WorldWideScience

Sample records for carbon 12 decay radioisotopes

  1. Biological Effects of Transmutation and Decay of Incorporated Radioisotopes. Proceedings of a Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Panel on the Biological Effects of Transmutation and Decay of Incorporated Radioisotopes was held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna on 9 - 13 October 1967. Fourteen experts from nine countries, representing various relevant disciplines, attended. The Panel investigated the modes and mechanisms of action associated with transmutation and decay radiation events. The aim was to achieve a clearer picture of the present status of these studies and at the same time to help define the main problems and suggest possible ways of solving them. The Panel might thus go some way towards defining the hazards of using labelled compounds in human beings and standards for setting body-burden levels. The papers and discussions centred on the role which such physical and chemical factors of radioisotope decay as transmutation, recoil energy and disintegration radiation play in producing injury when such isotopes as 3H, 14C and 32P are incorporated into vital cellular macro-molecules. Past and present studies on mutation production, chromosome aberration, macro- molecular lesions, and cell survival, were reviewed and analysed. Data, concepts and experimental approaches were examined with an eye to possible productive lines of investigation. The present book contains the papers and discussions

  2. Sodium VCHP with Carbon-Carbon Radiator for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Miller, William O.; Ramirez, Rogelio

    2010-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling converter normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an earlier termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. A sodium VCHP with a Haynes 230 envelope was designed and fabricated for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), with a baseline 850° C heater head temperature. When the Stirling convertor is stopped, the heat from the GPHS is rejected to the Cold Side Adapter Flange using a low-mass, carbon-carbon radiator. The VCHP is designed to activate with a AT of 30° C. The 880° C temperature when the Stirling convertor is stopped is high enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation, but low enough to save most of the heater head life. The VCHP has low mass and low thermal losses for normal operation. The design has been modified from an earlier, stainless steel prototype with a nickel radiator. In addition to replacing the nickel radiator with a low mass carbon-carbon radiator, the radiator location has been moved from the ASRG case to the cold side adapter flange. This flange already removes two-thirds of the heat during normal operation, so it is optimized to transfer heat to the case. The VCHP was successfully tested with a turn-on ΔT of 30° C in three orientations: horizontal, gravity-aided, and against gravity.

  3. Development and characterization of carbon-bonded carbon fiber insulation for radioisotope space power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Robbins, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), an improved radioisotope heat source, employs a unique thermal insulation material, carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF), to protect the fuel capsule and to help achieve the highest possible specific power. The CBCF insulation is made from chopped rayon fiber about 10 ..mu..m in diameter and 250 ..mu..m long, which is carbonized and bonded with phenolic resin particles. The CBCF shapes, both tubes and plates, are formed in a multiple molding facility by vacuum molding a water slurry of the carbonized chopped-rayon fiber (54 wt %) and phenolic resin (46 wt %). The molded shapes are subsequently dried and cured. Final carbonization of the resin is at 1600/sup 0/C. Machining to close tolerances (+-0.08 mm) is accomplished by conventional tooling and fixturing. The resulting material is an excellent lightweight insulation with a nominal density of 0.2 Mg/m/sup 3/ and a thermal conductivity of 0.24 W(m.K) in vacuum at 2000/sup 0/C. Several attributes that make CBCF superior to other known high-temperature insulation materials for the GPHS application have been identified. It has the excellent attributes of light weight, low thermal conductivity, chemical compatibility, and high-temperature capabilities. The mechanical strength of CBCF insulation is satisfactory for the GPHS application; it has passed vibration tests simulating launch conditions. The basic fabrication technique was refined to eliminate undesirable large pores and cracks often present in materials fabricated by earlier techniques. Also, processing was scaled up to incease the fabrication rate by a factor of 10. The specific properties of the CBCF were tailored by adjusting material and processing variables to obtain the desired results. We report here how work on CBCF characterization and development conducted at ORNL from 1978 through 1980 has contributed to the GPHS program to meet the requirements of both the Galileo and Ulysees Missions.

  4. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  5. Power from Radioisotopes (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R; Mead, Robert L

    1971-01-01

    This booklet discusses Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), called isotope power generators, that are based on using heat from the decay of radioisotopes to produce electricity. These are the SNAP systems with odd-numbered designators. The basics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are discussed and their uses as power sources in space exploration and on earth are described. Various radioisotope heat sources are discussed and a table of RTGs built under the SNAP program listing their uses, electrical power, weight, the radioisotope used, the radioisotope's half-life, and the generator life is given.

  6. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  7. News on C-12 from beta-decay studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fynbo, HOU; Diget, CA; Prezado, Y; Aysto, J; Bergmann, UC; Cederkall, J; Dendooven, P; Fraile, LM; Franchoo, S; Fulton, BR; Huang, W; Huikari, J; Jeppesen, H; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jones, P; Koster, U; Meister, M; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Borge, MJG; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Vogelius, IS; Tengblad, O; Turrion, M; Wang, Y; Weissman, L; Wilhelmsen, K

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the importance of the spectroscopic properties of the resonances of C-12 just above the 3alpha-threshold, and review the existing experimental information of this region with emphasis on 0(+) and 2(+) states. A new experimental approach for studying the beta-decays of B-12 and N-12 is pre

  8. Exciton decay dynamics in individual carbon nanotubes at room temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Gokus, Tobias; Hartschuh, Achim; Harutyunyan, Hayk; Allegrini, Maria; Hennrich, Frank; Kappes, Manfred; Green, Alexander A.; Hersam, Mark C.; Araujo, Paulo T.; Jorio, Ado

    2008-01-01

    We studied the exciton decay dynamics of individual semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes at room temperature using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The photoluminescence decay from nanotubes of the same (n,m) type follows a single exponential decay function, however, with lifetimes varying between about 1 and 40 ps from nanotube to nanotube. A correlation between broad photoluminescence spectra and short lifetimes was found and explained by defects promoting both nonradi...

  9. Study of the ${\\beta}$-decay of $^{12}$B

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the ${\\beta}$-decay of $^{12}$B with a modern segmented Si-detector array to get new and much improved information on states in $^{12}$C above the ${\\alpha}$-threshold. These states mainly decay into final states of three ${\\alpha}$-particles and their study therefore is a challenge for nuclear spectroscopy. The properties of these states is of high current interest for nuclear astrophysics and for the nuclear many-body problem in general. We ask for a total of 15 shifts.

  10. Estimation of groundwater residence time using environmental radioisotopes (14C,T) in carbonate aquifers, southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samborska, Katarzyna; Różkowski, Andrzej; Małoszewski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Triassic carbonate aquifers in the Upper Silesia region, affected by intense withdrawal, have been investigated by means of isotopic analyses of (14)C, δ(13)C, δ(2)H, δ(18)O and (3)H. The isotopic examinations were carried out in the 1970s and in the early 1980s, and it was the first application of tracers to estimate age and vulnerability for the contamination of groundwater in this region. Similar isotopic analyses were conducted in 2007 and 2008 with the same Triassic carbonate formation. The isotopic examinations were performed within the confined part of the carbonate formation, wherein aquifers are covered by semi-permeable deposits. The direct recharge of the aquifer occurs in the outcrop areas, but it mainly takes place due to percolation of the water through aquitards and erosional windows. The Triassic aquifer has been intensively drained by wells and by lead-zinc mines. Nowadays, the declining water demand and closure of some mines have induced a significant increase in the water table level. The detailed analysis of the results, including the radiocarbon age corrections and the comparison of radioisotope activities, has made it possible to estimate the range of residence time within the carbonate Triassic aquifer. This range from several tens to several tens of thousands indicates that the recharge of aquifers might have occurred between modern times and the Pleistocene. The apparent age of the water estimated on the basis of (14)C activity was corrected considering the carbon isotope exchange and the diffusion between mobile water in fractures and stagnant water in micropores. The obtained corrected period of recharge corresponds to the result of investigations of noble gases, which were carried out in the 1990s. In almost half of the cases, groundwater is a mixture of young and old water. The mixing processes occur mainly in areas of heavy exploitation of the aquifer.

  11. Accounting Carbon Storage in Decaying Root Systems of Harvested Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, G. Geoff; Van Lear, David H.; Hu, Huifeng; Kapeluck, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Decaying root systems of harvested trees can be a significant component of belowground carbon storage, especially in intensively managed forests where harvest occurs repeatedly in relatively short rotations. Based on destructive sampling of root systems of harvested loblolly pine trees, we estimated that root systems contained about 32% (17.2 Mg ha−1) at the time of harvest, and about 13% (6.1 Mg ha−1) of the soil organic carbon 10 years later. Based on the published roundwood output data, we...

  12. The 12C* Hoyle state in the inelastic 12C + 12C reaction and in 24Mg* decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Baiocco, G.; Gulminelli, F.; Abbondanno, U.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gramegna, F.; Mabiala, J.; Marchi, T.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Valdré, S.

    2016-08-01

    The reaction 12C + 12C at 95 MeV has been studied at the Legnaro Laboratories of INFN with the GARFIELD + RCo apparatus. Data have been analyzed in order to investigate the decay of the Hoyle state of 12C*. Two different data selections have been made. The first one corresponds to peripheral binary collisions where the quasi-projectile is excited to the Hoyle state and the target has been left in the ground state. The second selection allows for studying central events with the formation of a 24Mg* and the Hoyle state is obtained as a step of the decay chain. The characteristics of the Hoyle state decay are very similar in the two samples and point to a mainly sequential decay through the population of an intermediate 8Begs, with a small contribution (˜1.1%) from simultaneous three α-particle processes.

  13. Exotic decay in Ba isotopes via 12C emission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2000-09-01

    Considering Coulomb and proximity potentials as barriers, we have calculated the half lives for 12C emission from various Ba isotopes using different mass tables. The half life for 112Ba isotope calculated by us is 6.020 × 103 s which is comparable with the experimental value 5.620 × 103 s. From our study it is found that 114Ba is the good parent for 12C emission whose emission rate is favorable for measurement. The half lives predicted by us lie very close to those reported by Shanmugam et al using their cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model. It is observed that inclusion of proximity potential does not produce significant deviation from the linear nature of the Geiger–Nuttall plots. Also it is found that the neutron excess in the parent nuclei slows down the exotic decay process.

  14. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  15. The 12th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The results of the 12th quality control nationwide survey is presented. Of 670 selected facilities, 405 (60.4%) participated in this survey. Myoglobin and trypsin were added as new items to be examined. The other conventional items were as follows: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), aldosterone, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, carbohydrate angigen 15-3, C-peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, free triiodothyronine, growth hormone, immunoglobulin E, prostatic acid phosphatase, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, progesterone, prolactin, thyroglobulin, triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), T{sub 3} uptake, tissue polypeptide antigen, thyroid stimulating hormone, and testosterone. There was a great coefficient of variation (CV) between kits in AFP, aldosterone, progesterone, and prolactin. These results were analogous to those in the previous surveys. For T{sub 3}, there was a great difference between CV by radioimmunoassay and by non-isotopic method. Both myoglobin and trypsin had a great difference between kits. (N.K.).

  16. Linking fungal communities to wood density loss after 12 years of log decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubartová, Ariana; Ottosson, Elisabet; Stenlid, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Changes in biodiversity might alter decomposition processes and, consequently, carbon and nutrient cycling. We examined fungal diversity and density loss in experimental Norway spruce logs after 12 years of decay in a hemiboreal forest. Between 28 and 50% of the original wood biomass remained, depending on the fungal community composition in the log, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness had only a minor effect on the log biomass. Although the communities were OTU rich (190-340 OTUs per log), the majority of OTUs were infrequent or rare; wood degradation therefore depended mostly on the most abundant OTUs and their decomposing abilities. The least decayed logs were characterized by continuous dominance of an earlier colonizer and by high within-log community diversity, which was significantly related to sample variables (position in log, density and moisture). In the most decayed logs, the earlier colonizers were generally replaced by white-rot species able to exploit the highly decomposed wood. The communities were relatively spatially uniform within whole logs, independent of the sample variables, whereas among-log diversity was high. Importance of fungal community composition in decomposition processes should be taken into account when studying and modeling carbon dynamics in forest ecosystems.

  17. Precise Branching Ratios to Unbound 12C States from 12N and 12B (beta)-Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyldegaard, S; Forssen, C; Alcorta, M; Barker, F C; Bastin, B; Borge, M G; Boutami, R; Brandenburg, S; Buscher, J; Dendooven, P; Diget, C A; Van Duppen, P; Eronen, T; Fox, S; Fulton, B R; Fynbo, H U; Huikari, J; Huyse, M; Jeppesen, H B; Jokinen, A; Jonson, B; Jungmann, K; Kankainen, A; Kirsebom, O; Madurga, M; Moore, I; Navratil, P; Nilsson, T; Nyman, G; Onderwater, G G; Penttila, H; Perajarvi, K; Raabe, R; Riisager, K; Rinta-Antila, S; Rogachevskiy, A; Saastamoinen, A; Sohani, M; Tengblad, O; Traykov, E; Vary, J P; Wang, Y; Wilhelmsen, K; Wilschut, H W; Aysto, J

    2008-08-20

    Two complementary experimental techniques have been used to extract precise branching ratios to unbound states in {sup 12}C from {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B {beta}-decays. In the first the three {alpha}-particles emitted after {beta}-decay are measured in coincidence in separate detectors, while in the second method {sup 12}N and {sup 12}B are implanted in a detector and the summed energy of the three {alpha}-particles is measured directly. For the narrow states at 7.654 MeV (0{sup +}) and 12.71 MeV (1{sup +}) the resulting branching ratios are both smaller than previous measurements by a factor of {approx_equal} 2. The experimental results are compared to no-core shell model calculations with realistic interactions from chiral perturbation theory, and inclusion of three-nucleon forces is found to give improved agreement.

  18. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    OpenAIRE

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear «piles», soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchas...

  19. Radioisotopes in the training of medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the discovery of radioisotopes for the progress of science in general and that of biochemistry and physiology in particular has led us to provide experimental practice which enables medical students to become effectively acquainted with the properties and methods of use of radioisotopes, the measurement of their activity, and the possible risks involved in handling them. We have included in the exercises in quantitative determination for third-year medical students (the last pre-clinical year), practice in calibrating micropipettes using a 24Na solution prepared in the TRICO Centre's reactor by irradiating sodium carbonate with slow neutrons. The students make several GM-counter measurements of the activity of the stock solution over a period of time and of the activity of five samples taken with two different micropipettes. They then calculate, by measuring the decay in activity, the half-life of the isotope and relate their measurements to a reference time. In this way they calculate the volume of their micropipettes and the accuracy of the measurements. By means of a statistical analysis they compare the averages for the two pipettes and the accuracy of two operators. (author)

  20. Rhenium Radioisotopes for Therapeutic Radiopharmaceutical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Pinkert, J.; Wang, S.-Y.

    1999-01-18

    The availability of therapeutic radioisotopes at reasonable costs is important for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology, Rhenium-186 (Re-186) and rhenium-1 88 (Re-188) are two reactor-produced radioisotope which are attractive for a variety of therapeutic applications, Rhenium-186 has a half-life of 90 hours and decays with emission of a &particle with a maximum energy of 1.08 MeV and a 135 keV (9Yo) gamma which permits imaging. In contrast, Re- 188 has a much shorter half-life of 16.9 hours and emits a p-particle with a much higher energy of 2.12 MeV (Em=) and a 155 keV gamma photon (15Yo) for imaging. While Re-186 is unavailable from a generator system and must be directly produced in a nuclear reactor, Re-188 can also be directly produced in a reactor with high specific activity, but is more conveniently and cost-effectively available as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the alumina-based tungsten-188 (W1 88)/Re-l 88 generator system [1-2]. Since a comprehensive overviewofRe-186 and Re-188 therapeutic agents is beyond the scope of this &tended Abstrac4 the goal is to provide key examples of various agents currently in clinical use and those which are being developed for important clinical applications.

  1. Design of a Chemical Processing Apparatus for Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has appeared to us useful to make suggestions to radiochemists having at their disposal a small reactor (e. g., 1012 n/cm2s flux) regarding which radioisotopes they can prepare and the minimum equipment required. The paper comprises three main parts: 1. Possible radioisotopes, which may be divided into two categories: (a) radioisotopes for medical uses, including: Na24, K42, Br82, Cu64, As76, Hg197 and colloidal Au198; and (b) radioisotopes for scientific or industrial uses, including in addition to the above-named: Sb122, As77, Mn56 and Au198 (chloride). 2. Chemical processing, in which two categories of radioisotopes emerge: (a) the category involving simple solution, normally requiring either cold dissolution in water or dilute acid or hot dissolution in concentrated acids. This category includes: Na24, K42, Br12, Hg197, Sb122, Mn56 and Au198 (chloride). (b) The category involving complex separations or transformations, in which fall preparations by Szilard-Chalmers effect, reactions (n, p), (n, γ), followed by β-decay or formation of colloids. The following maybe mentioned: Cu54, As76, As77 and colloidal Au198 and 3. Preparation areas. It is essential that these radioisotopes be prepared in leak-tight and shielded areas and be grouped according to their affinities. We accordingly suggest an apparatus consisting of 3 cells 2 m in length by 1 m in depth, linked together by a conveyor and used, e.g., for the following processes: 1st cell: Introduction of containers, opening and preparation of Na24, K42, and Br82; 2nd cell: Preparation of two out of the following three radioisotopes : Cu64, As76 and colloidal Au198; and 3rd cell: Bringing into solution of radioisotopes for various uses and preparation of Hg197. (author)

  2. Non-statistical decay and $\\alpha$-correlations in the $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C fusion-evaporation reaction at 95 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, L; D'Agostino, M; Gulminelli, F; Bruno, M; Abbondanno, U; Appannababu, S; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Casini, G; Cinausero, M; Degerlier, M; Fabris, D; Gelli, N; Gramegna, F; Kravchuk, V L; Marchi, T; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Valdré, S; Raduta, Ad R

    2014-01-01

    Multiple alpha coincidence and correlations are studied in the reaction $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C at 95 MeV for fusion-evaporation events completely detected in charge. Two specific channels with Carbon and Oxygen residues in coincidence with $\\alpha$-particles are addressed, which are associated with anomalously high branching ratios with respect the predictions by Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Triple alpha emission appears kinematically compatible with a sequential emission from a highly excited Mg. The phase space distribution of $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$ coincidences suggests a correlated emission from a Mg compound, leaving an Oxygen residue excited above the threshold for neutron decay. These observations indicate a preferential $\\alpha$ emission of $^{24}$Mg at excitation energies well above the threshold for $6-\\alpha$ decay.

  3. Non-statistical decay and α-correlations in the 12C+12C fusion-evaporation reaction at 95 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Bruno, M.; Abbondanno, U.; Appannababu, S.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gelli, N.; Gramegna, F.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Marchi, T.; Olmi, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Valdré, S.; Raduta, Ad R.

    2014-07-01

    Multiple alpha coincidences and correlations are studied in the reaction 12C+12C at 95 MeV for fusion-evaporation events completely detected in charge. Two specific channels with carbon and oxygen residues in coincidence with α -particles are addressed, which are associated with anomalously high branching ratios with respect to the predictions of Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Triple alpha emission appears kinematically compatible with a sequential emission from a highly excited Mg. The phase space distribution of α - α coincidences suggests a correlated emission from a Mg compound, leaving an oxygen residue excited above the threshold for neutron decay. These observations indicate a preferential α emission of 24Mg at excitation energies well above the threshold for 6 - α decay.

  4. Radioisotope Power Supply Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  5. RPA puzzle in ${^{12}C}$ weak decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Krmpotic, F; Samana, A

    2002-01-01

    We explain the origin of the difficulties that appear in a straightforward application of the QRPA in ${^{12}C}$, and we demonstrate that it is imperative to use the projected QRPA (PQRPA). Satisfactory results, not only for the weak processes among the ground states of the triad $\\{{{^{12}B},{^{12}C},{^{12}N}}\\}$, but also for the inclusive ones are obtained. We sketch as well a new formalism for the neutrino-nucleus interaction that furnishes very simple final formulae for the muon capture rate and neutrino induced cross sections.

  6. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  7. Radioisotope binding capacity of serum for folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin in hematologic and rheumatologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folic acid, vitamin B12 and ferritin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in patients suffering from hemic and rheumatic diseases, resp. Compared to the controls the folic acid levels were lower in some cases, the deficiency of folic acid absorption and distribution possibly being caused by the disease. Vitamin B12 was only slightly decreased. In ankylosing spondylitis the transferrin level was similar to that of the controls, but in rheumatoid arthritis and in patients suffering from various diseases it was increased

  8. 1/2+→1/2- beta decay of 19Ne and the parity nonconserving NN force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We obtain a branching ratio of (1.20 +- 0.20) x 10-4 for the β+ decay of 19Ne to the 110 keV 1/2- level of 19F. This transition (presumably dominated by the ΔJ/sup π/ = 0- axial charge operator) provides a crucial test of wave functions used in interpreting the parity mixing of the ground and 110 keV levels of 19F. These wave functions, which yield a parity mixing larger than that observed experimentally, also predict too large a β+ decay rate

  9. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  10. Economical Radioisotope Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power...

  11. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  12. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author)

  13. Assessment of a radioisotopic assay for vitamin B12 using an intrinsic factor preparation with R proteins blocked by vitamin B12 analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Barbara; Broom, GN; Woodside, Jackie; Litwinczuk, RA; Wickramasinghe, SN

    1982-01-01

    A competitive protein binding radioassay kit for serum vitamin B12 has been assessed. Precision, linearity, sensitivity, and specificity have been found to be satisfactory. Falsely-normal assay results in patients with vitamin B12 deficiency have not been observed.

  14. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  15. Properties of the {sup 12}C 10 MeV state determined through {beta}-decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diget, C.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Barker, F.C. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Borge, M.J.G. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Cederkaell, J. [ISOLDE-CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fedosseev, V.N. [ISOLDE-CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fraile, L.M. [ISOLDE-CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fulton, B.R. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Fynbo, H.O.U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)]. E-mail: fynbo@phys.au.dk; Jeppesen, H.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Jonson, B. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Koester, U. [ISOLDE-CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Meister, M. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, T. [ISOLDE-CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Nyman, G. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Prezado, Y. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Riisager, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tengblad, O. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Turrion, M. [Instituto Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Wilhelmsen, K. [Fundamental Fysik, Chalmers Tekniska Hoegskola, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, FIN-40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Helsinki Institute of Physics, University of Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-10-03

    The {beta}-delayed triple-{alpha} particle decay of {sup 12}B has been measured with a setup that favours coincidence detection. A broad state in {sup 12}C, previously reported around 10 MeV, has been seen and its properties determined through R-matrix analysis of the excitation spectrum. The spin and parity are 0{sup +}. Interference between this state and the Hoyle state at 7.654 MeV has a marked influence on the spectrum. The coupling between the two states makes it difficult to determine the resonance energy.

  16. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  17. Radiative Decays of q bar q Chiral States in the U~(12)-Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Maeda, T; Oda, M; Ishida, S; Maeda, Tomohito; Yamada, Kenji; Oda, Masuho; Ishida, Shin

    2006-01-01

    The radiative transitions between ground-states (GS) of light q bar q mesons are investigated in the U~(12)-scheme. In this scheme the rich decay-spectra are offered even in transition between GS due to the appearance of chiral states. As a result the radiative decay widths of the ordinary V -> P gamma process are well reproduced, and furthermore, the predicted width of b_{1}(1235) -> pi gamma process (Gamma_{theor}=229 keV), by assigning b_{1}(1235) as a member of the {}^{3}S_{1} chiral states A^{(E)}, is in good agreement with experimental one (Gamma_{exp} =230 +- 60 keV). From this results it is indicated that b_{1}(1235) meson, classified as {}^{1}P_{1} state in conventional non-relativistic (NR) classification scheme, is a good candidate of chiral state in the U~(12)-scheme. The other radiative transition widths of some chiral states are also predicted. Accordingly the predicted values given here, will provide useful insights in their search at BES.

  18. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  19. Radioisotopic heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 15700F to about 17200F for about one h

  20. Wolf-Rayet stars and radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Meynet, G

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes are natural clocks which can be used to estimate the age of the solar system. They also influence the shape of supernova light curves. In addition, the diffuse emission at 1.8 MeV from the decay of 26Al may provide a measure of the present day nucleosynthetic activity in the Galaxy. Therefore, even if radionuclides represent only a tiny fraction of the cosmic matter, they carry a unique piece of information. A large number of radioisotopes are produced by massive stars at the time of their supernova explosion. A more or less substantial fraction of them are also synthesized during the previous hydrostatic burning phases. These nuclides are then ejected either at the time of the supernova event, or through stellar winds during their hydrostatic burning phases. This paper focusses of the non explosive ejection of radionuclides by non-rotating or rotating Wolf-Rayet stars.

  1. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  2. Probing the statistical decay and alpha-clustering effects in 12c+12c and 14n+10b reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Morelli, Luca; Agostino, M D; Bruno, M; Gulminelli, F; Cinausero, M; Degerlier, M; Fabris, D; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Barlini, S; Bini, M; Casini, G; Gelli, N; Lopez, A; Pasquali, G; Piantelli, S; Valdre', S

    2013-01-01

    An experimental campaign has been undertaken at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy, in order to progress in our understanding of the statistical properties of light nuclei at excitation energies above particle emission threshold, by measuring exclusive data from fusion-evaporation reactions. A first reaction 12C+12C at 7.9 AMeV beam energy has been measured, using the GARFIELD+Ring Counter experimental setup. Fusion-evaporation events have been exclusively selected. The comparison to a dedicated Hauser-Feshbach calculation allows us to give constraints on the nuclear level density at high excitation energy for light systems ranging from C up to Mg. Out-of-equilibrium emission has been evidenced and attributed both to entrance channel effects favoured by the cluster nature of reaction partners and, in more dissipative events, to the persistence of cluster correlations well above the 24Mg threshold for 6 alphas decay. The 24Mg compound nucleus has been studied with a new measurement 14N + 10B at 5.7 AM...

  3. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs. PMID:26806914

  4. States and future trends of the studies of radioisotopic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and current situation of radioisotopic batteries are reviewed, with the emphasis on the introduction of various power-generation mechanisms by nuclear decay energy. The newly developed theories and the new progress are presented. More than that, an insight is given into the prospect and future direction of this field

  5. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  6. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  7. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  8. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  9. Probing the Statistical Decay and α-clustering effects in 12C + 12C and 14N + 10B reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, L.; Baiocco, G.; D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Cinausero, M.; Degerlier, M.; Fabris, D.; Gramegna, F.; Marchi, T.; Barlini, S.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Gelli, N.; Lopez, A.; Pasquali, G.; Piantelli, S.; Valdrè, S.

    2014-03-01

    An experimental campaign has been undertaken at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL INFN), Italy, in order to progress in our understanding of the statistical properties of light nuclei at excitation energies above particle emission threshold, by measuring exclusive data from fusion-evaporation reactions. On the experimental side, a first reaction: 12C+12C at 95 MeV beam energy has been measured, using the GARFIELD + Ring Counter (RCo) apparatuses. Fusion-evaporation events have been exclusively selected out of the entire data set. The comparison to a dedicated Hauser-Feshbach calculation allows us to give constraints on the nuclear level density at high excitation energy for light systems ranging from C up to Mg. Out-of-equilibrium aα emission has been evidenced and attributed both to an entrance channel effect (favoured by the cluster nature of reaction partners), and, in more dissipative events, to the persistence of cluster correlations well above the 24Mg threshold for 6 α's decay. In order to study the same 24Mg compound nucleus at similar excitation energy with respect to this first reaction a new measurement, 14N + 10B at 5.7 A.MeV, was performed at LNL laboratories with the same experimental setup. The comparison between the two systems would allow us to further constrain the level density of light nuclei in the mass-excitation energy range of interest. In this perspective, deviations from a statistical behaviour can be used as a tool to get information on nuclear clustering, both in the ground-state for projectile and target and in the hot source formed in the collision.

  10. Probing the Statistical Decay and α-clustering effects in 12C + 12C and 14N + 10B reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morelli L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign has been undertaken at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL INFN, Italy, in order to progress in our understanding of the statistical properties of light nuclei at excitation energies above particle emission threshold, by measuring exclusive data from fusion-evaporation reactions. On the experimental side, a first reaction: 12C+12C at 95 MeV beam energy has been measured, using the GARFIELD + Ring Counter (RCo apparatuses. Fusion-evaporation events have been exclusively selected out of the entire data set. The comparison to a dedicated Hauser-Feshbach calculation allows us to give constraints on the nuclear level density at high excitation energy for light systems ranging from C up to Mg. Out-of-equilibrium aα emission has been evidenced and attributed both to an entrance channel effect (favoured by the cluster nature of reaction partners, and, in more dissipative events, to the persistence of cluster correlations well above the 24Mg threshold for 6 α’s decay. In order to study the same 24Mg compound nucleus at similar excitation energy with respect to this first reaction a new measurement, 14N + 10B at 5.7 A.MeV, was performed at LNL laboratories with the same experimental setup. The comparison between the two systems would allow us to further constrain the level density of light nuclei in the mass-excitation energy range of interest. In this perspective, deviations from a statistical behaviour can be used as a tool to get information on nuclear clustering, both in the ground-state for projectile and target and in the hot source formed in the collision.

  11. Development of new organometallic species for the labelling of radiotracers with short half-lives radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactivity of clean organotins have been studied in the Stille coupling reaction in fast conditions, witch can be used with short half-life radioisotope. In a first part, development of the reaction conditions have been studied for the transfer of a methyl group by the Stille coupling reaction, via the synthesis of the correspond mono-organotin. The reaction time was optimized onto model compounds in 12-carbon and 11-carbon chemistry. In a second part, this methodology was applied to the synthesis of NK3 receptors radioligands, in 12-carbon and 11-carbon chemistry. Biological studies showed that these ligands have a good affinity with NK3 receptors, and are potential positron emission tomography tracers. (author)

  12. Decay Rates and Semi-stable Fraction Formation after 12 years of Foliar Litter Decomposition in Canadian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smyth, C.; Moore, T.; Prescott, C.; Titus, B.; Siltanen, M.; Visser, S.; Preston, C. M.; Nault, J.

    2009-12-01

    Litter decay in early and midphases of decomposition have been shown to highly influenced by climate and substrate quality, however factors affecting decay during the late semi-stable phase are less well understood. The Canadian Intersite Decomposition Experiment (CIDET) was established in 1992 with the objective of providing data on the long-term rates of litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization for a range of forested ecoclimatic regions in Canada. Such data were needed to help verify models used for national C accounting, as well as aid in the development of other soil C models. CIDET examined the annual decay, over a 12-year period, of 10 standard foliar litters and 2 wood substrates at 18 forested upland and 3 wetland sites ranging from the cool temperate to subarctic regions, a nearly 20oC span in temperature. On a subset of sites and litter types, changes in litter C chemistry over time were also determined. Over the first 6 years, C/N ratio and iron increased, NMR showed an overall decline in O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) and increase in alkyl, aromatic, phenolic, and carboxyl C. Proximate analysis showed the acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) increases, but true lignin did not accumulate, in contrast to the conceptual ligno-cellulose model of decomposition. Litter decay during first phase was related to initial litter quality (AUR and water soluble extract), winter precipitation, but not temperature, suggesting the importance of leaching during this phase. Decay rate “k” during the mid phase was related to temperature, initial litter quality (AUR and AUR/N), summer precipitation, but not soil N. In most cases decay had approached an asymptote before end of experiment. Although annual temperature was the best single predictor for 12-year asymptotes, summer precipitation and forest floor pH and C/N ratio were the best set of combined predictors. The changes in the decay factors during different phases may explain some of the discrepancies in the

  13. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa de Lima, Joao Jose [Servico de Biofisica/Biomatematica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    1998-11-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in medicine for diagnosis, either in vivo or in vitro, for therapeutics and also for investigation purposes. Nuclear medicine (Nm) studies in vivo are used to detect minimal amounts of radiopharmaceuticals in organs (the morphology) and their course over time (the function), resulting from physico-chemical interactions of the tracers within the body, in the sequence of specific physiological processes. In vitro applications of radioisotopes have become a most important tool in biochemical analysis. Therapeutic uses of radioisotopes cover from external gamma-ray sources in teleradiotherapy to direct cell irradiation in metabolic therapy. The information, which is conveyed by NM, is essentially metabolic and differs from that supplied by the other imaging techniques, which is basically structural. This quality is important in early detection and diagnosis. Efforts have steadily been made to bring NM imaging as close as possible to an ideal medical diagnostic tool: non-invasive and allowing studies yielding functional, morphological, three-dimensional and quantitative information simultaneously. Of the two tomographic techniques available in NM, positron emission tomography (PET) is probably closer to this goal than single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). High-contrast functional images of the dynamics of labelled molecules (native or functionally similar) that are metabolized by the organs under investigation, are obtained with these techniques. Nuclear medicine has progressed as a result of advances in four strategic areas: the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the technology and reliability of detectors, the capacity for modelling the metabolic fate of the inputs in the biological systems, and finally the ability to extract and process data. (author)

  14. Frontiers in radioisotope application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and radiation are being used in numerous and diverse fields to benefit mankind. A glimpse at the recent advances in terms of usage of new radionuclides or new techniques, in some of the important areas are discussed. Use of radionuclides in medicine, industries, agriculture and water resource management are delineated. The various uses of radiation such as cancer therapy, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food products, food preservation, industrial radiography, nucleonic gauges, crop mutation to raise better quality seeds, cross-linking and curing of materials, coatings etc. and treatment of municipal waste are discussed. (author). 56 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Elastic Scattering of CARBON-14 + CARBON-12, Carbon -14 + OXYGEN-16, and CARBON-14 + OXYGEN-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbenz, Stephen Michael

    We have carried out highly detailed studies of the elastic scattering of ^{14} C from ^{12}C, ^{16}O, and ^ {18}O, in a search for resonant phenomena in heavy-ion systems of non-zero isospin and zero spin. Angular distributions from ^{14}C+ ^{12}C and ^ {14}C+^{16}O scattering were measured at ^{14} C bombarding energies ranging from 20 to 40.3 MeV in 0.35 MeV steps. ^{14}C+ ^{18}O angular distributions were measured at ^{14}C energies from 20 to 30 MeV in 0.40 MeV steps and from 22.5 to 32.5 MeV in 2.5 MeV steps. The great variety of behavior which characterizes heavy-ion scattering is clearly illustrated by our data. The ^{14}C+^ {12}C and ^{14} C+^{16}O systems both exhibit marked gross structure in their excitation functions and deep oscillatory structure with a large backward angle rise in their angular distributions. They are in sharp contrast with the ^{14} C+^{18}O system, where structure is not apparent, and cross-sections fall steeply at larger angles and higher energies. However, only in the ^{14}C+ ^{12}C system are the excitation functions strongly fragmented by intermediate width structure. The anomalous appearance of the ^{14} C+^{12}C angular distributions near 17.5 MeV (cm) does suggest the existence of a resonant state (tentatively identified as l = 10 by phase shift analysis). In our analysis, we point out that the remarkable qualitative differences among these systems may be related to open-channel systematics. We find that general characteristics of the ^{14}C+ ^{18}O data are reproduced with a strongly absorbing optical potential model, contrary to the situation in the other two systems, where a specific mechanism, such as elastic transfer, must be invoked to account for the backward rise. We have pursued analysis with a one-step DWBA elastic transfer model which was quite successful at low energies. Its underprediction of the backward rise at higher energies provides further evidence of the importance of multi-step processes in two

  16. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  17. Observation of $B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi$ decay and study of $B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2}K^{*0}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Holtrop, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; Mc Skelly, B; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Van Dijk, M; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    The first observation of the decay $B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi$ and a study of $B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1,2}K^{*0}$ decays are presented. The analysis is performed using a dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: \\begin{equation*} \\begin{array}{lll} \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0_s\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}\\phi)}{\\cal{B}(B^0_s\\rightarrow J/\\psi\\phi)} &=& (18.9 \\pm1.8\\,(stat)\\pm1.3\\,(syst)\\pm0.8\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c1}K^{*0})}{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow J/\\psi K^{*0})} &=& (19.8 \\pm1.1\\,(stat)\\pm1.2\\,(syst)\\pm0.9\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\dfrac{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c2}K^{*0})}{\\cal{B}(B^0\\rightarrow\\chi_{c 1}K^{*0})} &=& (17.1 \\pm5.0\\,(stat)\\pm1.7\\,(syst)\\pm1.1\\,(\\cal{B})) \\times 10^{-2}, \\\\ \\end{array} \\end{equation*} where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge o...

  18. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  19. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  20. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  1. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  2. BOREAS TGB-12 Soil Carbon Data over the NSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbore, Susan; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Conrad, Sara K. (Editor); Harden, Jennifer; Sundquist, Eric; Winston, Greg

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-12 team made measurements of soil carbon inventories, carbon concentration in soil gases, and rates of soil respiration at several sites to estimate the rates of carbon accumulation and turnover in each of the major vegetation types. TGB-12 data sets include soil properties at tower and selected auxiliary sites in the BOREAS NSA and data on the seasonal variations in the radiocarbon content of CO2 in the soil atmosphere at NSA tower sites. The sampling strategies for soils were designed to take advantage of local fire chronosequences, so that the accumulation of C in areas of moss regrowth could be determined. These data are used to calculate the inventory of C and N in moss and mineral soil layers at NSA sites and to determine the rates of input and turnover (using both accumulation since the last stand-killing fire and radiocarbon data). This data set includes physical parameters needed to determine carbon and nitrogen inventory in soils. The data were collected discontinuously from August 1993 to July 1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files.

  3. States of Carbon-12 in the Skyrme Model

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, P H C

    2014-01-01

    The Skyrme model has two Skyrmion solutions of baryon number $12$, with $D_{3h}$ and $D_{4h}$ symmetries. The first has an equilateral triangular shape and the second an extended linear shape, analogous to the triangle and linear chain structures of three alpha particles. We recalculate the moments of inertia of these Skyrmions, and deduce the energies and spins of their quantized rotational excitations. There is a good match with the ground-state band of Carbon-12, and with the recently established rotational band of the Hoyle state. The ratio of the root mean square matter radii also matches the experimental value.

  4. Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope...

  5. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  6. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  7. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  8. Physical and bacterial controls on inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon during a sea ice growth and decay experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, J.; Delille, B.; Kaartokallio, H.;

    2014-01-01

    We investigated how physical incorporation, brine dynamics and bacterial activity regulate the distribution of inorganic nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in artificial sea ice during a 19-day experiment that included periods of both ice growth and decay. The experiment was performed...... regulating the distribution of the dissolved compounds within sea ice are clearly a complex interaction of brine dynamics, biological activity and in the case of dissolved organic matter, the physico-chemical properties of the dissolved constituents themselves....

  9. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sychov, Maxim [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)], E-mail: msychov@yahoo.com; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: I{sub sc}=14 {mu}A; U{sub oc}=2.3 V; power output -21 {mu}W. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch.

  10. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, S. Yu., E-mail: tsy@ispms.ru; Rubtsov, V. E., E-mail: rvy@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Melnikov, A. G., E-mail: melnikov-ag@tpu.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation.

