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Sample records for carbohydrates in plants

  1. Carbohydrate Microarrays in Plant Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Pedersen, H.L.; Vidal-Melgosa, S.

    2012-01-01

    industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high......-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools...... for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities....

  2. Carbohydrate microarrays in plant science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangel, Jonatan U; Pedersen, Henriette L; Vidal-Melgosa, Silvia; Ahl, Louise I; Salmean, Armando Asuncion; Egelund, Jack; Rydahl, Maja Gro; Clausen, Mads H; Willats, William G T

    2012-01-01

    Almost all plant cells are surrounded by glycan-rich cell walls, which form much of the plant body and collectively are the largest source of biomass on earth. Plants use polysaccharides for support, defense, signaling, cell adhesion, and as energy storage, and many plant glycans are also important industrially and nutritionally. Understanding the biological roles of plant glycans and the effective exploitation of their useful properties requires a detailed understanding of their structures, occurrence, and molecular interactions. Microarray technology has revolutionized the massively high-throughput analysis of nucleotides, proteins, and increasingly carbohydrates. Using microarrays, the abundance of and interactions between hundreds and thousands of molecules can be assessed simultaneously using very small amounts of analytes. Here we show that carbohydrate microarrays are multifunctional tools for plant research and can be used to map glycan populations across large numbers of samples to screen antibodies, carbohydrate binding proteins, and carbohydrate binding modules and to investigate enzyme activities.

  3. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quentin, Audrey G.; Pinkard, Elizabeth A.; Ryan, Michael G.; Tissue, David T.; Baggett, Scott L.; Adams, Henry D.; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M.; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R.L.; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K.; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S.; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W.; Dickman, Turin L.; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S.; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M.; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E.; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G.; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G.; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Joanis, Brigitte Saint; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A.; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R.; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A.; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K.; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent lite

  4. Impeded Carbohydrate Metabolism in Rice Plants under Submergence Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malay Kumar ADAK; Nirmalya GHOSH; Dilip Kumar DASGUPTA; Sudha GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    The detrimental effects of submergence on physiological performances of some rice varieties with special references to carbohydrate metabolisms and their allied enzymes during post-flowering stages have been documented and clarified in the present investigation.It was found that photosynthetic rate and concomitant translocation of sugars into the panicles were both related to the yield.The detrimental effects of the complete submergence were recorded in generation of sucrose,starch,sucrose phosphate synthase and phosphorylase activity in the developing panicles of the plants as compared to those under normal or control (i.e.non-submerged) condition.The accumulation of starch was significantly lower in plants under submergence and that was correlated with ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase activity.Photosynthetic rate was most affected under submergence in varying days of post-flowering and was also related to the down regulation of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.However,under normal or control condition,there recorded a steady maintenance of photosynthetic rate at the post-flowering stages and significantly higher values of Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase activity.Still,photosynthetic rate of the plants under both control and submerged conditions had hardly any significant correlation with sugar accumulation and other enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism like invertase with grain yield.Finally,plants under submergence suffered significant loss of yield by poor grain filling which was related to impeded carbohydrate metabolism in the tissues.It is evident that loss of yield under submergence is attributed both by lower sink size or sink capacity (number of panicles,in this case) as well as subdued carbohydrate metabolism in plants and its subsequent partitioning into the grains.

  5. Water and carbohydrate content at leafs of plants used in medicine during vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhivetev M.A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increase of carbohydrate content with cryoprotective function to the end of vegetation period was shown. The accumulation of carbohydrates in plants on Lake Baikal shores region was greater than it in Irkutsk region.

  6. Carbohydrates in plant immunity and plant protection: roles and potential application as foliar sprays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eTrouvelot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest is devoted to carbohydrates for their roles in plant immunity. Some of them are elicitors of plant defenses whereas other ones act as signaling molecules in a manner similar to phytohormones. This review first describes the main classes of carbohydrates associated to plant immunity, their role and mode of action. More precisely, the state of the art about perception of PAMP, MAMP and DAMP type oligosaccharides is presented and examples of induced defense events are provided. A particular attention is paid to the structure / activity relationships of these compounds. The role of sugars as signaling molecules, especially in plant microbe interactions, is also presented. Secondly, the potentialities and limits of foliar sprays of carbohydrates to stimulate plant immunity for crop protection against diseases are discussed, with focus on the roles of the leaf cuticle and phyllosphere microflora.

  7. Non-structural carbohydrates in woody plants compared among laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Audrey G; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Ryan, Michael G; Tissue, David T; Baggett, L Scott; Adams, Henry D; Maillard, Pascale; Marchand, Jacqueline; Landhäusser, Simon M; Lacointe, André; Gibon, Yves; Anderegg, William R L; Asao, Shinichi; Atkin, Owen K; Bonhomme, Marc; Claye, Caroline; Chow, Pak S; Clément-Vidal, Anne; Davies, Noel W; Dickman, L Turin; Dumbur, Rita; Ellsworth, David S; Falk, Kristen; Galiano, Lucía; Grünzweig, José M; Hartmann, Henrik; Hoch, Günter; Hood, Sharon; Jones, Joanna E; Koike, Takayoshi; Kuhlmann, Iris; Lloret, Francisco; Maestro, Melchor; Mansfield, Shawn D; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Maucourt, Mickael; McDowell, Nathan G; Moing, Annick; Muller, Bertrand; Nebauer, Sergio G; Niinemets, Ülo; Palacio, Sara; Piper, Frida; Raveh, Eran; Richter, Andreas; Rolland, Gaëlle; Rosas, Teresa; Saint Joanis, Brigitte; Sala, Anna; Smith, Renee A; Sterck, Frank; Stinziano, Joseph R; Tobias, Mari; Unda, Faride; Watanabe, Makoto; Way, Danielle A; Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Wild, Birgit; Wiley, Erin; Woodruff, David R

    2015-11-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in plant tissue are frequently quantified to make inferences about plant responses to environmental conditions. Laboratories publishing estimates of NSC of woody plants use many different methods to evaluate NSC. We asked whether NSC estimates in the recent literature could be quantitatively compared among studies. We also asked whether any differences among laboratories were related to the extraction and quantification methods used to determine starch and sugar concentrations. These questions were addressed by sending sub-samples collected from five woody plant tissues, which varied in NSC content and chemical composition, to 29 laboratories. Each laboratory analyzed the samples with their laboratory-specific protocols, based on recent publications, to determine concentrations of soluble sugars, starch and their sum, total NSC. Laboratory estimates differed substantially for all samples. For example, estimates for Eucalyptus globulus leaves (EGL) varied from 23 to 116 (mean = 56) mg g(-1) for soluble sugars, 6-533 (mean = 94) mg g(-1) for starch and 53-649 (mean = 153) mg g(-1) for total NSC. Mixed model analysis of variance showed that much of the variability among laboratories was unrelated to the categories we used for extraction and quantification methods (method category R(2) = 0.05-0.12 for soluble sugars, 0.10-0.33 for starch and 0.01-0.09 for total NSC). For EGL, the difference between the highest and lowest least squares means for categories in the mixed model analysis was 33 mg g(-1) for total NSC, compared with the range of laboratory estimates of 596 mg g(-1). Laboratories were reasonably consistent in their ranks of estimates among tissues for starch (r = 0.41-0.91), but less so for total NSC (r = 0.45-0.84) and soluble sugars (r = 0.11-0.83). Our results show that NSC estimates for woody plant tissues cannot be compared among laboratories. The relative changes in NSC between treatments measured within a laboratory

  8. Enzymes and Metabolites in Carbohydrate Metabolism of Desiccation Tolerant Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwei Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resurrection plants can tolerate extreme water loss. Substantial sugar accumulation is a phenomenon in resurrection plants during dehydration. Sugars have been identified as one important factor contributing to desiccation tolerance. Phylogenetic diversity of resurrection plants reflects the diversity of sugar metabolism in response to dehydration. Sugars, which accumulate during dehydration, have been shown to protect macromolecules and membranes and to scavenge reactive oxygen species. This review focuses on the performance of enzymes participating in sugar metabolism during dehydration stress. The relation between sugar metabolism and other biochemical activities is discussed and open questions as well as potential experimental approaches are proposed.

  9. Screening for carbohydrate-binding proteins in extracts of Uruguayan plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plá A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of carbohydrate-binding proteins, namely lectins, ß-galactosidases and amylases, was determined in aqueous extracts of plants collected in Uruguay. Twenty-six extracts were prepared from 15 Uruguayan plants belonging to 12 Phanerogam families. Among them, 18 extracts caused hemagglutination (HAG that was inhibited by mono- and disaccharides in 13 cases, indicating the presence of lectins. The other 8 extracts did not cause any HAG with the four systems used to detect HAG activity (rabbit and mouse red cells, trypsin-treated rabbit and mouse red cells. For the extracts prepared from Solanum commersonii, HAG activity and HAG inhibition were similar for those prepared from tubers, leaves and fruits, with the chitocompounds being responsible for all the inhibitions. Purification of the S. commersonii tuber lectin was carried out by affinity chromatography on asialofetuin-Sepharose, and SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions gave a single band of Mr of approximately 80 kDa. The monomer N-acetylglucosamine did not inhibit HAG induced by the purified lectin, but chitobiose inhibited HAG at 24 mM and chitotriose inhibited it at 1 mM. ß-Galactosidase activity was detected in leaves and stems of Cayaponia martiana, and in seeds from Datura ferox. Only traces of amylase activity were detected in some of the extracts analyzed. The present screening increases knowledge about the occurrence of carbohydrate-binding proteins present in regional plants.

  10. Impact of motor transport emissions on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of ornamental flower plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Bessonova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of carbohydrate exchange in leaves of Salvia sрlendens and Tagetes patula under conditions of environmental pollution by gaseous emission and lead is described in the article. Species differences of glucose quantity under the influence of ingredients of vehicle emissions are presented. Changes in maintenance of non-structural forms of carbohydrates took place as a result of dependences of enzymes activity from pollutants.

  11. Effect of Host Plant on the Chemical Composition of Tetranychus urticae (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae): Variability in Soluble Protein, Anions, and Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical analyses of two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Koch), and 3 of their host plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Phaseolus lunatus L., and Vigna unguiculata L. show that the content of total soluble protein, carbohydrates, and anions in the mites varies independently from the concentrat...

  12. Chlorophyll and carbohydrates in Arachis pintoi plants under influence of water regimes and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Manuele Porto Sales

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the chlorophyll and carbohydrate contents of Arachis pintoi were evaluated to verify if the presence of nitrogen in the soil could contribute to the effectiveness of the establishment of this legume. The design was completely randomized, in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement, with four N rates (0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 and four irrigation levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% of field capacity, with four replications. The biochemical evaluations of chlorophylls a and b and total chlorophyll and total soluble sugars, sucrose and starch were performed. The highest contents of chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll in leaves were found at the dose of 120 kg ha-1. The water regime of 25% of field capacity was responsible for the lowest content of reducing sugars and total soluble sugars in leaves, stolons and roots. In the roots, the sucrose contents were higher in these conditions, which can be associated with a slight tolerance of the plant to water stress. The water deficiency was responsible for the decrease of reducing sugars and total N in the whole plant and positively influenced the levels of chlorophyll and sugars in the stolon, promoting growth, especially of shoots, at the beginning of establishment.

  13. Carbohydrate-active enzymes in pythium and their role in plant cell wall and storage polysaccharide degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M Zerillo

    Full Text Available Carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes are involved in the metabolism of glycoconjugates, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides and, in the case of plant pathogens, in the degradation of the host cell wall and storage compounds. We performed an in silico analysis of CAZymes predicted from the genomes of seven Pythium species (Py. aphanidermatum, Py. arrhenomanes, Py. irregulare, Py. iwayamai, Py. ultimum var. ultimum, Py. ultimum var. sporangiiferum and Py. vexans using the "CAZymes Analysis Toolkit" and "Database for Automated Carbohydrate-active Enzyme Annotation" and compared them to previously published oomycete genomes. Growth of Pythium spp. was assessed in a minimal medium containing selected carbon sources that are usually present in plants. The in silico analyses, coupled with our in vitro growth assays, suggest that most of the predicted CAZymes are involved in the metabolism of the oomycete cell wall with starch and sucrose serving as the main carbohydrate sources for growth of these plant pathogens. The genomes of Pythium spp. also encode pectinases and cellulases that facilitate degradation of the plant cell wall and are important in hyphal penetration; however, the species examined in this study lack the requisite genes for the complete saccharification of these carbohydrates for use as a carbon source. Genes encoding for xylan, xyloglucan, (galacto(glucomannan and cutin degradation were absent or infrequent in Pythium spp.. Comparative analyses of predicted CAZymes in oomycetes indicated distinct evolutionary histories. Furthermore, CAZyme gene families among Pythium spp. were not uniformly distributed in the genomes, suggesting independent gene loss events, reflective of the polyphyletic relationships among some of the species.

  14. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  15. Time-course of tomato whole-plant respiration and fruit and stem growth during prolonged darkness in relation to carbohydrate reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, C; Baldet, P; Bertin, N; Devaux, C; Tchamitchian, M; Raymond, P

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a simple carbon balance model (Seginer et al., 1994, Scientia Horticulturae 60: 55-80) in source-limiting conditions, the dynamics of growth, respiration and carbohydrate reserves of tomato plants were observed in prolonged darkness. Four days prior to the experiments, plants were exposed to high or low light levels and CO(2) concentrations. The concentration of carbohydrates in vegetative organs was 30-50 % lower in plants that were exposed to low carbon assimilation conditions compared with those exposed to high carbon assimilation conditions. During prolonged darkness, plants with low carbohydrate reserves exhibited a lower whole-plant respiration rate, which decreased rapidly to almost zero after 24 h, and carbohydrate pools were almost exhausted in leaves, roots and flowers. In plants with high carbohydrate reserves, the whole-plant respiration rate was maintained for a longer period and carbohydrates remained available for at least 48 h in leaves and flowers. In contrast, fruits maintained fairly stable and identical concentrations of carbohydrates and the reduction in their rate of expansion was moderate irrespective of the pre-treatment carbon assimilation conditions. The time-course of asparagine and glutamine concentrations showed the occurrence of carbon stress in leaves and flowers. Estimation of source and sink activities indicated that even after low carbon assimilation, vegetative organs contained enough carbohydrates to support fruit growth provided their own growth stopped. The time of exhaustion of these carbohydrates corresponded grossly to the maintenance stage simulated by the model proposed by Seginer et al. (1994), thus validating the use of such a model for optimizing plant growth.

  16. Time‐course of Tomato Whole‐plant Respiration and Fruit and Stem Growth During Prolonged Darkness in Relation to Carbohydrate Reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARY, C.; BALDET, P.; BERTIN, N.; DEVAUX, C.; TCHAMITCHIAN, M.; RAYMOND, P.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the relevance of a simple carbon balance model (Seginer et al., 1994, Scientia Horticulturae 60: 55–80) in source‐limiting conditions, the dynamics of growth, respiration and carbohydrate reserves of tomato plants were observed in prolonged darkness. Four days prior to the experiments, plants were exposed to high or low light levels and CO2 concentrations. The concentration of carbohydrates in vegetative organs was 30–50 % lower in plants that were exposed to low carbon assimilation conditions compared with those exposed to high carbon assimilation conditions. During prolonged darkness, plants with low carbohydrate reserves exhibited a lower whole‐plant respiration rate, which decreased rapidly to almost zero after 24 h, and carbohydrate pools were almost exhausted in leaves, roots and flowers. In plants with high carbohydrate reserves, the whole‐plant respiration rate was maintained for a longer period and carbohydrates remained available for at least 48 h in leaves and flowers. In contrast, fruits maintained fairly stable and identical concentrations of carbohydrates and the reduction in their rate of expansion was moderate irrespective of the pre‐treatment carbon assimilation conditions. The time‐course of asparagine and glutamine concentrations showed the occurrence of carbon stress in leaves and flowers. Estimation of source and sink activities indicated that even after low carbon assimilation, vegetative organs contained enough carbohydrates to support fruit growth provided their own growth stopped. The time of exhaustion of these carbohydrates corresponded grossly to the maintenance stage simulated by the model proposed by Seginer et al. (1994), thus validating the use of such a model for optimizing plant growth. PMID:12588722

  17. NIRS determination of non-structural carbohydrates, water soluble carbohydrates and other nutritive quality traits in whole plant maize with wide range variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Campo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the potential of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS to predict non-structural carbohydrates (NSC, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC, in vitro organic dry matter digestibility (IVOMD, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch in samples of whole plant maize with a wide range of variability. The samples were analyzed in reflectance mode by a spectrophotometer FOSS NIRSystems 6500. Four hundred and fifty samples of wide spectrum from different origin were selected out of 3000 scanned for the calibration set, whereas 87 independent random samples were used in the external validation. The goodness of the calibration models was evaluated using the following statistics: coefficient of determination (R2, standard error of cross-validation (SECV, standard error of prediction for external validation (SEP and the RPDCV and RPDP indexes [ratios of standard deviation (SD of reference analysis data to SECV and SEP, respectively]. The smaller the SECV and SEP and the greater the RPDCV and RPDP, the predictions are better. Trait measurement units were g/100g of dry matter (DM, except for IVOMD (g/100g OM. The SECV and RPDCV statistics of the calibration set were 1.34 and 3.2 for WSC, 2.57 and 3 for NSC and 2.3 and 2.2 for IVOMD, respectively. The SEP and RPDP statistics for external validation were 0.74 and 4.7 for WSC, 2.14 and 2.5 for NSC and 1.68 and 1.6 for IVOMD respectively. It can be concluded that the NIRS technique can be used to predict WSC and NSC with good accuracy, whereas prediction of IVOMD showed a lesser accuracy. NIRS predictions of OM, CP, NDF, ADF and starch also showed good accuracy.

  18. Bacterial, plant, and fungal carbohydrate structure databases: daily usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukach, Philip V; Egorova, Ksenia S

    2015-01-01

    Natural carbohydrates play important roles in living systems and therefore are used as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. The main goal of glycomics is systematization of carbohydrates and elucidation of their role in human health and disease. The amount of information on natural carbohydrates accumulates rapidly, but scientists still lack databases and computer-assisted tools needed for orientation in the glycomic information space. Therefore, freely available, regularly updated, and cross-linked databases are demanded. Bacterial Carbohydrate Structure Database (Bacterial CSDB) was developed for provision of structural, bibliographic, taxonomic, NMR spectroscopic, and other related information on bacterial and archaeal carbohydrate structures. Its main features are (1) coverage above 90%, (2) high data consistence (above 90% of error-free records), and (3) presence of manually verified bibliographic, NMR spectroscopic, and taxonomic annotations. Recently, CSDB has been expanded to cover carbohydrates of plant and fungal origin. The achievement of full coverage in the plant and fungal domains is expected in the future. CSDB is freely available on the Internet as a web service at http://csdb.glycoscience.ru. This chapter aims at showing how to use CSDB in your daily scientific practice.

  19. Leaf Responses of Micropropagated Apple Plants to Water Stress: Changes in Endogenous Hormones and Their Influence on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian-hong; LI Shao-hua

    2007-01-01

    The changes in the concentrations of endogenous hormones and their influence on carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of micropropagated Fuji apple plants were studied under water deficiency stress. The results showed that water stress induced a rapid increase in the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) and led to a decrease in concentrations of both zeatin and gibberellins (GAs). The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) changed in an independent manner, which was not correlated with the different levels of water stress. With regard to the carbohydrates, the contents of sorbitol and sucrose increased, whereas the content of starch decreased. The increase in the concentration of ABA was significantly correlated with both the increase in the activity of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) and the decrease in the activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), indicating that ABA played a regulatory role in sorbitol metabolism. The concentration of ABA was positively correlated to the activity of sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) but negatively correlated to the activities of acid invertase (AI) and ADP-glucose-pyrophosphorylase (ADPGppase) in water-stressed plants, which indicated that ABA promoted sucrose synthesis and inhibited sucrose degradation and starch synthesis at the same time. Under conditions of water stress, the decrease in the level of zeatin was accompanied by a decrease in the activities of SDH and ADPGPPase. GAs concentration showed positive correlation with ADPGPPase activity. IAA showed no significant correlation with any of the enzymes tested in this study. The results of this study suggested that ABA might be one of the key factors regulating the distribution of carbohydrates under water stress. The metabolism of sorbitol and starch under conditions of water stress might be regulated by the combined action of many plant hormones.

  20. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, J.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZy

  1. Expression of the C-terminal family 22 carbohydrate-binding module of xylanase 10B of Clostridium themocellum in tobacco plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olawole, O.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules have been shown to alter plant cell wall structural architecture. Hence, they have the potential application of being used to engineer the plant to produce tailor-made natural fibers in the cell wall. The Clostridium thermocellum xylanase, Xyn10B, contains two CBMs that

  2. Sugar signalling and gene expression in relation to carbohydrate metabolism under abiotic stresses in plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Gupta; Narinder Kaur

    2005-12-01

    Sucrose is required for plant growth and development. The sugar status of plant cells is sensed by sensor proteins. The signal generated by signal transduction cascades, which could involve mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein phosphatases, Ca2+ and calmodulins, results in appropriate gene expression. A variety of genes are either induced or repressed depending upon the status of soluble sugars. Abiotic stresses to plants result in major alterations in sugar status and hence affect the expression of various genes by down- and up-regulating their expression. Hexokinase-dependent and hexokinase-independent pathways are involved in sugar sensing. Sucrose also acts as a signal molecule as it affects the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter. The sucrose transporter acts as a sucrose sensor and is involved in phloem loading. Fructokinase may represent an additional sensor that bypasses hexokinase phosphorylation especially when sucrose synthase is dominant. Mutants isolated on the basis of response of germination and seedling growth to sugars and reporter-based screening protocols are being used to study the response of altered sugar status on gene expression. Common cis-acting elements in sugar signalling pathways have been identified. Transgenic plants with elevated levels of sugars/sugar alcohols like fructans, raffinose series oligosaccharides, trehalose and mannitol are tolerant to different stresses but have usually impaired growth. Efforts need to be made to have transgenic plants in which abiotic stress responsive genes are expressed only at the time of adverse environmental conditions instead of being constitutively synthesized.

  3. Carbohydrates in therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Joshi, Lokesh

    2007-07-01

    Awareness of the importance of carbohydrates in living systems and medicine is growing due to the increasing understanding of their biological and pharmacological relevance. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous and perform a wide array of biological roles. Carbohydrate-based or -modified therapeutics are used extensively in cardiovascular and hematological treatments ranging from inflammatory diseases and anti-thrombotic treatments to wound healing. Heparin is a well-known and widely used example of a carbohydrate-based drug but will not be discussed as it has been extensively reviewed. We will detail carbohydrate-based and -modified therapeutics, both those that are currently marketed or in various stages of clinical trials and those that are potential therapeutics based on promising preclinical investigations. Carbohydrate-based therapeutics include polysaccharide and oligosaccharide anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant and anti-thrombotic agents from natural and synthetic sources, some as an alternative to heparin and others which were designed based on known structure-functional relationships. Some of these compounds have multiple biological effects, showing anti-adhesive, anti-HIV and anti-arthrithic activities. Small molecules, derivatives or mimetics of complement inhibitors, are detailed for use in limiting ischemia/ reperfusion injuries. Monosaccharides, both natural and synthetic, have been investigated for their in vivo anti-inflammatory and cardioprotective properties. Modification by glycosylation of natural products, or glycosylation-mimicking modification, has a significant effect on the parent molecule including increased plasma half-life and refining or increasing desired functions. It is hoped that this review will highlight the vast therapeutic potential of these natural bioactive molecules.

  4. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jammer, Alexandra; Gasperl, Anna; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora;

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of physiological parameters is important to understand the link between plant phenotypes and their genetic bases, and therefore is needed as an important element in the analysis of model and crop plants. The activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism have been...... shown to be strongly associated with growth performance, crop yield, and quality, as well as stress responses. A simple, fast, and cost-effective method to determine activities for 13 key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism has been established, mainly based on coupled spectrophotometric kinetic...

  5. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes in Plant Cell Walls and Their Migration During Biomass Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Johnson, David K.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi-You

    2015-04-27

    In lignocellulosic biomass, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. In plant cell walls, lignin is associated with polysaccharides to form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC). LCC have been considered to be a major factor that negatively affects the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by cellulosic enzymes. Here, we report a micro-spectroscopic approach that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy to probe in situ lignin concentration and conformation at each cell wall layer. This technique does not require extensive sample preparation or any external labels. Using poplar as a feedstock, for example, we observe variation of LCC in untreated tracheid poplar cell walls. The redistribution of LCC at tracheid poplar cell wall layers is also investigated when the chemical linkages between lignin and hemicellulose are cleaved during pretreatment. Our study would provide new insights into further improvement of the biomass pretreatment process.

  6. Tracing the flow of plant carbohydrates into the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the flow of 13C labeled CO2 from plant sugars in leaves, stems and roots into rhizospheric organisms, respired CO2 and soil organic matter in order to better understand the role of the plant-microorganism-soil-continuum for ecosystem carbon cycling. We compared trees and grassland species that had different sugar transport strategies, storage compartments, community compositions and environmental stresses. We used short but highly enriched 13C pulses at controlled CO2 concentrations and temperatures that avoided non-physiological plant responses. We used compound specific 13C measurements of sugars and phospholipids (PLFA) to calculate the carbon turnover of plant sugars and rhizospheric microorganisms. Our results unexpectedly identified transport limitations in the root-shoot carbohydrate transfer, diurnal variations in label respiration and community effects in the carbon transfer to microbial groups. Our results highlight that sophisticated experimental setups and analytical techniques are necessary to gain new knowledge on ecosystem carbon cycling under climate change.

  7. Warming does not stimulate mitochondrial respiration and it responds to leaf carbohydrates availability in soybean plants grown under elevated CO2 concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Vera, U. M.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Bernacchi, C.; Ort, D. R.; Siebers, M.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding on the mechanism underlying the response of mitochondrial respiration (Rs) to the single and combined effects of increasing CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and warming. We investigated the response of Rs to the single and combined effects of elevated [CO2] and warming in soybean plants over a complete growing season using Temperature by Free Air CO2 enrichment technology under field conditions. The treatments were: control, elevated [CO2] (eC), high temperature (eT), and elevated [CO2]+high temperature (eT+eC). Given that photosynthetic rates in eT+eC grown plants were not higher than in plants grown under eC, we hypothesized that Rs would increase only slightly in plants grown under eT+eC compared to eC plants, due to the increase of temperature. Contrary to our prediction, our preliminary results showed that plants grown under the warming treatments had low Rs, thus eT+eC had lower Rs than eC. The response of Rs to these factors was consistent at two different plant high levels (canopy and five nodes down the canopy). Changes in Rs were explained by variations in the carbohydrate content. Our results indicate that the response of Rs to changes in [CO2] and temperature will depend on the carbohydrate availability of plant tissues and thus on how photosynthesis is affected by this environmental factors.

  8. Effects of Carbohydrate Consumption Case Study: carbohydrates in Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacsu N.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates perform numerous roles in living organisms; they are an important source of energy. The body uses carbohydrates to make glucose which is the fuel that gives it energy and helps keep everything going. However, excess carbohydrate consumption has negative health effects. Bread is a basic product in our nutrition and it also is a product with a high content of carbohydrates. So, it is important to find out more information on bread and on the recommended bread type best for consumption.

  9. Expression of the C-terminal family 22 carbohydrate-binding module of xylanase 10B of Clostridium themocellum in tobacco plant

    OpenAIRE

    Olawole, O.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate-binding modules have been shown to alter plant cell wall structural architecture. Hence, they have the potential application of being used to engineer the plant to produce tailor-made natural fibers in the cell wall. The Clostridium thermocellum xylanase, Xyn10B, contains two CBMs that belong to family 22 (CBM22). The C-terminal CBM22-2 of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 10 had been characterized to interact with xylan, a major hemicellulosic component in the secondary cell wall of ...

  10. Structural carbohydrates in a plant biomass: correlations between the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Bruno; Agneessens, Richard; Gerin, Patrick; Delcarte, Jérôme

    2014-06-18

    We compared the detergent fiber and dietary fiber methods to analyze the cellulose and hemicellulose contents of commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass. A good linear correlation was found between both methods. Compared to the more accurate dietary fiber method, the detergent fiber method overestimates the content of cellulose, whereas the detergent fiber method, as compared to the dietary fiber method, overestimates and underestimates the hemicellulose content in commelinid and non-commelinid magnoliophyta biomass, respectively. Because of the good linear correlations, conversion factors were determined to predict the cellulose, hemicellulose, and xylan contents to be expected from the dietary fiber method, on the basis of analyses made by the faster, cheaper, and more commonly practiced detergent fiber method. Nevertheless, the dietary fiber method offers the advantage of providing the detailed composition of the hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinan, hemicellulosic glucan, galactan, and mannan), and that is of interest for biorefining purposes.

  11. Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbohydrates are one of the main types of nutrients. They are the most important source of energy for your body. Your digestive system changes carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar). Your body uses this ...

  12. Transition metals in carbohydrate chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Robert

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the application of transition metal mediated reactions in carbohydrate synthesis. The different metal mediated transformations are divided into reaction types and illustrated by various examples on monosaccharide derivatives. Carbon-carbon bond forming reactions are further ...

  13. Influence of Soil Compaction and Drought on the Growth,Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates in Fugi/M.9EMLA Apple Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yun-cong; John G Streeter; David C Ferree

    2003-01-01

    Greenhouse-grown 1-year-old potted M.9EMLA apple trees (Malus pumila Borkh) were subjected to the soil compaction and, after growing under compacted or non-compacted conditions for 6 weeks, were subjected to drought stress by withholding water for an additional six-week period. Soil compaction and drought stress significantly reduced plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area. Although drought significantly inhibited photosynthesis and transpiration, compaction only depressed transpiration. Furthermore, the effects of drought on plant growth, photosynthesis and transpiration were much greater than the effects of compaction. The rate of water loss from compacted plants was lower than the rate from non-compacted controls and this may explain the insignificant impact of compaction on photosynthesis. Sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations increased over time during the drought stress period whereas sucrose concentration declined. In well-watered controls, sucrose concentration was much higher in leaves of compacted plants than in the leaves on non-compacted controls. For most of the sampling dates the leaf sorbitol concentration was lower in leaves on plants growing in compacted soil than in the leaves of those of the non-compacted controls. Although interactions between the effects of compaction and drought were highly significant for plant growth variables during the onset of drought, interactive effects on photosynthesis, transpiration, relative water content and carbohydrate variables were inconsistent. Compaction and drought both have major effects on apple plants and the interactions between these two stresses are complex.

  14. Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willoughby Darryn

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prior to endurance competition, many endurance athletes participate in a carbohydrate loading regimen in order to help delay the onset of fatigue. The "classic" regimen generally includes an intense glycogen depleting training period of approximately two days followed by a glycogen loading period for 3–4 days, ingesting approximately 60–70% of total energy intake as carbohydrates, while the newer method does not consist of an intense glycogen depletion protocol. However, recent evidence has indicated that glycogen loading does not occur in the same manner for males and females, thus affecting performance. The scope of this literature review will include a brief description of the role of estradiol in relation to metabolism and gender differences seen in carbohydrate metabolism and loading.

