_sign}6) were made and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 {plus_minus} 1.5 {mu}mol/kg. This mean value agrees within a standard deviation of the 2304.6 {plus_minus} 1.6 {mu}mol/kg (N=9) value determined with the manometer of C. D. Keeling at Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO). Replicate samples from 11 Niskin bottles at 4 stations were also collected for later shore-based reference analyses of TCO{sub 2} and TALK by vacuum extraction and manometry in the laboratory of C. D. Keeling of SIO.

  2. Genesis Silicon Carbide Concentrator Target 60003 Preliminary Ellipsometry Mapping Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis concentrator was custom designed to focus solar wind ions primarily for terrestrial isotopic analysis of O-17/O-16 and O-18/O-16 to +/-1%, N-15/N-14 to +/-1%, and secondarily to conduct elemental and isotopic analysis of Li, Be, and B. The circular 6.2 cm diameter concentrator target holder was comprised of four quadrants of highly pure semiconductor materials that included one amorphous diamond-like carbon, one C-13 diamond, and two silicon carbide (SiC). The amorphous diamond-like carbon quadrant was fractured upon impact at Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR), but the remaining three quadrants survived fully intact and all four quadrants hold an important collection of solar wind. The quadrants were removed from the target holder at NASA Johnso n Space Center Genesis Curation Laboratory in April 2005, and have been housed in stainless steel containers under continual nitrogen purge since time of disintegration. In preparation for allocation of a silicon carbide target for oxygen isotope analyses at UCLA, the two SiC targets were photographed for preliminary inspection of macro particle contamination from the hard non-nominal landing as well as characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry to evaluate thin film contamination. This report is focused on Genesis SiC target sample number 60003.

  3. Building resilience to overheating into UK 1960s hospital buildings within the constraint of the national carbon reduction target: adaptive strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Short, C. Alan; Lomas, Kevin; Giridharan, Renganathan; Fair, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    The National Health Service (NHS) Estate in England includes 18.83 Mm2 of acute hospital accommodation, distributed across 330 sites. Vulnerability to overheating is clear with 15,000 excess deaths occurring nationally during the July 2003 heatwave. The installation of mechanical cooling in existing hospitals appears to be the inevitable recommendation from NHS patient safety risk assessments but the carbon implications would undermine the NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy. NHS CO2 emissions cons...

  4. Construction of targeted plasmid vector pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 and its expression in pancreatic cancer JF305 cells induced by radiation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Bing Ma; Ming-Hua Bai; Xi-Jing Wang; Zheng-Li Di; Hui Xia; Zheng Li; Jie Liu; Jie Ma; Hua-Fen Kang; Cong-Mei Wu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To construct pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 recombinant plasmid and investigate the expression of p16 in pancreatic cancer JF305 cells induced by radiation and the feasibility of gene radiotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma.METHODS: Human p16 cDNA was ligated to th edownstream of Egr-1 promotor to construct pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 plasmid by restriction enzyme digested. The recombined plasmids were transfected into pancreatic cancer JF305 cells with lipofectamine. p16 mRNA level was detected by RT-PCR. The expression of p16 after different doses of X-ray radiation was detected by Western blot technique. Cell survival was assessed by clonogenic assays and cell viability was analysed by trypen blue exclusion. Flow cytometry was performed to study the apoptosis of JF305 cells.RESULTS: Restriction enzyme digestion showed the correctly constructed pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16. The p16expression in cells transfected with pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16induced by different doses of radiation was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Eight hours after 2 Gy X-ray radiation, the expression reached its peak(87.00 ng/L), and was significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.0.5). Clonogenic analysis and trypan blue extraction test showed that the pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 transfer enhanced radiation-induced cell killing in p16-null JF305 cell lines. The induction of apoptosis was lower in combined transfection and irradiation group than that in irradiation alone.CONCLUSION: X-ray can induce the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1-Egr.1p-p16 expression in JF305 cells.The detection of dose and time provides an experimental basis for in vivo study in future.

  5. Phenomenological and semi-microscopic analysis for 16O and 12C elastically scattering on the nucleus of 16O and 12C at Energies near the Coulomb barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear burning process proceeds from the conservation of the most abundant element hydrogen to helium, then from helium to carbon and oxygen, and then from these to heavier elements. Some of the key reactions for the carbon and oxygen burning stages of the nucleosynthesis are 12C+12C and 16O+16O leading to all possible final states. This paper contains the experimental measurements of 12C+12C and 16O+16O angular distributions performed at the cyclotron DC-60 in Astana, Kazakhstan. The extracted beam of 16O and 12C was accelerated up to two energies 1.75 and 1.5 MeV/n and then directed to an Al2O3 target of thickness 20 μg/cm2 and a carbon self-supporting target of thickness 17.4 μg/cm2. The angular distribution calculations were performed using both the phenomenological optical potential (SPI-GENOA) code and the double folding potential (FRESCO) code.

  6. 16 CFR 1204.16 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1204.16 Section 1204.16... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS Certification § 1204.16 Production testing... production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to...

  7. 16 CFR 1212.16 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1212.16 Section 1212.16... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1212.16 Production testing. (a) General... determine the types of tests for production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a...

  8. 16 CFR 1210.16 - Production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production testing. 1210.16 Section 1210.16... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Certification Requirements § 1210.16 Production testing. (a) General... production testing. Each production test shall be conducted at a production interval short enough to...

  9. 16 CFR 1025.16 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 1025.16 Section 1025.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Pleadings, Form, Execution, Service of Documents § 1025.16 Service. (a) Mandatory service. Every...

  10. Characterization of polybacterial clinical samples using a set of group-specific broad-range primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing and RipSeq analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kommedal, Øyvind; Lekang, Katrine; Langeland, Nina; Wiker, Harald G.

    2011-01-01

    The standard use of a single universal broad-range PCR in direct 16S rDNA sequencing from polybacterial samples leaves the minor constituents at risk of remaining undetected because all bacterial DNA will be competing for the same reagents. In this article we introduce a set of three broad-range group-specific 16S rDNA PCRs that together cover the clinically relevant bacteria and apply them in the investigation of 25 polybacterial clinical samples. Mixed DNA chromatograms from samples contain...

  11. 16 CFR 1018.16 - Membership selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Membership selection. 1018.16 Section 1018... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 1018.16 Membership selection. (a) Whenever new applicants are required... qualified, staff members of the Commission, including the Advisory Committee Management Officer. (d)...

  12. 磁控溅射Al靶功率对类金刚石薄膜结构和摩擦学性能的影响%Effect of Al Target Power of Magnetron Sputtering on the Structure and Tribological Properties of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周升国; 王立平; 薛群基

    2011-01-01

    本文采用中频磁控溅射金属Al靶,以CH4为反应气体,通过调整Al靶溅射功率,在p(100)单晶硅片和不锈钢基底上成功制备出不同Al含量的Al/a-C∶H纳米复合薄膜.并利用HR-TEM、XPS、纳米压痕仪和摩擦磨损试验机等手段分析和研究了Al/a-C∶H薄膜的结构、机械及摩擦学性能.结果表明:金属Al以纳米晶颗粒形式镶嵌在非晶碳网络中,使得所制备Al/a-C∶H薄膜呈现出典型的纳米晶/非晶复合结构;同时,Al掺杂促进了薄膜中sp2杂化碳形成,且有效地释放残余内应力.Al靶溅射功率为800W时所制备的Al/a-C∶H薄膜具有结构致密、内应力低、硬度高的特性;在大气环境中,该薄膜与Si3N4陶瓷球干摩擦时显示出优越的摩擦学性能,其摩擦系数约为0.055,磨损率约为2.9×10-16m3/(N·m).%Aluminum/amorphous hydrogenated carbon (Al/a-C: H) nanocomposite thin films were deposited on silicon p( 100) wafer and stainless steel substrates by magnetron sputtering of aluminum in an argon and methane atmosphere with different Al target power. The composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of composite films were systemically investigated by HR - TEM, XPS, nano - indenter and tribo - tester. The results showed that the Al nanocrystallites could be easily formed in the amorphous carbon matrix, the sp2 hybrid carbon was increased as the Al was embedded into the films, and Al - doping could relax the internal stress whilst keeping high hardness of as - deposited films. The film containing 4.7 % Al prepared by target power of 800 W exhibited a high hardness about 16.5 Cpa, a low internal stress about 0.62 Gpa, a low friction coefficient about 0.055 and a low wear rate about 2.9 × 10-16 m3/(N ? M) in the ambient atmosphere.

  13. Targeted management of organic resources for sustainably increasing soil organic carbon: Observations and perspectives for resource use and climate adaptations in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heve, William K; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe;

    2016-01-01

    northern savannah of Ghana. Data and information on spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC), current practices that could enhance climate adaptation including management of organic resources were collected through biophysical assessments and snap community surveys. Even though homestead fields...... and residues, traditions for bush-burning and competing use of organic resources for fuels. Our findings suggest a need for effective management practices, training and awareness aimed at improving management of organic resources and, consequently, increasing SOC and resilience to climate......-change-induced risks....

  14. Université de Genève | Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 16 octobre

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Particle accelerators in tumour therapy, Dr Ugo Amaldi, Technische Universität München and TERA Foundation.   Mercredi 16 octobre 2013, 11h15 Science III, Auditoire 1S081 Boulevard d’Yvoy, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: "Hadrontherapy", or "particle therapy", is a collective word which covers all cancer therapy modalities which irradiate patients with beams of hadrons. The most used hadrons are protons and carbon ions. Protontherapy is developing very rapidly: more than 100,000 patients have been treated and eight companies offer turn-key centres. Carbon ions, used for about 8,000 patients, have a larger radiobiological effectiveness and, being a qualitatively different radiation, require still radiobiological and, in particular, clinical studies to define the best tumour targets. After a review of the rationale for hadrontherapy and of the accelerators used in protontherapy, the European centres for carbon ion therapy will be discussed. Fin...

  15. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  16. Formation of a diamond-like carbon film by magnetron sputtering of a graphite target under radiation flux from a black-body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanovskiy, A. V.; Pronkin, A. A.; Kostanovskiy, I. A.

    2014-04-01

    A method of depositing a film (under a radiation flux from a high-temperature black-body model) by magnetron sputtering of a graphite target has been implemented. The elemental composition and structure of deposited films have been analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and characteristic electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. The investigations have shown that chemically pure diamond-like films can be formed at a radiation-flux density no less than 1.5 × 10-4 W/m2 in the spectral range of 170-255 nm.

  17. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques; SEMIANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project's primary objective was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (4-8 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performance(s), and report associated validation activities

  18. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chidsey, Thomas C. Jr.; Eby, David E.; Wray, Laura L.

    2001-04-19

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by demonstration and transfer of horizontal drilling technology in the Paradox basin, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, then the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 25 to 50 million barrels (40-80 million m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize several shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvania (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation, choose the best candidate(s) for a pilot demonstration project to drill horizontally from existing vertical wells, monitor well performances, and report associated validation activities.

  19. CERN: Fixed target targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become

  20. Analysis list: Usp16 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Usp16 Blood,Pluripotent stem cell + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Usp1...6.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Usp16.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bi...osciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Usp16.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Usp16.Bl...ood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Usp16.Pluripotent_ste

  1. Sputter target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Willard G.; Hale, Gerald J.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved sputter target for use in the deposition of hard coatings. An exemplary target is given wherein titanium diboride is brazed to a tantalum backing plate using a gold-palladium-nickel braze alloy.

  2. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  3. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David E. Eby; Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.; Kevin McClure; Craig D. Morgan

    2003-07-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing vertical wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the second half of the third project year (October 6, 2002, through April 5, 2003). The primary work included describing and mapping regional facies of the upper Ismay and lower Desert Creek zones of the Paradox Formation in the Blanding sub-basin, Utah. Regional cross sections show the development of ''clean carbonate'' packages that contain all of the productive reservoir facies. These clean carbonates abruptly change laterally into thick anhydrite packages that filled several small intra-shelf basins in the upper Ismay zone

  4. Electron-ion time-of-flight coincidence measurements of K-K electron-capture, cross sections for nitrogen, methane, ethylene, ethane, carbon dioxide, and argon (L-K) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protons with energies ranging from 0.4 to 2.0 MeV were used to measure K-shell vacancy production cross sections for N2, CH4, C2H4, C7H6, and CO2 gas targets under single collision conditions. An electron-ion time-of-light coincidence technique was used to determine the ratio of the K-K electron capture cross section to the K-vacancy production cross section. These ratios were then combined to extract the K-K electron capture cross sections. Measurements were also made for protons of the same energy range but with regard to L-shell vacancy production and L-K electron capture for Ar targets. In addition, K-K electron capture cross sections were measured for 1.0-2.0 MeV He+ ions on CH4. The agreement among the present measurements, previously published measurements, and the ECPSSR theory is excellent for protons incident on N2, Ar, and CH4. The present measurements do indicate that there is a molecular dependence for the carbon atom K-K electron capture cross sections

  5. Efficient mRNA-Based Genetic Engineering of Human NK Cells with High-Affinity CD16 and CCR7 Augments Rituximab-Induced ADCC against Lymphoma and Targets NK Cell Migration toward the Lymph Node-Associated Chemokine CCL19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Mattias; Levy, Emily; Karambelkar, Amrita; Li, Linhong; Reger, Robert; Berg, Maria; Peshwa, Madhusudan V.; Childs, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    For more than a decade, investigators have pursued methods to genetically engineer natural killer (NK) cells for use in clinical therapy against cancer. Despite considerable advances in viral transduction of hematopoietic stem cells and T cells, transduction efficiencies for NK cells have remained disappointingly low. Here, we show that NK cells can be genetically reprogramed efficiently using a cGMP-compliant mRNA electroporation method that induces rapid and reproducible transgene expression in nearly all transfected cells, without negatively influencing their viability, phenotype, and cytotoxic function. To study its potential therapeutic application, we used this approach to improve key aspects involved in efficient lymphoma targeting by adoptively infused ex vivo-expanded NK cells. Electroporation of NK cells with mRNA coding for the chemokine receptor CCR7 significantly promoted migration toward the lymph node-associated chemokine CCL19. Further, introduction of mRNA coding for the high-affinity antibody-binding receptor CD16 (CD16-158V) substantially augmented NK cell cytotoxicity against rituximab-coated lymphoma cells. Based on these data, we conclude that this approach can be utilized to genetically modify multiple modalities of NK cells in a highly efficient manner with the potential to improve multiple facets of their in vivo tumor targeting, thus, opening a new arena for the development of more efficacious adoptive NK cell-based cancer immunotherapies. PMID:27047492

  6. Target capture and target ghosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Steven P.

    1996-05-01

    Optimal detection methods for small targets rely on whitened matched filters, which convolve the measured data with the signal model, and whiten the result with the noise covariance. In real-world implementations of such filters, the noise covariance must be estimated from the data, and the resulting covariance estimate may be corrupted by presence of the target. The resulting loss in SNR is called 'target capture'. Target capture is often thought to be a problem only for bright targets. This presentation shows that target capture also arises for dim targets, leading to an SNR loss which is independent of target strength and depends on the averaging method used to estimate the noise covariance. This loss is due to a 'coherent beat' between the true noise and that portion of the estimated noise covariance due to the target. This beat leads to 'ghost targets', which diminish the target SNR by producing a negative target ghost at the target's position. A quantitative estimate of this effect will be given, and shown to agree with numerical results. The effect of averaging on SNR is also discussed for data scenes with synthetic injected targets, in cases where the noise covariance is estimated using 'no target' data. For these cases, it is shown that the so-called 'optimal' filter, which uses the true noise covariance, is actually worse than a 'sub-optimal' filter which estimates the noise from scene. This apparent contradiction is resolved by showing that the optimal filter is best if the same filter is used for many scenes, but is outperformed by a filter adapted to a specific scene.

  7. Growth Inhibition of Re-Challenge B16 Melanoma Transplant by Conjugates of Melanogenesis Substrate and Magnetite Nanoparticles as the Basis for Developing Melanoma-Targeted Chemo-Thermo-Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Takada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanogenesis substrate, N-propionyl-cysteaminylphenol (NPrCAP, is selectively incorporated into melanoma cells and inhibits their growth by producing cytotoxic free radicals. Magnetite nanoparticles also disintegrate cancer cells and generate heat shock protein (HSP upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF. This study tested if a chemo-thermo-immunotherapy (CTI therapy strategy can be developed for better management of melanoma by conjugating NPrCAP on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles (NPrCAP/M. We examined the feasibility of this approach in B16 mouse melanoma and evaluated the impact of exposure temperature, frequency, and interval on the inhibition of re-challenged melanoma growth. The therapeutic protocol against the primary transplanted tumor with or without AMF exposure once a day every other day for a total of three treatments not only inhibited the growth of the primary transplant but also prevented the growth of the secondary, re-challenge transplant. The heat-generated therapeutic effect was more significant at a temperature of 43∘C than either 41∘C or 46∘C. NPrCAP/M with AMF exposure, instead of control magnetite alone or without AMF exposure, resulted in the most significant growth inhibition of the re-challenge tumor and increased the life span of the mice. HSP70 production was greatest at 43∘C compared to that with 41∘C or 46∘C. CD+T cells were infiltrated at the site of the re-challenge melanoma transplant.

  8. F-16 AFTI in flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    This 27-second movie clip shows the F-16 Advanced Fighter Technology Integration aircraft in formation flight with another F-16. Note the lower forward-mounted canards just behind the engine intake, which in a dogfight, would be used for 'selective fuselage pointing' to quickly acquire and target the opponent. The AFTI (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration) /F-16 program has been a joint NASA/USAF effort evaluating advanced digital flight controls, automated maneuvering, voice-activated controls, sensors, and close-air support attack systems on a modified F-16. Research and test results could be applied to existing or future aircraft. Originally conceived as a program to explore flight control technology as well as various maneuvering concepts, this program has flown at Edwards Air Force Base continuously from 1982 through the late 1990s (as of this writing). This flight research aircraft was one of the original six F-16A airplanes that since has been modified extensively and repeatedly to study the feasibility of advanced technologies. For instance, it has demonstrated the operational value of voice command and automated ground collision avoidance systems, an automated maneuvering system for all aspects of air and ground combat, an automated threat avoidance and terrain following system, and a night vision helmet with a dual forward-looking infrared capability that was pointed by movement of the pilot's head. All of these systems served to reduce the pilot's workload in the demanding and dangerous role of close-air support. These systems would help ensure that a pilot was more effective in his first pass over a low-level target in a battle area. One of the most important technology spinoffs from the AFTI program has been the incorporation of an Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS) on all commercial airliner traffic. This system has been accepted industry, as well as world-wide, and is currently being installed on all commercial aircraft.

  9. Versatile production method of thin targets supported by PVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin self-supporting targets are indispensable in high energy-resolution studies using a magnetic spectrometer. However, nuclear targets of alkaline and alkaline-earth metal or halogen isotopes are not easily available. In order to produce thin target foils of these elements for the use in charge-exchange reactions, we take advantage of the fact that the stable isotopes of these elements have relatively small negative Q values, while 12C and 16O have large negative Q values. Therefore, even if organic compounds containing carbon and oxygen are used as supporting material, clean spectra on alkaline and alkaline-earth metal or halogen targets can be obtained up to the excitation energies of Q-value differences. A technique to produce thin foils of the chemical compounds Na2CO3, K2CO3, CaCO3 and CaCl2 was developed using polyvinylalcohol as supporting material. Foils with a total thickness of 1-2 mg/cm2 were produced and used as targets in a (3He,t) reaction study at an incident energy of 420 MeV. Owing to the small contributions of energy-loss differences of beam and reaction products in such thin targets, a very good resolution of ΔE/E=7x10-5 was achieved in combination with a high-resolution magnetic spectrometer

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR assays targeting 16S rRNA and lipL32 genes for human leptospirosis in Thailand: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janjira Thaipadungpanit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid PCR-based tests for the diagnosis of leptospirosis can provide information that contributes towards early patient management, but these have not been adopted in Thailand. Here, we compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of two real-time PCR assays targeting rrs or lipL32 for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in northeast Thailand. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case-control study of 266 patients (133 cases of leptospirosis and 133 controls was constructed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (DSe & DSp of both PCR assays. The median duration of illness prior to admission of cases was 4 days (IQR 2-5 days; range 1-12 days. DSe and DSp were determined using positive culture and/or microscopic agglutination test (MAT as the gold standard. The DSe was higher for the rrs assay than the lipL32 assay (56%, (95% CI 47-64% versus 43%, (95% CI 34-52%, p<0.001. No cases were positive for the lipL32 assay alone. There was borderline evidence to suggest that the DSp of the rrs assay was lower than the lipL32 assay (90% (95% CI 83-94% versus 93%, (95%CI 88-97%, p = 0.06. Nine controls gave positive reactions for both assays and 5 controls gave a positive reaction for the rrs assay alone. The DSe of the rrs and lipL32 assays were high in the subgroup of 39 patients who were culture positive for Leptospira spp. (95% and 87%, respectively, p = 0.25. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Early detection of Leptospira using PCR is possible for more than half of patients presenting with leptospirosis and could contribute to individual patient care.