  11. Friction stir processing on high carbon steel U12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friction stir processing (FSP) of high carbon steel (U12) samples has been carried out using a milling machine and tools made of cemented tungsten carbide. The FSP tool has been made in the shape of 5×5×1.5 mm. The microstructural characterization of obtained stir zone and heat affected zone has been carried out. Microhardness at the level of 700 MPa has been obtained in the stir zone with microstructure consisting of large grains and cementitte network. This high-level of microhardness is explained by bainitic reaction developing from decarburization of austenitic grains during cementite network formation

  12. A study of the #Delta# I = 1/2 rule in the weak decay of S-shell hypernuclei: BNL E931

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is empirically observed that the non-leptonic decay of strange hadrons is enhanced when the change in isospin is 1/2. This is generalized in the ''ΔI = 1/2 rule'' that states that all such decays proceed predominantly through ΔI = 1/2 amplitudes. However, there is no definitive explanation for this apparently universal rule. Non-mesonic decay of Λ-hypernuclei can occur through a weak decay process ΛN -> ηN. When stimulated by a neutron, two neutrons are emitted from the nucleus, and when stimulated by a proton, a proton and neutron are emitted. By measuring the relative decay widths (Γn/Γp) in the full set of s-shell hypernuclei, a sensitive test of the ΔI = 1/2 rule, and the determination of its applicability to non-mesonic decays can be made. In addition, information about the spin-isospin dependence of the weak decay process can be extracted. A measurement of Γn/Γp, to an accuracy of even 50% will be sufficient to address important issues relating to the ΔI = 1/2 rule and to the weak decay process. The experiment will measure the ratio Γn/Γp, following the decay of 4H which is produced by a stopped K- beam in a liquid Helium target. The Neutral Meson Spectrometer will be used to identify stopped kaon events by detection of the gamma rays that follow the decay of the emitted π0. Arrays of charged particle and neutron detectors will measure the relative neutron and proton emission probabilities. An engineering run was performed in 1998, without the Helium target, which demonstrated that the technique is feasible. The full experiment is scheduled at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron for the spring 2001 running period

  13. Radioisotopes for All - Low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Since the development of the tracer principle by George de Hevesy in 1913, radioisotopes have become an integral part of medical practice and research. The imaging modalities Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) have significantly enhanced our understanding of human biology and the development and progression of disease. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the cancer killing of radiation therapy with the targeting precision of immunotherapy to provide personalised cancer treatment. The technetium-99m crisis in 2008 highlighted the fragility of the current radioisotope supply network. Despite the significant impact of the shortages, only a handful of potential solutions have begun to be explored and developed. The supply of Tc-99m is again in doubt, with the shutdown of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten looming in 2014. Low-energy accelerators have the potential to greatly increase the availability of radioisotopes by providing a small, lower-cost production solution. Implementing these as a system of localised production centres that supply a small area would greatly reduce the impact of a facility shutdown and eliminate the risk of world-wide shortages. An accelerator system that is not tailored to the production of a single isotope will allow researchers to explore new options for SPECT, PET and RIT and improve access to radioisotopes for medical testing. The potential of low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production will be explored. Several case studies of production will be presented using both well-established and new isotopes to the fields of nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. These will include zirconium-89, iodine-123 and titanium-45. Calculated yields will be compared to predicted nuclear medicine requirements. Expected radionuclidic impurities will also be quantified with a discussion of suitable, simple radiochemical separation systems. The DC electrostatic

  14. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  15. Angular correlations of α-particles from decay of 40Ca following fusion of 28Si + 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angular correlations of α-particles from decay of 40Ca following fusion of 28Si + 12C were measured. The results for events leading to the ground state of 32S were quantitatively analysed, using the statistical model. Angular correlations in appropriate experimental conditions permitted to verify angular momentum selection predictions for each of the steps involved. Whereas the mean behaviour is well reproduced, more detailed comparison shows significant disagreement. Strongly structured coincident energy spectra were observed. It is shown that these structures are not compatible with standard statistical level densities

  16. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder Jan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight. The present study aimed to investigate the association between untreated dental decay and Body Mass Index (BMI among 12-year-old Filipino children. Methods Data collection was part of the National Oral Health Survey, a representative cross-sectional study of 1951 11-13-year-old school children using a modified, stratified cluster sampling design based on population classifications of the Philippine National Statistics Office. Caries was scored according to WHO criteria (1997 and odontogenic infections using the PUFA index. Anthropometric measures were performed by trained nurses. Some socio-economic determinants were included as potential confounding factors. Results The overall prevalence of caries (DMFT + dmft > 0 was 82.3% (95%CI; 80.6%-84.0%. The overall prevalence of odontogenic infections due to caries (PUFA + pufa > 0 was 55.7% (95% CI; 53.5%-57.9% The BMI of 27.1% (95%CI; 25.1%-29.1% of children was below normal, 1% (95%CI; 0.5%-1.4% had a BMI above normal. The regression coefficient between BMI and caries was highly significant (p 0 as compared to those without odontogenic infections had an increased risk of a below normal BMI (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.19-1.80. Conclusions This is the first-ever representative survey showing a significant association between caries and BMI and particularly between odontogenic infections and below normal BMI. An expanded model of hypothesised associations is presented that includes progressed forms of dental decay as a significant, yet largely neglected determinant of poor child development.

  17. Apparatus for eluting a daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for eluting a sterile daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope including a case, a generator having a supply of the parent radioisotope therein, a primary shield enclosing the generator for shielding against radioactive emissions from the parent radioisotope, and an annular wall extending up from the bottom of the case defining a compartment for reception of the primary shield thereby to hold the latter in position within the case is described. A vertical web extends between the annular wall and an exterior wall of the case. An auxiliary shield of suitable shielding material (e.g., lead) generally of the height of the primary shield is provided, this auxiliary shield having an inner cylindric surface conforming generally to the outer surface of the annular wall and having a slot therein for receiving the web. Thus, with the auxiliary shield positioned in the case adjacent the annular wall and with the web received by the slot, the auxiliary shield is held by the web in position in the case for shielding the user from excessive radioactive emissions from the generator in the event the radioactive emissions from the generator exceed the shielding capability of the primary shield

  18. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  19. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  20. Development of a radioisotope heat source for the two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Edwin I.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Amos, Wayne R.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a radioisotope heat source for the Two-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which is being considered for possible application by the U.S. Navy and for other Department of Defense applications. The heat source thermal energy (75 Wt) is produced from the alpha decay of plutonium-238 which is in the form of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The capsule is non-vented and consists of three domed cylindrical components each closed with a corresponding sealed end cap. Surrounding the fuel is the liner component, which is fabricated from a tantalum-based alloy, T-111. Also fabricated from T-111 is the next component, the strength member, which serves to meet pressure and impact criteria. The outermost component, or clad, is the oxidation- and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, Hastelloy S. This paper defines the design considerations, details the hardware fabrication and welding processes, discusses the addition of yttrium to the fuel to reduce liner embrittlement, and describes the testing that has been conducted or is planned to assure that there is fuel containment not only during the heat source operational life, but also in case of an accident environment.

  1. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131I (solution and capsule), 131I-MIBG, 131I-Hippuran, 153Sm-EDTMP, 153Sm-HA, and 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  2. Safety test of transport packages for radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, has tested safety of type B(M), A and L packages according to the regulations of RI transportation. The type B(M) package weighing about 1800 kg. Used for transport of 192Ir(6540 Ci) and 32P(188 Ci) from reactors to the Radioisotope Production Laboratory, consists of a cylindrical plywood receptacle, aluminum honeycomb shock absorbers, steel framework and a 150 mm wall thickness drawer type lead container. Safety tests for type B(M) included 9 m high free drops in four postures, vertical, horizontal, corner and reverse, 1 m free drops on to an iron rod with in two postures, vertical and horizontal (the latter for punch test) and thermal test. The maximum acceleration in the punch test showed 735 G and in the 9 m drop test 2590 G. For thermal test of the whole package, a large muffle furnace was used. When the temperature of furnace reached 9200C, the package was inserted into it and heated for 30 min. During the test surface temperature of the lead container rose only by 19.10C. In 12.2 m free drop of type A and L package as safety test, 5 ml vials containing simulation RI solution retained their integrity without breakage. (author)

  3. Determination of the radiological impact of radioisotope waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) controls the uses of radioisotopes and the management of wastes resulting from radioisotope use through licences. In most cases, wastes generated through the use of radioisotopes are required by licence condition to be sent to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for storage but if the amounts of radioisotope are very small, have a low activity or a very short half-life, the radioisotope is permitted to be released to regular waste management systems. The AECB commissioned this study to determine the doses to individuals working in municipal waste management systems and to populations of cities where small amounts of radioisotopes are disposed of through the municipal waste managment systems. The Hamilton-Burlington area surrounding Hamilton Harbour was selected as the study area. The pathways and dosimetry models were put into a computer spread sheet, to give the model flexibility so that it could be easily modified to model other cities. Within the occupational critical group, the maximum doses were calculated for the Hamilton sewage treatment plant aeration worker at 1.2E-6 Sv/a. If this individual were also a member of the critical group in the general population, the maximum dose would be 2.0E-6 Sv/a. Individual doses to the critical group within the general population were calculated as 7.7E-7 Sv/a for adults and 6.8E-8 Sv/a for infants. These compare to AECB regulatory limits of 5.0E-2 Sv/a per person for atomic radiation workers and 5.0E-3 Sv/a per person for the general public. The collective population dose for the study area was 1.37E-1 person-Sv/a or an average dose of 2.6E-7 Sv/a per person for the 525,000 population

  4. High purity materials as targets for radioisotope production: Needs and challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Shivarudrappa; K V Vimalnath

    2005-07-01

    Radionuclides have become powerful and indispensable tools in many endeavours of human activities, most importantly in medicine, industry, biology and agriculture, apart from R&D activities. Ready availability of radionuclides in suitable radiochemical form, its facile detection and elegant tracer concepts are responsible for their unprecedented use. Application of radioisotopes in medicine has given birth to a new branch, viz. nuclear medicine, wherein radioisotopes are used extensively in the diagnosis and treatment of variety of diseases including cancer. Artificial transmutation of an element employing thermal neutrons in a reactor or high energy particle accelerators (cyclotrons) are the routes of radioisotope production world over. Availability of high purity target materials, natural or enriched, are crucial for any successful radioisotope programme. Selection of stable nuclides in suitable chemical form as targets with desired isotopic and chemical purity are among the important considerations in radioisotope production. Mostly the oxide, carbonate or the metal itself are the preferred target forms for neutron activation in a research reactor. Chemical impurities, particularly from the elements of the same group, put a limitation on the purity of the final radioisotope product. Whereas the isotopic impurities result in the production of undesirable radionuclidic impurities, which affect their effective utilization. Isotope Group, BARC, is in the forefront of radioisotope production and supply in the country, meeting demands for gamut of radioisotope applications indigenously for over four decades now. Radioisotopes such as 131I, 99Mo, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 82Br, 203Hg, 198Au etc are produced in TBq quantities every month and supplied to several users and to Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT). Such a large production programme puts a huge demand on the reliable sources of availability of high purity target materials which are at present mostly met

  5. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  6. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.)

  7. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  8. Unbound states in $^{12}$C populated by $\\gamma$-decay of the $(J^{\\pi},T) = (2^+,1)$ 16.11 MeV state

    CERN Document Server

    Laursen, K L; Kirsebom, O S; Madsøll, K S; Riisager, K

    2016-01-01

    The reaction $^{11}\\textrm{B}+p$ has been used to populate the $(J^\\pi,T) = (2^+,1)$ state at an excitation energy of 16.11 MeV in $^{12}$C. $\\gamma$-decay to unbound states in $^{12}$C are identified from analysis of the decay of the populated daughter states. Due to a new technique, $\\gamma$-decay to the 10.8 MeV 1$^-$ state is observed for the first time, and transitions to the 9.64 MeV (3$^-$) and 12.71 MeV (1$^+$) are confirmed. Unresolved transitions to natural parity strength at 10 MeV and 11.5-13 MeV are also observed. For all transitions partial widths are deduced

  9. A study of the Delta I = 1/2 rule in the weak decay of S-shell hypernuclei: BNL E931

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GILL,R.L., FOR THE E931 COLLABORATION.

    2000-10-23

    It is empirically observed that the non-leptonic decay of strange hadrons is enhanced when the change in isospin is 1/2. This is generalized in the ''{Delta}I = 1/2 rule'' that states that all such decays proceed predominantly through {Delta}I = 1/2 amplitudes. However, there is no definitive explanation for this apparently universal rule. Non-mesonic decay of {Lambda}-hypernuclei can occur through a weak decay process {Lambda}N {r_arrow} {eta}N. When stimulated by a neutron, two neutrons are emitted from the nucleus, and when stimulated by a proton, a proton and neutron are emitted. By measuring the relative decay widths ({Gamma}{sub n}/{Gamma}{sub p}) in the full set of s-shell hypernuclei, a sensitive test of the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule, and the determination of its applicability to non-mesonic decays can be made. In addition, information about the spin-isospin dependence of the weak decay process can be extracted. A measurement of {Gamma}{sub n}/{Gamma}{sub p}, to an accuracy of even 50% will be sufficient to address important issues relating to the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule and to the weak decay process. The experiment will measure the ratio {Gamma}{sub n}/{Gamma}{sub p}, following the decay of {sup 4}H which is produced by a stopped K{sup {minus}} beam in a liquid Helium target. The Neutral Meson Spectrometer will be used to identify stopped kaon events by detection of the gamma rays that follow the decay of the emitted {pi}{sup 0}. Arrays of charged particle and neutron detectors will measure the relative neutron and proton emission probabilities. An engineering run was performed in 1998, without the Helium target, which demonstrated that the technique is feasible. The full experiment is scheduled at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron for the spring 2001 running period.

  10. Development of Kabila rocket: A radioisotope heated thermionic plasma rocket engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalomba Mboyi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of plasma rocket engine, the Kabila rocket, using a radioisotope heated thermionic heating chamber instead of a conventional combustion chamber or catalyst bed is introduced and it achieves specific impulses similar to the ones of conventional solid and bipropellant rockets. Curium-244 is chosen as a radioisotope heat source and a thermal reductive layer is also used to obtain precise thermionic emissions. The self-sufficiency principle is applied by simultaneously heating up the emitting material with the radioisotope decay heat and by powering the different valves of the plasma rocket engine with the same radioisotope decay heat using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator. This rocket engine is then benchmarked against a 1 N hydrazine thruster configuration operated on one of the Pleiades-HR-1 constellation spacecraft. A maximal specific impulse and power saving of respectively 529 s and 32% are achieved with helium as propellant. Its advantages are its power saving capability, high specific impulses and simultaneous ease of storage and restart. It can however be extremely voluminous and potentially hazardous. The Kabila rocket is found to bring great benefits to the existing spacecraft and further research should optimize its geometric characteristics and investigate the physical principals of its operation.

  11. Non-uniform decay in jumping exercise-induced bone gains following 12 and 24 weeks of cessation of exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Foong-Kiew; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Umemura, Yoshohisa; Nagasawa, Seigo

    2011-11-01

    The effects of deconditioning on exercise-induced bone gains in rats were investigated in 12-week-old female WKY rats performing a standard jumping exercise regimen for either 8, 12 or 24 weeks, followed by sedentary periods of either 24, 12 or 0 weeks, respectively. Age-matched controls received no exercise over the same period. At the end of the training/sedentary period, the tibiae were harvested for analyses of bone parameters. Gains in tibial fat-free dry weight decayed within 12 weeks of deconditioning, but gains in tibial ultimate bending force (strength), maximum diameter and cortical area were still present at 12 weeks of deconditioning. With the exception of cortical area, all other exercise-induced bone gains decayed by the 24th week of deconditioning. It appears that the decay in exercise-induced bone gains in strength, physical and morphological properties is not uniform, and that gains in fat-free dry weight seem to decay earlier. PMID:21870136

  12. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  13. Identification of ultra-fine magnetic particles in weakly magnetic carbonates using time-decay of viscous remanence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadima, M.; Chadimova, L.

    2015-12-01

    In some geological and environmental processes, such as diagenesis, very low grade metamorphism, pedogenesis, anthropogenic pollution, new ultra-fine magnetic minerals may be formed. The variation in content of these minerals has been routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility. Although being quite reliable for most rocks, frequency-dependent susceptibility reaches its limit when applied to very weakly magnetic rock types, e.g. carbonates. Assuming a broad size distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest assessing their content by quantification of time-decay of viscous remanent magnetization. Using artificially-imparted magnetization we usually obtain much stronger signal compared to that of magnetic susceptibility. For that purpose we employed a LDA5/PAM1 Pulse Magnetizer coupled with a JR6 Spinner Magnetometer (both manufactured by Agico, Inc.). Both instruments are simultaneously controlled thus they work in the same time frame. Magnetic remanence is measured repeatedly as a function of time and exponential decay curves are fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous particles is estimated. The proposed method is tested on two sets of samples representing biostratigraphically well-established sections across Silurian shallow-water limestone facies in the Prague Synform (Czech Republic). Sampling interval comprises so-called Lau Event which belongs to one of the major environmental and biological perturbances in the Phanerozoic Ocean. This level is also associated with very strong geochemical changes, so-called global Middle Ludfordian Carbon Isotope Excursion, recognized in numerous areas worldwide. Other geophysical methods applied include high-resolution magnetic susceptibility measurements and gamma-ray spectrometry, supplemented by rock magnetic measurements (ARM/IRM) and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility.

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  15. Chromatographic generator systems for the actinides and natural decay series elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAlister, D.R.; Horwitz, E.P. [PG Research Foundation, Lisle, IL (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This work describes chromatographic radionuclide generator systems for the production of actinides and natural decay series elements. The generator systems begin with alpha emitting parent radioisotopes with half-lives (T{sub 1/2}) of greater than one year and produce alpha or beta emitting radioisotopes with half-lives of hours to days. Chromatographic systems were chosen to minimize radiolytic damage to chromatographic supports, preserve the parent activity for repeated use, provide high purity daughter radionuclide tracers, and to minimize or eliminate the need for evaporation of solutions of the parent or daughter nuclides. Useful secondary separations involving the daughters of the initial parent radionuclide are also described. Separation systems for {sup 210}Bi, {sup 210}Po, {sup 211}Pb, {sup 212}Pb, {sup 223}Ra, {sup 224}Ra, {sup 225}Ra, {sup 225}Ac, {sup 227}Th, {sup 228}Th, {sup 231}Th, {sup 234}Th, and {sup 239}Np are outlined in detail. (orig.)

  16. Coastal climate reflected in carbon-13/carbon-12 ratio of organic carbon in varved sediment from Santa Barbara basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Tegner, Mia J.

    1991-01-01

    A 1844-1987 time-series of carbon stable isotope ratios from dated sedimentary total organic carbon from the center of the Santa Barbara basin is compared with historical climate and oceanographic records. Carbon derived from carbon-13-depleted phytoplankton and carbon-13-enriched kelp appear responsible for a large part of the isotopic variance in sedimentary total organic carbon. El Niño/Southern Oscillation events are recorded by the isotopic response of marine organic carbon in sediments.

  17. A time like our own? Radioisotopic calibration of the Ordovician greenhouse to icehouse transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elliot; Singer, Brad S.; Simo, Toni

    2011-11-01

    Tiered interpolation, a new timescale methodology, was used to construct the first radioisotopically-calibrated composite δ 13C curve for the Ordovician period using sanidine 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations and existing U-Pb geochronology and biostratigraphic zonation. Tiered interpolation intercalates and temporally scales the numerical age of lithostratigraphic horizons by conducting a series of nested projections between hierarchical temporal control points. For primary control points, new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and legacy U-Pb geochronology were screened to avoid analyses affected by inheritance and daughter loss and calibrated to reflect modern decay constants and standard values. Ages for secondary, tertiary, etc.… control points are obtained via linear interpolation of between higher order control points. In scaling the Ordovician δ 13C composite, the following control point order was applied: (1) radioisotopic ages (2) graptolite Zones, (3) index taxa-based on speciation events (North Atlantic conodont Zones), (4) North American Mid-continent conodont zones, and (5) stratal thicknesses at δ 13C sampled sections. The resulting timescale utilizes the highest resolution of each component, is internally consistent, and is re-scalable as more precise radioisotopic ages become available. It provides a robust framework for independently assessing the accuracy of biostratigraphic composite timescales because it does not rely an assumption of quasi-continuous sediment accumulation and/or speciation. To better calibrate the Late Ordovician and resolve a discrepancy between U-Pb and 40Ar/ 39Ar ages, three new 40Ar/ 39Ar ages were determined via the laser fusion of multiple single sanidine phenocrysts from three bentonitic ash beds from the Late Ordovician marine strata of the upper Mississippi valley where the record of Taconic volcanism is most complete. Fusions of 275 individual sanidine crystals from the Millbrig, Dygerts, and Rifle Hill bentonites yield largely

  18. Safety Analysis for a Radioisotope Stirling Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting safety analyses of various lowpower Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) design concepts for the U. S. Department of Energy. These systems are electrical power generators converting thermal energy from plutonium (238Pu) decay to electrical energy via a Stirling cycle generator. The design and function are similar to the RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) used in space missions since the early 1960's, with a more efficient Stirling cycle generator replacing the proven thermoelectric converter. This paper discusses the methods the INL is employing in the safety analysis effort, along with the software tools, lessons learned, and results. The overall goal of our safety analyses is to determine the probability of an accidental plutonium release over the life of the generator. Historical accident rates for various transportation modes were investigated using event tree methods. Source terms were developed for these accidents including primarily impact, fire, and creep rupture. A negative result was defined as rupture of the tantalum alloy containment vessel surrounding the encapsulated plutonia pellet. Damage due to identified impact accidents was evaluated using non-linear finite element software tools. Material models, gathered from a wide variety of sources, included strain-rate and temperature dependencies on yield strength, strain hardening, and rupture. Both individual component and overall system simulation results will be validated by impact testing to be conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results from deterministic impact, fire, and creep rupture analyses were integrated into the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment by correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. This approach presented challenges, which are addressed. Other significant issues include limitations of reliable material data at high temperatures and strain rates and development of a technique to

  19. Effect of temperature-dependent organic carbon decay on atmospheric pCO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Hashioka, Taketo; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro

    2007-06-01

    Extendingy an almost universal observation that the rate of microbial activity increases with temperature, we propose that marine microbial activity was suppressed during previous glacial periods and allowed proportionally more organic carbon to be exported out of the surface ocean. A stronger organic carbon pump and therefore lower rain ratios of CaCO3 to organic carbon may have contributed to the low atmospheric CO2 content during the Last Glacial Maximum. Previous study of temperature-dependent export production (Laws et al., 2000) and our map of data-based, global distribution of the rain ratios lend support to today's rain ratios being controlled at least partly by temperature. A close examination with a high-resolution regional ocean ecosystem model indicates that the correlation between rain ratio and temperature is caused indeed by preferential remineralization of organic matter, but a part of the correlation is also driven by temperature-dependent community composition. An extrapolation of these results to the globe using a global carbon cycle box model with a module for sediments indicates that the drawdown of atmospheric CO2 by the proposed mechanism is approximately 30 ppm. While this estimate is subject to uncertainty, the fact that it represents nearly one third of the glacial-interglacial variation in atmosphere pCO2 suggests the potential importance of the new mechanism. Given the historical difficulty in explaining the full CO2 amplitude with a single cause, we suggest that a set of multiple mechanisms were responsible and that the temperature-dependent POC degradation rate is one of them. We discuss two possible difficulties with our proposal that have to do with the potentially important role that ballasts play in organic carbon export and the possibility that enhanced biological pump is self limiting.

  20. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benzian, H.; Monse, B.; Heinrich-Weltzien, R.; Hobdell, M.; Mulder, J.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dental decay is the most common childhood disease worldwide and most of the decay remains untreated. In the Philippines caries levels are among the highest in the South East Asian region. Elementary school children suffer from high prevalence of stunting and underweight.The present study

  1. Drought indicated in carbon-13/carbon-12 ratios of Southwestern tree rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stomatal closure during periods of moisture deficiency should theoretically lead to elevated 13C/12C ratios as reduction of available CO2 leads to diminished photosynthetic discrimination against 13C in favor of 12C. Stable-carbon isotope ratio chronologies developed from 5-yr tree-ring groups at 17 sites in six southwestern states were tested for a drought relationship by first fitting a spline curve to each chronology to remove the long-term trend and calculating indices as the ratio of actual to spline curve value. The time series of “Del Indices” so developed are significantly correlated with 5-yr mean Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (post-1930 period) and reconstructed July Palmer Drought Severity Indices from respective areas. Overall, in the period since 1790, the driest pentads were 1900–04 and 1960–64, whereas the wettest were 1980–84 and 1915–19. Maps of drought represented for two pentads seem to be reasonable representations, although spatial correlations of Del Indices with PHDI were generally not significant. These Del Index drought reconstructions may provide a useful measure of past physiological response to drought (stomatal closure), although the present cost of analysis would prevent this from being a routine method. (author)

  2. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  3. Study of Radioisotope Requirements For Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Nathan W

    1962-01-01

    The tables of this report summarize firm and anticipated radioisotope requirements and list the projects for which radioisotope electric power generators may be used. This compilation represents the results of a study made by Nathan W. Snyder of Royal Research Corporation for the Division of Isotopes Development, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  4. Precision measurement of the half-life and branching ratio of the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K. Nuclear mirror $\\beta$-decay is a competitive means to test the electroweak model by means of the high-precision measurement of V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM quark mixing matrix. One key ingredient to obtain V$_{ud}$ is the force of the transition, Ft, which has to be determined with a relative precision below 10$^{−3}$. This quantity is related to the half-life T$_{1/2}$ of the decaying nucleus, the branching ratio BR for this decay and the mass difference between the mother and daughter nucleus (Q value). Another important feature is the mixing ratio $\\rho$ between the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller character of the transition. In most cases, $\\rho$ is the major contributor to the uncertainty on Ft. Available data concerning T$_{1/2}$ and BR of $^{37}$K suffer from a lack of precision that will be easily reduced by a dedicated experiment.

  5. Observation of B{sub s}{sup 0}→χ{sub c1}ϕ decay and study of B{sup 0}→χ{sub c1,2}K{sup ⁎0} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaij, R. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adinolfi, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Adrover, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Affolder, A. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Ajaltouni, Z. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, LPC, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Albrecht, J. [Fakultät Physik, Technische Universität Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Alessio, F. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Alexander, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Ali, S. [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Alkhazov, G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI), Gatchina (Russian Federation); Alvarez Cartelle, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Alves, A.A. [Sezione INFN di Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Amato, S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amerio, S. [Sezione INFN di Padova, Padova (Italy); Amhis, Y. [LAL, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Anderlini, L. [Sezione INFN di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Anderson, J. [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Andreassen, R. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Andrews, J.E. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); and others

    2013-09-21

    The first observation of the decay B{sub s}{sup 0}→χ{sub c1}ϕ and a study of B{sup 0}→χ{sub c1,2}K{sup ⁎0} decays are presented. The analysis is performed using a dataset, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb{sup −1}, collected by the LHCb experiment in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: (table) where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fractions of χ{sub c}→J/ψγ modes.

  6. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  7. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  8. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  9. The role of the chemist in the development and production of radioisotope preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Isotope Production Centre of the Atomic Energy Board manufactures and markets a large number of important radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and research fields which, previously, had to be imported. The development and production of radioisotope products require a multi-disciplinary approach in which a team effort by chemists, physicists, engineers, biologists and physicians is applied. Radioisotopes are usually used in the form of sealed radiation sources, simple inorganic compounds or radioisotope-labelled molecules. Sealed radiation sources such as cobalt-60 and iridium-192 are applied widely in the industrial field in, for example, level-high and level- density measurements, radiation sterilisation of medical equipment, and gamma radiography of structures. For industrial tracer and research purposes sodium-24, argon-41, bromine-82, iodine-131 and gold-198 are regularly used in simple chemical form. There are some thousands of radioisotope-labelled compounds of which the largest group compromises compounds of tritium, carbon-14 and sulphur-35. Because the last-mentioned isotopes have long physical half-lives and poor detectability in in vivo systems, they are used in vitro mainly in biomedical research. Radioisotopes such as iodine-131, iodine-123, indium-111, technetium-99m, krypton-81m and gallium-67 are in great demand for in vivo medical examinations because of their suitably short half-lives and detectability by the gamma camera. Iodine-125, a radioisotope which is usually manufactured in a nuclear reactor, plays a very important role in radioimmuoassays(RIA). The latter technique is an unusually sensitive, spesific in vitro analytical method which enables scientists to determine nanogram to picogram amounts of chemical compounds in blood. The design, development and manufacture of radioisotope preparations for a variety of uses offer an interesting challenge to the chemist now as well as in the future

  10. Present status of research on Re-186 radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutalib, A. [Radioisotope Production Center, National Atomic Energy Agency Kawasan PUSPIPTEK, Serpong (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium shows a close chemical similarity to technetium and is suitable for radiotherapy because the {beta}-emitting radionuclides {sup 186}Re (t{sub 1/2} 90 h, E{sub {beta}} = 1.1 MeV, E{sub {gamma}} = 137 keV) and {sup 188}Re (t{sub 1/2} = 17 h, E{sub {beta}} = 2.1 MeV). The {gamma}-emission associated with decay of {sup 186}Re is also useful in scintigraphy. The research on {sup 186}Re radiopharmaceuticals at Radioisotope Production Center has been carried out since April 1997. Interest in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) led us to the development of labeling antibodies with rhenium isotopes. Although there are several methods for coupling radiometal to antibody, we prefer an indirect labeling method in which a bifunctional chelating agent is used for coupling of {sup 186}Re to monoclonal antibodies. In this report we outline the study on the preparation of {sup 186}Re DMSA-TFP as precursor for labeling with monoclonal antibody. (author)

  11. Decay constants in geochronology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IgorM.Villa; PaulR.Renne

    2005-01-01

    Geologic time is fundamental to the Earth Sciences, and progress in many disciplines depends critically on our ability to measure time with increasing accuracy and precision. Isotopic geochronology makes use of the decay of radioactive nuclides as a help to quantify the histories of rock, minerals, and other materials. Both accuracy and precision of radioisotopic ages are, at present, limited by those of radioactive decay constants. Modem mass spectrometers can measure isotope ratios with a precision of 10-4 or better. On the other hand, the uncertainties associated with direct half-life determinations are, in most cases, still at the percent level. The present short note briefly summarizes progress and problems that have been encountered during the Working Group's activity.

  12. Notification prescribing the quantities of radioisotopes and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notification is wholly revised under the order and the regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes. The concentration of isotopes emitting radiation shall be 0.002 micro-curie per gram. When not tightly sealed, the quantity of such isotopes shall be 0.1 micro-curie for strontium 90 and isotopes emitting alpha rays, 1 micro-curie for isotopes emitting radiation with half-life of more than 30 days, 10 micro-curie for isotopes emitting radiation with half-life of less than 30 days and 100 micro-curie for Hydrogen 3, Beryllium 7, Carbon 14, Fluorine 18, etc. The quantity of isotopes shall be more than 10 curie for those with automatic indicators and more than 3,000 curie for those interlocked. In the controlled area the permissible dose of exterior radiation is 30 mili-rem for a week. The maximum permissible exposure dose for the workers engaged in radiation business is 3 rem for 3 months. The maximum permissible accumulative dose for such workers is a figure (unit rem) calculated by a formula D = 5(N-18), when D means the permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. The permissible exposure dose is 12 rem for the urgent work and 1.5 rem for a year for the persons who enter into the controlled area on business. The maximum permissible density in the air, under water and on the surface, etc. are in detail prescribed with tables attached. (Okada, K.)

  13. Overview of radioisotope production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are in widespread and increasing daily use throughout the world. Applications include medical diagnosis, treatment of cancer, sterilization of medical disposables, the perservation of food, and the hygienization of waste products. The unique production capabilities of Canadian research reactors and CANDU electrical generating stations have enabled Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to make an important contribution to the growth of this industry. The paper describes the production, processing, transportation and applications of the major radioisotopes in use today. The equipment required for the efficient use of these radioisotopes is described and the potential for growth is discussed

  14. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  15. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms, including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: 1) isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; 2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; 3) isotopes purchased cross- referenced with customer numbers; 4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and 5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1987.

  19. Research reactor production of radioisotopes for medical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 70% of all radioisotopes applied in medical diagnosis and research are currently produced in research reactors. Research reactors are also an important source of certain radioisotopes, such as 60Co, 90Y, 137Cs and 198Au, which are employed in teletherapy and brachytherapy. For regular medical applications, mainly 29 radionuclides produced in research reactors are used. These are now produced on an 'industrial scale' by many leading commercial manufacturers in industrialized countries as well as by national atomic energy establishments in developing countries. Five main neutron-induced reactions have been employed for the regular production of these radionuclides, namely: (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,γ) followed by decay, and (n, fission). In addition, the Szilard-Chalmers process has been used in low- and medium-flux research reactors to enrich the specific activity of a few radionuclides (mainly 51Cr) produced by the (n,γ) reaction. Extensive work done over the last three decades has resulted in the development of reliable and economic large-scale production methods for most of these radioisotopes and in the establishment of rigorous specifications and purity criteria for their manifold applications in medicine. A useful spectrum of other radionuclides with suitable half-lives and low to medium toxicity can be produced in research reactors, with the requisite purity and specific activity and at a reasonable cost, to be used as tracers. Thanks to the systematic work done in recent years by many radiopharmaceutical scientists, the radionuclides of several elements, such as arsenic, selenium, rhenium, ruthenium, palladium, cadmium, tellurium, antimony, platinum, lead and the rare earth elements, which until recently were considered 'exotic' in the biomedical field, are now gaining attention. (author)

  20. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles

  1. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) is a multicenter, multiagency (with the Department of Energy (DOE)) program whose purpose is to manage the Science Mission...

  2. Breakdown of Lorentz invariance for spin-1/2 particle motion in curved space-time with applications to muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores the properties of the Pauli-Lubanski spin vector for the general motion of spin-1/2 particles in curved space-time. Building upon previously determined results in flat space-time, it is shown that the associated Casimir scalar for spin possesses both gravitational contributions and frame-dependent contributions due to noninertial motion, where the latter represents a possible quantum violation of Lorentz invariance that becomes significant at the Compton wavelength scale. When applied to muon decay near the event horizon of a microscopic Kerr black hole, it is shown that its differential cross section is strongly affected by curvature, with particular sensitivity to changes in the black hole's spin angular momentum. In the absence of curvature, the noninertial contributions to the decay spectrum are also identified and explored in detail, where its potential for observation is highest for large electron opening angles. It is further shown how possible contributions to noncommutative geometry can emerge from within this formalism at some undetermined length scale. Surprisingly, while the potential exists to identify noncommutative effects in muon decay, the relevant terms make no contribution to the decay spectrum, for reasons which remain unknown.

  3. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR).

  4. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  5. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  6. Efficacy of supercritical carbon dioxide for nonthermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) system with a gas-liquid porous metal contactor for eliminating Escherichia coli K12 in apple cider. Pasteurized, preservative-free apple cider was inoculated with E. coli K12 and processed using the SCCO2 system at CO2 conc...

  7. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  8. Characterizing the atomic mass surface beyond the proton drip line via a-decay measurements of the s1/2 ground state of 165Re and the h11/2 isomer in 161Ta

    CERN Document Server

    O'Donnell, D; Scholey, C; Bianco, L; Capponi, L; Carroll, R J; Darby, I G; Donosa, L; Drummond, M; Ertugral, F; Greenlees, P T; Grahn, T; Hauschild, K; Herzan, A; Jakobsson, U; Jones, P; Joss, D T; Julin, R; Juutinen, S; Ketelhut, S; Labiche, M; Leino, M; Lopez-Martens, A; Mullholland, K; Nieminen, P; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Rinta-Antila, S; Ruotsalainen, P; Sandzelius, M; Saren, J; Saygi, B; Simpson, J; Sorri, J; Thornthwaite, A; Uusitalo, J; 10.1103/PhysRevC.86.064315

    2012-01-01

    The a-decay chains originating from the s1/2 and h11/2 states in 173Au have been investigated following fusion-evaporation reactions. Four generations of a radioactivities have been correlated with 173Aum leading to a measurement of the a decay of 161Tam. It has been found that the known a decay of 161Ta, which was previously associated with the decay of the ground state, is in fact the decay of an isomeric state. This work also reports on the first observation of prompt g rays feeding the ground state of 173Au. This prompt radiation was used to aid the study of the a-decay chain originating from the s1/2 state in 173Au. Three generations of a decays have been correlated with this state leading to the observation of a previously unreported activity which is assigned as the decay of 165Reg. This work also reports the excitation energy of an a-decaying isomer in 161Ta and the Q-value of the decay of 161Tag.

  9. Dynamical decay of 32S* and 31P* formed in 20Ne+12C and 19F+12C reactions, respectively, at E*CN = 60 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BirBikram

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The target-like C-yield in the decay of compound systems 32S* and 31P* formed in 20Ne+12C and 19F+12C reactions at E*CN=60 MeV, is studied for the contribution of fusion-fission (ff decay cross section σff and the deep inelastic (DI orbiting σorb from the compound nucleus (CN and non-compound nucleus nCN processes, respectively. The calculations are performed using the collective clusterization of fragments within the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM of Gupta and collaborators. Besides studying the competition between ff and DI orbiting phenomenon in the C-yield of these systems, we exclusively investigate the preformation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P as a function of angular momentum ℓ values which subsequently affects the contributions of σff and σorb. For calculating the contribution of σff in the C-yield, we have added the contributions from all the minimized intermediate mass fragments (IMFs for Z=6 in the calculated fragmentation potentials for 32S* (IMFs 11,12,13C are minimized and for 31P* (IMFs 12,13C are minimized, while calculating subsequently, P0 and the P for these IMFs. The distribution of preformed clusters/fragments as a function of fragment mass visibly explore the nuclear structure effects for the C-yield in decay of these compound systems, wherein, it is shown to be more favoured in the decay of 31P* in comparison to 32S* decay. The contribution of σorb to the C-yield is calculated from P at different allowed ℓ-values (upto ℓmax and also P≤1 of the outgoing fragments (same as that in the entrance channel, i.e., P0=1. Though preliminary but useful results indicates the competition between the CN and nCN process in the C-yield for the compound system 32S* only while the decay of 31P* is of pure CN origin, as observed in the experimental study. The calculations are in good comparison with the available experimental data.

  10. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  11. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  12. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  13. Radiopharmaceuticals in positron emission tomography: Radioisotope productions and radiolabelling procedures at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Sachinidis, J.I.; Chan, J.G.; Cook, M. [Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for Positron Emission Tomography

    1997-10-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a technique that utilizes positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals to map the physiology, biochemistry and pharmacology of the human body. Positron-emitting radioisotopes produced in a medical cyclotron are incorporated into compounds that are biologically active in the body. A scanner measures radioactivity emitted from a patient`s body and provides cross-sectional images of the distribution of these radiolabelled compounds in the body. It is the purpose of this paper to review the variety of PET radiopharmaceuticals currently produced at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. Radioisotope production, radiolabelling of molecules and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed. A few examples of their clinical applications will be shown as well. During the last five years we achieved a reliable routine production of various radiopharmaceuticals labelled with the four most important positron-emitters: oxygen-15 (t,{sub 1/2}=2min), nitrogen-13 (t{sub 1/2}= 10 min), carbon-11 (t{sub 1/2}=20 min) and fluorine-18 (t{sub 1/2}= 110 min). These radiopharmaceuticals include [{sup 15}O]oxygen, [{sup 15}O]carbon monoxide, [{sup 15}O]carbon dioxide, [{sup 15}O]water, [{sup 13}N]ammonia, [{sup 11}C]flumazenil, [{sup 11}C]SCH23390, [{sup 18}F]fluoromisonidazole and [{sup 18}F]fluoro-deoxy-glucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG). In addition, since the half life of [{sup 18}F] is almost two hours, regional distribution can be done, and the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre is currently supplying [{sup 18}F]FDG in routine to other hospitals. Future new radiopharmaceuticals development include a [{sup 18}F]thymidine analog to measure cell proliferation and a [{sup 11}C]pyrroloisoquinoline to visualize serotonergic neuron abnormalities. (authors) 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  15. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of 238Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  16. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  17. Search for squark production in events with jets, hadronically decaying tau leptons and missing transverse energy at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-05-01

    A search for supersymmetric partners of quarks is performed in the topology of multijet events accompanied by at least one tau lepton decaying hadronically and large missing transverse energy. Approximately 1 fb-1 of ppbar collision data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV recorded by the D0 detector is analyzed. Results are combined with the previously published D0 inclusive search for squarks and gluinos. No evidence of physics beyond the standard model is found and lower limits on the squark mass up to 410 GeV are derived in the framework of minimal supergravity with tan(beta)=15, A{sub 0}=-2m{sub 0} and mu<0, in the region where decays to tau leptons dominate. Gaugino masses m{sub 1/2} are excluded up to 172 GeV.