  15. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZymes present in the Phytophthora infestans, Ph. ramorum, Ph. sojae and Pythium ultimum genomes compared to growth of these species on a range of different carbon sources. Growth on these carbon sources indicates that the size of enzyme families involved in degradation of cell-wall related substrates like cellulose, xylan and pectin is not always a good predictor of growth on these substrates. While a capacity to degrade xylan and cellulose exists the products are not fully saccharified and used as a carbon source. The Phytophthora genomes encode larger CAZyme sets when compared to Py. ultimum, and encode putative cutinases, GH12 xyloglucanases and GH10 xylanases that are missing in the Py. ultimum genome. Phytophthora spp. also encode a larger number of enzyme families and genes involved in pectin degradation. No loss or gain of complete enzyme families was found between the Phytophthora genomes, but there are some marked differences in the size of some enzyme families.

  16. Dissecting the functional significance of non-catalytic carbohydrate binding modules in the deconstruction of plant cell walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    2017-03-16

    The project seeks to investigate the mechanism by which CBMs potentiate the activity of glycoside hydrolases against complete plant cell walls. The project is based on the hypothesis that the wide range of CBMs present in bacterial enzymes maximize the potential target substrates by directing the cognate enzymes not only to different regions of a specific plant cell wall, but also increases the range of plant cell walls that can be degraded. In addition to maximizing substrate access, it was also proposed that CBMs can target specific subsets of hydrolases with complementary activities to the same region of the plant cell wall, thereby maximizing the synergistic interactions between these enzymes. This synergy is based on the premise that the hydrolysis of a specific polysaccharide will increase the access of closely associated polymers to enzyme attack. In addition, it is unclear whether the catalytic module and appended CBM of modular enzymes have evolved unique complementary activities.

  17. UV-B radiation does not limit carbohydrate level and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rybus-Zając

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber is a vegetable exhibiting relatively high sensitivity to environmental stress factors. When it is grown outdoors, from early stages of development there is a real risk of exposure to elevated UV-B radiation. In order to explain the effects of time-dependent UV-B doses on carbohydrate level and metabolism, the photosynthetic activity, accumulation of carbohydrates and activities of carbohydrate-related enzymes were determined in the cucumber leaves. Elevated UV-B radiation led to an increase in the rate of photosynthesis, which was reflected by an increase in SPAD values. Higher photosynthetic activity resulted in an increase in levels of soluble sugars. In view of the above-mentioned results, radiation stress led to a UV-B time-dependent dose increase in the activity of two enzymes decomposing carbohydrate: invertase and glucosidase. Our results suggest that the exposure of cucumber plants to supplemental UV-B doses does not limit the availability of the photoassimilate. Carbohydrates are required to provide not only respiratory energy for protection, maintenance (and repair of plant activity and structure, but also provide biosynthetic carbon skeletons for secondary metabolite synthesis

  18. Gene-Silencing-Induced Changes in Carbohydrate Conformation in Relation to Bioenergy Value and Carbohydrate Subfractions in Modeled Plant (Medicago sativa) with Down-Regulation of HB12 and TT8 Transcription Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Hannoufa, Abdelali; Zhang, Yonggen; Yu, Peiqiang

    2016-05-13

    Gene silencing with RNA interference (RNAi) technology may be capable of modifying internal structure at a molecular level. This structural modification could affect biofunctions in terms of biodegradation, biochemical metabolism, and bioactive compound availability. The objectives of this study were to (1) Detect gene silencing-induced changes in carbohydrate molecular structure in an alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa spp. sativa: alfalfa) with down-regulation of genes that encode transcription factors TT8 and HB12; (2) Determine gene silencing-induced changes in nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in the alfalfa forage (Medicago sativa); and (3) Quantify the correlation between gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes and the nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability in animals of ruminants. The experimental treatments included: T1 = Non-transgenic and no-gene silenced alfalfa forage (code "NT"); T2 = HB12-RNAi forage with HB12 gene down regulation (code "HB12"); T3 = TT8-RNAi forage with TT8 gene down regulation (code "TT8"). The HB12 and TT8 gene silencing-induced molecular structure changes were determined by non-invasive and non-destructive advanced molecular spectroscopy in a middle infrared radiation region that focused on structural, non-structural and total carbohydrate compounds. The nutrient bioutilization and bioavailability of the modified forage were determined using NRC-2001 system in terms of total digestive nutrient (TDN), truly digestible fiber (tdNDF), non-fiber carbohydrate (tdNDF), fatty acid (tdFA), crude protein (tdCP) and bioenergy profiles (digestible energy, metabolizable energy, net energy) for ruminants. The carbohydrate subfractions were evaluated using the updated CNCPS 6.0 system. The results showed that gene silencing significantly affected tdNFC (42.3 (NT) vs. 38.7 (HB12) vs. 37.4% Dry Matter (TT8); p = 0.016) and tdCP (20.8 (NT) vs. 19.4 (HB12) vs. 22.3% DM (TT8); p = 0.009). The gene-silencing also affected

  19. Effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on carbohydrate partitioning and plant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulen, G; mw. Steg, K.; mw. Schalkwijk, I.; Posthumus, F.S

    2000-01-01

    The effect of elevated CO2 on changes in shoot and root soluble carbohydrate and starch content, and various growth parameters was investigated in an apoplastic (Bellis perennis) and a symplastic loader (Epilobium hirsutum). Comparison with data on other plant species, grown under the same climatic

  20. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, D.; Treier, U.A.; Müller-Schärer, H.

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass. Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N availabil

  1. Simple and robust determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes for physiological phenotyping in model and crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Alexandra; Gasperl, Anna; Luschin-Ebengreuth, Nora; Heyneke, Elmien; Chu, Hyosub; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Albacete, Alfonso A; Stabentheiner, Edith; Franzaring, Jürgen; Fangmeier, Andreas; van der Graaff, Eric; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of physiological parameters is important to understand the link between plant phenotypes and their genetic bases, and therefore is needed as an important element in the analysis of model and crop plants. The activities of enzymes involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism have been shown to be strongly associated with growth performance, crop yield, and quality, as well as stress responses. A simple, fast, and cost-effective method to determine activities for 13 key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism has been established, mainly based on coupled spectrophotometric kinetic assays. The comparison of extraction buffers and requirement for dialysis of crude protein extracts resulted in a universal protein extraction protocol, suitable for the preparation of protein extracts from different organs of various species. Individual published kinetic activity assays were optimized and adapted for a semi-high-throughput 96-well assay format. These assays proved to be robust and are thus suitable for physiological phenotyping, enabling the characterization and diagnosis of the physiological state. The potential of the determination of distinct enzyme activity signatures as part of a physiological fingerprint was shown for various organs and tissues from three monocot and five dicot model and crop species, including two case studies with external stimuli. Differential and specific enzyme activity signatures are apparent during inflorescence development and upon in vitro cold treatment of young inflorescences in the monocot ryegrass, related to conditions for doubled haploid formation. Likewise, treatment of dicot spring oilseed rape with elevated CO2 concentration resulted in distinct patterns of enzyme activity responses in leaves.

  2. Carbohydrate Metabolism in Submariner Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    metabolism the Wilkerson Point System, for glucose values, used in conjunction with patterns of insulin response described by Kraft(4) serves as the means...amount of exercise and carbohydrate metabolism characteristics occurred in both submariners and non-submariners. An inverse relationship also seems to...individuals(7). In the present study a significant negative correlation was also found between exercise vs one and two hour postprandial glucose and two hour

  3. THE RESPONSE OF PLANT CARBOHYDRATES TO ELEVATED CO2: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT FROM FACE STUDIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS,A.; AINSWORTH,E.A.; BERNACCHI,C.J.; GIBON,Y.; STITT,M.; LONG,S.P.

    2004-08-29

    Atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration ([CO{sub 2}]) is expected to rise from a current level of 372 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} to about 550 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} by the middle of the century (Prentice 2001). Accumulation of foliar carbohydrates is one of the most pronounced and universal changes observed in the leaves of C{sub 3} plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] (Drake et al 1997). Carbohydrates are the product of photosynthetic cells and the substrate for sink metabolism. However, carbohydrates are not just substrates, changes in the composition and pool size of foliar carbohydrates have the potential to communicate source-sink balance and a role for carbohydrates in the regulation of the expression of many plant genes is well established (Koch 1996). Importantly, carbohydrate feedback is thought to be the mechanism through which long-term exposure to elevated [CO{sub 2}] leads to a reduction in carboxylation capacity (Rogers et a1 199S, Long et al 2004). Foliar sugar content has recently been linked to an increased susceptibility of soybeans to insect herbivory (Hamilton et al submitted). In addition increases in the C:N ratio of leaf litter of plants grown at elevated [CO{sub 2}] has been implicated in negative feedbacks on ecosystem productivity (Oechel et al 1994). Understanding of the response of foliar carbohydrates will form an important part of our ability to understand and predict the effects of rising [CO{sub 2}] on plants and ecosystems. As Free-Air CO{sub 2} enrichment technology was emerging, understanding of the link between carbohydrates and plant responses to rising [CO{sub 2}] was increasing. However, there were concerns that the hypotheses generated using model system or from studies on mostly juvenile plants grown for relatively short periods of time in controlled environments may not translate to the field. Of particular concern was the effect of a limited rooting volume. Arp (1991) argued that photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO{sub 2

  4. Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions as Part of Plant Defense and Animal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof De Schutter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune system consists of a complex network of cells and molecules that interact with each other to initiate the host defense system. Many of these interactions involve specific carbohydrate structures and proteins that specifically recognize and bind them, in particular lectins. It is well established that lectin-carbohydrate interactions play a major role in the immune system, in that they mediate and regulate several interactions that are part of the immune response. Despite obvious differences between the immune system in animals and plants, there are also striking similarities. In both cases, lectins can play a role as pattern recognition receptors, recognizing the pathogens and initiating the stress response. Although plants do not possess an adaptive immune system, they are able to imprint a stress memory, a mechanism in which lectins can be involved. This review will focus on the role of lectins in the immune system of animals and plants.

  5. The importance of nitrogen and carbohydrate storage for plant growth of the alpine herb Veratrum album

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleijn, David; Treier, Urs; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    We examined whether nitrogen (N) and carbohydrates reserves allow Veratrum album, an alpine forb, to start spring growth earlier than the neighbouring vegetation and to survive unpredictable disturbances resulting in loss of above-ground biomass.Seasonal dynamics of plant reserves, soil N...... availability and vegetation growth were monitored. Veratrum album shoots were experimentally removed when carbohydrate reserves were at a seasonal minimum and the subsequent changes in biomass and reserves were compared with those in control plants.  Reserves did not give V. album a competitive advantage...... in spring; however, they did function as a buffer against the impact of calamities. Shoot removal resulted in significantly lower root dry weight, higher N concentration in rhizome and roots and lower starch concentrations in rhizome and roots but no plant mortality was observed.Veratrum album used stored N...

  6. Reduction of the cytosolic phosphoglucomutase in Arabidopsis reveals impact on plant growth, seed and root development, and carbohydrate partitioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Malinova

    Full Text Available Phosphoglucomutase (PGM catalyses the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate (G1P and glucose 6-phosphate (G6P and exists as plastidial (pPGM and cytosolic (cPGM isoforms. The plastidial isoform is essential for transitory starch synthesis in chloroplasts of leaves, whereas the cytosolic counterpart is essential for glucose phosphate partitioning and, therefore, for syntheses of sucrose and cell wall components. In Arabidopsis two cytosolic isoforms (PGM2 and PGM3 exist. Both PGM2 and PGM3 are redundant in function as single mutants reveal only small or no alterations compared to wild type with respect to plant primary metabolism. So far, there are no reports of Arabidopsis plants lacking the entire cPGM or total PGM activity, respectively. Therefore, amiRNA transgenic plants were generated and used for analyses of various parameters such as growth, development, and starch metabolism. The lack of the entire cPGM activity resulted in a strongly reduced growth revealed by decreased rosette fresh weight, shorter roots, and reduced seed production compared to wild type. By contrast content of starch, sucrose, maltose and cell wall components were significantly increased. The lack of both cPGM and pPGM activities in Arabidopsis resulted in dwarf growth, prematurely die off, and inability to develop a functional inflorescence. The combined results are discussed in comparison to potato, the only described mutant with lack of total PGM activity.

  7. Traditional Medicinal Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and Reduce Postprandial Blood Glucose Peaks In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fawzi Mahomoodally

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that some medicinal herbs and food plants commonly used in the management of diabetes can reduce glucose peaks by inhibiting key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. To this effect, extracts of Antidesma madagascariense (AM, Erythroxylum macrocarpum (EM, Pittosporum senacia (PS, and Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF, Momordica charantia (MC, and Ocimum tenuiflorum (OT were evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects based on starch-iodine colour changes and PNP-G as substrate, respectively. Only FF and AM extracts/fractions were found to inhibit α-amylase activity significantly (P<0.05 and coparable to the drug acarbose. Amylase bioassay on isolated mouse plasma confirmed the inhibitory potential of AM and FF extracts with the ethyl acetate fraction of FF being more potent (P<0.05 than acarbose. Extracts/fractions of AM and MC were found to inhibit significantly (P<0.05 α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 comparable to the drug 1-deoxynojirimycin. In vivo studies on glycogen-loaded mice showed significant (P<0.05 depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose following ingestion of AM and MC extracts. Our findings tend to provide a possible explanation for the hypoglycemic action of MC fruits and AM leaf extracts as alternative nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes.

  8. Traditional Medicinal Herbs and Food Plants Have the Potential to Inhibit Key Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes In Vitro and Reduce Postprandial Blood Glucose Peaks In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi; Subratty, A. Hussein; Gurib-Fakim, A.; Choudhary, M. Iqbal; Nahar Khan, S.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that some medicinal herbs and food plants commonly used in the management of diabetes can reduce glucose peaks by inhibiting key carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. To this effect, extracts of Antidesma madagascariense (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum (EM), Pittosporum senacia (PS), and Faujasiopsis flexuosa (FF), Momordica charantia (MC), and Ocimum tenuiflorum (OT) were evaluated for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects based on starch-iodine colour changes and PNP-G as substrate, respectively. Only FF and AM extracts/fractions were found to inhibit α-amylase activity significantly (P < 0.05) and coparable to the drug acarbose. Amylase bioassay on isolated mouse plasma confirmed the inhibitory potential of AM and FF extracts with the ethyl acetate fraction of FF being more potent (P < 0.05) than acarbose. Extracts/fractions of AM and MC were found to inhibit significantly (P < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity, with IC50 comparable to the drug 1-deoxynojirimycin. In vivo studies on glycogen-loaded mice showed significant (P < 0.05) depressive effect on elevation of postprandial blood glucose following ingestion of AM and MC extracts. Our findings tend to provide a possible explanation for the hypoglycemic action of MC fruits and AM leaf extracts as alternative nutritional therapy in the management of diabetes. PMID:22654584

  9. Digestion of carbohydrates in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drochner, W

    1993-01-01

    A review of carbohydrate digestion in the pig is given. The cascade of digestion in the mouth, stomach, small and large intestine is described. Principles of enzymatic and fermentative digestion according to new results with fistulated animals are discussed. The efficacy and quality of fermentation in the large intestine depending on level and quality of carbohydrates in the diet are demonstrated. Some aspects of energetical efficacy of hindgut digestion are discussed. Dietetic effects of carbohydrates are described.

  10. Carbohydrates accumulation and remobilization in wheat plants as influenced by combined waterlogging and shading stress during grain filling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Cai, J.; Jiang, D.;

    2013-01-01

    Wheat plants were subjected to combined waterlogging and shading stress (WS) at 0–7, 8–15, 16–23 and 24–31 days after anthesis (DAA), respectively. Compared to the non-stressed plants, WS significantly decreased the final grain yield. Grain number was dramatically lowered by WS imposed at 0–7 DAA...

  11. The effects of carbohydrate variation in isocaloric diets on glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Arias, AMP; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Pijl, H; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate content on postabsorptive glucose metabolism, we quantified gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis after 11 days of high carbohydrate (85% carbohydrate), control (44% carbohydrate), and very low carbohydrate (2% carbohydrate) diets in six healthy men. Diets

  12. [Systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Wang, Jun; Liang, Tu; Xu, Xiaoyong; Jin, Yu

    2013-11-01

    A systematic evaluation of retention behavior of carbohydrates in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was performed. The influences of mobile phase, stationary phase and buffer salt on the retention of carbohydrates were investigated. According to the results, the retention time of carbohydrates decreased as the proportion of acetonitrile in mobile phase decreased. Increased time of carbohydrates was observed as the concentration of buffer salt in mobile phase increased. The retention behavior of carbohydrates was also affected by organic solvent and HILIC stationary phase. Furthermore, an appropriate retention equation was used in HILIC mode. The retention equation lnk = a + blnC(B) + cC(B) could quantitatively describe the retention factors of carbohydrates of plant origin with good accuracy: the relative error of the predicted time to actual time was less than 0.3%. The evaluation results could provide guidance for carbohydrates to optimize the experimental conditions in HILIC method development especially for carbohydrate separation

  13. Extraction and analysis of inositols and other carbohydrates from soybean plant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    An outstanding characteristic of soybean plants is their ability to produce large amounts of the carbohydrate pinitol. Pinitol and the closely related inositols are currently undergoing widespread investigation for their biological and nutritional value. These and all the carbohydrates are typical...

  14. Structural Studies of Complex Carbohydrates of Plant Cell Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Hahn, Michael G. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); O' Neill, Malcolm A. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); York, William S. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Most of the solar energy captured by land plants is converted into the polysaccharides (cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin) that are the predominant components of the cell wall. These walls, which account for the bulk of plant biomass, have numerous roles in the growth and development of plants. Moreover, these walls have a major impact on human life as they are a renewable source of biomass, a source of diverse commercially useful polymers, a major component of wood, and a source of nutrition for humans and livestock. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms that lead to wall assembly and how cell walls and their component polysaccharides contribute to plant growth and development is essential to improve and extend the productivity and value of plant materials. The proposed research will develop and apply advanced analytical and immunological techniques to study specific changes in the structures and interactions of the hemicellulosic and pectic polysaccharides that occur during differentiation and in response to genetic modification and chemical treatments that affect wall biosynthesis. These new techniques will make it possible to accurately characterize minute amounts of cell wall polysaccharides so that subtle changes in structure that occur in individual cell types can be identified and correlated to the physiological or developmental state of the plant. Successful implementation of this research will reveal fundamental relationships between polysaccharide structure, cell wall architecture, and cell wall functions.

  15. Carbohydrates in pig nutrition - Recent advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Ingerslev, Anne Krog

    2016-01-01

    The dietary carbohydrates are a diverse group of substances with a range of chemical, physical, and physiological properties. The primary chemical classification of carbohydrates is by molecular size (degree of polymerization [DP]), the type of linkage (α or β), and composition of individual...... in the small intestine. Some types of soluble NSP are found to interact with intestinal mucus and produce a layer that significantly delays the transport of lipid digestion products. Potentially, the same may be the case for proteinous compounds. The delay in the transport of the nutrients to the gut...... monomers. This approach divides carbohydrates into 3 main groups, sugars (DP1–2), oligosaccharides (DP3–9), and polysaccharides (DP ≥ 10), the latter being further divided into starch (α-1:4,1,6-D-glucans) and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). Dietary fiber (DF) recently has been defined as carbohydrate...

  16. Structural studies of complex carbohydrates of plant cell walls. Progress report, June 15, 1992--June 14, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darvill, A.G.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains the abstracts of fourteen papers published, in press, or in preparation reporting on research activities to investigate the structure, as well as the function of cell walls in plants. This document also contains research on methods to determine the structure of complex carbohydrates of the cell walls.

  17. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  18. Cell surface carbohydrates as prognostic markers in human carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Tumour development is usually associated with changes in cell surface carbohydrates. These are often divided into changes related to terminal carbohydrate structures, which include incomplete synthesis and modification of normally existing carbohydrates, and changes in the carbohydrate core...... structure. The latter includes chain elongation of both glycolipids and proteins, increased branching of carbohydrates in N-linked glycoproteins, and blocked synthesis of carbohydrates in O-linked mucin-like glycoproteins. In mature organisms, expression of distinct carbohydrates is restricted to specific...... cell types; within a given tissue, variation in expression may be related to cell maturation. Tumour-associated carbohydrate structures often reflect a certain stage of cellular development; most of these moieties are structures normally found in other adult or embryonic tissues. There is no unique...

  19. Functional diversity of carbohydrate-active enzymes enabling a bacterium to ferment plant biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard, Magali; Cerisy, Tristan; Nogue, Pierre-Yves; Alberti, Adriana; Weissenbach, Jean; Salanoubat, Marcel; Tolonen, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism of plant polysaccharides is an important part of environmental carbon cycling, human nutrition, and industrial processes based on cellulosic bioconversion. Here we demonstrate a broadly applicable method to analyze how microbes catabolize plant polysaccharides that integrates carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) assays, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and anaerobic growth screening. We apply this method to study how the bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans ferments plant biomass components including glucans, mannans, xylans, galactans, pectins, and arabinans. These polysaccharides are fermented with variable efficiencies, and diauxies prioritize metabolism of preferred substrates. Strand-specific RNA-seq reveals how this bacterium responds to polysaccharides by up-regulating specific groups of CAZymes, transporters, and enzymes to metabolize the constituent sugars. Fifty-six up-regulated CAZymes were purified, and their activities show most polysaccharides are degraded by multiple enzymes, often from the same family, but with divergent rates, specificities, and cellular localizations. CAZymes were then tested in combination to identify synergies between enzymes acting on the same substrate with different catalytic mechanisms. We discuss how these results advance our understanding of how microbes degrade and metabolize plant biomass.

  20. Influence of the simulated microgravity on biomass and contents of carbohydrates at virus-infected wheat plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, L.; Silayeva, A.; Mishchenko, I.; Boyko, A.

    The effects of clinostating has been studied on the contents of biomass, soluble carbohydrates and starches in Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) infected plants of wheat Donska semidwarf, Albatross Odessky, Kollectivna-3 (summer), and Apogee (early-ripe, superdwarf). Plants in conditions of horizontal and vertical rotation with a frequency 2 min-1 were grown in containers during 35 days. WSMV was accumulated on barley i dicator plants of Ros' variety for then subsequent infestation by this virus of a part of clinostating and motionless wheat plants in a stage of 3 leaves. Researches have shown, that the most suitable for ground experiments with clinostating were Kollectivna-3 and Apogee varieties. At vertical and horizontal rotation of wheat plants of Kollectivna - 3 variety the weight of roots increased and that of above-ground part (leaves and stalks) decreased in comparison with motionless control plants, that resulted in decrease of the ratio of a biomass of an above-ground part to a root system. In Apogee variety the weight of the above-ground part of healthy plants at vertical clinostating decreased by 23 % in comparison with motionless variant, and the biomass of virus-infected plants was reduced on the average by 14 % in comparison with infected motionless control. The weight of above-ground part of infected and healthy motionless plants practically did not differ. Vertical clinorotation of plants caused the reduction of ear weight while in horizontally rotated plants and in the motionless control there were no difference. The number of ears in Apogee variety practically did not change in all variants of the experiment, and plant weight at clinostating decreased in both healthy, and virus infected plants. For the period of cultivation in Kollectivna-3 variety ears were not formed at all. The contents of soluble carbohydrates (reducing and saccharose) in leaves and stalks of healthy and virus infected at clinostating was increased in Apogee in 1,6-2,2 times

  1. Plant carbohydrate scavenging through tonB-dependent receptors: a feature shared by phytopathogenic and aquatic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanvillain, Servane; Meyer, Damien; Boulanger, Alice; Lautier, Martine; Guynet, Catherine; Denancé, Nicolas; Vasse, Jacques; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Arlat, Matthieu

    2007-02-21

    TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs) are outer membrane proteins mainly known for the active transport of iron siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the genome of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), predicts 72 TBDRs. Such an overrepresentation is common in Xanthomonas species but is limited to only a small number of bacteria. Here, we show that one Xcc TBDR transports sucrose with a very high affinity, suggesting that it might be a sucrose scavenger. This TBDR acts with an inner membrane transporter, an amylosucrase and a regulator to utilize sucrose, thus defining a new type of carbohydrate utilization locus, named CUT locus, involving a TBDR for the transport of substrate across the outer membrane. This sucrose CUT locus is required for full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis, showing its importance for the adaptation to host plants. A systematic analysis of Xcc TBDR genes and a genome context survey suggested that several Xcc TBDRs belong to other CUT loci involved in the utilization of various plant carbohydrates. Interestingly, several Xcc TBDRs and CUT loci are conserved in aquatic bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Saccharophagus degradans, Shewanella spp., Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudoalteromonas spp., which share the ability to degrade a wide variety of complex carbohydrates and display TBDR overrepresentation. We therefore propose that TBDR overrepresentation and the presence of CUT loci designate the ability to scavenge carbohydrates. Thus CUT loci, which seem to participate to the adaptation of phytopathogenic bacteria to their host plants, might also play a very important role in the biogeochemical cycling of plant-derived nutrients in marine environments. Moreover, the TBDRs and CUT loci identified in this study are clearly different from those characterized in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which allow glycan foraging, suggesting a convergent

  2. Plant carbohydrate scavenging through tonB-dependent receptors: a feature shared by phytopathogenic and aquatic bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servane Blanvillain

    Full Text Available TonB-dependent receptors (TBDRs are outer membrane proteins mainly known for the active transport of iron siderophore complexes in Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the genome of the phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc, predicts 72 TBDRs. Such an overrepresentation is common in Xanthomonas species but is limited to only a small number of bacteria. Here, we show that one Xcc TBDR transports sucrose with a very high affinity, suggesting that it might be a sucrose scavenger. This TBDR acts with an inner membrane transporter, an amylosucrase and a regulator to utilize sucrose, thus defining a new type of carbohydrate utilization locus, named CUT locus, involving a TBDR for the transport of substrate across the outer membrane. This sucrose CUT locus is required for full pathogenicity on Arabidopsis, showing its importance for the adaptation to host plants. A systematic analysis of Xcc TBDR genes and a genome context survey suggested that several Xcc TBDRs belong to other CUT loci involved in the utilization of various plant carbohydrates. Interestingly, several Xcc TBDRs and CUT loci are conserved in aquatic bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus, Colwellia psychrerythraea, Saccharophagus degradans, Shewanella spp., Sphingomonas spp. or Pseudoalteromonas spp., which share the ability to degrade a wide variety of complex carbohydrates and display TBDR overrepresentation. We therefore propose that TBDR overrepresentation and the presence of CUT loci designate the ability to scavenge carbohydrates. Thus CUT loci, which seem to participate to the adaptation of phytopathogenic bacteria to their host plants, might also play a very important role in the biogeochemical cycling of plant-derived nutrients in marine environments. Moreover, the TBDRs and CUT loci identified in this study are clearly different from those characterized in the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which allow glycan foraging

  3. The effect of stereochemistry on carbohydrate hydration in aqueous solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, Saskia Alexandra

    1992-01-01

    Although-carbohydrates are widely used, not much is known about the stereochemical aspects of hydration of carbohydrates. For D-aldohexoses, for example, there are eight different stereoisomers. Just how the hydroxy topology of a carbohydrate molecule influences the hydration behaviour in water is r

  4. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals: implication in agriculture, cereal processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, N.; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  5. Understanding plant cell-wall remodelling during the symbiotic interaction between Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana using a carbohydrate microarray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillo, Fabiano; Fangel, Jonatan Ulrik; Henrissat, Bernard;

    2016-01-01

    MAIN CONCLUSION: A combined approach, using a carbohydrate microarray as a support for genomic data, has revealed subtle plant cell-wall remodelling during Tuber melanosporum and Corylus avellana interaction. Cell walls are involved, to a great extent, in mediating plant-microbe interactions....... An important feature of these interactions concerns changes in the cell-wall composition during interaction with other organisms. In ectomycorrhizae, plant and fungal cell walls come into direct contact, and represent the interface between the two partners. However, very little information is available...... on the re-arrangement that could occur within the plant and fungal cell walls during ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Taking advantage of the Comprehensive Microarray Polymer Profiling (CoMPP) technology, the current study has had the aim of monitoring the changes that take place in the plant cell wall in Corylus...

  6. Direct synthesis of methyl phosphoramidates in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhare, Vijay M; Mishra, Girija Prasad; Lam, Sarah; Wang, Cheng-Chung

    2015-09-28

    A direct installation of a methyl phosphoramidate group by using methyl benzylphosphoramidochloridate into carbohydrates and amino acid is described. This one-step synthesis is efficient for both primary and secondary alcohols and exhibited excellent regioselectivity and functional group compatibility. Formation of a single diastereomer is observed in certain cases. The N-benzyl protecting group on methyl phosphoramidates is easily removed under mild conditions.

  7. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Five-year report, September 15, 1987--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter; Darvill, Alan

    1992-05-01

    The Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC) is the home of ten independent but complementary interdisciplinary research groups led by nine regular faculty and one adjunct faculty. The research of these groups represents a broad spectrum of interests, and they are involved in about 90 collaborations with their CCRC and UGA colleagues and with scientists at other institutions and companies in the US, Canada, Europe, Israel, and Japan. The hallmark of the CCRC is the collaborative, interactive environment encouraged by its directors, faculty and tong-term staff. Newcomers to the CCRC or short-term members soon learn that everyone benefits from this process. The team-oriented approach in carbohydrate science translates into the day-today generous giving of one's time and expertise to the work of others, whether it be in sharing specialized instrumentation, participating in the design of experiments and interpretalon of data, providing service to scientists outside the CCRC, or joining collaborative projects. The CCRC is founded on the principle that the cross-fertilization of ideas and know-how leads to the synergistic advancement of science. This report contains a series of appendices that document the extent and breadth of the Plant and Microbial Carbohydrate Center's contributions to collaborative research and education. Several collaborative research projects that have received postdoctoral research associate support from the Grant are highlighted, as these projects are particularly illustrative of the wide-ranging collaborations that have evolved as a result of this Grant and the quality of the science that the Grant enables.

  8. ABA and GA3 increase carbon allocation in different organs of grapevine plants by inducing accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, enhancement of phloem area and expression of sugar transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, Germán; Pontin, Mariela; Reinoso, Herminda; Baraldi, Rita; Bertazza, Gianpaolo; Gómez-Talquenca, Sebastián; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N

    2016-03-01

    Grape quality for winemaking depends on sugar accumulation and metabolism in berries. Abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAs) have been reported to control sugar allocation in economically important crops, although the mechanisms involved are still unknown. The present study tested if ABA and gibberellin A3 (GA3) enhance carbon allocation in fruits of grapevines by modifying phloem loading, phloem area and expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries. Pot-grown Vitis vinifera cv. Malbec plants were sprayed with ABA and GA3 solutions. The amount of soluble sugars in leaves and berries related to photosynthesis were examined at three points of berry growth: pre-veraison, full veraison and post-veraison. Starch levels and amylase activity in leaves, gene expression of sugar transporters in leaves and berries and phloem anatomy were examined at full veraison. Accumulation of glucose and fructose in berries was hastened in ABA-treated plants at the stage of full veraison, which was correlated with enhancement of Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 2 (VvHT2) and Vitis vinifera HEXOSE TRANSPORTER 6 (VvHT6) gene expression, increases of phloem area and sucrose content in leaves. On the other hand, GA3 increased the quantity of photoassimilates delivered to the stem thus increasing xylem growth. In conclusion, stimulation of sugar transport by ABA and GA3 to berries and stems, respectively, was due to build-up of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, modifications in phloem tissue and modulation in gene expression of sugar transporters.