  11. Chemical and biological data collected as part of the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) program in the Cariaco Basin off the coast of Venezuela, January 17, 2005 - January 16, 2006 (NODC Accession 0013170)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical and biological data were collected using bottle casts on the continental shelf of Venezuela from the HERMANO GINES from January 17, 2005 to January 16,...

  12. Polarimetry of 16Ngs produced in μ--capture on 16O nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polarimetry technique based on stack targets and β-γ-coincidences has been applied to the 16N nuclei produced in the ground state capture of negative muons on 16O nuclei. The performance of the polarimeter and the first measurements of β-asymmetry due to the longitudinal nuclear polarization are discussed. (author)

  13. [Characterization of Black and Dichothrix Cyanobacteria Based on the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Maya

    2010-01-01

    My project focuses on characterizing different cyanobacteria in thrombolitic mats found on the island of Highborn Cay, Bahamas. Thrombolites are interesting ecosystems because of the ability of bacteria in these mats to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and mineralize it as calcium carbonate. In the future they may be used as models to develop carbon sequestration technologies, which could be used as part of regenerative life systems in space. These thrombolitic communities are also significant because of their similarities to early communities of life on Earth. I targeted two cyanobacteria in my research, Dichothrix spp. and whatever black is, since they are believed to be important to carbon sequestration in these thrombolitic mats. The goal of my summer research project was to molecularly identify these two cyanobacteria. DNA was isolated from each organism through mat dissections and DNA extractions. I ran Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in each cyanobacteria. This specific gene is found in almost all bacteria and is highly conserved, meaning any changes in the sequence are most likely due to evolution. As a result, the 16S rRNA gene can be used for bacterial identification of different species based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA gene. Since the exact sequence of the Dichothrix gene was unknown, I designed different primers that flanked the gene based on the known sequences from other taxonomically similar cyanobacteria. Once the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, I cloned the gene into specialized Escherichia coli cells and sent the gene products for sequencing. Once the sequence is obtained, it will be added to a genetic database for future reference to and classification of other Dichothrix sp.

  14. Metal incorporation into nanoporous carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Henley, SJ; Woolger, NEP; Carey, JD; Silva, SRP; Fuge, GM; Ashfold, MNR

    2005-01-01

    Nanoporous carbon films were deposited by 248 nm pulsed laser ablation of a graphite target in different background pressures of argon (P). The morphology changed from smooth, high-density amorphous carbon films at P = 20 mTorr to ultra-low density nanoporous material at P = 380 mTorr. Subsequently, the nanostructural, chemical and electrical properties of metal containing nanoporous carbon samples were investigated by ablating graphite targets containing known contents of Ni and Co. We demon...

  15. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  16. Heterogeneous Shallow-Shelf Carbonate Buildups in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado: Targets for Increased Oil Production and Reserves Using Horizontal Drilling Techniques. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2003 - October 5, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    upper Ismay zone, where microporosity is well developed. In Bug field, the most productive wells are located structurally downdip from the updip porosity pinch out in the dolomitized lower Desert Creek zone, where micro-box-work porosity is well developed. Microporosity and micro-box-work porosity have the greatest hydrocarbon storage and flow capacity, and potential horizontal drilling target in these fields. Diagenesis is the main control on the quality of Ismay and Desert Creek reservoirs. Most of the carbonates present within the lower Desert Creek and Ismay have retained a marine-influenced carbon isotope geochemistry throughout marine cementation as well as through post-burial recycling of marine carbonate components during dolomitization, stylolitization, dissolution, and late cementation. Meteoric waters do not appear to have had any effect on the composition of the dolomites in these zones. Light oxygen values obtained from reservoir samples for wells located along the margins or flanks of Bug field may be indicative of exposure to higher temperatures, to fluids depleted in 18O relative to sea water, or to hypersaline waters during burial diagenesis. The samples from Bug field with the lightest oxygen isotope compositions are from wells that have produced significantly greater amounts of hydrocarbons. There is no significant difference between the oxygen isotope compositions from lower Desert Creek dolomite samples in Bug field and the upper Ismay limestones and dolomites from Cherokee field. Carbon isotopic compositions for samples from Patterson Canyon field can be divided into two populations: isotopically heavier mound cement and isotopically lighter oolite and banded cement. Technology transfer activities consisted of exhibiting a booth display of project materials at the annual national convention of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, a technical presentation, a core workshop, and publications. The project home page was updated on the Utah

  17. Biomarker and 16S rDNA evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane and related carbonate precipitation in deep-sea mud volcanoes of the Sorokin Trough, Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadnitskaia, A.; Muyzer, G.; Abbas, B.; Coolen, M.J.L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baas, M.; Weering, T.C.E. van; Ivanov, M.K.; Poludetkina, E.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many mud volcanoes were recently discovered in the euxinic bottom waters of the Sorokin Trough (NE Black Sea). Three of them, i.e., NIOZ, Odessa, and Kazakov, were selected for a detailed biogeochemical investigation. Four methane-related carbonate crusts covered with microbial mats, and sediments (

  18. Measurements of Lα, Lβ x-ray production cross sections of Pb by 16-40 keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of Lα, Lβ x-ray production cross sections for the element Pb (Z = 82) by 16-40 keV electron impact is reported in this paper. The target used in the experiment was prepared by evaporating the elemental Pb onto a thick pure carbon substrate. The effects of multiple scattering of electrons when penetrating the target film, of electrons reflected from the thick pure carbon substrate and of bremsstrahlung photons produced by the impact of incident electrons on the target are corrected using the Monte Carlo method. The experimental data, reported here for the first time in the energy region of interest, are compared with the plane-wave Born approximation theory with exchange, Coulomb and relativistic corrections. They are in good agreement

  19. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  20. Longitudinal momentum distributions of {sup 16,18}C fragments after one-neutron removal from {sup 17,19}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, T.; Geissel, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Lenske, H. [and others

    1998-08-01

    The fragment separator FRS at GSI was used as an energy-loss spectrometer to measure the longitudinal momentum distributions of {sup 16,18}C fragments after one-neutron removal reactions in {sup 17,19}C impinging on a carbon target at about 910 MeV/u. The distributions in the projectile frames are characterized by a FWHM of 141{+-}6 MeV/c for {sup 16}C and 69{+-}3 MeV/c for {sup 18}C. The results are compared with experimental data obtained at lower energies and discussed within existing theoretical models. (orig.)

  1. Depletion of pre-16S rRNA in starved Escherichia coli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangelosi, G A; Brabant, W H

    1997-07-01

    Specific hybridization assays for intermediates in rRNA synthesis (pre-rRNA) may become useful for monitoring the growth activity of individual microbial species in complex natural systems. This possibility depends upon the assumption that rRNA processing in microbial cells continues after growth and pre-rRNA synthesis cease, resulting in drainage of the pre-rRNA pool. This is not the case in many eukaryotic cells, but less is known about the situation in bacteria. Therefore, we used DNA probes to measure steady-state cellular pre-16S rRNA pools during growth state transitions in Escherichia coli. Pre-16S rRNA became undetectable when cells entered the stationary phase on rich medium and was replenished upon restoration of favorable growth conditions. These fluctuations were of much greater magnitude than concurrent fluctuations in the mature 16S rRNA pool. The extent of pre-16S rRNA depletion depended upon the circumstances limiting growth. It was significantly more pronounced in carbon-energy-starved cells than in nitrogen-starved cells or in cells treated with energy uncouplers. In the presence of the transcriptional inhibitor rifampin, rates of pre-16S rRNA depletion in carbon-energy-starved cells and nitrogen-starved cells were similar, suggesting that the difference between these conditions resides primarily at the level of pre-rRNA synthesis. Chloramphenicol, which inhibits the final steps in rRNA maturation, halted pre-16S rRNA depletion under all conditions. The data show that E. coli cells continue to process pre-rRNA after growth and rrn operon transcription cease, leading to drainage of the pre-rRNA pool. This supports the feasibility of using pre-rRNA-targeted probes to monitor bacterial growth in natural systems, with the caveat that patterns of pre-rRNA depletion vary with the conditions limiting growth. PMID:9226253

  2. Investigation of carbon dioxide in the central South Pacific Ocean (WOCE Sections P-16C and P-17C) during the TUNES/2 expedition of the R/V Thomas Washington, July--August, 1991. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, T.; Goddard, J.G.; Rubin, S.; Chipman, D.W.; Sutherland, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of carbon dioxide and associated hydrographic measurements made during the oceanographic expedition, TUNES/2, aboard the R/V Thomas Washington in the central South Pacific Ocean. During the 40 day expedition, the total carbon dioxide concentration in 1000 seawater samples were determined using a coulometer system and the pCO(sub 2) in 940 seawater samples were determined using an equilibrator/gas chromatograph system. The alkalinity values in 900 water samples were computed using these measurements. In addition, 156 coulometric measurements were made for the Certified Reference Solutions (Batch No. 6) and yielded a mean value of 2303.2 +or- 1.5umol/kg. The chemical characteristics for the major water masses have been determined.

  3. Influence of organic carbon sources and isotope exchange processes between water and nitrate on the fractionation of the stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O in dissolved nitrate during microbial dentrification in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotopes of nitrate are commonly used to determine sources and degradation of nitrate. In this study, nitrite oxidizing bacteria were found to promote an oxygen isotope exchange between water and nitrate under anoxic conditions. Also, different carbon sources were found to influence the enrichment of stable isotopes in nitrate during microbial denitrification. Both results refine the stable isotope model of nitrate in respect to nitrate source determination and microbial nitrate reduction.

  4. Carbon Carbon Composites: An Overview .

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rohini Devi; K. Rama Rao

    1993-01-01

    Carbon carbon composites are a new class of engineering materials that are ceramic in nature but exhibit brittle to pseudoplastic behaviour. Carbon-carbon is a unique all-carbon composite with carbon fibre embeded in carbon matrix and is known as an inverse composite. Due to their excellent thermo-structural properties, carbon-carbon composites are used in specialised application like re-entry nose-tips, leading edges, rocket nozzles, and aircraft brake discs apart from several indust...

  5. Study of secondary electron emission from thin carbon targets with swift charged particles: heavy ions, hydrogen ions; Etude experimentale de l`emission electronique secondaire de cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles rapides: ions lourds, ions hydrogene (atomiques, moleculaires ou sous forme d`agregats)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billebaud, A.

    1995-07-12

    The main subject of this work is the study of electron emission from the two surfaces of thin solid targets bombarded with swift charged particles. The slowing down of swift ions in matter is mainly due to inelastic interaction with target electrons (ionization, excitation): the energy transfer to target electrons is responsible for the secondary electron emission process. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions of this phenomena are the subject of the first chapter. We focused on secondary electron emission induced by different kind of projectiles on thin carbon foils. In chapter two we describe hydrogen cluster induced electron emission measurement between 40 and 120 keV/proton. These projectiles, composed of several atoms, allowed us to study and highlight collective effects of the electron emission process. We extended our study of electron emission to molecular (H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +}) and composite (H{sup -}, H{sup 0}) projectiles at higher energies (<= 2 MeV): we have designed an experimental set-up devoted to electron emission statistics measurements which allowed us to study, among others things, the role of projectile electrons in secondary electron emission. This experiment is described in the third chapter. Finally, the fourth chapter describes new measurements of electron emission induced by energetic (13 MeV/u) and highly charged argon ion provided by the medium energy beam line (SME) of GANIL (Caen), which have been analyzed in the framework of a semi-empirical model of secondary electron emission. This set of experiments brings new results on composite projectile interaction with matter, and on the consequences of high energy deposition in solids. (author).

  6. The N=16 subshell closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sequence of magic numbers for stable nuclei is now well understood. However the magnitude of shell gap may evolve from stability to drip line. Several observables show that N = 16 neutron-rich isotones present a higher stability compared to their neighbors on the N-Z chart. The spectroscopy of the levels of Ne27, involving sd and fp shells, has allowed us to study the evolution of the nuclear shells responsible for the structure changes in N 16 isotones. In this framework we have studied the neutron transfer reaction Ne26(d,p)Ne27 by inverted kinematics at 9,7 MeV/u. A cryogenic D2 target (17 mg.cm-2) has been used. The use of the magnetic spectrometer Vamos and that of the Exogam photon detector in coincidence operating mode has allowed us to achieve the spectroscopy of Ne27. The results show a reduction in the gap between sd and fp shells for N = 17 isotones as we go from stability toward the neutron drip line. We have also performed a theoretical study in mean-field theory and beyond it through configuration mixing so that we can see the evolution of the isospin of the N = 16 subshell's closure. We have used a HFB (Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) with the finite range D1S effective interaction. (A.C.)

  7. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  8. ATG16L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salem, Mohammad; Ammitzboell, Mette; Nys, Kris;

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variations in the autophagic pathway influence genetic predispositions to Crohn disease. Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for degrading and recycling cytoplasmic material, constitutes an important homeostatic cellular process. Of interest, single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ATG16L1...... importance of ATG16L1 and its genetic variant (T300A) within the elementary biological processes linked to Crohn disease....

  9. Control of the environmental inluences on THe-Trap on the example of the determination of the mass ratio of carbon-12 to oxygen-16; Kontrolle der Umwelteinfluesse auf THe-Trap am Beispiel der Bestimmung des Massenverhaeltnisses von Kohlenstoff-12 zu Sauerstoff-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Sebastian Dennis

    2014-04-16

    Tritium-Helium-3-Trap (THe-Trap) is a Penning-trap setup dedicated to measure the {sup 3}H to {sup 3}He mass ratio with a relative uncertainty of better than 10{sup -11}. This is 40 times more precise than the currently adopted value and, thus, will help to investigate possible systematic uncertainties of the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). To achieve the desired level of uncertainty, several environmental influences such as atmospheric pressure shifts and magnetic field fluctuations have to be suppressed. With the implemented stabilization system, the relative magnetic field drift could be reduced to a few 10{sup -12}/h for a time span of several weeks. Within the context of this thesis a mass ratio measurement of {sup 12}C{sup 4+} to {sup 16}O{sup 5+} was performed to characterize systematic effects. This measurement yielded a statistical uncertainty of 6.3 x 10{sup -11}, which can easily be improved with more statistics, i.e. a longer measurement time. While the systematic uncertainty for {sup 12}C{sup 4+}-ions were under control at the 10{sup -11} level, the systematic shifts could not be quantified for {sup 16}O{sup 5+} due to poor vacuum conditions. Without these corrections, a systematic uncertainty of 1.2.10{sup -10} could be achieved for the {sup 12}C/{sup 16}O mass ratio measurement.

  10. Ultra-rapid targeted analysis of 40 drugs of abuse in oral fluid by LC-MS/MS using carbon-13 isotopes of methamphetamine and MDMA to reduce detector saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rago, Matthew; Chu, Mark; Rodda, Luke N; Jenkins, Elizabeth; Kotsos, Alex; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri

    2016-05-01

    The number of oral fluid samples collected by the road policing authority in Victoria, Australia, requiring confirmatory laboratory analysis for drugs proscribed under Victorian legislation (methamphetamine, MDMA and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) has greatly increased in recent years, driving the need for improved analysis techniques to enable expedient results. The aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS-based targeted oral fluid screening technique that covers a broad range of basic and neutral drugs of abuse that can satisfy increased caseload while monitoring other compounds of interest for epidemiological purposes. By combining small sample volume, simple extraction procedure, rapid LC-MS/MS analysis and automated data processing, 40 drugs of abuse including amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cocaine and major metabolites, opioids, cannabinoids and some designer stimulants were separated over 5 min (with an additional 0.5 min re-equilibration time). The analytes were detected using a Sciex® API 4500 Q-Trap LC-MS/MS system with positive ESI in MRM mode monitoring three transitions per analyte. The method was fully validated in accordance with international guidelines and also monitored carbon-13 isotopes of MDMA and MA to reduce detector saturation effects, allowing for confirmation of large concentrations of these compounds without the need for dilution or re-analysis. The described assay has been successfully used for analysis of oral fluid collected as part of law enforcement procedures at the roadside in Victoria, providing forensic results as well as epidemiological prevalence in the population tested. The fast and reliable detection of a broad range of drugs and subsequent automated data processing gives the opportunity for high throughput and fast turnaround times for forensic toxicology. PMID:26993306

  11. Systematic analysis of reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Horiuchi, W; Kohama, A; Suzuki, Y

    2006-01-01

    We systematically analyze total reaction cross sections of carbon isotopes with N=6--16 on a $^{12}$C target for wide range of incident energy. The intrinsic structure of the carbon isotope is described by a Slater determinant generated from a phenomenological mean-field potential, which reasonably well reproduces the ground state properties for most of the even $N$ isotopes. We need separate studies not only for odd nuclei but also for $^{16}$C and $^{22}$C. The density of the carbon isotope is constructed by eliminating the effect of the center of mass motion. For the calculations of the cross sections, we take two schemes: one is the Glauber approximation, and the other is the eikonal model using a global optical potential. We find that both of the schemes successfully reproduce low and high incident energy data on the cross sections of $^{12}$C, $^{13}$C and $^{16}$C on $^{12}$C. The calculated reaction cross sections of $^{15}$C are found to be considerably smaller than the empirical values observed at l...

  12. Thermal neutron capture cross sections for 16,171,18O and 2H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, R. B.; Revay, Zs.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal neutron capture γ -ray spectra for 16,17,18O and 2H have been measured with guided cold neutron beams from the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) reactor and the Budapest Research Reactor (BRR) on natural and O,1817 enriched D2O targets. Complete neutron capture γ -ray decay schemes for the 16,17,18O(n ,γ ) reactions were measured. Absolute transition probabilities were determined for each reaction by a least-squares fit of the γ -ray intensities to the decay schemes after accounting for the contribution from internal conversion. The transition probability for the 870.76-keV γ ray from 16O(n ,γ ) was measured as Pγ(871 )=96.6 ±0.5 % and the thermal neutron cross section for this γ ray was determined as 0.164 ±0.003 mb by internal standardization with multiple targets containing oxygen and stoichiometric quantities of hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon whose γ -ray cross sections were previously standardized. The γ -ray cross sections for the O,1817(n ,γ ) and 2H(n ,γ ) reactions were then determined relative to the 870.76-keV γ -ray cross section after accounting for the isotopic abundances in the targets. We determined the following total radiative thermal neutron cross sections for each isotope from the γ -ray cross sections and transition probabilities; σ0(16O )=0.170 ±0.003 mb; σ0(17O )=0.67 ±0.07 mb; σ0(18O )=0.141 ±0.006 mb; and σ0(2H )=0.489 ±0.006 mb.

  13. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  14. 16 tales of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, mode...... and innovation theories within their own organization. Here they share their unique insights into the processes, methods and the impact of their academic work with innovation in practice.......16 Tales of Innovation are told by 16 leaders, who have completed the LAICS executive master program, a collaboration between Aarhus University and Copenhagen Business School. The book is based on their Master theses and illustrates how they have experimented with different innovation tools, models...