  18. Approximate |ΔI| = 1/2 rule in K → ππ decays from asymptotic quark-line diagram approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general method which copes with both the long and short distance physics aspects of nonleptonic weak interactions in presented. First, the four-point decay amplitude can be expressed in terms of the three-point asymptotic matrix elements of the effective weak Hamiltonian Hw, taken between the on-mass-shell single-hadron states with infinite momenta. The study of these matrix elements in terms of the quark-lines in the infinite momentum frame reveals that, for the K → ππ decays, those involving only the ordinary (QQ-bar) mesons do satisfy the strict |ΔI| = 1/2 rule. However, the contribution of the (QQ) (Q-barQ-bar) type exotic mesons leads explicitly to a small violation of the selection rule. (author)

  19. Radioisotopes production for applications on the health; Produccion de radioisotopos para aplicaciones en la salud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F.; Alanis M, J., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Radioactive Materials Department of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) processes have been studied and developed for the radioisotopes production of interest in the medicine, research, industry and agriculture. In particular five new processes have been developed in the last 10 years by the group of the Radioactive Materials Research Laboratory to produce: {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generators, the radio lanthanides: {sup 151}Pm, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 161}Tb, {sup 166}Ho, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 131}I and the {sup 32}P. All these radioisotopes are artificial and they can be produced in nuclear reactors and some of them in particle accelerators. The radioisotope generators are of particular interest, as those of {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re presented in this work, because they are systems that allow to produce an artificial radioisotope of interest continually, in these cases the {sup 99m}Tc and the {sup 188}Re, without the necessity of having a nuclear reactor or an particle accelerator. They are compact systems armored and sure perfectly of manipulating that, once the radioactive material has decayed, they do not present radiological risk some for the environment and the population. These systems are therefore of supreme utility in places where it is not had nuclear reactors or with a continuous radioisotope supply, due to their time of decaying, for its cost or for logistical problems in their supply, like it is the case of many hospital centers, of research or industries in our country. (Author)

  20. Mutations in genes involved in nonsense mediated decay ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 mutants with amber stop mutations in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubert Sylvie

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presenilin proteins are part of a complex of proteins that can cleave many type I transmembrane proteins, including Notch Receptors and the Amyloid Precursor Protein, in the middle of the transmembrane domain. Dominant mutations in the human presenilin genes PS1 and PS2 lead to Familial Alzheimer's disease. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans sel-12 presenilin gene cause a highly penetrant egg-laying defect due to reduction of signalling through the lin-12/Notch receptor. Mutations in six spr genes (for suppressor of presenilin are known to strongly suppress sel-12. Mutations in most strong spr genes suppress sel-12 by de-repressing the transcription of the largely functionally equivalent hop-1 presenilin gene. However, how mutations in the spr-2 gene suppress sel-12 is unknown. Results We show that spr-2 mutations increase the levels of sel-12 transcripts with Premature translation Termination Codons (PTCs in embryos and L1 larvae. mRNA transcripts from sel-12 alleles with PTCs undergo degradation by a process known as Nonsense Mediated Decay (NMD. However, spr-2 mutations do not appear to affect NMD. Mutations in the smg genes, which are required for NMD, can restore sel-12(PTC transcript levels and ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 mutants with amber PTCs. However, the phenotypic suppression of sel-12 by smg genes is nowhere near as strong as the effect of previously characterized spr mutations including spr-2. Consistent with this, we have identified only two mutations in smg genes among the more than 100 spr mutations recovered in genetic screens. Conclusion spr-2 mutations do not suppress sel-12 by affecting NMD of sel-12(PTC transcripts and appear to have a novel mechanism of suppression. The fact that mutations in smg genes can ameliorate the phenotype of sel-12 alleles with amber PTCs suggests that some read-through of sel-12(amber alleles occurs in smg backgrounds.

  1. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  2. Rhenium-188--a generator-derived radioisotope for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, F F

    1998-10-01

    Rhenium-188 (188Re) is an important therapeutic radioisotope which is obtained on demand as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator system. With a half-life of 16.9 hours and emission of a high energy beta particle (maximal energy of 2.12 MeV) and a gamma photon (155 keV, 15%) for imaging, 188Re can be provided at reasonable costs for routine preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment. PMID:10851424

  3. Nuclear media effects on production and decay of vector meson studied in 12 GeV p + A interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    En' yo, Hideto [Inst. of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Chiba, Junsei [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Funahashi, Haruhiko [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kyoto (JP)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    The experiment E325 has been carried out at KEK-PS to investigate nuclear media effects on the invariant mass spectra of {rho}, {omega} and {phi} mesons through their decays in the e{sup +}e{sup -} or K{sup +}K{sup -} channels. From the earlier data, the experiment has reported the signature of in-medium mass modification of {rho} and/or {omega} mesons for the first time. This manuscript describes our preliminary results based on the data acquired in the allocated beam time of {approx}3200 hours, which ended in February 2002. (author)

  4. Nuclear media effects on production and decay of vector meson studied in 12 GeV p + A interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment E325 has been carried out at KEK-PS to investigate nuclear media effects on the invariant mass spectra of ρ, ω and φ mesons through their decays in the e+e- or K+K- channels. From the earlier data, the experiment has reported the signature of in-medium mass modification of ρ and/or ω mesons for the first time. This manuscript describes our preliminary results based on the data acquired in the allocated beam time of ∼3200 hours, which ended in February 2002. (author)

  5. Commercial Superconducting Electron Linac for Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Terry Lee [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Boulware, Charles H. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Hollister, Jerry L. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Jecks, Randall W. [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Mamtimin, Mayir [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States); Starovoitova, Valeriia [Niowave, Inc., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-08-13

    The majority of radioisotopes used in the United States today come from foreign suppliers or are generated parasitically in large government accelerators and nuclear reactors. Both of these restrictions limit the availability of radioisotopes and discourage the development and evaluation of new isotopes and for nuclear medicine, science, and industry. Numerous studies have been recommending development of dedicated accelerators for production of radioisotopes for over 20 years (Institute of Medicine, 1995; Reba, et al, 2000; National Research Council, 2007; NSAC 2009). The 2015 NSAC Long Range Plan for Isotopes again identified electron accelerators as an area for continued research and development. Recommendation 1(c) from the 2015 NSAC Isotope report specifically identifies electron accelerators for continued funding for the purpose of producing medical and industrial radioisotopes. Recognizing the pressing need for new production methods of radioisotopes, the United States Congress passed the American Medical Isotope Production Act of 2012 to develop a domestic production of 99Mo and to eliminate the use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in the production of 99Mo. One of the advantages of high power electron linear accelerators (linacs) is they can create both proton- and neutron-rich isotopes by generating high energy x-rays that knock out protons or neutrons from stable atoms or by fission of uranium. This allows for production of isotopes not possible in nuclear reactors. Recent advances in superconducting electron linacs have decreased the size and complexity of these systems such that they are economically competitive with nuclear reactors and large, high energy accelerators. Niowave, Inc. has been developing a radioisotope production facility based on a superconducting electron linac with liquid metal converters.

  6. BOREAS TGB-12 Soil Carbon and Flux Data of NSA-MSA in Raster Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Rapalee, Gloria; Davidson, Eric; Harden, Jennifer W.; Trumbore, Susan E.; Veldhuis, Hugo

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TGB-12 team made measurements of soil carbon inventories, carbon concentration in soil gases, and rates of soil respiration at several sites. This data set provides: (1) estimates of soil carbon stocks by horizon based on soil survey data and analyses of data from individual soil profiles; (2) estimates of soil carbon fluxes based on stocks, fire history, drain-age, and soil carbon inputs and decomposition constants based on field work using radiocarbon analyses; (3) fire history data estimating age ranges of time since last fire; and (4) a raster image and an associated soils table file from which area-weighted maps of soil carbon and fluxes and fire history may be generated. This data set was created from raster files, soil polygon data files, and detailed lab analysis of soils data that were received from Dr. Hugo Veldhuis, who did the original mapping in the field during 1994. Also used were soils data from Susan Trumbore and Jennifer Harden (BOREAS TGB-12). The binary raster file covers a 733-km 2 area within the NSA-MSA.

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  8. The progress of radioisotope technology and application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinrong; Luo Zhifu

    2008-01-01

    The inception of radioisotope and its application in China are introduced. The research, development, produc-tion, application progress and the future development prospect of radioisotope and its products are described.

  9. Study of 16O(12C,α20Ne)α for the investigation of carbon-carbon fusion reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Bordeanu, C.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; La Cognata, M.; Mrazek, J.; Nita, C.; Pantelica, D.; Petrascu, H.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Szücs, T.; Trache, L.; Tumino, A.; Velisa, G.

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-carbon fusion reaction represents a nuclear process of great interest in astrophysics, since the carbon burning is connected with the third phase of massive stars (M > 8 M⊙) evolution. In spite of several experimental works, carbon-carbon cross section has been measured at energy still above the Gamow window moreover data at low energy present big uncertainty. In this paper we report the results about the study of the 16O(12C,α 20Ne)α reaction as a possible three-body process to investigate 12C(12C,α)20Ne at astrophysical energy via Trojan Horse Method (THM). This study represents the first step of a program of experiments aimed to measure the 12C+12C cross section at astrophysical energy using the THM.

  10. The production of cyclotron radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the national accelerator centre in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accelerator radioisotopes have been manufactured in South Africa since 1965 with the 30 MeV cyclotron at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria. After its closure in 1988, the radioisotope production programme was continued at the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) with the 200 MeV separated sector cyclotron (SCC) utilizing the 66 MeV proton beam, which is shared with the neutron therapy programme during part of the week. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-FDG, 67Ga-citrate, a 67Ga-labelled resin. 111In-chloride, 111In-oxine and 111In-labelled resin. 123I-sodium iodide and 123I-labelled compounds, 201Tl-chloride, as well as the 81Rb/81mKr gas generator, are prepared for use in the nuclear medicine departments of 12 State hospitals and about 28 private nuclear medicine clinics in South Africa. A few longer-lived radioisotopes, such as 22Na, 55Fe and 139Ce, are also produced for research or industrial use. A research and development programme is running to develop new production procedures to produce radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, or to improve existing production procedures. As part of a programme to utilize the beam time optimally, the production of some other radioisotopes is investigated. (author)

  11. Measurement of stellar age from uranium decay

    CERN Document Server

    Cayrel, R; Beers, T; Barbuy, B; Spite, M; Spite, F; Plez, B; Andersen, J; Bonifacio, P; François, P; Molaro, P; Nordström, B; Primas, F

    2001-01-01

    The ages of the oldest stars in the Galaxy indicate when star formation began, and provide a minimum age for the Universe. Radioactive dating of meteoritic material and stars relies on comparing the present abundance ratios of radioactive and stable nuclear species to the theoretically predicted ratios of their production. The radioisotope $^{232}$Th (half-life 14 Gyr) has been used to date Galactic stars, but it decays by only a factor of two over the lifetime of the Universe. $^{238}$U (half-life 4.5 Gyr) is in principle a more precise age indicator, but even its strongest spectral line, from singly ionized uranium at a wavelength of 385.957 nm, has previously not been detected in stars. Here we report a measurement of this line in the very metal-poor star CS31082-001, a star which is strongly overabundant in its heavy elements. The derived uranium abundance, log(U/H) = -13.7+/-0.14+/-0.12 yields an age of 12.5+/-3 Gyr, though this is still model dependent. The observation of this cosmochronometer gives the...

  12. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical, industrial and space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  13. Contributions and Future of Radioisotopes in Medical, Industrial and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingey, G. L.; Dix, G. P.; Wahlquist, E. J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  14. Contributions and future of radioisotopes in medical, industrial and space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingey, G.L.; Dix, G.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.

    1990-11-01

    There are 333 isotopes that have a half-life between 1 day and 100,000 years that have a wide variety of applications including public health, medicine,industrial technology, food technology and packaging, agriculture, energy supply, and national security. This paper provides an overview of some of the most extensive applications of radioisotopes including some observations of future uses. Examples are discussed that indicate that the use of radioisotopes is almost unlimited and will continue to grow. There is a growing need for future applications development and production. 12 refs., 1 tab. (BM)

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  18. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  19. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  20. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  1. ILLUSTRATIONS OF RADIOISOTOPES--DEFINITIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    THIS PUBLICATION IS COMPOSED OF OVER 150 PAGES OF BLACK AND WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS DEALING WITH RADIOISOTOPES AND THEIR USES. THESE ILLUSTRATIONS CONSIST OF CHARTS, GRAPHS, AND PICTORIAL REPRESENTATIONS WHICH COULD BE PREPARED AS HANDOUTS, TRANSPARENCIES FOR OVERHEAD PROJECTION, OR WHICH COULD BE USED IN A NUMBER OF OTHER WAYS FOR PRESENTING SUCH…

  2. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc.

  3. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. (TFD)

  4. Coated Particles Fuel Compact-General Purpose Heat Source for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    Coated Particles Fuel Compacts (CPFC) have recently been shown to offer performance advantage for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) and design flexibility for integrating at high thermal efficiency with Stirling Engine converters, currently being considered for 100 We. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS). The particles in the compact consist of 238PuO2 fuel kernels with 5-μm thick PyC inner coating and a strong ZrC outer coating, whose thickness depends on the maximum fuel temperature during reentry, the fuel kernel diameter, and the fraction of helium gas released from the kernels and fully contained by the ZrC coating. In addition to containing the helium generated by radioactive decay of 238Pu for up to 10 years before launch and 10-15 years mission lifetime, the kernels are intentionally sized (>= 300 μm in diameter) to prevent any adverse radiological effects on reentry. This paper investigates the advantage of replacing the four iridium-clad 238PuO2 fuel pellets, the two floating graphite membranes, and the two graphite impact shells in current State-Of-The-Art (SOA) General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) with CPFC. The total mass, thermal power, and specific power of the CPFC-GPHS are calculated as functions of the helium release fraction from the fuel kernels and maximum fuel temperature during reentry from 1500 K to 2400 K. For the same total mass and volume as SOA GPHS, the generated thermal power by single-size particles CPFC-GPHS is 260 W at Beginning-Of-Mission (BOM), versus 231 W for the GPHS. For an additional 10% increase in total mass, the CPFC-GPHS could generate 340 W BOM; 48% higher than SOA GPHS. The corresponding specific thermal power is 214 W/kg, versus 160 W/kg for SOA GPHS; a 34% increase. Therefore, for the same thermal power, the CPFC-GPHS is lighter than SOA GPHS, while it uses the same amount of 238PuO2 fuel and same aeroshell. For the same helium release fraction and fuel temperature, binary-size particles CPFC-GPHS could

  5. A high power, Coated Particle Fuel Compact Radioisotope Heat Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeffrey C.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2001-02-01

    A Coated Particle Fuel Compact, Radioisotope Heater Unit (CPFC-RHU) is proposed, which is capable of generating thermal power in excess of 27 W. This power output is more than four times that of a Hexa-RHU, which generates only six watts of thermal power. The design of the CPFC-RHU is identical to that of the Hexa-RHU, except that the six Pt-30Rh clad fuel pellets and the POCO graphite support in the latter are replaced with single-sized, ZrC coated, 238PuO2 fuel particles ~500 μm in diameter. In addition to fully retaining the helium gas generated by the radioactive decay of the fuel, the CPFC offers promise for enhanced safety. Thermal analyses of the CPFC-RHU show that while the Hexa-RHU is suitable for use in a radioisotope power system (RPS) operating at a converter hot-side temperature of 473 K, the CPFC-RHU could also be used at higher temperatures of 773 K and 973 K with a thermal efficiency >60%. Even at a 473 K converter hot-side temperature, the CPFC-RHU offers higher thermal efficiency (>90%) than the Hexa-RHU (~75%). The CPFC-RHU final design provides constant temperature, with almost uniform radial heat flux to the converter, for enhanced performance, better integration, and higher overall efficiency of the RPS. The present CPFC-RHU fills a gap in the power needs for future space missions requiring electric power of 1-15 W, from a single RPS. .

  6. Vitamin B12: one carbon metabolism, fetal growth and programming for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Katre, P; Yajnik, C S

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together human and animal studies and reviews that examine the possible role of maternal vitamin B12 (B12) on fetal growth and its programming for susceptibility to chronic disease. A selective literature review was undertaken to identify studies and reviews that investigate these issues, particularly in the context of a vegetarian diet that may be low in B12 and protein and high in carbohydrate. Evidence is accumulating that maternal B12 status influences fetal growth and development. Low maternal vitamin B12 status and protein intake are associated with increased risk of neural tube defect, low lean mass and excess adiposity, increased insulin resistance, impaired neurodevelopment and altered risk of cancer in the offspring. Vitamin B12 is a key nutrient associated with one carbon metabolic pathways related to substrate metabolism, synthesis and stability of nucleic acids and methylation of DNA which regulates gene expression. Understanding of factors regulating maternal-fetal one carbon metabolism and its role in fetal programming of non communicable diseases could help design effective interventions, starting with maternal nutrition before conception. PMID:24219896

  7. Crystalline and tensile properties of carbon nanotube and graphene reinforced polyamide 12 fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Nüesch, F. A.; Chu, B. T. T.

    2013-02-01

    The influence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) on the structure and mechanical properties of polyamide 12 (PA12) fibers was investigated. As seen from wide-angle X-ray diffraction analysis the crystallinity index increases with incorporation of nanofillers due to nucleation effects. Marked improvement was noted for mechanical properties of the composites with increase in elastic modulus, yield stress and strength of the fibers. The most significant improvement of a factor of 4 could be observed for elastic modulus with the inclusion of 0.5 wt.% GnP. A comparative study was made between the fibers reinforced with CNTs and GnPs.

  8. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  9. Studies on 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Banerjee; A K Shukla

    2015-05-01

    A cost-effective 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitor is developed and performance tested. These hybrid ultracapacitors employ flexible-graphite sheets as negative plate currentcollectors that are coated amperometrically with a thin layer of conducting polymer, namely poly-aniline to provide good adhesivity to activated-carbon layer. The positive plate of the hybrid ultracapacitors comprise conventional lead-sheet that is converted electrochemically into a substrate-integrated lead-dioxide electrode. 12 V substrate-integrated lead-carbon hybrid ultracapacitors both in absorbent-glass-mat and polymeric silicagel electrolyte configurations are fabricated and characterized. It is possible to realize 12 V configurations with capacitance values of ∼200 F and ∼300 F, energy densities of ∼1.9 Wh kg−1 and ∼2.5 Wh kg−1 and power densities of ∼2 kW kg−1 and ∼0.8 kW kg−1, respectively, having faradaic-efficiency values of ∼90 % with cycle-life in excess of 100,000 cycles. The effective cost of the mentioned hybrid ultracapacitors is estimated to be about ∼4 US$/Wh as compared to ∼20 US$/Wh for commercially available ultracapacitors.

  10. Final State Interactions in $K\\to\\pi\\pi$ Decays: $\\Delta I=1/2$ Rule vs. $\\varepsilon^\\prime/\\varepsilon$

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J

    2016-01-01

    Dispersive effects from strong $\\pi\\pi$ rescattering in the final state (FSI) of weak $K\\to\\pi\\pi$ decays are revisited with the goal to have a global view on their {\\it relative} importance for the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule and the ratio $\\varepsilon^\\prime/\\varepsilon$ in the Standard Model (SM). We point out that this goal cannot be reached within a pure effective (meson) field approach like chiral perturbation theory in which the dominant current-current operators governing the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule and the dominant density-density (four-quark) operators governing $\\varepsilon^\\prime/\\varepsilon$ cannot be disentangled from each other. But in the context of a dual QCD approach, which includes both long distance dynamics and the UV completion, that is QCD at short distance scales, such a distinction is possible. We find then that beyond the strict large $N$ limit, $N$ being the number of colours, FSI are likely to be important for the $\\Delta I=1/2$ rule but much less relevant for $\\varepsilon^\\prime/\\varepsilon$....

  11. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  12. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m (99mTc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 (99Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  13. Development of radioisotope labeled polymeric carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Jeong, Jea Min; Hwang, Hyun Jeong [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed with the aim of developing polymeric radioisotope or drug carriers for obtaining efficient diagnostic therapeutic efficacy. As polymers, polyethylene oxides, polylactides, polycaprolactone were chosen to prepare the devices including micelle system, microemulsion, nanospheres. In addition, anticancer drug loaded polylactide microparticulates were fabricated as a regional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Technetium or radioactive iodine was labeled to the polymeric carriers via ligands such as DTPA and HPP, respectively. Labeling efficiency was above 90% and stable enough up to 24 hours. Moreover, injected polymer carriers demonstrated higher blood maintenance and bone uptake than Tin colloid, a control. These results suggested that radioisotope carrying polymeric particulate are promising tools for diagnosing blood vessels or bones. Besides, anticancer drug loaded particulates demonstrated appropriate maintenance of therapeutic concentration and localization. Therefore it was proposed that this therapeutic system may be potential as a cancer therapy modality. 20 refs., 24 figs.,5 tabs. (Author)

  14. Study of removal of Direct Yellow 12 by cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghian, Batuol [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kokhdan, Syamak Nasiri, E-mail: syamak.nasiri@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pebdani, Arezou Amiri [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University Yasouj 75914-35 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sahraei, Reza; Daneshfar, Ali; Mihandoost, Asma [Department of Chemistry, University of Ilam, P.O. Box: 65315-516, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    In this research, cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon (CdO-NW-AC) has been synthesized by a simple procedure and characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and UV–vis spectrometry. This new adsorbent has been efficiently utilized for the removal of the Direct Yellow 12 (DY-12) from wastewater. To obtain maximum DY-12 removal efficiency, the influences of variables such as pH, DY-12 concentration, amount of CdO-NW-AC, contact time, and temperature have been examined and optimized in a batch method. Following the variable optimization, the experimental equilibrium data (at different concentration of DY-12) was fitted to conventional isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich and Tempkin. The applicability of each method is based on the R{sup 2} and error analysis for each model. It was found that the experimental equilibrium data well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model. The dependency of removal process to time and the experimental data follow second order kinetic model with involvement of intraparticle diffusion model. The negative value of Gibbs's free energy and positive value of adsorption enthalpy show the spontaneous and endothermic nature of adsorption process. - Graphical abstract: Typical FE-SEM image of the CdO nanowires. Highlights: ► Cadmium oxide nanowires loaded on activated carbon was utilized as an adsorbent. ► It was used for the removal of Direct Yellow 12 from aqueous solutions. ► The adsorption of Direct Yellow 12 on this adsorbent is endothermic in nature. ► The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by the Langmuir isotherm model.

  15. Germanomolybdate (GeMo12O404−) Modified Carbon Nanotube Composites for Electrochemical Capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • GeMo12O404− (GeMo) was deposited onto MWCNT to fabricate capacitive electrodes. • GeMo electrode showed excellent conductivity and 6X the capacitance of bare MWCNT. • GeMo was superimposed with PMo12O403− or SiMo12O404− on dual-layer electrodes. • Dual-layer electrodes showed combination of both molecules and 12X bare capacitance. - Abstract: Keggin type germanomolybdate, GeMo12O404− (GeMo), was deposited onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) via layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition to form composite electrodes for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). The GeMo composite electrode demonstrated charge storage six times greater than that of the bare MWCNT electrode while maintaining excellent conductivity and cycling stability. GeMo also demonstrated charge storage complementary to that of the commercial Keggin type POMs, PMo12O403− (PMo) and SiMo12O404− (SiMo). Dual-layer coatings superimposing GeMo with either PMo or SiMo showed an additive combination of both active layers, which resulted in cyclic voltammograms (CVs) with overlapping redox features and charge storage twelve times greater than that of the bare MWCNT electrode. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated successful single and dual layer coating of POMs on MWCNT with high coverage and uniform surface morphologies

  16. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  17. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  18. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  19. Quantitation of renal function using radioisotopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, J P; Ziessman, H A

    1993-03-01

    Radioisotopic methods are practical for clinical use because they do not require continuous intravenous infusion or urine collection. This obviously is of great advantage in infants and small children, in whom accurate urine collection is difficult, but the techniques apply to adults as well. The ability to determine individual kidney function is a major benefit. Accuracies of the radioisotopic techniques vary but generally are within clinically acceptable ranges. The need for accuracy and reproducibility can be balanced with the desire for speed and convenience when choosing among the different techniques. Methods that use plasma sampling provide greater accuracy and are recommended in cases of severe dysfunction, whereas methods such as Gates' camera method, which eliminates plasma samples, can be completed in minutes. Radioisotopic techniques are most useful in the ranges of mild to moderately decreased function, in which serum creatinine concentration is nondiagnostic, and although they are much less accurate at markedly low renal function levels, so is 24-hour creatinine clearance. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical agents offer a wide array of possible techniques for simple, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of global as well as individual GFR and ERPF. PMID:8462269

  20. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  1. Separation of radioisotopes from fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology development of radioisotope production from fuel reprocessing high level wastes in Radioisotope Production Division is described. To develop the separation method for partitioning as the waste management and production of useful radioisotopes, the separation of 90Sr, 137Cs and rare earth elements by solvent extraction and ion-exchange has been mainly studied. Ion-exchange resin and HDEHP as the extracting agents were irradiated with a 60Co radiation source to examine their radiation resistances; Both are satisfactory in this respect. Strontium-90 and 137Cs could be separated in 99% purity from a 10l waste solution (about 2 Ci) by ion-exchange using nitric acid as the only eluant. A system of solvent extraction and ion-exchange to treat large volume of the waste was constructed in trial, and its cold test was carried out. The results were satisfactory, with a few points for further improvement. The scheme as it is can be scaled up for an experiment with about 1 KCi of the waste. (auth.)

  2. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RADIOISOTOPE SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  3. Clinical study of radioisotope clearance from the cerebrospinal fluid space using single photon emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchiwaki, H.; Nagasaka, M.; Takada, S.; Ishiguri, H.; Kameyama, H.; Aoyama, Y.

    1989-07-01

    Radioisotope cisternography with statistical analysis was evaluated in 18 patients with suspected hydrocephalus shown by conventional CT, and 4 control patients. Regions of interest were located at cisterna magna, basal cistern, lateral cistern Silvii, interhemispheric cistern, and lateral ventricle using three dimensional SPECT images. A value for constant K was determined for each exponential radioactivity decay curve. On the basis of SPECT-derived K values our patients were grouped into hydrocephalus, nonhydrocephalus, and control patients. Twelve of 14 hydrocephalus patients were treated by shunt operation. Our less-invasive method showed reliable criteria for assessing the cerebrospinal fluid circulation. (orig.).

  4. Nuclear and Radioisotope Propulsion and Power in the Atmosphere of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdicombe, T.

    A brief history of the use of nuclear fuelled powerplant in space is given along with some working principles of the technology, and recent proposals for spacecraft for the exploration of Titan utilising radioisotope generators are surveyed. Nuclear reaction engines are studied with specific consideration given to their use in Titan's atmosphere, and speculative modifications to one particular spacecraft concept originally conceived of for the exploration of Mars are proposed. A hybrid device producing mechanical power from nuclear decay heat is also suggested for future investigation.

  5. Energy loss of /sup 12/C projectiles in different carbon modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stopping cross sections of the three carbon modifications diamond, graphite, and glassy carbon are investigated for carbon projectiles of intermediate velocity. The inverted Doppler-shift attenuation method was used as the experimental technique, and it enabled us to measure the ratios of the three stopping cross sections precisely over a wide energy range. For velocities between 3 and 4 times Bohr's velocity the stopping cross sections of graphite and glassy carbon are found to be 1.036 and 1.072 times larger than that of diamond, respectively. These differences are attributed to binding effects. To understand these effects, we have evaluated the mean ionization potentials utilizing the local-plasma approximation for the inner-shell electrons and the dielectric response function for the valence electrons. The theoretical ratios calculated by inserting these potentials into the Bethe-Bloch stopping-power formula agree well with our experimental results. Furthermore, we have obtained a value of 53.3 +- 4.1 fs for the lifetime of the first excited state of the /sup 12/C nucleus

  6. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  7. A new adrenal computer imaging technique using dual-radioisotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohashi,Teruhisa

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer processed adrenal imaging using dual-radioisotopes, 6 beta-iodomethyl-19-nor-cholest-5(10-en-3 beta-ol-131I and 99mTc-phytate was performed in 12 patients with primary aldosteronism and 4 with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenocortical tumor. Adreno-photoscanning and hepato-photoscanning were performed in the same position 2-4 days following intravenous administration of radiocholesterol. The scintigraphic information was stored on cassettes and scan subtraction and a digital-computer method for data smoothing were performed on an oscilloscope. The tumor site could be determined in all cases until day 4 by this computer processed image.

  8. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  9. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  10. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  11. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.)

  12. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS...

  13. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  14. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  15. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  16. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  17. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  18. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  19. Self-reliance politics in radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN), owned by National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is a non-profit government institution that produces on a national scale more than 18 radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. These radiopharmaceuticals are used in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 1.5 million people in Brazil. This level of production was achieved through the creation of new technologies and automation solutions, because of the difficulty and cost on importation of raw materials and labeling compounds ready for use. In Brazil, only CNEN has authorization to import, manipulate and distribute radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore, the quality of those radioisotopes must comply with international specifications and regulations. Much research and 40 years of improvements has won IPEN international approval for the radiopharmaceuticals that it produces, and quality standards and specifications are today as good as in any other developed country. IPEN has even developed a few solutions in radioisotope production for others countries, such as Cuba and soon Peru. The first step towards self-production was the acquisition of a cyclotron (Cyclone-30) and the improvement of the reactor power from 2 MW to 5 MW. Many technical visits were made to radiopharmaceutical institutions around the world with the purpose of bringing self-reliance and self-development solutions to IPEN. The international radiopharmaceutical community has always contributed to this effort, and only with their help our self-development and self-reliance could be possible. IPEN has ISO 9001-2000 certification and has made efforts to improve the installations in order to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice. Every effort we make today has the goal of making radiopharmaceuticals available for therapy at the most competitive price possible for our institution. (author)

  20. Medical Radioisotope Production in a Power-Flattened ADS Fuelled with Uranium and Plutonium Dioxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Bakır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the medical radioisotope production performance of a conceptual accelerator driven system (ADS. Lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE is selected as target material. The subcritical fuel core is conceptually divided into ten equidistant subzones. The ceramic (natural U, PuO2 fuel mixture and the materials used for radioisotope production (copper, gold, cobalt, holmium, rhenium, thulium, mercury, palladium, thallium, molybdenum, and yttrium are separately prepared as cylindrical rods cladded with carbon/carbon composite (C/C and these rods are located in the subzones. In order to obtain the flattened power density, percentages of PuO2 in the mixture of UO2 and PuO2 in the subzones are adjusted in radial direction of the fuel zone. Time-dependent calculations are performed at 1000 MW thermal fission power (Pth for one hour using the BURN card. The neutronic results show that the investigated ADS has a high neutronic capability, in terms of medical radioisotope productions, spent fuel transmutation and energy multiplication. Moreover, a good quasiuniform power density is achieved in each material case. The peak-to-average fission power density ratio is in the range of 1.02–1.28.

  1. Effect of carbon content on microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-rolled low carbon 12Cr-Ni stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Hot-rolled ultra low carbon martensite is characterized by dislocation cells substructure. → The formation of dislocation cells is attributed to high Ms and low interstitial atoms content. → Hot-rolled ultra low carbon 12Cr-Ni stainless steel has excellent impact toughness. → Delta ferrite deteriorates the impact toughness of hot-rolled 12Cr-Ni stainless steel. - Abstract: 12Cr-Ni stainless steels containing different carbon contents from 0.004 wt.% to 0.034 wt.% were hot-rolled and air-cooled. Their corresponding microstructures were observed with optical microscope and transmission electron microscope, and the Vickers hardness, tensile and impact tests were also carried out. It was found that the martensitic morphology was significantly influenced by carbon content. The as-received ultra low carbon martensite in the steel containing 0.004 wt.% C is characterized by dislocation cells substructure. The formation of dislocation cells is attributed to high martensite finishing point (above 400 deg. C) and low interstitial atoms content. On the other hand, the martensite in the steel containing 0.034 wt.% C consists mainly of typical martensite laths because of low martensite finishing point and high interstitial atoms content which hinder dislocation motion. Furthermore, carbon content has an evident effect on the mechanical properties of 12Cr-Ni steels. The hardness and strength of the as-received steels increase with an increase in carbon content, but their elongation and impact toughness decrease with the carbon content. The steel containing 0.004 wt.% C has excellent impact toughness due to the ultra low carbon content in the martensite composed of dislocation cells.

  2. Performance tuned radioisotope thermophotovoltaic space power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Saban, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    The trend in space exploration is to use many small, low-cost, special-purpose satellites instead of the large, high-cost, multipurpose satellites used in the past. As a result of this new trend, there is a need for lightweight, efficient, and compact radioisotope fueled electrical power generators. This paper presents an improved design for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) space power system in the 10 W to 20 W class which promises up to 37.6 watts at 30.1% efficiency and 25 W/kg specific power. The RTPV power system concept has been studied and compared to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) radioisotope, Stirling generators and alkali metal thermal electric conversion (AMTEC) generators (Schock, 1995). The studies indicate that RTPV has the potential to be the lightest weight, most efficient and most reliable of the three concepts. However, in spite of the efficiency and light weight, the size of the thermal radiator required to eliminate excess heat from the PV cells and the lack of actual system operational performance data are perceived as obstacles to RTPV acceptance for space applications. Between 1994 and 1997 EDTEK optimized the key converter components for an RTPV generator under Department of Energy (DOE) funding administered via subcontracts to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies Laboratory (Horne, 1995). The optimized components included a resonant micromesh infrared bandpass filter, low-bandgap GaSb PV cells and cell arrays. Parametric data from these components were supplied to OSC who developed and analyzed the performance of 100 W, 20 W, and 10 W RTPV generators. These designs are described in references (Schock 1994, 1995 and 1996). Since the performance of each class of supply was roughly equivalent and simply scaled with size, this paper will consider the OSC 20 W design as a baseline. The baseline 20-W RTPV design was developed by Schock, et al of OSC and has been presented elsewhere. The

  3. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  4. A photochemical model for the carbon-rich planet WASP-12b

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Ravi kumar; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    The hot Jupiter WASP-12b is a heavily irradiated exoplanet in a short period orbit around a G0-star with twice the metallicity of the Sun. A recent thermochemical equilibrium analysis based on Spitzer and ground-based infrared observations suggests that the presence of $\\ch4$ in its atmosphere and the lack of $\\h2o$ features can only be explained if the carbon-to-oxygen ratio in the planet's atmosphere is much greater than the solar ratio ($\\ctoo = 0.54$). Here, we use a 1-D photochemical model to study the effect of disequilibrium chemistry on the observed abundances of $\\h2o, \\com, \\co2$ and $\\ch4$ in the WASP-12b atmosphere. We consider two cases: one with solar $\\ctoo$ and another with $\\ctoo = 1.08$. The solar case predicts that $\\h2o$ and $\\com$ are more abundant than $\\co2$ and $\\ch4$, as expected, whereas the high $\\ctoo$ model shows that $\\com$, C$_{2}$H$_{2}$ and HCN are more abundant. This indicates that the extra carbon from the high $\\ctoo$ model is in hydrocarbon species. $\\h2o$ photolysis is th...

  5. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  6. Comparing carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets as reinforcements in polyamide 12 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Nüesch, F. A.; Chu, B. T. T.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the influence of nanofillers including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets on a thermoplastic engineering polymer, polyamide 12 (PA12). The comparison between these two important nanofillers as to how they influence the structure and properties of the polymer is systematically studied. The polymer-nanofiller composites were prepared using a twin-screw micro-extruder and the composite was thereafter hot pressed into thin films. The structure (using wide angle x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry) and properties (through tensile testing and conductivity measurement) of the thin films have been investigated. The composites incorporating surfactant showed the best CNT distribution and dispersion, causing an improvement of up to 80% in the toughness modulus over pure PA12. Electrical percolation could also be achieved at nanofiller concentrations of 1 to 2 wt%. In this study we observed that CNT fillers bring about more pronounced improvements in PA12 compared to graphene nanoplatelets, as far as mechanical and electrical properties are concerned.

  7. Comparing carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoplatelets as reinforcements in polyamide 12 composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S; Nueesch, F A; Chu, B T T, E-mail: bryan.chu@empa.ch [EMPA, Laboratory for Functional Polymers, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Switzerland)

    2011-07-08

    We investigate the influence of nanofillers including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets on a thermoplastic engineering polymer, polyamide 12 (PA12). The comparison between these two important nanofillers as to how they influence the structure and properties of the polymer is systematically studied. The polymer-nanofiller composites were prepared using a twin-screw micro-extruder and the composite was thereafter hot pressed into thin films. The structure (using wide angle x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry) and properties (through tensile testing and conductivity measurement) of the thin films have been investigated. The composites incorporating surfactant showed the best CNT distribution and dispersion, causing an improvement of up to 80% in the toughness modulus over pure PA12. Electrical percolation could also be achieved at nanofiller concentrations of 1 to 2 wt%. In this study we observed that CNT fillers bring about more pronounced improvements in PA12 compared to graphene nanoplatelets, as far as mechanical and electrical properties are concerned.

  8. Enhanced electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 as anode material for lithium-ion batteries with different carbons as support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nano-Li4Ti5O12/carbon composites with various structures are designed using tetrabutyl titanate as a precursor via a facile in situ liquid deposition method in the presence of three different carbons (multiwalled carbon nanotubes, spherical conductive carbon black super-P and ordered macroporous carbon). The nano-Li4Ti5O12/carbon composites with various morphologies are formed depending on the carbon matrixes used. The Li4Ti5O12 particles obtained are approximately 100 nm in size and homogeneously dispersed in different carbon matrixes. It is found that the structures of the carbon matrixes have a close relation to the discharge capacities of the composites. At the discharge current density of 875 mA g−1, the discharge capacities of nano-Li4Ti5O12/carbon composites with 10 wt% carbon are 138.6, 120.8 and 120.9 mAh g−1 for carbon nanotubes, super-P and porous carbon as the carbon supports, respectively. The nano-Li4Ti5O12/carbon using carbon nanotubes as support exhibits superior performance with large reversible capacity, excellent cycle stability and good rate capability. Capacity retention of 99% can be maintained after 100 cycles, suggesting its promising potential as anode materials. - Highlights: • Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanocomposites are designed using different carbons as supports. • Li4Ti5O12 particles formed on carbon matrix are fine and homogeneous. • Aggregation and growth of Li4Ti5O12 particles are inhibited. • The Li4Ti5O12/carbon nanocomposites exhibit superior electrochemical performance

  9. Tau decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most recent experimental results of τ physics are reviewed. The covered topics include precision measurements of semihadronic τ decay and their impact on tau branching ratio budget, the current status of the tau consistency test, a determination of Michel parameters and τ neutrino helicity, and upper limits on lepton-number violating τ decays. (orig.)

  10. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  11. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  12. INTRACORPOREAL HEAT DISSIPATION FROM A RADIOISOTOPE-POWERED ARTIFICIAL HEART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Fred N.; Hagen, Kenneth G.; Whalen, Robert L.; Fuqua, John M.; Norman, John C.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of radioisotope-fueled circulatory support systems depends on the ability of the body to dissipate the reject heat from the power source driving the blood pump as well as to tolerate chronic intracorporeal radiation. Our studies have focused on the use of the circulating blood as a heat sink. Initial in vivo heat transfer studies utilized straight tube heat exchangers (electrically and radioisotope energized) to replace a segment of the descending aorta. More recent studies have used a left ventricular assist pump as a blood-cooled heat exchanger. This approach minimizes trauma, does not increase the area of prosthetic interface with the blood, and minimizes system volume. Heat rejected from the thermal engine (vapor or gas cycle) is transported from the nuclear power source in the abdomen to the pump in the thoracic cavity via hydraulic lines. Adjacent tissue is protected from the fuel capsule temperature (900 to 1200 degrees F) by vacuum foil insulation and polyurethane foam. The in vivo thermal management problems have been studied using a simulated thermal system (STS) which approximates the heat rejection and thermal transport mechanisms of the nuclear circulatory support systems under development by NHLI. Electric heaters simulate the reject heat from the thermal engines. These studies have been essential in establishing the location, suspension, surgical procedures, and postoperative care for implanting prototype nuclear heart assist systems in calves. The pump has a thermal impedance of 0.12 degrees C/watt. Analysis of the STS data in terms of an electrical analog model implies a heat transfer coefficient of 4.7 x 10(-3) watt/cm(2) degrees C in the abdomen compared to a value of 14.9 x 10(-3) watt/cm(2) degrees C from the heat exchanger plenum into the diaphragm.