  9. Effects of warming on chlorophyll degradation and carbohydrate accumulation of Alpine herbaceous species during plant senescence on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changguang Shi

    Full Text Available Plant senescence is a critical life history process accompanied by chlorophyll degradation and has large implications for nutrient resorption and carbohydrate storage. Although photoperiod governs much of seasonal leaf senescence in many plant species, temperature has also been shown to modulate this process. Therefore, we hypothesized that climate warming would significantly impact the length of the plant growing season and ultimate productivity. To test this assumption, we measured the effects of simulated autumn climate warming paradigms on four native herbaceous species that represent distinct life forms of alpine meadow plants on the Tibetan Plateau. Conditions were simulated in open-top chambers (OTCs and the effects on the degradation of chlorophyll, nitrogen (N concentration in leaves and culms, total non-structural carbohydrate (TNC in roots, growth and phenology were assessed during one year following treatment. The results showed that climate warming in autumn changed the senescence process only for perennials by slowing chlorophyll degradation at the beginning of senescence and accelerating it in the following phases. Warming also increased root TNC storage as a result of higher N concentrations retained in leaves; however, this effect was species dependent and did not alter the growing and flowering phenology in the following seasons. Our results indicated that autumn warming increases carbohydrate accumulation, not only by enhancing activities of photosynthetic enzymes (a mechanism proposed in previous studies, but also by affecting chlorophyll degradation and preferential allocation of resources to different plant compartments. The different responses to warming can be explained by inherently different growth and phenology patterns observed among the studied species. The results implied that warming leads to changes in the competitive balance among life forms, an effect that can subsequently shift vegetation distribution and

  10. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme).

  11. Carbohydrate as a factor controlling leaf development in cocoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, R.C.R.

    1986-01-01

    Cocoa shows growth periodicity of the shoot apex where periods of active new leaf development (flushing) alternate with periods of dormancy (Interflush). This thesis presents the results of an investigation into the characteristics of leaf growth, and the production and translocation of photosynthate/carbohydrate between source and sink leaves aimed to investigate the possible role of plant carbohydrate status in the control of the intermittent leaf production. The photosynthetic capacity of mature leaves did not increase during the phase of major increase in carbohydrate consumption by developing leaves but rather decreased slightly. Translocation of assimilated /sup 14/carbon from mature leaves was however significantly increased during phase of rapid expansion of the new leaves. Compensatory changes in the /sup 14/carbon-export from a single remaining source leaf after defoliation showed that mature leaves normally operate much below both their maximum photosynthate loading capacity and export potential. Partial removal of developing leaves within one flush resulted in increased /sup 14/C-photosynthate import into the remaining leaf showing that a developing leaf has a greater import and unloading potential than that utilized during its development in one normal flush.

  12. Carbohydrate metabolism of cactus in a desert environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, B G

    1981-09-01

    The concentration of glucan, mucilage, soluble carbohydrates, and malic acid were determined in Opuntia bigelovii Engelm. during a 23-week period. The experiment began during the dry summer by irrigation to stimulate Crassulacean acid metabolism and was followed by 13 weeks of drought. After the 13-week drought period, the plants were irrigated throughout a 10-week period until late December. The maximum level of malic acid determined each day at dawn decreased throughout the drought period and increased after irrigation. High levels of malic acid occurring at dawn are indicative of active Crassulacean acid metabolism. Soluble carbohydrates also decreased during drought and increased after irrigation. Both glucan and mucilage increased slightly for about 9 weeks during the drought period and then began to decrease. Irrigation was accompanied by a further decrease in concentration of glucan and mucilage. Since both glucan and mucilage changed in a similar manner and since their concentrations in the tissue are correlated, it is hypothesized that both function as storage carbohydrates. Whereas glucan is the nocturnal substrate for malic acid synthesis, there are no data to support or refute a similar hypothesis for mucilage.

  13. Quantification of Carbohydrates in Grape Tissues Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Chanon, Ann M; Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Dami, Imed E; Blakeslee, Joshua J

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars play an important role in freezing tolerance in both herbaceous and woody plants, functioning in both the reduction of freezing-induced dehydration and the cryoprotection of cellular constituents. The quantification of soluble sugars in plant tissues is, therefore, essential in understanding freezing tolerance. While a number of analytical techniques and methods have been used to quantify sugars, most of these are expensive and time-consuming due to complex sample preparation procedures which require the derivatization of the carbohydrates being analyzed. Analysis of soluble sugars using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under alkaline conditions with direct UV detection has previously been used to quantify simple sugars in fruit juices. However, it was unclear whether CZE-based methods could be successfully used to quantify the broader range of sugars present in complex plant extracts. Here, we present the development of an optimized CZE method capable of separating and quantifying mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides isolated from plant tissues. This optimized CZE method employs a column electrolyte buffer containing 130 mM NaOH, pH 13.0, creating a current of 185 μA when a separation voltage of 10 kV is employed. The optimized CZE method provides limits-of-detection (an average of 1.5 ng/μL) for individual carbohydrates comparable or superior to those obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and allows resolution of non-structural sugars and cell wall components (structural sugars). The optimized CZE method was successfully used to quantify sugars from grape leaves and buds, and is a robust tool for the quantification of plant sugars found in vegetative and woody tissues. The increased analytical efficiency of this CZE method makes it ideal for use in high-throughput metabolomics studies designed to quantify plant sugars.

  14. A global analysis of the concentration and dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in plants: does it matter under global change? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, A.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Asencio, M.; Lloret, F.; Palacio, S.; Galiano, L.; Hoch, G.; Piper, F.

    2013-12-01

    Forests store significant amounts of C globally and recent reports of forest mortality world-wide have generated strong concern. Evidence suggests that increasing drought associated with climate change is a primary cause of tree stress and subsequent mortality. This has generated an urgent need to predict how forests will cope with increasing stress. Storage of non-structural C compounds (NSC, compounds not permanently invested in structural biomass that can later be used to support diverse plant functions) is critical for survival during periods when C assimilation does not meet demand. However, remarkable knowledge gaps exist to accurately predict plant growth and survival under climate change. Although trees accumulate relatively large pools of NSC, there is a strong debate on how these pools build up over time. On the one hand, it is frequently assumed that the build- up of NSC in trees occurs when supply via photosynthesis exceeds overall demands. If so, the abundant NSC pools in trees reflect an overabundance of C in the long term. An alternative explanation is that trees regulate NSC storage to maintain sufficient pools to cope with asynchronies between demand and supply and with stresses that long lived plants inevitably experience during their life time. However, our understanding of whether and how trees regulate storage in the long term is minimal. Here, we assembled a new global database to examine broad patterns of seasonal NSC variation across organs, life forms and biomes, and the degree to which NSC storage is depleted in plants under a wide range of natural conditions. We compiled seasonal data (at least three measurements over a minimum of four months) for ca. 200 wild species under natural conditions. On average, NSC account for ca. 8-10% of dry plant biomass. NSC and starch concentrations do not vary significantly with biome, but soluble sugars (SS) in plants from Mediterranean biomes are higher than in temperate or tropical biomes. On average

  15. [Malabsorption of carbohydrates in children (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, C; Escobar, H; Polanco, I; Codoceo, R; Vitoria, J C

    1975-01-01

    Physiological bases of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates are reviewed, as a preliminary step, in order to draw a general scheme of its patholophysiology. Clasification of different types of carbohydrate malabsorption is presented. Various exploration methods are discussed in terms of autors' own experiences. Relationship between a sugar screening test, faecal lactic acid contents and a simplified lactose tolerance test, is described in detail. Systematic diagnoses of these diseases are established. Different clinical pictures are reviewed. It is not yet well defined if a starch malabsorption can be caused by either a primary or secondary duodenal amylase deficiency. The clinical forms of congenital sucrose-isomaltose intolerance may be more attenuated than its classical form; incertain cases, secondary sucrose intolerance may also be present due to mucosa anatomic lesions. Maltose malabsorption has no clinical implications. As compared to other alpha-glycosidades, the trehalase activity has been not more affected by not using trehalose in feeding. Primary congenital lactase deficiency is not frequent, whereas secondary forms as much more usual and appear, in primary malabsorption syndromes and in the coeliac disease, very often along with clinical tolerance to lactose. In Spain, lactose nonabsorbers in 16.5% for adults 11.2% for adolescents and 18.3% for children, meaning, that it is being favored by environmental factors in the latter. The unspecified sugar malabsorption during the child's first year is still the most frequent cause of carbohydrate intolerance in children and, although certain progress has been achieved in its diagnosis and therapy, its pathogenic mechanism is not satisfactorily known yet.

  16. Multiplicity of carbohydrate-binding sites in -prism fold lectins: occurrence and possible evolutionary implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alok Sharma; Divya Chandran; Desh D Singh; M Vijayan

    2007-09-01

    The -prism II fold lectins of known structure, all from monocots, invariably have three carbohydrate-binding sites in each subunit/domain. Until recently, -prism I fold lectins of known structure were all from dicots and they exhibited one carbohydrate-binding site per subunit/domain. However, the recently determined structure of the -prism fold I lectin from banana, a monocot, has two very similar carbohydrate-binding sites. This prompted a detailed analysis of all the sequences appropriate for two-lectin folds and which carry one or more relevant carbohydrate-binding motifs. The very recent observation of a -prism I fold lectin, griffithsin, with three binding sites in each domain further confirmed the need for such an analysis. The analysis demonstrates substantial diversity in the number of binding sites unrelated to the taxonomical position of the plant source. However, the number of binding sites and the symmetry within the sequence exhibit reasonable correlation. The distribution of the two families of -prism fold lectins among plants and the number of binding sites in them, appear to suggest that both of them arose through successive gene duplication, fusion and divergent evolution of the same primitive carbohydrate-binding motif involving a Greek key. Analysis with sequences in individual Greek keys as independent units lends further support to this conclusion. It would seem that the preponderance of three carbohydrate-binding sites per domain in monocot lectins, particularly those with the -prism II fold, is related to the role of plant lectins in defence.

  17. 植物糖生物学与糖链植物疫苗%Plant glycobiology and carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹恒; 赵小明; 王文霞; 杜昱光

    2011-01-01

    Plant glycobiology is concentrated on the plant-carbohydrates interaction mechanism as well as the structure and biology function of carbohydrates (sugar chains or glycans) and glycoconjugates. It contains several research aspects like sugar signaling, plant glycoprotein and glycan, plant glycosyltransferases and plant lectins. Based on published papers and our previous results, the recent research advance of plant glycobiology was reviewed and focused on carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines (CPDVs). The carbohydrates which have the ability to active plant immunity and defense were named carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines and the application and mechanism of carbohydrate-based plant disease vaccines were introduced and discussed.%植物糖生物学是研究植物与糖类互作机制、植物体内糖链与糖缀合物结构及生物学功能的科学,具体涉及糖信号、糖蛋白及其糖链功能、糖基转移酶及植物凝集素等研究方向.依据相关文献及实际研究经验,简要综述植物糖生物学的最新研究进展,其中重点介绍糖链植物疫苗并阐述其应用情况及作用机制.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE IN HUMAN EVOLUTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Karen; Brand-Miller, Jennie; Brown, Katherine D; Thomas, Mark G; Copeland, Les

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT We propose that plant foods containing high quantities of starch were essential for the evolution of the human phenotype during the Pleistocene. Although previous studies have highlighted a stone tool-mediated shift from primarily plant-based to primarily meat-based diets as critical in the development of the brain and other human traits, we argue that digestible carbohydrates were also necessary to accommodate the increased metabolic demands of a growing brain. Furthermore, we acknowledge the adaptive role cooking played in improving the digestibility and palatability of key carbohydrates. We provide evidence that cooked starch, a source of preformed glucose, greatly increased energy availability to human tissues with high glucose demands, such as the brain, red blood cells, and the developing fetus. We also highlight the auxiliary role copy number variation in the salivary amylase genes may have played in increasing the importance of starch in human evolution following the origins of cooking. Salivary amylases are largely ineffective on raw crystalline starch, but cooking substantially increases both their energy-yielding potential and glycemia. Although uncertainties remain regarding the antiquity of cooking and the origins of salivary amylase gene copy number variation, the hypothesis we present makes a testable prediction that these events are correlated.

  19. Different allocation of carbohydrates and phenolics in dehydrated leaves of triticale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hura, Tomasz; Dziurka, Michał; Hura, Katarzyna; Ostrowska, Agnieszka; Dziurka, Kinga

    2016-09-01

    Carbohydrates are used in plant growth processes, osmotic regulation and secondary metabolism. A study of the allocation of carbohydrates to a target set of metabolites during triticale acclimation to soil drought was performed. The study included a semi-dwarf cultivar 'Woltario' and a long-stemmed cultivar 'Moderato', differing in the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus under optimum growth conditions. Differences were found in the quantitative and qualitative composition of individual carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, depending on the developmental stage and water availability. Soluble carbohydrates in the semi-dwarf 'Woltario' cv. under soil drought were utilized for synthesis of starch, soluble phenolic compounds and an accumulation of cell wall carbohydrates. In the typical 'Moderato' cv., soluble carbohydrates were primarily used for the synthesis of phenolic compounds that were then incorporated into cell wall structures. Increased content of cell wall-bound phenolics in 'Moderato' cv. improved the cell wall tightness and reduced the rate of leaf water loss. In 'Woltario' cv., the increase in cell osmotic potential due to an enhanced concentration of carbohydrates and proline was insufficient to slow down the rate of leaf water loss. The mechanism of cell wall tightening in response to leaf desiccation may be the main key in the process of triticale acclimation to soil drought.

  20. Potential physiological role of plant glycosidase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellincampi, D.; Carmadella, L.; Delcour, J.A.;

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-active enzymes including glycosidases, transglycosidases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases are responsible for the enzymatic processing of carbohydrates in plants. A number of carbohydrate-active enzymes are produced by microbial pathogens...... applications....

  1. Carbohydrate clearance receptors in transfusion medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Louise Tølbøll; Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H

    2012-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates play important functions for circulation of proteins and cells. They provide protective shields and refraction from non-specific interactions with negative charges from sialic acids to enhance circulatory half-life. For recombinant protein therapeutics carbohydrates are espe...

  2. Learning about Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Learning About Carbohydrates KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Carbohydrates A A ... of energy for the body. Two Types of Carbohydrates There are two major types of carbohydrates (or ...

  3. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  4. Chemical Changes in Carbohydrates Produced by Thermal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseney, R. Carl

    1984-01-01

    Discusses chemical changes that occur in the carbohydrates found in food products when these products are subjected to thermal processing. Topics considered include browning reactions, starch found in food systems, hydrolysis of carbohydrates, extrusion cooking, processing of cookies and candies, and alterations in gums. (JN)

  5. Carbohydrates and phenols as quantitative molecular vegetation proxies in peats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, K.; Benner, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    Vegetation in peatlands is intricately linked to local environmental conditions and climate. Here we use chemical analyses of carbohydrates and phenols to reconstruct paleovegetation in peat cores collected from 56.8°N (SIB04), 58.4°N (SIB06), 63.8°N (G137) and 66.5°N (E113) in the Western Siberian Lowland. Lignin phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols) were sensitive biomarkers for vascular plant contributions and provided additional information on the relative contributions of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. Specific neutral sugar compositions allowed identification of sphagnum mosses, sedges (Cyperaceae) and lichens. Hydroxyphenols released by CuO oxidation were useful tracers of sphagnum moss contributions. The three independent molecular proxies were calibrated with a diverse group of peat-forming plants to yield quantitative estimates (%C) of vascular plant, sphagnum moss and lichen contributions in peat core samples. Correlation analysis indicated the three molecular proxies produced fairly similar results for paleovegetation compositions, generally within the error interval of each approach (≤26%). The lignin-based method generally lead to higher estimates of vascular plant vegetation. Several significant deviations were also observed due to different reactivities of carbohydrate and phenolic polymers during peat decomposition. Rapid vegetation changes on timescales of 50-200 years were observed in the southern cores SIB04 and SIB06 over the last 2000 years. Vanillyl and syringyl phenol ratios indicated these vegetation changes were largely due to varying inputs of angiosperm and gymnosperm plants. The northern permafrost cores G137 and E113 showed a more stable development. Lichens briefly replaced sphagnum mosses and vascular plants in both of these cores. Shifts in vegetation did not correlate well with Northern hemisphere climate variability over the last 2000 years. This suggested that direct climate forcing of peatland dynamics was overridden

  6. Carbohydrate accumulation in the needles of Siberian stone pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented is to study effects extracted from biologically active peat substances on carbohydrate accumulationprocesses. The study was carried out on 5-year-old Siberian stone pine seedlings grown in the nursery forest in the southern part of the Tomsk region. These seedlings were treated with a peat preparation, which was created in Tomsk. Four groups of experimental plants were organized on the analog principle. Each group consisted of 30 seedlings of average size and half of these seedlings were control. At the beginning of the vegetative season, a single treatment was applied to experimental plants with water solution peat preparation. The first group of plants was treated with a 0.1% solution; the dose was calculated by dry substance. For the second group, the dose was increased by 25%. For the third and fourth groups, the dose was decreased by 25% relative to the first group. Control plants were sprayed with water. Accumulation of carbohydrates and pigments as well as growth values in the 2-year- old needles were studied by standard methods. Glucose levels in the experimental plants existed within the limits 117-120%. On the whole, simple sugar quantity did not differs between experimental variants.Glucose synthesis was accompanied by changes in quantitative values of fructose. This, connected with glucose being a more stable compound, and compulsory conversion from glucose to labile form fructose was necessary. The amount of fructose in the experimental seedlings had a very wide range. This process was accompanied by shoot elongationin Siberian stone pine in the first year after treatment, with the fructose amount of 14% exceeding control values in the first and fourth group. Shoot growth was accompanied by increased fructose amount to 20% relative to control. A similar situation was observed afterwinter with respect to buds. Experimental plants dominated by number of buds

  7. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  8. Why use DFT methods in the study of carbohydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent advances in density functional theory (DFT) and computer technology allow us to study systems with more than 100 atoms routinely. This makes it feasible to study large carbohydrate molecules via quantum mechanical methods, whereas in the past, studies of carbohydrates were restricted to ...

  9. Protein and Carbohydrate Contents of Plant Seeds: An Introduction to Biochemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.; Egan, Todd P.; Meekins, J. Forrest; Siegel, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The first of two projects developed for an introductory biology course of science majors titled Biological Concepts I is described. Students were divided into groups and were asked to determine the total amount of protein and carbohydrate in different types of seeds that were provided to them.

  10. Carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) in alcoholic cirrhosis: a kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Grønbaek, M; Møller, Søren

    1997-01-01

    concentration than controls with a low alcohol intake (detected between carbohydrate deficient transferrin in artery and liver vein or artery and renal vein, either in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 11) or in controls (n = 8......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carbohydrate deficient transferrin has been introduced as a marker of excessive alcohol intake. The present study was undertaken in order to measure the circulating level of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to assess arteriovenous kinetics...... of carbohydrate deficient transferrin in liver and kidney. METHODS/RESULTS: The median value of serum carbohydrate deficient transferrin was 16.0 U/l in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 41), and this value was not significantly different from that of a normal control group (median 17.4 U/l, n = 55, ns...

  11. Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of carbohydrates from green plant tissues for analysis by gas-liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, J G; Strimbu, C E

    1998-06-01

    Simultaneous extraction and derivatization of carbohydrates was performed by mixing dry ground plant tissue with derivatization reagents in pyridine; trimethylsilyl derivatives were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. This "direct analysis" was compared to analysis of samples prepared by exhaustive ethanol extraction of the same ground plant tissues. Comparisons included leaf blades from apple, grape, corn, and tomato and leaf blade, petiole, stem, and pod tissues from soybean plants. Direct analysis gave superior quantification of sucrose, glucose, and fructose because of sucrose hydrolysis during ethanol extraction. Sucrose hydrolysis was highly variable among plant species and use of hot ethanol at the first extraction step reduced sucrose hydrolysis but did not always abolish it. Sucrose hydrolysis was probably due to the activity of hydrolytic enzymes in 75% ethanol at room temperature. Direct analysis was inferior for the quantification of cyclitols in the fibrous tissues of soybean but provided acceptable results for cyclitol analysis in leaf blade tissue. When the time for extraction/reaction was extended from 40 to 60 min, some improvement in recovery of cyclitols was observed, but recovery remained 10 to 20% below that obtained with exhaustive ethanol extraction. Mannitol was vacuum infiltrated into the five types of leaf tissue and recovery averaged 100% by the direct method relative to ETOH extraction for apple, grape, corn, and soybean leaves but was only 76% for tomato leaves. Direct analysis provides very large time savings and is clearly the method of choice when the analysis of large numbers of samples of plant tissues for carbohydrate composition is required.

  12. Methods for Shortening and Extending the Carbon Chain in Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Rune Nygaard

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates play a central role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as HIV, cancer and diabetes. The understanding of these processes and the development of specific therapeutic agents is relying on the ability to chemically synthesize unnatural sugars, glycoconjugates...... and carbohydrate mimetics. Such polyhydroxylated compounds are conveniently synthesized from carbohydrates, however, due to the scarcity of many sugars from nature, efficient methods for transformation of readily available carbohydrates into valuable chiral building blocks are required. The work presented...... in this thesis focuses on the development and application of transition metal mediated methods for shortening and extending the carbon chain in carbohydrates thereby providing access to lower and higher sugars.A new catalytic procedure for shortening unprotected sugars by one carbon atom has been developed...

  13. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarlane Samy I

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (

  14. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 1: Nutrition Therapy in Gestational Diabetes: The Case for Complex Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Teri L

    2016-05-01

    IN BRIEF Restriction of dietary carbohydrate has been the cornerstone for treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, there is evidence that a balanced liberalization of complex carbohydrate as part of an overall eating plan in GDM meets treatment goals and may mitigate maternal adipose tissue insulin resistance, both of which may promote optimal metabolic outcomes for mother and offspring.

  15. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  16. Influence of dietary carbohydrate level on endocrine status and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in the marine fish Sparus sarba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2012-04-01

    Silver sea bream, Sparus sarba, were fed two diets of different carbohydrate levels (2 and 20% dextrin) for 4 weeks, and the effects on organ indices, liver composition, serum metabolite and hormone levels and gene expression profile of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in the liver were investigated. By using real-time PCR, mRNA expression levels of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes including glucokinase (GK, glycolysis), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, gluconeogenesis), glycogen synthase (GS, glycogenesis), glycogen phosphorylase (GP, glycogenolysis) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, pentose phosphate pathway) in liver of sea bream have been examined, and it was found that high dietary carbohydrate level increased mRNA level of GK but decreased mRNA levels of G6Pase and GP. However, mRNA levels of GS and G6PDH were not significantly influenced by dietary carbohydrate. Silver sea bream fed high dietary carbohydrate had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), liver glycogen and protein, but there were no significant changes in gonadosomatic index (GSI), serum glucose and protein level, as well as liver lipid and moisture level. Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transcript abundance were assayed by real-time PCR, and it was found that both parameters remained unchanged in fish fed different dietary carbohydrate levels. Serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) were not significantly affected by dietary carbohydrate levels, but lower serum cortisol level was found in fish fed high dietary carbohydrate level. These results suggest that silver sea bream is able to adapt to a diet with high carbohydrate content (up to 20% dextrin), the consumption of which would lead to fundamental re-organization of carbohydrate metabolism resulting in hepatic glycogen deposition.

  17. Effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in Pummelo cultivar Thong Dee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongnart Nartvaranant

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of fruit thinning on fruit drop, leaf carbohydrates concentration, fruit carbohydrates concentration, leaf nutrient concentration and fruit quality in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee growing in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, were studied during January-August 2013. The results showed that 50% fruit thinning by hand at 1 month after fruit set increased percent of fruit retention throughout fruit development. At 2 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave 62% of fruit retention, which were significantly higher than no thinning (36.60%, whereas, 50% fruit thinning gave 40% of fruit retention at 6 month after fruit set, which significantly higher than no thinning (20.2%. A significant difference in leaf carbohydrate concentration was found in 3-6 month after fruit set. At 3 months after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (81.80 mg.g-1 than no thinning (73.56 mg.g-1, whereas, at 6 month after fruit set, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf carbohydrate concentration (128.92 mg.g-1 than no thinning (102.90 mg.g-1. Although, 50% fruit thinning gave no effect on peel and pulp dry weight including peel and pulp carbohydrates concentration during fruit development. For plant nutrient analysis, 50% fruit thinning gave significantly higher leaf nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K concentration than no thinning during 3-6 month after fruit set. However, 50% fruit thinning had no effect on fruit weight, fruit circumstance, fruit diameter, titratable acidity (TA and total soluble solid (TSS. It was concluded that 50% fruit thinning increased percent of fruit retention and may have an effect on the accumulation of leaf carbohydrates, leaf N, leaf P and leaf K concentrations in pummelo cultivar Thong Dee.

  18. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat I Munir

    Full Text Available Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes, sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199 and carbohydrate binding modules (95 were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  19. Comparative analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes in Clostridium termitidis CT1112 reveals complex carbohydrate degradation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Riffat I; Schellenberg, John; Henrissat, Bernard; Verbeke, Tobin J; Sparling, Richard; Levin, David B

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium termitidis strain CT1112 is an anaerobic, gram positive, mesophilic, cellulolytic bacillus isolated from the gut of the wood-feeding termite, Nasutitermes lujae. It produces biofuels such as hydrogen and ethanol from cellulose, cellobiose, xylan, xylose, glucose, and other sugars, and therefore could be used for biofuel production from biomass through consolidated bioprocessing. The first step in the production of biofuel from biomass by microorganisms is the hydrolysis of complex carbohydrates present in biomass. This is achieved through the presence of a repertoire of secreted or complexed carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), sometimes organized in an extracellular organelle called cellulosome. To assess the ability and understand the mechanism of polysaccharide hydrolysis in C. termitidis, the recently sequenced strain CT1112 of C. termitidis was analyzed for both CAZymes and cellulosomal components, and compared to other cellulolytic bacteria. A total of 355 CAZyme sequences were identified in C. termitidis, significantly higher than other Clostridial species. Of these, high numbers of glycoside hydrolases (199) and carbohydrate binding modules (95) were identified. The presence of a variety of CAZymes involved with polysaccharide utilization/degradation ability suggests hydrolysis potential for a wide range of polysaccharides. In addition, dockerin-bearing enzymes, cohesion domains and a cellulosomal gene cluster were identified, indicating the presence of potential cellulosome assembly.

  20. Characterization of carbohydrates in rainwater from the southeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaugh, Katherine M; Byrd, Jade N; Avery, G Brooks; Mead, Ralph N; Willey, Joan D; Kieber, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Carbohydrates have been widely reported in atmospheric aerosols, but have not previously been quantified in rainwater. We have identified and quantified a series of 11 specific compounds including monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, arabinose, galactose and pinitol), disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose), sugar alcohols (arabitol, dulcitol and mannitol) and the anhydrosaccharide levoglucosan. Rainwater analyzed in this study includes 52 distinct precipitation events in Wilmington, NC between June 2011 and October 2012. Our analysis indicates carbohydrates typically contribute carbohydrates reached as high as 5.8 μM, with glucose and sucrose typically being the predominant species. The distribution of carbohydrates exhibited a distinct seasonal pattern, with higher concentrations of most carbohydrates, especially sucrose, in spring and summer, driven primarily by increased biogenic inputs during the growing season. Concentrations of carbohydrates were an order of magnitude higher in storms of terrestrial origin compared to marine events, further supporting a terrestrial biogenic origin of most species. Sequential sampling of Hurricane Irene showed significant quantities of carbohydrates present at the end of the storm when air mass back trajectories traversed over land. The highest level of levoglucosan, a compound associated with biomass burning, was detected in rain with an air mass back trajectory that traveled over a region affected by wildfires. When compared to aerosol concentrations reported by others, the sugar concentrations in rain demonstrate wet deposition is an important removal mechanism of this water-soluble and bioavailable fraction of atmospheric particulate organic matter.

  1. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical...... for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon...... sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites...

  2. Effect of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Investment into Offspring Number, Size, and Condition in a Social Insect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill D Wills

    Full Text Available Resource availability can determine an organism's investment strategies for growth and reproduction. When nutrients are limited, there are potential tradeoffs between investing into offspring number versus individual offspring size. In social insects, colony investment in offspring size and number may shift in response to colony needs and the availability of food resources. We experimentally manipulated the diet of a polymorphic ant species (Solenopsis invicta to test how access to the carbohydrate and amino acid components of nectar resources affect colony investment in worker number, body size, size distributions, and individual percent fat mass. We reared field-collected colonies on one of four macronutrient treatment supplements: water, amino acids, carbohydrates, and amino acid and carbohydrates. Having access to carbohydrates nearly doubled colony biomass after 60 days. This increase in biomass resulted from an increase in worker number and mean worker size. Access to carbohydrates also altered worker body size distributions. Finally, we found a negative relationship between worker number and size, suggesting a tradeoff in colony investment strategies. This tradeoff was more pronounced for colonies without access to carbohydrate resources. The monopolization of plant-based resources has been implicated in the ecological success of ants. Our results shed light on a possible mechanism for this success, and also have implications for the success of introduced species. In addition to increases in colony size, our results suggest that having access to plant-based carbohydrates can also result in larger workers that may have better individual fighting ability, and that can withstand greater temperature fluctuations and periods of food deprivation.

  3. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  4. Synthetic carbohydrate: An aid to nutrition in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, G. A. (Editor); Murashige, K. H. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    The synthetic production of carbohydrate on a large scale is discussed. Three possible nonagricultural methods of making starch are presented in detail and discussed. The simplest of these, the hydrolysis of cellulose wastes to glucose followed by polymerization to starch, appears a reasonable and economic supplement to agriculture at the present time. The conversion of fossil fuels to starch was found to be not competitive with agriculture at the present time, but tractable enough to allow a reasonable plant design to be made. A reconstruction of the photosynthetic process using isolated enzyme systems proved technically much more difficult than either of the other two processes. Particular difficulties relate to the replacement of expensive energy carrying compounds, separation of similar materials, and processing of large reactant volumes. Problem areas were pinpointed, and technological progress necessary to permit such a system to become practical is described.

  5. Influences of Plant Growth Regulators,Basal Media and Carbohydrate Levels on Cell Suspension Culture of Panax ginseng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TangWei; WuJiongyuan; 等

    1995-01-01

    A cell suspension culture of Panax ginseng which may be continuously subcultured has been established.Embryogenic callus derived from clutured young leaves was used to initiate the culture,Plant growth regulators,basal medium formula and carbohydrate levels were examined to determine their various effects on suspension culture cell growth and development ,The best selection of plant growth regulator,basal medium and carbohydrate level is 2mg/L 2,4-D:0.5mg/L KT,MS and 3% sucrose respectively.