  15. Use of 12C(d,p)13C and 16O(d,p)17O reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of nuclear reactions for depth profiling carbon and oxygen in solids is discussed. A general expression for the yield from a nuclear reaction is derived and used to extract depth profiles from the energy spectra by two methods. The first method compares data from a target of unknown composition with a target containing a known concentration of either carbon or oxygen. By dividing the yields from the samples for equal collision energies, a concentration profile within the analyzed sample can be obtained. The second method uses published reaction cross section data to obtain the profile. The (d,p) profiling is demonstrated for carbon in ScD2. A comparison between the two methods is made by extracting carbon profiles in the near surface region of ScD2 samples. Effects due to inaccurate stopping cross section data are described. The technique is discussed for the 16O(d,p) reactions used to profile oxygen along with the effect of interferences from the 2H(d,p)3H reaction and other reactions

  16. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan; Yang, Hao; Aitha, Mahesh; George, Sam; Tierney, David L; Crowder, Michael W

    2016-07-01

    Membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase 16 (MMP16/MT3-MMP) is considered a drug target due to its role(s) in disease processes such as cancer and inflammation. Biochemical characterization of MMP16 is critical for developing new generation MMP inhibitors (MMPi), which exhibit high efficacies and selectivities. Herein, a modified over-expression and purification protocol was used to prepare the catalytic domain of MMP16 (cdMMP16). The resulting recombinant enzyme exhibited steady-state kinetic constants of K m = 10.6 ± 0.7 μM and k cat = 1.14 ± 0.02 s(-1), when using FS-6 as substrate, and the enzyme bound 1.8 ± 0.1 eq of Zn(II). The enzymatic activity of cdMMP16 is salt concentration-dependent, and cdMMP16 exhibits autoproteolytic activity under certain conditions, which may be related to an in vivo regulatory mechanism of MMP16 and of other membrane-type MMPs (MT-MMPs). Co(II)-substituted analogs (Co2- and ZnCo) of cdMMP16 were prepared and characterized using several spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, and EXAFS spectroscopies. A well-characterized cdMMP16 is now available for future inhibitor screening efforts. PMID:27229514

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to 1991-08-25 (NODC Accession 0115171)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0115171 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from THOMAS WASHINGTON in the South Pacific Ocean from 1991-07-16 to...

  18. Accelerator target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-01-01

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  19. HETEROGENEOUS SHALLOW-SHELF CARBONATE BUILDUPS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH AND COLORADO: TARGETS FOR INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES USING HORIZONTAL DRILLING TECHNIQUES. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report April 6, 2000 - October 5, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to 10 wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m3) of oil per field and a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m3) of oil will not be recovered from these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Several fields in southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado are being evaluated as candidates for horizontal drilling and enhanced oil recovery from existing, vertical, field wells based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling case studies. Geological characterization on a local scale is focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity, as well as possible reservoir compartmentalization, within these fields. This study utilizes representative cores, geophysical logs, and thin sections to characterize and grade each field's potential for drilling horizontal laterals from existing development wells. The results of these studies can be applied to similar fields elsewhere in the Paradox Basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent region. This report covers research activities for the first half of the third project year (April 6 through October 5, 2002). This work included capillary pressure/mercury injection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and pore casting on selected samples from Cherokee and Bug fields, Utah. The diagenetic fabrics and porosity types found at these fields are indicators of reservoir flow capacity, storage capacity, and potential for enhanced oil recovery via horizontal drilling. The reservoir quality of Cherokee and Bug fields has been affected by multiple generations of dissolution, anhydrite plugging, and

  20. Coincidence study of the 27Al(16O, 12Cα)27Al reaction at 65 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both in-plane and out-of plane angular correlations of coincident C and α particles have been measured for 65-MeV 16O bombardment of an 27Al target. Exploitation of the time-of-flight method enabled measurement of very-low-energy alpha particles at back angles. Results from the present experiment show that evaporation from an intermediate nucleus 31P* accounts for the majority of the C-α coincidence events observed. A small number of alpha particles from the break-up of 16O* were detected at angles around that of the carbon detector. Fewer than 10% of the alpha particles detected are of pre-equilibrium origin. this finding is in sharp contrast to earlier results. 11 figures

  1. A new kind of magnetic targeting induction heating drug carrier and its physical and biological properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Nano-carbon and iron composite―carbon-coated iron nanoparticles (CCINs) produced by carbon arc method can be used as a new kind of magnetic targeting induction heating drug carrier for cancer therapy. The structure and morphology of CCINs are studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Mossbauer spectra of these nanoparticles show that they contain only iron and carbon, without ferric carbide and ferric oxide. CCINs can be used as the magnetic drug carrier, with the effect of targeting magnetic induction heating in its inner core and higher drug adsorption in its nano-carbon shell outside because of its high specific surface area. CCINs can absorb Epirubicin (EPI) of 160 μg/mg measured by an optical spectrometer. In acute toxicity experiment with mice, the median lethal dose (LD50) of EPI is 16.9 mg/kg, while that of EPI-CCINs mixture is 20.7 mg/kg and none of the mice died after pure CCINs medication. The results show that pure CCINs belong to non-toxic grade and EPI delivery in mixture with CCINs can reduce its acute toxicity in mice. The magnetic properties of CCINs and their magnetic induction heating are investigated. The iron nanoparticle in its inner core has better magnetism with a good effect on targeting magnetic induction heating. When the CCINs are mixed with physiological salt water and are injected uniformly in pig’s liver, the temperature goes up to 48℃. While in the case that CCINs are filled in a certain section of pig’s liver, the temperature goes up to 52℃. In both cases the temperature is high enough to kill the cancer cell. CCINs have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  2. Preparation of thin nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin film backings, sources and targets are needed for many applications in low energy nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry experiments. A survey of techniques used in the preparation of nuclear targets is first briefly discussed. These are classified as chemical, mechanical and physical preparations. Vacuum evaporation, being the most generally used technique, is discussed in detail. It is highly desirable to monitor the film thickness and control the deposition rate during evaporation and to measure the final target thickness after deposition has concluded. The relative merits of various thickness measuring techniques are described. Stages in the fabrication and mounting of self-supporting foils are described in detail, with emphasis given to the preparation of thin self-supporting carbon foils used as target backings and stripper foils. Various target backings, and the merits of the more generally used release agents are described in detail. The preparations of more difficult elemental targets are discussed, and a comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  3. Vedligeholdelsen af F-16

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2015-01-01

    USA sætter helt bestemt pris på Danmarks pålidelige politiske støtte, men det har været evnen til at yde meningsfulde bidrag til koalitionens fælles bestræbelser, der har vundet amerikansk respekt. En hurtig erstatning for F-16 flyene, et øget forsvarsbudget og et styrket samarbejde med Norge og...

  4. 16 CFR 0.16 - Bureau of Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Competition. 0.16 Section 0.16....16 Bureau of Competition. The Bureau is responsible for enforcing Federal antitrust and trade... free market system and assure the unfettered operation of the forces of supply and demand....

  5. High sensitivity Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy of 18O enriched carbon dioxide between 5850 and 7000 cm−1: Part II—Analysis and theoretical modeling of the 12C18O2, 13C18O2 and 16O13C18O spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 19000 transitions belonging to 11 isotopologues of carbon dioxide have been assigned in the room temperature absorption spectrum of highly 18O enriched carbon dioxide recorded by very high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down spectroscopy between 5851 and 6990 cm−1 (1.71–1.43 μm). The line positions were determined with accuracy better than 1×10−3 cm−1 while the absolute line intensities are reported with an uncertainty better than 10%. This second report is devoted to the analysis of the bands of three multiply substituted isotopologues: 12C18O2, 13C18O2 and 16O13C18O (828, 838 and 638 in short hand notation). On the basis of the predictions of effective Hamiltonian models, a total of 2870, 538 and 1375 transitions belonging to 59, 11 and 15 bands were rovibrationnally assigned for 828, 838 and 638, respectively. For comparison, only 11 bands were previously measured by Fourier Transform spectroscopy in the region, for the 828 species. All the identified bands correspond to a ΔP=9 variation of the polyad number (P=2V1+V2+3V3, where Vi are vibrational quantum numbers). The band-by-band analysis has allowed deriving accurate spectroscopic parameters of 81 bands from a fit of the measured line positions. A few resonance perturbations were identified. In particular, the 31113 and 51106 states of 638 belonging to different polyads (P=10 and P=11, respectively) are anharmonically coupled. Using the large set of newly measured line positions and those collected from the literature, the global modeling of the line positions within the effective Hamiltonian approach was performed and a new set of Hamiltonian parameters was obtained for each of the three considered isopotologues. Using a similar approach, the global fits of the obtained intensity values of the ΔP=9 series of transitions were used to derive the corresponding ΔP=9 effective dipole moment parameters of the three considered isotopologues. The obtained results will help to improve the quality

  6. Near-barrier transfer in /sup 16/O + /sup 144,154/Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, A.J.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Abriola, D.; DiGregorio, D.E.; Etchegoyen, A.; Etchegoyen, M.C.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Ferrero, A.M.J.; Gil, S.; Kittl, J.A.

    1988-12-01

    The production of nitrogen and carbon fragments in the reactions induced by /sup 16/O on /sup 144/Sm and /sup 154/Sm targets was studied at two bombarding energies (65 MeV and 72 MeV) around the interaction barrier. The measured angular distributions exhibit the characteristic behaviour of direct transfer reactions, and the Q-value spectra are typically centered at the values predicted by kinematic selectivity. The comparison between fusion and charged-particle transfer cross sections shows that whereas fusion is the most important charged-particle transfer cross sections shows that whereas fusion is the most important process at the highest bombarding energy, transfer reactions become comparable or even dominant (as in the /sup 144/Sm case) at near-barrier energies. The different transfer probabilities observed for the two systems are analyzed in terms of nuclear deformation.

  7. Marginalia no. 16

    OpenAIRE

    Library, Merrill-Cazier

    2004-01-01

    Issue Number 16: Spring 2004 REMEMBERING THE PAST, BUILDING FOR THE FUTURE-John Elsweiler update on new library construction. A POSTSCRIPT FROM VENICE-Notes on Ona Siporin’s lecture on rescuing Venice, Italy. HAY DERRICKS, GRAVEMARKERS AND THE INTERNET: THE FIFE SLIDE COLLECTION ON line- Randy Williams. LOOKING BACK …Bygone Years at USU now just a click away-Dan Davis reports on digital access to old photos. KENT CLARK, DIRECTOR OF DEVELOPMENT DOING A SUPER JOB FOR USU LIBRARIE...

  8. Target preparation and characterization for multielemental analysis of liquid samples by use of accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Liendo, J A; Fletcher, N R; Gómez, J; Caussyn, D D; Myers, S H; Castelli, C; Sajo-Bohus, L

    1999-01-01

    Elastic scattering at forward angles is tested as a useful alternative method to characterize liquid samples of scientific and/or technological interest. Solid residues of such samples deposited on light backings have been bombarded with 16 MeV sup 7 Li and 24 MeV sup 1 sup 6 O beams in order to determine the experimental configuration giving the best elemental mass separation. The elastically scattered ions were detected at 16 deg. , 20 deg. and 28 deg. with surface barrier detectors. The ratios between the mass separation and the line width obtained in the spectral region between carbon and oxygen varied between 2 and 13. This method is particularly useful for an accurate elemental characterization below sodium which is beyond the scope of standard techniques such as PIXE and TXRF provided the ion beam type, its kinetic energy and the target thickness are considered simultaneously.

  9. The diabetes susceptibility gene Clec16a regulates mitophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimanpour, Scott A.; Gupta, Aditi; Bakay, Marina; Ferrari, Alana M.; Groff, David N.; Fadista, João; Spruce, Lynn A; Kushner, Jake A.; Groop, Leif; Seeholzer, Steven H.; Kaufman, Brett A; Hakonarson, Hakon; Stoffers, Doris A.

    2014-01-01

    Clec16a has been identified as a disease susceptibility gene for type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and adrenal dysfunction, but its function is unknown. Here we report that Clec16a is a membrane-associated endosomal protein that interacts with E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1. Loss of Clec16a leads to an increase in the Nrdp1 target Parkin, a master regulator of mitophagy. Islets from mice with pancreas-specific deletion of Clec16a have abnormal mitochondria with reduced oxygen consumption and ATP...

  10. Apollo 16 neutron stratigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, G. P., III

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soils have the largest low-energy neutron fluences yet observed in lunar samples. Variations in the isotopic ratios Gd-158/Gd-157 and Sm-150/Sm-149 (up to 1.9 and 2.0%, respectively) indicate that the low-energy neutron fluence in the Apollo 16 drill stem increases with depth throughout the section sampled. Such a variation implies that accretion has been the dominant regolith 'gardening' process at this location. The data may be fit by a model of continuous accretion of pre-irradiated material or by models involving as few as two slabs of material in which the first slab could have been deposited as long as 1 b.y. ago. The ratio of the number of neutrons captured per atom by Sm to the number captured per atom by Gd is lower than in previously measured lunar samples, which implies a lower energy neutron spectrum at this site. The variation of this ratio with chemical composition is qualitatively similar to that predicted by Lingenfelter et al. (1972). Variations are observed in the ratio Gd-152/Gd-160 which are fluence-correlated and probably result from neutron capture by Eu-151.

  11. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period

    OpenAIRE

    POSTEC, Anne; Quéméneur, Marianne; Bes, Méline; Mei, Nan; Benaïssa, Fatma; Payri, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Monnin, Christophe; Guentas-Dombrowsky, Linda; Ollivier, Bernard; Gérard, Emmanuelle; Pisapia, Céline; Gérard, Martine; Ménez, Bénédicte; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-01-01

    International audience Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarcha...

  12. Microbial diversity in a submarine carbonate edifice from the serpentinizing hydrothermal system of the Prony Bay (New Caledonia) over a 6-year period.

    OpenAIRE

    Anne ePostec; Marianne eQuéméneur; Méline eBes; Nan eMei; Fatma eBenaïssa; Claude ePayri; Christophe eMonnin; Bernard ePelletier; Linda eGuentas; Bernard eOllivier; Emmanuelle eGérard; Céline ePisapia; Martine eGérard; Bénédicte eMénez; Gaël eErauso

    2015-01-01

    Active carbonate chimneys from the shallow marine serpentinizing Prony Hydrothermal Field were sampled 3 times over a 6 years period at site ST09. Archaeal and bacterial communities composition was investigated using PCR-based methods (clone libraries, Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis, quantitative PCR) targeting 16S rRNA genes, methyl coenzyme M reductase A and dissimilatory sulfite reductase subunit B genes. Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) and Thaumarchaea were the main archaeal ...

  13. Characterization of the structure of PM-16E furnace black

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varlakov, V.P.; Fialkov, A.S.; Smirnov, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the structure of PM-16E furnace black in the initial and graphitized states has been carried out with the aid of phase-contact electron microscopy with direct resolution of the carbon layers (002). A two-stage mechanism of the formation of furnace black has been confirmed. In the first stage there is a free-radical mechanism of the formation of the particles of carbon black. In the second stage the orientated deposition of pyrolysis products takes place on the particles and their aggregates in the form of planar carbon layers. The structure of graphitized carbon black is represented in the form of a hollow polyhedron the faces of which consist of packets of continuous closed carbon layers.

  14. Carbon ion radiotherapy for sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles of heavy ion therapy, its application to bone and soft tissue sarcomas and outline of its general state are described. The heavy ion therapy has advantages of its high dose distribution to the target and strong biological effect due to the Bragg peak formation and high linear energy transfer, respectively. The authors use carbon ion generated by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for the therapy of performance state 0-2 patients with the sarcomas unresectable, diagnosed pathologically, and of 60 y, 45% and teens, 8%) have been treated, whose tumor site has been the pelvis in 73%, volume >600 mL in 63%, tissue type of bone tumor in 70% (where cordoma has amounted to>200 cases). Five-year local control rate is found 71% and survival, 59%. In 175 therapeutically fresh cases with sacral cordoma of median age 67 y, with median clinical target volume 9 cm, treated with median dose 70.4 GyE/16 irradiations, the 8-y local control rate is found to be 69% and survival, 74%, within the median follow-up 54 months; with severe skin ulcer in 2 cases and deterioration of nervous dysfunction in 15 cases; suggesting the therapy is as effective and useful as surgical resection. At present, the therapy is not applicable to Japan health insurance. In the author's hospital, the heavy ion therapy has been conducted to total of >6,000 patients, which amounting to the largest number in the world. Now, 3 Japanese facilities can do the therapy as well and 3 countries in the world.(T.T.)

  15. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Sufang; Lv, Qiyan; Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@rcees.ac.cn; Guo, Liang-Hong, E-mail: LHGuo@rcees.ac.cn; Wan, Bin; Zhao, Lixia

    2014-10-15

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay.

  16. Cellular target recognition of perfluoroalkyl acids: In vitro evaluation of inhibitory effects on lysine decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been shown to bind with hepatic peroxisome proliferator receptor α, estrogen receptors and human serum albumin and subsequently cause some toxic effects. Lysine decarboxylase (LDC) plays an important role in cell growth and developmental processes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of 16 PFAAs, including 13 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 3 perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs), on lysine decarboxylase (LDC) activity was investigated. The inhibition constants obtained in fluorescence enzyme assays fall in the range of 2.960 μM to 290.8 μM for targeted PFCAs, and 41.22 μM to 67.44 μM for targeted PFSAs. The inhibitory effect of PFCAs increased significantly with carbon chain (7–18 carbons), whereas the short chain PFCAs (less than 7 carbons) did not show any effect. Circular dichroism results showed that PFAA binding induced significant protein secondary structural changes. Molecular docking revealed that the inhibitory effect could be rationalized well by the cleft binding mode as well as the size, substituent group and hydrophobic characteristics of the PFAAs. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, three selected PFAAs inhibited LDC activity in HepG2 cells, and subsequently resulted in the decreased cadaverine level in the exposed cells, suggesting that LDC may be a possible target of PFAAs for their in vivo toxic effects. - Highlights: • Inhibitory effects of PFAAs on lysine decarboxylase activity were evaluated. • Four different methods were employed to investigate the mechanisms. • The long chain PFAAs showed inhibitory effect compare with 4–6 carbon chain. • The long chain PFAAs bound with LDC differently from the short ones. • The results in cells correlate with those obtained from fluorescence assay

  17. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    (post16) Faces of Physics To study a physics course post-16 is take out an option on your future. But physics itself is very varied, and so is what you might do with it. It seems right that post-16 physics courses reflect important aspects of this variety. Physics varies with why people do it. As reliable knowledge, physics is often essential to making things happen. This is physics as feeding into technology, and quite often feeding off technology. The human urge here is the urge to create things that work. It drives individual inventors; it drives large teams in multinational companies. At the opposite end of this spectrum is physics driven by curiosity, by the urge to find out. The stock examples are the grand discoveries from the expansion of the universe to the discovery of the nucleus of atoms. But the physicist's curiosity is often on a more detailed, even finicky scale: how exactly do the molecules of this polymer respond to stress?; just how do ions implanted in this material modify its conductivity? It is clear to me that a decent post-16 physics course must respect and reflect both. This is by no means a matter of `basic laws and their applications'. It is a matter of recognizing two fundamental interests, in doing and in explaining, and of recognizing that they are at once closely interdependent and worlds apart. Ideas in physics are also not of one kind. One opposition is the idea of describing Nature in terms of deterministic physical laws, as against describing Nature as the predictable outcome of probabilistic behaviour `underneath'. The first has gripped the Western imagination since at least the time of Descartes. The second has increasingly come to the fore, especially in thermodynamics with the idea that we can only make processes work by fixing the circumstances so that uncaring atoms and molecules happen by chance to do what we want. Now in quantum theory both ideas - determinism and randomness - co-exist. Post-16 physics courses are not in

  18. A windowless gas target for secondary beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A windowless gas target was developed for the production of secondary high-spin isomer beams (HSIB). An 16O target in the compound form of CO2 gas was used to produce a 145mSm beam by using an 16O(136Xe, 7n)145mSm reaction. The target gas pressure was kept constant at 50 Torr. A target thickness of about 1 mg/cm2 was achieved with a 10 cm target length. Gas was recirculated and the consumption was very little

  19. Implementation of 16% renewable energy in 2020; Invulling van 16% hernieuwbare energie in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, T.; De Visser, E. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands); Lensink, S. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    The first part deals with the numerical implementation of the 16% target: the potential contribution of the various renewable energy options (and energy conservation) to the achievement of this objective and the underlying principles. Part 1 of this report was jointly prepared by Ecofys and ECN. Part 2 of this report provides an overview of the current bottlenecks, measures and roles for the Dutch government and the provinces to realize the 2020 renewable energy target [Dutch] Het eerste deel heeft betrekking op de cijfermatige invulling van de 16% doelstelling: de potentiele bijdrage van de verschillende hernieuwbare energie opties (en energiebesparing) aan het halen van deze doelstelling en de uitgangspunten die hieraan ten grondslag liggen. Ecofys en ECN hebben deel I gezamenlijk opgesteld. Deel II van deze rapportage geeft een overzicht van de huidige knelpunten, maatregelen en rollen voor Rijk en Provincie om het 2020 doel voor hernieuwbare energie te bereiken.