  13. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  14. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  15. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. - Highlights: • Portland cement samples were located inside a treatment hall with a 15 MV linac. • Induced radioisotopes were measured with a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. • 56Mn, 24Na, and 28Al were identified and the specific activity was estimated. • In a wedge, 56Mn was induced by the photoneutrons

  16. 40 CFR 600.510-12 - Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must meet the minimum driving range requirements established by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of...

  17. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  18. Utilization of material testing reactor for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2000, JAEA (former JAERI) and CTC reached an agreement that we took over the radioisotope production from JAEA. We set up our facility in the Tokai Research and Development Center Nuclear Science Research Institute and started services. In this paper, we state present status of the production of radioisotopes in Japan and development activities in the future. (author)

  19. Guide to the safe handling of radioisotopes in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic tracers are frequently used in hydrological investigations. This manual provides recommendations on safety measures to be used in these investigations. The annexes provide lists of radioisotopic techniques that have been employed together with an indication of the quantities of isotopes used.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of the metabolome of Pseudomonas putida S12 grown on different carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werf, Mariët J; Overkamp, Karin M; Muilwijk, Bas; Koek, Maud M; van der Werff-van der Vat, Bianca J C; Jellema, Renger H; Coulier, Leon; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Metabolomics is an emerging, powerful, functional genomics technology that involves the comparative non-targeted analysis of the complete set of metabolites in an organism. We have set-up a robust quantitative metabolomics platform that allows the analysis of 'snapshot' metabolomes. In this study, we have applied this platform for the comprehensive analysis of the metabolite composition of Pseudomonas putida S12 grown on four different carbon sources, i.e. fructose, glucose, gluconate and succinate. This paper focuses on the microbial aspects of analyzing comprehensive metabolomes, and demonstrates that metabolomes can be analyzed reliably. The technical (i.e. sample work-up and analytical) reproducibility was on average 10%, while the biological reproducibility was approximately 40%. Moreover, the energy charge values of the microbial samples generated were determined, and indicated that no biotic or abiotic changes had occurred during sample work-up and analysis. In general, the metabolites present and their concentrations were very similar after growth on the different carbon sources. However, specific metabolites showed large differences in concentration, especially the intermediates involved in the degradation of the carbon sources studied. Principal component discriminant analysis was applied to identify metabolites that are specific for, i.e. not necessarily the metabolites that show those largest differences in concentration, cells grown on either of these four carbon sources. For selected enzymatic reactions, i.e. the glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, triosephosphate isomerase and phosphoglyceromutase reactions, the apparent equilibrium constants (K(app)) were calculated. In several instances a carbon source-dependent deviation between the apparent equilibrium constant (K(app)) and the thermodynamic equilibrium constant (K(eq)) was observed, hinting towards a potential point of metabolic regulation or towards bottlenecks in biosynthesis routes. For glucose-6

  1. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  2. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20 - 24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  3. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  4. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A1 and A2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  5. 12 Years of NPK Addition Diminishes Carbon Sink Potential of a Nutrient Limited Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, T.; Bubier, J. L.; Juutinen, S.; Moore, T. R.

    2011-12-01

    Peatlands store about a third of global soil carbon. Our aim was to study whether the vegetation feedbacks of nitrogen (N) deposition lead to stronger carbon sink or source in a nutrient limited peatland ecosystem. We investigated vegetation structure and ecosystem CO2 exchange at Mer Bleue Bog, Canada, that has been fertilized for 7-12 years. We have applied 5 and 20 times ambient annual wet N deposition (0.8 g N m-2) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration and net CO2 exchange (NEE) were measured weekly during the growing season using chamber technique. Under the highest N(PK) treatments, the light saturated photosynthesis (PSmax) was reduced by 20-30% compared to the control treatment, whereas under moderate N and PK additions PSmax slightly increased or was similar to the control. The ecosystem respiration showed similar trends among the treatments, but changes in the rates were less pronounced. High nutrient additions led to up to 65% lower net CO2 uptake than that in the control: In the NPK plots with cumulative N additions of 70, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.3), 2.0 (se. 0.4), and 2.4 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In the N only plots with cumulative N additions of 45, 19, and 0 g N m-2, the daytime NEE in May-July 2011 averaged 0.8 (se. 0.2), 2.6 (se. 0.4), and 1.8 (se. 0.3) μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. The reduced plant photosynthetic capacity and diminished carbon sink potential in the highest nutrient treatments correlated with the loss of peat mosses and were not compensated for by the increased vascular plant biomass that has mainly been allocated to woody shrub stems.

  6. The contribution of leaching to the rapid release of nutrients and carbon in the early decay of wetland vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. E.; Childers, D.L.; Noe, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal was to quantify the coupled process of litter turnover and leaching as a source of nutrients and fixed carbon in oligotrophic, nutrient-limited wetlands. We conducted poisoned and non-poisoned incubations of leaf material from four different perennial wetland plants (Eleocharis spp., Cladium jamaicense, Rhizophora mangle and Spartina alterniflora) collected from different oligotrophic freshwater and estuarine wetland settings. Total phosphorus (TP) release from the P-limited Everglades plant species (Eleocharis spp., C. jamaicense and R. mangle) was much lower than TP release by the salt marsh plant S. alterniflora from N-limited North Inlet (SC). For most species and sampling times, total organic carbon (TOC) and TP leaching losses were much greater in poisoned than non-poisoned treatments, likely as a result of epiphytic microbial activity. Therefore, a substantial portion of the C and P leached from these wetland plant species was bio-available to microbial communities. Even the microbes associated with S. alterniflora from N-limited North Inlet showed indications of P-limitation early in the leaching process, as P was removed from the water column. Leaves of R. mangle released much more TOC per gram of litter than the other species, likely contributing to the greater waterborne [DOC] observed by others in the mangrove ecotone of Everglades National Park. Between the two freshwater Everglades plants, C. jamaicense leached nearly twice as much P than Eleocharis spp. In scaling this to the landscape level, our observed leaching losses combined with higher litter production of C. jamaicense compared to Eleocharis spp. resulted in a substantially greater P leaching from plant litter to the water column and epiphytic microbes. In conclusion, leaching of fresh plant litter can be an important autochthonous source of nutrients in freshwater and estuarine wetland ecosystems. ?? Springer 2006.

  7. Proton Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Raby, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the status of supersymmetric grand unified theories [SUSY GUTs] with regards to the observation of proton decay. In this talk we focus on SUSY GUTs in 4 dimensions. We outline the major theoretical uncertainties present in the calculation of the proton lifetime and then present our best estimate of an absolute upper bound on the predicted proton lifetime. Towards the end, we consider some new results in higher dimensional GUTs and the ramifications for proton decay.

  8. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  9. Emerging applications of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the domain of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals has been very noteworthy over the past decade and played a major role in enhancing the Nuclear Medicine practice. A number of them have been employed in the day to day clinical practice and have benefited a large number of patients. For the purpose of systematic discussion, we shall classify into two major heads A. Recent advances in clinical applications of traditional radiotracers. B. Newer Radiopharmaceuticals and their applications. The latter could be further subdivided in to the following: (a) Diagnostic (includes i. PET radiopharmaceuticals and ii. Non-PET radiopharmaceuticals for conventional gamma camera imaging) and (b) Therapeutic advances. In the present communication, we shall explore the major developments emphasizing the country perspective

  10. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  11. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  12. Radioisotope Power System Facility shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of calculations for the Radioisotope Power System Facility have been performed. These analyses have determined the shielding required for storage, testing, and transport of 238Pu heat source modules using the Monte Carlo code MCNP3B. The source terms and the assumptions used have been verified by comparison of calculated dose rates with measured ones. This paper describes the methodology used for shielding designs and the utilization of available variance reduction techniques to improve the computational efficiency. The new version of MCNP (MCNP3B) with a repeated structure capability was used. It decreased the chance for computer model errors and greatly decreased the model setup time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Decay of Hoyle state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Bhattacharya; T K Rana; C Bhattacharya; S Kundu; K Banerjee; T K Ghosh; G Mukherjee; R Pandey; P Roy

    2014-11-01

    The prediction of Hoyle state was necessitated to explain the abundance of carbon, which is crucial for the existence of life on Earth and is the stepping stone for understanding the abundance of other heavier elements. After the experimental confirmation of its existence, soon it was realized that the Hoyle state was `different’ from other excited states of carbon, which led to intense theoretical and experimental activities over the past few decades to understand its structure. In recent times, precision, high statistics experiments on the decay of Hoyle state have been performed at the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, to determine the quantitative contributions of various direct 3 decay mechanisms of the Hoyle state. The present results have been critically compared with those obtained in other recent experiments and their implications have been discussed.

  14. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  15. Status of the NASA Stirling Radioisotope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines that used linkages and rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were able to achieve long life by lightly loading the linkages; however, the live was nonetheless limited. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability based on wear-free operation. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope space power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: hardware that has demonstrated long-life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in space, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both space and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for space power, and for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status of development with regard to space power, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  16. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  17. Synthesis and properties of novel aliphatic polycarbonate from carbon dioxide with 1,2-butylene oxide and ε-caprolactone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Fei Liu; Ke Long Huang; Dong Ming Peng; Su Qin Liu; Hong Wu

    2007-01-01

    A new degradable aliphatic poly(butylene-co-ε-caprolactone carbonate) (PBCL) was synthesized through the terpolymerization of carbon dioxide, 1,2-butylene oxide (BO) and ε-caprolactone (CL), a polymer supported bimetallic complex (PBM) was used as a catalyst. The terpolymers prepared were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, WXRD and DSC. The hydrolysis tests were carried out to appraise the degradability of the copolymers.

  18. Radioisotope production in target fragmentation with high-energy heavy ions at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve utilisation of the multitracer method, two aspects of the method were pursued in this study. The production of radioisotopes from target fragmentation of 197Au nuclei was performed with high-energetic heavy ions of 12C (180, 290, 400 MeV/u) and 40Ar (290, 650 MeV/u) at HIMAC facilities. The yields of products were measured by using a thick-target-thick-catcher method and off-line gamma spectrometry with Ge semiconductor detectors. Besides, a special apparatus for practice of the radioisotope production was designed in application of the tracers for separation of the products from target material with high efficiency and the target material and shape for the design was investigated in a trial examination. (author)

  19. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  20. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  1. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  2. Waste minimization in the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. Recent years have brought pressure to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. Substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users

  3. Use of U and Th Decay-Series Disequilibrium to Characterize Geothermal Systems: An Example from the Coso Geothermal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, B. W.; Hammond, D.

    2007-12-01

    Uranium and thorium decay series isotopes were measured in fluids and solids in the Coso geothermal system to assess the utility and constrain the limitations of the radioisotopic approach to the investigation of rock-water interaction. Fluid radioisotope measurements indicate substantial kilometer-scale variability in chemistry. Between 1988 and 1990, radium isotope activity ratios indicate temporal variability, which is exhibited by apparent mixing relationships observed as a function of time for single wells. Activity ratios of Ra-224/Ra-226 and Ra- 228/Ra-226, and the processes that contribute and remove these radionuclide to and from the fluids, constrain residence times of fluids and may help constrain fluid velocities in the geothermal system. Activity ratios of Ra- 224/Ra-226 > ten were measured. In groundwater and geothermal systems ratios of Ra-224/Ra-226 > ten are limited to zones of thermal upwelling or very young (days to weeks) waters in mountainous areas. Rn-222 results indicate that radon is also an effective tracer for steam velocities within the geothermal system. Analysis of carbon dioxide and Rn-222 data indicates that the residence time of steam (time since separation from the liquid) is short (probably less than four days). Estimates of fluid velocities derived from Rn-222 and radium isotopic measurements are within an order of magnitude of velocities derived from a fluorescein tracer test. Both Rn-222 and Ra-224 activities are higher in single-phase fluids in the northwest as compared to the southeast, indicating a higher rock-surface-area/water-volume ratio in the northwest. Thus, measurements of short-lived radioisotopes and gaseous phase constituents can constrain processes and characteristics of geothermal systems that are usually difficult to constrain (e.g., surface area/volume, residence times). The NRC staff views expressed herein are preliminary and do not constitute a final judgment or determination of the matters addressed or of

  4. Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters for Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2004-02-01

    Three Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters (CTCs) are optimized for potential use in Multi-Mission Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (MM-ARPS) for electrical powers up to 1 kWe, or even higher, in support of 7-10 year missions. The peak efficiencies of these CTCs of 9.43% to 14.32% are 40% to 110% higher than that of SiGe in State-of-the-Art (SOA) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Such high efficiencies would significantly reduce the amount of 238PuO2 fuel and the total system mass for a lower mission cost. Each CTC is comprised of a SiGe top unicouple that is thermally, but not electrically, coupled to a bottom unicouple with one of the following three choices of thermoelectric materials: (a) p-leg of TAGS-85 and n-leg of 2N-PbTe (b) p-leg of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and n-leg of CoSb3; and (c) segmented p-leg of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Zn4Sb3 and n-leg of CoSb3. The length of the top and bottom unicouples is 10 mm, but the cross-sectional areas of the n- and p-legs of the unicouples are optimized for maximum efficiency operation. They vary with the thermal power inputs of 1, 2, and 3 Wth per SiGe unicouple, and the heat rejection temperature of 375 K, 475 K, and 575 K, from the bottom unicouple. Such geometrical optimization is at nominal hot shoe temperature of 1273 K for the SiGe unicouple and cold shoe temperature of either 780 K or 980 K, depending on the materials of the bottom unicouples. The hot shoe temperature of the bottom unicouples is 20 K lower than the cold shoe of the top SiGe unicouple, but the rate of heat input is the same as the rate of heat rejection from the top unicouple. The present results are conservative as they assume a contact resistance of 150 μΩ-cm2 per leg for the top and the bottom unicouples in the CTCs; however, decreasing this resistance to 50 μΩ-cm2 per leg could increase the current efficiency estimates by an additional 1 - 2 percentage points.

  5. Is Radioactive Decay Really Exponential?

    CERN Document Server

    Aston, Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12,550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3,000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in atmospheric levels of 14C. We note that predicted atmospheric variation (assuming exponential decay) does not agree with results from modelling, and that theoretical quantum mechanics does not predict exact exponential decay. We give mathematical arguments that non-exponential decay should be expected for slowly decaying isotopes and explore the consequences of non-exponential decay. We propose an experimental test of this prediction of non-exponential decay for 14C. If confirmed, a foundation stone of current dating meth...

  6. Electrophysiological Monitoring in Patients With Tumors of the Skull Base Treated by Carbon-12 Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carozzo, Simone [Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, and Genetics, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Schardt, Dieter [Department of Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Narici, Livio [Department of Physics, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Combs, Stephanie E.; Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Sannita, Walter G., E-mail: wgs@dism.unige.it [Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology, and Genetics, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To report the results of short-term electrophysiologic monitoring of patients undergoing {sup 12}C therapy for the treatment of skull chordomas and chondrosarcomas unsuitable for radical surgery. Methods and Materials: Conventional electroencephalogram (EEG) and retinal and cortical electrophysiologic responses to contrast stimuli were recorded from 30 patients undergoing carbon ion radiation therapy, within a few hours before the first treatment and after completion of therapy. Methodologies and procedures were compliant with the guidelines of the International Federation for Clinical Neurophysiology and International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. Results: At baseline, clinical signs were reported in 56.6% of subjects. Electrophysiologic test results were abnormal in 76.7% (EEG), 78.6% (cortical evoked potentials), and 92.8% (electroretinogram) of cases, without correlation with neurologic signs, tumor location, or therapy plan. Results on EEG, but not electroretinograms and cortical responses, were more often abnormal in patients with reported clinical signs. Abnormal EEG results and retinal/cortical responses improved after therapy in 40% (EEG), 62.5% (cortical potentials), and 70% (electroretinogram) of cases. Results on EEG worsened after therapy in one-third of patients whose recordings were normal at baseline. Conclusions: The percentages of subjects whose EEG results improved or worsened after therapy and the improvement of retinal/cortical responses in the majority of patients are indicative of a limited or negligible (and possibly transient) acute central nervous system toxicity of carbon ion therapy, with a significant beneficial effect on the visual pathways. Research on large samples would validate electrophysiologic procedures as a possible independent test for central nervous system toxicity and allow investigation of the correlation with clinical signs; repeated testing over time after therapy would demonstrate, and may

  7. B decays

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Sheldon

    1992-01-01

    The study of b quarks has now reached a stage where it is useful to review what has been learned so far and also to look at the implications of future studies. The most important observations thus far - measurement of the "B" lifetime, B 0 - B 0 mixing, and the observation of b? u transitions, as well as more mundane results on hadronic and semileptonic transitions - are described in detail by experimentalists who have been closely involved with the measurements. Theoretical progress in understanding b quark decays, including the mechanisms of hadronic and semileptonic decays, are described. S

  8. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power Systems Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2006 Through September 30, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2008-04-01

    The Office of Radioisotope Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Radioisotope Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  9. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yishu [Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu (China)

    2000-10-01

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, {gamma}-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, {sup 90}Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  10. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  11. Short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the papers delivered at the short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture held in Pretoria, South Africa, 22-24 April 1981. The following topics were discussed: principles of nuclear physics and radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; regulatory control of radioisotopes; basic radiation protection procedures; radiation detectors and counting instrumentation; statistics of radioactive observations; use of the neutron moisture meter in soil moisture determinations; soil moisture content and soil density measurements by the gamma soil moisture meter; trace element analysis; application and use of radioisotopes as tracers in soil studies; applications of isotopes in plants for the study of absorption and transportation of mineral elements; applications of radioisotopes in zoological studies

  12. A historical perspective on radioisotopic tracers in metabolism and biochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin, Graham

    2015-01-01

    Radioisotopes are used routinely in the modern laboratory to trace and quantify a myriad of biochemical processes. The technique has a captivating history peppered with groundbreaking science and with more than its share of Nobel Prizes. The discovery of radioactivity at the end of the 19th century paved the way to understanding atomic structure and quickly led to the use of radioisotopes to trace the fate of molecules as they flowed through complex organic life. The 1940s saw the first radiotracer studies using homemade instrumentation and analytical techniques such as paper chromatography. This article follows the history of radioisotopic tracers from meager beginnings, through to the most recent applications. The author hopes that those researchers involved in radioisotopic tracer studies today will pause to remember the origins of the technique and those who pioneered this fascinating science.

  13. Estimating individual exposure to 131I for radiation workers at radioisotope production using air sampling and smartphone techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor individual exposure at radioisotope production depends strongly on temporal concentration variation, contacting time and working location of radiation workers. To estimate personal exposure to indoor air polluted with 131I for the workers at radioisotope production, we had employed a low cost indoor model appropriate for their specific situation. In this model, time-microenvironment occupied by the workers was recorded by a smartphone sensitive motion software. Simultaneously, on the work days, indoor air in the three iodine production rooms was sampled by a portable air sampler coupled with activated carbon cartridges impregnated by TEDA. Then the low background gamma spectrometer was used to measure activity of the cartridges and the concentration of 131I in these rooms was calculated with the temporal resolution of one hour. By combining the hourly concentration with the high temporal resolution of activity patterns, we estimated the actual exposures for the group of workers producing radioisotopes in Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for the first four months of 2015. The highest daily average exposure was 410.2 Bq/m3 while the highest average exposure of the group was 147.2 Bq/m3. It showed an useful value for minimizing risks and estimating internal doses as well. This feasibility study may be applied for assessing personal exposure at radioisotope production, but also for many other indoor environments. (author)

  14. Efficiency of Pm-147 direct charge radioisotope battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavetskiy, A.; Yakubova, G.; Yousaf, S.M. [TRACE Photonics Inc, 1680 West Polk Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Bower, K., E-mail: kbower@tracephotonics.co [TRACE Photonics Inc, 1680 West Polk Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States); Robertson, J.D.; Garnov, A. [Department of Chemistry and University of Missouri Research Reactor, 1513 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    A theoretical analysis is presented here of the efficiency of direct charge radioisotope batteries based on the efficiency of the radioactive source, the system geometry, electrostatic repulsion of beta particles from the collector, the secondary electron emission, and backscattered beta particles from the collector. Efficiency of various design batteries using Pm-147 sources was experimentally measured and found to be in good agreement with calculations. The present approach can be used for predicting the efficiency for different designs of direct charge radioisotope batteries.

  15. Strategy for securing the national supply of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The global supply shortage of medical radioisotopes caused by the unscheduled shutdown of the aged reactors which supply over 90% of radioisotopes overall the world, has severely affected the normal healthcare system which depend on the technology of molecular imaging for diagnoses and therapy as well as the development of nuclear molecular imaging technology. Purpose: It is urgently needed to develop new alternative technologies to solve the problem of global radioisotope supply shortage. Methods: The proton cyclotron is a potential alternative technology to produce the 99mTc and the most of medical radioisotopes of clinical importance. Results: The quality of 99mTc produced by cyclotron, such as nuclide purity, specific activity and nonradioisotope impurities, has reached and/or exceeded that eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator produced by reactor. Conclusions: It is the most operational and sustainable way to substitute the conventional global centralized supply by reactors with local centralized supply of radioisotopes by proton cyclotrons for securing the national supply of radioisotopes. (author)

  16. Search for charged Higgs bosons in decays of top quarks in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaltonen, T.; /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Adelman, J.; /Chicago U., EFI; Akimoto, T.; /Tsukuba U.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.; Amerio, S.; /Padua U. /INFN, Padua; Amidei, D.; /Michigan U.; Anastassov, A.; /Northwestern U.; Annovi, A.; /Frascati; Antos, J.; /Comenius U.; Apollinari, G.; /Fermilab; Apresyan, A.; /Purdue U. /Waseda U.

    2009-07-01

    We report on the first direct search for charged Higgs bosons in decays of top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The search uses a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab, and looks for a resonance in the invariant mass distribution of two jets in the lepton+jets sample of t{bar t} candidates. We observe no evidence of charged Higgs bosons in top quark decays. Hence, 95% upper limits on the top quark decay branching ratio are placed at {Beta}(t {yields} H{sup +}b) < 0.1 to 0.3 for charged Higgs boson masses of 60 to 150 GeV/c{sup 2}, assuming {Beta}(H{sup +} {yields} c{bar s}) = 1.0. The upper limits on {Beta}(t {yields} H{sup +}b) can also be used as model-independent limits on the decay branching ratio of top quarks to generic scalar charged bosons beyond the standard model.

  17. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  18. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  19. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  20. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  1. Carbon-rich presolar grains from massive stars. Subsolar 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios and the mystery of 15N

    CERN Document Server

    Pignatari, M; Hoppe, P; Jordan, C J; Gibson, B K; Trappitsch, R; Herwig, F; Fryer, C; Hirschi, R; Timmes, F X

    2015-01-01

    Carbon-rich grains with isotopic anomalies compared to the Sun are found in primitive meteorites. They were made by stars, and carry the original stellar nucleosynthesis signature. Silicon carbide grains of Type X and C, and low-density graphites condensed in the ejecta of core-collapse supernovae. We present a new set of models for the explosive He shell and compare them with the grains showing 12C/13C and 14N/15N ratios lower than solar. In the stellar progenitor H was ingested into the He shell and not fully destroyed before the explosion. Different explosion energies and H concentrations are considered. If the SN shock hits the He-shell region with some H still present, the models can reproduce the C and N isotopic signatures in C-rich grains. Hot-CNO cycle isotopic signatures are obtained, including a large production of 13C and 15N. The short-lived radionuclides 22Na and 26Al are increased by orders of magnitude. The production of radiogenic 22Ne from the decay of 22Na in the He shell might solve the pu...

  2. Removal of Direct Yellow-12 Dye from Water by Adsorption on Activated Carbon Prepared from Ficus Racemosa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Revathi, G.; Ramalingam, S; P. Subramaniam; A. Ganapathi

    2011-01-01

    The adsorption of direct yellow-12 dye (DY-12) by Atti leaf (Ficus racemosa) powder carbon (ATC) was carried out by varying the parameters such as agitation time, dye concentration, adsorbent dose, pH and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption data followed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Adsorption followed second-order kinetics. The adsorption capacity was found to be 6.7 mg dye per gram of the adsorbent. Acidic pH was favorable for the adsorption of DY-12. Desorption studies suggest t...

  3. Studies of copper transport in mammalian cells using copper radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    The trace element copper poses a major problem for all organisms. It is essential as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Using the copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t1/2 = 61 hr) we have developed a number of systems for studying copper transport in mammalian cells. These include investigation of copper uptake, copper efflux and ligand blot assays for Cu-binding proteins. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency disorder in humans. We have demonstrated that the Menkes protein is directly involved as a copper efflux pump in mammalian cells. Using cells overexpressing the Menkes protein we have provided the first biochemical evidence that this functions as a Cu translocating (across the membrane) P-type ATPase (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press). These studies were carried out using purified plasma membrane vesicles. We are now carrying out structure- function studies on this protein using targeted mutations and assaying using the radiocopper vesicle assay. Recently we have commenced studies on the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in copper transport and relationship of this to Alzheimers disease

  4. Use of copper radioisotopes in investigating disorders of copper metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camakaris, J.; Voskoboinik, I.; Brooks, H.; Greenough, M. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Genetics; Smith, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division; Mercer, J. [Deakin University, Rusden Campus, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre of Cellular and Molecular Biology

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Copper is an essential trace element for life as a number of vital enzymes require it. Copper deficiency can lead to neurological disorders, osteoporosis and weakening of arteries. However Cu is also highly toxic and homeostatic mechanisms have evolved to maintain Cu at levels which satisfy requirements but do not cause toxicity. Toxicity is mediated by the oxidative capacity of Cu and its ability to generate toxic free radicals. There are several acquired and inherited diseases due to either Cu toxicity or Cu deficiency. The study of these diseases facilitates identification of genes and proteins involved in copper homeostasis, and this in turn will provide rational therapeutic approaches. Our studies have focused on Menkes disease in humans which is an inherited and usually lethal copper deficiency. Using copper radioisotopes {sup 64}Cu (t 1/2 = 12.8 hr) and {sup 67}Cu (t 1/2 = 61 hr) we have studied the protein which is mutated in Menkes disease. This is a transmembrane copper pump which is responsible for absorption of copper into the body and also functions to pump out excess Cu from cells when Cu is elevated. It is therefore a vital component of normal Cu homeostasis. We have provided the first biochemical evidence that the Menkes protein functions as a P-type ATPase Cu pump (Voskoboinik et al., FEBS Letters, in press) and these data will be discussed. The assay involved pumping of radiocopper into purified membrane vesicles. Furthermore we have transfected normal and mutant Menkes genes into cells and are carrying out structure-function studies. We are also studying the role of amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a Cu transport protein in order to determine how Cu regulates this protein and its cleavage products. These studies will provide vital information on the relationship between Cu and APP and processes which lead to Alzheimers disease

  5. Fossil and Contemporary Fine Carbon Fractions at 12 Rural and Urban Sites in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schichtel, B; Malm, W; Bench, G; Fallon, S; McDade, C; Chow, J

    2007-03-01

    Fine particulate matter collected at two urban, four near-urban, and six remote sites throughout the United States were analyzed for total carbon (TC) and radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). Samples were collected at most sites for both a summer and winter season. The radiocarbon was used to partition the TC into fossil and contemporary fractions. On average, contemporary carbon composed about half of the carbon at the urban, {approx}70-97% at near-urban, and 82-100% at remote sites. At Phoenix, Arizona, and Seattle, Washington, one monitor was located within the urban center and one outside to assess the urban excess over background concentrations. During the summer the urban and rural sites had similar contemporary carbon concentrations. However, during the winter the urban sites had more than twice the contemporary carbon measured at the neighboring sites, indicating anthropogenic contributions to the contemporary carbon. The urban fossil carbon was 4-20 times larger than the neighboring rural sites for both seasons. Organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) from TOR analysis were available. These and the radiocarbon data were used to estimate characteristic fossil and contemporary EC/TC ratios for the winter and summer seasons. These ratios were applied to carbon data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network to estimate the fraction of contemporary carbon at mostly rural sites throughout the United States. In addition, the ratios were used to develop a semiquantitative, lower bound estimate of secondary organic carbon (SOC) contribution to fossil and contemporary carbon. SOC accounted for more than one-third of the fossil and contemporary carbon.

  6. Coated particle fuel for radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholtis, Joseph A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1999-01-01

    Coated particle fuel offers great promise for advanced radioisotope power systems (RPSs) and radioisotope heater units (RHUs) being pursued for future U.S. solar system exploration missions. Potential benefits of this fuel include improved design flexibility and materials compatibility, enhanced safety and performance, and reduced specific mass and volume. This paper describes and discusses coated particle fuel, with emphasis on its applicability, attributes, and potential benefits to future RPSs and RHUs. Additionally, this paper identifies further analyses and verification testing that should be conducted before a commitment is made to fully develop this fuel. Efforts to date indicate there is every reason to believe that the potential benefits of coated particle fuel to future RPSs and RHUs can be demonstrated with a modest, phased analytical and verification test effort. Thus, developmental risk appears minimal, while the potential benefits are substantial. If coated particle fuel is pursued and ultimately developed successfully, it could revolutionize the design and space use of future RPSs and RHUs.

  7. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14C, 3H, 125I and 35S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  8. Release of cesium, strontium and europium from soil columns with decaying organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Column experiments with migration of Sr, Cs and Eu radioisotopes in unsaturated soil containing decaying organic material are described. The Sr release with percolate is greatly enhanced and the Cs release is under certain circumstances also somewhat enhanced, while Eu appears not to be influenced by the organic degradation products. (au)

  9. World Carbon Black Output to Reach 12.7 Million Tons in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Yongkang

    2012-01-01

    From April 13 to April 17, "Carbon Black China of 2012" (CBC2012) was held in Hangzhou, China. Mr. Paul Ita, the president of US marketing research institution Notch Consulting Group, announced that the prospect of carbon black industry was closely linked with the development of auto industry and tire industry. The demand for carbon black of 2010 increased by 15% compared with that of 2009; the growth rate of demand for carbon black was 5.8% in 2011 and the total output was 10.7 million tons, which increased by about 5.5% compared with that of 2010.

  10. Search for particles decaying into a Z boson and a photon in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de

    2006-05-01

    The authors present the results of the first search for a new particle X produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV and subsequently decaying to Z{gamma}. The search uses 0.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. They set limits on the production cross section times the branching fraction {sigma}(p{bar p} {yields} X) x B(X {yields} Z{gamma}) that range from 0.4-3.5 pb at the 95% C.L. for X with invariant masses between 100 and 1000 GeV/c{sup 2} over a wide range of X decay widths.

  11. Search for a neutral Higgs boson decaying to a W boson pair in p antip collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Illinois U.,

    2006-05-01

    The authors present the results of a search for standard model Higgs boson production with decay to WW*, identified through the leptonic final states e{sup +}e{sup -} {bar {nu}}{nu}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}} {bar {nu}}{nu} and {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} {bar {nu}}{nu}. This search uses 360 pb{sup -1} of data collected from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV by the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF II). They observe no signal excess and set 95% confidence level upper limits on the production cross section times branching ratio for the Higgs boson to WW* or any new scalar particle with similar decay products. These upper limits range from 5.5 to 3.2 pb for Higgs boson masses between 120 and 200 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  12. Search for V + A current in top quark decay in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Aoki, M.; Apollinari, G.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Ashmanskas, W.; Attal, A.; Azfar, F.; Azzi-Bacchetta, P.

    2006-09-01

    The authors report an upper limit on the fraction of V + A current, f{sub V+A}, in top quark decays, using approximately 700 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV acquired by the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab. For the decay t {yields} Wb {yields} {ell}{nu}b (where {ell} = e or {mu}), the invariant mass of the charged lepton and the bottom quark jet is sensitive to the polarization of the W boson. They determine f{sub V+A} = -0.06 {+-} 0.25 given a top quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2}. They set an upper limit on f{sub V+A} of 0.29 at the 95% confidence level, which represents an improvement by a factor of two on the previous best direct limit.

  13. Search for V+A current in top quark decay in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

    2006-08-01

    The authors report an upper limit on the fraction of V + A current, f{sub V+A}, in top quark decays, using approximately 700 pb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV acquired by the upgraded Collider Detector at Fermilab. For the decay t {yields} wb {yields} {ell}vb (where {ell} = e or {mu}), the invariant mass of the charged lepton and the bottom quark jet is sensitive to the polarization of the W boson. They determine f{sub V+A} = -0.06 {+-} 0.25 given a top quark mass of 175 GeV/c{sup 2}. They set an upper limit on f{sub V+A} of 0.29 at the 95% confidence level, which represents an improvement by a factor of two on the previous best direct limit.

  14. History of occupational exposure to natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From pre-historic times miners represented the group which received, inadvertently, occupational exposure to natural radionuclides. At the end of the 19th century scientists researching the newly found radiation called ''radioactivity'' became exposed frequently to uranium, thorium and their decay chains, still hardly aware of the potential risks associated with their work. In the first half of the 20th century some employees in the radium industry received high doses in the course of their professional duties as chemists, maintenance workers, or radium dial painters; many of them lacked adequate information on radiation protection. After World War II the increased international demand for uranium in the military and civilian sector caused overexposures of several thousands of miners (volunteers, prisoners), mostly due to the inhalation of elevated levels of radon and its decay products. By comparison on an international scale a relatively small number of workers was exposed to increased levels of thorium and its decay products in the thorium and rare-earth extraction industry. Health effects due to these past exposures range from relatively weak associations to statistically significant excesses for a variety of symptoms, such as respiratory diseases or cancer of the bone, lung or pancreas. An assessment of today industrial exposure situations indicates a wide range of occupations exposed to partly significant levels of natural radionuclides. 36 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  15. G64-12 and G64-37 are Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Placco, Vinicius M; Reggiani, Henrique; Melendez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We present new high-resolution chemical-abundance analyses for the well-known high proper-motion subdwarfs G64-12 and G64-37, based on very high signal-to-noise spectra (S/N ~ 700/1) with resolving power R ~ 95,000. These high-quality data enable the first reliable determination of the carbon abundances for these two stars; we classify them as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars based on their carbonicities, which both exceed [C/Fe] = +1.0. They are sub-classified as CEMP- no Group-II stars, based on their location in the Yoon-Beers diagram of absolute carbon abundance, A(C) vs. [Fe/H], as well as on the conventional diagnostic [Ba/Fe]. The relatively low absolute carbon abundances of CEMP-no stars, in combination with the high effective temperatures of these two stars (Teff ~ 6500 K) weakens their CH molecular features to the point that accurate carbon abundances can only be estimated from spectra with very high S/N. A comparison of the observed abundance patterns with the predicted yields from massive, ...

  16. Search for charged Higgs bosons in decays of top quarks in proton - antiproton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Geum Bong; /Rochester U.

    2009-08-01

    In this dissertation we report on the first direct search for charged Higgs bosons in decays of top quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The search uses a data sample with an integrated luminosity of 2.2 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab and looks for a resonance in the invariant mass distribution of two jets in the lepton+jets sample of t{bar t} candidates. We observe no evidence of charged Higgs bosons in top quark decays; hence 95% C.L. upper limits on the branching ratio are placed at {Beta}(t {yields} H{sup +}b) < 0.1 to 0.3 for charged Higgs boson masses of 60 to 150 GeV/c{sup 2} assuming {Beta}(H{sup +} {yields} c{bar s}) = 1.0 and {Beta}(t {yields} Wb)+{Beta}(t {yields} H{sup +}b) = 1.0. The upper limits on {Beta}(t {yields} H{sup +}b) are also used as model independent limits on the decay branching ratio of top quarks to any charged scalar bosons beyond the standard model.

  17. Top pair production cross section at s**(1/2) = 1.96 TeV and a search for v + a current in top quark decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, S.; /Valencia U., IFIC

    2006-09-01

    Possible effects from physics beyond the Standard Model have been investigated in top quark decays from a data sample enriched in t{bar t} events produced in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV with an integrated luminosity of approximately 700 pb{sup -1} and collected with the CDF II detector. The combined t{bar t} production cross section measurement 7.3 {+-} 0.9 pb agrees with the QCD NLO predictions: 6.7 {+-} 0.8 pb assuming m{sub top} = 175 GeV/c{sup 2}. The fraction of the V + A current in top quark decay, f{sub V+A}, is determined using the invariant mass of the charged lepton and the bottom quark jet in the decay chain t {yields} Wb {yields} {ell}{nu}b (where {ell} = e or {mu}). The measured value f{sub V+A} = - 0.06 {+-} 0.25 under the assumption m{sub top} = 175 GeV/c{sup 2} is in agreement with the Standard Model. They set an upper limit on f{sub V+A} of 0.29 at the 95% confidence level.

  18. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samejima, Natsuki; Ikeda, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Satoru

    1989-05-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author).

  19. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, N; Ikeda, K; Yokoyama, Y; Hirata, S

    1989-05-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99mTcO4- into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. PMID:2674500

  20. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99mTcO4-into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 600.208-12 - Calculation of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for a model type. 600.208-12 Section 600.208-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations for 1977 and...

  2. 40 CFR 600.206-12 - Calculation and use of FTP-based and HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HFET-based fuel economy and carbon-related exhaust emission values for vehicle configurations. 600.206-12 Section 600.206-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Fuel Economy Regulations...

  3. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  4. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurement of a Li4Ti5O12 composite electrode in a carbonate electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serizawa, Nobuyuki; Shono, Kumi; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime; Katayama, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurement is conducted with a Li4Ti5O12 (lithium titanium oxide, LTO)-coated quartz crystal electrode in a carbonate electrolyte (ethylene carbonate + dimethyl carbonate; 50: 50 vol%) containing 1 M LiPF6. In-situ monitoring of the mass change during the charge and discharge of the LTO electrode can be achieved quantitatively because of the "zero-strain" property of LTO with Li+ insertion and the probably low reactivity between LTO and the electrolyte. The local changes of viscosity and density of the electrolyte contacting the LTO electrode are detected via the resonance resistance of the quartz crystal electrode, suggesting the local concentrations of Li+ and counter anion changed significantly during insertion and extraction of Li+ in the organic electrolyte.

  5. Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Kim, J. R.; Yoon, B. M.; Bang, H. S.; Shin, B. C.; Cho, W. K.; Park, U. J.; Park, C. D.; Lee, Y. G.; Suh, C. H.; Shin, H. Y.; Kim, D. S.; Hong, S. B.; Jun, S. S.; Min, E. S.; Jang, K. D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yang, S. Y.; Yang, S. H.; Chun, K. J.; Kang, H. Y.; Suh, K. S.; Goo, J. H.; Chung, S. H.; Lee, J. C.; Choi, J. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Bang, K. S.

    1997-09-01

    To produce radioisotopes utilizing the research reactor `HANARO`, development of RI production process, target fabrication, preparation of devices and tools for RI process, preparation of production facility for radiopharmaceuticals, test production for the established process, etc. have been carried out, respectively. Production processes for various kinds of radionuclides were developed and the settled methods were applied to test production using `HANARO`. The results of developed process are as follows: (1) I-131 dry distillation method. (2) Large scale production of Ir-192 sources (3) P-32 production process by distillation under reduced pressure (4) Cr-51 production process using enriched target. To irradiate the target for RI production in `HANARO`, target for neutron irradiation, loading/unloading devices, working table in service pool, remote handling tools, shield cask for irradiated target transfer, etc. were designed and fabricated. The function test of prepared targets and the safety analysis of shielding casks were carried out. License for practical use of the prepared casks were obtained from Ministry of Science and Technology. For production of medical radioisotopes, their production facilities were designed in detail and were installed in RIPF (Radioisotope Production Facility), with full reflection of the basic concept of the good manufacturing practice for radiopharmaceuticals. The constructed GMP facilities have started to be operated after authorization since Jun., 1997. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes in `HANARO` and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes. (author). 7 refs., 7 tabs., 4 figs.