  6. Carbohydrate metabolism and its regulatory hormones in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, R C

    1996-04-16

    Findings of studies of carbohydrate metabolism in anorexia nervosa are reviewed. Topics covered included fasting blood sugar concentrations; serum insulin concentrations, insulin receptor binding activity, insulin sensitivity, and insulin resistance; plasma ketone bodies and free fatty acids; glucose tolerance tests; growth hormone, cortisol, intestinal hormones, and norepinephrine. Metabolic changes reported in anorexia nervosa are similar to those found in human and animal studies of states of caloric and carbohydrate restriction. Restoration of normal body weight is associated with normalization of virtually all measures. It is concluded that published studies offer no conclusive evidence for a syndrome-specific impairment in carbohydrate metabolism in anorexia nervosa.

  7. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes in cereals - implication in agriculture, cereal-processing and nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juge, Nathalie; Svensson, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Enzymes that degrade, modify, or create glycosidic bonds are involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and remodelling. Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes form the basis of current green technology in the food, feed, starch, paper and pulp industries and the revolution in genomics may offer long......-term gains on the quality and quantity of the raw materials. Proteinaceous inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes (alpha-amylase, limit-dextrinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, pectin methylesterase, invertase and xyloglucan endoglucanase) naturally occur in plants where they are involved in various...... roles from plant defence to metabolism. Xylanase inhibitors represent the latest addition to this growing family. In this review, we will focus on the inhibitors of carbohydrate-active enzymes present in cereals, mostly represented by et-amylase and xylanase inhibitors, and summarise the existing...

  8. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Thorn, J

    1994-01-01

    -defined monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on frozen and paraffin-embedded normal salivary gland tissue from 22 parotid, 14 submandibular, six sublingual, and 13 labial glands to elucidate the simple mucin-type glycosylation pattern in relation to cyto- and histodifferentiation. The investigated carbohydrate structures......Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens Tn, sialosyl-Tn and T are often markers of neoplastic transformation and have very limited expression in normal tissues. We performed an immunohistological study of simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, including H and A variants, with well...... antigens indicates that these structures may be of value as markers of salivary gland tumors....

  9. Carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration from branch girdling in four species of wet tropical rain forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Shinichi; Ryan, Michael G

    2015-06-01

    in leaves. In three species, removal of three-quarters of phloem area did not cause leaf carbohydrates to accumulate nor did it change photosynthesis or respiration, suggesting that phloem transport is flexible and transport rate per unit phloem can rapidly increase under an increase in carbohydrate supply relative to phloem area. Leaf carbohydrate content thus may be decoupled from whole plant carbon balance by phloem transport in some species, and carbohydrate regulation of photosynthesis and respiration may not be as common in trees as previous girdling studies suggest. Further studies in carbohydrate regulation should avoid using girdling as girdling can decrease photosynthesis through unintended means without the tested mechanisms of accumulating leaf carbohydrates.

  10. Carbohydrate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  11. Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. Feasibility of Relating Phenology and Carbohydrate Partitioning to Improve Aquatic Plant Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    the submersed species, coontail (Ceratophyliuw demerswm), elodea (EZodea ccznadensi), and egeria (Egeria densa), were higher in winter, with a deple...Best, E. P. H. 1977. Seasonal changes in mineral and organic compounds of Ceratophylluwn demerswn and Elodea canadensis. Aquatic Botany 3:337-348. Best...E. P. H., and J. H. A. Dassen. 1987. A seasonal study of growth char- acteristics and the levels of carbohydrates and proteins in Elodea nuttallii

  12. Magnesium and disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooren, Frank C

    2015-09-01

    Magnesium is actively involved in a number of metabolic reactions as an important co-factor, with special emphasis on carbohydrate metabolism. After a brief overview of the regulation of intra- and extracellular magnesium, the present review first describes the regulatory role of magnesium in important metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism and glycaemic control. Next the clinical significance of hypomagnesaemic conditions with regard to the management of glucose in prediabetic stages, such as insulin resistance/impaired glucose tolerance and in type 2 diabetes mellitus are characterized. Cross-sectional as well as longitudinal studies suggest that a reduced dietary magnesium intake serves as a risk factor for the incidence of both impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes. Mechanisms that might be responsible for diabetes-associated hypomagnesaemia are discussed. Furthermore, the role of hypomagnesaemia in the development and progression of chronic diabetic complications are addressed. Finally, the available literature on the effects of magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control parameters during prediabetic conditions (preventive approach) as well as type 2 diabetes mellitus (therapeutic approach) are reviewed systematically. There is considerable evidence that chronic magnesium supplementation may delay the progression from impaired glucose regulation to type 2 diabetes; however, the effects of oral magnesium supplementation as an adjunct therapy for type 2 diabetes are quite heterogeneous with respect to the various measures of glycaemic control. The results of this review suggest a requirement for critical consideration of the pros and cons of magnesium replacement therapy, based on variables such as magnesium status, stage of disease and glycaemic control.

  13. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf....... As a case study we applied the protocol to grapevine leaf samples infected with plant pathogenic bacteria 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani', known to alter carbohydrate metabolism in grapevine. The described adaptations may be useful for determination of metabolic fingerprints for physiological phenotyping...

  14. The role of carbohydrates in infection strategies of enteric pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Ishiwa, Akiko

    2015-03-01

    Enteric pathogens cause considerable public health concerns worldwide including tropical regions. Here, we review the roles of carbohydrates in the infection strategies of various enteric pathogens including viruses, bacteria and protozoa, which infect the epithelial lining of the human and animal intestine. At host cell entry, enteric viruses, including norovirus, recognize mainly histo-blood group antigens. At the initial step of bacterial infections, carbohydrates also function as receptors for attachment. Here, we describe the function of carbohydrates in infection by Salmonella enterica and several bacterial species that produce a variety of fimbrial adhesions. During invasion by enteropathogenic protozoa, apicomplexan parasites utilize sialic acids or sulfated glycans. Carbohydrates serve as receptors for infection by these microbes; however, their usage of carbohydrates varies depending on the microbe. On the surface of the mucosal tissues of the gastrointestinal tract, various carbohydrate moieties are present and play a crucial role in infection, representing the site of infection or route of access for most microbes. During the infection and/or invasion process of the microbes, carbohydrates function as receptors for various microbes, but they can also function as a barrier to infection. One approach to develop effective prophylactic and therapeutic antimicrobial agents is to modify the drug structure. Another approach is to modify the mode of inhibition of infection depending on the individual pathogen by using and mimicking the interactions with carbohydrates. In addition, similarities in mode of infection may also be utilized. Our findings will be useful in the development of new drugs for the treatment of enteric pathogens.

  15. Molecular Clustering Interrelationships and Carbohydrate Conformation in Hull and Seeds Among Barley Cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N Liu; P Yu

    2011-12-31

    The objective of this study was to use molecular spectral analyses with the diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT) bioanlytical technique to study carbohydrate conformation features, molecular clustering and interrelationships in hull and seed among six barley cultivars (AC Metcalfe, CDC Dolly, McLeod, CDC Helgason, CDC Trey, CDC Cowboy), which had different degradation kinetics in rumen. The molecular structure spectral analyses in both hull and seed involved the fingerprint regions of ca. 1536-1484 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to aromatic lignin semicircle ring stretch), ca. 1293-1212 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to cellulosic compounds in the hull), ca. 1269-1217 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to cellulosic compound in the seeds), and ca. 1180-800 cm{sup -1} (attributed mainly to total CHO C-O stretching vibrations) together with an agglomerative hierarchical cluster (AHCA) and principal component spectral analyses (PCA). The results showed that the DRIFT technique plus AHCA and PCA molecular analyses were able to reveal carbohydrate conformation features and identify carbohydrate molecular structure differences in both hull and seeds among the barley varieties. The carbohydrate molecular spectral analyses at the region of ca. 1185-800 cm{sup -1} together with the AHCA and PCA were able to show that the barley seed inherent structures exhibited distinguishable differences among the barley varieties. CDC Helgason had differences from AC Metcalfe, MeLeod, CDC Cowboy and CDC Dolly in carbohydrate conformation in the seed. Clear molecular cluster classes could be distinguished and identified in AHCA analysis and the separate ellipses could be grouped in PCA analysis. But CDC Helgason had no distinguished differences from CDC Trey in carbohydrate conformation. These carbohydrate conformation/structure difference could partially explain why the varieties were different in digestive behaviors in animals. The molecular spectroscopy

  16. Carbohydrate-based nanoparticles for potential applications in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marradi, Marco; García, Isabel; Penadés, Soledad

    2011-01-01

    Although carbohydrates are essential for life, the development of medical tools based on these important biomolecules is significantly slower than those based on proteins or nucleic acids. This chapter deals with the applications of nanoparticles decorated with carbohydrates and discusses the perspectives of their use in the field of medicine. The review is divided into two sections: diagnosis and therapy. Within these topics, the focus will be on two main types of systems: carbohydrate-coated metallic nanoparticles in which the carbohydrate ligands are "covalently" linked to a nanosized metallic cluster and polysaccharide-encapsulated metallic cores. The former glyconanoparticles (GNPs) represent a powerful chemical tool in the field of glycobiology as a specific carbohydrate can be selected to exert a concrete biological function and profile carbohydrate-based interactions. Up to now, these GNPs have been mainly used as potential anti-adhesion agents against pathogens. The opportunity of inserting multifunctionality and changing the nucleus size/material is giving birth to new targeted systems for imaging and therapy. On the other hand, nonmetallic polysaccharide-based nanoparticles have been successfully used as drug delivery carriers in addition to molecular imaging.

  17. Transcriptome, carbohydrate and phytohormone analysis of Petunia hybrida reveals a complex disturbance of plant functional integrity under mild chilling stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andreas Bauerfeind

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of chilling-tolerant ornamental crops at lower temperature could reduce the energy demands of heated greenhouses. To provide a better understanding of how sub-optimal temperatures (12°C vs. 16°C affect growth of the sensitive Petunia hybrida cultivar `SweetSunshine Williams´, the transcriptome, carbohydrate metabolism and phytohormone homeostasis were monitored in aerial plant parts over four weeks by use of a microarray, enzymatic assays and GC-MS/MS. The data revealed three consecutive phases of chilling response. The first days were marked by a strong accumulation of sugars, particularly in source leaves, preferential up-regulation of genes in the same tissue and down-regulation of several genes in the shoot apex, especially those involved in the abiotic stress response. The midterm phase featured a partial normalization of carbohydrate levels and gene expression. After three weeks of chilling exposure, a new stabilized balance was established. Reduced hexose levels in the shoot apex, reduced ratios of sugar levels between the apex and source leaves and a higher apical sucrose/hexose ratio, associated with decreased activity and expression of cell wall invertase, indicate that prolonged chilling induced sugar accumulation in source leaves at the expense of reduced sugar transport to and reduced sucrose utilization in the shoot. This was associated with reduced levels of indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in the apex and high numbers of differentially, particularly up-regulated genes, especially in the source leaves, including those regulating histones, ethylene action, transcription factors and a jasmonate-ZIM-domain protein. Transcripts of one Jumonji C domain containing protein and one expansin accumulated in source leaves throughout the chilling period. The results reveal a dynamic and complex disturbance of plant function in response to mild chilling, opening new perspectives for the comparative analysis of differently

  18. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  19. Simulation of carbohydrates, from molecular docking to dynamics in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapay, Nicolas; Nurisso, Alessandra; Imberty, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of carbohydrates is particularly challenging because of the variety of structures resulting for the high number of monosaccharides and possible linkages and also because of their intrinsic flexibility. The development of carbohydrate parameters for molecular modeling is still an active field. Nowadays, main carbohydrates force fields are GLYCAM06, CHARMM36, and GROMOS 45A4. GLYCAM06 includes the largest choice of compounds and is compatible with the AMBER force fields and associated. Furthermore, AMBER includes tools for the implementation of new parameters. When looking at protein-carbohydrate interaction, the choice of the starting structure is of importance. Such complex can be sometimes obtained from the Protein Data Bank-although the stereochemistry of sugars may require some corrections. When no experimental data is available, molecular docking simulation is generally used to the obtain protein-carbohydrate complex coordinates. As molecular docking parameters are not specifically dedicated to carbohydrates, inaccuracies should be expected, especially for the docking of polysaccharides. This issue can be addressed at least partially by combining molecular docking with molecular dynamics simulation in water.

  20. Carbohydrate microarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Sungjin; Gildersleeve, Jeffrey C; Blixt, Klas Ola;

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, carbohydrate microarrays have been core technologies for analyzing carbohydrate-mediated recognition events in a high-throughput fashion. A number of methods have been exploited for immobilizing glycans on the solid surface in a microarray format. This microarray-based technol...

  1. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas, E-mail: tke@uams.edu [Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute and Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2011-11-11

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  2. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kieber-Emmons

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs. To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I, and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses.

  3. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. PMID:24213131

  4. Selectivity switch in the catalytic functionalization of nonprotected carbohydrates: selective synthesis in the presence of anomeric and structurally similar carbohydrates under mild conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Takemoto, Yuki

    2013-03-15

    A catalytic process for the chemo- and regioselective functionalization of nonprotected carbohydrates has been developed. This novel process allows selective thiocarbonylation, acylation, and sulfonylation of a particular hydroxy group in a particular carbohydrate in the simultaneous presence of structurally similar carbohydrates such as anomers. In addition, the chemoselectivity can be switched by regulating only the length of the alkyl chain in the organotin catalyst.

  5. In-situ annotation of carbohydrate diversity, abundance, and degradability in highly complex mixtures using NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Many functions of carbohydrates depend on the detection of short structural motifs, approximately up to hexasaccharide length, by receptors or catalysts. This study investigates the usefulness of state-of-the-art 1H–13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) spectroscopy for characterizing the diversity......, abundance, and degradability of such short structural motifs in plant-derived carbohydrates. Assignments of carbohydrate signals for 1H–13C NMR spectra of beer, wine, and fruit juice yield up to >130 assignments in situ, i.e. in individual samples without separation or derivatization. More than 500...... structural motifs can be resolved over a concentration range of ~103 in experiments of a few hours duration. The diversity of carbohydrate units increases according to power laws at lower concentrations for both cereal and fruit-derived samples. Simple graphs resolve the smaller overall contribution of more...

  6. Phosphorous Nutritional Level, Carbohydrate Reserves and Flower Quality in Olives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erel, Ran; Yermiyahu, Uri; Yasuor, Hagai; Cohen Chamus, Dan; Schwartz, Amnon; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    The olive tree is generally characterized by relatively low final fruit set consequential to a significant rate of undeveloped pistils, pistil abortion, and flower and fruitlet abscission. These processes are acknowledged to be governed by competition for resources between the developing vegetative and reproductive organs. To study the role of phosphorus (P) nutritional level on reproductive development, trees were grown under four levels of P for three years in large containers. Phosphorus nutritional level was positively related to rate of reproductive bud break, inflorescence weight, rate of hermaphrodite flowers, pistil weight, fruitlet persistence, fruit set and the consequential total number of fruits. The positive impact of P nutrition on the productivity parameters was not related to carbohydrate reserves or to carbohydrate transport to the developing inflorescence. Phosphorous deficient trees showed significant impairment of assimilation rate, and yet, carbohydrates were accumulated in inflorescences at levels comparable to or higher than trees receiving high P. In contrast to female reproductive organs, pollen viability was consistently higher in P deficient trees, possibly due to the enhanced carbohydrate availability. Overall, the positive effect of P on female reproductive development was found to be independent of the total carbohydrate availability. Hence, P is speculated to have a direct influence on reproductive processes. PMID:27907133

  7. Chlorocholine chloride and paclobutrazol treatments promote carbohydrate accumulation in bulbs of Lilium Oriental hybrids‘Sorbonne’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ri-ru ZHENG; Yun WU; Yi-ping XIA

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to test the hypothesis that the plant growth retardants chlorocholine chloride (CCC) and paclobutrazol (PBZ) could improve the carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs by enhancing photosynthetic capacity and changing endogenous hormones.Plants of Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’ were treated with a foliar spray of CCC or PBZ (both at 300 mg/L) solution,at six weeks after planting (6 WAP).The morphological parameters,endogenous hormone contents (gibberellic acid (GA),abscisic acid (ABA),and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)),and carbohydrate contents were measured from 6 to 18 WAP,at 2-week intervals.The results showed that CCC increased the biomass of leaves and stems which might produce more photoassimilates available for transportation and utilization.However,PBZ treatment suppressed vegetative growth and favored photoassimilate transportation into bulbs.A slight delay of bud and anthesis formation was observed in both treated plants.CCC and PBZ treatments substantially enhanced the sucrose contents in leaves probably due to the increase of chlorophyll contents.Treatment with CCC or PBZ decreased GA but increased IAA contents in lily bulbs which might stimulate starch accumulation and formation of new scales.Our experiment suggested that CCC or PBZ treatment is an effective method to promote carbohydrate accumulation in lily bulbs.

  8. [Carbohydrate metabolism in the brain in comatose states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khapiĭ, Kh Kh; Gruzman, A B

    1990-01-01

    The article confirms an earlier discovered phenomenon that during comas and in post-coma periods the brain releases glucose and consumes lactate. It is suggested that the phenomenon is based on glucogenesis taking place in the brain from non-carbohydrate glucose precursors, which is phylogenetically predetermined and biologically expedient.

  9. Amino acid and carbohydrate tradeoffs by honey bee nectar foragers and their implications for plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksma, Harmen P; Oxman, Karmi L; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-10-01

    Honey bees are important pollinators, requiring floral pollen and nectar for nutrition. Nectar is rich in sugars, but contains additional nutrients, including amino acids (AAs). We tested the preferences of free-flying foragers between 20 AAs at 0.1% w/w in sucrose solutions in an artificial meadow. We found consistent preferences amongst AAs, with essential AAs preferred over nonessential AAs. The preference of foragers correlated negatively with AA induced deviations in pH values, as compared to the control. Next, we quantified tradeoffs between attractive and deterrent AAs at the expense of carbohydrates in nectar. Bees were attracted by phenylalanine, willing to give up 84units sucrose for 1unit AA. They were deterred by glycine, and adding 100 or more units of sucrose could resolve to offset 1unit AA. In addition, we tested physiological effects of AA nutrition on forager homing performance. In a no-choice context, caged bees showed indifference to 0.1% proline, leucine, glycine or phenylalanine in sucrose solutions. Furthermore, flight tests gave no indication that AA nutrition affected flight capacity directly. In contrast, low carbohydrate nutrition reduced the performance of bees, with important methodological implications for homing studies that evaluate the effect of substances that may affect imbibition of sugar solution. In conclusion, low AA concentrations in nectar relative to pollen suggest a limited role in bee nutrition. Most of the 20 AAs evoked a neutral to a mild deterrent response in bees, thus it seems unlikely that bees respond to AAs in nectar as a cue to assess nutritional quality. Nonetheless, free choice behavior of foraging bees is influenced, for instance by phenylalanine and glycine. Thus, AAs in nectar may affect plant-pollinator interactions and thereby exhibit a selective pressure on the flora in the honey bee habitat.

  10. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    , in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns...... side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least......The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...

  11. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    , in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns......The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications...... side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least...

  12. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence......The optimal diet for prevention of weight gain, obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is fat-reduced, fibre-rich, high in lowenergy density carbohydrates (fruit, vegetables, and whole grain products), and intake of energy-containing drinks is restricted. The reduction of the total fat...... content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...

  13. Carbohydrate mimetics and scaffolds: sweet spots in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, Laura; La Ferla, Barbara; Airoldi, Cristina; Zona, Cristiano; Orsato, Alexandre; Shaikh, Nasrin; Russo, Laura; Nicotra, Francesco

    2010-04-01

    Several glycoprocessing enzymes and glycoreceptors have been recognized as important targets for therapeutic intervention. This concept has inspired the development of important classes of therapeutics, such as anti-influenza drugs inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, anti-inflammatory drugs targeting lectin-sialyl-Lewis X interaction and glycosidase inhibitors against HIV, Gaucher's disease, hepatitis and cancer. These therapeutics are mainly carbohydrate mimics in which proper modifications permit stronger interactions with the target protein, higher stability, better pharmacokinetic properties and easier synthesis. Furthermore, the conformational rigidity and polyfunctionality of carbohydrates stimulate their use as scaffolds for the generation of libraries by combinatorial decoration with different pharmacophores. This mini-review will present examples of how to exploit carbohydrates mimics and scaffolds in drug research.

  14. Solvent structure improves docking prediction in lectin-carbohydrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauto, Diego F; Petruk, Ariel A; Modenutti, Carlos P; Blanco, Juan I; Di Lella, Santiago; Martí, Marcelo A

    2013-02-01

    Recognition and complex formation between proteins and carbohydrates is a key issue in many important biological processes. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of such complexes is thus most relevant, but particularly challenging because of their usually low binding affinity. In silico docking methods have a long-standing tradition in predicting protein-ligand complexes, and allow a potentially fast exploration of a number of possible protein-carbohydrate complex structures. However, determining which of these predicted complexes represents the correct structure is not always straightforward. In this work, we present a modification of the scoring function provided by AutoDock4, a widely used docking software, on the basis of analysis of the solvent structure adjacent to the protein surface, as derived from molecular dynamics simulations, that allows the definition and characterization of regions with higher water occupancy than the bulk solvent, called water sites. They mimic the interaction held between the carbohydrate -OH groups and the protein. We used this information for an improved docking method in relation to its capacity to correctly predict the protein-carbohydrate complexes for a number of tested proteins, whose ligands range in size from mono- to tetrasaccharide. Our results show that the presented method significantly improves the docking predictions. The resulting solvent-structure-biased docking protocol, therefore, appears as a powerful tool for the design and optimization of development of glycomimetic drugs, while providing new insights into protein-carbohydrate interactions. Moreover, the achieved improvement also underscores the relevance of the solvent structure to the protein carbohydrate recognition process.

  15. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  16. Diagnosing and Treating Intolerance to Carbohydrates in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Berni Canani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Intolerance to carbohydrates is relatively common in childhood, but still poorly recognized and managed. Over recent years it has come to the forefront because of progresses in our knowledge on the mechanisms and treatment of these conditions. Children with intolerance to carbohydrates often present with unexplained signs and symptoms. Here, we examine the most up-to-date research on these intolerances, discuss controversies relating to the diagnostic approach, including the role of molecular analysis, and provide new insights into modern management in the pediatric age, including the most recent evidence for correct dietary treatment.

  17. Carbohydrate nanocarriers in biomedical applications: functionalization and construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Biao; Opatz, Till; Landfester, Katharina; Wurm, Frederik R

    2015-11-21

    The specific targeting of either tumor cells or immune cells in vivo by carefully designed and appropriately surface-functionalized nanocarriers may become an effective therapeutic treatment for a variety of diseases. Carbohydrates, which are prominent biomolecules, have shown their outstanding ability in balancing the biocompatibility, stability, biodegradability, and functionality of nanocarriers. The recent applications of sugar (mono/oligosaccharides and/or polysaccharides) for the development of nanomedicines are summarized in this review, including the application of carbohydrates for the surface-functionalization of various nanocarriers and for the construction of the nanocarrier itself. Current problems and challenges are also addressed.

  18. Importance of low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall RM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary M Hall, Amber Parry Strong, Jeremy D KrebsCentre for Endocrine, Diabetes and Obesity Research, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand Abstract: Dietary strategies are fundamental in the management of diabetes. Historically, strict dietary control with a low carbohydrate diet was the only treatment option. With increasingly effective medications, the importance of dietary change decreased. Recommendations focused on reducing dietary fat to prevent atherosclerotic disease, with decreasing emphasis on the amount and quality of carbohydrate. As the prevalence of obesity and diabetes escalates, attention has returned to the macronutrient composition of the diet. Very low carbohydrate diets (VLCD's have demonstrated effective initial weight loss and improvement in glycemic control, but difficult long-term acceptability and worsening lipid profile. Modifications to the very low carbohydrate (VLC have included limiting saturated fat and increasing carbohydrate (CHO and protein. Reducing saturated fat appears pivotal in reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol and may mitigate adverse effects of traditional VLCD's. Increased dietary protein enhances satiety, reduces energy intake, and improves glycemic homeostasis, but without sustained improvements in glycemic control or cardiovascular risk over and above the effect of weight loss. Additionally, recent studies in type 1 diabetes mellitus suggest promising benefits to diabetes control with low carbohydrate diets, without concerning effects on ketosis or hypoglycemia. Dietary patterns may highlight pertinent associations. For example, Mediterranean-style and paleolithic-type diets, low in fat and carbohydrate, are associated with reduced body weight and improved glycemic and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. A feature of these dietary patterns is low refined CHO and sugar and higher fiber, and it is possible that increasing sugar

  19. Mastering ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: the impact of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Mycorrhiza formation is the consequence of a mutualistic interaction between certain soil fungi and plant roots that helps to overcome nutritional limitations faced by the respective partners. In symbiosis, fungi contribute to tree nutrition by means of mineral weathering and mobilization of nutrients from organic matter, and obtain plant-derived carbohydrates as a response. Support with easily degradable carbohydrates seems to be the driving force for fungi to undergo this type of interaction. As a consequence, the fungal hexose uptake capacity is strongly increased in Hartig net hyphae of the model fungi Amanita muscaria and Laccaria bicolor. Next to fast carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, storage carbohydrates are of special interest. In functional A. muscaria ectomycorrhizas, expression and activity of proteins involved in trehalose biosynthesis is mainly localized in hyphae of the Hartig net, indicating an important function of trehalose in generation of a strong carbon sink by fungal hyphae. In symbiosis, fungal partners receive up to approximately 19 times more carbohydrates from their hosts than normal leakage of the root system would cause, resulting in a strong carbohydrate demand of infected roots and, as a consequence, a more efficient plant photosynthesis. To avoid fungal parasitism, the plant seems to have developed mechanisms to control carbohydrate drain towards the fungal partner and link it to the fungus-derived mineral nutrition. In this contribution, current knowledge on fungal strategies to obtain carbohydrates from its host and plant strategies to enable, but also to control and restrict (under certain conditions), carbon transfer are summarized.

  20. Grafting Helps Improve Photosynthesis and Carbohydrate Metabolism in Leaves of Muskmelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fei Liu, Hong-Yan Qi, Chun-Ming Bai, Ming-Fang Qi, Chuan-Qiang Xu, Jing-Hong Hao, Yan Li, Tian-Lai Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important quality for muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. is their sweetness which is closely related to the soluble sugars content. Leaves are the main photosynthetic organs in plants and thus the source of sugar accumulation in fruits since sugars are translocated from leaves to fruits. The effects of grafting muskmelon on two different inter-specific (Cucurbita maxima×C. moschata rootstocks was investigated with respect to photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Grafting Zhongmi1 muskmelon on RibenStrong (GR or Shengzhen1 (GS rootstocks increased chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+b content and the leaf area in middle and late developmental stages of the plant compared to the ungrafted Zhongmi1 check (CK. Grafting enhanced the net photosynthesis rate, the stomatal conductance, concentration of intercellular CO2 and transpiration rate. Grafting influenced carbohydrates contents by changing carbohydrate metabolic enzymes activities which was observed as an increase in acid invertase and neutral invertase activity in the functional leaves during the early and middle developmental stages compared to CK. Grafting improved sucrose phosphate synthase and stachyose synthase activities in middle and late developmental stages, thus translocation of sugars (such as sucrose, raffinose and stachyose in GR and GS leaves were significantly enhanced. However, compared with CK, translocation of more sugars in grafted plants did not exert feedback inhibition on photosynthesis. Our results indicate that grafting muskmelon on inter-specific rootstocks enhances photosynthesis and translocation of sugars in muskmelon leaves.

  1. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Kieber-Emmons; Anastas Pashov; Behjatolah Monzavi-Karbassi; Fariba Jousheghany; Cecile Artaud; Leah Hennings

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- an...

  2. [Influence of bean yellow mosaic virus on metabolism of photosynthetic pigments, proteins and carbohydrates in Glycine soja L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrychenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data on BYMV effects on some physiological processes of Glycine soja L. cultivated in the right-bank forest-steppe regions. Pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), soluble proteins and water soluble carbohydrates were estimated and, as has been shown, are subjected to significant changes as compared with control plants, namely: a decrease in the content of chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids was 64%, 53% and 36% compared with the control plants. The significant increase in carbohydrates (56% compared to the control) was observed at the end of the test period.

  3. Carbohydrate malabsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Nordgaard-Andersen, I; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies in small series of healthy adults have suggested that parallel measurement of hydrogen and methane resulting from gut fermentation may improve the precision of quantitative estimates of carbohydrate malabsorption. Systematic, controlled studies of the role of simultaneous hydrogen...

  4. Colorimetric measurement of carbohydrates in biological wastewater treatment systems: A critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chencheng; Stuckey, David C

    2016-05-01

    Four laboratory preparations and three commercially available assay kits were tested on the same carbohydrate samples with the addition of 14 different interfering solutes typically found in wastewater treatment plants. This work shows that a wide variety of solutes can interfere with these assays. In addition, a comparative study on the use of these assays with different carbohydrate samples was also carried out, and the metachromatic response was clearly influenced by variation in sample composition. The carbohydrate content in the supernatant of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) was also measured using these assays, and the amount in the different supernatant samples, with and without a standard addition of glucose to the samples, showed substantial differences. We concluded that the carbohydrates present in wastewater measured using these colorimetric methods could be seriously under- or over-estimated. A new analytical method needs to be developed in order to better understand the biological transformations occurring in anaerobic digestion that leads to the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS).

  5. Influence of Different Carbohydrates on Flavonoid Accumulation in Hairy Root Cultures of Scutellaria baicalensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chang Ha; Kim, Young Seon; Li, Xiaohua; Kim, Haeng Hoon; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-06-01

    Carbohydrate sources play important roles in energy and growth of plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the optimal carbohydrate source in hairy root cultures (HRCs) of Scutellaria baicalensis infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain R1000. The hairy roots were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with seven different carbohydrates sources (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, sorbitol, mannitol and maltose), each at a concentration of 100 mM, in order to identify the best carbon sources for the production of major flavones, such as wogonin, baicalin and baicalein. Sucrose, galactose and fructose markedly influenced the production of major flavones and were therefore chosen for subsequent experiments. HRC growth and flavone accumulation were examined following culture with 30, 100 and 150 mM sucrose, galactose and fructose, respectively. From these data, 150 mM sucrose was found to be the optimal carbon source for the enhancement of baicalein production and growth of S. baicalensis HRCs. Fructose caused the greatest increase in baicalin accumulation. Additionally, galactose was the optimal carbon source for wogonin production. These results provide important insights into the optimal growth conditions, particularly the appropriate carbohydrate source, for S. baicalensis.

  6. Differences in carbohydrate profiles in batch culture grown planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata Wm. Sm

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B.; Bhosle, N.B.

    modes of growth, the concentration of total carbohydrates, carbohydrate fractions, neutral carbohydrates, uronic acids and amino sugars in planktonic and biofilm cells of Amphora rostrata were measured. The results showed that the distribution...

  7. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. lactose ...