  20. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus;

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... to the surface where the beam enters) are examined. For each plan the minimum,  maximum and the dose averaged LET of the PTV is calculated. The numbers are translated to OER using several sets of data found in literature for various cell lines. Results: We find a strong dependence of the dose average LET and OER...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  1. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  2. Quasi-molecular states in the 12C + 16O amd 16O + 16O systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quasi-molecular states observed in the 12C + 16O + 16O and 16O systems are described in a diatomic-like molecular picture using a Morse-type bonding potential. The depths of the bonding potentials are found to be 16.7 and 22.8 MeV respectively, with a long range of about 16 fm. Both the bound and resonance states of these potentials are calculated and compare quite well with the observed states. The diatomic-like rotational and vibrational picture of the quasi-molecular states proposed earlier for 12C + 12C system is found to be valid for the 12C + 16O and 16O + 16O systems. In these two systems, the rotational and vibrational characteristics seem to be more strongly pronounced compared with the 12C + 12C system. (Author)

  3. Multiplicity of secondary electrons emitted by carbon thin targets by impact of H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles at MeV energies; Multiplicite des electrons secondaires emis par des cibles minces de carbone sous l`impact de projectiles H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} et H{sub 3}{sup +} d`energie de l`ordre du MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidovic, Zvonimir [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-06-24

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H{sup 0}, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} projectiles in the 0.25 - 2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. Phenomenological and theoretical descriptions as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subjects of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of the thin carbon foils crossed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter there are also presented the method and the algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H{sup 0} atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +} polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of the ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ions fragments, upon the amplitude of these collected effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. The experiments allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion interactions with solid surfaces. (author) 136 refs., 41 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. APL portability in 16 bits microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work deals with an automatic program translation method as a solution to the software portability problem. The source machine is a minicomputer of the SEMS MITRA range; the target machines are three 16 bits microprocessors: INTEL 8086, MOTOROLA 68000 and ZILOG Z-8000. The software to be translated is written in macro-assembly language (MAS) and consist of an operating system, an APL interpreter and some other software tools. The translation method uses a machine-free intermediate language describing the program in source language. This intermediate language consisting of a set of macro-instructions, is then assembled using a link library; this library defines the macro-instructions which create the target microprocessor object code. The whole translation operation work is carried out by the source machine which produces, after linkage editing, a table memory map (IME). Thereafter the load object code will be removed to target machine. Concerning optimization problems or inputs-outputs, some module can be written using the target machine assembly language and processed by a specific assembler in target machine or source machine, if the latter processes a cross-assembler; then the resulting binary codes are merged with the binary codes issued during the automatic translation phase. The method proposed here may be extended to any 16 bits computer, by a simple change of the macro-instruction library. This work allows an APL machine creation with microprocessors, preserving the original software and so maintaining its initial reliability. This work has led to a closer examination of hardware problems connected with the various target machines configurations. Difficulties met during this work mainly arise from different operations of the target machines specially indicators or flags setting, addressing modes and interruption mechanisms. This shows up the necessity to design new microprocessors either partially user's micro-programmable, or with some functions

  5. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    (Post-16 Initiative) Engineering Physics? Many A-level physics students do not go on to study physics. For them physics is a support subject, either just for fun or just for the grade. Where physics is a lead subject some students go on to study physics but many more go on to study engineering. So can we deliberately give some aspects of an A-level course an engineering flavour? Electromagnetism would seem a good place to start. There is a clear `physics' route into this topic, a microscopic forces and fields view of the situation. But do our students really need to look at it this way? All electromagnetic machines are linked magnetic and electric circuits. The design idea is to link these circuits as closely as possible. The electric circuits must be as good as possible, with a high conductivity. The magnetic circuits must be as good as possible, with high permeance. Conductivity depends on area/length. So does permeance. The goodness of an electromagnetic machine (how good it is at its job, which is linking electric and magnetic circuits) scales as the square of its linear dimensions. That means small electromagnetic machines are harder to make, and so the very smallest nanomotors are electrostatic. None of this is new, but many teachers are uncomfortable with it. We are thinking like physicists. Many of our students are not. They deserve us to take the trouble every now and again to encourage them to think a bit differently about a topic, to look at practical ways of discussing design and to give their course an engineering flavour. Philip Britton Coursework in A-level Physics The criteria for the new AS and A-levels have provided the teams developing the specifications with an opportunity to think creatively about how internal assessment is used within post-16 physics courses. Teachers may be concerned that allowing 30% of the marks to be internally assessed will create a burden for them. However, it is possible to look at this in a much more positive light

  6. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  7. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodworth, J.G.; Meier, W.

    1995-03-01

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of {approximately}16{cents} per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GW{sub e} IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level.

  8. Target production for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants will require the ignition and burn of 5-10 fusion fuel targets every second. The technology to economically mass produce high-quality, precision targets at this rate is beyond the current state of the art. Techniques that are scalable to high production rates, however, have been identified for all the necessary process steps, and many have been tested in laboratory experiments or are similar to current commercial manufacturing processes. In this paper, we describe a baseline target factory conceptual design and estimate its capital and operating costs. The result is a total production cost of ∼16 cents per target. At this level, target production represents about 6% of the estimated cost of electricity from a 1-GWe IFE power plant. Cost scaling relationships are presented and used to show the variation in target cost with production rate and plant power level

  9. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  10. Target Awareness: Lupus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Target Awareness: Lupus Jan. 15, 2009 Target Awareness: Lupus Target Awareness: Lupus provides a brief overview of ... Email Print Tags for this Story treatments symptoms Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  11. Target factory in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A target factory diagram has been constructed for an analysis of the shell coating process system in relation to target production. The number of deposition units needed to achieve the coating requirements will be a major target production operating cost

  12. Fabrication of /sup 26/Al targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, L.; Baumeister, H.; Rolfs, C.

    1984-06-01

    Targets with up to 1.4x10/sup 16/ /sup 26/Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the /sup 26/Al nuclei via the reaction /sup 26/Mg(p, n)/sup 26/Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described.

  13. Fabrication of Dense Horizontally Aligned Arrays of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes from Vertically Aligned Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Wang, Xueshen; Li, Qunqing; Xie, Jing; Zhu, Zhendong; Zou, Yuan; Liu, Junku; Jiang, Kaili; Fan, Shoushan

    2011-01-01

    The as-grown vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) arrays are transferred from the original silicon substrate to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate, which acts as a stamp. Thin SWNT films can be applied from the stamp to the target substrate and subsequently treated by an ultrasonic process to reduce their thickness to 6.6 nm. The transferred SWNT thin film retains the advantageous super-alignment and high-density properties of the vertical SWNT arrays. The linear density, transmittance, and square resistance of the thin film are as high as 15 tubes per micrometer, 99% at 550 nm, and 16 kΩ, respectively.

  14. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  15. Medical CT image reconstruction accuracy in the presence of metal objects using x-rays up to 1 MeV with x-ray targets of beryllium, carbon, aluminum, copper, and tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, James; Ganguly, Arundhuti; Virshup, Gary

    2012-04-01

    Flat panels imagers based on amorphous silicon technology (a-Si) for digital radiography have been accepted by the medical community as having several advantages over film-based systems. Radiotherapy treatment planning systems employ computed tomographic (CT) data sets and projection images to delineate tumor targets and normal structures that are to be spared from radiation treatment. The accuracy of CT numbers is crucial for radiotherapy dose calculations. Conventional CT scanners operating at kilovoltage X-ray energies typically exhibit significant image reconstruction artifacts in the presence of metal implants in human body. Megavoltage X-ray energies have problems maintaining contrast sensitivity for the same dose as kV X-ray systems. We intend to demonstrate significant improvement in metal artifact reductions and electron density measurements using an amorphous silicon a-Si imager obtained with an X-ray source that can operate at energies up to 1 MeV. We will investigate the ability to maintain contrast sensitivity at this higher X-ray energy by using targets with lower atomic numbers and appropriate amounts of Xray filtration than are typically used as X-ray production targets and filters.

  16. Firm-level determinants of energy and carbon intensity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, China's leaders have sought to coordinate official energy intensity reduction targets with new targets for carbon dioxide (CO2) intensity reduction. The Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) included for the first time a binding target for energy intensity, while a binding target for CO2 intensity was included later in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015). Using panel data for a sample of industrial firms in China covering 2005 to 2009, we investigate the drivers of energy intensity reduction (measured in terms of direct primary energy use and electricity use) and associated CO2 intensity reduction. Rising electricity prices were associated with decreases in electricity intensity and increases in primary energy intensity, consistent with a substitution effect. Overall, we find that energy intensity reduction by industrial firms during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan translated into more than proportional CO2 intensity reduction because reducing coal use—in direct industrial use as well as in the power sector—was a dominant abatement strategy. If similar dynamics characterize the Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2011–2015), the national 17 percent CO2 intensity reduction target may not be difficult to meet—and the 16 percent energy intensity reduction target may result in significantly greater CO2 intensity reduction. - Highlights: • We describe China's Eleventh Five-Year Plan energy policies. • We examine the drivers of energy, electricity and carbon intensity reduction. • Higher electricity prices correlated with reductions in industrial electricity intensity. • Energy intensity reduction efforts were effective at reducing carbon intensity

  17. Concept design of a radioactive ion beam thick target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept design procedure of a thick target used in generating Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) is described. The harsh terms of target material and temperature condition for this purpose are discussed, and several kinds of candidate target materials are listed. Design of a carbon target matrix and its water cooling heat-sink system, and calculation of three-dimensional temperature distributions of the target system are given. The result shows that the thick target has a capacity to receive proton beam of power up to 14 kW, meanwhile its temperature can be maintained at 1300∼2000 degree C. (3 refs., 6 figs.)

  18. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  19. Variations in carbon emissions from vehicles at signalised intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Ing, Koh

    2011-01-01

    Carbon emissions from road transport make up 20% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. Therefore, reducing carbon emissions from road transport is significant in reaching carbon reduction targets. In urban areas where signal controlled intersections are common, carbon emissions from vehicular traffic can be aggravated by aggressive driving and interruptions induced by traffic control. Considerable variations in speed and acceleration profiles could be observed between high carbon a...

  20. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N#Lambda# by Electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of the 16O(e, e'K+)16N#Lambda# reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e, e'K+)Λ,Σ0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 ± 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N#Lambda# with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O#Lambda#. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p1/2 and p3/2 hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  1. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N_Lambda by Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusanno, Francesco; Urciuoli, Guido; Acha Quimper, Armando; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Aniol, Konrad; Baturin, Pavlo; Bertin, Pierre; Benaoum, Hachemi; Blomqvist, Ingvar; Boeglin, Werner; Breuer, Herbert; Brindza, Paul; Bydzovsky, Petr; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Colilli, Stefano; Coman, Luminita; Craver, Brandon; de Cataldo, Giacinto; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deur, Alexandre; Ferdi, Catherine; Feuerbach, Robert; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gayou, Olivier; Giuliani, Fausto; Gomez, Javier; Gricia, Massimo; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hayes, David; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kino, Kouichi; Kross, Brian; Lagamba, Luigi; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lucentini, Maurizio; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; McCormick, Kathy; Michaels, Robert; Millener, D.; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Nappi, E.; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Okasyasu, Y.; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Rikki; Rodriguez, Victor; Saha, Arunava; Santavenere, Fabio; Sarty, Adam; Segal, John; Shahinyan, Albert; Singh, Jaideep; Sirca, Simon; Snyder, Ryan; Solvignon, Patricia; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ulmer, Paul; Veneroni, P.P.; Voutier, Eric; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zeng, X.; Zorn, Carl

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the 16O(e, e'K+)16N_Lambda reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e, e'K+)Lambda,Sigma_0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 ± 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N_Lambda with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O_Lambda. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p1/2 and p3/2 hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  2. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N_Lambda by Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cusanno, F; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Böglin, W; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovsky, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gómez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zeng, X; Zorn, C

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study of the 16O(e,e'K^+)16N_Lambda reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e,e'K^+)Lambda,Sigma_0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 +/- 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N_Lambda with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O_Lambda. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p_{1/2} and p_{3/2} hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy of Lambda16N by electroproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanno, F; Urciuoli, G M; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovský, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zheng, X; Zorn, C

    2009-11-13

    An experimental study of the (16)O(e,e'K(+))(Lambda)(16)N reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e,e'K(+))Lambda, Sigma(0) exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76+/-0.16 MeV was obtained for (Lambda)(16)N with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus (Lambda)(16)O. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p(1/2) and p(3/2) hole states of the (15)N core nucleus. PMID:20365979

  4. De novo trisomy 16p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, J.L.C.; Cigudosa, J.C.; Gomez, A.O. [Univ. of La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)] [and others

    1997-01-20

    We report on a patient with psychomotor retardation and a pattern of malformations comprising single umbilical artery, craniofacial anomalies, severe truncal hypotonia, and lower-limb hyporreflexia. G-banding cytogenetics demonstrated a 16p+ chromosome. Parental chromosomes were normal. The use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that this extra material derived from chromosome 16. High-resolution G-banding demonstrated a duplicated segment on the 16p arm, confirming our suspicion of a de novo tandem duplication; hence, the cytogenetic diagnosis was given as 46,XY,dir dup(16)(p11.2{r_arrow}p12). 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  6. Switching to carbon-free production processes: Implications for carbon leakage and border carbon adjustment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate policy under partial global compliance raises concerns regarding carbon leakage. While border carbon adjustment (BCA) measures are a potential remedy, they have also been criticised on various grounds. This paper therefore investigates whether a policy fostering the switch to carbon-free technologies can substitute for BCAs. A reason for the effectiveness of a targeted technology policy is that major leakage prone sectors (such as iron and steel), have two main sources of carbon emissions, combustion of fossil fuels and industrial processes. While combustion emissions can be reduced relatively easy by increasing energy efficiency, reducing process emissions requires a switch to low-carbon production processes, e.g. in steel production by deploying electrolysis based on large-scale solar electricity. We show by means of a multi-regional computable general equilibrium analysis that such a switch in steel production technology can eliminate a significant fraction of carbon leakage and also increase sectoral output and welfare. Since the necessary technologies are not available at large scale yet (however, are likely to be by 2020), a transitional BCA scheme may be a crucial supportive instrument to foster such technology switches. Yet, in the long run BCA should be phased out to preserve the incentive for carbon-free innovation. - Highlights: • A carbon-free technology switch in iron production considerably reduces total leakage. • Border carbon adjustment (BCA) may impede domestic industrial decarbonisation. • A targeted technology policy is superior to BCA in fostering low-carbon investments. • But implemented as a transitory instrument, BCA reinforces technology policy

  7. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Satish M Manocha

    2003-02-01

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor adsorption capacities. On activation, these exhibit increased adsorption volumes of 0.5–0.8 cm3 /gm and surface areas of 700–1800 m2 /gm depending on activation conditions, whether physical or chemical. Former carbons possess mixed pore size distribution while chemically activated carbons predominantly possess micropores. Thus, these carbons can be used for adsorption of wide distributions of molecules from gas to liquid. The molecular adsorption within the pores is due to single layer or multilayer molecule deposition at the pore walls and hence results in different types of adsorption isotherm. On the other hand, activated carbon fibres with controlled microporous structure and surface area in the range of 2500 m2 /gm can be developed by controlled pyrolysis and physical activation of amorphous carbon fibres. Active carbon fibres with unmatchable pore structure and surface characteristics are present and futuristic porous materials for a number of applications from pollution control to energy storage.

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  9. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  10. The economic implications of carbon cycle uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of uncertainty in the carbon cycle for the cost of stabilizing carbon dioxideconcentrations. Using a state of the art integrated assessment model, we find that uncertainty in our understanding of thecarbon cycle has significant implications for the costs of a climate stabilization policy, with cost differences denominatedin trillions of dollars. Uncertainty in the carbon cycle is equivalent to a change in concentration target of up to 100 ppmv.The impact o...

  11. Total Syntheses of a 16a'-Homoleurosidine and a 16a'-Homovinblastine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Martin E. Kuehne

    2004-01-01

    Vinblastine has been used in clinic as an anti-cancer agent. Due to its high cytotoxity, generation of vinblastine congeners as safe anti-cancer agents is always the interesting topic in medicinal chemistry. In the previous synthesis of vinblastine, it has been found that a higher energy conformation of vinblastine lacking cytotoxity and inhibition against tubulin polymerization, can be converted to its lower energy natural conformation on heating to 110 ℃. The high temperature (110 ℃) other than a physiological temperature required for the conformational inversion excludes the possibility of using the higher energy conformational isomer as a potential pro-drug for thermal activation. In the continuing of searching for thermal activated anti-cancer pro-drug, we re-designed and synthesized new vinblastine congeners with the enlarged azonine ring by inserting one carbon atom at the C-16 position of azonine ring in order to decrease the energy barrier for the conformational inversion.In this paper, we wish to report the total syntheses of 16a'-homoleurosidine and 16a'-homovinblastine, the azonine ring expanded compounds of vinblastine and leurosidine respectively. The synthesis of 16a'-homoleurosidine was achieved through enatioselective generation of a tetracyclic intermediate by a Diels-Alder reaction, followed by ring expansion of the tetracyclic intermediate by regioselective rapture of a cyclopropane ring as key steps. The synthesis of 16a'-homovinblastine was achieved through stereoselective inversion of the tertiary hydroxyl group from R configuration to the S configuration in the tetracyclic intermediate. The 16a'-homoleurosidine was obtained dominantly in its high energy conformation at room temperature and neutral condition. On protonation, a 1:1 mixture of atropisomers of 16a'-homoleurosidine was found. In contrast to 16a'-homoleurosidine, the 16a'-homovinblastine existed in the form of two atropisomers in a 1:2.3 ratio at room temperature and neutral

  12. Role of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and its target genes in human lung adenocarcinoma cells after photon- versus carbon ion irradiation; Expression HIF-1-abhaengiger Gene in humanen Lungenadenokarzinom (A549)-Zellen und deren Regulation nach Photonen- und Schwerionenbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill, Verena Maria

    2013-11-26

    Exposed to hypoxia tumor cells are notably resistant to photon irradiation. The hypoxiainducible transcription factor 1α (HIF-1α) seems to play a fundamental role in this resistance, while its role after heavy-ion beam remains unknown. The intention of this study was to determine how A549-cells (non-small-cell lung carcinoma) react in different oxygenation states after irradiation with photons or heavy ions, particularly in regards to their expression of HIF-1 target genes. Resistance of hypoxic A549 cells after photon irradiation was documented by cellular and clonogenic survival. In contrast, cellular survival after heavy-ion irradiation in hypoxic cells was not elevated to normoxic cells. Among the oxygen dependent regulation of HIF-1 target genes, gene expression analyses showed an increased expression of GLUT-1, LDH-A, PDK-1 and VEGF after photon irradiation but not after heavy-ion irradiation after 48 hours in normoxic cells. As expected, CDKN1A as inhibitor of cell cycle progression showed higher expression after both radiation forms; interestingly CDKN1A was also in an oxygen dependent manner lightly upregulated. In western blot analyses we demonstrated a significant increase of HIF-1 and GLUT-1 caused by hypoxia, but only a tendency of increased protein level in hypoxia after photon irradiation and no changes after heavy-ion irradiation. Significantly higher protein level of secreted VEGF-A could be measured 72 hours after photon irradiation in normoxic cells by ELISA analyses. Controversially discussed, I could not detect an association between HIF-1 and SCF or Trx-1 in A549-cells in this study. Whereas Trx-1-expression was neither influenced by changed oxygen partial pressure nor irradiation, I could show increased SCF mRNA by quantitative Real Time-PCR and secreted protein level by ELISA after photon irradiation independent of oxygen state. In summary, this study showed that HIF-1 and its target genes (GLUT-1, LDHA; PDK, VEGF) and also SCF was

  13. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy: An Economic Model for Limiting Climate Change by Managing Anthropogenic Carbon Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-05-01

    carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. Second, given the wide spectrum of carbon affinities across jurisdictions worldwide, the economic model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not undermine or penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in lower carbon pricing jurisdictions. Thus, the economic model avoids a key shortcoming of cap-and-trade carbon pricing, and eliminates any incentive to shift carbon consumption to jurisdictions with lower carbon tolls. Third, the economic model is a comprehensive, efficient, and effective strategy that allows for the implementation of a carbon pricing structure without the complete, explicit agreement of carbon consumers worldwide.