  6. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  7. Development of design of a radioisotope switchable neutron source and new portable detector of smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of simple and cheap radioisotope switchable neutron source for application in the portable device of detecting of smuggling is presented. Detailed calculations (Monte-Carlo modeling) for the purpose of optimization of a design of the source and the detector module are carried out. The sufficient an yield of neutrons, about 2 o 105 n/s provides the source with the sizes of approx 25 x 25 x 60 mm3. Results of simulation of scanning smuggling areas (polyethylene 10 x 10 x 5 cm3) behind the thick steel wall (1.2 cm) gave the relation of signal/ background 7-8

  8. Decay of the excited compound system {sup 48}Cr{sup *} formed through {sup 24}Mg + {sup 24}Mg, {sup 36}Ar + {sup 12}C and {sup 20}Ne + {sup 28}Si reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Subha, P.V.; Priyanka, B. [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur, Kerala (India)

    2016-05-15

    The total cross section, the intermediate mass fragment (IMF) production cross section, and the cross section for the formation of light particle (LP) for the decay of {sup 48}Cr{sup *} formed through the entrance channel {sup 24}Mg+{sup 24}Mg, have been evaluated using the barrier penetration model, taking the scattering potential as the sum of the Coulomb and nuclear proximity potential, for various E{sub CM} values. The computed results have been compared with the available experimental data of the total cross section corresponding to E{sub CM}=44.4 MeV for the entrance channel {sup 24}Mg+{sup 24}Mg, and were found to be in good agreement. The experimental values for the LP production cross section for the channel {sup 24}Mg+{sup 24}Mg were also seen to be agreeing with our calculations. Hence we have extended our studies and have thus computed the total cross section, IMF cross section and LP cross section for the decay of {sup 48}Cr{sup *} formed through the other two entrance channels {sup 36}Ar+{sup 12}C, and {sup 20}Ne+{sup 28}Si with different E{sub CM} values. It was found that the computed total cross sections for the entrance channel {sup 36}Ar+{sup 12}C with E{sub CM}=47 MeV agree well with the corresponding experimental values. Hence, we hope that our predictions on the evaluations of the IMF cross sections and the light charged particle cross sections for the decay of {sup 48}Cr{sup *}, formed through the two entrance channels {sup 36}Ar+{sup 12}C, and {sup 20}Ne+{sup 28}Si, can be used for further experimental studies. (orig.)

  9. Metalloradical-Catalyzed Selective 1,2-Rh-H Insertion into the Aliphatic Carbon-Carbon Bond of Cyclooctane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.W. Chan; B. de Bruin; K.S. Chan

    2015-01-01

    The selective aliphatic carboncarbon activation of cyclo-octane (c-octane) was achieved via the Rh-II(ttp)-catalyzed 1,2-addition of Rh(ttp)H to give Rh(ttp)(n-octyl) (ttp = tetratolylporphyrinato dianion) in good yield under mild reaction conditions. This mechanism is further supported by DFT calcu

  10. Direct measurement of the W boson decay width in proton-antiproton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jun-jie

    2004-10-01

    This dissertation describes a direct measurement of the W boson total decay width, {Lambda}{sub W}, using the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The measurement uses an integrated luminosity of 177.3 pb{sup -1} data, collected during the 2002-2003 run. The width is determined from the shape of the transverse mass distribution, M{sub T}, by fitting the data in the tail region 100 < M{sub T} < 200 GeV. The result if {Lambda}{sub W} = 2.011 {+-} 0.093(stat) {+-} 0.107(syst) GeV.

  11. Electrodeposition of Nickel onto 12K Carbon Fibre Tow in a Continuous Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Pierozynski, Boguslaw

    2012-01-01

    Nickel-coated carbon fibre (NiCCF) is an important composite material, which finds nu- merous engineering applications, primarily within: computer, telecommunication, automotive and military industries. In general, NiCCF can be produced by one of the three methods, namely: chemical vapour deposition (CVD), electroless, and electrochemical (galvanic) deposition of Ni on a carbon fibre tow material. The present paper reports a study of the process of nickel electrodeposition (at ultrathin layer...

  12. The Mars Hopper: a radioisotope powered, impulse driven, long-range, long-lived mobile platform for exploration of Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven D. Howe; Robert C. O' Brien; William Taitano; Doug Crawford; Nathan Jerred; Spencer Cooley; John Crapeau; Steve Hansen; Andrew Klein; James Werner

    2011-02-01

    Planetary exploration mission requirements are becoming more demanding. Due to the increasing cost, the missions that provide mobile platforms that can acquire data at multiple locations are becoming more attractive. Wheeled vehicles such as the MER rovers have proven extremely capable but have very limited range and cannot traverse rugged terrain. Flying vehicles such as balloons and airplanes have been proposed but are problematic due to the very thin atmospheric pressure and the strong, dusty winds present on Mars. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has designed an instrumented platform that can acquire detailed data at hundreds of locations during its lifetime - a Mars Hopper. The Mars Hopper concept utilizes energy from radioisotopic decay in a manner different from any existing radioisotopic power sources—as a thermal capacitor. By accumulating the heat from radioisotopic decay for long periods, the power of the source can be dramatically increased for short periods. The platform will be able to "hop" from one location to the next every 5-7 days with a separation of 5-10 km per hop. Preliminary designs show a platform that weighs around 52 kgs unfueled which is the condition at deployment. Consequently, several platforms may be deployed on a single launch from Earth. With sufficient lifetime, the entire surface of Mars can be mapped in detail by a couple dozen platforms. In addition, Hoppers can collect samples from all over the planet, including gorges, mountains and crevasses, and deliver them to a central location for eventual pick-up by a Mars Sample Return mission. The status of the Mars Hopper development project at the CSNR is discussed.

  13. Investigation of Miniaturized Radioisotope Thermionic Power Generation for General Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only approx.7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  14. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  15. Application of radioisotopes to studies of crystal imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been used in two important ways in studying imperfections in alkali halide crystals. The zone refining of the compounds has been monitored by addition of tracers, and segregation coefficients have been determined from such measurements. The other application has been to insert small concentrations of impurity ions into alkali halides in order to study the phonon scattering by such impurities or by the vacancies they introduce; these measurements are carried out at very low temperatures where the phonon mean free path is limited by lattice imperfections. The most commonly used radioisotope in this work has been Ca45. This work is reviewed and some current and possible future applications of radioisotopes in this field are mentioned. (author)

  16. Methods of Fabricating Scintillators with Radioisotopes for Beta Battery Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensing, Noa M.; Squillante, Michael R.; Tieman, Timothy C.; Higgins, William; Shiriwadkar, Urmila

    2013-01-01

    Technology has been developed for a class of self-contained, long-duration power sources called beta batteries, which harvest the energy contained in the radioactive emissions from beta decay isotopes. The new battery is a significant improvement over the conventional phosphor/solar cell concept for converting this energy in three ways. First, the thin phosphor is replaced with a thick scintillator that is transparent to its own emissions. By using a scintillator sufficiently thick to completely stop all the beta particles, efficiency is greatly improved. Second, since the energy of the beta particles is absorbed in the scintillator, the semiconductor photodetector is shielded from radiation damage that presently limits the performance and lifetime of traditional phosphor converters. Finally, instead of a thin film of beta-emitting material, the isotopes are incorporated into the entire volume of the thick scintillator crystal allowing more activity to be included in the converter without self-absorption. There is no chemical difference between radioactive and stable strontium beta emitters such as Sr-90, so the beta emitter can be uniformly distributed throughout a strontium based scintillator crystal. When beta emitter material is applied as a foil or thin film to the surface of a solar cell or even to the surface of a scintillator, much of the radiation escapes due to the geometry, and some is absorbed within the layer itself, leading to inefficient harvesting of the energy. In contrast, if the emitting atoms are incorporated within the scintillator, the geometry allows for the capture and efficient conversion of the energy of particles emitted in any direction. Any gamma rays associated with secondary decays or Bremsstrahlung photons may also be absorbed within the scintillator, and converted to lower energy photons, which will in turn be captured by the photocell or photodiode. Some energy will be lost in this two-stage conversion process (high-energy particle

  17. Fundamental study on radioisotopic lymphography of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, K.; Sasaki, T. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Kaneko, M.

    1981-11-01

    The quality of the image was evaluated and improved using a scinticamera and three kinds of radiocolloid, /sup 198/Au colloid, sup(99m)Tc-phytate and sup(99m)Tc-Re colloid by radioisotopic lymphography. Intracutaneous injection of radiocolloid into the parietal scalp was able to take the image of the cervical node under a little influence of radioactivity remaining in the injection site because the site was significantly distant from the node and easily covered by a lead plate. Injecting the same radioactivity bilaterally into the scalp demonstrated symmetrically bilateral parotide or retroauricular node and its afferent vessel at about ten minutes and then this node to bilateral supraclavicular node in one to six hours after injection in patients with no evident lesion of the node. Difference of accumulated counts in the region of interest between both chains of these nodes was 12% on the average. Image of the node was obtained more clearly in three to six hours than at one though the time-activity curve of the neck revealed a peak in one hour after injection. Leakage of the agent out of the injection site was reduced to as lower as 3% of injected dose by means of skillful injection. Direct infusion of the agent into blood flow was recognized, so that image of the liver was demonstrated by either kind of radiocolloid, especially sup(99m)Tc-phytate, immediately after injection. A simultaneous injection of hyaluronidase, a tissue diffusing factor, enhanced slightly uptake of the agent in the lymph-node but it was not significant statistically (p < 0.05). Using reasonable dose, sup(99m)Tc-Re colloid obtained high accumulated count in the region of the node and showed the best quality of image in demonstrating the vessel and node separately and widely.

  18. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  19. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls. (V.N.)

  20. KAERI charged particle cross section library for radioisotope production

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y O; Zhuang, Y X

    2001-01-01

    This report summarized information and figures describing the 'KAERI Charged Particle Cross Section Library for Radioisotope production' The library contains proton-, deutron-, He-3-, and alpha-induced monitor cross sections, and gamma- and positron-emitter production cross sections. Experimental data and evaluation methods are described, and the evaluated cross sections are compared with those of the IAEA, MENDL, and LA150. The library has cross sections and emission spectra suitable for the transport analysis in the design of radioisotope production system, and are available at http://atom.kaeri.re.kr/ in ENDF-6 format.

  1. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Harold E.; Bearden, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a ``DOE Alternative.'' The U.S. Department of Transportation has special ``double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained ``bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992.

  2. Ablation response testing of simulated radioisotope power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Steven A.; Chan, Chris C.

    1994-05-01

    Results of an experimental program to assess the aerothermal ablation response of simulated radioisotope power supplies are presented. Full-scale general purpose heat source, graphite impact shell, and lightweight radioisotope heater unit test articles are all tested without nuclear fuel in simulated reentry environments. Convective stagnation heating, stagnation pressure, stagnation surface temperature, surface recession profile, and weight loss measurements are obtained for diffusion-limited and sublimation ablation conditions. The recession profile and weight loss measurements show an effect of surface features on the stagnation face. The surface features alter the local heating which in turn affects the local ablation.

  3. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author)

  4. Synthesis and characterization of radioisotope nanospheres containing two gamma emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Hyuck; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2012-12-01

    Silica-coated gold-silver alloy nanospheres prepared by Stöber's method were irradiated in a nuclear reactor to prepare radioisotope nanospheres for use as radiotracers. The radioisotope nanospheres included two gamma nuclides: (i) Au-198, emitting major photons with 0.412 MeV and (ii) Ag-108, emitting photons with 0.434 and 0.633 MeV. The nanospheres shell and core diameters were 100-112 nm and 20-50 nm, respectively, depending on their preparation. The gamma-emitting nanospheres could be used as tracers in high-temperature petrochemical and refinery processes in which conventional organic radioactive labels will decompose.

  5. Search for neutral Higgs bosons decaying to tau pairs in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de

    2006-05-01

    A search for the production of neutral Higgs bosons {Phi} decaying into {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} final states in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV is presented. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 325 pb{sup -1}, were collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Since no excess compared to the expectation from standard model processes is found, limits on the production cross section times branching ratio are set. The results are combined with those obtained from the D0 search for {Phi}b({bar b}) {yields} b{bar b}b({bar b}) and are interpreted in the minimal supersymmetric standard model.

  6. Search for high-mass resonances decaying to e mu in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Acosta, D.; Adelman, Jahred A.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; /Taiwan, Inst.

    2006-03-01

    The authors describe a general search for resonances decaying to a neutral e{mu} final state in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV. Using a data sample representing 344 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity recorded by the CDF II experiment, they compare Standard Model predictions with the number of observed events for invariant masses between 50 and 800 GeV/c{sup 2}. Finding no significant excess (5 events observed vs. 7.7 {+-} 0.8 expected for M{sub e{mu}} > 100 GeV/c{sup 2}), they set limits on sneutrino and Z{prime} masses as functions of lepton family number violating couplings.

  7. Remote control: Decommissioning RTGs [radioisotope theromelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several hundred radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are deployed along the Russian Federation's Arctic coast to power remote lighthouses and navigation beacons. Similar RTGs were also used as power sources in other remote locations in the Russian Federation and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. All Russian RTG's have out-lived their lifespan and are in need of decommissioning. The RTGs typically contain one or more radionuclide heat sources (RHS) each with an activity of thousands of TBq of strontium-90. This means that they are Category 1 sources as defined in the IAEA international 'Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources'. According to the Federal Atomic Energy Agency of the Russian Federation (Rosatom), there are 651 RTGs at various locations in the Russian Federation which are subject to decommissioning or replacement with alternative sources of energy. The Norwegian Government has played a significant role in international efforts, fully cooperating with Russian authorities to safely decommission RTGs and provide alternative power sources. Norway has actively supported improvement of nuclear safety and security in northwest Russia for more then ten years. Over this period, the Norwegian Government has spent approximately $150 million on a variety of industrial projects, including specific improvements in radioactive waste treatment and storage, physical security, and infrastructure support. The national authority, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), takes an active part advising the Government regarding prioritization and quality assurance of all these activities. In addition, the Plan of Action places great emphasis on adequate regulatory supervision. Accordingly, the NRPA programme includes a variety of regulatory support projects. These are designed to assist the Russian authorities in ensuring that work is properly carried out within the framework of Russian law, taking into account international

  8. Processing and characterization of a carbon black-filled electrically conductive Nylon-12 nanocomposite produced by selective laser sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selective laser sintering (SLS), a layered manufacturing technique was explored to process an electrically conductive polymer nanocomposite made of Nylon-12 reinforced with 4 wt% of carbon black. SLS process parameters were optimized in order to maximize the flexural modulus. The porosity and morphology were studied using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline state was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity was determined using the four probe technique. Results indicate that carbon black-filled Nylon-12 nanocomposites can be successfully made by SLS. Maximum flexural modulus values of 1750 MPa and 1450 MPa were achieved for the neat polymer and the nanocomposite, respectively. A reduction in the flexural modulus of the nanocomposite is likely due to the formation of a segregated structure in the nanocomposite and a weak polymer-filler interface. The optimized neat polymer and the nanocomposites had average densities of around 97% and 96% relative to full density, respectively. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was approximately 1 x 10-4 S/cm, which is five orders of magnitude higher than that of the neat polymer processed by SLS, and indicates that the onset of percolation behavior occurs below the 4 wt% loading of carbon black.

  9. Progress in the Use of Isotopes: The Atomic Triad - Reactors, Radioisotopes and Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, W. F.

    1958-08-04

    Recent years have seen a substantial growth in the use of isotopes in medicine, agriculture, and industry: up to the minute information on the production and use of isotopes in the U.S. is presented. The application of radioisotopes to industrial processes and manufacturing operations has expanded more rapidly than any one except its most ardent advocates expected. New uses and new users are numerous. The adoption by industry of low level counting techniques which make possible the use of carbon-14 and tritium in the control of industrial processes and in certain exploratory and research problems is perhaps most promising of current developments. The latest information on savings to industry will be presented. The medical application of isotopes has continued to develop at a rapid pace. The current trend appears to be in the direction of improvements in technique and the substitution of more effective isotopes for those presently in use. Potential and actual benefits accruing from the use of isotopes in agriculture are reviewed. The various methods of production of radioisotopes are discussed. Not only the present methods but also interesting new possibilities are covered. Although isotopes are but one of the many peaceful uses of the atom, it is the first to pay its way. (auth)

  10. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG'S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG'S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria

  11. Carbon sequestration in surface flow constructed wetland after 12 years of swine wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands used for the treatment of swine wastewater may potentially sequester significant amounts of carbon. In past studies, we evaluated the treatment efficiency of wastewater in marsh-pond-marsh design wetland system. The functionality of this system was highly dependent on soil carbo...

  12. Analysis of metal radioisotope impurities generated in [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O during the cyclotron production of fluorine-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillies, J.M. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: jgillies@picr.man.ac.uk; Najim, N. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Zweit, J. [Cancer Research-UK/UMIST Radiochemical Targeting and Imaging Group, Christie Hospital NHS Trust, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Sciences, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    We show the separation of metal radioistope impurities using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The methodology used is an improvement of existent protocols for separation of stable metal ions. Production of fluorine-18 using [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O-enriched water encased in a titanium target body results in the production of several metal radioisotope impurities. Optimisation of the conditions for CE separation of the metal radioisotope impurities incorporated the use of 6 mM 18-Crown-6 in combination with 12 mM glycolic acid as complexing agents within the running buffer (10 mM pyridine, pH 4.0). Using this optimised procedure, we were able to separate and detect a number of metal radioisotopes, including chromium, cobalt, manganese, vanadium and berillium, within the fM concentration range.

  13. Opportunities for Decay Counting of Environmental Radioisotopes Using Ultra-low-background Detection Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runkle, Robert C.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bonicalzi, Ricco; Moran, James J.; Seifert, Allen; Warren, Glen A.

    2012-08-01

    Executive Summary We present results from a scoping study whose intent was to define challenge measurements to be pursued on the Ultra-Sensitive Nuclear Measurements Initiative. Potential challenge measurements using new radiation detection technology in the shallow underground laboratory that would have substantial impact in environmental science were the focus of this study.

  14. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carty, J. [US Department of Energy, Office of Isotope Production and Distribution, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  15. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  16. Radioisotope techniques for the study of protein turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the era of isotope-labelled proteins, investigations of protein metabolism were largely based on nitrogen balance studies. They were widely applied in both animal experiments and clinical investigations. In 1959, researchers began using isotope-labelled proteins to study protein metabolism. Examples of radioisotope techniques for the study of protein metabolism are examined in this paper. 7 figs, 1 tab

  17. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-08-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube.

  18. Optimization of water treatment facility by using radioisotope tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, J. H.; Lee, M. J.; Jung, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to get the optimization of conventional water treatment facility, radioisotope tracer technique was applied. It is desirable to set the baffles inside of mixing basin for the enhancement of mixing effect. It was appeared that most of flocs were settled down within 60 - 70 % of total length of sedimentation basin even with high flow rate. (author). 2 tabs., 32 figs.

  19. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  20. Basic principles and developments of the radioisotope powered voltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles and some kinds of voltaic effect type radioisotope batteries are reviewed. This paper is focused on the micro-batteries based on radio-voltaic effect, which are widely used in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) and cardiac pacemakers. The prospects of such radio-voltaic isotope batteries are also reported. (authors)

  1. The use of radioisotopes for determination of complex equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes can be used for determination of complex equilibria in solution, provided this solution is in equilibrium with another phase. The most versatile systems for studying aqueous solutions use solvent-extraction and ion-exchange methods. These two methods more seen be to universally practical for determining complex equilibria than EMF, spectrophotometric and other more conventional ones. (author)

  2. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  3. Quarterly Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program tasks for April 2000 through June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.P.

    2000-10-23

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems (OSDPS) of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVSs) and weld shields (WSs). This quarterly report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from OSDPS for fiscal year (FY) 2000. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, clad vent sets (CVSs), and weld shields (WSs). In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of flight quality (FQ) components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for two new RPS. The last section is dedicated to studies of the potential for the production of 238Pu at ORNL.

  4. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  5. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  6. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  7. Semileptonic Decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-10-02

    The following is an overview of the measurements of the CKM matrix elements |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}| that are based on detailed studies of semileptonic B decays by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations and major advances in QCD calculations. In addition, a new and improved measurement of the ratios R(D{sup (*)}) = {Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{tau}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {tau}})/{Beta}({bar B} {yields} D{sup (*)}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) is presented. Here D{sup (*)} refers to a D or a D* meson and {ell} is either e or {mu}. The results, R(D) = 0.440 {+-} 0.058 {+-} 0.042 and R(D*) = 0.332 {+-} 0.024 {+-} 0.018, exceed the Standard Model expectations by 2.0{sigma} and 2.7{sigma}, respectively. Taken together, they disagree with these expectations at the 3.4{sigma} level. The excess of events cannot be explained by a charged Higgs boson in the type II two-Higgs-doublet model.

  8. THE INFLUENCE OF THE POROUS STRUCTURE OF LOCAL ACTIVATED CARBONS ON THE IMMOBILIZATION OF THE CONGO RED DYE AND VITAMIN B 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Timbaliuc

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption properties of activated carbons, obtained from local raw materials (nut shells, peach and plum stones, towards Congo Red and vitamin B12 have been studied. The values of adsorption of these marker-substances are in direct correlation with the structural characteristics of the studied samples of activated carbons, in particular, with their mesopore volume.

  9. Treatment of Central Type Lung Cancer by CT Guided Percutaneous Implants of 125I Radioisotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaokun Hu; Mingyou Wang; Zhiguo Yang; Chundong Qiu; Dongfang Lü; Xiaodong Li; Taiyang Zuo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss the method, safety and effectiveness of the treatment for central-type carcinoma of the lungs by CT guided percutaneous implants of 125I radioisotopes in tissues.METHODS Twenty-two cases of central-type lung cancer located by plain and /or enhanced CT scans were retrospectively analyzed, among which 18cases were verified pathologically using a CT guided percutaneous puncture and biopsy before treatment. The CT guided treatment was conducted immediately after the pathological results were obtained. The number of the radioisotopes used was seven to 16. The intensities of radioactivity for 125I radioisotopes were 22, 26, 30 and 33 MBq per particle.The total intensity of radioactivity was 181 to 355 MBq. The puncture point was only one. The frequency for adjustment of needling direction was two to five times. The punctures were conducted through the anterior chest wall in eight cases, through the lateral chest wall in eight cases and thruogh the posterior chest wall in six cases. Six of the 22 cases were given intravenous chemotherapy.RESULTS Of the 22 cases, 20 were followed-up for more than one month, 16over two months, ten over three months and three cases for six months. In the 20 cases which were followed-up for one month, the diameters of the tumors were reduced by 50% or more in 18 cases, showed no change in two cases with none showing enlargement. In the 16 cases followed-up for more than two months, the diameters of tumors were reduced by 50% or more in 15cases, one case showed no change and none enlarged. In the ten cases with three months of follow-up, the tumor diameters were diminished by 50%or more in eight cases, showed no change in one case and enlarged in one case. In the three cases followed-up for six months, the diameters of tumors were reduced by 50% or more in all the cases. Of the 22 cases, atelectasis occurred in 12 before therapy. The lungs expanded again in nine cases in the follow-up after treatment. Symptoms after

  10. Caractérisation des endommagements d'un composite Carbone/PA12 par émission acoustique

    OpenAIRE

    Philip, F.; Godin, N.; Deschanel, S.; M. Leroy, J.; Grosjean, F.; Courbon, J.

    2011-01-01

    International audience Cet article porte sur la caractérisation de l'endommagement par émission acoustique d'un matériau composite carbone / polyamide 12 (PA12) à fibres longues. L'objectif de ce travail est de discriminer en temps réel les différents types d'endommagement au sein du composite afin de mieux comprendre les mécanismes mis en jeu qui conduisent à la ruine de la structure. Une technique de classification supervisée a été utilisée. L'intérêt de cette technique est de pouvoir ét...

  11. Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and their clinical use at the Austin PET Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J. [Centre for PET, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    1997-12-31

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been established within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. PET is a non-invasive technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic equipment consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities and a whole body PET scanner. During its first five years of operation, the Melbourne PET Centre, has pursued a strong radiolabelling development program, leading to an ambitious clinical program in neurology, oncology and cardiology. This presentation will describe the basic principles of the PET technique and review the cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. Radiolabelling development programs and clinical applications are also addressed. 30 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and their clinical use at the Austin PET Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been established within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. PET is a non-invasive technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic equipment consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities and a whole body PET scanner. During its first five years of operation, the Melbourne PET Centre, has pursued a strong radiolabelling development program, leading to an ambitious clinical program in neurology, oncology and cardiology. This presentation will describe the basic principles of the PET technique and review the cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. Radiolabelling development programs and clinical applications are also addressed

  13. Differentiation of Pigment in Eggs Using Carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and Nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng M; Shi, Guang Y; Wang, Hui W

    2016-07-01

    Consumers prefer natural and healthy food, but artificial pigments are often abused in egg products. The study aimed at differentiating the origin of pigments in eggs by applying the technique of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) stable isotope analysis. Five hundred sixty laying hens were randomly distributed into 14 treatments, which were divided into four groups: maize, carophyll red pigment, carophyll yellow pigment, and a mixture of carophyll red and yellow pigments. Eggs were collected and pretreated to determe the values of the Roche Yolk Color Fan (RCF), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N. With increasing maize content, the RCF and δ(13)C values of yolks increased. Moreover, the RCF values in the three pigment groups were significantly influenced by the artificial colors, but δ(13)C values were not significantly different, regardless of the existence of pigment. The δ(15)N values in all treatments did not vary as regularly as the carbon stable isotope. A strong positive correlation was found between RCF and δ(13)C in the maize group, but no such correlation was be observed in the pigment groups. It is concluded that carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (δ(13)C) of the yolk can be used to differentiate the origin of the pigment added to eggs.

  14. Adoption of carbon dioxide efficient technologies and practices: An analysis of sector-specific convergence trends among 12 nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon dioxide intensities in economic terms (GDP in PPP terms) in industrialized and developing countries have been shown to converge, and it has been argued that technology diffusion, leading to the use of similar technologies in all countries, is an important reason for this convergence. Indicators based on CO2 per output in PPP terms, however, give in comparison to physical indicators limited understanding of the process of technology diffusion. In order to analyze the technology diffusion hypothesis in more detail, we therefore study the trend in carbon dioxide emissions in relation to the production output in four separate sectors: iron and steel; paper, board and pulp; coal fuelled power plants; and natural gas fuelled power plants, in each of 12 countries, between 1980 and 1998. The indicators converge in each sector, indicating that across countries, technologies with more similar carbon dioxide efficiencies are used today than 25 years ago. We also find that at least some developing countries with high energy prices use more efficient technologies than industrialized countries with low energy prices

  15. Differentiation of Pigment in Eggs Using Carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and Nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) Stable Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng M; Shi, Guang Y; Wang, Hui W

    2016-07-01

    Consumers prefer natural and healthy food, but artificial pigments are often abused in egg products. The study aimed at differentiating the origin of pigments in eggs by applying the technique of carbon ((13)C/(12)C) and nitrogen ((15)N/(14)N) stable isotope analysis. Five hundred sixty laying hens were randomly distributed into 14 treatments, which were divided into four groups: maize, carophyll red pigment, carophyll yellow pigment, and a mixture of carophyll red and yellow pigments. Eggs were collected and pretreated to determe the values of the Roche Yolk Color Fan (RCF), δ(13)C, and δ(15)N. With increasing maize content, the RCF and δ(13)C values of yolks increased. Moreover, the RCF values in the three pigment groups were significantly influenced by the artificial colors, but δ(13)C values were not significantly different, regardless of the existence of pigment. The δ(15)N values in all treatments did not vary as regularly as the carbon stable isotope. A strong positive correlation was found between RCF and δ(13)C in the maize group, but no such correlation was be observed in the pigment groups. It is concluded that carbon stable isotope ratio analysis (δ(13)C) of the yolk can be used to differentiate the origin of the pigment added to eggs. PMID:27302905

  16. [NEURONAL DIFFERENTIATION OF PC12 CELL LINE AND MURINE NEURAL STEM CELLS ON THE CARBON NANOTUBES FILMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posypanova, G A; Gaiduchenko, A I; Moskaleva, E Yu; Fedorov, G E

    2016-01-01

    The study of the interaction of nerve cells with specially designed substrates (scaffolds) with different surface characteristics at the nanoscale is a necessary step in the development of methods of stimulation of regeneration of nervous tissues, as well as to create next generation of bioelectronic devices. A promising material for such scaffolds may be carbon nanotubes (CNT) that are flexible films of graphene rolled into nano-sized cylindrical tubes. CNT were produced by chemical deposition from the gas phase. The analysis of the PC12 cells cultivated on quartz glass coated by carbon nanotubes films using electron and light microscopy has shown that CNT stimulate the proliferation and do not inhibit neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. We have found that it is possible to obtain differentiated neurons from murine neural stem cells on the quartz glasses covered with CNT films. The data obtained indicate that the CNT films produced by chemical deposition from the gas phase onto quartz glass may be used as the electro conductive scaffold to obtain and study the functions of neural cells and possibly of mature neurons. PMID:27228654

  17. AMTEC radioisotope power system design and analysis for Pluto Express Fly-By

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Pluto Express Fly-By program requires a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) to supply spacecraft power for various internal functions and mission instruments and experiments. AMTEC (Alkali-Metal Thermal-Electric Conversion) power conversion is the DOE-selected technology for an advanced, high-efficiency RPS to power the Pluto Express Fly-By spacecraft. An AMTEC-based RPS using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) has been conceptually designed to satisfy the Pluto Express power requirements. Integrated AMTEC cell and system thermal/electrical design analyses, structural design analyses, and mass analyses were performed to define an optimum system design. Using fresh radioisotope fuel at beginning of mission, the RPS produces 102 watts of power, has a mass of 8.35 kg (specific power density = 12.2 watts/kg), with a system conversion efficiency of 20.3%. Mass/power scale-up estimates have also been generated, indicating that a 150-watt version of this RPS would weigh approximately 11.3 kg. This paper presents and discusses the key features of this RPS design, the design and analysis methodology, and the numerous system and AMTEC cell tradeoff studies establishing the optimum AMTEC-based RPS

  18. Gas-Phase Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Methanol and Carbon Dioxide Over Co1.5PW12O40 Keggin-Type Heteropolyanion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aouissi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity of Co1.5PW12O40 in the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC from CO2 and CH3OH was investigated. The synthesized catalyst has been characterized by means of FTIR, XRD, TG, and DTA and tested in gas phase under atmospheric pressure. The effects of the reaction temperature, time on stream, and methanol weight hourly space velocity (MWHSV on the conversion and DMC selectivity were investigated. The highest conversion (7.6% and highest DMC selectivity (86.5% were obtained at the lowest temperature used (200 °C. Increasing the space velocity MWHSV increased the selectivity of DMC, but decreased the conversion. A gain of 18.4% of DMC selectivity was obtained when the MWHSV was increased from 0.65 h-1 to 3.2 h-1.

  19. Microstructural morphology of the semi-solid high carbon steel T12 before and after rheo-rolling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiguang Li; Yonglin Kang; Aimin Zhao; Yi Sun; Man Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The semi-solid high carbon steel T12 was rolled in a closed box groove under a certain condition by the rheo-rolling equipment, and the microstructural morphology of the semi-solid T12 before and after deformation was investigated by optical microscope to analyze and summarize the microstructure evolution law of T12 deformed in semi-solid state. The experiment results show that the grain shape before deformation of the semi-solid T12 steel displays globule or ellipse by the electromagnetic stirring,the distribution of solid and liquid phases is homogeneous. But the microstructure of semi-solid product after rheo-rolling exhibits macrosegregation that the distribution of liquid and solid phases changes, the liquid phases divorce from the solid phases. In the transverse section, most of the solid phases get together in the center of the specimen, the liquid phases flow to the surface or the edge of the specimen, and the grains occur plastic deformation while reduction increased. In longitudinal section, the middle microstructure of the specimen is more homogeneous than that at the head or tail, the head microstructure is similar to the tail and the size of the grains is not homogeneous.

  20. Wood decay at sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. The electron mass from $g$-factor measurements on hydrogen-like carbon $^{12}$C$^{5+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Florian; Kracke, Anke; Werth, Günter; Quint, Wolfgang; Blaum, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The electron mass in atomic mass units has been determined with a relative uncertainty of $2.8\\cdot 10^{-11}$, which represents a 13-fold improvement of the 2010 CODATA value. The underlying measurement principle combines a high-precision measurement of the Larmor-to-cyclotron frequency ratio on a single hydrogen-like carbon ion in a Penning trap with a corresponding very accurate $g$-factor calculation. Here, we present the measurement results in detail, including a comprehensive discussion of the systematic shifts and their uncertainties. A special focus is set on the various sources of phase jitters, which are essential for the understanding of the applied line-shape model for the $g$-factor resonance.

  2. The Galactic R Coronae Borealis Stars: The C2 Swan Bands, the Carbon Problem, and the 12C/13C Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, B. P.; Pandey, Gajendra; Lambert, David L.

    2012-03-01

    Observed spectra of R Coronae Borealis (RCB) and hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars are analyzed by synthesizing the C2 Swan bands (1, 0), (0, 0), and (0, 1) using our detailed line list and the Uppsala model atmospheres. The (0, 1) and (0, 0) C2 bands are used to derive the 12C abundance, and the (1, 0) 12C13C band to determine the 12C/13C ratios. The carbon abundance derived from the C2 Swan bands is about the same for the adopted models constructed with different carbon abundances over the range 8.5 (C/He = 0.1%) to 10.5 (C/He = 10%). Carbon abundances derived from C I lines are about a factor of four lower than the carbon abundance of the adopted model atmosphere over the same C/He interval, as reported by Asplund et al., who dubbed the mismatch between adopted and derived C abundance as the "carbon problem." In principle, the carbon abundances obtained from C2 Swan bands and that assumed for the model atmosphere can be equated for a particular choice of C/He that varies from star to star. Then, the carbon problem for C2 bands is eliminated. However, such C/He ratios are in general less than those of the extreme helium stars, the seemingly natural relatives to the RCB and HdC stars. A more likely solution to the C2 carbon problem may lie in a modification of the model atmosphere's temperature structure. The derived carbon abundances and the 12C/13C ratios are discussed in light of the double degenerate and the final flash scenarios.

  3. TNF-α and IFN-s-Dependent Muscle Decay Is Linked to NF-κB- and STAT-1α-Stimulated Atrogin1 and MuRF1 Genes in C2C12 Myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pijet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TNF-α was shown to stimulate mitogenicity in C2C12 myoblasts. Selected cytokines TNF-α, IFNα, or IFNγ reduced the expression of myosin heavy chain (MyHC IIa when given together. Molecular mechanisms of cytokine activities were controlled by NF-κB and JAK/STAT signaling pathways, as metabolic inhibitors, curcumin and AG490, inhibited some of TNF-α and IFNα/IFNγ effects. Insulin was hardly antagonistic to TNF-α- and IFNα/IFNγ-dependent decrease in MyHC IIa protein expression. Cytokines used individually or together also repressed myogenesis of C2C12 cells. Moreover, TNF-α- and IFNα/IFNγ-dependent effects on C2C12 myotubes were associated with increased activity of Atrogin1 and MuRF1 genes, which code ubiquitin ligases. MyHC IIa gene activity was unaltered by cytokines. Inhibition of NF-κB or JAK/STAT with specific metabolic inhibitors decreased activity of Atrogin1 and MuRF1 but not MyHC IIa gene. Overall, these results suggest cooperation between cytokines in the reduction of MyHC IIa protein expression level via NF-κB/JAK/STAT signaling pathways and activation of Atrogin1 and MuRF1 genes as their molecular targets. Insulin cotreatment or pretreatment does not protect against muscle decay induced by examined proinflammatory cytokines.

  4. Nonthermal inactivation of Escherichia coli K12 in buffered peptone water using a pilot-plant scale supercritical carbon dioxide system with gas-liquid porous metal contractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) system, with a gas-liquid CO2 contactor, for reducing Escherichia coli K12 in diluted buffered peptone water. 0.1% (w/v) buffered peptone water inoculated with E. coli K12 was processed using the SCCO2 system at CO2 con...

  5. Thermophotoelectric converter with radioisotope source of thermal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigating a thermophotoelectric converter with a radioisotope heat source to warm up a radiating surface are presented. Results are given of calculating the efficiency of thermophotoelectric converters with germanium and silicon photocells in the temperature range from 1000 to 1300 K, and of the comparative analysis of experimental and theoretical values of thermophotoelectric converter efficiencies. The possibility of developing a thermophotoconverter with a radioisotope source of thermal energy which has an efficiency of up to 15% is substantiated. It is shown that for effective energy conversion at radiator temperatures of 1000-1300 K it is necessary to use Ge, GaSb, InAs, PbS and PbTe semiconducting materials, and to increase to maximum the reflection coefficient of the photocell back contact and the radiation blackness

  6. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Carty, J. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States). Office of Isotope Production and Distribution

    1997-12-31

    The US Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 and RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, Ti-44, Fe-52, Gd-148, and Hg-194. The authors will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes will be described.

  7. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  8. Production of radioisotopes within a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, research conducted in the US and in Italy has demonstrated production of radioisotopes in Plasma Focus (PF) devices, and particularly, on what could be termed 'endogenous' production, to wit, production within the plasma itself, as opposed to irradiation of targets. This technique relies on the formation of localized small plasma zones characterized by very high densities and fairly high temperatures. The conditions prevailing in these zones lead to high nuclear reaction rates, as pointed out in previous work by several authors. Further investigation of the cross sections involved has proven necessary to model the phenomena involved. In this paper, the present status of research in this field is reviewed, both with regards to cross section models and to experimental production of radioisotopes. Possible outcomes and further development are discussed. (author)

  9. Process for radioisotope recovery and system for implementing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Tranter, Troy J.; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2007-01-02

    A method of recovering daughter isotopes from a radioisotope mixture. The method comprises providing a radioisotope mixture solution comprising at least one parent isotope. The at least one parent isotope is extracted into an organic phase, which comprises an extractant and a solvent. The organic phase is substantially continuously contacted with an aqueous phase to extract at least one daughter isotope into the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase is separated from the organic phase, such as by using an annular centrifugal contactor. The at least one daughter isotope is purified from the aqueous phase, such as by ion exchange chromatography or extraction chromatography. The at least one daughter isotope may include actinium-225, radium-225, bismuth-213, or mixtures thereof. A liquid-liquid extraction system for recovering at least one daughter isotope from a source material is also disclosed.

  10. Radioisotope production at JYFL Accelerator Laboratory in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, J.; Hiltunen, J. [MAP Medical Technologies, Inc., Tikkakoski (Finland); Aeystoe, J.; Julin, R.; Liukkonen, E.; Nieminen, V.; Poikolainen, T. [Univ. of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1994-12-31

    MAP Medical Technologies Inc. is a private, research oriented high-tech company, which produces radiopharmaceuticals for both diagnostic and therapeutical purposes. MAP has one nuclear reactor and one high-energy cyclotron at its disposal for research and production. The new production plant was completed in 1992, which was specially designed to fulfil the highest new requirements and standards for production and products. High-energy machines, like the new K130-cyclotron in the University of Jyvaeskylae, have a great potential for producing some special radioisotopes. Thus a solid target station for radioisotope production was planned into the new accelerator laboratory in collaboration between the Department of Physics (JYFL) and MAP. The target station is designed for high-energy intensive light-ion beams delivered from the K130-cyclotron.