  8. Protective group strategies in carbohydrate and peptide chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    Protecting groups play a key role in the synthesis of complex natural products.This holds especially true for the synthesis of oligosaccharides, of which the monomeric carbohydrate building blocks usually contain up to five different hydroxyl functions. The discrimination of these hydroxyl functions

  9. Cerebral carbohydrate cost of physical exertion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Dawson, Ellen A

    2004-01-01

    Above a certain level of cerebral activation the brain increases its uptake of glucose more than that of O(2), i.e., the cerebral metabolic ratio of O(2)/(glucose + 12 lactate) decreases. This study quantified such surplus brain uptake of carbohydrate relative to O(2) in eight healthy males who p...

  10. Carbohydrate Staple Food Modulates Gut Microbiota of Mongolians in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Hou, Qiangchuan; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Haiyan; Sun, Zhihong; Menghe, Bilige; Zhang, Heping

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota is a determining factor in human physiological functions and health. It is commonly accepted that diet has a major influence on the gut microbial community, however, the effects of diet is not fully understood. The typical Mongolian diet is characterized by high and frequent consumption of fermented dairy products and red meat, and low level of carbohydrates. In this study, the gut microbiota profile of 26 Mongolians whom consumed wheat, rice and oat as the sole carbohydrate staple food for a week each consecutively was determined. It was observed that changes in staple carbohydrate rapidly (within a week) altered gut microbial community structure and metabolic pathway of the subjects. Wheat and oat favored bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifodobacteriumbifidum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis); whereas rice suppressed bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis) and wheat suppresses Lactobaciilus, Ruminococcus and Bacteroides. The study exhibited two gut microbial clustering patterns with the preference of fucosyllactose utilization linking to fucosidase genes (glycoside hydrolase family classifications: GH95 and GH29) encoded by Bifidobacterium, and xylan and arabinoxylan utilization linking to xylanase and arabinoxylanase genes encoded by Bacteroides. There was also a correlation between Lactobacillus ruminis and sialidase, as well as Butyrivibrio crossotus and xylanase/xylosidase. Meanwhile, a strong concordance was found between the gastrointestinal bacterial microbiome and the intestinal virome. Present research will contribute to understanding the impacts of the dietary carbohydrate on human gut microbiome, which will ultimately help understand relationships between dietary factor, microbial populations, and the health of global humans. PMID:28377764

  11. Transcriptional regulation of the carbohydrate utilization network in Thermotoga maritima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Rodionov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermophilic bacteria from the Thermotogales lineage can produce hydrogen by fermenting a wide range of carbohydrates. Previous experimental studies identified a large fraction of genes committed to carbohydrate degradation and utilization in the model bacterium Thermotoga maritima. Knowledge of these genes enabled comprehensive reconstruction of biochemical pathways comprising the carbohydrate utilization network. However, transcriptional factors (TFs and regulatory mechanisms driving this network remained largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated approach based on comparative analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data for the reconstruction of the carbohydrate utilization regulatory networks in 11 Thermotogales genomes. We identified DNA-binding motifs and regulons for 19 orthologous TFs in the Thermotogales. The inferred regulatory network in T. maritima contains 181 genes encoding TFs, sugar catabolic enzymes and ABC-family transporters. In contrast to many previously described bacteria, a transcriptional regulation strategy of Thermotoga does not employ global regulatory factors. The reconstructed regulatory network in T. maritima was validated by gene expression profiling on a panel of mono- and disaccharides and by in vitro DNA-binding assays. The observed upregulation of genes involved in catabolism of pectin, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, glucose, galactose, and ribose showed a strong correlation with the UxaR, TreR, BglR, CelR, AraR, RhaR, XylR, GluR, GalR, and RbsR regulons. Ultimately, this study elucidated the transcriptional regulatory network and mechanisms controlling expression of carbohydrate utilization genes in T. maritima. In addition to improving the functional annotations of associated transporters and catabolic enzymes, this research provides novel insights into the evolution of regulatory networks in Thermotogales.

  12. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth > For Teens > Carbohydrates and Diabetes A A A What's in this ... that you should keep track of how many carbohydrates (carbs) you eat. But what exactly are carbohydrates ...

  13. Early diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in mangrove sediments subject to variable redox conditions (French Guiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, C.; Disnar, J. R.; Lallier-Vergès, E.; Lottier, N.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of lignin and neutral carbohydrate compositions, combined with C, N and δ 13C analyses, was carried out on sedimentary cores, and on various vascular plant species collected in mangrove swamps of French Guiana. The main purpose of this study was to assess the diagenesis of carbohydrates and lignin in brackish to hypersaline fine-grained mangrove sediments characterized by great changes in redox conditions. Distribution of carbohydrates in sediments reflects both the lability of these compounds and their efficient recycling. They are subject to selective degradation, cellulosic glucose and xylose appearing to be the two most labile neutral sugars. In contrast a relative increase in arabinose, rhamnose, fucose and hemicellulosic glucose between plants and sediments, suggests that they may be more refractory and/or that they also derive from microbial synthesis. The total carbon from lignin-derived phenols is higher in sediments than in mangrove plants as a consequence of their rather refractory character. Nevertheless, evidence of lignin decomposition was found to be independent of local environmental conditions. The various redox processes that occur in mangrove sediments depend on plant species, stages in forest development and season. Different redox conditions induce different mechanisms for the decomposition of lignin and thus induce changes in phenol distributions. At depth, in most mangroves, an increase in (Ad/Al) v ratios and in deoxy sugars (fucose and rhamnose) content was significantly correlated with increased proportions of oxidized allochthonous organic debris deriving from the Amazonian detrital discharge, thus suggesting a specific source effect rather than a diagenesis induced change. Therefore, this study illustrates that both lignin and cellulose, derived from vascular plant debris, can be degraded in waterlogged mangrove sediments, and that their distribution depends on environmental conditions.

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal coupled with carbohydrate production by five microalgae cultures cultivated in biogas slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fen; Wang, Zhi; Zhouyang, Siyu; Li, Heng; Xie, Youping; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao

    2016-12-01

    In this study, five microalgae strains were cultured for their ability to survive in biogas slurry, remove nitrogen resources and accumulate carbohydrates. It was proved that five microalgae strains adapted in biogas slurry well without ammonia inhibition. Among them, Chlorella vulgaris ESP-6 showed the best performance on carbohydrate accumulation, giving the highest carbohydrate content of 61.5% in biogas slurry and the highest ammonia removal efficiency and rate of 96.3% and 91.7mg/L/d respectively in biogas slurry with phosphorus and magnesium added. Additionally, the absence of phosphorus and magnesium that can be adverse for biomass accumulation resulted in earlier timing of carbohydrate accumulation and magnesium was firstly recognized and proved as the influence factor for carbohydrate accumulation. Microalgae that cultured in biogas slurry accumulated more carbohydrate in cell, making biogas slurry more suitable medium for the improvement of carbohydrate content, thus can be regarded as a new strategy to accumulate carbohydrate.

  15. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  16. Carbohydrate derived energy and gross energy absorption in preterm infants fed human milk or formula.

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, M.; Senterre, J; Rigo, J; Putet, G.

    1986-01-01

    Significant production of breath hydrogen has been shown in premature infants, suggesting limited intestinal capacity for digestion of carbohydrate. To evaluate net absorption of carbohydrate 24 three day balance studies were carried out in seven preterm infants fed pasteurised banked human milk and in 17 preterm infants fed a formula containing 75% lactose and 25% glucose polymers. Because carbohydrate reaching the colon may be converted to organic acids by bacterial flora, carbohydrate net ...

  17. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21(st) Century: Synthesis and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Antony J

    2015-12-01

    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 (st) Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar-based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  18. Virtual Issue: Carbohydrates in the 21st Century: Synthesis and Applications†

    OpenAIRE

    Antony J. Fairbanks

    2015-01-01

    Creative with carbohydrates! This Virtual Issue on Carbohydrates in the 21 st Century: Synthesis and Applications highlights current research in the carbohydrate field in which synthesis underpins the development of novel applications of sugar‐based materials in medicine, diagnostics, and as antiinfectives.

  19. Carbohydrate accumulation may be the proximate trigger of anthocyanin biosynthesis under autumn conditions in Begonia semperflorens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K M; Li, Z; Li, Y; Li, Y H; Kong, D Z; Wu, R H

    2013-11-01

    Many plant leaves appear red in the autumn, and many papers have focused on the environmental factors and role of anthocyanin in this process. However few papers have examined the substances that are induced during this process. We hypothesised that excess sugar accumulation directly induces anthocyanin accumulation under autumn conditions. Using two methods (restricting phloem movement and exogenous sucrose feeding), we found that both surplus photosynthate and exogenous sucrose could induce anthocyanin biosynthesis, corresponding to up-regulation of several enzymes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone isomerase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase) and in transport (glutathione S-transferase). Our results suggest that excess carbohydrate may be the proximate trigger for induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in autumn, but only when carbohydrates are accumulated for storage.

  20. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only.

  1. Normal Roles for Dietary Fructose in Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren R. Laughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many well-documented metabolic effects linked to the fructose component of a very high sugar diet, a healthy diet is also likely to contain appreciable fructose, even if confined to that found in fruits and vegetables. These normal levels of fructose are metabolized in specialized pathways that synergize with glucose at several metabolic steps. Glucose potentiates fructose absorption from the gut, while fructose catalyzes glucose uptake and storage in the liver. Fructose accelerates carbohydrate oxidation after a meal. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that fructose may also play a role in the secretion of insulin and GLP-1, and in the maturation of preadipocytes to increase fat storage capacity. Therefore, fructose undergoing its normal metabolism has the interesting property of potentiating the disposal of a dietary carbohydrate load through several routes.

  2. Onset of Ulcerative Colitis during a Low-Carbohydrate Weight-Loss Diet and Treatment with a Plant-Based Diet: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Mitsuro; Tsuda, Satoko; Komatsu, Masafumi; Tozawa, Haruhiko; Takayama, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are global health concerns. Various effective weight-loss diets have been developed, including the Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as an extreme low-carbohydrate diet. This diet reduces body weight and has gained widespread popularity. However, the metabolite profiles of such a diet have been shown to be detrimental to colonic health. Therefore, a concern for the long-term health effects of this diet exists. We encountered a case in which ulcerative colitis developed while the patient was following the Atkins diet.A man, 172 cm in height and weighing 72 kg, at age 36 years followed a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet. His weight decreased to 66 kg as desired. Thereafter he noticed bloody stool. Colonoscopy revealed diffuse inflammation limited to the rectum, and he was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis. He underwent an educational hospitalization for ulcerative colitis. A plant-based/semivegetarian diet was provided during hospitalization. Bloody stool disappeared during hospitalization and he achieved remission without medication for inflammatory bowel disease.This case indicates that an onset of ulcerative colitis can be an adverse event to a low-carbohydrate weight-loss diet.

  3. Application of carbohydrate arrays coupled with mass spectrometry to detect activity of plant-polysaccharide degradative enzymes from the fungus Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Munster, Jolanda M.; Thomas, Baptiste; Riese, Michel; Davis, Adrienne L.; Gray, Christopher J.; Archer, David B.; Flitsch, Sabine L.

    2017-01-01

    Renewables-based biotechnology depends on enzymes to degrade plant lignocellulose to simple sugars that are converted to fuels or high-value products. Identification and characterization of such lignocellulose degradative enzymes could be fast-tracked by availability of an enzyme activity measurement method that is fast, label-free, uses minimal resources and allows direct identification of generated products. We developed such a method by applying carbohydrate arrays coupled with MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry to identify reaction products of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger. We describe the production and characterization of plant polysaccharide-derived oligosaccharides and their attachment to hydrophobic self-assembling monolayers on a gold target. We verify effectiveness of this array for detecting exo- and endo-acting glycoside hydrolase activity using commercial enzymes, and demonstrate how this platform is suitable for detection of enzyme activity in relevant biological samples, the culture filtrate of A. niger grown on wheat straw. In conclusion, this versatile method is broadly applicable in screening and characterisation of activity of CAZymes, such as fungal enzymes for plant lignocellulose degradation with relevance to biotechnological applications as biofuel production, the food and animal feed industry. PMID:28220903

  4. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Buddington, Randal K; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Siggers, Richard H; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T; Burrin, Douglas G

    2009-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs.

  5. Simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens in pleomorphic adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Mandel, U; Christensen, M

    1993-01-01

    Simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures, T, Tn and sialosyl-Tn, are regarded as general markers of carcinomas in several epithelial tissues as a result of incomplete synthesis with precursor accumulation. The structures have a very limited distribution in normal tissues and secretions, including...... saliva and salivary glands. The expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrate structures and ABH(O) variants was studied in paraffin-embedded and frozen tissue sections from 37 pleomorphic adenomas with associated normal parotid tissue, using immunohistology and a panel of MAbs with well......-defined specificity for T, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and blood group H and A variants hereof. The immature Tn and sialosyl-Tn antigen structures were expressed in the epithelial ductular structures of the tumors, whereas they were almost absent from normal parotid tissue, indicating aberrant glycosylation with accumulation...

  6. Analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in green coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murkovic, Michael; Derler, Karin

    2006-11-30

    The analysis of carbohydrates and amino acids in green coffee is of the utmost importance since these two classes of compounds act as precursors of the Maillard reaction during which the colour and aroma are formed. During the course of the Maillard reaction potentially harmful substances like acrylamide or 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural accrue as well. The carbohydrates were analysed by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection and the amino acids by reversed phase chromatography after derivatization with 6-amino-quinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate and fluorescence detection. Both methods had to be optimized to obtain a sufficient resolution of the analytes for identification and quantification. Sucrose is the dominant carbohydrate in green coffee with a concentration of up to 90 mg/g (mean = 73 mg/g) in arabica beans and significantly lower amounts in robusta beans (mean=45 mg/g). Alanine is the amino acid with the highest concentration (mean = 1200 microg/g) followed by asparagine (mean = 680 microg/g) in robusta and 800 microg/g and 360 microg/g in arabica respectively. In general, the concentration of amino acids is higher in robusta than in arabica.

  7. Novel anti-carbohydrate autoantibodies in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: are they useful for clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malickova, Karin; Lukas, Milan; Donoval, Robert; Sandova, Petra; Janatkova, Ivana

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the diagnostic accuracy of novel anti-carbohydrate assays in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, namely in Crohn's disease. These carbohydrate assays are based on oligosaccharide chitobioside carbohydrate - anti-chitobioside carbohydrate antibodies (ACCA), laminaribioside carbohydrate anti-laminaribioside carbohydrate antibodies (ALCA), and mannobioside carbohydrate - anti-mannobioside carbohydrate antibodies (AMCA). We compared these assays with the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) assay. The results of this study suggest that ASCA are still the best serological marker for Crohn's disease. Further studies are required to explore the clinical utility of ACCA, ALCA and AMCA.

  8. Carbohydrates in diversity-oriented synthesis: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, E; Menchi, G; Trabocchi, A

    2016-01-21

    Over the last decade, Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) has become a new paradigm for developing large collections of structurally diverse small molecules as probes to investigate biological pathways, and to provide a larger array of the chemical space. Drug discovery and chemical biology are taking advantage of DOS approaches to exploit highly-diverse and complex molecular platforms, producing advances in both target and ligand discovery. In this view, carbohydrates are attractive building blocks for DOS libraries, due to their stereochemical diversity and high density of polar functional groups, thus offering many possibilities for chemical manipulation and scaffold decoration. This review will discuss research contributions and perspectives on the application of carbohydrate chemistry to explore the accessible chemical space through appendage, stereochemical and scaffold diversity.

  9. Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A

    2015-12-15

    The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings.

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  11. Effect of Phosphorus Deficiency on Leaf Photosynthesis and Carbohydrates Partitioning in Two Rice Genotypes with Contrasting Low Phosphorus Susceptibility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-fu; LUO An-cheng; Muhammad Jaffar HASSAN; WEI Xing-hua

    2006-01-01

    To study the effect of phosphorus (P) deficiency on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrates partitioning and to determine whether the characteristics of leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrates partitioning are related to iow P tolerance in rice plants, a hydroponic culture experiment supplied with either sufficient P (10 mg/L) or deficient P (0.5 mg/L) was conducted by using two rice genotypes different in their responses to low P stress. Results showed that the plant growth of Zhenongda 454 (low P tolerant genotype) was less affected by P deficiency compared with Sanyang'ai (low P sensitive genotype). Under P-deficient conditions,photosynthetic rates of Zhenongda 454 and Sanyang'ai were decreased by 16% and 35%, respectively, and Zhenongda 454 showed higher photosynthetic rate than Sanyang'ai. Phosphorus deficiency decreased the stomatal conductance for both genotypes, but had no significant influence on leaf internal CO2 concentration (Ci), suggesting that the decrease in leaf photosynthetic rate of rice plants induced by P deficiency was not due to stomatal limitation. Phosphorus deficiency increased the concentration of soluble carbohydrates and sucrose in shoots and roots for both genotypes, and also markedly increased the allocation of soluble carbohydrates and sucrose to roots. Under deficient P supply, Zhenongda 454 had higher root/shoot soluble carbohydrates content ratio and root/shoot sucrose content ratio than Sanyang'ai. In addition, phosphorus deficiency increased the concentration of starch in roots for both genotypes, whereas had no effect on the content of starch in shoots or roots. Compared to genotype Sanyang'ai, the better tolerance to low-P stress of Zhenongda 454 can be explained by the fact that Zhenongda 454 maintains a higher photosynthetic rate and a greater ability to allocate carbohydrates to the roots under P deficiency.

  12. INFLUENCE OF CHITOSAN ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN EXERCISING MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊; 黄伟

    2004-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of chitosan on carbohydrate metabolism disorder in exercising mice. Methods The animal model of carbohydrate metabolism disorder was established through swimming trainings and the content of blood glucose, muscle glycogen and liver glycogen in mice were all surveyed. Results When quiet, liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose of drug-taking group were much higher than those of control group(P<0.05). Compared with control group, the liver glycogen and muscle glycogen of instant drug-taking group after exercises level to a higher degree (P<0.05). The renewing level of liver glycogen, muscle glycogen and blood glucose in drug-taking group after spending 24 hours on recovery was evidently higher than that of control-group (P<0.05). The exhaustive swimming time of drug-taking group was longer than that of exercise-control group by 33.99%. Conclusion Chitosan takes good effect on improving carbohydrate metabolism disorder resulting from exercises.

  13. Structure-activity relationships in carbohydrates revealed by their hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Laura; Busch, Sebastian; McLain, Sylvia E; Pardo, Luis Carlos; Bruni, Fabio; Ricci, Maria Antonietta

    2016-12-21

    One of the more intriguing aspects of carbohydrate chemistry is that despite having very similar molecular structures, sugars have very different properties. For instance, there is a sensible difference in sweet taste between glucose and trehalose, even though trehalose is a disaccharide that comprised two glucose units, suggesting a different ability of these two carbohydrates to bind to sweet receptors. Here we have looked at the hydration of specific sites and at the three-dimensional configuration of water molecules around three carbohydrates (glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose), combining neutron diffraction data with computer modelling. Results indicate that identical chemical groups can have radically different hydration patterns depending on their location on a given molecule. These differences can be linked with the specific activity of glucose, cellobiose, and trehalose as a sweet substance, as building block of cellulose fiber, and as a bioprotective agent, respectively. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Recent Advances in Bionanomaterials" Guest Editors: Dr. Marie-Louise Saboungi and Dr. Samuel D. Bader.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Poulsen, Grith Møller; Andersen, Henning K

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition therapy is an integral part of selfmanagement education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low...... to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta...... to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from...

  15. Secondary Growth and Carbohydrate Storage Patterns Differ between Sexes in Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Olano, José M.; Rozas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reproductive costs between male and female plants have been shown to foster sex-related variability in growth and C-storage patterns. The extent to which differential secondary growth in dioecious trees is associated with changes in stem carbohydrate storage patterns, however, has not been fully assessed. We explored the long-term radial growth and the seasonal variation of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) content in sapwood of 40 males and 40 females Juniperus thurifera trees at two sites. NSC content was analyzed bimonthly for 1 year, and tree-ring width was measured for the 1931–2010 period. Sex-related differences in secondary growth and carbohydrate storage were site-dependent. Under less restrictive environmental conditions females grew more and stored more non-soluble sugars than males. Our results reinforce that sex-related differences in growth and resource storage may be a consequence of local adaptation to environmental conditions. Seasonal variation in soluble sugars concentration was opposite to cambial activity, with minima seen during periods of maximal secondary growth, and did not differ between the sexes or sites. Trees with higher stem NSC levels at critical periods showed higher radial growth, suggesting a common mechanism irrespective of site or sex. Sex-related patterns of secondary growth were linked to differences in non-soluble sugars content indicating sex-specific strategies of long-term performance. PMID:27303418

  16. Phase equilibria of carbohydrates in polar solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Rasmussen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    A method for calculating interaction energies and interaction parameters with molecular mechanics methods is extended to predict solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) for saccharides in aqueous solution, giving results in excellent agreement with experimental values. Previously, the method has been shown...

  17. Counting carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carb counting; Carbohydrate-controlled diet; Diabetic diet; Diabetes-counting carbohydrates ... Many foods contain carbohydrates (carbs), including: Fruit and fruit juice Cereal, bread, pasta, and rice Milk and milk products, soy milk Beans, legumes, ...

  18. Transport of soluble carbohydrates in temperate deciduous trees: beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Ronny; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    The structure of phloem cells and the physiology of the transport of soluble carbohydrates in plants are well studied. However, the influence of different phloem un- and uploading strategies on the translocation of carbohydrates in different tree species is largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted a pulse labeling on 20 young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) respectively, using the stable isotope 13C in a temperate deciduous forest in Central Germany. In one growing season each tree species was labeled in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 5 h. The compound specific δ 13C from carbohydrates in the different compartments leaf, branch, stem and root was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). We found that both tree species used sucrose as a transport sugar, but carbohydrates of the raffinose group (RFO) served as main transport sugar in ash trees. This indicate that beech used only the apoplastic loading strategy into the phloem cells while ash trees relied on both, apoplastic and symplastic loading, preferring the latter at the end of the growing season. Furthermore, we observed different transport velocities of labeled sugars in the two species. Here, sucrose in beech and carbohydrates of the RFO in ash were transported fastest, whereas sucrose was constantly slowest in ash trees. The label of carbohydrates was found over 60 day in the roots of both tree species, with the highest δ 13C enrichment in carbohydrates of RFO than in the other sugars. Accordingly, the mean residence time (MRT) and half life time (HLT) of 13C in different compartments were longest for carbohydrates of RFO in roots (25.6 days) and sucrose in stems (14.9 days), while the shortest MRT and HLT for sucrose appeared in beech in all compartments. Our results give evidence that RFO are preferentially transported to the root tissue as an agent against frost

  19. Edible carbohydrates from formaldehyde in a spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The autocatalytic nature of the base catalyzed condensation of formaldehyde to formose sugars is eliminated by using as a cocatalyst, an aldose, or ketose having an alpha-hydrogen. This is more strongly complexed by base than is formaldehyde and the cocatalyst and sugar products accumulate as catalyst complexes instead of formaldehyde. Because of the presence of alpha-hydrogen atoms in cocatalysts and formose sugars, their removal by cross Cannizzaro reaction of complexed sugars does not occur, so the formose reaction behaves autocatalytically due to this accumulation. It is believed that a given catalytic formose complex is not a discrete complexed sugar, but rather, a scrambled dynamic mixture of sugars having weakened structures. The sugar complexes derive from a common salt-like formaldehyde complex, which, because of the absence of alpha-hydrogen, has a greater tendency to undergo Cannizzaro reaction, rather than formose condensation. Because of this, the Cannizzaro reaction can proceed without measurable formose condensation. The reverse is not possible.

  20. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots.

  1. Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates in contrasting marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdige, D. J.; Skoog, A.; Gardner, K.

    2000-03-01

    Dissolved and particulate carbohydrates were examined in contrasting Chesapeake Bay (estuarine) and mid-Atlantic shelf/slope break (continental margin) sediments. Particulate carbohydrates (PCHOs) represented ˜5-9% of the total sediment particulate organic carbon (POC), and PCHO remineralization appeared to be a similar fraction of total sediment carbon oxidation (or C ox). When these results are compared with results from other coastal sediments and a pelagic turbidite, PCHO remineralization (as a percentage of C ox) did not vary by more than a factor of ˜2-3 over a 3-4 order of magnitude range in C ox values. The causes of this are not well understood, but may be related to specific effects associated with the remineralization of highly altered organic matter mixtures under aerobic conditions. Dissolved carbohydrates (DCHOs) in these sediment pore waters ranged from ˜30 to 400 μM, increased with depth in a manner similar to total DOC, and represented ˜10 to 55% of pore water DOC. In Chesapeake Bay sediments this percentage decreased with sediment depth, while in these continental margin sediments it was constant (upper 30 cm). Of the DCHOs in these pore waters ˜30 to 50% could be identified as individual aldoses (monomeric neutral sugars), and total aldose yields (individual aldoses as a percentage of total DOC) were higher in these continental margin sediment pore waters (>9%) than they were in the estuarine sediment pore waters (<5%). A comparison of DCHO and PCHO concentrations in these sediments indicates that their concentrations are uncoupled, and that pore water DCHO concentrations are primarily controlled by sediment remineralization processes. Pore water DCHOs appeared to be preferentially found in the high molecular weight (HMW) DOC pool, and likely occur as some of the initial HMW intermediates produced and consumed during sediment POC remineralization. These results also support past suggestions about the differing controls on carbon

  2. Protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry: influence on stereoselectivity of glycosylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2010-10-20

    Saccharides are polyhydroxy compounds, and their synthesis requires complex protecting group manipulations. Protecting groups are usually used to temporarily mask a functional group which may interfere with a certain reaction, but protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry do more than protecting groups usually do. Particularly, protecting groups can participate in reactions directly or indirectly, thus affecting the stereochemical outcomes, which is important for synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in protecting groups influencing stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions, including participating protecting groups, and conformation-constraining protecting groups in general.

  3. Computerized molecular modeling of carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computerized molecular modleing continues to increase in capability and applicability to carbohydrates. This chapter covers nomenclature and conformational aspects of carbohydrates, perhaps of greater use to carbohydrate-inexperienced computational chemists. Its comments on various methods and studi...

  4. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50(CA50)expression in colorectal carcinoma.Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa.Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa,cancer distant mucosa,cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa,and there were significant differences among them(P<0.05).The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the deg...

  5. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  6. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system (enzymes) ... metabolic disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. ...

  7. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center. Annual report, September 15, 1990--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  8. Carbohydrate malabsorption in patients with non-specific abdominal complaints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Non-specific abdominal complaints are a considerable problem worldwide. Many patients are affected and many differential diagnoses have to be considered.Among these, carbohydrate malabsorption seems to play an important role. However, so far, only incomplete absorption of lactose is broadly accepted, while the malabsorption of fructose and sorbitol is still underestimated, although in many parts of the world it is much more frequent. Despite the success of dietary interventions in many patients, there are still a lot of unanswered questions that make further investigations necessary.

  9. Effect of Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate in Some Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available An acute dose of DFP equivalent to 50 per cent of the LD50 cause glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia in male albino rats. The hyperglycemic effect can atleast be partially suppressed by the administration of insulin. Under sub-acute dose equivalent to 5 per cent of the LD50, there is glycogenolysis but no change is blood glucose. The action of DFP on carbohydrate metabolism seems to be mediated through adrenal gland. DFP also increases the glycolytic rate, suppresses the LDH activity and is hepatotoxic.

  10. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  11. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  12. Structural and functional profile of the carbohydrate esterase gene complement in Phytophthora infestans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Giraldo, Manuel D; McWalters, Jessica; Seyer, Lauren

    2010-12-01

    The plant cell cuticle is the first obstacle for penetration of the host by plant pathogens. To breach this barrier, most pathogenic fungi employ a complex assortment of cell wall-degrading enzymes including carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, and polysaccharide lyases. We characterized the full complement of carbohydrate esterase-coding genes in three Phytophthora species and analyzed the expression of cutinase in vitro and in planta; we also determined the cutinase allele distribution in multiple isolates of P. infestans. Our investigations revealed that there are 49, 21, and 37 esterase homologs in the P. infestans, P. ramorum, and P. sojae genomes, respectively, with a considerable number predicted to be extracellular. Four cutinase gene copies were found in both the P. infestans and P. ramorum genomes, while 16 copies were found in P. sojae. Transcriptional analyses of cutinase in P. infestans revealed that its expression level during infection is significantly upregulated at all time points compared to that of the same gene in mycelium grown in vitro. Expression achieves maximum values at 15 hpi, declining at subsequent time points. These results may suggest, therefore, that cutinase most likely plays a role in P. infestans pathogenicity.

  13. [Changes of non-structural carbohydrates and its impact factors in trees: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yun-Pu; Wang, He-Xin; Lou, Xin; Yang, Qing-Peng; Xu, Ming

    2014-04-01

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are an important energy source for the metabolism of plants. The size of the NSC pool is likely to mirror the overall carbon supply status and its dynamics strongly influences physiological processes in plants. In order to predict the response and adaptation of trees to climate change, this review summarized the current understanding of NSC pool in trees, and mainly focused on its seasonal and spatial variation for analyzing the relationships between environmental factors and NSC allocation. Moreover, the response and adaptation strategies of NSC pool in trees to climate change were also discussed. Finally, some suggestions were proposed for the potential study orientation of NSC pool in trees in future climate conditions.

  14. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  15. Seasonal carbohydrate storage and mobilization in bearing and non-bearing pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization of bearing ("on") and non-bearing ("off") 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees growing on three different rootstocks. On all rootstocks, carbohydrate storage in shoots and branches of "on" and "off" trees was lowest following the spring growth flush. In "off" trees, stored carbohydrates increased and remained high after the initial growth flush. In "on" trees, stem carbohydrates increased temporarily in early summer, but were mobilized in mid-season during kernel fill, and then increased again after nut harvest. During the dormant season, the only substantial differences in carbohydrate storage between previously "on" and "off" trees were found in the roots of the weakest rootstock. The annual carbohydrate storage and mobilization pattern in canopy branches of heavily cropped pistachio trees appeared to be driven by carbohydrate demands related to nut development and untempered by tree vigor. Mobilization of carbohydrates from current-season and 1- and 2-year-old stem wood of "on" trees during the primary period of kernel fill corresponded with the period of inflorescence bud abscission. Thus, the alternate bearing pattern associated with inflorescence bud abscission in 'Kerman' pistachio may be a function of mid-season mobilization of stored carbohydrates in current-season stems resulting in stimulation of inflorescence bud abscission.

  16. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roth Karl S

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  17. Dietary carbohydrate restriction in type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: time for a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Anthony; Bernstein, Richard K; Dahlqvist, Annika; Draznin, Boris; Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J; Gleed, Amy; Jacobs, David B; Larson, Gabriel; Lustig, Robert H; Manninen, Anssi H; McFarlane, Samy I; Morrison, Katharine; Nielsen, Jørgen Vesti; Ravnskov, Uffe; Roth, Karl S; Silvestre, Ricardo; Sowers, James R; Sundberg, Ralf; Volek, Jeff S; Westman, Eric C; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Vernon, Mary C

    2008-04-08

    Current nutritional approaches to metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes generally rely on reductions in dietary fat. The success of such approaches has been limited and therapy more generally relies on pharmacology. The argument is made that a re-evaluation of the role of carbohydrate restriction, the historical and intuitive approach to the problem, may provide an alternative and possibly superior dietary strategy. The rationale is that carbohydrate restriction improves glycemic control and reduces insulin fluctuations which are primary targets. Experiments are summarized showing that carbohydrate-restricted diets are at least as effective for weight loss as low-fat diets and that substitution of fat for carbohydrate is generally beneficial for risk of cardiovascular disease. These beneficial effects of carbohydrate restriction do not require weight loss. Finally, the point is reiterated that carbohydrate restriction improves all of the features of metabolic syndrome.