  14. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included. (WHK)

  15. International Nuclear Target Development Society workshop 1983: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 11 of the 19 papers presented. Eight papers were previously included in the data base. Discussion group session papers on carbon stripper foils, problems in producing heavy-ion targets, and problems in producing general type targets are included

  16. Effective neutron targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the lack of a free neutron target, deuterium targets have been used extensively in studying the neutron structure. The unique spin structure of the 3He ground state wave function and the recent developments in laser technologies made polarized 3He targets widely used in many experiments from neutron electromagnetic form factor studies to nucleon spin structure function measurements at all major electron accelerator facilities. In this talk, the current status of the polarized 3He targets will be reviewed. The author will focus on neutron electromagnetic form factor studies using polarized 3He targets. The polarized nucleon spin structure function measurements using polarized 3He targets will also be discussed

  17. Molecular Targets for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular targeted radionuclide cancer therapy is becoming of increasing importance, especially for disseminated diseases. Systemic chemotherapies often lack selectivity while targeted radionuclide therapy has important advantages as the radioactive cytotoxic unit of the targeting vector is specifically directed to the cancer, sparing normal tissues. The principle strategy to improve cancer selectivity is to couple therapeutic agents to tumour-targeting vectors. In targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), the cytotoxic portion of the conjugates normally contains a therapeutic radiometal immobilised by a bifunctional chelator. The aim is therefore to use as ligand-targeted therapeutics vectors coupled to Auger-, alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. An advantage of using radiation instead of chemotherapeutics as the cytotoxic agent is the so called 'crossfire effect'. This allows sterilisation of tumour cells that are not directly targeted due to heterogeneity in target molecule expression or inhomogeneous vector delivery. However, before the targeting ligands can be selected, the target molecule on the tumour has to be selected. It should be uniquely expressed, or at least highly overexpressed, on or in the target cells relative to normal tissues. The target should be easily accessible for ligand delivery and should not be shed or down- regulated after ligand binding. An important property of a receptor (or antigen) is its potential to be internalized upon binding of the ligand. This provides an active uptake mechanism and allows the therapeutic agent to be trapped within the tumour cells. Molecular targets of current interest include: Receptors: G-protein coupled receptors are overexpressed on many major human tumours. The prototype of these receptors are somatostatin receptors which show very high density in neuroendocrine tumours, but there are many other most interesting receptors to be applied for TRT. The targeting ligands for these receptors are

  18. Ambition, policy and consistency. The ins and outs of 16% sustainable energy in 2020; Ambitie, beleid en consistentie. Het ABC van 16% Duurzame Energie in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaat, A.

    2013-01-15

    This memo outlines the options to realize the target of 16% sustainable energy for 2020 via production in the Netherlands [Dutch] De notitie verkent de oplossingen om via productie in Nederland de doelstelling voor duurzame energie te halen: 16% in 2020.

  19. Constraints on the structure of 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B using inversion techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Buldgen, G; Dupret, M A

    2015-01-01

    Constraining mixing processes and chemical composition is a central problem in stellar physics as their impact on stellar age determinations leads to biases in our studies of stellar evolution, galactic history and exoplanetary systems. In two previous papers, we showed how seismic inversion techniques could offer strong constraints on such processes by pointing out weaknesses in theoretical models. We now apply our technique to the solar analogues 16CygA and 16CygB, being amongst the best targets in the Kepler field to test the diagnostic potential of seismic inversions. The combination of various seismic indicators helps to provide more constrained and accurate fundamendal parameters for these stars. We use the latest seismic, spectroscopic and interferometric observational constraints in the litterature for this system to determine reference models independently for both stars. We carry out seismic inversions of the acoustic radius, the mean density and a core conditions indicator. We note that a degenerac...

  20. Calcium Carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before being swallowed; do not swallow them whole. Drink a full glass of water after taking either the regular or chewable tablets or capsules. Some liquid forms of calcium carbonate must be shaken well before use.Do not ...

  1. Carbon Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T. Lloyd Evans

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, the present state of knowledge of the carbon stars is discussed. Particular attention is given to issues of classification, evolution, variability, populations in our own and other galaxies, and circumstellar material.

  2. Folate Functionalized Mesoporous Carbon Nanospheres as Nanocarrier for Targetted Delivery and Controlled Release of Doxorubicin to HeLa Cells%叶酸功能化介孔碳纳米球负载阿霉素的细胞靶向传递及可控释放

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱杰; 廖蕾; 朱丽娜; 孔继烈; 刘宝红

    2013-01-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon is a kind of novel carrier for intracellular drug release. There are few reports on the use of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs) as the transmembrane deliverer in human cancer cells; on the other hand, the particle size of MCNs synthesized by hard templates is usually larger than 100 nm. It is accepted that the optimal size of a transmembrane delivery vehicle should be less than 100 nm in diameter and the surface should be hydrophilic to circumvent clearance by macrophages, to maximize circulation times and targeting ability. In this work, MCNs with a diameter of ca. 90 nm have been developed as a targeted drug delivery system of an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX). The small MCNs were synthesized using triblock copolymer Pluronic F127 as a template. The MCNs were first treated by acid to improve its dispersion property in an aqueous solution, and then modified by folic acid through EDC-NHS. The structure of the MCNs was well characterized by transmission electron microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, nitrogen adsorption/desorption and dynamic light scattering. pH-dependent drug release is successfully achieved due to the supramolecular π-π stacking between DOX and the carbonaceous structures. By effective passive and active targeting, MCNs can be readily internalized into HeLa cells, where the carried DOX can be efficiently released in the acidic microenvironment of the tumors for further therapy. The results from confocal laser scanning microscope and flow cytometry demonstrated that the cellular uptake efficiency of MCNs toward HeLa cells was increased through the functionalization with folic acid, and the folate modified MCNs show much higher endocytosis properties toward HeLa cells (folate receptor positive) than toward MCF-7 cells (folate receptor negative). The cytotoxicities toward HeLa cells were studied by MTT method, which indicated that the cytotoxicities of DOX loaded mesoporous carbon nanoparticles was also

  3. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements

  4. ISS Expedition 16 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 16 from 10/2007-04/2008. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and...

  5. Price level targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Shukayev, Malik; Ueberfeldt, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Various papers have suggested that Price-Level targeting is a welfare improving policy relative to Inflation targeting. From a practical standpoint, this raises an important yet unanswered question: What is the optimal price index to target? This paper derives the optimal price level targeting index defined over the eight main components of the Consumer Price Index. It finds that such an index places a heavier weight, relative to the expenditure weight, on sectors with slow price adjustments....

  6. Multilayer polymer microspot targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Last year the authors reported on the development of a seeded microspot x-ray diagnostic target. This target consisted of a 300-μm-diam, 2-μm-thick disk of silicon or sulfur-seeded hydrocarbon polymer nested tightly in a hole in a 2-μm-thick film of pure hydrocarbon polymer. This year they extended our work on the microspot target, fully encapsulating the microspot in what they call the multilayer polymer microspot target

  7. Target Price Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown) 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio). However, target price accuracy is positive...

  8. The Targeting of Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh Iyer; David Soberman; J. Miguel Villas-Boas

    2005-01-01

    An important question that firms face in advertising is developing effective media strategy. Major improvements in the quality of consumer information and the growth of targeted media vehicles allow firms to precisely target advertising to consumer segments within a market. This paper examines advertising strategy when competing firms can target advertising to different groups of consumers within a market. With targeted advertising, we find that firms advertise more to consumers who have a st...

  9. TARGET COSTING FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Dimi OFILEANU

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the concept of Target Costing. Based on the characteristics of Target Costing, identified in specialized literature, the article presents its main advantages and disadvantages. Also, a comparison is being made between Target Cost and Traditional Cost (in its traditional form, the cost represents an independent variable on the basis of which the sell price is established; and in the Target Cost form the cost represents a dependent variable which is determined on ...

  10. Genome-scale reconstruction and in silico analysis of the Ralstonia eutropha H16 for polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis, lithoautotrophic growth, and 2-methyl citric acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Tae

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ralstonia eutropha H16, found in both soil and water, is a Gram-negative lithoautotrophic bacterium that can utillize CO2 and H2 as its sources of carbon and energy in the absence of organic substrates. R. eutropha H16 can reach high cell densities either under lithoautotrophic or heterotrophic conditions, which makes it suitable for a number of biotechnological applications. It is the best known and most promising producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs from various carbon substrates and is an environmentally important bacterium that can degrade aromatic compounds. In order to make R. eutropha H16 a more efficient and robust biofactory, system-wide metabolic engineering to improve its metabolic performance is essential. Thus, it is necessary to analyze its metabolic characteristics systematically and optimize the entire metabolic network at systems level. Results We present the lithoautotrophic genome-scale metabolic model of R. eutropha H16 based on the annotated genome with biochemical and physiological information. The stoichiometic model, RehMBEL1391, is composed of 1391 reactions including 229 transport reactions and 1171 metabolites. Constraints-based flux analyses were performed to refine and validate the genome-scale metabolic model under environmental and genetic perturbations. First, the lithoautotrophic growth characteristics of R. eutropha H16 were investigated under varying feeding ratios of gas mixture. Second, the genome-scale metabolic model was used to design the strategies for the production of poly[R-(--3hydroxybutyrate] (PHB under different pH values and carbon/nitrogen source uptake ratios. It was also used to analyze the metabolic characteristics of R. eutropha when the phosphofructokinase gene was expressed. Finally, in silico gene knockout simulations were performed to identify targets for metabolic engineering essential for the production of 2-methylcitric acid in R. eutropha H16. Conclusion The

  11. Measurements of secondary neutrons producted from thick targets bombarded by heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, T.; Nakamura, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center; Nakao, N.; Shibata, T.; Uwamino, Y.; Nakanishi, N.; Fukumura, A.; Kumamoto, Y.

    1997-03-01

    We measured neutron angular and energy distributions from high energy heavy ions stopping in targets of carbon, aluminum, copper and lead at HIMAC. These spectra are much harder for the lighter target nucleus like carbon. This means that the momentum transfer in the forward direction from heavy ion beam to lighter nuclei is much higher than that to heavier nuclei. (author)

  12. An actionable climate target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geden, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    The Paris Agreement introduced three mitigation targets. In the future, the main focus should not be on temperature targets such as 2 or 1.5 °C, but on the target with the greatest potential to effectively guide policy: net zero emissions.

  13. Fixed-Target Electron Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tremendous amount of scientific insight has been garnered over the past half-century by using particle accelerators to study physical systems of sub-atomic dimensions. These giant instruments begin with particles at rest, then greatly increase their energy of motion, forming a narrow trajectory or beam of particles. In fixed-target accelerators, the particle beam impacts upon a stationary sample or target which contains or produces the sub-atomic system being studied. This is in distinction to colliders, where two beams are produced and are steered into each other so that their constituent particles can collide. The acceleration process always relies on the particle being accelerated having an electric charge; however, both the details of producing the beam and the classes of scientific investigations possible vary widely with the specific type of particle being accelerated. This article discusses fixed-target accelerators which produce beams of electrons, the lightest charged particle. As detailed in the report, the beam energy has a close connection with the size of the physical system studied. Here a useful unit of energy is a GeV, i.e., a giga electron-volt. (ne GeV, the energy an electron would have if accelerated through a billion volts, is equal to 1.6 x 10-10 joules.) To study systems on a distance scale much smaller than an atomic nucleus requires beam energies ranging from a few GeV up to hundreds of GeV and more

  14. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C_{16}: A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-05-13

    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-sp^{2} bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C_{16}. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C_{16} is comparable to solid fcc-C_{60} in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-sp^{2} carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C_{16} is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest. PMID:27232027

  15. Body-Centered Orthorhombic C16 : A Novel Topological Node-Line Semimetal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Weng, Hongming; Nie, Simin; Fang, Zhong; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    We identify by ab initio calculations a novel topological semimetal carbon phase in all-s p2 bonding networks with a 16-atom body-centered orthorhombic unit cell, termed bco-C16. Total-energy calculations show that bco-C16 is comparable to solid fcc-C60 in energetic stability, and phonon and molecular dynamics simulations confirm its dynamical stability. This all-s p2 carbon allotrope can be regarded as a three-dimensional modification of graphite, and its simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern matches well a previously unexplained diffraction peak in measured XRD spectra of detonation and chimney soot, indicating its presence in the specimen. Electronic band structure calculations reveal that bco-C16 is a topological node-line semimetal with a single nodal ring. These findings establish a novel carbon phase with intriguing structural and electronic properties of fundamental significance and practical interest.

  16. Climate change and the permafrost carbon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuur, E.A.G.; McGuire, Anthony; Schädel, C.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J.W.; Hayes, D.J.; Hugelius, G.; Koven, C.D.; Kuhry, P.; Lawrence, D.M.; Natali, S.M.; Olefeldt, David; Romanovsky, V.E.; Schaefer, K.; Turetsky, M.R.; Treat, C.C.; Vonk, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Large quantities of organic carbon are stored in frozen soils (permafrost) within Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. A warming climate can induce environmental changes that accelerate the microbial breakdown of organic carbon and the release of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane. This feedback can accelerate climate change, but the magnitude and timing of greenhouse gas emission from these regions and their impact on climate change remain uncertain. Here we find that current evidence suggests a gradual and prolonged release of greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate and present a research strategy with which to target poorly understood aspects of permafrost carbon dynamics.

  17. How costly are carbon offsets? A meta-analysis of carbon forest sinks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.; Eagle, A.J.; Manley, J.; Smolak, T.

    2004-01-01

    Carbon terrestrial sinks are seen as a low-cost alternative to fuel switching and reduced fossil fuel use for lowering atmospheric CO2. As a result of agreements reached at Bonn and Marrakech, carbon offsets have taken on much greater importance in meeting Kyoto targets for the first commitment peri

  18. Carbon sequestration in European croplands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pete; Falloon, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The Marrakech Accords allow biospheric carbon sinks and sources to be included in attempts to meet emission reduction targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Forest management, cropland management, grazing land management, and re-vegetation are allowable activities under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol. Soil carbon sinks (and sources) can, therefore, be included under these activities. Croplands are estimated to be the largest biospheric source of carbon lost to the atmosphere in Europe each year, but the cropland estimate is the most uncertain among all land-use types. It is estimated that European croplands (for Europe as far east as the Urals) lose 300 Tg (C) per year, with the mean figure for the European Union estimated to be 78 Tg (C) per year (with one SD=37). National estimates for EU countries are of a similar order of magnitude on a per-area basis. There is significant potential within Europe to decrease the flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cropland, and for cropland management to sequester soil carbon, relative to the amount of carbon stored in cropland soils at present. The biological potential for carbon storage in European (EU 15) cropland is of the order of 90-120 Tg (C) per year, with a range of options available that include reduced and zero tillage, set-aside, perennial crops, deep rooting crops, more efficient use of organic amendments (animal manure, sewage sludge, cereal straw, compost), improved rotations, irrigation, bioenergy crops, extensification, organic farming, and conversion of arable land to grassland or woodland. The sequestration potential, considering only constraints on land use, amounts of raw materials and available land, is up to 45 Tg (C) per year. The realistic potential and the conservative achievable potentials may be considerably lower than the biological potential because of socioeconomic and other constraints, with a realistically achievable potential estimated to be about 20% of the

  19. Targeted cancer therapies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Neal Rosen; Carlos Arteaga

    2011-01-01

    With unprecedented understanding of molecular events underlying human cancer in this genomic era, a large number of drugs specifically targeting hypothesized oncogenic drivers to which tumors are potentially addicted to have been developed and continue to be developed. These targeted cancer therapies are being actively tested in clinical trials with mixed successes. This editorial provides an overview on successful targeted cancer drugs on the market and those drugs that are in late clinical development stages. Importantly, the article lays out main challenges in developing molecular targeted therapies and potential path forward to overcome these challenges, as well as opportunities for China in this new era of targeted agents. The editorial serves as an introduction to the Targeted Cancer Therapies serias that will review in depth of major pathways and drugs targeting these pathways to be published in the coming issues of the Chinese Journal of Cancer.

  20. Polarized targets and beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the experimental situation of the single-pion photoproduction and the photodisintegration of the deuteron is briefly discussed. Then a description of the Bonn polarization facilities is given. The point of main effort is put on the polarized target which plays a vital role in the program. A facility for photon induced double polarization experiments at ELSA will be presented in section 4. Properties of a tensor polarized deuteron target are discussed in section 5. The development in the field of polarized targets, especially on new target materials, enables a new generation of polarized target experiments with (polarized) electrons. Some comments on the use of a polarized target in combination with electron beams will be discussed in section 6. Electron deuteron scattering from a tensor polarized deuteron target is considered and compared with other experimental possibilities. (orig./HSI)

  1. Soil carbon sequestration in mixed farming landscapes: Insights from the Lachlan soil carbon project

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Leonie J.; Crean, Jason; Badgery, Warwick; Murphy, Brian; Rawson, Andrew; Capon, Timothy; Reeson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The potential for soil carbon sequestration to play a significant role in meeting Australia’s greenhouse reduction targets has attracted widespread interest. Despite this interest, the economic scope for soil carbon sequestration remains poorly understood and the practical approaches that could be used to capture any opportunities have not been explored. In this paper we present preliminary results on a pilot soil carbon sequestration variable price, reverse tender auction in the mixed (wheat...

  2. Distributions of secondary particles in proton and carbon-ion therapy: a comparison between GATE/Geant4 and FLUKA Monte Carlo codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations play a crucial role for in-vivo treatment monitoring based on PET and prompt gamma imaging in proton and carbon-ion therapies. The accuracy of the nuclear fragmentation models implemented in these codes might affect the quality of the treatment verification. In this paper, we investigate the nuclear models implemented in GATE/Geant4 and FLUKA by comparing the angular and energy distributions of secondary particles exiting a homogeneous target of PMMA. Comparison results were restricted to fragmentation of 16O and 12C. Despite the very simple target and set-up, substantial discrepancies were observed between the two codes. For instance, the number of high energy (>1 MeV) prompt gammas exiting the target was about twice as large with GATE/Geant4 than with FLUKA both for proton and carbon ion beams. Such differences were not observed for the predicted annihilation photon production yields, for which ratios of 1.09 and 1.20 were obtained between GATE and FLUKA for the proton beam and the carbon ion beam, respectively. For neutrons and protons, discrepancies from 14% (exiting protons–carbon ion beam) to 57% (exiting neutrons–proton beam) have been identified in production yields as well as in the energy spectra for neutrons. (paper)

  3. Monolithic active-passive 16 × 16 optoelectronic switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, R; Albores-Mejia, A; Williams, K A

    2012-11-15

    We present what is to our knowledge the first active-passive monolithically integrated 16×16 switch. The active InP/InGaAsP elements provide semiconductor optical amplifier gates in a multistage rearrangeably nonblocking switch design. Thirty-two representative connections, including the shortest, longest, and comprehensive range of intermediate paths have been assessed across the switch circuit. The 10 Gb/s signal routing is demonstrated with an optical signal-to-noise ratio up to 28.3 dB/0.1 nm and a signal extinction ratio exceeding 50 dB. PMID:23164873

  4. Multicentury changes in ocean and land contributions to the climate-carbon feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, J. T.; Lindsay, K.; Munoz, E.; Fu, W.; Moore, J. K.; Hoffman, F. M.; Mahowald, N. M.; Doney, S. C.