  11. The weak decay of lambda hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental technique and results from a study of the weak decay modes of /sub Λ/5He are presented. The weak decay modes of lambda hypernuclei include the mesonic decays (Λ/→ p + π- and Λ → n + π0) and the nonmesonic decay modes (Λ + p → n + p and Λ + n → n + n) the /sub Λ/5He hypernuclei were produced with the K- + 6Li → π- +/sub Λ 6Li π- + Λ/6Li reaction followed by the strong decay /sub Λ/6Li → /sub Λ/5He + p. The incoming K- momentum was 800 MeV/c and the K-π angle was 100. The experiment was performed on the Low Energy Separated Beam (LESBI) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The protons from the nonmesonic decay branch and the negative pion from the mesonic decay branch were detected in a 14 element scintillator range spectrometer. The neutrons from the nonmesonic decay branch were detected in an 18 element time-of-flight neutron detector array. The partial rates for all four of the decay modes are measured in this experiment. The total decay rate is also measured. The result for the total decay rate is 1.03 +- 0.08 in units of the free lambda decay rate. The results are compared to several calculations of /sub Λ/5He nonmesonic weak decay rates. The results are also compared to /sub Λ/12C weak decay rates previously measured by the CMU-BNL-Houston-New Mexico-Vassar collaboration. 57 refs., 98 figs., 26 tabs

  12. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry; Hunag, C.-K.; Cheng, S.; Chi, S. C.; Gogna, P.; Paik, J.; Ravi, V.; Firdosy, S.; Ewell, R.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress and processes involved in creating new and advanced thermoelectric materials to be used in the design of new radioiootope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). In a program with Department of Energy, NASA is working to develop the next generation of RTGs, that will provide significant benefits for deep space missions that NASA will perform. These RTG's are planned to be capable of delivering up to 17% system efficiency and over 12 W/kg specific power. The thermoelectric materials being developed are an important step in this process.

  13. Overview on radioisotope production at TRIGA-SSR 14 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the technical support provided at Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti to accomplish various services concerning isotope production. Also it is presented the study to produce, in collaboration with Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN) Bucharest, I-131, Au-198, Mo-99, Ir-192 isotopes for medical uses. There is presented neutron physics computation for the TRIGA core to establish the proper experimental locations to accomplish the radioisotope production. (authors)

  14. Radio-isotope bone scanning in suspected osteomyelitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usefulness of radio-isotope bone scanning in suspected osteomyelitis has been widely acclaimed. Fourteen children had rectilinear bone scans performed three hours after injection of Tcsup(99m) methylene diphosphonate. A diagnostic accuracy of 56% was achieved, which is lower than in other series. The reasons for this are discussed and the value of bone scanning in the evaluation of osteomyelitis is questioned. (orig.)

  15. Prospective production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in divisions of IPPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first reason to commence the work on production of radioisotope production in IPPE, was the requirement of Russia medicine for original generators of technetium. The essential extension of their production in conditions of Moscow city has met the declaiming of the Moscow urban authorities. The important moment was that, in IPPE were objective possibilities to deployment the production of radioisotope production. Nowadays, nomenclature of the radioisotopes which have been produced in IPPE, constitutes 29 positions. The profile of production of radioisotope production was generated also. Restricted possibilities of the ray base, from one side, and the needs(requirement) of domestic medicine with other, in main have spotted this profile. The raw isotopes constitute a minority - on sales volumes ∼ 20 % (in main abroad), the defining part is constituted the form ready for the use by ∼ 80 % (in main in Russia). All 'know-how' is conditionally possible to divide into 3 categories: Base. It is technologies provided with an operating production sector, guaranteeing stable on quality production having a rather wide seller's market; Perspective. It is those technologies, in which the main stages of RESEARCH and DEVELOPMENT are fulfilled with positive result, but the working sites yet are not generated, and on the market are delivered only some samples of production. Are guessed RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT on perfecting the technology; Preparative. The technology, on which there are no regular orders, is not required of an individual working site. Sometimes it is rather precision operations, bound with usage of unique raw material, with a very stiff price of production. (authors)

  16. Radioisotope Concentration in Lake Sediments of Maracaibo, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracaibo Lake is one of the most important water basing and oil producing regions in Venezuela. Changes in the local environment have been monitored for chemical pollution in the past. For this study we selected a set of sediment samples collected in the shore and analyzed for its radioisotope content. Results show the gamma emitting isotopes distribution. Isotopes concentrations have been determined within the natural K, Th and U families

  17. Production, control and utilization of radioisotopes including radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From April 29th to May 5th, 1984 27 participants from 21 developing countries stayed within an IAEA Study Tour ('Production, Control and Utilization of Radioisotopes including Radiopharmaceuticals') in the GDR. In the CINR, Rossendorf the reactor, the cyclotron, the technological centre as well as the animal test laboratory were visited. The participants were made familiar by 10 papers with the development, production and control of radiopharmaceuticals in the CINR, Rossendorf. (author)

  18. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan

  19. A comparative study of different contaminant radioisotopes in various materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An order was established between the various radioisotopes, in order to compare which of them are a major problem concerning the contamination they originate in the materials using during their process, transportation and protection, consequently a sampling of contaminated materials was realized. These materials were submitted to a decontamination process with different reagents (acids, bases and organic and inorganic salts) varying their concentration through dilution with water. Besides for the same kind of reagent two processes were used, one with turbulence in the reagent through mechanical stirring, and the other static maintaining similar volumes of liquid in the two processes as well as a similar material, form and size of the object during the processes, detection of radiation in the samples were realized through a Geiger-Muller detector in similar periods of time, establishing this way a parallel system of comparison which allowed us to observe gains in the necessary period of time for reaching the same grade of decontamination in the two processes, it was concluded that it is very difficult to reach an order of comparison in the contamination because the periods of treatment vary as a function of the chemical compound containing the radioisotope(s). Besides we can reduce considerably the period of time in a stirring process and predict this necessary period of time for reaching the determined decontamination, provided that there are not permanent contaminations. (author)

  20. NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems Planning and Potential Future Systems Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, June F.; Woerner, Dave F.; Cairns-Gallimore, Dirk; Johnson, Stephen G.; Qualls, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet the needs of the missions. To meet this goal, the RPS Program, working closely with the Department of Energy, performs mission and system studies (such as the recently released Nuclear Power Assessment Study), assesses the readiness of promising technologies to infuse in future generators, assesses the sustainment of key RPS capabilities and knowledge, forecasts and tracks the Program's budgetary needs, and disseminates current information about RPS to the community of potential users. This process has been refined and used to determine the current content of the RPS Program's portfolio. This portfolio currently includes an effort to mature advanced thermoelectric technology for possible integration into an enhanced Multi-Mission Radioisotope Generator (eMMRTG), sustainment and production of the currently deployed MMRTG, and technology investments that could lead to a future Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). This paper describes the program planning processes that have been used, the currently available MMRTG, and one of the potential future systems, the eMMRTG.

  1. The use of radioisotopes for the study of flotation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper considers methods of studying flotation processes with radioisotopes and nuclear radiation. Radioisotopes can be used for studying the fixation of flotation reagents on the surface of minerals where monomolecular coverage of the surface is incomplete. Radiometric and microautoradiographic methods are used in this research. The use of collector reagents containing radioisotopes has explained why some sulphides are difficult to separate by flotation. This difficulty is related to the material composition and structure of these minerals and to the chemical bonds within their crystal lattices. The simultaneous use of radiometric and autoradiographic methods accompanied by solvent-washing of the mineral particles showed the conditions under which dixanthate and other products of the interaction of xanthates with sulphide minerals are formed. The use of radioactive kerosene, and also of kerosene in conjunction with other flotation reagents, made it possible to determine certain features of fixation on molybdenite depending on the kerosene concentration. Contrast and track microautoradiography were used to study the distribution of sulphydryl collector reagents on different particles of galenite in the flotation pulp. The combined effect of these reagents was also studied. Combinations of xanthates of various alcohols produce a more even distribution on the galenite particles, and permit a more efficient use of reagents. C14-labelled tridecylamine was used to study the interaction of a cationic collector with hlibnerite and wolframite. The investigation showed that tridecylamine, when introduced into the flotation process, is substantially absorbed by foaming products. Non-foaming products (quartz, fluorite, calcite) absorb insignificant quantities of reagent. (author)

  2. Forest management and carbon storage: an analysis of 12 key forest nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winjum, J.K.; Dixon, R.K.; Schroeder, P.E. (National Council for Air and Steam Improvement, Corvallis, OR (United States). USEPA Environmental Research Laboratory)

    1993-10-01

    Forests of the world sequester and conserve more C than all other terrestrial ecosystems and account for 90% of the annual C flux between the atmosphere and the Earth's land surface. Preliminary estimates indicate that forest and agroforest management practices throughout the world can enhance the capability of forests to sequester C and reduce accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Yet of the 3600 C 10[sup 6] ha of forest in the world today, only about 10% (350 x 10[sup 6] ha) are actively managed. The impetus to expand lands managed for forestry or agroforestry purposes lies primarily with nations having forest resources. In late 1990, an assessment was initiated to evaluate the biological potential and initial site costs of managed forest and agroforest systems to sequester C. Within the assessment, 12 key forested nations were the focus of a special analysis: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, former USSR and USA. These nations contain 59% of the world's natural forests and are representative of the world's boreal, temperate, and tropical forest biomes. Assessment results indicate that though the world's forests are contained in 138 nations, a subset of key nations, such as the 12 selected for this analysis, can significantly contribute to the global capability to sequester C through managed tree crops. Collectively, the 12 nations are estimated to have the potential to store 25.7 Pg C, once expanded levels of practices such as reforestation, afforestation, natural regeneration and agroforestry are implemented and maintained. Initial site costs based upon establishment costs for management practices are less than US$33/Mg C. 55 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Weak decay of P shell lambda hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and results of an experiment to study the weak decay of Lambda hypernuclei are presented. The hypernuclei under study were 12C, 11B, plus a hypernuclear of unknown charge and mass designed /sup a/Z. The hypernuclear production data were obtained using the Hypernuclear Spectrometer and the Low Energy Separated Beam (LESB I), at the AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Kaon beam momentum was 805 MeV/c. Three hypernuclear states were observed, the 12C ground state, the P substitutional state, and the S substitutional state. The P substitutional state has been previously observed to decay to 11B plus a low energy proton. Hence, decay products observed in coincidence with this state are from the weak decay of 11B. The S substitutional state is shown to decay to a stable but unidentified hypernucleus. The protons from the nonmesonic decay branch, and the negative pion from the mesonic decay branch were detected in a 14 elements scintillator range spectrometer. The neutrons from the nonmesonic decay branches were detected in a 24 element neutron detector. The experimental results are compared with several calculations for hypernuclear nonmesonic decay in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei. Several of these calculations agree favorably with the total nonmesonic rate, but none of the calculations are able to determine both the nonmesonic rate and the neutron stimulated fraction. 40 refs., 103 figs., 25 tabs

  4. Radioisotope Study of Tegumentary Pigmentation in Insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of insect cuticle, which is made up in large part of scleroproteins, calls for the use of labelled isotopes to obtain answers to certain questions regarding pigmentation. The following method, which has the advantage of being quick and easy to apply, has been developed. The labelled substance chosen is injected into the animal at various phases of its skin-shedding cycle: before secretion of the cuticular proteins, i. e. when the cuticle is at rest; at the time these proteins are deposited; and, lastly, at the time their sclerification begins. After a suitable interval the cuticle is removed, suitably treated, and subjected to full autoradiography. Photographic comparison of the results then indicates whether or not the substance chosen has been used for any formation of pigment, due account being taken of prior chemical processes involving the substance. The findings presented in the paper relate to three labelled substances: two carbon-14 amino-acids - tyrosine and tryptophane - and inorganic sulphur-35 in the form of sodium sulphate. It has thus been possible to give direct proof of the origin of variously-coloured cuticular pigments and to discuss the role of tryptophane and sulphur in forming pigments in insect integument. All cuticular pigments spring from the metabolism of tyrosine, thus confirming the term ''melanic'' hitherto applied to them without direct proof. Tryptophane, exceptionally integrated in the cuticle, is the substratum of the ommochromic red and black pigments in the hypodermis. Inorganic sulphur plays no regular specific role in the formation of cuticular pigments, contrary to what has been suggested by various hypotheses on the role of the sulpbydryl group. From the standpoint of comparative biochemistry, the melanins appear to be purely cuticular among insects, granular melanins being confined to the vertebrates. Dark hypodermic granules in insects are ommochromic, derived from tryptophane, and not melanic. (author)

  5. A study of isospin symmetry breaking in carbon 12 with 50 MeV pions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applegate, J M

    1993-03-01

    In the first experiment to use the superconducting RF cavity at LAMPF known as the Scruncher, cross sections have been measured for the 1+ doublet in {sup 12}C by 50 MeV {pi}r{sup {plus_minus}} scattering. The cross section ratio of the isoscalar to the isovector states was found to be 6.8 {plus_minus} 1.3 for {pi}{sup +}+ scattering and 3.9 {plus_minus} 1.4 for {pi}{sup {minus}} scattering. These ratios give an isospin mixing matrix element H{sub 01}, of 119 {plus_minus} 40 key, in good agreement with the average value of 123 {plus_minus} 26 key deduced from previous pion-scattering data and with values deduced from other probes. The ratio of {pi}{sup +} + p to {pi}{sup {minus}} + p cross sections was determined experimentally to be 2.60 {plus_minus} 0.11, in agreement with a theoretical value of 2.85. The agreement of these results indicates that the impulse approximation is valid at 50 MeV. Cross sections were also measured for the elastic and collective states in {sup 12}C and were generally described well by distorted wave Born approximation calculations published previously.

  6. Effects of carbon source and carbon content on electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C prepared by one-step solid-state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Xuebu [College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610066 (China); Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Lin Ziji [China National Quality Supervision and Inspection Center for Alcoholic Beverage Products and Processed Food, Luzhou, Sichuan 646100 (China); Yang Kerun [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Hua, Yongjian [China Aviation Lithium Battery Co. Ltd., Luoyang, Henan 471009 (China); Deng Zhenghua, E-mail: zhdeng@cioc.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2011-05-30

    Highlights: > A simple route to prepare the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C by one-step solid-state reaction. > Carbon source and carbon content are two important factors on the electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. > As-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C under optimized conditions shows excellent electrochemical performances. - Abstract: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were synthesized by one-step solid-state reaction method using four commonly used organic compounds or organic polymers as carbon source, i.e., polyacrylate acid (PAA), citric acid (CA), maleic acid (MA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The physical characteristics of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, particle size distribution and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry techniques. Their electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammograms, electrochemical impedance spectra, constant current charge-discharge and rate charge-discharge. These analyses indicated that the carbon source and carbon content have a great effect on the physical and electrochemical performances of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. An ideal carbon source and appropriate carbon content effectively improved the electrical contact between the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles, which enhanced the discharge capacity and rate capability of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. PAA was the best carbon source for the synthesis of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C composites. When the carbon content was 3.49 wt.% (LiOH.H{sub 2}O/PAA molar ratio of 1), as-prepared Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C showed the maximum discharge capacity. At 0.2 C, initial capacity of the optimized sample was 168.6 mAh g{sup -1} with capacity loss of 2.8% after 50 cycles. At 8 and 10 C, it showed discharge capacities of 143.5 and 132.7 mAh g{sup -1}, with capacity loss of 8.7 and 9.9% after 50 cycles

  7. Some Techniques for Isolating and Using Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes of a large number of elements have been used extensively at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in ion exchange,solubility and other physical-chemical studies. The use of short-lived radioisotopes in such studies has necessitated development not only of rapid methods of preparing and purifying radioisotopes but also of special techniques for obtaining pertinent information in a relatively short time, often within a few minutes. Some recently-developed methods are described for preparing and purifying short-lived isotopes, particularly those originating from neutron-irradiated materials, including fissionable elements. The latter, of course, are convenient sources of a number of useful short-lived radioisotopes, e. g., Mo99, Te132, and methods are described for rapidly isolating these and other fission products in a earner-free state by ion exchange. Methods of separating short-lived daughter activities from long-lived parents by 'milking' techniques, in which the parent is strongly adsorbed on organic or inorganic ion exchange materials, are also described and typical examples discussed, for example, milking of 1.7-h In113 (from Sn113) and 2.6-min Ba137 (from Cs197). Two applications involving the use of short-lived tracers in chemical studies are described. The first is a ''packed bed'' technique for rapidly measuring the solubilities of sparingly soluble salts which have been tagged with tracers. Some recent results obtained by the method on the solubility of LaF3 in HCl and HCIO4 solutions are described. The second is a rapid method for measuring diffusion coefficients in liquid systems. Thin, porous porcelain frits are saturated with solution containing a radioisotope, then rapidly eluted with solution not containing tracer. Diffusion coefficients may be calculated from the decrease of counting rate of the frit with time,after calibration with a material of known diffusion rate. Because of the short diffusion path used, die measurements may be completed

  8. A Review of the Production of ''Special'' Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six useful characteristics of radioisotopes and advantages which may be taken of them are cited briefly, with examples. The Information Sheet announcing this Seminar listed four advantages of short-lived over long-lived isotopes. Two other reasons why owners of small research reactors should concern themselves with short half- life isotopes are economy and particular suitability for production, the latter being due to the pronounced effect of half-life on the net rate of production. Besides short half-life, type and energy of emitted radiation should be of concern to producers of isotopes. Nine advantages of a nuclear reactor over a particle accelerator for radioisotope production are outlined. Following this general orientation, a survey of unusual or less frequently used production techniques is presented. These include: (n, p) reactions and secondary reactions such as (t, n) and (t, p) induced by thermal neutrons, various techniques for obtaining useful fluxes of fast neutrons with which to effect other reactions, recoil techniques including classic Szilard-Chalmers reactions, use of charged wires to collect short-lived daughters of gaseous parents, parent-daughter milking system, parasitic irradiations, possible use of ''knocked- on'' protons or deuterons (from the moderator) as a means of effecting reactions such as (p,n), (d,n), etc. and the possible use of circulating ''loops'' in reactors with which to utilize the radiation from ultra-short-lived radioisotopes such as Ag110, In114, 116, Dy155m, etc. Although not a production technique, the possibility of using certain stable isotopes (e. g. of silver) as tracers which can be readily detected via subsequent activation is mentioned. Production figures for Brookhaven's ''special'' radioisotopes are cited to show differences in long- and short-term fluctuations among these isotopes, which are also compared as a class to those in heavier demand supplied by Oak Ridge. Present production methods of all 'special

  9. Cryogenic optical measurements of 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite mirror with support mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nakagawa, Takao; Onaka, Takashi; Enya, Keigo; Makiuti, Sin'itirou; Takaki, Junji; Haruna, Masaki; Kume, Masami; Ozaki, Tsuyoshi

    2008-03-01

    A 720 mm diameter 12-segment-bonded carbon-fiber-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) composite mirror has been fabricated and tested at cryogenic temperatures. Interferometric measurements show significant cryogenic deformation of the C/SiC composite mirror, which is well reproduced by a model analysis with measured properties of the bonded segments. It is concluded that the deformation is due mostly to variation in coefficients of thermal expansion among segments. In parallel, a 4-degree-of-freedom ball-bearing support mechanism has been developed for cryogenic applications. The C/SiC composite mirror was mounted on an aluminum base plate with the support mechanism and tested again. Cryogenic deformation of the mirror attributed to thermal contraction of the aluminum base plate via the support mechanism is highly reduced by the support, confirming that the newly developed support mechanism is promising for its future application to large-aperture cooled space telescopes.

  10. Short-range correlations in carbon-12, oxygen-16, and neon-20: Intrinsic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, R. C.; Ford, W. F.; Becker, R. L.; Patterson, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) method has been applied to nuclei whose intrinsic structure is nonspherical. Reaction matrix elements were calculated as functions of starting energy for the Hamada-Johnston interaction using the Pauli operator appropriate to O-16 and a shifted oscillator spectrum for virtual excited states. Binding energies, single particle energies, radii, and shape deformations of the intrinsic state, in ordinary as well as renormalized BHF, are discussed and compared with previous HF studies and with experiment when possible. Results are presented for C-12, 0-16 and Ne-20. It is found that the binding energies and radii are too small, but that separation energies are well reproduced when the renormalized theory is used.

  11. Black carbon record of the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province in China over the last 12.8 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Zhang, Enlou; Shen, Ji; Chen, Rong; Liu, Enfeng

    2016-01-01

    Wildfire is recognized as a critical Earth system process which affects the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem dynamics. Estimating the potential impact of future climate change on the incidence of fire requires an understanding of the long-term interactions of fire, climate, vegetation, and human activity. Accordingly, we analyzed the black carbon content and the pollen stratigraphy of sediments spanning the past 12.8 ka from Lake Muge Co, an alpine lake in western Sichuan Province, in order to determine the main factors influencing regional fire regimes. The results demonstrate that wildfires occurred frequently and intensively during the late deglaciation and the early Holocene when the regional vegetation was dominated by deciduous forests. Wildfire occurrence decreased significantly during the Holocene climatic optimum between 9.2 and 5.6 cal ka BP. Overall, the wildfire history of western Sichuan Province is similar to that of the Chinese Loess Plateau and of East Asia as a whole, suggesting that regional-scale fires depended mainly on changes in the intensity of the Asian summer monsoon. In addition, the fire regime of western Sichuan Province may have been influenced by the establishment of human settlement and agriculture in western Sichuan Province and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau after about 5.5 cal ka BP, and by an intensification of cereal cultivation coupled with population expansion in southwestern China during the last two millennia.

  12. Partitioning sources of recharge in environments with groundwater recirculation using carbon-14 and CFC-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Sarah A.; Cook, Peter G.; Dogramaci, Shawan; Kipfer, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    Groundwater recirculation occurs when groundwater is pumped from an aquifer onto the land surface, and a portion of that water subsequently infiltrates back to the aquifer. In environments where groundwater is recirculated, differentiation between various sources of recharge (e.g. natural rainfall recharge vs. recirculated water) can be difficult. Groundwater age indicators, in particular transient trace gases, are likely to be more sensitive tracers of recharge than stable isotopes or chloride in this setting. This is because, unlike stable isotopes or chloride, they undergo a process of equilibration with the atmosphere, and historical atmospheric concentrations are known. In this paper, groundwater age indicators (14C and CFC-12) were used as tracers of recharge by surplus mine water that is discharged to streams. Ternary mixing ratios were calculated based on 14C and CFC-12 concentrations measured along three transects of piezometers and monitoring wells perpendicular to the creeks, and from dewatering wells. Uncertainty in calculated mixing ratios was estimated using a Monte Carlo approach. Ternary mixing ratios in dewatering wells suggest that recharge by mine water accounted for between 10% and 87% of water currently abstracted by dewatering wells. The calculated mixing ratios suggest that recharge by mine water extends to a distance of more than 550 m from the creeks. These results are supported by seepage flux estimates based on the water and chloride balance along the creeks, which suggest that 85-90% of mine water discharged to the creeks recharges the aquifer and recharge by mine water extends between 110 and 730 m from the creeks. Mixing calculations based on gaseous groundwater age indicators could also be used to partition recharge associated with agricultural irrigation or artificial wetland supplementation.

  13. Transmission factors for neutrons produced by radioisotopes production used in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose transmission factor for normal concrete and the neutrons produced in the18O(p,n)18F and 13C(p,n)13N reactions are presented in this paper. These transmission factors permit to simplify the calculation of the necessary accelerator shielding to be used in the radioisotope production for positron emission tomography. The energy distributions of the neutrons resulting from the irradiation of thick targets, with 10 to 13 MeV protons, were determined using the thin target cross sections, the energy loss per path length and the energy balance of the reaction (Q-equation). The one dimensional discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and the conversion coefficients from fluence to dose, presented in the ICRP Publication 51 were employed to obtain the transmission factors. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical and biological applications of radioisotopes depend on two basically different types of measurements, those on living subjects in vivo and those on samples in vitro. The International Atomic Energy Agency has in the past held several meetings on in vivo measurement techniques, notably whole-body counting and radioisotope scanning. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the first Symposium the Agency has organized to discuss the various aspects of techniques for sample measurement in vitro. The range of these sample measurement techniques is very wide. The sample may weigh a few milligrams or several hundred grams, and may be in the gaseous, liquid or solid state. Its radioactive content may consist of a single, known radioisotope or several unknown ones. The concentration of radioactivity may be low, medium or high. The measurements may be made manually or automatically and any one of the many radiation detectors now available may be used. The 53 papers presented at the Symposium illustrate the great variety of methods now in use for radioactive- sample measurements. The first topic discussed is gamma-ray spectrometry, which finds an increasing number of applications in sample measurements. Other sections of the Proceedings deal with: the use of computers in gamma-ray spectrometry and multiple tracer techniques; recent developments in activation analysis where both gamma-ray spectrometry and computing techniques are applied; thin-layer and paper radio chromatographic techniques for use with low energy beta-ray emitters; various aspects of liquid scintillation counting techniques in the measurement of alpha- and beta-ray emitters, including chemical and colour quenching; autoradiographic techniques; calibration of equipment; and standardization of radioisotopes. Finally, some applications of solid-state detectors are presented; this section may be regarded as a preview of important future developments. The meeting was attended by 203 participants

  15. Stirling Convertor for the Stirling Radioisotope Generator Tested as a Prelude to Transition to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2004-01-01

    The Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) is currently being developed by Lockheed Martin Astronautics (Valley Forge, PA) under contract to the Department of Energy (Germantown, MD). In support of this project, the NASA Glenn Research Center has established a near-term technology effort to provide some of the critical data to ensure a successful transition to flight for what will be the first dynamic power system to be used in space. The generator will be a high-efficiency electric power source for potential use on NASA space science missions. The generator will be able to operate in the vacuum of deep space or in an atmosphere such as on the surface of Mars. High system efficiency is obtained through the use of free-piston Stirling power-conversion technology. The power output of the generator will be greater than 100 W at the beginning of life, with the slow decline in power being largely due to decay of the plutonium heat source. Previously, Glenn's supporting technology efforts focused only on the most critical technical issues.

  16. Radioisotope spectrometric method to determine diffusion coefficients in metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the spectrometric installation to study diffusion in metals using #betta#-decay radio-isotopes is presented. Diffusion coefficients of nickel in 70% Co-5% Fe-15% Si-10% B amorphous alloy are determined according to #betta#-radiation absorption in diffusion zone. Plate samples of 10x10 mm size and about 300 μm in thickness are used. Diffusion annealing is conducted during 100 hrs. The calculation of the diffusion coefficients has been carried out by the formula I/I0= esup(μsup(2)Dtau)erfc μ √ Dtau, where I0, I is an initial and a final radiation intensity; μ- an absorption coefficient of 63Ni #betta#-ray in the given material (at calculation μ=1.3x106 m-1 was taken); tau- duration of diffusion annealing; D- diffusion coefficient at the designed temperature. The value of the diffusion coefficient of nickel in 70% Co-5% Fe-15% S-10% B amorphous alloy at the temperature of 200 deg C is turned out to be equal to 4x10-21 m2/s. It should be noted that the self-diffusion coefficient of cobalt in Co-Fe alloy, found by extrapolation from high-temperature region, is equal to 10-35 m2/s, i.e. in 14 orders lower than that of the same basis in amorphous alloy

  17. Feasibility Study on Simultaneous Multi-Radioisotope Production using Double Stacked Target in MC-50 Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was mainly focused on the feasibility of double target system for simultaneous two-radioisotope production. A simple double target was simulated for simultaneous production of 117mSn and 211At. To determine the optimum thickness of target layer, We demonstrated that the combination of double target system with a cyclotron capable of generating 47 MeV alpha particle provides simultaneous production of 117mSn and 211At. The radionuclides are often used in medicine for diagnosis, treatment and research. Alpha and beta(or electron) emitting radionuclides have become a promising method for the treatment of some tumors. 117mSn emits short-range electrons with a high linear energy transfer, and thus a high S value resulting in high quality therapeutic radiation. 211At has gained considerable interest for cancer treatment because its half-life of 7.2 hours matches better with the biological half-life of most carrier molecules. Moreover its decay scheme exhibits practically 100% yield for the emission of α-particles, with very low intensity gamma emissions

  18. Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: radioisotopes as historical tracers of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2009-03-01

    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled phage with phosphorus-32 in order to trace the transfer of genetic material between parent and progeny in virus reproduction. Initial studies of this type did not resolve the mechanism of generational transfer but unexpectedly gave rise to a new style of molecular radiobiology based on the inactivation of phage by the radioactive decay of incorporated phosphorus-32. These 'suicide experiments', a preoccupation of phage researchers in the mid-1950s, reveal how molecular biologists interacted with the traditions and practices of radiation geneticists as well as those of biochemists as they were seeking to demarcate a new field. The routine use of radiolabels to visualize nucleic acids emerged as an enduring feature of molecular biological experimentation. PMID:19268872

  19. Radioisotopic methods for quality control of works and studies while constructing foundations and underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data on the use of radioisotope methods of quality control of various kinds of construction works when building foundations and underground constructions and when carrying out scientific research, are presented. Devices and equipment are described, their block diagrams are presented. The experience in using radioisotope devices to control the quality of construction works, is presented. The problems of economic effectivenes of works using radioisotope devices are solved

  20. SIDA - System for importation distribution and acquisition of radioisotope - User manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SIDA manual (system for importation, distribution and acquisition of radioisotopes) is presented. The SIDA is a system of consult and update to control importation and distribution of radioisotopes in the country. It allows to accompany processes from importation requirement to distribution of radioisotopes, executing the accountancy of I-125, which is distributed for several interprises. The system was developed in CLIPPER87 using DBASE III PLUS data base management. (M.C.K.)

  1. Assay for vitamin B12 absorption and method of making labeled vitamin B12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J.; Dueker, Stephen; Miller, Joshua; Green, Ralph; Roth, John; Carkeet, Colleen; Buchholz,; Bruce A.

    2012-06-19

    The invention provides methods for labeling vitamin B12 with .sup.14C, .sup.13C, tritium, and deuterium. When radioisotopes are used, the invention provides for methods of labeling B12 with high specific activity. The invention also provides labeled vitamin B12 compositions made in accordance with the invention.

  2. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, C. J.; Zhong, Lirong; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2011-09-27

    This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When

  3. Wood decay in desert riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Douglas; Stricker, Craig A.; Nelson, S. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain forests and the woody debris they produce are major components of riverine ecosystems in many arid and semiarid regions (drylands). We monitored breakdown and nitrogen dynamics in wood and bark from a native riparian tree, Fremont cottonwood (Populus deltoides subsp. wislizeni), along four North American desert streams. We placed locally-obtained, fresh, coarse material [disks or cylinders (∼500–2000 cm3)] along two cold-desert and two warm-desert rivers in the Colorado River Basin. Material was placed in both floodplain and aquatic environments, and left in situ for up to 12 years. We tested the hypothesis that breakdown would be fastest in relatively warm and moist aerobic environments by comparing the time required for 50% loss of initial ash-free dry matter (T50) calculated using exponential decay models incorporating a lag term. In cold-desert sites (Green and Yampa rivers, Colorado), disks of wood with bark attached exposed for up to 12 years in locations rarely inundated lost mass at a slower rate (T50 = 34 yr) than in locations inundated during most spring floods (T50 = 12 yr). At the latter locations, bark alone loss mass at a rate initially similar to whole disks (T50 = 13 yr), but which subsequently slowed. In warm-desert sites monitored for 3 years, cylinders of wood with bark removed lost mass very slowly (T50 = 60 yr) at a location never inundated (Bill Williams River, Arizona), whereas decay rate varied among aquatic locations (T50 = 20 yr in Bill Williams River; T50 = 3 yr in Las Vegas Wash, an effluent-dominated stream warmed by treated wastewater inflows). Invertebrates had a minor role in wood breakdown except at in-stream locations in Las Vegas Wash. The presence and form of change in nitrogen content during exposure varied among riverine environments. Our results suggest woody debris breakdown in desert riverine ecosystems is primarily a microbial process with rates determined by landscape position

  4. Exploring the simplest purely baryonic decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, C Q; Rodrigues, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    We propose to search for purely baryonic decay processes at the LHCb experiment. In particular, we concentrate on the decay $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn$, which is the simplest purely baryonic decay mode, with solely spin-1/2 baryons involved. We predict its decay branching ratio to be ${\\cal B}(\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar pn)=(2.0^{+0.3}_{-0.2})\\times 10^{-6}$, which is sufficiently large to make the decay mode accessible to LHCb. Though not considered in general, purely baryonic decays could shed light on the puzzle of the baryon number asymmetry in the universe by means of a better understanding of the baryonic nature of our matter world. As such, they constitute a yet unexplored class of decay processes worth investigating. Our study can be extended to the purely baryonic decays of $\\Lambda_b^0\\to p\\bar p \\Lambda$, $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda \\bar p\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda\\bar \\Lambda\\Lambda$, as well as other similar anti-triplet $b$-baryon decays, such as $\\Xi_b^{0,-}$.

  5. Influence of different carbon sources on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Nur Yuksekdag

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs production was studied by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22 in the medium containing various carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose or lactose. For all the strains, glucose was the most efficient carbon source and B3, G12 and W22 strains produced 211, 175 and 120 EPS mg/L respectively. Also, the influence of different concentrations of glucose (5,10,15,20,25,30 g/L on EPS production and growth was studied. The results indicated that EPS production and growth were stimulated by the high glucose concentration (30 g/L.

  6. The study of methanol transformation over Cu-modified ZSM-5, Beta zeolite and MCM-41 mesoporous silica using 11C-radioisotope labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The copper-containing zeolites and mesoporous silica, among other metals, are suitable for dehydrogenation of methanol. The Cu transition metal determines the route of methanol conversion on supports of ZSM-5 and Beta zeolite as well as MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The catalysis mechanism and the catalytic property are concluded from the composition of methanol derivates over Cu-modified catalysts. The Cu ion-exchanged ZSM-5 and Beta zeolite and MCM-41 mesoporous silica were synthesized and characterized using X-ray power diffraction, scanning electron microscope, nitrogen and pyridine adsorption, X-ray fluorescency and FTIR spectroscopy. The 11C-radioactive labeling method (11C radioisotope, T1/2 = 20 min, is a gamma emitter by annihilation of its positron) is suitable for following the process of 11C-methanol con- version i.e. adsorption, desorption and catalytic transformation as well as for investigation of small amounts of molecules over catalysts by very sensitive radioactivity detectors.The 11C radioisotope was produced at cyclotron and the 11C-methanol was synthesized by a classical radiochemical method. After catalysis the 11C-radioactive and non radioactive volatile products were identified by radiogas chromatography hereby radiolabeled compound and -derivates were distinguished from other participant natural, nonradioactive carbon compounds. Along radioactive products dimethyl ether and small hydrocarbons products were formed by Bronsted acid sites of catalysts while formaldehyde and small methyl formate were formed by Cu metal over bifunctional Cu-ZSM-5, Cu-Beta zeolite and mesoporous Cu-MCM-41 silica at 240 deg C. The detection of methoxy methanol and dimethoxy methane confirmed the simultaneous presence of acid and basic sites of catalysts. At higher temperature (400 deg C) the CO and CO2 final products were dominated. In our previous works, methanol conversion to hydrocarbons was observed by dehydration over acid H

  7. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  8. Development of Next Generation Segmented Thermoelectric Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.; Caillat, T.; Ewell, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been used for space-based applications since 1961 with a total of 22 space missions that have successfully used RTGs for electrical power production. The key advantages of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are their long life, robustness, compact size, and high reliability. Thermoelectric converters are easily scalable, and possess a linear current-voltage curve, making power generation easy to control via a shunt regulator and shunt radiator. They produce no noise, vibration or torque during operation. These properties have made RTGs ideally suitable for autonomous missions in the extreme environments of outer space and on planetary surfaces. More advanced radioisotope power systems (RPS) with higher specific power (W/kg) and/or power output are desirable for future NASA missions, including the Europa Geophysical Orbiter mission. For the past few years, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing more efficient thermoelectric materials and has demonstrated significant increases in the conversion efficiency of high temperature thermocouples, up to 14% when operated across a 975K to 300K temperature differential. In collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center, universities (USC and UNM), Ceramic and Metal Composites Corporation and industrial partners, JPL is now planning to lead the research and development of advanced thermoelectric technology for integration into the next generations of RPS. Preliminary studies indicate that this technology has the potential for improving the RPS specific power by more than 50% over the current state-of-the-art multi-mission RTG being built for the Mars Science Laboratory mission. A second generation advanced RPS is projected at more than doubling the specific power.

  9. Some Uses of Radioisotopes and Radiations in Entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the applications of radioisotopes in entomology that have been developed at our two centres during the last few years. Early work (Au198-labelling) related to the bee and more particularly to the radius of dispersion of worker bees from a colony. After investigations on the individual dose received in tagging of this kind, the radioresistance of the bee was determined, the lethal dose being estimated at about 90 kr. Au198 was also used to study exchange of food within a bee-hive. On the other hand, P32 was used for studies of exchange of food, in small hives, between individuals of different functions (males, workers and queens) or different colonies. Similar trophallaxic studies have recently been performed on wasps. Au198 was likewise the basic radioisotope used in work on ant's nests. The most interesting finding from one of the early studies was that exchange of food takes place between nests more than 50 m apart and belonging to different species (Formica rufa and Formica polyctena). A later study, in which an ant run and not the nest itself was labelled, revealed a division of responsibility within the nests the tagged ants were found invariably to explore the same run and to have little contact with other individuals of the same colony. In the same experiment abnormal radioactivity was noted in the ants before labelling, due in particular to (Sr+Nb)95 . This discovery would seem to point to accumulation of radioactive fall-out in ant's nests. At a period of low fall-out, natural radioactivity attributed to K40 was observed and was used for purposes of potassium determination in ants and bees. An attempt was made to label acridians with Ir192 and the findings are described in the paper. Lastly, an autoradiographic study has been made of the distribution of certain radioisotopes (P32 and S35) in the body of the bee. (author)

  10. A radioisotope powered cryobot for penetrating the Europan ice shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Wayne; Bryant, Scott; Zitzelberger, John; Nesmith, Bill

    2001-02-01

    The Cryobot team at JPL has been working on the design of a Cryo-Hydro Integrated Robotic Penetrator System (CHIRPS), which can be used to penetrate the Mars North Polar Cap or the thick sheet ice surrounding Jupiter's moon, Europa. The science for either one of these missions is compelling. For both Mars and Europa the major scientific interest is to reach regions where there is a reservoir of water that may yield signs of past or extant life. Additionally, a Mars polar cap penetration would help us understand both climatic and depositional histories for perhaps as far back as 20 million years. Similarly, penetration of the Europa ice sheet would allow scientists to unravel the mysteries surrounding the thick ice crust, its chemical composition, and subsurface ocean properties. Extreme mass and power constraints make deep drilling/coring impractical. The best way to explore either one of these environments is a cryobot mole penetrator vehicle, which carries a suite of instruments suitable for sampling and analyzing the ice or ocean environments. This paper concentrates on a Europa deep ice (i.e., kilometers thick) application of the CHIRPS, and introduces the reader to the vehicle design with focus on the use of radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) technology as the primary heat (1 kW total) and power source for the robotic vehicle. Radioisotope heater unit (RHU) milli-watt power systems (120 mW total) are also employed to power the mini-radiowave ice transceivers, which are used to relay data through the ice up to the surface lander. The results of modeling and design work for both of these areas are discussed in this paper. Although radioisotope power is baselined for the Europa flight version of the cyrobot, no decision on the final design of the cryobot will be made until the environmental review process is complete. Any use of the cryobot for Mars or Europa will conform to all environmental and planetary protection requirements. .

  11. Milliwatt radioisotope power supply for the PASCAL Mars surface stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel T.; Murbach, Marcus S.