  18. Applications of organoboron compounds in carbohydrate chemistry and glycobiology: analysis, separation, protection, and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, Corey A; Taylor, Mark S

    2013-11-15

    The reversible covalent interactions between organoboron compounds and diols have been applied for many years in carbohydrate chemistry. They form the basis of efficient methods for the detection of carbohydrates, and applications in cellular imaging and glycoprotein analysis are beginning to emerge. The interactions are also of widespread utility in carbohydrate synthesis: depending upon the coordination geometry at boron, either protection or activation of a bound diol motif may be achieved. This review article uses recent examples to illustrate the breadth of applications of organoboron compounds in carbohydrate chemistry.

  19. Relation Between Frost-Resistance of Winter Grains, Their Respiration Rate and Water – Soluble Carbohydrates Content in Autumn - Spring Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomortsev A.V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The content of water-soluble carbohydrates and respiration rate in the crown tissue of winter wheat, rye and triticale in autumn – winter – spring were studied. In the period and of winter significant differences were revealed between winter crops in the rate of respiration and content of carbohydrates. Respiration of wheat in mid-March increased over February to 33%, and the content of carbohydrates during this period decreased by 10%. Despite the increase in environment temperature by mid-March of winter rye and triticale showed not increase, but rather decrease in the rate of respiration. A higher level of plant resistance of winter rye and triticale to low temperatures, as compared to winter wheat is associated with carbohydrate status and higher stability of respiration process in winter rye and triticale in response to temperature rise in end of winter.

  20. Carbohydrate-responsive gene expression in adipose tissue of rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although obesity is often associated with high fat diets, it can develop from a variety of meal patterns. Excessive intake of simple carbohydrates is one consistent eating behavior leading to obesity. However, the impact of over-consumption of diets with high carbohydrate-to-fat ratios (C/F) on body...

  1. Minor interference of cross-reactive carbohydrates with the diagnosis of respiratory allergy in standard clinical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Carmen; Sanmartín, Carolina; Armisén, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Background: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) to N-glycans from plant and invertebrate glycoproteins induces extensive in vitro cross-reactivity. This study investigates the prevalence and diagnostic relevance of IgE to these N-glycans [cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs)] in patients with suspi......Background: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) to N-glycans from plant and invertebrate glycoproteins induces extensive in vitro cross-reactivity. This study investigates the prevalence and diagnostic relevance of IgE to these N-glycans [cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs)] in patients...... with suspicion of respiratory allergy. Methods: A total of 1,025 adult subjects with symptoms of rhinitis and/or asthma from a reference allergy clinic were studied. Determinations included a structured questionnaire, skin prick tests (SPT), total IgE, a multiallergen IgE test and specific IgE (s...

  2. Pyrolysis of Softwood Carbohydrates in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yu. Murzin

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work pyrolysis of pure pine wood and softwood carbohydrates, namely cellulose and galactoglucomannan (the major hemicellulose in coniferous wood, was conducted in a batch mode operated fluidized bed reactor. Temperature ramping (5°C/min was applied to the heating until a reactor temperature of 460 °C was reached. Thereafter the temperature was kept until the release of non-condensable gases stopped. The different raw materials gave significantly different bio-oils. Levoglucosan was the dominant product in the cellulose pyrolysis oil. Acetic acid was found in the highest concentrations in both the galactoglucomannan and in the pine wood pyrolysis oils. Acetic acid is most likely formed by removal of O-acetyl groups from mannose units present in GGM structure.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in women with a twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellacy, W N; Buhi, W C; Birk, S A

    1980-06-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism was evaluated in 24 women with a twin pregnancy and 24 women with a singleton pregnancy. The groups were of similar age, parity, weight, and gestational age. In each woman an intravenous glucose tolerance test was done using a 25-g glucose load in the last half of gestation. Both blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were measured and statistically compared. The plasma human placental lactogen levels were significantly higher in the women with the twin gestation (7.3 +/- 0.7 versus 4.7 +/- 0.3 microgram/ml). Although the glucose disappearance rates (K) were not different, there was a significantly lower fasting as well as 5- and 15-minute blood glucose value in the twin pregnancy group. There was also a significantly lower 15-minute insulin level in the twin group. The importance of these findings to the clinical management of twin pregnancies and to the understanding of the metabolic changes in pregnancy is discussed.

  4. Role of carbohydrate reserves in yield production of intensively cultivated oil olive (Olea europaea L.) trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustan, Amnon; Avni, Avishai; Lavee, Shimon; Zipori, Isaac; Yeselson, Yelena; Schaffer, Arthur A; Riov, Joseph; Dag, Arnon

    2011-05-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) has a very high tendency for year-to-year deviation in yield (alternate bearing), which has a negative economic impact on the olive oil industry. Among possible reasons for alternate bearing, depletion of stored carbohydrates (CHO) during the On-year (high yield) has often been mentioned. The objective of the present study was to verify the role of CHO reserves, as a cause or effect, in the alternate bearing of intensively cultivated olives. A monthly survey of soluble sugar and starch concentrations in the leaves, branches, bark and roots of On- and Off-trees (cv. Barnea) was carried out during a complete reproductive cycle from November 2005 to October 2006. Carbohydrate concentration in the sapwood was determined in January, as well as an estimate of whole-tree biomass. The trunk and limbs possess the largest portion of CHO reserves. The influence of reduced fruit load on CHO reserves was also investigated. Starch, mannitol and sucrose concentrations increased from December to March in all tissues, and then declined along with fruit development. Leaves, branches and bark have a significant role in CHO storage, whereas roots accumulated the lowest CHO concentrations. However, fluctuations in reserve content suggested considerable involvement of roots in the CHO budget. Nevertheless, there were no meaningful differences in the annual pattern of CHO concentration between On- and Off-trees. Even a 75-100% reduction in fruit number brought about only a minor, sluggish increase in CHO content, though this was more pronounced in the roots. Carbohydrate reserves were not depleted, even under maximum demands for fruit and oil production. It is concluded that in olives, the status of CHO reserves is not a yield determinant. However, they may play a significant role in the olive's survival strategy, ensuring tree recovery in the unpredictable semiarid Mediterranean environment. This suggests that CHO reserves in olive act like an active sink

  5. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne; Stoll, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    , and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty...... that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11...... acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin-or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42...

  6. Effects of polymeric carbohydrates on growth and development in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    and lead to different metabolites upon digestion. Pancreatic and mucosal enzymes in the small intestine break down the majority of starch, whereas NSP primarily are degraded by the microflora in the large intestine. Starch degradation leads to the release of glucose, which is absorbed by an active...... absorption process that triggers the release of insulin from the pancreas, whereas the fermentation of NSP to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; i.e., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) occurs at a slower and more constant rate and with SCFA being absorbed by passive diffusion. Type and amounts of polymeric......, organs, and cells, and thus plays a critically essential role in protein synthesis and muscle growth, as well as lipid synthesis and adipose tissue growth. In conclusion, polymeric carbohydrates influence growth and development through events in the gut and direct and indirect effects of different...

  7. Significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 expression in colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-hua Ma; Kang Wang; Wei-hua Shang; Si-guang Li; Mao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the significance of carbohydrate antigen 50 (CA50) expression in colorectal carcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect CA50 expression in 10 cases of normal colorectal mucosa and 40 cases of cancer mucosa. Results The expression of CA50 increased in normal colorectal mucosa, cancer distant mucosa, cancer adjacent mucosa and cancer mucosa, and there were significant differences among them (P<0.05). The expression of CA50 in colorectal carcinoma was correlated with the degree of differentiation, Duke's stage and lymphatic metastases (P<0.05). Conclusion The expression of CA50 can be used as a valuable index in evaluating the biological characteristics and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma.

  8. Fiber Type-Specific Satellite Cell Content in Cyclists Following Heavy Training with Carbohydrate and Carbohydrate-Protein Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Alec I.; D'Lugos, Andrew C.; Saunders, Michael J.; Gworek, Keith D.; Luden, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the fiber type-specific satellite cell and myonuclear responses of endurance-trained cyclists to a block of intensified training, when supplementing with carbohydrate (CHO) vs. carbohydrate-protein (PRO). In a crossover design, endurance-trained cyclists (n = 8) performed two consecutive training periods, once supplementing with CHO (de facto “control” condition) and the other with PRO. Each training period consisted of 10 days of intensified cycle training (ICT–120% increase in average training duration) followed by 10 days of recovery (RVT–reduced volume training; 33% volume reduction vs. normal training). Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after ICT and again following RVT. Immunofluorescent microscopy was used to quantify SCs (Pax7+), myonuclei (DAPI+), and myosin heavy chain I (MyHC I). Data are expressed as percent change ± 90% confidence limits. The 10-day block of ICTCHO increased MyHC I SC content (35 ± 28%) and myonuclear density (16 ± 6%), which remained elevated following RVTCHO (SC = 69 ± 50% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 17 ± 15% vs. PRE). MyHC II SC and myonuclei were not different following ICTCHO, but were higher following RVTCHO (SC = +33 ± 31% vs. PRE; Nuclei = 15 ± 14% vs. PRE), indicating a delayed response compared to MyHC I fibers. The MyHC I SC pool increased following ICTPRO (37 ± 37%), but without a concomitant increase in myonuclei. There were no changes in MyHC II SC or myonuclei following ICTPRO. Collectively, these trained endurance cyclists possessed a relatively large pool of SCs that facilitated rapid (MyHC I) and delayed (MyHC II) satellite cell proliferation and myonuclear accretion under carbohydrate conditions. The current findings strengthen the growing body of evidence demonstrating alterations in satellite cell number in the absence of hypertrophy. Satellite cell pool expansion is typically viewed as an advantageous response to

  9. CARBOHYDRATE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS WHICH BIND TO CARBOHYDRATE BINDING RECEPTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases.......Carbohydrate-containing compounds which contain saccharides or derivatives thereof and which bind to carbohydrate binding receptors are useful in pharmaceutical products for treatment of inflammatory diseases and other diseases....

  10. Carbohydrate metabolism and carbon fixation in Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiang Tang

    Full Text Available The Roseobacter clade of aerobic marine proteobacteria, which compose 10-25% of the total marine bacterial community, has been reported to fix CO(2, although it has not been determined what pathway is involved. In this study, we report the first metabolic studies on carbohydrate utilization, CO(2 assimilation, and amino acid biosynthesis in the phototrophic Roseobacter clade bacterium Roseobacter denitrificans OCh114. We develop a new minimal medium containing defined carbon source(s, in which the requirements of yeast extract reported previously for the growth of R. denitrificans can be replaced by vitamin B(12 (cyanocobalamin. Tracer experiments were carried out in R. denitrificans grown in a newly developed minimal medium containing isotopically labeled pyruvate, glucose or bicarbonate as a single carbon source or in combination. Through measurements of (13C-isotopomer labeling patterns in protein-derived amino acids, gene expression profiles, and enzymatic activity assays, we report that: (1 R. denitrificans uses the anaplerotic pathways mainly via the malic enzyme to fix 10-15% of protein carbon from CO(2; (2 R. denitrificans employs the Entner-Doudoroff (ED pathway for carbohydrate metabolism and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway for the biosynthesis of histidine, ATP, and coenzymes; (3 the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP, glycolysis pathway is not active and the enzymatic activity of 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK cannot be detected in R. denitrificans; and (4 isoleucine can be synthesized from both threonine-dependent (20% total flux and citramalate-dependent (80% total flux pathways using pyruvate as the sole carbon source.

  11. Carbohydrate Electrolyte Solutions Enhance Endurance Capacity in Active Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES in active females during a prolonged session of submaximal running to exhaustion. Eight healthy active females volunteered to perform a session of open-ended running to exhaustion at 70% of their maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle on two occasions. During each run, the subjects consumed either 3mL·kg−1 body mass of a 6% CES or a placebo drink (PL every 20 min during exercise. The trials were administered in a randomized double-blind, cross-over design. During the run, the subjects ingested similar volumes of fluid in two trials (CES: 644 ± 75 mL vs. PL: 593 ± 66 mL, p > 0.05. The time to exhaustion was 16% longer during the CES trial (106.2 ± 9.4 min than during the PL trial (91.6 ± 5.9 min (p < 0.05. At 45 min during exercise, the plasma glucose concentration in the CES trial was higher than that in PL trial. No differences were observed in the plasma lactate level, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, perceived rate of exertion, sensation of thirst, or abdominal discomfort between the two trials (p > 0.05. The results of the present study confirm that CES supplementation improves the moderate intensity endurance capacity of active females during the follicular phases of the menstrual cycle. However, the exogenous oxidation of carbohydrate does not seem to explain the improved capacity after CES supplementation.

  12. Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in bulbs and shoots of the geophyte Galanthus nivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthen, Birgit; Wehrmeyer, Andreas

    2004-04-01

    Seasonal dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates were studied in Galanthus nivalis L. over a 2-year period. The plants were collected in the field and separated into above- and below-ground biomass. The polysaccharide fraction of the bulbs consisted of fructans and starch. Seasonal variations suggest that the polysaccharides were utilized for carbon and energy supply for re-growth and flower development. With the re-sprouting of the bulbs in autumn the fructans within the bulbs were depolymerized and an increase of low degree of polymerization fructans as well as sucrose was observable. Within shoots the major polysaccharides were fructans, the starch content was much lower. Gas liquid chromatography and high-performance, anion-exchange chromatographyanalysis of the fructan fraction revealed that the fructans within the shoots were predominantly those with a low degree of polymerization. In addition to the two polysaccharides the other dominant sugar in shoots was sucrose. During the period of slow re-growth and flowering, fructan and starch pools were depleted to different degrees. Calculation of the difference between the carbohydrate content at the start of visible growth and at the time of lowest content revealed that the starch pool showed a higher depletion than the fructan pool. During the re-growth periods in 1996/97 and 1997/98 fructans were catabolized by 39 and 32% only, whereas the starch pool was depleted by 92% (1996/97) and 79% (1997/98), respectively. During rapid shoot growth and fruiting, the bulbs and above-ground organs appeared to be competing sinks for the photosynthetically fixed carbon. Refilling of the bulbs carbohydrate reserve started in February/March In shoots, the period of refilling the bulbs was characterized by a low content of oligosaccarides and a high content of hexoses.

  13. The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephen, A.; Alles, M.; Graaf, de C.; Fleith, M.; Hadjilucas, E.; Isaacs, A.; Maffeis, C.; Zeinstra, G.G.; Gil, A.

    2012-01-01

    Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food

  14. Carbohydrate production by phytoplankton and degradation in the marine microbial food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn

    2006-01-01

    In this PhD thesis I describe studies relating to the cycling of the algal storage glucan chrysolaminaran. Chrysolaminaran is the most abundant type of storage carbohydrate in marine phytoplankton. I choose it as a model substrate to study factors influencing the cycling of carbohydrates, one of the

  15. Knowledge of carbohydrate counting and insulin dose calculations in paediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Finner

    2015-12-01

    General significance: This study demonstrates that in a representative Irish regional paediatric T1DM clinic, knowledge of carbohydrates and insulin is poorer than in a US based sample, although this knowledge is better among patients treated with CSII compared with MDI. This highlights the need for improved resources for diabetes and carbohydrate counting education for patients with T1DM.

  16. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  17. Dietary carbohydrates and denitrification in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to overfishing of global fish stocks and increasing fish meal prices, plant ingredients are being increasingly used as an alternative source of protein in fish feeds. However, the inclusion of unpurified plant ingredients will also increase the content of fibers in feeds. Fibers are nearly indig

  18. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentration

  19. NIR calibration of soluble stem carbohydrates for predicting drought tolerance in spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to ...

  20. Characterization of the carbohydrate components of Taenia solium oncosphere proteins and their role in the antigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Yanina; Verastegui, Manuela; Tuero, Iskra; Grandjean, Louis; Garcia, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2013-10-01

    This study examines the carbohydrate composition of Taenia solium whole oncosphere antigens (WOAs), in order to improve the understanding of the antigenicity of the T. solium. Better knowledge of oncosphere antigens is crucial to accurately diagnose previous exposure to T. solium eggs and thus predict the development of neurocysticercosis. A set of seven lectins conjugates with wide carbohydrate specificity were used on parasite fixations and somatic extracts. Lectin fluorescence revealed that D-mannose, D-glucose, D-galactose and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues were the most abundant constituents of carbohydrate chains on the surface of T. solium oncosphere. Lectin blotting showed that posttranslational modification with N-glycosylation was abundant while little evidence of O-linked carbohydrates was observed. Chemical oxidation and enzymatic deglycosylation in situ were performed to investigate the immunoreactivity of the carbohydrate moieties. Linearizing or removing the carbohydrate moieties from the protein backbones did not diminish the immunoreactivity of these antigens, suggesting that a substantial part of the host immune response against T. solium oncosphere is directed against the peptide epitopes on the parasite antigens. Finally, using carbohydrate probes, we demonstrated for the first time that the presence of several lectins on the surface of the oncosphere was specific to carbohydrates found in intestinal mucus, suggesting a possible role in initial attachment of the parasite to host cells.

  1. The carbohydrates of Phaeocystis and their degradation in the microbial food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderkamp, Anne-Carlijn; Buma, Anita G. J.; van Rijssel, Marion

    2007-01-01

    The ubiquity and high productivity associated with blooms of colonial Phaeocystis makes it an important contributor to the global carbon cycle. During blooms organic matter that is rich in carbohydrates is produced. We distinguish five different pools of carbohydrates produced by Phaeocystis. Like a

  2. STEREOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF HYDRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS .2. KINETIC MEDIUM EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GALEMA, SA; BLANDAMER, MJ; ENGBERTS, JBFN

    1992-01-01

    Rate constants for the hydrolysis of 1-benzoyl-3-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole in aqueous solutions of carbohydrates have been measured as a function of molality and nature of added mono- and disaccharides. The kinetic medium effects induced by the carbohydrates originate from hydration sphere overlap effec

  3. Surface binding sites in carbohydrate active enzymes: An emerging picture of structural and functional diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Cockburn, Darrell

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes, particularly those that are active on polysaccharides, are often found associated with carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which can play several roles in supporting enzyme function, such as localizing the enzyme to the substrate. However, the presence of CBMs...

  4. Involvement of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants-specific IgE in pollen allergy testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Yuma; Kawada, Michitsugu; Takato, Yoshiki; Shinagawa, Kiyomi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki; Saito, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background Specific IgE antibodies against the low-molecular-weight carbohydrate antigen that does not bridge IgE molecules on mast cells are not associated with clinical symptoms. Cross reactivity can be determined in allergen-specific IgE detection assays when the carbohydrate structures between pollen allergens and plant derived food allergens are similar; in such cases, false positive results for grain or legume allergens can be reported for pollen allergic patients who are not sensitized to those allergens. This phenomenon arises owing to the presence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs). Objective This study aimed to assess the impact of CCD interference on the results for pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies in the general adult population and to perform CCD inhibition tests evaluating the involvement of CCD on samples positive to pollen allergens. Methods Serum samples from 322 subjects were tested for IgE antibodies to pollens and CCD. The research subjects were given questionnaires about pollen allergic symptoms to help assess the presence of allergies. Allergen IgE antibodies for Japanese cedar, Japanese cypress, orchard grass, ragweed, MUXF, bromelain, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate oxidase (ASOD) were analyzed. Results It was observed that among individuals who tested positive to any of the pollen allergens, the positive ratio of CCD-specific IgE antibody was the highest for HRP (13.5%–50.0%). The results from the inhibition tests revealed that CCD was marginally present. Although IgE antibodies for cedar pollen did not react with CCD, IgE antibodies for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed might be detected by the presence of CCD. Conclusion The results of the inhibition tests revealed the obvious presence of CCD suggesting its involvement. Considering these findings, careful evaluation of patient IgE results should be performed for Japanese cypress, orchard grass, and ragweed. PMID:28154803

  5. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    accounting for up to 90% of the total mass. The glycan contains mostly galactose and arabinose, but glucoronic acid and other less-abundant sugars like rhamnose, xylose and fucose are also found. Although AGPs are important for normal plant growth and are found throughout the plant in virtually all organs...

  6. CARBOHYDRATES, PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY IN PULP AND PEEL OF 15 BANANA CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR FERNANDES AQUINO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the levels of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity in the pulp and peel of 15 banana cultivars in two ripening stages. Four bunches per cultivar were harvested in the pre-climacteric stage, six fruits were used by sample unit. Fruits were analyzed in the pre-climacteric stage and after ripening. Total, reducing and non-reducing soluble sugars, starch, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cultivar and ripening stage influenced all characteristics analyzed. Unripe pulp and peel had small percentage of sugar, but high percentage of starch, especially ‘Terrinha’ and ‘Marmelo’ cultivars. AAB and ABB cultivars presented the highest percentages of starch, when compared to AA and AAA cultivars. For the phenolic compounds, the highest content was observed in ripe peel, followed by ripe pulp and unripe peel and pulp, highlighting ‘Terrinha’ cultivar in all parts and stages evaluated. The antioxidant potential was higher in ripe peel, followed by unripe peel, ripe and unripe pulp. Fruits of Terrinha, Marmelo, Maçã, Ouro and Caru-Verde cultivars showed the highest carbohydrate contents, and phenolic compounds or antioxidant activity, justifying future actions in the expansion of planting and consumption of these fruits.

  7. Development of NIR calibration models to assess year-to-year variation in total non-structural carbohydrates in grasses using PLSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René; Jensen, Anne Mette Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used in combination with chemometrics to quantify total nonstructural carbohydrates (TNC) in grass samples in order to overcome year-to-year variation. A total of 1103 above-ground plant and root samples were collected from different field and pot experiments...

  8. Related lectins from snowdrop and maize differ in their carbohydrate-binding specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquaert, Elke; Smith, David F; Peumans, Willy J; Proost, Paul; Balzarini, Jan; Savvides, Savvas N; Damme, Els J M Van

    2009-03-01

    Searches in an EST database from maize revealed the expression of a protein related to the Galanthus nivalis (GNA) agglutinin, referred to as GNA(maize). Heterologous expression of GNA(maize) in Pichia pastoris allowed characterization of the first nucleocytoplasmic GNA homolog from plants. GNA(maize) is a tetrameric protein which shares 64% sequence similarity with GNA. Glycan microarray analyses revealed important differences in the specificity. Unlike GNA, which binds strongly to high-mannose N-glycans, the lectin from maize reacts almost exclusively with more complex glycans. Interestingly, GNA(maize) prefers complex glycans containing beta1-2 GlcNAc residues. The obvious difference in carbohydrate-binding properties is accompanied by a 100-fold reduced anti-HIV activity. Although the sequences of GNA and GNA(maize) are clearly related they show only 28% sequence identity. Our results indicate that gene divergence within the family of GNA-related lectins leads to changes in carbohydrate-binding specificity, as shown on N-glycan arrays.

  9. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake...... of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour....... Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test...

  10. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  11. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in white vegetables: links to health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2013-05-01

    Vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend that you make half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Vegetables are diverse plants that vary greatly in energy content and nutrients. Vegetables supply carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and resistant starch in the diet, all of which have been linked to positive health outcomes. Fiber lowers the incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. In this paper, the important role of white vegetables in the human diet is described, with a focus on the dietary fiber and resistant starch content of white vegetables. Misguided efforts to reduce consumption of white vegetables will lower intakes of dietary fiber and resistant starch, nutrients already in short supply in our diets.

  12. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamgoue, Armelle D.; Tchokouaha, Lauve R. Y.; Tarkang, Protus A.; Kuiate, Jules-Roger; Agbor, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. PMID:26246844

  13. Plants in alpine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germino, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Alpine and subalpine plant species are of special interest in ecology and ecophysiology because they represent life at the climate limit and changes in their relative abundances can be a bellwether for climate-change impacts. Perennial life forms dominate alpine plant communities, and their form and function reflect various avoidance, tolerance, or resistance strategies to interactions of cold temperature, radiation, wind, and desiccation stresses that prevail in the short growing seasons common (but not ubiquitous) in alpine areas. Plant microclimate is typically uncoupled from the harsh climate of the alpine, often leading to substantially warmer plant temperatures than air temperatures recorded by weather stations. Low atmospheric pressure is the most pervasive, fundamental, and unifying factor for alpine environments, but the resulting decrease in partial pressure of CO2 does not significantly limit carbon gain by alpine plants. Factors such as tree islands and topographic features create strong heterogeneous mosaics of microclimate and snow cover that are reflected in plant community composition. Factors affecting tree establishment and growth and formation of treeline are key to understanding alpine ecology. Carbohydrate and other carbon storage, rapid development in a short growing season, and physiological function at low temperature are prevailing attributes of alpine plants. A major contemporary research theme asks whether chilling at alpine-treeline affects the ability of trees to assimilate the growth resources and particularly carbon needed for growth or whether the growth itself is limited by the alpine environment. Alpine areas tend to be among the best conserved, globally, yet they are increasingly showing response to a range of anthropogenic impacts, such as atmospheric deposition.

  14. Eco-physiological studies on Indian arid zone plants. III. Effect of sodium chloride and gibberellin on the activity of the enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in leaves of Pennisetum typhoides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, W.; Rustagi, P.N.; Sankhla, N.

    1974-01-01

    Seedlings of Pennisetum typhoides were grown in sodium chloride (NaCl) and gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) separately and in combination, and the effects on the activity of amylase, phosphorylase, aldolase, invertase, hexose-phosphateisomerase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase were studied. Treatment of the seedlings with NaCl caused an inhibition of the activity of amylase and invertase in the leaf homogenate, but enhanced that of phosphorylase, aldolase, sucrose-synthetase and sucrose-6-phosphate-synthetase. GA/sub 3/ alone, as observed earlier, promoted the activity of invertase but indicated no significant influence on the other enzymes tested. In combination with salt, however, GA/sub 3/ tended to counteract, partially or wholly, the effect of NaCl on the activity of severe enzymes tested. The possible significance of the similarities between the action of abscisic acid (ABA) and salinity in influencing growth and metabolism of plants during stress is discussed. 34 references, 3 figures.

  15. Simultaneous determination of carbohydrates and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis) by gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Sabine; Van Boven, Maurits; Holser, Ron; Decuypere, Eddy; Flo, Gerda; Lievens, Sylvia; Cokelaere, Marnix

    2002-11-22

    Separate methods for the analyses of soluble carbohydrates in different plants and simmondsins in jojoba seed meal are described. A reliable gas chromatographic procedure for the simultaneous quantification of D-pinitol, myo-inositoL sucrose, 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol, simmondsin, 4-demethylsimmondsin, 5-demethylsimmondsin and 4,5-didemethylsimmondsin as trimethylsilyl derivatives in jojoba seed meal has been developed. The study of different extraction mixtures allowed for the quantitative recovery of the 9 analytes by a mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v/v) in the concentration range between 0.1 and 4%. Comparison of the separation parameters on three different capillary stationary phases with MS detection allowed for the choice of the optimal gas chromatographic conditions for baseline separation of the analytes.

  16. Terpenes and carbohydrate source influence rumen fermentation, digestibility, intake, and preference in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Olson, K C

    2006-09-01

    We hypothesized that toxins and nutrients in foods interact to influence foraging behavior by herbivores. Based on this hypothesis we predicted that 1) terpenes in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) influence intake and preference in sheep for diets varying in sources of nonstructural (barley grain) and structural (sugar beet pulp) carbohydrates, and 2) these effects are due to the differential effects of terpenes on fermentation products and apparent digestibility of each class of carbohydrates. Lambs were fed 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets with varying proportions of the same ingredients (beet pulp- and barley grain-based diet) or offered a choice between the 2 diets; all feeds were fed without and with terpenes, in consecutive periods. We also compared intake and preference of the beet pulp-and barley-based diets before and after the lambs ate a meal of sagebrush. Finally, we assessed the effect of terpenes on ruminal variables and in vivo digestibility. Lambs ate less when fed beet pulp or when they were offered a choice of diets with terpenes (P 0.20) before eating sagebrush, but they preferred the beet pulp-based diet after eating sagebrush (P feed (P = 0.63). In summary, the predominant type of feed ingredient (beet pulp, grain) ingested with terpenes influenced fermentation products, intake, and preference in lambs. The source of energy from supplements, or other plants in the diet, is likely to influence intake and preference for sagebrush in sheep foraging on rangelands. Moreover, ingesting terpenes from sagebrush may also influence intake and preference for other plant species or supplements.

  17. Carbohydrates as food allergens

    OpenAIRE

    SOH, Jian Yi; Huang, Chiung Hui; Lee, Bee Wah

    2015-01-01

    The literature supports the notion that carbohydrate epitopes, on their own, do not contribute significantly to the induction of allergic reactions. They bind weakly to IgE antibodies and have been termed as cross reactive carbohydrate determinants. These epitopes cause confusion in in vitro IgE testing through nonspecific cross-reactivity. Coincident with the rising trends in food allergy prevalence, there has recently been reports of anaphylaxis induced by carbohydrate epitopes. There are t...

  18. Carbohydrate 19.9 Antigen Serum Levels in Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Bertino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbohydrate 19.9 antigen (CA19.9 has been used in the diagnosis and followup of gastrointestinal tumours. The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was the evaluation of CA19.9 levels in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis hepatitis C virus and B virus correlated. Materials and Methods. 180 patients were enrolled, 116 with HCV-related chronic liver disease (48% chronic hepatitis, 52% cirrhosis and 64 with HBV-related chronic liver disease (86% chronic hepatitis, 14% cirrhosis. Patients with high levels of CA19.9 underwent abdominal ecography, gastroendoscopy, colonoscopy, and abdominal CT scan. Results. 51.7% of patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease and 48.4% of those with HBV-related chronic liver disease presented high levels of CA19.9. None was affected by pancreatic or intestinal neoplasia, cholestatic jaundice, or other diseases potentially able to induce Ca19.9 elevations. CA19.9 levels were elevated in 43.3% of HCV chronic hepatitis, in 56.3% of HCV cirrhosis, in 45.1% of HBV chronic hepatitis, and in 58% of HBV cirrhosis. Conclusions. CA19.9 commonly increases in the serum of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Elevation of CA 19.9 is not specific for neoplastic disease and is related to the severity of fibrosis and to the viral aetiology of hepatitis.

  19. Carbohydrates in size fractionated dissolved organic matter in a station of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, L.; DeSouza, F.; Bhosle, N.B.

    of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) were collected using Amicon stirred Ultrafiltration Cell, and analysed for dissolved organic carbon (UDOC), total carbohydrates (UTCHO) and neutral sugars (UNS). UDOC concentrations were relatively higher in HMW fraction...