    2015-06-01

    Improved constraints on carbon cycle responses to climate change are needed to inform mitigation policy, yet our understanding of how these responses may evolve after 2100 remains highly uncertain. Using the Community Earth System Model (v1.0), we quantified climate-carbon feedbacks from 1850 to 2300 for the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 and its extension. In three simulations, land and ocean biogeochemical processes experienced the same trajectory of increasing atmospheric CO2. Each simulation had a different degree of radiative coupling for CO2 and other greenhouse gases and aerosols, enabling diagnosis of feedbacks. In a fully coupled simulation, global mean surface air temperature increased by 9.3 K from 1850 to 2300, with 4.4 K of this warming occurring after 2100. Excluding CO2, warming from other greenhouse gases and aerosols was 1.6 K by 2300, near a 2 K target needed to avoid dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Ocean contributions to the climate-carbon feedback increased considerably over time and exceeded contributions from land after 2100. The sensitivity of ocean carbon to climate change was found to be proportional to changes in ocean heat content, as a consequence of this heat modifying transport pathways for anthropogenic CO2 inflow and solubility of dissolved inorganic carbon. By 2300, climate change reduced cumulative ocean uptake by 330 Pg C, from 1410 Pg C to 1080 Pg C. Land fluxes similarly diverged over time, with climate change reducing stocks by 232 Pg C. Regional influence of climate change on carbon stocks was largest in the North Atlantic Ocean and tropical forests of South America. Our analysis suggests that after 2100, oceans may become as important as terrestrial ecosystems in regulating the magnitude of the climate-carbon feedback.

  5. The carbon is down the hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Each year, about 7.1 billions of tons of carbon are released by human activities and industries, from which 5.5 come from the combustion of fossil fuels and 1.6 is a direct consequence of deforestation. However, less than half of this carbon is kept by the atmosphere in its CO2 form and contributes to the anthropic greenhouse effect. The rest is necessarily absorbed by carbon sinks, some of them located in the oceans and responsible for the disappearing of about 2 billions of tons of carbon, and the others probably located in the continental biosphere and in particular in the vegetal biomass and the organic matter of soils. This additional storage is probably located in the northern hemisphere between 30 deg. N and 60 deg. N. The distinction between the continental and oceanic sinks is made according to the concentration ratios of carbon 12 and carbon 13 isotopes. (J.S.)

  6. Influence of the target deformation in incomplete fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By bombarding spherical (124Sn and 144Sm) and deformed (154Sm and 181Ta) targets with different projectiles (16O, 19F, 20Ne) we have shown the influence of the target deformation on the entrance channel angular momenta Isub(i) of incomplete fusion reactions where direct α particles are emitted. We have shown that lsub(i)/lsub(cr) (lsub(cr) being the limiting value for complete fusion) is higher for a deformed target than for a spherical one

  7. Carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  8. Examining the Structure of the Oxygen-16 Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ethan; Aprahamian, Ani; Tan, Wanpeng; Gyurjinyan, Armen; Frentz, Bryce; Guerin, Benjamin

    2015-10-01

    The intent of this work is to explore the structure of the nucleus of Oxygen-16 (16O), which consists of four alpha particles, each with two protons and two neutrons. 16O is generated via the fusion of helium and carbon during stellar nucleosynthesis. This reaction is crucial to the existence of life. By measuring the structure of the 16O nucleus, we hope to gain a better understanding of stellar evolution and processes. The theoretical state of most interest is a linear arrangement of the four alpha particles, proposed by Chevallier et al. in their 1967 paper to explain the surprisingly large moment of inertia of the nucleus they measured. The existence of this state can be most accurately observed through an analysis of the energy spectra of the decay products. This method has previously been implemented at Notre Dame by Freer et al. when a similar structure, that of Carbon-12 (12C), was analyzed, and a previously unknown state was observed. The data gathered is analyzed using the method of angular correlation, which makes use of the angles and energies of decay products relative to the center of mass frame to reconstruct possible spins of the initial state. Analysis is currently underway and results will be presented at CEU 2015. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1419765.

  9. Computational design of high efficiency release targets for use at ISOL facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Y

    1999-01-01

    This report describes efforts made at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design high-efficiency-release targets that simultaneously incorporate the short diffusion lengths, high permeabilities, controllable temperatures, and heat-removal properties required for the generation of useful radioactive ion beam (RIB) intensities for nuclear physics and astrophysics research using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) technique. Short diffusion lengths are achieved either by using thin fibrous target materials or by coating thin layers of selected target material onto low-density carbon fibers such as reticulated-vitreous-carbon fiber (RVCF) or carbon-bonded-carbon fiber (CBCF) to form highly permeable composite target matrices. Computational studies that simulate the generation and removal of primary beam deposited heat from target materials have been conducted to optimize the design of target/heat-sink systems for generating RIBs. The results derived from diffusion release-rate simulation studies for selected t...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.16 - Requirements for reflectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1512.16 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... sidewalls or, alternatively, reflectors mounted on the spokes of each wheel, or, for non-caliper rim brake....) of the inside of the rim. Side reflective devices shall be visible on each side of the wheel....

  11. Spectral Classifications of Gaia16akb and PS16bkm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, A. S.; Steele, I. A.

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a spectroscopic observation of transient Gaia16akb at 2016-04-05T21:00:09 UT. This transient was observed by the Gaia Photometric Science survey at 2016-04-03T13:41:44 UT and position RA=09:18:58.5 DEC=35:54:41.3.

  12. Irradiation-induced structure and property changes in tokamak plasma-facing, carbon-carbon composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-carbon composites are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma-facing components because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce large neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from two irradiation experiments are reported and discussed here. Carbon-carbon composite materials were irradiated in target capsules in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 4.7 displacements per atom (dpa) at 600 degree C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included uni-directional, two-directional, and three-directional carbon-carbon composites. Dimensional changes are reported for the composite materials and are related to single crystal dimensional changes through fiber and composite structural models. Moreover, the irradiation-induced dimensional changes are reported and discussed in terms of their architecture, fiber type, and graphitization temperature. The effect of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of two three-directional, carbon-carbon composites is reported and the recovery of thermal conductivity due to thermal annealing is discussed

  13. GHG emission reductions and costs to achieve Kyoto target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Emission projection and marginal abatement cost curves (MACs) are the central components of any assessment of future carbonmarket, such as CDM (clean development mechanism) potentials, carbon quota price etc. However, they are products of very complex,dynamic systems driven by forces like population growth, economic development, resource endowments, technology progress and so on. Themodeling approaches for emission projection and MACs evaluation were summarized, and some major models and their results were compared.Accordingly, reduction and cost requirements to achieve the Kyoto target were estimated. It is concluded that Annex I Parties' total reductionrequirements range from 503-1304 MtC with USA participation and decrease significantly to 140-612 MtC after USA' s withdrawal. Totalcosts vary from 21-77 BUSD with USA and from 5-36 BUSD without USA if only domestic reduction actions are taken. The costs wouldsharply reduce while considering the three flexible mechanisms defined in the Kyoto Protocol with domestic actions' share in the all mitigationstrategies drops to only 0-16%.

  14. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over a...... corporations construing themselves as able and suitable to manage their emissions, and, additionally, given that the construction of carbon emissions has performative consequences, the underlying practices need to be declassified, i.e. opened for public scrutiny. Hence the paper concludes by arguing for a...

  15. Geologic setting of Apollo 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, C. A.; Muehlberger, W. R.; Ulrich, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Prior to the Apollo 16 mission, the materials of the Cayley Plains and the Descartes Mountains were thought to be mostly of volcanic origin. Rock and soil samples from these regions strongly suggest, however, that they may be products of multiring basin forming impacts, although minor local volcanism is not precluded. The smooth planar surfaces may have been formed initially by Imbrium ejecta which flowed into topographic lows at the distal margins of the lineated Fra Mauro ejecta. It is emphasized, however, that the rocks and soils returned from the Apollo 16 site cannot necessarily be considered representative of the lunar crust in the Descartes region from which they were collected.

  16. Towards Sustainable Lifestyles. A Variety of Lifestyles for a Post-carbon Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 a programme 'Re-thinking Society in a Post-carbon Society'- steered jointly by the Foresight Department of the French Ecology Ministry and the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), was launched in France. It is still ongoing and aims to produce a final report in 2013. The idea of a transition towards a 'post- carbon' society includes four main objectives: reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 to one quarter of what they were in 1990; near-autonomy with regard to carbon energies (petrol, gas, coal); an adequate capacity to adapt to climate change and, lastly, greater attention to situations of 'energy precariousness'. As part of the dossier Futuribles is devoting to this programme this month, Andreas Huber, Sebastien Girard and Pierre Le Marre lay out in this article the results of the studies they have carried out on 'sustainable urban milieus'. After a presentation of the notion of 'milieu' (based here on a segmentation using the Socio-milieusR method) and of the typology employed (nine main social milieus, three emergent milieus and 16 contrasting profiles), the authors show the extent to which individuals' carbon foot - prints vary, depending upon lifestyles, and what a determining effect these lifestyles have in the fields of housing and transport. They then specify the various factors influencing behaviour in the direction of sustain - able consumption (or not) and the different types of strategies of intervention that are likely to modify those behaviours. Lastly, they detail two targeted strategies, one aimed at the 'precarious seniors' milieu and the other at the 'eco-elite' milieu. Despite certain imperfections that remain to be sorted out in the study of sustainable urban milieus, these studies open up new perspectives for the development of sociologically targeted policies for a post-carbon transition. (authors)

  17. The bone-sparing effects of estrogen and WNT16 are independent of each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Wu, Jianyao; Henning, Petra; Gustafsson, Karin L; Sjögren, Klara; Windahl, Sara H; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Börjesson, Anna E; Lagerquist, Marie K; Lerner, Ulf H; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Poutanen, Matti; Ohlsson, Claes

    2015-12-01

    Wingless-type MMTV integration site family (WNT)16 is a key regulator of bone mass with high expression in cortical bone, and Wnt16(-/-) mice have reduced cortical bone mass. As Wnt16 expression is enhanced by estradiol treatment, we hypothesized that the bone-sparing effect of estrogen in females is WNT16-dependent. This hypothesis was tested in mechanistic studies using two genetically modified mouse models with either constantly high osteoblastic Wnt16 expression or no Wnt16 expression. We developed a mouse model with osteoblast-specific Wnt16 overexpression (Obl-Wnt16). These mice had several-fold elevated Wnt16 expression in both trabecular and cortical bone compared with wild type (WT) mice. Obl-Wnt16 mice displayed increased total body bone mineral density (BMD), surprisingly caused mainly by a substantial increase in trabecular bone mass, resulting in improved bone strength of vertebrae L3. Ovariectomy (ovx) reduced the total body BMD and the trabecular bone mass to the same degree in Obl-Wnt16 mice and WT mice, suggesting that the bone-sparing effect of estrogen is WNT16-independent. However, these bone parameters were similar in ovx Obl-Wnt16 mice and sham operated WT mice. The role of WNT16 for the bone-sparing effect of estrogen was also evaluated in Wnt16(-/-) mice. Treatment with estradiol increased the trabecular and cortical bone mass to a similar extent in both Wnt16(-/-) and WT mice. In conclusion, the bone-sparing effects of estrogen and WNT16 are independent of each other. Furthermore, loss of endogenous WNT16 results specifically in cortical bone loss, whereas overexpression of WNT16 surprisingly increases mainly trabecular bone mass. WNT16-targeted therapies might be useful for treatment of postmenopausal trabecular bone loss. PMID:26627248

  18. Molecular Ultrasound Imaging of Early Vascular Response in Prostate Tumors Irradiated with Carbon Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Palmowski

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Individualized treatments with combination of radiotherapy and targeted drugs require knowledge about the behavior of molecular targets after irradiation. Angiogenic marker expression has been studied after conventional radiotherapy, but little is known about marker response to charged particles. For the very first time, we used molecular ultrasound imaging to intraindividually track changes in angiogenic marker expression after carbon ion irradiation in experimental tumors. Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and of αvβ3-integrin in subcutaneous AT-1 prostate cancers in rats treated with carbon ions (16 Gy was studied using molecular ultrasound and immunohistochemistry. For this purpose, cyanoacrylate microbubbles were synthesized and linked to specific ligands. The accumulation of targeted microbubbles in tumors was quantified before and 36 hours after irradiation. In addition, tumor vascularization was analyzed using volumetric Doppler ultrasound. In tumors, the accumulation of targeted microbubbles was significantly higher than in nonspecific ones and could be inhibited competitively. Before irradiation, no difference in binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific or ICAM-1-specific microbubbles was observed in treated and untreated animals. After irradiation, however, treated animals showed a significantly higher binding of αvβ3-integrin-specific microbubbles and an enhanced binding of ICAM-1-specific microbubbles than untreated controls. In both groups, a decrease in vascularization occurred during tumor growth, but no significant difference was observed between irradiated and nonirradiated tumors. In conclusion, carbon ion irradiation upregulates ICAM-1 and αvβ3-integrin expression in tumor neovasculature. Molecular ultrasound can indicate the regulation of these markers and thus may help to identify the optimal drugs and time points in individualized therapy regimens.

  19. Melanoma-associated cancer-testis antigen 16 (CT16 regulates the expression of apoptotic and antiapoptotic genes and promotes cell survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Nylund

    Full Text Available Cancer-testis (CT antigens are predominantly expressed in testis or placenta, but absent in most adult tissues. During malignant transformation CT genes are often activated. CT antigen 16 (CT16, PAGE5 is frequently expressed in advanced melanoma but its biological function has been unknown. To examine the role of CT16 in cell survival we knocked it down in A2058 melanoma cells using specific siRNAs and exposed the cells to cancer drug cisplatin known to induce apoptosis. As a result, cell survival was markedly decreased. To study the effects of CT16 on cell survival in more detail, the cellular gene expression profiles were investigated after CT16 silencing in CT16 positive A2058 melanoma cells, as well as after CT16 overexpression in CT16 negative WM-266-4 melanoma cells. Among the 11 genes both upregulated by CT16 silencing and downregulated by CT16 overexpression or vice versa, 4 genes were potentially apoptotic or antiapoptotic genes. CT16 was recognized as a positive regulator of antiapoptotic metallothionein 2A and interleukin 8 genes, whereas it inhibited the expression of apoptosis inducing dickkopf 1 (DKK1 gene. In addition CT16 enhanced the expression of fatty acid binding protein 7, a known promoter of melanoma progression. The effect of CT16 on DKK1 expression was p53 independent. Furthermore, CT16 did not regulate apoptotic genes via DNA methylation. In twenty melanoma metastasis tissue samples average DKK1 mRNA level was shown to be significantly (p<0.05 lower in high CT16 expressing tumors (n = 3 when compared to the tumors with low CT16 expression (n = 17. Thus, our results indicate that CT16 promotes the survival of melanoma cells and is therefore a potential target for future drug development.

  20. Synergies and trade-offs in achieving global biodiversity targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Moreno; Butchart, Stuart H M; Visconti, Piero; Buchanan, Graeme M; Ficetola, Gentile F; Rondinini, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    After their failure to achieve a significant reduction in the global rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, world governments adopted 20 new ambitious Aichi biodiversity targets to be met by 2020. Efforts to achieve one particular target can contribute to achieving others, but different targets may sometimes require conflicting solutions. Consequently, lack of strategic thinking might result, once again, in a failure to achieve global commitments to biodiversity conservation. We illustrate this dilemma by focusing on Aichi Target 11. This target requires an expansion of terrestrial protected area coverage, which could also contribute to reducing the loss of natural habitats (Target 5), reducing human-induced species decline and extinction (Target 12), and maintaining global carbon stocks (Target 15). We considered the potential impact of expanding protected areas to mitigate global deforestation and the consequences for the distribution of suitable habitat for >10,000 species of forest vertebrates (amphibians, birds, and mammals). We first identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on remaining forests and then identified places where deforestation might have the highest impact on forest vertebrates (considering aggregate suitable habitat for species). Expanding protected areas toward locations with the highest deforestation rates (Target 5) or the highest potential loss of aggregate species' suitable habitat (Target 12) resulted in partially different protected area network configurations (overlapping with each other by about 73%). Moreover, the latter approach contributed to safeguarding about 30% more global carbon stocks than the former. Further investigation of synergies and trade-offs between targets would shed light on these and other complex interactions, such as the interaction between reducing overexploitation of natural resources (Targets 6, 7), controlling invasive alien species (Target 9), and preventing extinctions of native

  1. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    CERN Document Server

    Martel, P; McWilliams, R; Lawrence, D; Miskimen, R; Ahmidouch, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Asratyan, A; Baker, K; Benton, L; Bernstein, A; Cole, P; Collins, P; Dale, D; Danagulyan, S; Davidenko, G; Demirchyan, R; Deur, A; Dolgolenko, A; Dzyubenko, G; Evdokimov, A; Feng, J; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Gasparian, A; Glamazdin, O; Goryachev, V; Gyurjyan, V; Hardy, K; Ito, M; Khandaker, M; Kingsberry, P; Kolarkar, A; Konchatnyi, M; Korchin, O; Korsch, W; Kowalski, S; Kubantsev, M; Kubarovski, V; Larin, I; Matveev, V; McNulty, D; Milbrath, B; Minehart, R; Mochalov, V; Mtingwa, S; Nakagawa, I; Overby, S; Pasyuk, E; Payen, M; Pedroni, R; Prok, Y; Ritchie, B; Salgado, C; Sitnikov, A; Sober, D; Stephens, W; Teymurazyan, A; Underwood, J; Vasilev, A; Verebryusov, V; Vishnyakov, V; Wood, M

    2008-01-01

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  2. Nuclear Targets for a Precision Measurement of the Neutral Pion Radiative Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Philippe; Clinton, Eric; McWilliams, R.; Lawrence, Dave; Miskimen, Rory; Ahmidouch, Abdellah; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Asaturyan, Arshak; Baker, O.; Benton, LaRay; Bernstein, Aron; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Dale, Daniel; Danagoulian, Samuel; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, Raphael; Deur, Alexandre; DOLGOLENKO, A.; Dzyubenko, Georgiy; Evdokimov, Anatoly; Feng, JIng; Gabrielyan, Marianna; Gan, Liping; Gasparian, Ashot; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hardy, K.; Ito, Mark; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kingsberry, Paul; Kolarkar, Ameya; Konchatnyi, Mykhailo; Korchin, O.; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kowalski, Stanley; Kubantsev, Mikhail; Kubarovsky, Valery; LARIN, Ilya; MATVEEV, V.; McNulty, Dustin; Milbrath, Brian; Minehart, Ralph; Mochalov, Vasiliy; Mtingwa, Sekazi; Nakagawa, Itaru; Overby, Steven; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Payen, Marvin; Pedroni, Ronald; Prok, Yelena; Ritchie, Barry; Salgado, Carlos; Sitnikov, Anatoly; Sober, Daniel; Stephens, W.; Teymurazyan, Aram; Underwood, Jarreas; VASILIEV, A.; VEREBRYUSOV, V.; Vishnyakov, Vladimir; Wood, Michael

    2009-12-01

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, density * T, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and 208Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +/- 0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an x-ray attenuation technique is +/- 0.43%.

  3. Nuclear targets for a precision measurement of the neutral pion radiative width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, P.; Clinton, E.; McWilliams, R.; Lawrence, D. [University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States); Miskimen, R., E-mail: miskimen@physics.umass.ed [University of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States); Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P. [North Carolina A and T State University (United States); Asratyan, A. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Baker, K. [Hampton University (United States); Benton, L. [North Carolina A and T State University (United States); Bernstein, A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Cole, P. [Idaho State University (United States); Collins, P. [Arizona State University (United States); Dale, D. [Idaho State University (United States); Danagoulian, S. [North Carolina A and T State University (United States); Davidenko, G. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Demirchyan, R. [North Carolina A and T State University (United States); Deur, A. [Jefferson Lab (United States); Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-21

    A technique is presented for precision measurements of the area densities, rhoT, of approximately 5% radiation length carbon and {sup 208}Pb targets used in an experiment at Jefferson Laboratory to measure the neutral pion radiative width. The precision obtained in the area density for the carbon target is +-0.050%, and that obtained for the lead target through an X-ray attenuation technique is +-0.43%.