    2001-02-01

    A milliwatt power supply is being developed based on the 1 watt Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU), which has already been used to provide heating alone on numerous spacecraft. In the past year the power supply has been integrated into the design of the proposed PASCAL Mars Network Mission, which is intended to place 24 surface climate monitoring stations on Mars. The PASCAL Mars mission calls for the individual surface stations to be transported together in one spacecraft on a trajectory direct from launch to orbit around Mars. From orbit around Mars each surface station will be deployed on a SCRAMP (slotted compression ramp) probe and, after aerodynamic and parachute deceleration, land at a preselected location on the planet. During descent sounding data and still images will be accumulated, and, once on the surface, the station will take measurements of pressure, temperature and overhead atmospheric optical depth for a period of 10 Mars years (18.8 Earth years). Power for periodic data acquisition and transmission to orbital then to Earth relay will come from a bank of ultracapacitors which will be continuously recharged by the radioisotope power supply. This electronic system has been designed and a breadboard built. In the ultimate design the electronics will be arrayed on the exterior surface of the radioisotope power supply in order to take advantage of the reject heat. This assembly in turn is packaged within the SCRAMP, and that assembly comprises the surface station. An electrically heated but otherwise prototypical power supply was operated in combination with the surface station breadboard system, which included the ultracapacitors. Other issues addressed in this work have been the capability of the generator to withstand the mechanical shock of the landing on Mars and the effectiveness of the generator's multi-foil vacuum thermal insulation. .

  12. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2004, THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  13. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed

    2006-08-03

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  14. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2004 Through September 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  15. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2010 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. These components were also produced for the Pluto New Horizons and Mars Science Lab missions launched in January 2006 and November 2011respectively. The ORNL has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for nearly four decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of RPS for fiscal year (FY) 2011. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new RPS. Work has also been initiated to establish fabrication capabilities for the Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units.

  16. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technical Program Tasks for October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-04-02

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  17. ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT OF RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEM MATERIALS PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM TASKS FOR OCTOBER 1, 2005 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, James F [ORNL

    2007-04-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  18. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Programs Tasks for October 1, 2005, through September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-09-30

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2006. Production activities for prime quality (prime) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  19. Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report of the Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for September 2000 through March 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.P.

    2001-05-22

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) and weld shields (WS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2001. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, CVS, and WS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials. or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  20. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Program Tasks for October 1, 2002 Through September 30, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.F.

    2004-05-18

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. For the Cassini Mission, for example, ORNL was involved in the production of carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS). This report has been divided into three sections to reflect program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2003. The first section deals primarily with maintenance of the capability to produce flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. The second section deals with several technology activities to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop technologies for new radioisotope power systems. The last section is dedicated to studies related to the production of {sup 238}Pu.

  1. Annual Technical Progress Report of Radioisotope Power System Materials Production and Technology Tasks for October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None listed

    2005-06-01

    The Office of Space and Defense Power Systems of the Department of Energy (DOE) provides Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for applications where conventional power systems are not feasible. For example, radioisotope thermoelectric generators were supplied by the DOE to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for deep space missions including the Cassini Mission launched in October of 1997 to study the planet Saturn. For the Cassini Mission, ORNL produced carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and clad vent sets (CVS) used in the generators. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been involved in developing materials and technology and producing components for the DOE for more than three decades. This report reflects program guidance from the Office of Space and Defense Power Systems for fiscal year (FY) 2004. Production and production maintenance activities for flight quality (FQ) CBCF insulator sets, iridium alloy blanks and foil, and CVS are summarized in this report. In all three cases, production maintenance is assured by the manufacture of limited quantities of FQ components. Technology activities are also reported that were conducted to improve the manufacturing processes, characterize materials, or to develop information for new radioisotope power systems.

  2. Career opportunities in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation and radioisotopes is finally coming into its own after a long and hesitant gestation period. Overshadowed since the inception of the ''Nuclear Age'' by nuclear power generation, this area nevertheless provides real and challenging opportunities involving many different technical specialties and professional skills. Career opportunities are becoming available in those areas involving the use of radioactive isotopes in research, medicine, and industrial process control, and the employment of large radiation outputs, from either accelerator or isotopes, for industrial process applications

  3. Electronic structure of polycrystalline Cd metal using 241Am radioisotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaka, M. S.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, B. K.

    2014-04-01

    Electronic structure study of the polycrystalline cadmium metal is reported. The experimental measurement is undertaken on a polycrystalline sheet sample using 59.54 keV radioisotope of 241Am. These results are compared with the ab initio calculations. The theoretical calculations are performed using linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) method employing the density functional theories (DFT) and Hartree-Fock (HF) and augmented plane wave (APW) methods. The spherically averaged APW and LCAO based theoretical Compton profiles are in good agreement with the experimental measurement however the APW based theoretical calculations show best agreement.

  4. REVISS / MAYAK: A new partnership in radioisotope supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, N. [REVISS Services Limited, Chesham (United Kingdom); Chikshov, A.I.; Malykh, Y.A. [MAYAK Production Association, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    REVISS Services (UK) Limited, the joint venture company formed between Amersham International plc, Production Association MAYAK and Techsnabexport brings together the scientific, manufacturing, marketing and distribution skills and facilities which enable REVISS to be not just a major supplier of radioisotopes and other associated products and services, but the supplier with the largest product range. The paper describes the history and the development of MAYAK and reviews its manufacturing facilities and capabilities and also how MAYAK has moved from being a secret military organisation to become a major and successful commercial organisation

  5. REVISS / MAYAK: A new partnership in radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REVISS Services (UK) Limited, the joint venture company formed between Amersham International plc, Production Association MAYAK and Techsnabexport brings together the scientific, manufacturing, marketing and distribution skills and facilities which enable REVISS to be not just a major supplier of radioisotopes and other associated products and services, but the supplier with the largest product range. The paper describes the history and the development of MAYAK and reviews its manufacturing facilities and capabilities and also how MAYAK has moved from being a secret military organisation to become a major and successful commercial organisation

  6. Parametric System Model for a Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    A Parametric System Model (PSM) was created in order to explore conceptual designs, the impact of component changes and power level on the performance of the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG). Using the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS approximately 250 Wth) modules as the thermal building block from which a SRG is conceptualized, trade studies are performed to understand the importance of individual component scaling on isotope usage. Mathematical relationships based on heat and power throughput, temperature, mass, and volume were developed for each of the required subsystems. The PSM uses these relationships to perform component- and system-level trades.

  7. ADVANCED RADIOISOTOPE HEAT SOURCE AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. C. O' Brien; S. D. Howe; J. E. Werner

    2010-09-01

    The exploration of planetary surfaces and atmospheres may be enhanced by increasing the range and mobility of a science platform. Fundamentally, power production and availability of resources are limiting factors that must be considered for all science and exploration missions. A novel power and propulsion system is considered and discussed with reference to a long-range Mars surface exploration mission with in-situ resource utilization. Significance to applications such as sample return missions is also considered. Key material selections for radioisotope encapsulation techniques are presented.

  8. A new access control system by fingerprint for radioisotope facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroko; Hirata, Yasuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Radioisotope Center; Kondo, Takahiro; Takatsuki, Katsuhiro

    1998-04-01

    We applied a new fingerprint checker for complete access control to the radiation controlled area and to the radioisotope storage room, and prepared softwares for the best use of this checker. This system consists of a personal computer, access controllers, a fingerprint register, fingerprint checkers, a tenkey and mat sensors, permits ten thousand users to register their fingerprints and its hard disk to keep more than a million records of user`s access. Only 1% of users could not register their fingerprints worn-out, registered four numbers for a fingerprint. The softwares automatically provide varieties of reports, caused a large reduction in manual works. (author)

  9. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with /sup 99m/Tc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed

  10. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, K J; Palmer, D W; Beste, D J; Carl, G A; Belson, T P; Pelc, L R; Toohill, R J

    1985-04-01

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with 99mTc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed. PMID:3921912

  11. Radioisotope measurement of the velocity of tracheal mucus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, K.J.; Palmer, D.W.; Beste, D.J.; Carl, G.A.; Belson, T.P.; Pelc, L.R.; Toohill, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    A radioisotope scanning technique for measuring the velocity of tracheal mucus has been developed utilizing a canine model. A solution of stannous phytate labeled with /sup 99m/Tc is introduced percutaneously into the lower trachea and the upward movement of the leading edge of the radioactivity is followed by repeat scanning at 2-minute intervals using a modified rectilinear scanner, thus allowing calculation of the velocity of the mucus. It is believed that this technique may be of value in studying the effect of experimentally induced tracheal injuries on mucus velocity. Possible applications of the technique for the study of the velocity of mucus in the human trachea are discussed.

  12. Investigation of carbon-coated lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mengjie; Zhang, Lin; Gong, Lijun; Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Yuxi, E-mail: yxchen@hnu.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C with pre-stored active Li ions has been synthesized. • The first-cycle coulombic efficiency of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C is over 100%. • Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C displays excellent cyclic stability and capacity retention. • TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and carbon coating are necessary for formation of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C. - Abstract: Carbon-coated Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and lithiated Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode materials have been synthesized using nanosized anatase TiO{sub 2} and commercial TiO{sub 2} with mixed structure as Ti sources, respectively. Microstructural investigation indicates that Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} are covered by amorphous carbon layers with thickness of 2–3 nm. Their electrochemical performance has been evaluated, which indicates that an amount of active Li ions have been pre-stored in the Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} lattice during solid-state synthesis, resulting in its first-cycle coulombic efficiency over 100%. Further, Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C exhibits higher cyclic capacities than Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C at different current density. The reversible charge capacity retention of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C reaches 98.5% after 100 cycles, which indicates that Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C is promising candidate anode material for long lifetime lithium-ion batteries. The formation mechanism of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C has been discussed, in which the nanosized anatase TiO{sub 2} with high chemical activity and the carbon coating play key roles for the formation of Li{sub 4+x}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C.

  13. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  14. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct detection of 14C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 104. Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3H, and 10Be, and 26Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  15. Metal-Free Oxidation of α-Hydroxy Ketones to 1,2-Diketones Catalyzed by Mesoporous Carbon Nitride with Visible Light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志硕; 周小松

    2012-01-01

    As a photocatalyst, mesoporous carbon nitride (mpg-C3N4) shows higher photocatalytic activities in organic synthesis. Herein we report an mpg-C3N4-catalyzed oxidation of α-hydroxy ketones to synthesize 1,2-diketones using visible light. This transformation represents a green and highly efficient synthetic route to synthesize 1,2-diketones for which catalytic approaches are scarce.

  16. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  17. decays to baryons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Torsten Leddig

    2012-11-01

    From inclusive measurements, it is known that about 7% of all mesons decay into final states with baryons. In these decays, some striking features become visible compared to mesonic decays. The largest branching fractions come with quite moderate multiplicities of 3–4 hadrons. We note that two-body decays to baryons are suppressed relative to three- and four-body decays. In most of these analyses, the invariant baryon–antibaryon mass shows an enhancement near the threshold. We propose a phenomenological interpretation of this quite common feature of hadronization to baryons.

  18. A sediment trap and radioisotope study to determine resuspension of particle reactive substances in the sound between Sweden and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Per; Valeur, Jens R.

    2006-03-01

    Sediment traps and the radioisotopes 137Cs, 210Pb, 7Be, 234Th and 228Th were used to study downward fluxes and resuspension of sediments in the shallow sound (Øresund) between Sweden and Denmark connecting the Baltic Sea with the North Sea. The water transport through Øresund covers approximately 30% of the total water transport between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The heavy boat traffic and the densely populated surroundings coupled to a shallow sound makes resuspension events an important factor in transporting released pollutants. Over the time period studied mass-fluxes recorded by the sediment traps ranged between 175 g m -2 day -1 near bottom during winter time to less than 1 g m -2 day -1 during late spring when the water column was stratified. A combination of sediment traps at different levels in the water column and radioisotope ratios shows that resuspended seabed sediments accounts for a large portion of the collected trap material, ranging from nearly 100% during the winter period to some 50% during stratified periods in late spring. In general the flux of all radioisotopes studied showed a linear relation with the mass-flux. The correlation of flux with organic carbon was better than with mass-flux. A comparison between atmospheric fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb and the fluxes of these isotope measured in the sediment traps shows that the agreement for 7Be is within a factor of two while for 210Pb the sediment trap fluxes are totally dominated by resuspended matter. The fraction of resuspended sediments in the traps may be quantified partly by using the 7Be/ 210Pb or 228Th/ 232Th ratios.

  19. Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Medicine. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dynamics Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations on the temporal patterns of uptake, metabolism, clearance or excretion of administered radioactive materials form the basis of many important applications of radioisotopes in clinical medicine and research. Such applications include studies of organ function, of regional blood flow and of the turnover of various substances in the human body. Newly available radioisotopes, new instruments such as gamma came ras, new techniques and new methods of data analysis based on the use of analogue and digital computers are continually enlarging the scope of the applications. Progress in these matters was discussed at the Symposium on Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, organized by the lnternational Atomic Energy Agency and held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, from 31 August to 4 September 1970. A total of 315 participants nominated by 39 countries and 4 international organizations attended, and the 70 papers presented cove r the theoretical aspects of dynamic studies, the development of techniques and instruments for such studies, and specific applications in studies of thyroid, renal, hepatic and splenic function, mineral metabolism, regional blood flow, and cardiac and pulmonary function. The proceedings include the full texts of all the papers presented together with the edited discussions. Invited review papers deal with the general aspects of the various main groups of applications covered. Many of the applications described have already reached the stage of routine use; others are still in the developmental stage. Of particular note in the latter connection are applications based on the quantitative analysis of scintillation camera data. The many papers presented on these topics and the ensuing discussions indicate the great interest now shown in this promising area of development. It is hoped that the proceedings will provide a valuable guide to the present status of the subject

  20. Search for CP violation in hyperon decays.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyla, Piotr; Chan, A.; Chen, Y.C.; Ho, C.; Teng, P.K.; Choong, W.S.; Gidal, G.; Fu, Y.; Gu, P.; Jones, T.D.; Luk, K.B.; Turko, B.; James, C.; Volk, J.; Felix, J.; Burnstein, R.A.; Chakrovorty, A.; Kaplan, D.M.; Lederman, L.M.; Luebke, W.; Rajaram, D.; Rubin, H.A.; Solomey, N.; Torun, Y.; White, C.G.; White, S.L.; Leros, N.; Perroud, J.P.; Gustafson, H.R.; Longo, M.J.; Lopez, F.; Park H.K.; Clark, K.; Jenkins, M.; Dukes, E.C.; Durandet, C.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, M.; Lu, L.; Nelson, K.S.

    2002-10-25

    Direct CP violation in nonleptonic hyperon decays can be established by comparing the decays of hyperons and anti-hyperons. For {Xi} decay to {Lambda} {pi} followed by {Lambda} to p{pi}, the proton distribution in the rest frame of Lambda is governed by the product of the decay parameters {alpha}{sub {Xi}} {alpha}{sub {Lambda}}. The asymmetry A{sub {Xi}{Lambda}}, proportional to the difference of {alpha}{sub {Xi}}{alpha}{sub {Lambda}} of the hyperon and anti-hyperon decays, vanishes if CP is conserved. We report on an analysis of a fraction of 1997 and 1999 data collected by the Hyper CP (E871) collaboration during the fixed-target runs at Fermilab. The preliminary measurement of the asymmetry is {Alpha}{sub {Xi}{Lambda}} = [-7 {+-} 12(stat) {+-} 6.2(sys)] x 10{sup -4}, an order of magnitude better than the present limit.

  1. Particle-beam accelerators for radiotherapy and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The philosophy used in developing the new PIGMI technology was that the parameters chosen for physics research machines are not necessarily the right ones for a dedicated therapy or radioisotope machine. In particular, the beam current and energy can be optimized, and the design should emphasize minimum size, simplicity and reliability of operation, and economy in capital and operating costs. A major part of achieving these goals lay in raising the operating frequency and voltage gradient of the accelerator, which shrinks the diameter and length of the components. Several other technical innovations resulted in major system improvements. One of these is a radically new type of accelerator structure named the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator. This allowed us to eliminate the large, complicated ion source used in previous ion accelerators, and to achieve a very high quality accelerated beam. Also, by using advanced permanent magnet materials to make the focusing elements, the system becomes much simpler. Other improvements have been made in all of the accelerator components and in the methods for operating them. These will be described, and design and costing information examples given for several possible therapy and radioisotope production machines

  2. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-07-01

    A small spacecraft design for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission is under study by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), for a possible launch as early as 1998. JPL's 1992 baseline design calls for a power source able to furnish an energy output of 3963 kWh and a power output of 69 Watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. Satisfying those demands is made difficult because NASA management has set a goal of reducing the spacecraft mass from a baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for the power source. To support the ongoing NASA/JPL studies, the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) commissioned Fairchild Space to prepare and analyze conceptual designs of radioisotope power systems for the PFF mission. Thus far, a total of eight options employing essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules were designed and subjected to thermal, electrical, structural, and mass analyses by Fairchild. Five of these - employing thermoelectric converters - are described in the present paper, and three - employing free-piston Stirling converters - are described in the companion paper presented next. The system masses of the thermoelectric options ranged from 19.3 kg to 10.2 kg. In general, the options requiring least development are the heaviest, and the lighter options require more development with greater programmatic risk.

  3. Multi-Watt Small Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Conceptual Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William R.; Otting, William; Frye, Patrick; Abelson, Robert; Ewell, Richard; Miyake, Bob; Synder, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    A need has been identified for a small, light-weight, reliable power source using a radioisotope heat source, to power the next generation of NASA's small surface rovers and exploration probes. Unit performance, development costs, and technical risk are key criteria to be used to select the best design approach. Because safety can be a major program cost and schedule driver, RTG designs should utilize the DOE radioisotope safety program's data base to the maximum extent possible. Other aspects important to the conceptual design include: 1) a multi-mission capable design for atmospheric and vacuum environments, 2) a module size based on one GPHS Step 2 module, 3) use of flight proven thermoelectric converter technologies, 4) a long service lifetime of up to 14 years, 5) maximize unit specific power consistent with all other requirements, and 6) be ready by 2013. Another critical aspect of the design is the thermal integration of the RTG with the rover or probe's heat rejection subsystem and the descent vehicle's heat rejection subsystem. This paper describes two multi-watt RTG design concepts and their integration with a MER-class rover.

  4. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  5. Radioisotope flaw detection during the inspection of the NPS equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope method for non-destructive inspection is widely used in the USSR because of its specific features and advantages, namely, the possibility to inspect the items made of various materials, with a wide range of thickness, or located in places access to which is difficult, in the case of absence of power supply, under the effect of high level radiation background, etc. The methods and means of radioisotope flaw detection are used for the following fields of nuclear power engineering: inspection of the equipments during the scheduled preventive and major repairs of nuclear power stations (NPS); during the mounting and assembling of nuclear reactors; and during the manufacture of NPS equipments on the shop scale. Some features and specifications of such facilities are described briefly. The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Radiation Engineering carries out the investigations connected not only with the apparatuses for flaw detection, but also with their effective applications. As the results of the performed investigations, a method of optimizing instrumental parameters based on the sensitivity and expense, the influence of different factors upon the selected criteria, the radiation exposure dose rate, etc., were suggested. It must be noted that the economical effect produced by the optimization of the technical characteristics of the instruments intended for the inspection has been obtained, as a rule, without additional capital expenses. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. The radioisotope osteogram: Kinetic studies of skeletal disorders in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, N.S.

    1959-10-16

    Radioactive strontium can serve as a tracer to gain information concerning calcium metabolism in human subjects. Gamma-emitting Sr{sup 85} is used rather than the much more hazardous, beta-emitting Sr{sup 89} and Sr{sup 90}. (ca{sup 47} -- the ideal tracer for normal calcium -- is quite expensive and difficult to procure.) Very significant information may be obtained merely by measuring and recording the changes in radioactivity in various body areas during the first hour after intravenous injection of the bone-seeking radioisotope. This is accomplished by placing a lead-shielded gamma-scintillation detector in contact with the skin over the sites of interest and recording the activities on a scaler or ratemeter. The activity versus time curves so obtained are called radioisotope osteograms. Data were presented which indicated that Sr{sup 85} osteograms for patients afflicted with osteoporosis, Paget`s disease, tumor metastases to bone, and possibly multiple myeloma, differ significantly from those obtained from subjects with no skeletal abnormalities. Some interpretations of these deviations were discussed. The value of conducting double-tracer tests (e.g. -- Sr{sup 85} plus radio-iodinated serum albumin) was demonstrated, and correlations with excretion data were made. With further refinements the technique may ultimately become useful for certain diagnostic problems in the clinic and.for evaluating the efficacy of treatment of these disorders.

  7. [Clinical study of radioisotopic splenoportography in portal hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Y

    1990-02-01

    Radioisotopic splenoportography was performed in 55 patients with portal hypertension, in whom 52 had various degrees of esophagogastric varices, and in 20 patients without portal hypertension. In the patients with varices, collateral images were obtained in 50 patients (96%) by this method and no image was obtained in the patients without varices. The rate of positively imaged collaterals was as follows: Esophageal varices 69%, the left gastric vein 85%, the short gastric veins 48%, RI stasis in esophagogastric region 65%, the azygos vein 46%, the subclavian vein 25%, the para-umbilical veins 46%, splenorenal /gastrorenal shunts 19%, the inferior mesenteric vein 17%, the left intercostal veins 6%, and Arantius's duct 4%. These rates were superior to that obtained from the conventional transarterial portography. There were some correlations between RI-images by this method and clinical and laboratory findings; patients with ascending collaterals alone tended to have extensive and severe varices and higher rate of bleeding, on the other hand, variceal bleeding was not found and episodes of portosystemic encephalopathy frequently occurred in patients with descending collaterals alone. After successful sclerotherapy, RI-images of esophageal varices disappeared in 92% of the patients. Radioisotopic splenoportography appears to be a useful diagnostic and follow-up modality for patients with portal hypertension and esophagogastric varices. PMID:2325608

  8. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion for Deep Space Sample Return

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2009-07-14

    The need to answer basic questions regarding the origin of the Solar System will motivate robotic sample return missions to destinations like Pluto, its satellite Charon, and objects in the Kuiper belt. To keep the mission duration short enough to be of interest, sample return from objects farther out in the Solar System requires increasingly higher return velocities. A sample return mission involves several complicated steps to reach an object and obtain a sample, but only the interplanetary return phase of the mission is addressed in this paper. Radioisotope electric propulsion is explored in this parametric study as a means to propel small, dedicated return vehicles for transferring kilogram-size samples from deep space to Earth. Return times for both Earth orbital rendezvous and faster, direct atmospheric re-entry trajectories are calculated for objects as far away as 100 AU. Chemical retro-rocket braking at Earth is compared to radioisotope electric propulsion but the limited deceleration capability of chemical rockets forces the return trajectories to be much slower.

  9. Evaluation of radioisotopic angiocardiography in patent ductus arteriosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic images and curves obtained from radioisotopic angiocardiography (RI-ACG) using video recording system were studied in 5 patients with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), to disclose any characteristic findings of PDA on this radioisotopic examination. And, the examination was evaluated with referance to diagnosis and assessment of status of PDA, comparing with other radiological examinations including angiocardiography and catheterization. Both the dynamic images and the dynamic curves of RI-ACG showed some characteristic findings of PDA, which was considered to be valuable to differentiate the intracardiac left to right shunt in atrial or ventricular septal defect. It was very characteristic of PDA that dynamic images showed regional dilution and recirculation patterns in the region of the main pulmonary artery to its periphery, and dynamic curves presented shunt waves on the descending limbs of the first circulation waves of both the pulmonary and the left ventricular region of interest. The Degrees of appearance of these characteristic findings showed a tendency to well correlate with the value of the left to right shunt fraction calculated by cathetelization technique. On the other hand, RI-ACG showed useful findings to diagnose pulmonary hypertension or heart failure associated with PDA. And, RI-ACG was very useful to detect an abrupt change of the central circulation dynamics in a patient with PDA, in whom continuous murmur characteristic of PDA desappeared intermittently. (author)

  10. Characterization of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Engineering Unit 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Edward J.; Oriti, Salvatore M.; Schifer, Niholas A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant progress was made developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) 140-W radioisotope power system. While the ASRG flight development project has ended, the hardware that was designed and built under the project is continuing to be tested to support future Stirling-based power system development. NASA Glenn Research Center recently completed the assembly of the ASRG Engineering Unit 2 (EU2). The ASRG EU2 consists of the first pair of Sunpower's Advanced Stirling Convertor E3 (ASC-E3) Stirling convertors mounted in an aluminum housing, and Lockheed Martin's Engineering Development Unit (EDU) 4 controller (a fourth-generation controller). The ASC-E3 convertors and Generator Housing Assembly (GHA) closely match the intended ASRG Qualification Unit flight design. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the EU2, its controller, and the convertors in the flight-like GHA. The GHA contained an argon cover gas for these tests. The tests included measurement of convertor, controller, and generator performance and efficiency; quantification of control authority of the controller; disturbance force measurement with varying piston phase and piston amplitude; and measurement of the effect of spacecraft direct current (DC) bus voltage on EU2 performance. The results of these tests are discussed and summarized, providing a basic understanding of EU2 characteristics and the performance and capability of the EDU 4 controller.

  11. Industrial applications of radioisotopes: techniques and procedures of (NTIS) Nuclear Techniques Industrial Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope handling procedures followed by personnel of the Nuclear Techniques Industrial Service (NTIS) during the conduction of investigations in industry are described. Possible radiological implications as a result of the various measuring techniques and different types of plants are discussed. Conditions under which permanent authorization has been granted for the use of radioisotopes are mentioned

  12. Economical and technical feasibility study of some radioisotopes production for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical and technical feasibility study of the production in reactors of some radioisotopes most used in medicine, are presented. The clinical applications of each radioisotope as well as its radioactive concentrations and specific activities are related. Irradiation procedures based in the foregoing data are given. Part of the study is dedicated to quality control. (M.A.C.)

  13. First collinear laser spectroscopy measurements of radioisotopes from an IGISOL ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billowes, J; Campbell, P; Cochrane, ECA; Cooke, JL; Dendooven, P; Evans, DE; Grant, IS; Griffith, JAR; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Levins, JMG; Liukkonen, E; Oinonen, M; Pearson, MR; Penttila, H; Persson, B.L.; Richardson, DS; Tungate, G; Wheeler, P; Zybert, L; Aysto, J

    1997-01-01

    The standard Doppler-free technique of collinear laser spectroscopy has been successfully applied to radioisotopes from the ion-guide isotope separator (IGISOL) at the Universiry of Jyvaskyla. The laser resonance fluorescence signals for the Ba-140.142,Ba-144 radioisotopes show that the ion beam ene

  14. Stable carbon isotope fractionation of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene during co-metabolic degradation by methanotrophic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungard, K.L.; Munakata-Marr, J.; Johnson, C.A.; Mandernack, K.W.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in the carbon isotope ratio (??13C) of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (t-DCE) were measured during its co-metabolic degradation by Methylomonas methanica, a type I methanotroph, and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, a type II methanotroph. In closed-vessel incubation experiments with each bacterium, the residual t-DCE became progressively enriched in 13C, indicating isotopic fractionation. From these experiments, the biological fractionation during t-DCE co-metabolism, expressed as ??, was measured to be -3.5??? for the type I culture and -6.7??? for the type II culture. This fractionation effect and subsequent enrichment in the ??13C of the residual t-DCE can thus be applied to determine the extent of biodegradation of DCE by these organisms. Based on these results, isotopic fractionation clearly warrants further study, as measured changes in the ??13C values of chlorinated solvents could ultimately be used to monitor the extent of biodegradation in laboratory or field settings where co-metabolism by methanotrophs occurs. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Melting Relations of Multicomponent Carbonate System MgCO3 - FeCO3- CaCO3- Na2CO3 at 12-23 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Anna; Solopova, Natalia; Litvin, Yuriy; Dubrovinsky, Leonid; Zakharchenko, Egor

    2014-05-01

    Considerable attention is focused on high-pressure high-temperature experimental study of melting phase relations of carbonates which were involved into a 'super-deep' diamond genesis. High-pressure stability of carbonate melts and their role in 'ultra-deep' diamonds genesis are most essential. Experimental study of melting relations of multicomponent carbonate system was carried out using multi-anvil press at the pressures 12 - 23 GPa and temperatures 800 to 1650 oC. Chemical compositions of starting carbonate system used for melting experiment were prepared by mixing: FeCO3 - 26,00; MgCO3- 26,00; CaCO3 - 25,00; Na2CO3 - 23,00 wt %. A region of partial melting for the system is experimentally determined. The partial melting field is arranged between low-temperature boundary of eutectics melting (solidus line) of the multicomponent carbonate and the boundary of complete melting (liquidus line) at higher temperature. From experimental observations, a Mg-Fe carbonate solid solution is the liquidus phase. At temperature lowering, the assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + L (liquid) is formed. Then, the invariant eutectic assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2+ L (liquid) which is determining for subsolidus assemblage (Mg,Fe)CO3 + (Ca,Na2,Fe)CO3 + Na2(Ca,Fe)(CO3)2 is formed. Next to liquidus line is one-phase field of completely miscible multicomponent carbonate melt. On the whole, the results demonstrate phase relations of solid carbonates and multicomponent carbonate liquid in the immediate vicinity to the low-temperature melting boundary. The early melting of the multicomponent carbonate system is compatible with the lower mantle geothermal conditions because the primary melting temperatures are noticeably below than the geothermal values. It is significant that multicomponent carbonate melts are stable and completely miscible under conditions as partial so complete melting. Thus, high-pressure high-temperature experimental data demonstrate

  16. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, 3H, 14C, 60Co, 79Se, 90Sr, 99Tc as pertechnetate, 106Ru/Rh, 125Sb, 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 154Eu, 155Eu, 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243+244Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for 237Np, 239Pu, 240Pu, 99Tc, 126Sn, 129I, 231Pa, 233U, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U, 241AMU, 242AMU, 243AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO2, NO3, PO4, SO4, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all contract limits (molar ratio of analyte to sodium or ratio of becquerels of analyte to moles of sodium) defined in Specification 7 for Envelope A. Except for a few cases, the characterization results met or surpassed the

  17. Inorganic, radioisotopic and organic analysis of 241-AP-101 tank waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SK Fiskum; PR Bredt; JA Campbell; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; GJ Lumetta; GM Mong; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist; RG Swoboda; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

    2000-06-28

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids. The characterization of the 241-AP-101 composite samples included: (1) Inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry for Ag, Al, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pd, Ru, Rh, Si, Sr, Ti, U, Zn, and Zr (Note: Although not specified in the test plan, As, B, Be, Co, Li, Mo, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, W, and Y were also measured and reported for information only) (2) Radioisotopic analyses for total alpha and total beta activities, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 60}Co, {sup 79}Se, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc as pertechnetate, {sup 106}Ru/Rh, {sup 125}Sb, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 154}Eu, {sup 155}Eu, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm, and {sup 243+244}Cm; (3) Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for {sup 237}Np, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 126}Sn, {sup 129}I, {sup 231}Pa, {sup 233}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 241}AMU, {sup 242}AMU, {sup 243}AMU, As, B, Be, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, I, Li, Mo, Pr, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Te, Th, Tl, V, and W; (4) total U by kinetic phosphorescence analysis; (5) Ion chromatography for Cl, F, NO{sub 2}, NO{sub 3}, PO{sub 4}, SO{sub 4}, acetate, formate, oxalate, and citrate; (6) Density, inorganic carbon and organic carbon by two different methods, mercury, free hydroxide, ammonia, and cyanide. The 241-AP-101 composite met all

  18. Practice of the safe handling of radioisotopes using naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We proposed a practical protocol for the safe handling of radiation and radioisotopes using the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) 87Rb and 40K. The protocol can be utilized for the education and training course for radiation handling workers. Rubidium chloride solutions were used for the practice of dilution of unsealed radioisotopes instead of 32P. Rubidium chloride and potassium chloride solid radiation sources were used for the practice of monitoring of the surface contamination using the GM survey meter instead of 32P and 14C. Rubidium chloride solutions were also used for the practice of the contamination check by the smear method. Substitution of the radioisotopes under the Laws Concerning the Prevention from Radiation Hazards due to Radioisotope and others to NORMs can be successfully achieved without notable demerits. We supposed that most of the practice for the safe handling of radioisotopes could be carried out outside a controlled area. (author)

  19. Systems for control of weighting out with radioisotope measuring transducers for light industry enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works of the Riga scientific research institute of radioisotope instrument making in the field of development of radioisotope systems for control of weighting out of textiles and synthetic leather are described. Radioisotope transducers have been constructed on the basis of the effect of attenuation of β-radiation used for raying the controlled material. Examples are given of radioisotope devices created at the Institute for control of woolen cloth humidity, surface density of fibrous base of synthetic leather, for control of weighting out of non-woven fabrics, for control of linear density of flaxen and kenaf bands etc. The problems of metrological provision of radioisotope devices and automatic control systems, and economic efficiency of their application are considered

  20. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Λ hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the AX(K-, π-) ΛAX reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free Λ decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ-) and Γ(Λ → nπ0) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay NΛ → Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) (∼ 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ-), Γ(Λ → nπ0) and Γ(Λn → nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon ΔI =1/2 rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K-, π-) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for Λ4He

  1. Production and radiochemical separation of 203Pb radioisotope for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    on the anion exchange column (DOWEX1-4x, 200/400 mesh, 15 cm long and 0.5 cm ID) in 8 mol/dm3 HCl media, based on literature. The radioactive 203Pb was collected in the effluent. The target material Tl remained on the column. The regeneration of the column, i.e. collection of Thallium was made by washing of the column with deionized water. The collected fraction of 203Pb was evaporated to wet dryness and take back with saline of 0.8 ml. The separation yield was 63%+12%. No contaminating radioisotopes were detected in the product. However, the amount of Tl was 0,6 mg, which is higher than the tolerable level for the mice. The next step planned is to decrease the level of Tl and determine the specific activity of 203Pb by ICP-MS.

  2. Active Radiation Level Measurement on New Laboratory Instrument for Evaluating the Antibacterial Activity of Radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Eunha; Park, Jang Guen [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. However, it is difficult to measure the antibacterial effect of radioisotopes using a disc method. A disc method is a method for diffusing a drug by placing the drug containing disc on the medium. In this method, radioisotopes are diffused on the medium and it is difficult to measure the exact effect by radiation. Thus, new laboratory equipment needs to evaluate the antibacterial activity by the radioisotopes. In this study, we measured the radiation level of radioisotopes on a new laboratory instrument using a MCNP. A disc method has been widely used to measure the antibacterial effect of chemical agents. This method uses a drug diffusion system for the measurement of anti-bacterial antibiotics. To measure the antimicrobial activity of a radioisotope, a new type of laboratory instrument is necessary to prevent the drug from spreading. The radioisotopes are used to diagnose and treat cancer. However, studies for anti-biotical use have not progressed. The radiation of radioisotopes has the effect of killing bacteria. Before this study proceeds further, it is necessary to be able to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope easily in the laboratory. However, in this study, it was possible to measure the antimicrobial activity of the radioisotope in the laboratory using a new laboratory instrument. We intend to start evaluation studies of the antibacterial activity of specific radioisotopes. In addition, it will be possible to develop research to overcome diseases caused by bacteria in the future.

  3. Summary report of consultants' meeting on high-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting on 'High-precision beta-intensity measurements and evaluations for specific PET radioisotopes'. Participants assessed and reviewed the decay data for close to 50 positron-emitting radionuclides. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with the detailed recommendations and a priority list for future work. Direct positron and X-ray measurements are required to resolve a significant number of outstanding issues associated with the radionuclides reviewed. The following new measurements are recommended: gamma-ray emission probability for Cu-64, positron and Xray emission probabilities for Ni-57, Cu-62, Ga-66, As-72, Se-73, Rb-81,82m, Sr-83, Y-86 and Tc-94m. The following immediate evaluations were also recommended: Br-76 and I-120g.. Participants assessed and reviewed the decay data for close to 50 positron-emitting radionuclides. Technical discussions are described in this report, along with the detailed recommendations and a priority list for future work. Direct positron and X-ray measurements are required to resolve a significant number of outstanding issues associated with the radionuclides reviewed. The following new measurements are recommended: gamma-ray emission probability for Cu-64, positron and Xray emission probabilities for Ni-57, Cu-62, Ga-66, As-72, Se-73, Rb-81,82m, Sr-83, Y-86 and Tc-94m. The following immediate evaluations were also recommended: Br-76 and I-120g. (author)

  4. A reanalysis of radioisotope measurements of the $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)^8$Be cross-section

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    The $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)^8$Be reaction is enhanced by a near threshold $1/2^+$ state. Contradictions between existing measurements of this reaction cross-section affect calculations of astrophysical r-process yields, dark matter detector calibrations, and the theory of the nuclear structure of $^9$Be. Select well-documented radioisotope $^9$Be$(\\gamma,n)$ source yield measurements have been reanalyzed, providing a set of high-accuracy independently measured cross sections. A Breit-Wigner fit of these corrected measurements yields $E_R=1738.8^{+5.0}_{-4.2}$~keV, $\\Gamma_\\gamma=0.771^{+0.055}_{-0.044}$~eV, and $\\Gamma_n=268^{+40}_{-33}$~keV for the $1/2^+$ state. The fit favors a resonant $1/2^+$ state, but a virtual state is not excluded.

  5. Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout: A technique for evaluating corpora cavernosal inflow and outflow during early tumescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.N.; Graham, M.M. (Univ. of Washington Medical Center, Seattle (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Combined technetium radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout is a new technique that measures both corporal arterial inflow and venous sinusoidal outflow during early tumescence in patients with erectile dysfunction. Fourteen patients were studied using 99mTc-RBCs to measure inflow and 133Xe or 127Xe in saline to measure outflow. Tumescence was induced by injecting papaverine intracorporally. Peak corporal rates corrected for inflow (r = 0.88) and uncorrected for outflow (r = 0.91) and change in volume over 2 min centered around peak inflow (r = 0.96) all correlated with angiography. Outflow measurements did not correlate with intracorporal resistance. Thus, outflow rates alone could not be used to predict venous sinusoidal competence. Normal inflow rate is greater than 20 ml/min; probable normal 12-20; indeterminate inflow 7-12; and abnormal inflow less than 7 ml/min. Technetium-99m radioisotope penile plethysmography and xenon washout can be performed together and both provide a method for simultaneously evaluating the relationship between corporal inflow and outflow rates in patients with erectile dysfunction.

  6. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop-pest control is of major economic importance and demands the aid of the latest advances in science. Radioisotopes and radiation are being employed to increase the efficiency of existing insect pest control. They are extremely valuable, since improvements to existing methods depend on having detailed data on the bioecology, toxicology, and so on. Radioactive labelling of insects has been extremely promising in bioecology; the labelling of grain pests (Eurygaster integriceps Put., Hadena sordida Skh.) and grain-pest parasites (Meniscus agnatus Crow, Pseudogonia cinerascens Rond.) has provided information about their areas of migration, habitats, sizes of population and the feeding habits. The same technique was used to determine the rate of propagation of the Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say), which is subject to quarantine controls; subsequently an extermination programme was carried out on the basis of the data obtained. It also provides a valuable means of studying the extremely complex problems of parasitism and predaceousness, in particular intermediate feeding cycles and chemotaxis. The feeding areas of field rodents have been mapped out with the help of a self-labelling, radioactive-bait technique. Pesticides synthesized with radioisotopes have been used in conjunction with radiochromatography, fluorimetry and other techniques to study the highly complex biochemical processes caused to toxicants in plants and insects. It has also been possible to determine the rate of hydrolysis of organic-phosphorus insecticide compounds of the thiphos and metaphos type as a function of the degree of development and the physiological state of plants as well as of environmental conditions. Data have been obtained on the length of time residual quantities of toxicants are retained in agriculture products following different periods of chemical treatment. Radioisotope techniques have yielded information on various metabolic processes exhibiting different

  7. Rare Decays at LHCb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sam

    2014-04-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons provide an effective method of testing the Standard Model and probing possible new physics scenarios. The LHCb experiment has published a variety of interesting results in this field, some of which are presented here. In particular the measurements of the branching fractions of B(s)0 → μ+μ- which, in combination with CMS, resulted in the first observation of the Bs0 → μ+μ- decay. Other topics include searches for the rare decay D0 → μ+μ-, the lepton flavour violating decays B(s)0 → e±μ∓, and the observation of the ψ(4160) resonance in the region of low recoil in B+ → K+μ+μ- decay. New results on the angular analysis of the decay B0 → K*0μ+μ- with form factor independent observables are also shown.