  20. Food sources of carbohydrates in a European cohort of adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirfält, E.; McTaggart, A.; Pala, V.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the average consumption of carbohydrate-providing food groups among study centres of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Of the 27 redefined EPIC study centres, 19 contributed subjects of both genders and eight centres female...... participants only (men, women, after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age from the original 36 900 total). Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall methodology using the EPIC-SOFT software. The major sources of dietary carbohydrate were identified, and 16 food groups were examined....... RESULTS: The 10 food groups contributing most carbohydrate were bread; fruit; milk and milk products; sweet buns, cakes and pies; potato; sugar and jam; pasta and rice; vegetables and legumes; crispbread; and fruit and vegetable juices. Consumption of fruits as well as vegetables and legumes was higher...

  1. Immunohistochemical analysis of carbohydrate antigens in chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Motohiro; Nakayama, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become an invaluable technique to detect antigens in tissue sections. Compared to Western blotting analysis, IHC is advantageous in determining histological distribution and localization of the antigen. Another advantage, if one can access human formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of disease tissues, is that IHC makes it possible to analyze diseases retrospectively from archived pathological tissue specimens. In this chapter, we describe protocols used for both conventional and multiple immunostainings using FFPE tissue sections, which have been used for quantitative analysis of high endothelial venule (HEV)-like vessels and lymphocyte subsets attached to HEV-like vessels in our studies of chronic inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. We also describe in detail a protocol using an L-selectinIgM chimera in situ binding assay on FFPE tissue sections for functional detection of L-selectin ligand carbohydrates expressed on HEV-like vessels. After presenting each protocol, we provide practical examples for its use obtained from our studies.

  2. The role and requirements of digestible dietary carbohydrates in infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, A; Alles, M; de Graaf, C; Fleith, M; Hadjilucas, E; Isaacs, E; Maffeis, C; Zeinstra, G; Matthys, C; Gil, A

    2012-07-01

    Digestible carbohydrates are one of the main sources of dietary energy in infancy and childhood and are essential for growth and development. The aim of this narrative review is to outline the intakes of digestible carbohydrates and their role in health and disease, including the development of food preferences, as well the consequences of excess carbohydrate. Key experts in these fields provided up-to-date reviews of the literature. A search of available information on dietary intakes of children below the age of 4 years was conducted from 1985 up to 2010. Articles and reports including information about sugars and/or starch intakes were selected. A number of factors limit the ability to obtain an overall picture of carbohydrate intakes and food sources in this age group. These include small numbers of intake studies, differing approaches to analysing carbohydrate, a variety of terms used to describe sugars intakes and a dearth of information about starch intakes. Data suggest that sweet taste is preferred in infancy and later food choices. There are few established adverse consequences of high intakes of digestible carbohydrate for young children. The greatest evidence is for dental caries, although this is influenced by high intake frequency and poor oral hygiene. Evidence for detrimental effects on nutrient dilution, obesity, diabetes or cognition is limited. In infants, minimum carbohydrate (mainly lactose) intake should be 40% of total energy, gradually increasing to 55% energy by the age of 2 years.

  3. Carbohydrate/glycan-binding specificity of legume lectins in respect to their proposed biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectins, proteins which specifically recognize carbohydrate moieties, have been extensively studied in many biochemical and structural aspects in order to establish the molecular basis of this non-catalytic event. On the other hand, their clinical and agricultural potentials have been growing fast. Although lectins, mainly those from legume plants, had been investigated for biological properties, studies about the physiological functions of lectins are scarce in literature. Therefore, despite the accumulated data on lectins (as proteins, the role played by these signalizing molecules is poorly discussed. In the light of our accumulated results on legume lectins, specially those obtained from plants belonging to the Diocleinae sub-tribe and available data in literature, we discuss here the main hypothesis of their functions according to their carbohydrate/glycan-binding specificity.As lectinas, proteinas que especificamente reconhecem estruturas que contém carboidratos, têm sido extensivamente estudadas em muitos aspectos bioquímicos e estruturais, objetivando estabelecer as bases moleculares deste evento não-catalítico. Por outro lado, os potenciais clínicos e agriculturais destas proteínas têm crescido rapidamente. Embora as lectinas, principalmente aquelas de legumes tenham sido bastante investigadas em suas propriedades biológicas, estudos sobre as funcões fisiológicas de lectinas são escassos na literatura. Além disto, a despeito da quantidade de dados acumulados sobre lectinas (como proteínas, o papel desempenhado por estas moléculas de sinalização é pobremente discutido. Valendo-se de nossos estudos sobre lectinas de leguminosas, principalmente da sub-tribo Diocleinae, e outros dados presentes na literatura, discutimos aqui, as principais hipóteses de suas funções com base na especificidade por carboidratos e glicanos complexos.

  4. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, John I.; Cowie, Gregory L.; Ertel, John R.; James Barbour, R.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    1985-03-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p- hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > α-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source.

  5. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorgaard, Ole; Poulsen, Grith M; Andersen, Henning K; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Objective Nutrition therapy is an integral part of self-management education in patients with type 2 diabetes. Carbohydrates with a low glycemic index are recommended, but the ideal amount of carbohydrate in the diet is unclear. We performed a meta-analysis comparing diets containing low to moderate amounts of carbohydrate (LCD) (energy percentage below 45%) to diets containing high amounts of carbohydrate (HCD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods We systematically reviewed Cochrane library databases, EMBASE, and MEDLINE in the period 2004–2014 for guidelines, meta-analyses, and randomized trials assessing the outcomes HbA1c, BMI, weight, LDL cholesterol, quality of life (QoL), and attrition. Results We identified 10 randomized trials comprising 1376 participants in total. In the first year of intervention, LCD was followed by a 0.34% lower HbA1c (3.7 mmol/mol) compared with HCD (95% CI 0.06 (0.7 mmol/mol), 0.63 (6.9 mmol/mol)). The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater the glucose-lowering effect (R=−0.85, pglycemic index, fat and protein intake, baseline HbA1c, and adherence to the prescribed diets could all have affected the outcomes. Conclusions Low to moderate carbohydrate diets have greater effect on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes compared with high-carbohydrate diets in the first year of intervention. The greater the carbohydrate restriction, the greater glucose lowering, a relationship that has not been demonstrated earlier. Apart from this lowering of HbA1c over the short term, there is no superiority of low-carbohydrate diets in terms of glycemic control, weight, or LDL cholesterol.

  7. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter; Matthews, Lindsay R; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Fels, Johannes Josef; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  8. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Gottingen minipigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Maria Juul Haagensen

    Full Text Available High fat, low carbohydrate diets have become popular, as short-term studies show that such diets are effective for reducing body weight, and lowering the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. There is growing evidence from both humans and other animals that diet affects behaviour and intake of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour. Twenty four young, male Göttingen minipigs were fed either a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet or a low fat, high carbohydrate/sucrose diet in contrast to a standard low fat, high carbohydrate minipig diet. Spontaneous behaviour was observed through video recordings of home pens and test-related behaviours were recorded during tests involving animal-human contact and reaction towards a novel object. We showed that the minipigs fed a high fat/cholesterol, low carbohydrate diet were less aggressive, showed more non-agonistic social contact and had fewer and less severe skin lesions and were less fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society.

  9. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet improves glucoregulation in type 2 diabetes mellitus by reducing postabsorptive glycogenolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allick, G; Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrate and fat modulate fasting glycemia. We compared the effects of an eucaloric high-carbohydrate (89% carbohydrate) and high-fat (89% fat) diet on fasting glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in seven obese patients

  10. Accumulation of reserve carbohydrate by rumen protozoa and bacteria in competition for glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Bethany L; Diese, Leanne E; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Hackmann, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if rumen protozoa could form large amounts of reserve carbohydrate compared to the amounts formed by bacteria when competing for glucose in batch cultures. We separated large protozoa and small bacteria from rumen fluid by filtration and centrifugation, recombined equal protein masses of each group into one mixture, and subsequently harvested (reseparated) these groups at intervals after glucose dosing. This method allowed us to monitor reserve carbohydrate accumulation of protozoa and bacteria individually. When mixtures were dosed with a moderate concentration of glucose (4.62 or 5 mM) (n = 2 each), protozoa accumulated large amounts of reserve carbohydrate; 58.7% (standard error of the mean [SEM], 2.2%) glucose carbon was recovered from protozoal reserve carbohydrate at time of peak reserve carbohydrate concentrations. Only 1.7% (SEM, 2.2%) was recovered in bacterial reserve carbohydrate, which was less than that for protozoa (P protozoa can sequester sugar away from bacteria by accumulating reserve carbohydrate, giving protozoa a competitive advantage and stabilizing fermentation in the rumen. Similar experiments could be used to investigate the importance of starch sequestration.

  11. Protocol Development for the Carbohydrate Quantification in Black Liquor with Brix Refractometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, Arnab; Putatunda, Sirsha; Sen, Dwaipayan; Sarkar, Ankur; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-07-01

    Present work is a proposed methodology to quantify carbohydrates even at its trace level in black liquor (BL) in the presence of lignosulphonates (LS) using brix refractometer. Primarily, the detection accuracy was validated with the simulated solutions resembling BL used in the present work. A factor, resembling the weight fraction of LS and inorganics, was multiplied with the brix degree obtained for the simulated solution to convert it into the brix reading for a sole carbohydrate present in the solution along with other chemicals. It was found that the accuracy level of measuring carbohydrate was within ±1-2 % of the actual.

  12. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishwas B Khodse; Narayan B Bhosle; V V Gopalkrishna

    2009-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM)of surface seawaters was collected during December 2003 to October 2004 at 10 stations in the Bay of Bengal,and analyzed for particulate organic carbon (POC),total particulate nitrogen (TPN),total particulate carbohydrate (TPCHO)and total particulate uronic acids (TPURA).The concentrations of POC,TPCHO and TPURA varied from 4.80 to 29.12,0.85 to 4.24,0.09 to 0.91 C,respectively.The TPCHO-C and TPURA-C accounted for 6.6 –32.5%and 0.87 –3.65%of POC.The trends observed for the distribution of these compounds were generally similar to those recorded for the distribution of chlorophyll (Chl ) .The C/N ratios varied from 3.2 to 22.3 with most of the values being > 10.This suggests that the organic matter was mostly derived from phytoplankton and bacteria.Relatively low C/N ratios and high TPCHO yield imply that freshly derived organic matter was present during SWM and FIM.Our data suggest that the quality and quantity of organic matter varied spatially and seasonally.

  13. Seasonal organic matter dynamics in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon: Contribution of carbohydrates and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønborg, Christian; Doyle, Jason; Furnas, Miles; Menendez, Patricia; Benthuysen, Jessica A.; Carreira, Cátia

    2017-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays a fundamental role in sustaining the high productivity of coral reef ecosystems. Carbohydrates and proteins constitute two of the major chemical classes identified in the OM pool and are used as indicators of bioavailability due to their fast turn-over. We conducted three cruises across the southern shelf of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) during the early dry, late dry and wet seasons in 2009-2010 to 1) assess the relative bioavailability of particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) organic matter, 2) track the temporal and spatial variability in the carbohydrate and protein contribution to the OM pool, and 3) assess factors influencing protein and carbohydrate fractions of the OM pool. Generally, higher concentrations of particulate carbohydrates were found during the wet season, while similar concentrations of particulate protein were found during the three seasons. Both the dissolved carbohydrates and proteins had highest levels during the early dry season and lowest during the wet season, suggesting seasonal variations in the chemical composition of the DOM pool. Spatially, carbohydrates showed higher concentrations at the inshore stations, while no clear spatial pattern was found for the protein concentrations. On average carbohydrates and proteins accounted for a similar fraction (13±5 and 12±6% respectively) of POM, while carbohydrates accounted for a smaller fraction of the DOM than the proteins (6±3 and 13±10%). This suggests that the POM bioavailability was similar between seasons, while the DOM bioavailability varied seasonally with highest levels during the early dry season. This demonstrates that carbohydrates and proteins in the GBR have temporal and spatial variations. Our statistical analysis showed that 1) both carbohydrates and proteins were related with the POM and DOM C:N:P stoichiometry, demonstrating that both bulk estimates (stoichiometry) and specific compounds (CHO and Prot) provide useful measures of OM

  14. Concentrações de carboidratos em tecidos de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu em plantas com ou sem sintomas de morte-precoce durante o período de dormência Carbohydrates content in peach trees tissues (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without peach-tree-short-life symptoms during the dormant period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as concentrações de amido e açúcares solúveis em tecidos de gemas e base de gemas de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cultivar Jubileu, com e sem sintomas da Morte-Precoce-do-Pessegueiro, durante o período de repouso. Os ramos foram coletados em quatro épocas durante a dormência (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08, no inverno de 2003. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada pomar. A elevada concentração de amido nos tecidos das plantas sem sintomas de morte-precoce na fase da saída de dormência propiciou um adequado suprimento energético para que a brotação e a floração destas plantas ocorressem de maneira uniforme e regular. Por outro lado, a antecipação na quebra de dormência das plantas com sintomas da morte-precoce, provocada pelo desencadeamento da síndrome, intensificou a degradação do amido e do sorbitol em ambos os tecidos na saída de dormência, possivelmente, para o fornecimento de glicose e frutose.The aim of this study was to quantify the carbohydrates content (starch and soluble sugars in bud tissues and bud base of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cultivar Jubileu in plants with and without Peach-tree-short-life (PTSL symptoms during the dormant period. The branches were collected in four different times during the dormant period (June, 11th, July, 11th, July, 29th, August, 05th in the winter of 2003. Two experiments were conducted separately, one for each orchard. The higher concentration of starch in plnt tissues without PTSL symptoms in the final of the dormant period provided a suitable energetic supply , leading to a regular and uniform budbreak of the plants. On the other hand, the budbreak anticipation of the plants with PTSL symptoms, which was provoked by the syndrome starting, intensified the starch and sorbitol breakdown in both tissues in the final of the dormant period, possibly producing glucose and fructose.

  15. Determination of water-extractable nonstructural carbohydrates, including inulin, in grass samples with high-performance anion exchange chromatography and pulsed amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raessler, Michael; Wissuwa, Bianka; Breul, Alexander; Unger, Wolfgang; Grimm, Torsten

    2008-09-10

    The exact and reliable determination of carbohydrates in plant samples of different origin is of great importance with respect to plant physiology. Additionally, the identification and quantification of carbohydrates are necessary for the evaluation of the impact of these compounds on the biogeochemistry of carbon. To attain this goal, it is necessary to analyze a great number of samples with both high sensitivity and selectivity within a limited time frame. This paper presents a rugged and easy method that allows the isocratic chromatographic determination of 12 carbohydrates and sugar alcohols from one sample within 30 min. The method was successfully applied to a variety of plant materials with particular emphasis on perennial ryegrass samples of the species Lolium perenne. The method was easily extended to the analysis of the polysaccharide inulin after its acidic hydrolysis into the corresponding monomers without the need for substantial change of chromatographic conditions or even the use of enzymes. It therefore offers a fundamental advantage for the analysis of the complex mixture of nonstructural carbohydrates often found in plant samples.

  16. A Novel Protocol for the Regioselective Bromination of Primary Alcohols in Unprotected Carbohydrates or Glycosides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛伟华; 张立芬

    2012-01-01

    The regioselective and efficient bromination of primary hydroxyl groups in unprotected carbohydrates or glycosides is successfully achieved by using (chloro-phenylthio-methylene)dimethylammoniumchloride (CPMA) in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) in dry DMF.

  17. Understanding the roles of nonstructural carbohydrates in forest trees - from what we can measure to what we want to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Henrik; Trumbore, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Contents 386 I. 386 II. 388 III. 392 IV. 392 V. 396 VI. 399 399 References 399 SUMMARY: Carbohydrates provide the building blocks for plant structures as well as versatile resources for metabolic processes. The nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), mainly sugars and starch, fulfil distinct functional roles, including transport, energy metabolism and osmoregulation, and provide substrates for the synthesis of defence compounds or exchange with symbionts involved in nutrient acquisition or defence. At the whole-plant level, NSC storage buffers the asynchrony of supply and demand on diel, seasonal or decadal temporal scales and across plant organs. Despite its central role in plant function and in stand-level carbon cycling, our understanding of storage dynamics, its controls and response to environmental stresses is very limited, even after a century of research. This reflects the fact that often storage is defined by what we can measure, that is, NSC concentrations, and the interpretation of these as a proxy for a single function, storage, rather than the outcome of a range of NSC source and sink functions. New isotopic tools allow direct quantification of timescales involved in NSC dynamics, and show that NSC-C fixed years to decades previously is used to support tree functions. Here we review recent advances, with emphasis on the context of the interactions between NSC, drought and tree mortality.

  18. The comparative geochemistries of lignins and carbohydrates in an anoxic fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Susan E.; Hedges, John I.

    1988-01-01

    A reducing, varved sediment core and monthly (May-September) plankton and sediment trap samples from Saanich Inlet, B.C., Canada, were analyzed for their elemental, lignin and neutral sugar compositions. Total yields of lignin-derived phenols from both the sediment trap and core samples indicated less than 15% and 30%, respectively, of chemically recognizable vascular plant remains, derived predominantly from gymnosperm wood and nonwoody angiosperm tissues. The elevated vanillyl and syringyl acid/aldehyde ratios of this material compared to fresh plant material indicated that it suffered mild aerobic decomposition prior to introduction to the Inlet. Most of the remaining particular organic material was nitrogen-rich, carbohydrate-poor and apparently plankton-derived. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total neutral sugars and lignin phenols all exhibited decreasing concentrations with depth in a region of uniform varving (upper 15 cm) in the sediment core. All profiles exhibited particularly steep concentration decreases within the top 2 cm of sediment. First-order decay constants for all four chemical categories within the upper 14 cm of the core ranged between 0.1-0.2 yr -1. Neutral sugars were consistently the most reactive chemical class, accounting for roughly 15% of the total organic carbon turnover. Although lignin appeared to be degraded within the sediment core, this degradation was nonselective for different lignin types and did not lead to increased acid/aldehyde ratios as occur during aerobic lignin decomposition. Comparisons of the yields of individual neutral sugars from the sediment and sediment trap samples to those expected from the vascular plant component alone indicated that the vascular plant debris in the upper portion of the sediment core had lost a portion of its initial glucose, lyxose, and mannose. In contrast, rhamnose and fucose were produced by all samples in large excess of total yields expected for chemically intact vascular plant

  19. The bacterial metabolism of carbohydrates used in tests of intestinal permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Qureishy, Gulzar A.

    1984-01-01

    Carbohydrates have been used for tests of intestinal function for many years and the impaired absorption of carbohydrates in the intestinal lumen is either due to the damaged intestinal absorptive surface, as in coeliac disease etc., in some types of acute gastroenteritis , when the absorptive area is reduced by villous atrophy , or due to the bacterial overgrowth in the small intestinal lumen as in blind loop syndrome , some types of malabsorption , which possibly produce alteration in the m...

  20. Musa Paradisiaca flower extract improves carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanmuga Sundaram.C; Subramanian.S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Musa Paradisiaca, commonly known as plantains have been traditionally used for various medicinal purposes. In the absence of an ideal drug to alleviate the primary and secondary complications of diabetes mellitus, search for novel drugs without side effects, preferably from plant origin continues. Recently, we have reported the presence of biologically active phytochemicals as well as the hypoglycemic activity of Musa paradisiaca tepals extract in STZ induced experimental diabetes in rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of tepals, an integrated part of Musa paradisiaca flowers on carbohydrate metabolism in hepatic tissues of experimental diabetic rats. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with ethanolic extract of tepals at a concentration of 200mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days. The levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin were estimated. The activities of key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism such as glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase in hepatic tissues were assayed. The levels of glycogen in hepatic tissues were also estimated. Results: Oral administration ofMusa paradisiaca tepals extract significantly improved the altered levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin and modulated the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. The glycogen content in hepatic tissues was significantly increased in diabetic rats treated with tepals extract. Conclusions: The results of the present study clearly indicate that the tepals extract plays pivotal role to maintain normoglycemia in diabetes by modulating the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes.

  1. Various Terpenoids Derived from Herbal and Dietary Plants Function as PPAR Modulators and Regulate Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Goto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Several herbal plants improve medical conditions. Such plants contain many bioactive phytochemicals. Terpenoids (also called “isoprenoids” constitute one of the largest families of natural products accounting for more than 40,000 individual compounds of both primary and secondary metabolisms. In particular, terpenoids are contained in many herbal plants, and several terpenoids have been shown to be available for pharmaceutical applications, for example, artemisinin and taxol as malaria and cancer medicines, respectively. Various terpenoids are contained in many plants for not only herbal use but also dietary use. In this paper, we describe several bioactive terpenoids contained in herbal or dietary plants, which can modulate the activities of ligand-dependent transcription factors, namely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs. Because PPARs are dietary lipid sensors that control energy homeostasis, daily eating of these terpenoids might be useful for the management for obesity-induced metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular diseases.

  2. DFT Solvation Studies of Carbohydrates: Solvation effects in alpha-linked carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the current paper we address the effect of solvation on the landscape of alpha-linked glucose residues. The solvent is introduced via the implicit solvation models COSMO and PCM. Geometry optimizations, at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory with and without implicit solvation were carried out...

  3. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF THE POWDER OF CURCUMA LONGA RHIZOME PLANT ON A CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM AT ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Aizman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The effects of the powder of Curcuma longa plant rhizome as food additive on different processes of carbohydrate metabolism: glucose concentration in whole blood, concentration of hormones – insulin and C-peptide in plasma, content of glycogen in the liver, structural and functional organization of the islet apparatus of the pancreas in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus were studied.Material and methods. The study was conducted on Wistar adult male rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups: 1 and 2 – the controls, 3 and 4 – the rats with alloxan-induced model of diabetes mellitus. Animals of groups 1 and 3 were kept on standard chow, whereas the rats of groups 2 and 4 were feeded with additive of powder from Curcuma longa plant rhizome (2% by weight of feed.The concentration of glucose in blood and perfused solution was determined with picric acid method by intensity of colour reaction on spectrofotometer. Concentration of hormones (insulin, C-peptide was defined by immunoenzyme method with standard sets on tablet spectrofotometer. The morphological structure of a pancreas was studied by a method of light microscopy. Content of glycogen in a liver was measured by means of Shick-reaction on the Mac-Manus method with measurement of colour intensity on spectrofotometer.Results. Intake of the turmeric rhizomes powder by rats with diabetes, as compared with the diabetic animals on a standard diet, resulted in the lower increase of the glucose concentration in blood, the decrease of glucose absorption in the gut, higher concentration of the insulin and C-peptide in plasma and significant increase of glycogen content in the liver. The microstructure of pancreatic tissue samples of experimental animals using turmeric intake, was characterized by the better preservation of the islet apparatus in comparison with a group of animals on a standard diet.Conclusion. The results indicate the positive effect of the Curcuma longa

  4. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training...... program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  5. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, S.; Laurens, L. M. L.

    2013-12-01

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  6. Spirulina platensis is more efficient than Chlorella homosphaera in carbohydrate productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarites, Ana Cláudia; Volpato, Noany; Araújo, Elenara; Cardoso, Luana Garbin; Bertolin, Telma Elita; Colla, Luciane Maria; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-11-21

    This study aimed to compare the production of biomass with high carbohydrate content by Spirulina platensis LEB 52 and Chlorella homosphaera microalgae. The cultivation of C. homosphaera and S. platensis LEB 52 was performed in standard medium diluted at 50%, and glucose was added as a source of organic carbon for mixotrophic metabolism. The sodium nitrate concentration was increased and the nitrogen components were reduced in the media to induce the synthesis of carbohydrates. C. homosphaera and S. platensis LEB 52 produced 16.32 and 116 mg L(-1) of carbohydrates per day, respectively, when cultivated with 50% less nitrogen and 20% and 10% more sodium chloride, compared with the control. Glucose addition was an essential factor for microalgal growth, resulting in biomass increases of up to 2.79- and 3.45-fold for C. homosphaera and S. platensis LEB 52, respectively. Spirulina presented better characteristics than Chlorella with regard to the capacities of growth and carbohydrate synthesis.

  7. Glycemic Index, Carbohydrates, Glycemic Load, and the Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A ...

  8. Effects of soybean carbohydrates and Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43 on metabolic processes in rat colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Jovanka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to assess the metabolic and physiological changes that occurred in the hind gut of rats after feeding with soybean carbohydrates alone and in combination with Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43. Wistar rats were gavaged with soybean flour for 28 days. The parameters assessed included fecal volatile organic compounds, and L-lactate, reducing sugars, proteins, ammonia and water levels in the colonic lumen. The presence of lactic acid (LAB, sulfate reducing (SRB and methanogenic bacteria was assessed by semi-quantitative PCR. Malondialdehyde levels as well as lymphoid tissue size in ileal and colonic mucosa were also evaluated. On the basics of the results obtained, correlation network was created, setting the parameters tested in research in two metabolic groups: saccharolytic and proteolytic fermentation group. The principal finding of the study is a negative correlation between oral administration of BGRA43 and increase of parameters related to carbohydrate fermentation in the gut, and a positive correlation to factors related to proteolytic fermentation. On the contrary, soybean carbohydrates were correlated with increased values of factors related to carbohydrate catabolism. Different effects of BGRA43 and soybean carbohydrates on metabolic processes in colonic lumen indicate the possibility of applying the BGRA43 in alleviating the gastrointestinal symptoms occurring after consuming hardly digestible carbohydrates. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019

  9. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Keiko; Inukai, Kouichi; Onuma, Hirohisa; Kudo, Akihiko; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Tsugawa, Kazue; Kitahara, Atsuko; Moriya, Rie; Takahashi, Kazuto; Sumitani, Yoshikazu; Hosaka, Toshio; Kawakami, Hayato; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Ishida, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22), a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37) diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37) diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1). Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  10. Long-term low carbohydrate diet leads to deleterious metabolic manifestations in diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Handa

    Full Text Available We investigated long-term effects of low carbohydrate diets on wild type mice, streptozotocin-injected and KKAy obese diabetic mice. These mice were pair-fed three different types of diets, standard chow (SC, C∶P∶F = 63∶15∶22, a low carbohydrate (LC, C∶P∶F = 38∶25∶37 diet and a severely carbohydrate restricted (SR, C∶P∶F = 18∶45∶37 diet for 16 weeks. Despite comparable body weights and serum lipid profiles, wild type and diabetic mice fed the low carbohydrate diets exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and this reduction was dependent on the amount of carbohydrate in the diet. When serum fatty acid compositions were investigated, monounsaturation capacity, i.e. C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0, was impaired in all murine models fed the low carbohydrate diets, consistent with the decreased expression of hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1. Interestingly, both the hepatic expressions and serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21, which might be related to longevity, were markedly decreased in both wild type and KKAy mice fed the SR diet. Taking into consideration that fat compositions did not differ between the LC and SR diets, we conclude that low carbohydrate diets have deleterious metabolic effects in both wild type and diabetic mice, which may explain the association between diets relatively low in carbohydrate and the elevated risk of cardiovascular events observed in clinical studies.

  11. Carbohydrate-mediated inhibition of ice recrystallization in cryopreserved human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Luke K; Tokarew, Jacqueline M; Chaytor, Jennifer L; von Moos, Elizabeth; Li, Yuhua; Palii, Carmen; Ben, Robert N; Allan, David S

    2011-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB) typically involves the cryoprotectant dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), however, infusional toxicity and reductions in cell viability remain a concern. Ice recrystallization (IR) is an important source of cryopreservation-induced cellular injury and limits the stem cell dose in UCB units. Carbohydrates have wide-ranging intrinsic IR inhibition (IRI) activity related to structural properties. We investigated the impact of carbohydrate IRI on cell viability, induction of apoptosis and hematopoietic progenitor function in cryopreserved UCB. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) from UCB were cryopreserved in storage media containing specific carbohydrates (200mM) and compared to 5% DMSO. Samples were analyzed under conditions of high IR ('slow' thaw) and low IR ('fast' thaw). Thawed samples were analyzed for viability and apoptosis by flow cytometry and hematopoietic function using colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. IRI of carbohydrate solutions was determined using the 'splat cooling' assay. Greater IRI capacity of carbohydrates correlated with increased yield of viable MNCs (r(2)=0.92, p=0.004) and CD34(+) cells (r(2)=0.96, p=0.019) after thawing under conditions of high IR. The correlations were less apparent under conditions of low IR. Carbohydrates with greater IRI modulate the induction of early apoptosis during thawing, especially in CD34+ cells (r(2)=0.96, p=0.0001) as compared to total mononuclear cells (p=0.006), and preserve CFU capacity in vitro (r(2)=0.92, p=<0.0001). Our results suggest that carbohydrates with potent IRI increase the yield of non-apoptotic and functional hematopoietic progenitors and provide a foundation for the development of novel synthetic carbohydrates with enhanced IRI properties to improve cryopreservation of UCB.

  12. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  13. Low-carbohydrate diet and type 2 diabetes risk in Japanese men and women: the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nanri

    Full Text Available Evidence is sparse and contradictory regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet score and type 2 diabetes risk, and no prospective study examined the association among Asians, who consume greater amount of carbohydrate. We prospectively investigated the association of low-carbohydrate diet score with type 2 diabetes risk.Participants were 27,799 men and 36,875 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study and who had no history of diabetes. Dietary intake was ascertained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and low-carbohydrate diet score was calculated from total carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake. The scores for high animal protein and fat or for high plant protein and fat were also calculated. Odds ratios of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5-year were estimated by using logistic regression.During the 5-year period, 1191 new cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Low-carbohydrate diet score for high total protein and fat was significantly associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in women (P for trend <0.001; the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile of the score were 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.46-0.84, compared with those for the lowest quintile. Additional adjustment for dietary glycemic load attenuated the association (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.25. When the score separated for animal and for plant protein and fat, the score for high animal protein and fat was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in women, whereas the score for high plant protein and fat was not associated in both men and women.Low-carbohydrate diet was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women and this association may be partly attributable to high intake of white rice. The association for animal-based and plant-based low-carbohydrate

  14. Biofuel Production Based on Carbohydrates from Both Brown and Red Macroalgae: Recent Developments in Key Biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    2016-01-01

    Marine macroalgae (green, red and brown macroalgae) have attracted attention as an alternative source of renewable biomass for producing both fuels and chemicals due to their high content of suitable carbohydrates and to their advantages over terrestrial biomass. However, except for green macroalgae, which contain relatively easily-fermentable glucans as their major carbohydrates, practical utilization of red and brown macroalgae has been regarded as difficult due to the major carbohydrates (alginate and mannitol of brown macroalgae and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose of red macroalgae) not being easily fermentable. Recently, several key biotechnologies using microbes have been developed enabling utilization of these brown and red macroalgal carbohydrates as carbon sources for the production of fuels (ethanol). In this review, we focus on these recent developments with emphasis on microbiological biotechnologies.

  15. Fermentation characteristics of several carbohydrate sources for dog diets using the in vitro gas production technique

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates are an important part of the canine diet. They can improve gastrointestinal health by modifying gut microbial population and metabolic activity. The present study compared the fermentation characteristics and kinetic patterns of 10 carbohydrate sources using the in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) with dog faecal inoculum. The substrates tested were: pure cellulose (PC), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sugar-cane fibre (SCF), beet pulp (BP), wheat bran (WB), fruc...