  4. Studies of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneba, Gerard T.

    2005-01-01

    The fellowship experience for this summer for 2004 pertains to carbon nanotube coatings for various space-related applications. They involve the following projects: (a) EMI protection films from HiPco-polymers, and (b) Thermal protection nanosilica materials. EMI protection films are targeted to be eventually applied onto casings of laptop computers. These coatings are composites of electrically-conductive SWNTs and compatible polymers. The substrate polymer will be polycarbonate, since computer housings are typically made of carbon composites of this type of polymer. A new experimental copolymer was used last year to generate electrically-conductive and thermal films with HiPco at 50/50 wt/wt composition. This will be one of the possible formulations. Reference films will be base polycarbonate and neat HiPco onto polycarbonate films. Other coating materials that will be tried will be based on HiPco composites with commercial enamels (polyurethane, acrylic, polyester), which could be compatible with the polycarbonate substrate. Nanosilica fibers are planned for possible use as thermal protection tiles on the shuttle orbiter. Right now, microscale silica is used. Going to the nanoscale will increase the surface-volume-per-unit-area of radiative heat dissipation. Nanoscale carbon fibers/nanotubes can be used as templates for the generation of nanosilica. A sol-gel operation is employed for this purpose.

  5. GWAS and drug targets

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chen; Moult, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of links between genome variation and complex disease. Among other benefits, it is expected that these insights will lead to new therapeutic strategies, particularly the identification of new drug targets. In this paper, we evaluate the power of GWAS studies to find drug targets by examining how many existing drug targets have been directly 'rediscovered' by this technique, and the extent to which GWAS results may ...

  6. Deuterium high pressure target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system

  7. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  8. Deuterium High Pressure Target

    CERN Document Server

    Perevozchikov, V; Vinogradov, Yu I; Vikharev, M D; Ganchuk, N S; Golubkov, A N; Grishenchkin, S K; Demin, A M; Demin, D L; Zinov, V G; Kononenko, A A; Lobanov, V N; Malkov, I L; Yukhimchuk, S A

    2001-01-01

    The design of the deuterium high-pressure target is presented. The target having volume of 76 cm^3 serves to provide the experimental research of muon catalyzed fusion reactions in ultra-pure deuterium in the temperature range 80-800 K under pressures of up to 150 MPa. The operation of the main systems of the target is described: generation and purification of deuterium gas, refrigeration, heating, evacuation, automated control system and data collection system.

  9. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  10. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  11. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  12. The N=16 subshell closure; La fermeture de sous-couche N=16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obertelli, A

    2005-09-01

    The sequence of magic numbers for stable nuclei is now well understood. However the magnitude of shell gap may evolve from stability to drip line. Several observables show that N = 16 neutron-rich isotones present a higher stability compared to their neighbors on the N-Z chart. The spectroscopy of the levels of Ne{sup 27}, involving sd and fp shells, has allowed us to study the evolution of the nuclear shells responsible for the structure changes in N 16 isotones. In this framework we have studied the neutron transfer reaction Ne{sup 26}(d,p)Ne{sup 27} by inverted kinematics at 9,7 MeV/u. A cryogenic D{sub 2} target (17 mg.cm{sup -2}) has been used. The use of the magnetic spectrometer Vamos and that of the Exogam photon detector in coincidence operating mode has allowed us to achieve the spectroscopy of Ne{sup 27}. The results show a reduction in the gap between sd and fp shells for N = 17 isotones as we go from stability toward the neutron drip line. We have also performed a theoretical study in mean-field theory and beyond it through configuration mixing so that we can see the evolution of the isospin of the N = 16 subshell's closure. We have used a HFB (Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov) with the finite range D1S effective interaction. (A.C.)

  13. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  14. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  15. Bayesian multiple target tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Streit, Roy L

    2013-01-01

    This second edition has undergone substantial revision from the 1999 first edition, recognizing that a lot has changed in the multiple target tracking field. One of the most dramatic changes is in the widespread use of particle filters to implement nonlinear, non-Gaussian Bayesian trackers. This book views multiple target tracking as a Bayesian inference problem. Within this framework it develops the theory of single target tracking, multiple target tracking, and likelihood ratio detection and tracking. In addition to providing a detailed description of a basic particle filter that implements

  16. The Target Visitation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Hildenbrandt, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis considers the target visitation problem, a combinatorial optimization problem, which merges the classical traveling salesman problem with the linear ordering problem. In more detail, we are looking for a tour which visits a set of targets and which is optimal with respect to two different aspects: On the one hand, we have given a travel cost from each target to every other. On the other hand, we have preference values which tell us how much we would like to visit one target before ...

  17. Carbon Management In the Post-Cap-and-Trade Carbon Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract outlines an economic model that integrates carbon externalities seamlessly into the national and international economies. The model incorporates a broad carbon metric used to value all carbon in the biosphere, as well as all transnational commerce. The model minimizes the cost associated with carbon management, and allows for the variation in carbon avidity between jurisdictions. When implemented over time, the model reduces the deadweight loss while minimizing social cost, thus maximizing the marginal social benefit commonly associated with Pigouvian taxes. Once implemented, the model provides a comprehensive economic construct for governments, industry and consumers to efficiently weigh the cost of carbon, and effectively participate in helping to reduce their direct and indirect use of carbon, while allowing individual jurisdictions to decide their own carbon value, without the need for explicit, express agreement of all countries. The model uses no credits, requires no caps, and matches climate changing behavior to costs. The steps to implement the model for a particular jurisdiction are: 1) Define the Carbon Metric to value changes in Carbon Quality. 2) Apply the Carbon Metric to assess the Carbon Toll a) for all changes in Carbon Quality and b) for imports and exports. This economic model has 3 clear advantages. 1) The carbon pricing and cost scheme use existing and generally accepted accounting methodologies to ensure the veracity and verifiability of carbon management efforts with minimal effort and expense using standard auditing protocols. Implementing this economic model will not require any special training, tools, or systems for any entity to achieve their minimum carbon target goals within their jurisdictional framework. 2) Given the spectrum of carbon affinities worldwide, the model recognizes and provides for flexible carbon pricing regimes, but does not penalize domestic carbon-consuming producers subject to imports from exporters in

  18. Asteroseismic inference on rotation, gyrochronology and planetary system dynamics of 16 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Farr, W. M.;

    2014-01-01

    The solar analogs 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B are excellent asteroseismic targets in the \\Kepler field of view and together with a red dwarf and a Jovian planet form an interesting system. For these more evolved Sun-like stars we cannot detect surface rotation with the current \\Kepler data but instead...

  19. Resonance states in 16O + 16O, 12C + 16O, + 16O and + 12C with modified Morse potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Sahu; L Satpathy

    2008-05-01

    The resonance states in 16O + 16O, 12C + 16O, + 16O and + 12C are described using modified Morse potential proposed earlier whose success has already been demon-strated in the case of 12C + 12C system. The general validity of such a potential with long range, shallow depth and repulsive soft core determined from the resonance data itself is being examined through the present study of the resonances in the above four systems. In each system, the experimental data of a large number of states have been successfully described with a modified Morse potential. The success points out a common mechanism of the origin of these states, and reaffirms authentically the diatomic-like rotational and vibrational picture of the nuclear molecular resonances proposed previously. The close resemblance between the physics of diatomic molecules and nuclear molecular resonances extending to the level of potential which is Morse type in both the cases - although belong to two different areas of physics - is further strengthened through the present study.

  20. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, S. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: sroman@unex.es; Gonzalez, J.F. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Ganan, J. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Sabio, E. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gonzalez-Garcia, C.M. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Ramiro, A. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Mangut, V. [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Energetica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas, s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-06-30

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 deg. C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO{sub 2}, the influence of the temperature (700-950 deg. C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N{sub 2} adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has S {sub BET} of 741 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, V {sub mi} of 0.39 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g{sup -1}): carbon C (gasification with CO{sub 2} at 850 deg. Cduring 1 h), with S {sub BET} of 523 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, V {sub mi} of 0.33 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1} and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g{sup -1}, and carbon D (gasification with CO{sub 2} at 900 deg. Cduring 1 h), whose S {sub BET} is 672 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, V {sub mi} is 0

  1. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, S.; González, J. F.; Gañán, J.; Sabio, E.; González-García, C. M.; Ramiro, A.; Mangut, V.

    2006-06-01

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 °C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO 2, the influence of the temperature (700-950 °C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N 2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N 2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has SBET of 741 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.39 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g -1): carbon C (gasification with CO 2 at 850 °C during 1 h), with SBET of 523 m 2 g -1, Vmi of 0.33 cm 3 g -1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g -1, and carbon D (gasification with CO 2 at 900 °C during 1 h), whose SBET is 672 m 2 g -1, Vmi is 0.28 cm 3 g -1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g -1.

  2. Preparation and characterization of carbons for the retention of halogens in the condenser vacuum system of a thermonuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activated carbons were prepared by air and carbon dioxide activation, from almond tree pruning, with the aim of obtaining carbons that reproduce the textural and mechanical properties of the carbons currently used in the filtering system of the condenser vacuum installation of a Thermonuclear Plant (CNA; Central Nuclear de Almaraz in Caceres, Spain), produced from coconut shell. The variables studied in non-catalytic gasification series with air were the temperature (215-270 deg. C) and the time (1-16 h) and the influence of the addition of one catalyst (Co) and the time (1-2 h) in catalytic gasification. In the case of activation with CO2, the influence of the temperature (700-950 deg. C) and the time (1-8 h) was studied. The resulting carbons were characterized in terms of their BET surface, porosity, and pore size distribution. The N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K for both series showed a type I behaviour, typical of microporous materials. The isotherms showed that with both gasificant agents the temperature rise produced an increase in the carbon porosity. With regards to the activation time, a positive effect on the N2 adsorbed volume on the carbons was observed. The best carbons of each series, as well as the CNA (carbon currently used in the CNA), were characterized by mercury porosimetry and iodine solution adsorption isotherms. The results obtained allowed to state that several of the carbons produced had characteristics similar to the carbon that is target of reproduction (which has S BET of 741 m2 g-1, V mi of 0.39 cm3 g-1 and a iodine retention capacity of 429.3 mg g-1): carbon C (gasification with CO2 at 850 deg. Cduring 1 h), with S BET of 523 m2 g-1, V mi of 0.33 cm3 g-1 and a iodine retention capacity of 402.5 mg g-1, and carbon D (gasification with CO2 at 900 deg. Cduring 1 h), whose S BET is 672 m2 g-1, V mi is 0.28 cm3 g-1 and has a iodine retention capacity of 345.2 mg g-1

  3. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C. (Inventor); Eklund, Peter C. (Inventor); Smith, Michael W. (Inventor); Jordan, Kevin C. (Inventor); Shinn, Michelle (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  4. Laser ablation for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Brian C; Eklund, Peter C; Smith, Michael W; Jordan, Kevin C; Shinn, Michelle

    2012-11-27

    Single walled carbon nanotubes are produced in a novel apparatus by the laser-induced ablation of moving carbon target. The laser used is of high average power and ultra-fast pulsing. According to various preferred embodiments, the laser produces and output above about 50 watts/cm.sup.2 at a repetition rate above about 15 MHz and exhibits a pulse duration below about 10 picoseconds. The carbon, carbon/catalyst target and the laser beam are moved relative to one another and a focused flow of "side pumped", preheated inert gas is introduced near the point of ablation to minimize or eliminate interference by the ablated plume by removal of the plume and introduction of new target area for incidence with the laser beam. When the target is moved relative to the laser beam, rotational or translational movement may be imparted thereto, but rotation of the target is preferred.

  5. ISOL Targets Prepared with a New Paint Infiltration Coating Method

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Kiggans, J O; Stracener, Dan

    2005-01-01

    A new infiltration paint coating method has been developed for fabricating ISOL targets for radioactive ion beam applications. The technique has been shown to be inexpensive, fast, and almost universal for the uniform deposition of many refractory target materials onto the interior surfaces of complex geometry matrices, such as Reticulated-Vitreous-Carbon-Foam (RVCF). The process yields robust, highly permeable targets with fast diffusion and release properties. We demonstrate the viability of the technique for coating forms of RVCF compressed by factors of 6 and 10 with materials to form targets for use at high energy facilities such as RIA. The use of compressed RVCF, coated with an optimum thickness of target material, reduces target lengths to practical values, while preserving high permeability. We calculate thermal conductivities and diffusion for various targets on 6xRVCF and 10xRVCF.

  6. Methods to reduce contamination in targets prepared by vacuum deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target makers have been concerned about the source of impurities which were found from experimental data obtained using targets prepared by vacuum vapor deposition. These impurities may arise from the process of producing the target, the separated isotope used in the evaporation, or contaminants introduced during the experiment. This study is an attempt to determine the source of impurities found in the targets. Impurities in the targets can make it difficult for experimenters to analyze their data. For targets such as magnesium, aluminum, calcium and other readily oxidized materials, the following points are important: a clean system is needed, the best possible vacuum attainable, and as short an evaporation time as the desired uniformity of a target will permit. Developmental work with the cryopump system has shown the potential for reducing many contaminants, particularly carbon. There are several problems associated with these systems, but they are not insurmountable

  7. Dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16 (NODC Accession 0113553)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113553 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the North Atlantic Ocean from 1993-11-05 to 1993-12-16...

  8. Enhanced energy coupling by using structured nano-wire targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the interaction of ultra intense laser light with a carbon nanotube (CNT) target. The experimental results show an increased electron acceleration and a very low laser reflection as compared to non-structured targets. In addition, interferograms show very weak plasma expansion in front of the CNT target whereas the flat target creates a considerable amount of preformed plasma. A 2-D PIC calculation indicates that high laser absorption is possible via a Brunel mechanism following the ponderomotive heating in the expanded plasma between nanotubes. (authors)

  9. Fabrication of thin target of 138Ba by vacuum evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Target fabrication is a highly sophisticated and crucial step in nuclear physics experiments. The success of any nuclear experiment is primarily determined by the quality and quantity of the target. 138Ba target is prepared for the evaporation residue cross section measurement of 188Pt populated through the reaction with 50Ti ion beam. Barium is a highly reactive metal and upon exposure to air at room temperature it will readily react with oxygen. Presently no information is available in the literature for the thin barium target fabrication through vacuum evaporation method. The two previous attempts available in literature were in sputtering method using barium nitrate or barium carbonate

  10. Enhanced energy coupling by using structured nano-wire targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habara H.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the interaction of ultra intense laser light with a carbon nanotube (CNT target. The experimental results show an increased electron acceleration and a very low laser reflection as compared to non-structured targets. In addition, interferograms show very weak plasma expansion in front of the CNT target whereas the flat target creates a considerable amount of preformed plasma. A 2-D PIC calculation indicates that high laser absorption is possible via a Brunel mechanism following the ponderomotive heating in the expanded plasma between nanotubes.

  11. Climate Constraints on the Carbon Intensity of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Narloch, U.

    2015-12-01

    Development and climate goals together constrain the carbon intensity of production. Using a simple and transparent model that represents committed CO2 emissions (i.e. those embedded in installed capital), we explore the carbon intensity of production related to new capital required for different temperature targets across several thousand scenarios. Future pathways consistent with the 2oC target which allow for continued GDP growth require early action to reduce carbon intensity of new production, and either (i) a short lifetime of energy and industry capital (e.g. early retrofit of coal power plants), or (ii) large negative emissions after 2050 (i.e. rapid development and dissemination of carbon capture and sequestration). To achieve the 2oC target, half of the scenarios indicate a carbon intensity of new production between 33 and 73 g CO2/ - much lower than the carbon intensities of the best performing countries today. The average lifespan of energy capital (especially power plants), and industry capital, are critical because they commit emissions far into the future and reduce the budget for new capital emissions. Each year of lifetime added to existing, carbon intensive capital, decreases the carbon intensity of new production required to meet a 2°C carbon budget by 1 to 1.5 g CO2/, and each year of delaying the start of mitigation decreases the required CO2 intensity of new production by 20 to 50 gCO2/$. Constraints on the carbon intensity of new production under a 3°C target are considerably relaxed relative to the 2°C target, but remain daunting in comparison to the carbon intensity of the global economy today. Figure Caption: The relationship between GDP per capita growth, lifetime of energy and industry capital and the required carbon intensity of new production 2013-2050 under a 2°C target.

  12. Evaluation of bioremediation systems utilizing stable carbon isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon, whether in an organic or inorganic form, is composed primarily of two stable isotopes, carbon-12 and carbon-13. The ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13 is approximately 99:1. The stable carbon isotope ratios of most natural carbon materials of biological interest range from approximately 0 to -110 per mil (per-thousand) versus the PDB standard. Utilizing stable carbon isotope analysis, it is often possible to determine the source(s) of the liberated carbon dioxide, thereby confirming successful mineralization of the targeted carbon compound(s) and, if the carbon dioxide results from multiple carbon compounds, in what ratio the carbon compounds are mineralized. Basic stable isotope 'theory' recommended sampling procedures and analysis protocols are reviewed. A case study involving fuel oil presented on the application of stable carbon isotope analysis for the monitoring and evaluation of in situ bioremediation. At the site, where a field bioventing study was being conducted, multiple potential sources of carbon dioxide production existed. Additional potential applications of stable carbon isotope analysis for bioremediation evaluation and monitoring are discussed

  13. Supramolecular hydrogel of kanamycin selectively sequesters 16S rRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhimou; Kuang, Yi; Li, Xinming; Zhou, Ning; Zhang, Ye; Xu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    As the first example of hydrogelator derived from aminoglycoside antibiotics, the hydrogel of kanamycin indicates that the hydrogel of aminoglycosides preserve the specific interaction with their macromolecular targets (e.g., 16S rRNA), thus illustrating a simple approach to explore and identify possible biological targets of supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels.

  14. Preparation of actinide targets by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, N.; Folger, H.

    1989-10-01

    Actinide targets with varying thicknesses on different substrates have been prepared by electrodeposition either from aqueous solutions or from solutions of their nitrates in isopropyl alcohol. With these techniques the actinides can be deposited almost quantitatively on various backing materials within 15 to 30 min. Targets of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and californium with areal densities from almost carrier-free up to 1.4 mg/cm 2 on thin beryllium, carbon, titanium, tantalum and platinum foils have been prepared. In most cases, prior to the deposition, the actinides had to be purified chemically and for some of them, due to the limited amount of material available, recycling procedures were required. Applications of actinide targets in heavy-ion reactions are briefly discussed.

  15. Targeted Drug Delivery in Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Changyi; Yao, Qizhi; Li, Min

    2009-01-01

    Effective drug delivery in pancreatic cancer treatment remains a major challenge. Because of the high resistance to chemo and radiation therapy, the overall survival rate for pancreatic cancer is extremely low. Recent advances in drug delivery systems hold great promise for improving cancer therapy. Using liposomes, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes to deliver cancer drugs and other therapeutic agents such as siRNA, suicide gene, oncolytic virus, small molecule inhibitor and antibody has been a success in recent pre-clinical trials. However, how to improve the specificity and stability of the delivered drug using ligand or antibody directed delivery represent a major problem. Therefore, developing novel, specific, tumor-targeted drug delivery systems is urgently needed for this terrible disease. This review summarizes the current progress on targeted drug delivery in pancreatic cancer, and provides important information on potential therapeutic targets for pancreatic cancer treatment. PMID:19853645

  16. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit rand

  17. Pure HD polarized targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HD polarized target project is now ready to use a target in a physics experiment. This must be done in early 1998 at LEGS (BNL). The IPN cryogenic group takes its part in this venture by doing the transfer and in-beam cryostats. (authors)

  18. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  19. The effect of neutron irradiation on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon-based materials are an attractive choice for fusion reactor plasma facing components (PFCs) because of their low atomic number, superior thermal shock resistance, and low neutron activation. Next generation plasma fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), will require advanced carbon-carbon composite materials possessing extremely high thermal conductivity to manage the anticipated severe heat loads. Moreover, ignition machines such as ITER will produce high neutron fluxes. Consequently, the influence of neutron damage on the structure and properties of carbon-carbon composite materials must be evaluated. Data from an irradiation experiment are reported and discussed here. Fusion relevant graphite and carbon-carbon composites were irradiated in a target capsule in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A peak damage dose of 1.59 dpa at 600 degrees C was attained. The carbon materials irradiated included nuclear graphite grade H-451 and one-, two-, and three-directional carbon-carbon composite materials. Dimensional changes, thermal conductivity and strength are reported for the materials examined. The influence of fiber type, architecture, and heat treatment temperature on properties and irradiation behavior are reported. Carbon-Carbon composite dimensional changes are interpreted in terms of simple microstructural models

  20. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  1. Developing a Carbon Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B., III

    2015-12-01

    There is a clear need to better understand and predict future climate change, so that science can more confidently inform climate policy, including adaptation planning and future mitigation strategies. Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks, and the relationship between emissions (fossil and land use) and the resulting atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations in a changing climate has been recognized as an important goal by the IPCC. The existing surface greenhouse gas observing networks provide accurate and precise measurements of background values, but they are not configured to target the extended, complex and dynamic regions of the carbon budget. Space Agencies around the globe are committed to CO2 and CH4 observations: GOSAT-1/2, OCO-2/3, MERLin, TanSat, and CarbonSat. In addition to these Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions, a new mission in Geostationary Orbit (GEO), geoCARB, which would provide mapping-like measurements of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide concentrations over major land areas, has been recently proposed to the NASA Venture Program. These pioneering missions do not provide the spatial/temporal coverage to answer the key carbon-climate questions at process relevant scales nor do they address the distribution and quantification of anthropogenic sources at urban scales. They do demonstrate, however, that a well-planned future system of system integrating space-based LEO and GEO missions with extensive in situ observations could provide the accuracy, spatial resolution, and coverage needed to address critical open issues in the carbon-climate system. Dr. Diana Wickland devoted enormous energy in developing a comprehensive apprioach to understand the global carbon cycle; she understood well that an integrated, coordinated, international approach is needed. This shines through in her recent contribution in co-chairing the team that produced the "CEOS Strategy for Carbon Observations from Space." A NASA-funded community

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 16H ANNULUS SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, M.; Reboul, S.