  8. Decay of 120Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decay of 120Ba has been studied with an on-line isotope separator. Its half-life was determined to be t1/2=24±2 s. A decay scheme is proposed, based on γ-γ, γ-X, and γ-β+ coincidence measurements, which takes account of all 16 observed γ rays. The total decay energy was measured to be QEC=50±0.3 MeV

  9. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, Lucía; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A

    2016-01-01

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of this particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width.

  10. Pyrolysis of Animal Bones with Vitamin B12: A Facile Route to Efficient Transition Metal-Nitrogen-Carbon (TM-N-C) Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Meiling; He, Duanpeng; Shao, Wenhao; Liu, Haijing; Wang, Feng; Dai, Liming

    2016-02-24

    By pyrolyzing cattle bones, hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) networks with a high surface area (2520 m(2)  g(-1) ) and connected pores were prepared at a low cost and large scale. Subsequent co-pyrolysis of HPC with vitamin B12 resulted in the formation of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchically structured porous cobalt-nitrogen-carbon (Co-N-HPC) electrocatalysts with a surface area as high as 859 m(2)  g(-1) as well as a higher oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalytic activity, better operation stability, and higher tolerance to methanol than the commercial Pt/C catalyst in alkaline electrolyte.

  11. AMTEC radioisotope power system for the Pluto Express mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) technology has made substantial advances in the last 3 years through design improvements and technical innovations. In 1993 programs began to produce an AMTEC cell specifically for the NASA Pluto Express Mission. A set of efficiency goals was established for this series of cells to be developed. According to this plan, cell number-sign 8 would be 17% efficient but was actually 18% efficient. Achieving this goal, as well as design advances that allow the cell to be compact, has resulted in pushing the cell from an unexciting 2 W/kg and 2% efficiency to very attractive 40 W/kg and 18% measured efficiency. This paper will describe the design and predict the performance of a radioisotope powered AMTEC system for the Pluto Express mission

  12. Multimodality Therapy: Bone-Targeted Radioisotope Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shi-Ming; Lin, Sue-Hwa; Podoloff, Donald A.; Logothetis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat prostate cancer bone metastasis and improve the clinical outcome of patients with advanced prostate cancer. It remains to be elucidated whether radiopharmaceuticals enhance the disruption of the onco-niche or the eradication of micrometastatic cells in the bone marrow. The purpose of this review is to investigate the role of bone-targeted radioisotope therapy in the setting of multimodality therapy for advanced prostate cancer. We examine available data and evaluate whether dose escalation, newer generations, or repeated dosing of radiopharmaceuticals enhance their antitumor effects and whether their combination with hormone ablative therapy, chemotherapy, or novel targeted therapy can improve clinical efficacy. PMID:20551894

  13. Contribution of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of lung tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    197Hg, a radioisotope of half life 65 h, injected as acetate builds up in malignant tumours and evolutive inflammatory lesions. In spite of a high proportion of false positives it can lead to a lung cancer diagnosis under well-defined circumstances such as: round lung images, X-ray tuberculosis images persisting after prolonged therapy, treated cancers where it can detect relapses before X-rays and in the difficult case of benign tumours. In man the uptake kinetics of carrier-free 67Cu (half-life 58 h), injected as citrate, are apparently not the same in cancers as in evolutive inflammatory lesions. The false positive yield, through much lower than that observed with 197Hg, is still too high in this preliminary study

  14. Fabrication of light weight radioisotope heater unit hardware components

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Dennis C.

    1996-03-01

    The Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) is planned to be used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cassini Mission, to provide localized thermal energy as strategic locations on the spacecraft. These one watt heater units will support the operation of many on-board instruments that require a specific temperature range to function properly. The system incorporates a fuel pellet encapsulated in a vented metallic clad fabricated from platinum-30% rhodium (Pt-30%Rh) tubing, sheet and foil materials. To complete the package, the clad assemblies are placed inside a combination of graphite components. This report describes the techniques employed by Mound related to the fabrication and sub assembly processes of the LWRHU clad hardware components. Included are details concerning configuration control systems, material procurement and certification, hardware fabrication specifics, and special processes that are utilized.

  15. Development of stable isotope separation technology for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of this project is to construct the domestic production system of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 used as target materials in accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes F-18 and Tl-201, respectively. In order to achieve this goal, diode laser spectroscopic analytical system was constructed and automatic measurement computer software for the direct analysis of H216O/H218O ratio were developed. Distillation process, laser process, and membrane diffusion process were analyzed for the evaluation of O-18 production. And electromagnetic process, plasma process, and laser process were analyzed for the evaluation of Tl-203 production. UV laser system, IR laser system, and detailed system Tl-203 production were designed. Finally, current and future worldwide demand/supply of stable isotopes O-18 and Tl-203 were estimated

  16. Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and nuclear techniques in biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radiations, radioisotopes and other nuclear techniques has contributed a great deal in our understanding of microbial plant and animal biochemistry and molecular biology. Electron microscopy has provided visual evidence for molecular events. Developments in cell tissue culture of both plants and animals and immunology have contributed to advances in what we now refer as biotechnology. This paper focuses on the applications in the high-tech end of biotechnology, limited to the use of recombinant-DNA techniques. Molecular identification of the genes, their cloning and horizontal transfer across the species of microbes, plants and animals and expression of the transferred genes is the major strength of modern biotechnology. The techniques described in this paper have played a significant role in the development of biotechnology. 6 refs

  17. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99mTc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)

  18. Radioisotopic studies on pulmonary function in experimental burn shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disturbances in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion, which can initiate severe complications, often lead to many therapeutic failures in burn shock. Early recognition of respiratory disturbances is often required to improve results of treatment of burn shock. The authors investigated changes in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in napalm-burnt rabbits using 133Xe. Simultaneously, they determined effect of treatment with cytochrome C on pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in animals burnt with napalm. It was found that in napalm-burnt rabbits burn shock was accompanied by a significant deterioration in pulmonary ventilation and perfusion. The most marked changes were observed one and two days after burn. It was also found a beneficial effect of treatment with cytochrome C on alveolar ventilation. The authors pointed out the usefulness of radioisotopic investigations of pulmonary ventilation and perfusion in burn shock. (author)

  19. Studies of radioisotope production with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, Toshiaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production of radioisotopes to be used mainly for nuclear medicine and biology is studied with an AVF cyclotron in TIARA. A production method of no-carrier-added {sup 186}Re with the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction has been developed; this product may be used as a therapeutic agent in radioimmunotherapy due to the adequate nuclear and chemical properties. For the study of the function of plants using a positron-emitter two-dimensional imaging system, a simple method of producing the positron emitter {sup 18}F in water was developed by taking advantage of a highly-energetic {alpha} beam from the AVF cyclotron. (author)

  20. Dynamic radioisotopic study of the salivary glands. Quantification test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantified dynamic radioisotopic exploration, a new and rational examination, should find its place in a thorough check-up of the salivary glands together with clinical, immunological, anatomopathological and sialographic investigations. The object of this work was to standardise the test procedure with a view to routine use on patients and to define certain quantified parameters representing objectively the different aspects of the salivary functions. Our procedure through reeding sophisticated equipment, is simple to perform and relies on use of: radiotechnetium employed at activities which allow repetitive exlorations whereby pathological changes may be followed; the gamma camera and its data processing system which records all radioactive information obtained on the patient's head. These results will supply the data needed to judge the salivary functions as a whole. The apparatus used provides a remarkable pictorial record made up not only of morphological and functional images at each stage of the examination but also of ciphered radioactivity versus time curves for each of the main salivary glands and for any other zone of interest. From these curves it is then possible to define quantified parameters, reproducible and expressing functional activity. This procedure, safe and painless, seems to suit the patients who lie still without complaint for 60 minutes, 45 minutes for the concentration study and 15 minutes for the post-stimulus excretion study. The dynamic radioisotopic examination of the salivary glands, by the comparison of concentration and excretion images and by the study of parameters, separately and as a whole, is thus a useful complement to other paraclinical examinations and contributes essential information in most salivary diseases

  1. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  2. Determination of the radiological impact of radioisotope waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AECB commissioned this study to determine the doses to individuals working in municipal waste management systems and to populations of cities where small amounts of radioisotopes are disposed of through the municipal waste management systems. To carry out this study, it was necessary to select a city having: (1) a population size representative of many cities in Canada, (2) many different types of radioisotope users, (3) all the possible municipal waste management systems, (4) a well established data base on its waste management systems. Using this criteria, the Hamilton-Burlington area surrounding Hamilton Harbour was selected. The pathways and dosimetry models were put into a computer spread sheet, to give the model flexibility so that it could be easily modified to model other cities. The model was developed using conservative assumptions and conservative estimates for some parameter values so that the doses calculated by the model are over estimates. Within the occupational critical group, the maximum doses were calculated for the Hamilton sewage treatment plant sludge worker at 1.4E-6 Sv/a. If this individual were also a member of the critical group in the general population the maximum dose would be 2.2E-6 Sv/a. Individual doses to the critical group within the general population were calculated as 7.7E-7 Sv/a for adults and 6.8E-8 Sv/a for infants. These compare to AECB regulatory limits of 5.0E-2 Sv/a per person for atomic radiation workers and 5.0E-3 Sv/a per person for the general public. The collective population dose for the study area was 1.37E-1 person-Sv/a for the 525,000 population

  3. Spray drying of spherical Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C powders using polyvinyl pyrrolidone as binder and carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Research Center for New Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 110049 (China); Shanghai Nanotechnology Promotion Center, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Qian; Cao, Chunhui [Research Center for New Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 110049 (China); Han, Xuewu [Research Center for New Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: zjskycn@163.com [Research Center for New Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie, Xiaohua, E-mail: xiaohuaxie@126.com [Research Center for New Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xia, Baojia [Research Center for New Energy Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 110049 (China)

    2015-02-05

    Highlights: • The spherical Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C granules were prepared by spray drying. • Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as binder and carbon source. • Tap density and spherical structure increase with the increase of PVP content. • Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C granules exhibits better rate capability and excellent cyclability. - Abstract: Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) was used as binder and carbon source to synthesize stable and spherical Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/C granules by spray drying. The effects of PVP content and atmospheres on the properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} were investigated. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrochemical tests, respectively. The results indicate that the average particle size, tap density and degree of spherical structure increase accordingly to the increase of PVP content. However, the large secondary particle would deteriorate the rate capacity at high current density. The carbon coating could significantly improve the rate capacity, which is attributed to the smaller primary particle and higher electrical conductivity.

  4. Investigation of Effects of Neutron Irradiation on Tantalum Alloys for Radioisotope Power System Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. A number of tantalum alloys have been developed over the years to increase high-temperature strength (Ta-10%W) and to reduce creep strain (T-111). These tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive the increasing high pressures of the RTG's operating environment resulting from the alpha decay of the 238-plutonium dioxide fuel. However, 238-plutonium is also a powerful neutron source. Therefore, the RTG operating environment produces large amounts of 3-helium and neutron displacement damage over the 30 year life of the RTG. The literature to date shows that there has been very little work focused on the mechanical properties of irradiated tantalum and tantalum alloys and none at the fluence levels associated with a RTG operating environment. The minimum, reactor related, work that has been reported shows that these alloys tend to follow trends seen in the behavior of other BCC alloys under irradiation. An understanding of these mechanisms is important for the confident extrapolation of mechanical-property trends to the higher doses and gas levels corresponding to actual service lifetimes. When comparing the radiation effects between samples of Ta-10%W and T-111 (Ta-8%W-2%Hf) subjected to identical neutron fluences and environmental conditions at temperatures <0.3Tm (∼700 deg. C), evidence suggests the possibility that T-111 will exhibit higher levels of internal damage accumulation and degradation of mechanical properties compared to Ta-10%W

  5. Investigation of Effects of Neutron Irradiation on Tantalum Alloys for Radioisotope Power System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Kramer, Daniel P.; Talnagi, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Tantalum alloys have been used by the U.S. Department of Energy as structural alloys for space nuclear power systems such as Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) since the 1960s. Tantalum alloys are attractive for high temperature structural applications due to their high melting point, excellent formability, good thermal conductivity, good ductility (even at low temperatures), corrosion resistance, and weldability. A number of tantalum alloys have been developed over the years to increase high-temperature strength (Ta-10%W) and to reduce creep strain (T-111). These tantalum alloys have demonstrated sufficient high-temperature toughness to survive the increasing high pressures of the RTG's operating environment resulting from the alpha decay of the 238-plutonium dioxide fuel. However, 238-plutonium is also a powerful neutron source. Therefore, the RTG operating environment produces large amounts of 3-helium and neutron displacement damage over the 30 year life of the RTG. The literature to date shows that there has been very little work focused on the mechanical properties of irradiated tantalum and tantalum alloys and none at the fluence levels associated with a RTG operating environment. The minimum, reactor related, work that has been reported shows that these alloys tend to follow trends seen in the behavior of other BCC alloys under irradiation. An understanding of these mechanisms is important for the confident extrapolation of mechanical-property trends to the higher doses and gas levels corresponding to actual service lifetimes. When comparing the radiation effects between samples of Ta-10%W and T-111 (Ta-8%W-2%Hf) subjected to identical neutron fluences and environmental conditions at temperatures <0.3Tm (˜700 °C), evidence suggests the possibility that T-111 will exhibit higher levels of internal damage accumulation and degradation of mechanical properties compared to Ta-10%W.

  6. Performance analysis of coated 238PuO2 fuel particles compact for radioisotope heater units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    A fuel form consisting of coated plutonia fuel particles dispersed in a graphite matrix is being investigated for use in Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs). The fuel particles consist of a 238PuO2 kernel (300-1200 μm in diameter), a 5-μm PyC inner coating and a ZrC outer coating (>=10 μm). The latter, an extremely strong material at high temperatures, serves as a pressure vessel for maintaining the integrity of the fuel particle and containing the helium generated by radioactive decay. Parametric analyses compared the thermal powers of the coated particle fuel compact (CPFC) RHU and LWRHU. Both utilize Fine-Weave Pierced Fabric (FWPF) aeroshell and PyC insulation sleeves. During normal operation, the fuel temperature is ~800 K, but could reach as much as 1723 K during an accidental re-entry heating. Assuming full helium release, a single-size particle (500 μm) fuel compact would maintain its integrity at a temperature of 1723 K, after 10 years storage time before launch. When replacing the LWRHU fuel pellet, Pt-alloy clad and inner PyC insulation sleeve with CPFC, the calculated thermal power of the CPFC-RHU is 1.5, 2.3 and 2.4 times that of LWRHU, for 100%, 10%, and 5% helium release, respectively, with little change in total mass. A fuel compact using binary-size particles (300 and 1200 μm diameters) would deliver 15% more thermal power. A one-dimensional, transient thermal analysis of the CPFC-RHU showed that during accidental re-entry the maximum fuel temperature in the CPFC would be 1734 K. .

  7. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, J.C.G.G.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Campos, D.; Nogueira, P.R.; Damatto, S.R.; Pecequilo, B.R.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were {sup 131}I, {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m{sup 3} ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to {sup 125}I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y{sup -1} , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y{sup -1} for workers. (author)

  8. Assessment of the radiological control at the IPEN radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the 2013 annual radiological control results in the radiopharmaceuticals areas of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN/SP, Brazil and the environmental radiological impact, resulting from the practices there performed. The current evaluation was performed through the analysis of the results obtained from occupational and environmental monitoring with air samplers and TL dosimeters. All monitoring results were compared with the limits established by national standards. The radionuclides detected by air sampling (in activated carbon cartridges and filter paper) at the workplace during radioisotope production were 131I, 99mTc and 99Mo, with activities concentrations values below the annual limits values. For the radioactive gaseous releases (Bq/m3 ), the activities concentrations also remained below the maximum admissible values, excepting to 125I release due to an unusual event occurred in a researcher laboratory, but the radiological impact to environmental was no significant. The occupational monitoring assessment was confirmed by the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results with air samplers and TL dosimeters. The mean annual background radiation at IPEN in 2013, according to the Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program results was 1.06 mSv. y-1 , below the ICRP 103 recommended limit of 20 mSv.y-1 for workers. (author)

  9. Natural zeolites and clays - promising media for selective radioisotope partition/immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural zeolites, a naturally occurring crystalline alumino silicate material have immense potential for selective radioisotope partition/immobilization. Unlike activated carbons and silica gel, these zeolites have uniform pore sizes (3A to 10A) which are uniquely determined by the unit structure of the crystal. This paper will discuss the application of a few promising natural zeolites (e.g., erionite, chabazite, clinoptilolite, phillipsite, and large portmordenite) for effective partition/immobilization of Cs-137 and Sr-90 isotopes. It will also discuss the application of a few clay materials (e.g., conasauga shale, cattaraugus shale) for the same isotope immobilization. The paper will also discuss that the adsorption of the isotopes like Cs-137 and Sr-90 on the zeolite/clay surface is generally governed by Freundlich adsorption isotherms C/sub R/ = α C/sub W//sup β/ where C/sub R/ = Concentration of the isotope on the adsorbed phase (g/g) C/sub W/ = Concentration of the isotope in the aqueous phase (g/ml) α, β = constants for a particular isotope and adsorption media and generally obtained by the linear regression fit of the log-log plot. The overall partitioning/immobilization process is a complex physico chemical phenomenon depending upon the equilibrium contact time, zeolite/clay type, sorbent ratio, reversibility/irreversibility of the reaction, concentration of the radionuclides, presence of other competing ions in the transport phase and some physical parameters (e.g., temperature, pressure, etc.). 1 figure

  10. Optimization of physical and technical parameters relevant to the production and separation of 123 I radioisotope using low energy cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes of iodine are very frequently used in nuclear medicine. They have been used as scanning agents or for radiotherapy in liver, pancreas, kidneys and thyroid tumors. 131I (T1/2 = 8.03 d) and 125I (T1/2 59.4 d) are extensively used, the former in therapy and the latter for in-vitro testes. In recent years, 124I (T1/2 = 4.18 d) and 120I (T1/2 = 81 min) found some applications in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). 123I (T1/2 =13.2 h) is utilized in diagnostic studies using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT). One of the suitable reactions for production of 123I from Te targets using low energy cyclotrons is the 123Te(p,n)123I reaction. In this work the excitation functions for production of iodine radioisotopes including 123I have been measured using natTe. The cross section values of natTe(p,x n)120g,121,123,124,125,126,128,130I reactions have been determined from their respective threshold energy up to 14.5 MeV. The conventional stacked-foil technique was used and the samples were prepared by an electrodeposition method. In order to validate the data, nuclear model calculations were performed using the code ALICE-IPPE which is based on the preequilibrium-evaporation model. All of the measured excitation curves were compared with those obtained by nuclear model calculation as well as the available data in the literature. From the experimental results the theoretical yields for all of the investigated radionuclides were calculated and plotted as a function of proton energy. The production yield and impurity levels were estimated in the recommended energy ranges. The thick target yields have been determined theoretically from the excitation function curves and measured experimentally by irradiated thick Te target and the results were compared.For production of 123I radionuclide, TeO2 target was prepared on platinum substrate for irradiation. Dry distillation method was used in the separation process. The parameters affecting of the target

  11. Rare Semileptonic Charm Decays

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of charm mesons decaying semileptonically via Flavor Changing Neutral Currents is presented. We calculate the Wilson coefficients within the Standard Model. A window in the decay distribution, where physics beyond the Standard Model could be measured is identified. Exemplary, we study effects of leptoquark models.

  12. Characterization of front-end electronics for CZT based handheld radioisotope identifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombigit, L., E-mail: lojius@nm.gov.my [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ibrahim, Maslina Mohd; Yussup, Nolida; Yazid, Khairiah; Jaafar, Zainudin

    2016-01-22

    A radioisotope identifier device based on large volume Co-planar grid CZT detector is current under development at Malaysian Nuclear Agency. This device is planned to be used for in-situ identification of radioisotopes based on their unique energies. This work reports on electronics testing performed on the front-end electronics (FEE) analog section comprising charge sensitive preamplifier-pulse shaping amplifier chain. This test involves measurement of charge sensitivity, pulse parameters and electronics noise. This report also present some preliminary results on the spectral measurement obtained from gamma emitting radioisotopes.

  13. An in-cell alpha detection system for radioisotope component assembly operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remotely operated alpha detection system is being developed for use at the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. It will be used in hot cells being constructed to assemble components of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators for space power applications. The in-cell detection equipment will survey radiological swipe samples to determine smearable surface contamination levels on radioisotope fuel, fueled components, and hot-cell work areas. This system is potentially adaptable to other hot cell and glovebox applications where radiation dose rates and contamination levels are expected to be low. 2 figs

  14. Present status and future trends of industrial radioisotopes application in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes continue to play an important role in better management of natural resources, industrial growth and environmental preservation. The success of radioisotope applications is due primarily to the ability, conferred by the unique properties of radioactive materials, to collect data, where conventional methods fail or become uneconomical. These are prompt, on-line, in-situ and do not disturb the main industrial process in any way. In Sudan, the application of these nuclear techniques has considerable economic and environmental impact. This paper casts light on the present application of radioisotopes and future trends in the country.(Author)

  15. SU-E-CAMPUS-I-03: Dosimetric Comparison of the Hypoxia Agent Iodoazomycin Arabinoside (IAZA) Labeled with the Radioisotopes I-123, I-131 and I-124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, H-S [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Dept. of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Stypinski, D [Celerion Inc., Lincoln, NE (United States); Mcquarrie, S; Kumar, P; Mercer, J; McEwan, S [Dept. of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wiebe, L [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To compare the radiation dose to normal organs from the radio-iodinated, hypoxia-binding radiosensitizer iodoazomycin arabinoside (IAZA) for three different isotopes of iodine. Methods: Dosimety studies with normal volunteers had been carried out with [{sup 123}I]IAZA, a drug binding selectively to hypoxic sites. Two other isotopes of iodine, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, offer the opportunity to use IAZA as an agent for radioisotope therapy and as an imaging tracer for Positron Emission Tomography. Radioisotope dosimetry for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I was performed by first deriving from the [{sup 123}I]IAZA studies biological uptake and excretion data. The cumulated activities for {sup 131}I or {sup 124}I where obtained by including their half-lives when integrating the biological data and then extrapolating to infinite time points considering a) physical decay only or b) physical and biological excretion. Doses were calculated using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema (OLINDA1.1 code, Vanderbilt 2007). Results: Compared to {sup 123}I, organ doses were elevated on average by a factor 6 and 9 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if both physical decay and biological excretion were modeled. If only physical decay is considered, doses increase by a factor 18 ({sup 131}I) and 19 ({sup 124}I). Highest organ doses were observed in intestinal walls, urinary bladder and thyroid. Effective doses increased by a factor 11 and 14 for {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I, respectively, if biological and physical decay are present. Purely physical decay yields a 23-fold increase over {sup 123}I for both, {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I. Conclusion: Owing to the significant dose increase, caused by their longer half life and the approximately 10 times larger electronic dose deposited in tissue per nuclear decay, normal tissue doses of IAZA labeled with {sup 131}I and {sup 124}I need to be carefully considered when designing imaging and therapy protocols for clinical

  16. Decay of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pionic and non-mesonic decays of hypernuclei are discussed. In the first part, various decay processes which could be useful to obtain information of hypernuclear structure are discussed. The experimental data concerning the pionic and non-mesonic decays are discussed in the second part. As the experimental data, there are only few lifetime data and some crude data on the non-mesonic to π decay ratio. In the third and the fourth parts, some theoretical analyses are made on the pionic and the nonmesonic decays. DDHF calculation was performed for Λ and N systems by using Skyrme type ΛN and NN effective interactions. A suppression factor of the order of 10-3 for A nearly equal 100 was obtained. (Aoki, K.)

  17. Cascaded Thermoelectric Conversion-Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (CTC-ARPSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Saber, Hamed H.

    2004-02-01

    Conceptual designs of Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) with Cascaded Thermoelectric Converters (CTCs) are developed and optimized for maximum efficiency operation for End-Of Mission (EOM) electrical power of at least 100 We. These power systems each employs four General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) bricks generating 1000 Wth at Beginning-of-Life (BOL) and 32 Cascaded Thermoelectric Modules (CTMs). Each CTM consists of a top and a bottom array of thermoelectric unicouples, which are thermally, but not electrically, coupled. The top and bottom arrays of the CTMs are connected electrically in series in two parallel strings with the same nominal voltage of > 28 VDC. The SiGe unicouples in the top array of the CTMs are optimized for nominal hot shoe temperature of 1273 K and constant cold shoe temperature of either 780 K or 980 K, depending on the thermoelectric materials of the unicouples in the bottom array. For a SiGe cold junction temperature of 780 K, the unicouples in the bottom array have p-legs of TAGS-85 and n-legs of 2N-PbTe and operate at constant hot junction temperature of 765 K and nominal cold junction temperature of 476.4 K. When the SiGe cold junction temperature is 980 K, the unicouples in the bottom arrays of CTMs have p-legs of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 or CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Zn4Sb3, segments and n-legs of CoSb3 and operate at constant hot junction temperature of 965 K and nominal cold junction temperatures of 446.5 K or 493.5 K, respectively. The CTC-ARPSs have a nominal efficiency of 10.82% - 10.85% and generate BOL power of 108 We. This system efficiency is ~ 80% higher than that of State-of-the-Art (SOA) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), requiring 7 GHPS bricks and generating 105 We at BOL. The CTC-ARPSs have specific powers of 8.2 We/kg to 8.8 We/kg, which are 71% to 83% higher, respectively, than that of the SOA-RTGs, and use ~ 43% less 238PuO2 fuel.

  18. Measurement of fragment production DDX of 72 and 144 MeV 12C beam induced reaction on carbon using Bragg Curve Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double differential cross section (DDX) data of fragment production for 72 (6 MeV/nucleon) and 144 MeV (12 MeV/nucleon) 12C beam induced reaction on carbon were measured using a Bragg Curve Counter (BCC). The DDX data were obtained for fragments of He, Li, Be, B, C, N and O at 30 degree emission angle. Theoretical calculation using PHITS code with QMD+GEM model represents the DDX well except for components from reactions of direct process and α particle clustering process. (author)

  19. Acetohydroxy acid synthase I, a required enzyme for isoleucine and valine biosynthesis in Escherichia coli K-12 during growth on acetate as the sole carbon source.

    OpenAIRE

    Dailey, F E; Cronan, J E

    1986-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 has two acetohydroxy acid synthase (AHAS) isozymes (AHAS I and AHAS III). Both of these isozymes catalyze the synthesis of alpha-aceto-alpha-hydroxybutyrate and alpha-acetolactate, which are key intermediates of the isoleucine-valine biosynthetic pathway. Strains lacking either isozyme but not both activities have been previously shown to grow well in minimal media in the absence of isoleucine and valine on any of several commonly used carbon sources (e.g., glucose or su...

  20. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas. PMID:27650254

  1. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-09-21

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas.

  2. A novel method based on selective laser sintering for preparing high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy ternary composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Yan, Chunze; Shi, Yunsong; Wen, Shifeng; Liu, Jie; Wei, Qingsong; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel method based on selective laser sintering (SLS) process is proposed for the first time to prepare complex and high-performance carbon fibres/polyamide12/epoxy (CF/PA12/EP) ternary composites. The procedures are briefly described as follows: prepare polyamide12 (PA12) coated carbon fibre (CF) composite powder; build porous green parts by SLS; infiltrate the green parts with high-performance thermosetting epoxy (EP) resin; and finally cure the resin at high temperature. The obtained composites are a ternary composite system consisting of the matrix of novolac EP resin, the reinforcement of CFs and the transition thin layer of PA12 with a thickness of 595 nm. The SEM images and micro-CT analysis prove that the ternary system is a three-dimensional co-continuous structure and the reinforcement of CFs are well dispersed in the matrix of EP with the volume fraction of 31%. Mechanical tests show that the composites fabricated by this method yield an ultimate tensile strength of 101.03 MPa and a flexural strength of 153.43 MPa, which are higher than those of most of the previously reported SLS materials. Therefore, the process proposed in this paper shows great potential for manufacturing complex, lightweight and high-performance CF reinforced composite components in aerospace, automotive industries and other areas. PMID:27650254

  3. Cryogenic explosion environment modeling and testing of space shuttle and light-weight radioisotope heater unit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the risk to the world's populace in the event of a Space Shuttle accident when radioisotope-containing heat sources are on board, testing of that system must be performed to determine release point, environments required, and the size distribution of the released fuel. To evaluate the performance of the Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) (101 of these 1-W items are placed on the Galileo spacecraft which will be launched from the Space Shuttle), some high-velocity impact and flyer plate testing was carried out. The results showed that a bare urania-fueled LWRHU clad (approximately 1-mm thick platinum-30 wt % rhodium alloy) will withstand 1100 m/s flyer plate (3.5-mm thick aluminum) impacts and 330 m/s impacts upon the Space Shuttle floor (approximately 12-mm thick aluminum) without rupture or fuel release. Velocities in the order of 600 m/s on a steel surface will cause clad failure with fuel release. The fuel breakup patterns were characterized as to quantity in a specific size range. These data were employed in the formal Safety Analysis Report for the LWRHU to support the planned 1986 Galileo launch. 19 figs

  4. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Search for W-prime boson decaying to electron-neutrino pairs in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

    2006-11-01

    The authors present the results of a search for W{prime} boson decaying to electron-neutrino pairs in p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using a data sample corresponding to 205 pb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. They observe no evidence for this decay mode and set limits on the production cross section times branching fraction, assuming the neutrinos from W{prime} boson decays to be light. If they assume the manifest left-right symmetric model, they exclude a W{prime} boson with mass less than 788 GeV/c{sup 2} at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Search for W-prime boson decaying to electron-neutrino pairs in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the results of a search for W(prime) boson decaying to electron-neutrino pairs in p(bar p) collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using a data sample corresponding to 205 pb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab. They observe no evidence for this decay mode and set limits on the production cross section times branching fraction, assuming the neutrinos from W(prime) boson decays to be light. If they assume the manifest left-right symmetric model, they exclude a W(prime) boson with mass less than 788 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level

  7. Search for Resonant Pair Production of long-lived particles decaying to b anti-b in p anti-p collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-06-01

    We report on a first search for production of Higgs bosons decaying into neutral long-lived particles (NLLP) which each decay to a b{bar b} pair, using 3.6 fb{sup -1} of data recorded with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We search for pairs of displaced vertices in the tracking detector at radii in the range 1.6-20 cm from the beam axis. No significant excess is observed above background, and upper limits are set on the production rate in a hidden-valley benchmark model for a range of Higgs boson masses and NLLP masses and lifetimes.

  8. Exotic decay in cerium isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2002-04-01

    Half life for the emission of exotic clusters like 8Be, 12C, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg and 28Si are computed taking Coulomb and proximity potentials as interacting barrier and many of these are found well within the present upper limit of measurement. These results lie very close to those values reported by Shanmugam et al using their cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model (CYEM). It is found that 12C and 16O emissions from 116Ce and 16O from 118Ce are most favorable for measurement (1/2 < 1010 s). Lowest half life time for 16O emission from 116Ce stress the role of doubly magic 100Sn daughter in exotic decay. Geiger–Nuttall plots were studied for different clusters and are found to be linear. Inclusion of proximity potential will not produce much deviation to linear nature of Geiger–Nuttall plots. It is observed that neutron excess in the parent nuclei slow down the exotic decay process. These findings support the earlier observations of Gupta and collaborators using their preformed cluster model (PCM).

  9. Radioisotope techniques for problem solving in the offshore oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope technology has been used for almost half a century by the oil and gas industry to solve problems and to help optimize process operations. The use of radioactive isotopes to investigate the effectiveness of well stimulation procedures and to measure the sweep-out patterns of oil and gas in secondary recovery process is well known. The applications of radioisotopes to study features of plant and process operation has been less widely reported though the economic benefits deriving from such applications are very great. Nevertheless, there has been continuous development in the range of application and in the design of equipment to facilitate the use of the technology at remote environments such as an oil or gas platform. Some indication of the current usage of radioisotope techniques may be obtained from examination of Table I, which lists projects carried out in the UK's North Sea fields by ICI Tracerco, which is the world's largest radioisotope applications service group

  10. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP): A near-term approach to nuclear propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2010-02-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  11. Long Life 600W Hall Thruster System for Radioisotope Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) offers the prospect for a variety of new science missions by enabling use of Hall Effect propulsion in the outer solar...

  12. Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): A Near-Term Approach to Nuclear Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Manzella, David H.; Kamhawi, Hani; Kremic, Tibor; Oleson, Steven R.; Dankanich, John W.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    2009-01-01

    Studies over the last decade have shown radioisotope-based nuclear electric propulsion to be enhancing and, in some cases, enabling for many potential robotic science missions. Also known as radioisotope electric propulsion (REP), the technology offers the performance advantages of traditional reactor-powered electric propulsion (i.e., high specific impulse propulsion at large distances from the Sun), but with much smaller, affordable spacecraft. Future use of REP requires development of radioisotope power sources with system specific powers well above that of current systems. The US Department of Energy and NASA have developed an advanced Stirling radioisotope generator (ASRG) engineering unit, which was subjected to rigorous flight qualification-level tests in 2008, and began extended lifetime testing later that year. This advancement, along with recent work on small ion thrusters and life extension technology for Hall thrusters, could enable missions using REP sometime during the next decade.

  13. Working environment measurement of the radioisotope facilities at Kumamoto University and examination of problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of regular working environment measurements in our radioisotope facilities were about background levels. However, most of these are the data measured when unsealed radioisotopes were not used. High concentrations of radioisotopes were detected when measured during the time when unsealed 35S or 125I was used. These results were estimated far under the regulation levels. Thus, safety working environments are sufficiently guaranteed by suitable estimation and suitable handling under the strict regulation. Therefore, regulation would be relaxed in the field of education and research in such ways as estimation by calculation in place of the actual measurements, decrease of the number of monthly measurements, and measurements exemption for nonvolatile or low levels of isotopes. Working environment measurements would be still effective in cases where volatile radioisotopes are used in large quantities. They may provide a useful index if improvement of safe handling technique or equipments is required. (author)

  14. Industrial Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology and Agency's role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applications of radioisotopes and radiation technology are contributing significantly in many areas of science and technology, industry and environment, towards sustainable development, improving the quality of life and cleaner and safer national industries. There are three major classes impacting industrial scale operations, namely, (a) radiation processing/treatment, (b) radiotracer and sealed source techniques to monitor industrial processes/columns/vessels and (c) industrial gamma radiography and tomography. Radiation processing applying gamma sources and electron accelerators for material treatment/modification is an established technology. There are over 160 gamma industrial irradiators and 1300 industrial electron accelerators in operation worldwide. Development of new materials, especially for health care and environment protection, and advanced products (for electronics, solar energy systems, biotechnology etc) are the main objectives of R and D activity in radiation processing technology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Agency) is involved in supporting both the development and transfer of radiation technology. Thanks to Agency's efforts, advanced radiation processing centres have been established in many Member States (MS), e.g. Malaysia, Egypt, Iran, Poland, Brazil, Hungary. Hydrogel dressing for wounds, radiation vulcanised latex, degraded natural polymer are examples of useful product outcomes. Demonstration of effective treatment of flue gas in pilot plant as well as industrial scale and industrial wastewater in pilot plant scale has shown promise for tackling industrial emissions/effluents using electron beam machines. Industrial radiotracer and gamma sealed source techniques are largely used for analyzing industrial process systems. Initially used as trouble-shooting measures, they play a vital role in process parameter optimization, improved productivity, on-line monitoring and could lead to even pre-commissioning benchmarking. Gamma

  15. Organization of a radioisotope based molecular biology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has revolutionized the application of molecular techniques to medicine. Together with other molecular biology techniques it is being increasingly applied to human health for identifying prognostic markers and drug resistant profiles, developing diagnostic tests and genotyping systems and for treatment follow-up of certain diseases in developed countries. Developing Member States have expressed their need to also benefit from the dissemination of molecular advances. The use of radioisotopes, as a step in the detection process or for increased sensitivity and specificity is well established, making it ideally suitable for technology transfer. Many molecular based projects using isotopes for detecting and studying micro organisms, hereditary and neoplastic diseases are received for approval every year. In keeping with the IAEA's programme, several training activities and seminars have been organized to enhance the capabilities of developing Member States to employ in vitro nuclear medicine technologies for managing their important health problems and for undertaking related basic and clinical research. The background material for this publication was collected at training activities and from feedback received from participants at research and coordination meetings. In addition, a consultants' meeting was held in June 2004 to compile the first draft of this report. Previous IAEA TECDOCS, namely IAEA-TECDOC-748 and IAEA-TECDOC-1001, focused on molecular techniques and their application to medicine while the present publication provides information on organization of the laboratory, quality assurance and radio-safety. The technology has specific requirements of the way the laboratory is organized (e.g. for avoiding contamination and false positives in PCR) and of quality assurance in order to provide accurate information to decision makers. In addition while users of the technology accept the scientific rationale of using radio-isotopes

  16. RADIOISOTOPE IDENTIFICATION OF SHIELDED AND MASKED SNM RDD MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Sonar and speech techniques have been investigated to improve functionality and enable handheld and other man-portable, mobile, and portal systems to positively detect and identify illicit nuclear materials, with minimal data and with minimal false positives and false negatives. RadSonar isotope detection and identification is an algorithm development project funded by NA-22 and employing the resources of Savannah River National Laboratory and three University Laboratories (JHU-APL, UT-ARL, and UW-APL). Algorithms have been developed that improve the probability of detection and decrease the number of false positives and negatives. Two algorithms have been developed and tested. The first algorithm uses support vector machine (SVM) classifiers to determine the most prevalent nuclide(s) in a spectrum. It then uses a constrained weighted least squares fit to estimate and remove the contribution of these nuclide(s) to the spectrum, iterating classification and fitting until there is nothing of significance left. If any Special Nuclear Materials (SNMs) were detected in this process, a second tier of more stringent classifiers are used to make the final SNM alert decision. The second algorithm is looking at identifying existing feature sets that would be relevant in the radioisotope identification context. The underlying philosophy here is to identify parallels between the physics and/or the structures present in the data for the two applications (speech analysis and gamma spectroscopy). The expectation is that similar approaches may work in both cases. The mel-frequency cepstral representation of spectra is widely used in speech, particularly for two reasons: approximation of the response of the human ear, and simplicity of channel effect separation (in this context, a 'channel' is a method of signal transport that affects the signal, examples being vocal tract shape, room echoes, and microphone response). Measured and simulated gamma-ray spectra from a hand

  17. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New measurements of the Σ+ and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K-p → Yπ where Y = Σ+ or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ+ → pγ to Σ+ → pπ0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ0. The photons from weak radiative decays and from π0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  18. Axions from wall decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  19. Rare decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lafferty, George

    2015-01-01

    We review recent results from the LHCb experiment on studies of particle decays that are forbidden or rare in the Standard Model. The studies include searches for lepton flavour violating decays of the $\\tau$ lepton and the $B$ and $D$ mesons, and of $B$ and $D$ meson decays that would be mediated by Majorana neutrinos. Results are also presented for the rare processes $B_s \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$ and $B^0 \\to \\mu^+\\mu^-$, $D^0 \\to \\pi^+\\pi^-\\mu^+\\mu^-$, $b \\to s\\gamma$ transitions, and $B \\to K^{(*)}\\mu^+\\mu^-$.

  20. Production of radioisotopes by 1.5 m cyclotron and their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes characterized by nuclear property and uses can be produced on the accelerator, especially those playing an important role in scientific researches and biomedical uses. The status of Radioisotopes produced by 1.5 m cyclotron and their applications in our institute are summarized in this paper. The details of preparation and the results of use for radioactive sources, radiochemicals, radiopharmaceuticals of 57Co, 109Cd, 68Ge- 68Ga, and 167Tm are given respectively. (author)