    2012-04-16

    The closure of Tank 16H will require removal of material from the annulus of the tank. Samples from Tank 16H annulus were characterized and tested to provide information to evaluate various alternatives for removing the annulus waste. The analysis found all four annulus samples to be composed mainly of Si, Na, and Al and lesser amounts of other elements. The XRD data indicate quartz (SiO{sub 2}) and sodium aluminum nitrate silicate hydrate (Na{sub 8}(Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24})(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O) as the predominant crystalline mineral phases in the samples. The XRD data also indicate the presence of crystalline sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, gibbsite, hydrated sodium bicarbonate, and muscovite. Based on the weight of solids remaining at the end of the test, the water leaching test results indicate approximately 20-35% of the solids dissolved after three contacts with an approximately 3:1 volume of water at 45 C. The chemical analysis of the leachates and the XRD results of the remaining solids indicate sodium salts of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, and possibly carbonate/bicarbonate make up the majority of the dissolved material. The majority of these salts were dissolved in the first water contact and simply diluted with each subsequent water contact. The water leaching removed large amounts of the uranium in two of the samples and {approx}1/3 of the {sup 99}Tc from all four samples. Most of the other radionuclides analyzed showed low solubility in the water leaching test. The preliminary data on the oxalic acid leaching test indicate the three acid contacts at 45 C dissolved from {approx}34-47% of the solids. The somewhat higher dissolution found in the oxalic acid leaching test versus the water leaching test might be offset by the tendency of the oxalic acid solutions to take on a gel-like consistency. The filtered solids left behind after three oxalic acid contacts were sticky and formed large clumps after drying. These two observations could indicate

  3. Carbonate Ion Effects on Coccolith Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziveri, P.; Probert, I.; Stoll, H. M.

    2006-12-01

    The stable oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of biogenic calcite constitutes one of the primary tools used in paleoceanographic reconstructions. The δ18O of shells of ocean floor microfossils and corals reflects the composition of the paleo-seawater as they use the oxygen to build up their calcite and aragonite shells. The δ13C is used to reconstruct variations in the carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon in the ocean, which is controlled by biological productivity through the removal of isotopically light carbon in organic matter. To be effective and sensitive tools for understanding photic zone processes it is first necessary to understand the various biological fractionations associated with carbonate precipitation. To date, isotopic fractionation models are mainly based on foraminifera and corals but not on coccoliths, tiny plates produced by coccolithophore algae, which are often the most dominant carbonate contributors to pelagic sediments. As photosynthetic organisms, their chemistry can provide a sensitive tool for understanding photic zone processes. Coccoliths may be the most important carbonate phase for geochemical analysis in sediments where foraminifera are less common and/or core material is limited, such as in subpolar regions and for Early Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Here we report experimental results on a common living coccolithophore species showing that the 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios decrease with the increase of HCO^{3-} (CO32-). The selected species are among the heaviest calcifying extant coccolithophores and are major contributors to present coccolith carbonate export production. Because coccolithophores are photosynthetic organisms that calcify intracellularly in specialized vesicles, the challenge lies in ascertaining how kinetic and thermodynamic processes of isotopic fractionation are linked to cellular carbon "transport" and carbonate precipitation. This is a daunting challenge since studies have not

  4. Target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antares Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy Centre at ANSTO has two chemistry labs dedicated to preparing targets for measurement. Target preparation encompasses a variety of activities ranging from the curation of incoming samples to the numerous steps involved in the purification and processing of dissimilar samples. One of the two laboratories is set up for the physical and chemical pretreatment of 14C samples. Treatments include cleaning by sonification, sorting, grinding and sieving, and chemical treatments such as the standard AAA treatment, and solvent extraction. Combustion and graphitization are also carried out in this laboratory. The second laboratory is a clean room and is dedicated to the combustion, hydrolysis and graphitization of 14C samples as well as the process of the targets for the other isotopes. Combustion is achieved by heating the sample to 900 deg C in the presence of CuO, the resulting gas is purified by passing over Ag and Cu wire at 600 deg C. Graphitization is carried out by reducing the CO2 with an iron catalyst (600 deg C) in the presence of zinc (400 deg C) and a small amount of hydrogen. Samples such as charcoal, shell bone, wood, sediment, seawater and groundwater, containing 0.3-1 mg or more of original carbon, are processed routinely for radiocarbon analysis. The current 14C chemistry background for 1 mg carbon is ∼ 0.3 percent of modern carbon (pMC) enabling us to date materials up to 45 000 BP. Samples of 0.5 - 3 mg carbon or more are routinely performed with a precision 129I, 10Be, 36CI and 26Al. Initial tests for the extraction of 129I from groundwater and sediment have been carried out. 5 refs., 2 figs

  5. Carbon finance options in renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Kyoto Protocol splits the world into two categories, notably Annex 1 with binding targets; and non-Annex 1 without any binding targets. This presentation discussed the Kyoto Protocol, with particular reference to the flexibility mechanisms which allow countries to achieve their emission targets in a cost effective way through emission trading, joint implementation, or clean development mechanisms (CDM). The CDM was outlined in detail in terms of how it works. The CDM key concepts include baseline use, additionality, and monitoring. Reasons for risk and CDM renewable energy projects were also outlined. Other topics that were presented included the impact of carbon finance; United States federal climate policy; European Union policy; EVO structured carbon; portfolio management; and EVO structured carbon. tabs., figs.

  6. 16th semi annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 16th semi-annual report 1979/2 is a description of work within the Nuclear Safety Project performed in the second six month of 1979 in the nuclear safety field by KfK institutes and departments and by external institutions on behalf of KfK. The chosen kind of this report is that of short summaries, containing the topics: work performed, results obtained, plans for future work. (orig.)

  7. Opportunities and Challenges for Being a Carbon Black Great Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    1. The "Uth Five-year Plan" Lay- ing the Foundation for Carbon Black Great Power 1.1 Rapid growth of carbon black output and production capacity During the "llth Five-year Plan" Period, China carbon black output was increased by 1.1 times and realized doubling; and the production capacity of carbon black realized an average annu- al growth of 16.9%. In 2011, the carbon black output was 3.853 million tons, increased by 14.2% compared with that of the last year, and the pro- portion of carbon black output in the world carbon black output was increased from 16% to 36%. The carbon black production capacity was 5.345 mil- lion tons, increased by 6% compared with that of the last year, and the proportion of carbon black production capacity in the world carbon black out- put reached 38%. Chinese carbon black output has been ranking the 1st place throughout the world for 6 years successively, and China has become a great power of carbon black production in the world.

  8. Determination of 16 insect growth regulators in edible Chinese traditional herbs by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingrong; Wu, Liqin; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Mingfei; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiangyun; Sun, Caixia

    2012-03-01

    A new sensitive multiresidue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analytical method for the determination of 16 insect growth regulator (IGR) residues-RH-5849 (1,2-dibenzoyl-1-tert-butylhydrazine), halofenozide, methoxyfenozide, chromafenozide, fufenozide, tebufenozide, diflubenzuron, chlorbenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron, novaluron, lufenuron, teflubenzuron, flucycloxuron, flufenoxuron, and chlorfluazuron-in herbs (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger) has been developed. After the herbs had been extracted with acetonitrile, a combined graphitized nonporous carbon/aminopropyl (ENVI-Carb/LC-NH(2)) cartridge and a Florisil cartridge were used to clean up the extracts. LC-MS/MS was performed in multiple reaction monitoring mode with two specific precursor ion-product ion transitions per IGR to confirm and quantitate the residues in herbs. Quantitation was performed on the basis of matrix-matched calibrations. The method showed excellent linearity (r(2) > 0.99) and precision (relative standard deviations of 13.6 or lower) for all the target insecticides. The limits of quantitation were 0.6-10 μg kg(-1) for the 16 insecticides in the four herbs. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg kg(-1)), were in the range 74.8-105.3%. The method was satisfactorily applied for the analysis of 60 herb samples (Perilla frutescens, flos chrysanthemi, lily bulbs, and ginger). Hexaflumuron was detected at concentrations of 0.029 and 0.051 mg kg(-1) in Perilla frutescens. PMID:22271101

  9. Arogenate dehydratase isoenzymes profoundly and differentially modulate carbon flux into lignins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Oliver R A; Ki, Chanyoung; Cardenas, Claudia L; Kim, Sung-Jin; Brewer, Sarah E; Patten, Ann M; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2012-03-30

    How carbon flux differentially occurs in vascular plants following photosynthesis for protein formation, phenylpropanoid metabolism (i.e. lignins), and other metabolic processes is not well understood. Our previous discovery/deduction that a six-membered arogenate dehydratase (ADT1-6) gene family encodes the final step in Phe biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana raised the fascinating question whether individual ADT isoenzymes (or combinations thereof) differentially modulated carbon flux to lignins, proteins, etc. If so, unlike all other lignin pathway manipulations that target cell wall/cytosolic processes, this would be the first example of a plastid (chloroplast)-associated metabolic process influencing cell wall formation. Homozygous T-DNA insertion lines were thus obtained for five of the six ADTs and used to generate double, triple, and quadruple knockouts (KOs) in different combinations. The various mutants so obtained gave phenotypes with profound but distinct reductions in lignin amounts, encompassing a range spanning from near wild type levels to reductions of up to ∼68%. In the various KOs, there were also marked changes in guaiacyl:syringyl ratios ranging from ∼3:1 to 1:1, respectively; these changes were attributed to differential carbon flux into vascular bundles versus that into fiber cells. Laser microscope dissection/pyrolysis GC/MS, histochemical staining/lignin analyses, and pADT::GUS localization indicated that ADT5 preferentially affects carbon flux into the vascular bundles, whereas the adt3456 knock-out additionally greatly reduced carbon flux into fiber cells. This plastid-localized metabolic step can thus profoundly differentially affect carbon flux into lignins in distinct anatomical regions and provides incisive new insight into different factors affecting guaiacyl:syringyl ratios and lignin primary structure. PMID:22311980

  10. Enhancing the branching ratios in the dissociation channels for O16O16O18 molecule by designing optimum laser pulses: A study using stochastic optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a strategy of using a stochastic optimization technique, namely, simulated annealing to design optimum laser pulses (both IR and UV) to achieve greater fluxes along the two dissociating channels (O18 + O16O16 and O16 + O16O18) in O16O16O18 molecule. We show that the integrated fluxes obtained along the targeted dissociating channel is larger with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. The flux ratios are also more impressive with the optimized pulse than with the unoptimized one. We also look at the evolution contours of the wavefunctions along the two channels with time after the actions of both the IR and UV pulses and compare the profiles for unoptimized (initial) and optimized fields for better understanding the results that we achieve. We also report the pulse parameters obtained as well as the final shapes they take

  11. Scaling in fragmentation of target spectators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LUND string picture is a remarkably successful phenomenological description of high energy hadronization processes, occurring in jet events. The FRITIOF model is a combination of the soft collisions occurring in high energy hadron-hadron, hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, followed by string fragmentation. FRITIOF and also other models for hadronic interaction which try to describe experimental observables as a superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions describe the pseudorapidity distributions measured in emulsion experiments well, where the angular distribution of relativistic shower particles are measured. However they fail to describe the pseudorapidity distribution of charged particles at target fragmentation and midrapidity. The authors have shown that the FRITIOF model for soft hadronic processes combined with a moving thermal source for target spectator fragmentation describes the measured pseudorapidity distributions of produced hadrons at 14.5 AGeV within 10% error as well as at 60 and 200 AGeV for different targets and O16 projectiles. Their model explains why the measured baryon pseudorapidity distributions were proportional for central 60 and 200 AGeV O16+B collisions in the target fragmentation region. They are thermal distributions with T ∼ 66 MeV, moving with u ∼ 0.3c. They emphasize that the pseudorapidity distribution of the spectators given peaks at η ∼ 0.5 for b ∼ 0.6 thus the contribution of spectator fragments is not negligible for pseudorapidity η ≤ 1.5

  12. New carbon stars at a galactic longitude of 82 deg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective prism infrared plates taken with the Schmidt telescope of the Radioastrophysical Observatory in a 4deg.5 wide and 25 deg long zero perpendicular to the galactic equator and centered on the galactic longitude l=82 deg were used for carbon stars search. 16 new carbon stars were found and one earlier suspected carbon star confirmed. Positions of the new carbon stars BC 256-BC 272 were measured on direct plates and their equatorial and galactic coordinates determined. 17 carbon stars are identified on finding charts

  13. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  14. Shell model description of 16O(p,γ)17F and 16O(p,p)16O reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present shell model calculations of both the structure of 17F and the reactions 16O(p,γ)17F, 16O(p,p)16O. We use the ZBM interaction which provides a fair description of the properties of 16O and neighbouring nuclei and, in particular it takes account for the complicated correlations in coexisting low-lying states of 16O. (authors)

  15. Myeloid translocation gene-16 co-repressor promotes degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    Full Text Available The myeloid translocation gene 16 (MTG16 co-repressor down regulates expression of multiple glycolytic genes, which are targets of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1 heterodimer transcription factor that is composed of oxygen-regulated labile HIF1α and stable HIF1β subunits. For this reason, we investigated whether MTG16 might regulate HIF1 negatively contributing to inhibition of glycolysis and stimulation of mitochondrial respiration. A doxycycline Tet-On system was used to control levels of MTG16 in B-lymphoblastic Raji cells. Results from co-association studies revealed MTG16 to interact with HIF1α. The co-association required intact N-terminal MTG16 residues including Nervy Homology Region 1 (NHR1. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated an association of MTG16 with hypoxia response elements (HREs in PFKFB3, PFKFB4 and PDK1 promoters in-vitro. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed co-occupancy of these and other glycolytic gene promoters by HIF1α, HIF1β and MTG16 in agreement with possible involvement of these proteins in regulation of glycolytic target genes. In addition, MTG16 interacted with prolyl hydroxylase D2 and promoted ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of HIF1α. Our findings broaden the area of MTG co-repressor functions and reveal MTG16 to be part of a protein complex that controls the levels of HIF1α.

  16. Phase I study evaluating the treatment of patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer with carbon ion radiotherapy: the PHOENIX-01 trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment options for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer include surgery, chemotherapy as well as radiotherapy. In many cases, surgical resection is not possible, and therefore treatment alternatives have to be performed. Chemoradiation has been established as a convincing treatment alternative for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Carbon ions offer physical and biological characteristics. Due to their inverted dose profile and the high local dose deposition within the Bragg peak precise dose application and sparing of normal tissue is possible. Moreover, in comparison to photons, carbon ions offer an increased relative biological effectiveness (RBE), which can be calculated between 1.16 and 2.46 depending on the pancreatic cancer cell line as well as the endpoint analyzed. Japanese Data on the evaluation of carbon ion radiation therapy showed promising results for patients with pancreatic cancer. The present PHOENIX-01 trial evaluates carbon ion radiotherapy using the active rasterscanning technique in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer in combination with weekly gemcitabine and adjuvant gemcitabine. Primary endpoint is toxicity, secondary endpoints are overall survival, progression-free survival and response. The physical and biological properties of the carbon ion beam promise to improve the therapeutic ratio in patients with pancreatic cancer: Due to the inverted dose profile dose deposition in the entry channel of the beam leads to sparing of normal tissue; the Bragg peak can be directed into the defined target volume, and the sharp dose fall-off thereafter again spares normal tissue behind the target volume. The higher RBE of carbon ions, which has been shown also for pancreatic cancer cell lines in the preclinical setting, is likely to contribute to an increase in local control, and perhaps in OS. Early data from Japanese centers have shown promising results. In conclusion, this is the first trial to evaluate actively delivered carbon

  17. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be untrue. Possible side effects from targeted therapies include: Diarrhea Liver problems Skin problems such as rash, dry skin, and nail changes Problems with blood clotting and wound healing High blood pressure As with any treatment, you ...

  18. Target preparation at the ANTARES AMS Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, G.E.; Hua, Q.; Fink, D.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.; Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The Antares Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy Centre at ANSTO has two chemistry labs dedicated to preparing targets for measurement. Target preparation encompasses a variety of activities ranging from the curation of incoming samples to the numerous steps involved in the purification and processing of dissimilar samples. One of the two laboratories is set up for the physical and chemical pretreatment of {sup 14}C samples. Treatments include cleaning by sonification, sorting, grinding and sieving, and chemical treatments such as the standard AAA treatment, and solvent extraction. Combustion and graphitization are also carried out in this laboratory. The second laboratory is a clean room and is dedicated to the combustion, hydrolysis and graphitization of {sup 14}C samples as well as the process of the targets for the other isotopes. Combustion is achieved by heating the sample to 900 deg C in the presence of CuO, the resulting gas is purified by passing over Ag and Cu wire at 600 deg C. Graphitization is carried out by reducing the CO{sub 2} with an iron catalyst (600 deg C) in the presence of zinc (400 deg C) and a small amount of hydrogen. Samples such as charcoal, shell bone, wood, sediment, seawater and groundwater, containing 0.3-1 mg or more of original carbon, are processed routinely for radiocarbon analysis. The current {sup 14}C chemistry background for 1 mg carbon is {approx} 0.3 percent of modern carbon (pMC) enabling us to date materials up to 45 000 BP. Samples of 0.5 - 3 mg carbon or more are routinely performed with a precision < 1% At present, procedures are being tested for the treatment of samples containing a minimum of 20 {mu}g original carbon. Such small samples sre more likely to be affected by contamination with modern carbon. These laboratories are also being expanded to cater for the processing of a variety of samples for the measurement of other isotopes, ie {sup 129}I, {sup 10}Be, {sup 36}CI and {sup 26}Al. Initial tests for the extraction of

  19. Characterization of an extracellular lipase and its chaperone from Ralstonia eutropha H16

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jingnan; Brigham, Christopher J.; Rha, ChoKyun; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Lipase enzymes catalyze the reversible hydrolysis of triacylglycerol to fatty acids and glycerol at the lipid–water interface. The metabolically versatile Ralstonia eutropha strain H16 is capable of utilizing various molecules containing long carbon chains such as plant oil, organic acids, or Tween as its sole carbon source for growth. Global gene expression analysis revealed an upregulation of two putative lipase genes during growth on trioleate. Through analysis of growth and activity using...

  20. SETI target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, D. W.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1995-06-01

    The NASA High Resolution Microwave Survey consists of two complementary elements: a Sky Survey of the entire sky to a moderate level of sensitivity; and a Targeted Search of nearby stars, one at a time, to a much deeper level of sensitivity. The authors propose strategies for target selection with two goals: to improve the chances of successful detection of signals from technical civilizations that inhabit planets around solar-type stars, and to minimize the chances of missing signals from unexpected sites.