  16. Distribution of particulate carbohydrate species in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khodse, V.B; Bhosle, N.B; Gopalakrishna, V.V

    carbohydrate (TPCHO) and total particulate uronic acids (TPURA). The concentrations of POC, TPCHO and TPURA varied from 4.80 to 29.12, 0.85 to 4.24, 0.09 to 0.91 mu M C, respectively. The TPCHO-C and TPURA-C accounted for 6.6-32.5 % and 0.87-3.65 % of POC...

  17. A randomized trial of preoperative oral carbohydrates in abdominal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sada, Fatos; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hamza, Astrit; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Bicaj, Besnik; Kavaja, Floren

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) have been recommended to attenuate insulin resistance by shortening the preoperative fasting interval. The aim of our study the effect of preoperative oral administration of CRLDs on the well-being and clinical status of patients. Methods A randomized, double blind, prospective study of patients undergoing open colorectal operations (CR) and open cholecyctectomy (CH) was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups: study, placebo, and ...

  18. The role of carbohydrates in seed germination and seedling establishment of Himatanthus sucuuba, an Amazonian tree with populations adapted to flooded and non-flooded conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferreira, Cristiane; Piedade, Maria Teresa Fernandez; Tiné, Marco Aurélio Silva; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Parolin, Pia; Buckeridge, Marcos Silveira

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims In the Amazonian floodplains plants withstand annual periods of flooding which can last 7 months. Under these conditions seedlings remain submerged in the dark for long periods since light penetration in the water is limited. Himatanthus sucuuba is a tree species found in the ‘várzea’ (VZ) floodplains and adjacent non-flooded ‘terra-firme’ (TF) forests. Biochemical traits which enhance flood tolerance and colonization success of H. sucuuba in periodically flooded environments were investigated. Methods Storage carbohydrates of seeds of VZ and TF populations were extracted and analysed by HPAEC/PAD. Starch was analysed by enzyme (glucoamylase) degradation followed by quantification of glucose oxidase. Carbohydrate composition of roots of VZ and TF seedlings was studied after experimental exposure to a 15-d period of submersion in light versus darkness. Key Results The endosperm contains a large proportion of the seed reserves, raffinose being the main non-structural carbohydrate. Around 93 % of the cell wall storage polysaccharides (percentage dry weight basis) in the endosperm of VZ seeds was composed of mannose, while soluble sugars accounted for 2·5%. In contrast, 74 % of the endosperm in TF seeds was composed of galactomannans, while 22 % of the endosperm was soluble sugars. This suggested a larger carbohydrate allocation to germination in TF populations whereas VZ populations allocate comparatively more to carbohydrates mobilized during seedling development. The concentration of root non-structural carbohydrates in non-flooded seedlings strongly decreased after a 15-d period of darkness, whereas flooded seedlings were less affected. These effects were more pronounced in TF seedlings, which showed significantly lower root non-structural carbohydrate concentrations. Conclusions There seem to be metabolic adjustments in VZ but not TF seedlings that lead to adaptation to the combined stresses of darkness and flooding. This seems to be

  19. Hepatic Steatosis, Carbohydrate Intake, and Food Quotient in Patients with NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepcion Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Is steatosis related to the spontaneous carbohydrate intake in patients with NAFLD? We performed dietary records for 24 patients with NAFLD, 3 months after their liver biopsy was performed and before the deliverance of a dietary advice. The food quotient, indicator of the proportion of calories from carbohydrates, was calculated as (1.00×%  calories from carbohydrates/100 + (0.70×%  calories from lipids/100 + (0.81×%  calories from proteins/100. The associations between diet variables and steatosis% on the hepatic biopsies were tested by regression analysis, and diet variables were compared according to the presence of fibrosis. The subjects displayed a large range of steatosis, 50.5% ± 25.5 [10–90], correlated with their energy intake (1993 ± 597 kcal/d, , and food quotient (0.85 ± 0.02, , , which remained significant with both variables by a multivariate regression analysis (, . For the 17/24 patients with a hepatic fibrosis, the energy intake was lower (fibrosis: 1863 ± 503 versus others: 2382 ± 733 kcal/d, , and their food quotients did not differ from patients without fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis was related to the energy and carbohydrate intakes in our patients; the role of dietary carbohydrates was detectable in the range of usual carbohydrate intake: 32% to 58% calories.

  20. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  1. Molecular Distribution of Particulate Carbohydrates In Marine Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulos, C.; Lafont, R.; Sempéré, R.

    Particulate samples were collected by using floating sediment traps (50-300 m) and in situ pumps (30 and 200 m) collected in the southern Indian Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. They were studied for monosaccharide composition after acid hydrolysis (HCl 0.09 M, 20 h, 100 °C) by using High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography followed by Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC- PAD) (1). The initial chemical composition of particles greatly varied between the Subtropical Zone (SZ), the Polar Front Zone (PFZ) and the Agulhas Front Zone (AFZ) with sugars being more abundant in SZ (5-20 % of POC) than in PFZ (5-8 % of POC) and AFZ (4-5 % of POC). Similar contributions were also found for Atlantic Ocean particles (3-5% of POC) whereas in Mediterranean particles total aldoses represented 7-12% of POC. Ribose was the most abundant aldose in PFZ and AFZ in all samples and contributed 20-36 % of total monosaccharides followed by galactose (15-26 %) or glucose (15-16 %) (2). In SZ, glucose was the dominant aldose (38-54 %) followed by galactose (13-21 %) and xylose (9-13%). Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean samples were characterized by a predominance of glucose (23-59 %) followed by galactose (8-35%) and ribose (3-17 %). Total carbohydrate (TCHO) fluxes were in same order of magnitude for all the study areas including Mediterranean Sea (0.12-1.36 mg m-2 d-1), Southern Indian Ocean (0.18- 0.42 mg m-2 d-1) and Atlantic Ocean (0.27-0.37 mg m-2 d-1). Particles collected from AFZ and PFZ were distinguishable in term of mannose and (arabinose+galactose) relative abundances which may suggest different organic matter origine. Experimental studies performed with large particles (fucose+rhamnose increased indicating that deoxysugars are better preserved during organic matter decomposition. (1) Panagiotopoulos, C., Sempéré, R., Lafont, R., Kerhervé, P., 2001. Sub-ambient temperature effects on separation of monosaccharides by HPAEC-PAD. Application to marine chemistry

  2. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  3. Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Carbohydrates, Sugar, ... a 1-ounce equivalent. previous continue Sizing Up Sugar Foods that are high in added sugar (soda, ...

  4. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, S Sreenivasa; Ramatholisamma, P; Ramesh, B; Baskar, R; Saralakumari, D

    2009-10-01

    High intake of dietary fructose has been shown to exert a number of adverse metabolic eff ects in humans and experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate the eff ect of the aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem (TCAE) on the adverse eff ects of fructose loading toward carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats. Adult male Wistar rats of body weight around 200 g were divided into four groups, two of which were fed with starch diet and the other two with high fructose (66 %) diet. Plant extract of TC (400 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to each group of the starch fed rats and the highfructose fed rats. At the end of 60 days of experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and elevated levels of hepatic total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acids (p TCAE treatment. Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthetase, lipoprotein lipase, and malic enzyme) as observed in the high fructose-fed rats were prevented with TCAE administration. In conclusion, our fi ndings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism in high-fructose fed rats by treatment with Tinospora cordifolia, and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin resistance and disorders related to it.

  5. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  6. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other

  7. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients.

  8. Neutral carbohydrate geochemistry of particulate material in the central equatorial Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Hedges, John I.; Peterson, Michael L.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; Lee, Cindy

    Neutral carbohydrate compositions were determined for particulate samples from plankton net tows, shallow floating sediment traps, mid-depth and deep moored sediment traps, and sediment cores collected along a north-south transect in the central equatorial Pacific Ocean during the U.S. JGOFS EqPac program. Total neutral carbohydrate depth profiles and patterns along the transect follow essentially the same trends as bulk and organic carbon (OC) fluxes—attenuating with depth, high near the equator and decreasing poleward. OC-normalized total aldose (TCH 2,O) yields along the transect and with depth do not show any consitent patterns. Relative to a planktonic source, neutral carbohydrate compositions in sediment trap and sediment core samples reflect preferential loss of ribose and storage carbohydrates rich in glucose, and preferential preservation of structural carbohydrates rich in rhamnose, xylose, fucose, and mannose. There is also evidence for an intermediately labile component rich in galactose. It appears that compositional signatures of neutral carbohydrates in sediments are more dependent upon their planktonic source than on any particular diagenetic pathway. Relative to other types of organic matter, neutral carbohydrates are better preserved in calcareous oozes from 12°S to 5°N than in red clays at 9°N based on OC-normalized TCH 2O yields, due to either differing sources or sorption characteristics. Weight per cent glucose generally decreases with increased degradation of organic material in the central equatorial Pacific region. Based on weight per cent glucose, comparisons of samples between Survey I (El Niõn) and Survey II (non-El Niño) indicate that during Survey I, organic material in the epipelagic zone in the northern hemisphere may have undergone more degradation than organic material in the southern hemisphere.

  9. Carbohydrate-based immune adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, Nikolai; Cooper, Peter D

    2011-01-01

    The role for adjuvants in human vaccines has been a matter of vigorous scientific debate, with the field hindered by the fact that for over 80 years, aluminum salts were the only adjuvants approved for human use. To this day, alum-based adjuvants, alone or combined with additional immune activators, remain the only adjuvants approved for use in the USA. This situation has not been helped by the fact that the mechanism of action of most adjuvants has been poorly understood. A relative lack of resources and funding for adjuvant development has only helped to maintain alum’s relative monopoly. To seriously challenge alum’s supremacy a new adjuvant has many major hurdles to overcome, not least being alum’s simplicity, tolerability, safety record and minimal cost. Carbohydrate structures play critical roles in immune system function and carbohydrates also have the virtue of a strong safety and tolerability record. A number of carbohydrate compounds from plant, bacterial, yeast and synthetic sources have emerged as promising vaccine adjuvant candidates. Carbohydrates are readily biodegradable and therefore unlikely to cause problems of long-term tissue deposits seen with alum adjuvants. Above all, the Holy Grail of human adjuvant development is to identify a compound that combines potent vaccine enhancement with maximum tolerability and safety. This has proved to be a tough challenge for many adjuvant contenders. Nevertheless, carbohydrate-based compounds have many favorable properties that could place them in a unique position to challenge alum’s monopoly over human vaccine usage. PMID:21506649

  10. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Cárdenas, Carlos I; Miranda-Ham, María L; Castro-Concha, Lizbeth A; Ku-Cauich, José R; Vergauwen, Rudy; Reijnders, Timmy; Van den Ende, Wim; Escobedo-GraciaMedrano, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    The water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) glucose, fructose, and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructans represent another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of 11 accessions (I to XI), including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD) showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose) fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP) inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA) identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfill across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water) provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes, potentially leading to

  11. Fructans and other water soluble carbohydrates in vegetative organs and fruits of different Musa spp. accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ivan eCruz Cardenas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC glucose, fructose and sucrose are well-known to the great public, but fructan represents another type of WSC that deserves more attention given their prebiotic and immunomodulatory properties in the food context. Although the occurrence of inulin-type fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS was proposed in the fruit of some banana accessions, little or no information is available neither on the exact identity of the fructan species, nor on the fructan content in different parts of banana plants and among a broader array of banana cultivars. Here, we investigated the WSC composition in leaves, pulp of ripe fruits and rhizomes from mature banana plants of eleven accessions (I to XI, including both cultivated varieties and wild Musa species. High performance anion exchange chromatography with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-IPAD showed the presence of 1-kestotriose [GF2], inulobiose [F2], inulotriose [F3], 6-kestotriose and 6G-kestotriose (neokestose fructan species in the pulp of mature fruits of different accessions, but the absence of 1,1-nystose and 1,1,1 kestopentaose and higher degree of polymerization (DP inulin-type fructans. This fructan fingerprint points at the presence of one or more invertases that are able to use fructose and sucrose as alternative acceptor substrates. Quantification of glucose, fructose, sucrose and 1-kestotriose and principal component analysis (PCA identified related banana groups, based on their specific WSC profiles. These data provide new insights in the biochemical diversity of wild and cultivated bananas, and shed light on potential roles that fructans may fulfil across species, during plant development and adaptation to changing environments. Furthermore, the promiscuous behavior of banana fruit invertases (sucrose and fructose as acceptor substrates besides water provides a new avenue to boost future work on structure-function relationships on these enzymes

  12. The role of non-structural carbohydrate reserves in trees under climatic stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, G.; Koerner, C.

    2012-12-01

    The storage of non-structural carbon (C) reserves is an indispensable process for all plants. Diverting parts of their photoassimilates into storage pools (e.g. starch and storage lipids) ensures plants to survive periods when the requirement for C (i.e. the sum of all C-sink activities) exceeds their photosynthetic capacity (C-source activity). Over the last decade, research delivered clear evidence that under the current atmospheric CO2 concentrations, tree growth is generally limited by the availability of resources other than C (e.g. soil nutrients) under most conditions. Whether climatic stresses, like cold temperature or drought, can induce C-limitation in trees is currently vividly debated. We will thus address the following questions: 1) do low temperatures at alpine treelines or drought lead to situations where photosynthesis is limiting growth, and 2) what is the role of non-structural C reserves under such conditions? Trees at the alpine treeline as well as under hydraulic constraints accumulate, rather than use up their non-structural carbohydrate reserves with increasing stress. We propose that this observed increase of C stores results from a stress related decline in growth (C-sink activity) relative to C-supply. Hence, the higher C reserve concentrations found in trees under cold and dry conditions are very likely a direct physiological response to the environmental stress (diversion to storage), reflecting relatively higher availability of photoassimilates compared to sink demand. Previous experiments with trees and crops showed that in cold and dry environments, meristematic growth is generally limited more severely and at an earlier stage than photosynthesis. While cell division and differentiation are close to zero at about 5 °C even in cold adapted species, rates of photosynthesis are still reaching up to 80 % of maximum rates. Similarly, structural growth generally ceases at much less negative water potentials than does photosynthesis, which

  13. PRESENCE OF WATER-SOLUBLE COMPOUNDS IN THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD: CARBOHYDRATES AND FURFURALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olov Karlsson,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With thermal modification, changes in properties of wood, such as the presence of VOC and water-soluble carbohydrates, may occur. Thermal modifications under saturated steam conditions (160 °C or 170 °C and superheated steam conditions (170, 185, and 212 °C were investigated by analysing the presence of water-soluble 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, furfural, and carbohydrates in heat-treated wood. The influence of thermal modifications on Scots pine, Norway spruce, and silver birch was also studied. Furfurals were analysed using HPLC at 280 nm, while monosaccharides and water-soluble carbohydrates were determined by GC-FID as their acetylated alditiols and, after methanolysis, as their trimethylsilylated methyl-glycosides, respectively. The amount of furfurals was larger in boards thermally modified under saturated steam conditions than those treated under superheated steam conditions. Generally, more of HMF than furfural was found in the thermally modified boards. In process water, in which saturated steam conditions had been used, furfural and only traces of HMF were found. Higher content of water-soluble carbohydrates was found in boards treated in saturated steam rather than in superheated steam. After modification in saturated steam, substantial parts of the water-soluble carbohydrates were due to monosaccharides, but only traces of monosaccharides were found in boards treated under superheated steam conditions.

  14. Changes in molecular characteristics of cereal carbohydrates after processing and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Mirosław Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2012-12-10

    Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF) rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF), whole meal rye bread (GR), rye bread with kernels (RK), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX) and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG). The weight average molecular weight (M(w)) of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the M(w) of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the M(w) of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity.

  15. Changes in Molecular Characteristics of Cereal Carbohydrates after Processing and Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Erik Bach Knudsen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Different extraction, purification and digestion methods were used to investigate the molecular properties of carbohydrates in arabinoxylan and β-glucan concentrates, dietary fiber (DF rich breads and ileum content of bread fed pigs. The breads studied were: a low DF wheat bread (WF, whole meal rye bread (GR, rye bread with kernels (RK, wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan concentrate (AX and wheat bread supplemented with oat β-glucan concentrate (BG. The weight average molecular weight (Mw of extractable carbohydrates in β-glucan concentrate decreased eight-fold after inclusion in the BG bread when exposed to in vitro digestion, while the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in AX bread was reduced two-fold, and remained almost unaffected until reaching the terminal ileum of pigs. Similarly, the Mw of purified extractable carbohydrates in GR and RK bread was not significantly changed in the ileum. The AX bread resulted in the highest concentration of dissolved arabinoxylan in the ileum among all the breads that caused a substantial increased in ileal AX viscosity. Nevertheless, for none of the breads, the Mw of extractable carbohydrates was related neither to the bread extract nor ileal viscosity.

  16. Carbohydrate metabolism before and after dehiscence in the recalcitrant pollen of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, C; Guarnieri, M; Pacini, E

    2015-05-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) pollen is starchy, sucrose-poor and recalcitrant, features opposite to those of several model species; therefore, some differences in carbohydrate metabolism could be expected in this species. By studying pumpkin recalcitrant pollen, the objective was to provide new biochemical evidence to improve understanding of how carbohydrate metabolism might be involved in pollen functioning in advanced stages. Four stages were analysed: immature pollen from 1 day before anthesis, mature pollen, mature pollen exposed to the environment for 7 h, and pollen rehydrated in a culture medium. Pollen viability, water and carbohydrate content and activity of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were quantified in each stage. Pollen viability and water content dropped quickly after dehiscence, as expected. The slight changes in carbohydrate concentration and enzyme activity during pollen maturation contrast with major changes recorded with ageing and rehydration. Pumpkin pollen seems highly active and closely related to its surrounding environment in all the stages analysed; the latter is particularly evident among insoluble sucrolytic enzymes, mainly wall-bound acid invertase, which would be the most relevant for sucrose cleavage. Each stage was characterised by a particular metabolic/enzymatic profile; some particular features, such as the minor changes during maturation, fast sucrolysis upon rehydration or sharp decrease in insoluble sucrolytic activity with ageing seem to be related to the lack of dormancy and recalcitrant nature of pumpkin pollen.

  17. Flight metabolism in Panstrongylus megistus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: the role of carbohydrates and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilián E Canavoso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates related to flight activity in Panstrongylus megistus was investigated. Insects were subjected to different times of flight under laboratory conditions and changes in total lipids, lipophorin density and carbohydrates were followed in the hemolymph. Lipids and glycogen were also assayed in fat body and flight muscle. In resting insects, hemolymph lipids averaged 3.4 mg/ml and significantly increased after 45 min of flight (8.8 mg/ml, P < 0.001. High-density lipophorin was the sole lipoprotein observed in resting animals. A second fraction with lower density corresponding to low-density lipophorin appeared in insects subjected to flight. Particles from both fractions showed significant differences in diacylglycerol content and size. In resting insects, carbohydrate levels averaged 0.52 mg/ml. They sharply declined more than twofold after 15 min of flight, being undetectable in hemolymph of insects flown for 45 min. Lipid and glycogen from fat body and flight muscle decreased significantly after 45 min of flight. Taken together, the results indicate that P. megistus uses carbohydrates during the initiation of the flight after which, switching fuel for flight from carbohydrates to lipids.

  18. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  19. Fish culture data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  20. Chemical composition of fish and diets - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  1. Growth data - Stable isotope analysis as a tool to determine the metabolic fates of dietary carbohydrates from plant-based alternative feed ingredients in the carnivorous sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Development of specialized feeds for carnivorous species such as sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) in which fishmeal and oil from marine sources are replaced by more...

  2. Effect of carbohydrate and protein in the EPS on sludge settling characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Kang, S T; Nam, S Y

    2001-01-01

    EPSs have been believed to play a bonding role in microbial floc formation. However, the precise role is not well known. In this study, sludge settling characteristics and the carbohydrate to protein ratio in the EPS were tested at various airflow rates. Sludge was collected from three modified sequencing batch reacetors (MSBRs), which were operated with airflow rates of 0.8 L/min, 2 L/min and 4 L/min, respectively. During the operation periods, the reactor operated at an airflow rate of 0.8 L/min showed a sludge volume index (SVI) of 80 to 90 mL/g and a constant ratio of carbohydrate to protein in the EPS, while a significant increase of this ratio and the SVI occurred in the other reactors. High airflow rate increased the amount of carbohydrate in the EPS, but the protein level was almost constant for reactors with airflow rates of 2 L/min and 4 L/min. The higher ratio of carbohydrate to protein caused the bulking of the sludge; hence it was not favourable for sludge settling. The ratio of carbohydrate and protein in the EPS is inferred to be essential for solid floc formation.

  3. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  4. Effects of Salt Stress on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Desert Soil Alga Microcoleus vaginatus Gom.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-Zhou Chen; Dun-Hai Li; Li-Rong Song; Chun-Xiang Hu; Gao-Hong Wang; Yong-Ding Liu

    2006-01-01

    The effects of salt stress on carbohydrate metabolism in Microcoleus vaginatus Gom., a cyanobacterium isolated from desert algal crusts, were investigated in the present study. Extracellular total carbohydrates and exopolysaccharides (EPS) in the culture medium produced by M. vaginatus increased significantly during the growth phase and reached a maximum during the stationary phase. The production of extracellular carbohydrates also significantly increased under higher salt concentrations, which was attributed to an increase in low molecular weight carbohydrates. In the presence of NaCl, the production of cellular total carbohydrates decreased and photosynthetic activity was impaired, whereas cellular reducing sugars,water-soluble sugars and sucrose content and sucrose phosphate synthase activity increased, reaching a maximum in the presence of 200 mmol/L NaCl. These parameters were restored to original levels when the algae were transferred to a non-saline medium. Sodium and K+ concentrations of stressed cells decreased significantly and H+-ATPase activity increased after the addition of exogenous sucrose or EPS. The results suggest that EPS and sucrose are synthesized to maintain the cellular osmotic equilibrium between the intra- and extracellular environment, thus protecting algal cells from osmotic damage, which was attributed to the selective exclusion of cellular Na+ and K+ by H+-ATPase.

  5. Synthesis of Carbohydrate Capped Silicon Nanoparticles and their Reduced Cytotoxicity, In Vivo Toxicity, and Cellular Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahire, Jayshree H; Behray, Mehrnaz; Webster, Carl A; Wang, Qi; Sherwood, Victoria; Saengkrit, Nattika; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Woramongkolchai, Noppawan; Chao, Yimin

    2015-08-26

    The development of smart targeted nanoparticles (NPs) that can identify and deliver drugs at a sustained rate directly to cancer cells may provide better efficacy and lower toxicity for treating primary and advanced metastatic tumors. Obtaining knowledge of the diseases at the molecular level can facilitate the identification of biological targets. In particular, carbohydrate-mediated molecular recognitions using nano-vehicles are likely to increasingly affect cancer treatment methods, opening a new area in biomedical applications. Here, silicon NPs (SiNPs) capped with carbohydrates including galactose, glucose, mannose, and lactose are successfully synthesized from amine terminated SiNPs. The MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] analysis shows an extensive reduction in toxicity of SiNPs by functionalizing with carbohydrate moiety both in vitro and in vivo. Cellular uptake is investigated with flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscope. The results show the carbohydrate capped SiNPs can be internalized in the cells within 24 h of incubation, and can be taken up more readily by cancer cells than noncancerous cells. Moreover, these results reinforce the use of carbohydrates for the internalization of a variety of similar compounds into cancer cells.

  6. Analysis of small carbohydrates in several bioactive botanicals by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, Serban; Scott, Wayne; Zhu, Jeff

    2015-11-01

    Bioactive botanicals contain natural compounds with specific biological activity, such as antibacterial, antioxidant, immune stimulating, and taste improving. A full characterization of the chemical composition of these botanicals is frequently necessary. A study of small carbohydrates from the plant materials of 18 bioactive botanicals is further described. The study presents the identification of the carbohydrate using a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis that allows detection of molecules as large as maltotetraose, after changing them into trimethylsilyl derivatives. A number of carbohydrates in the plant (fructose, glucose, mannose, sucrose, maltose, xylose, sorbitol, and myo-, chiro-, and scyllo-inositols) were quantitated using a novel liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric technique. Both techniques involved new method developments. The gas chromatography with mass spectrometric analysis involved derivatization and separation on a Rxi(®)-5Sil MS column with H2 as a carrier gas. The liquid chromatographic separation was obtained using a hydrophilic interaction type column, YMC-PAC Polyamine II. The tandem mass spectrometer used an electrospray ionization source in multiple reaction monitoring positive ion mode with the detection of the adducts of the carbohydrates with Cs(+) ions. The validated quantitative procedure showed excellent precision and accuracy allowing the analysis in a wide range of concentrations of the analytes.

  7. Effect of off-season flooding on growth, photosynthesis, carbohydrate partitioning, and nutrient uptake in Distylium chinense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Liu

    Full Text Available Distylium chinense is an evergreen shrub used for the vegetation recovery of floodplain and riparian areas in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. To clarify the morphological and physiological responses and tolerance of Distylium chinense to off-season flooding, a simulation flooding experiment was conducted during autumn and winter. Results indicated that the survival rate of seedlings was 100%, and that plant height and stem diameter were not significantly affected by flooding. Adventitious roots and hypertrophic lenticels were observed in flooded seedlings after 30 days of flooding. Flooding significantly reduced the plant biomass of roots, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, transpiration rate (Tr, maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm, photochemical quenching (qP, and electron transport rate (ETR in leaves, and also affected the allocation and transport of carbohydrate and nutrients. However, D. chinense was able to maintain stable levels of Pn, Fv/Fm, qP, ETR, and nutrient content (N and P in leaves and to store a certain amount of carbohydrate in roots over prolonged durations of flooding. Based on these results, we conclude that there is a high flooding tolerance in D. chinense, and the high survival rate of D. chinense may be attributable to a combination of morphological and physiological responses to flooding.

  8. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Hua Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Calorie restriction (CR via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  9. A Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Low-Calorie Diet Improves Lipid Profile, Insulin Sensitivity and Adiponectin Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie-Hua; Ouyang, Caiqun; Ding, Qiang; Song, Jia; Cao, Wenhong; Mao, Limei

    2015-06-11

    Calorie restriction (CR) via manipulating dietary carbohydrates has attracted increasing interest in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. There is little consensus about the extent of carbohydrate restriction to elicit optimal results in controlling metabolic parameters. Our study will identify a better carbohydrate-restricted diet using rat models. Rats were fed with one of the following diets for 12 weeks: Control diet, 80% energy (34% carbohydrate-reduced) and 60% energy (68% carbohydrate-reduced) of the control diet. Changes in metabolic parameters and expressions of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) were identified. Compared to the control diet, 68% carbohydrate-reduced diet led to a decrease in serum triglyceride and increases inlow density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol; a 34% carbohydrate-reduced diet resulted in a decrease in triglycerides and an increase in HDL-cholesterol, no changes however, were shown in LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol; reductions in HOMA-IR were observed in both CR groups. Gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ in adipose tissues were found proportionally elevated with an increased degree of energy restriction. Our study for the first time ever identified that a moderate-carbohydrate restricted diet is not only effective in raising gene expressions of adiponectin and PPARγ which potentially lead to better metabolic conditions but is better at improving lipid profiles than a low-carbohydrate diet in rats.

  10. Use of Smartphones to Estimate Carbohydrates in Foods for Diabetes Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jurong; Ding, Hang; McBride, Simon; Ireland, David; Karunanithi, Mohan

    2015-01-01

    Over 380 million adults worldwide are currently living with diabetes and the number has been projected to reach 590 million by 2035. Uncontrolled diabetes often lead to complications, disability, and early death. In the management of diabetes, dietary intervention to control carbohydrate intake is essential to help manage daily blood glucose level within a recommended range. The intervention traditionally relies on a self-report to estimate carbohydrate intake through a paper based diary. The traditional approach is known to be inaccurate, inconvenient, and resource intensive. Additionally, patients often require a long term of learning or training to achieve a certain level of accuracy and reliability. To address these issues, we propose a design of a smartphone application that automatically estimates carbohydrate intake from food images. The application uses imaging processing techniques to classify food type, estimate food volume, and accordingly calculate the amount of carbohydrates. To examine the proof of concept, a small fruit database was created to train a classification algorithm implemented in the application. Consequently, a set of fruit photos (n=6) from a real smartphone were applied to evaluate the accuracy of the carbohydrate estimation. This study demonstrates the potential to use smartphones to improve dietary intervention, although further studies are needed to improve the accuracy, and extend the capability of the smartphone application to analyse broader food contents.

  11. Behavioural responses of the snail Lymnaea acuminata to carbohydrates in snail-attractant pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Farindra; Singh, D. K.

    Snail control is one of the most important tools in the campaign to reduce the incidence of fascioliasis. In order to attain this objective, the method of bait formulation in order to contain an attractant and a molluscicide is an expedient approach to lure the target snail population to the molluscicide. This study identifies certain carbohydrates, namely sucrose, maltose, glucose, fructose and starch, for preparing such baits. These were tested on Lymnaea acuminata, an intermediate host of the digenean trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The behavioural responses of snails to these carbohydrates were examined. Significant variations in behavioural responses were observed in the snail even when the five carbohydrates were used in low concentrations in snail-attractant pellets. Starch emerged as the strongest attractant for Lymnaea acuminata, followed by maltose.

  12. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  13. Perinatal changes in myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in lambs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Knoester, H; Takens, J; Smid, GB; Aarnoudse, JG; Heymans, HSA; Kuipers, JRG

    1998-01-01

    No information is available on perinatal changes in myocardial metabolism in vivo. We measured myocardial supply and flux of fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ketone bodies in chronically instrumented fetal, newborn (1-4 days), and juvenile (7 wk) lambs, by measuring aorta-coronary sinus concentration

  14. Enhanced carbohydrate production by Southern Ocean phytoplankton in response to in situ iron fertilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oijen, T; Veldhuis, MJW; Gorbunov, MY; Nishioka, J; van Leeuwe, MA; de Baara, HJW; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Storage carbohydrates (e.g., water-extractable beta-1,3-D-glucan in diatoms) are of key importance for phytoplankton growth in a variable light climate, because they facilitate continued growth of the cells in darkness by providing energy and carbon skeletons for protein synthesis. Here, we tested t

  15. Effects of Supplementing Concentrates Differing in Carbohydrate Composition in Veal Calf Diets: II. Rumen Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Stockhofe, N.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of concentrates in feed, differing in carbohydrate source, on the rumen development of veal calves. For this purpose, 160 male Holstein Friesian x Dutch Friesian crossbred calves were used in a complete randomized block design with a 5 x 2

  16. Amylolytic activity and carbohydrate levels in relation to coleoptile anoxic elongation in Oryza sativa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Fanucchi, Francesca; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Among starchy seeds, rice has the unique capacity to germinate successfully under complete anaerobiosis. In this conditions, starch degradation is supported by a complete set of starch-degrading enzymes that are absent or inactive in cereals except rice. A characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and starch-degrading enzyme activity across twenty-nine genotypes of Oryza sativa L. is presented here. The zymogram of amylolytic activities present in rice embryos and endosperms under anaerobic conditions seven days after sowing (DAS) revealed marked differences among cultivars. Coleoptile elongation was positively correlated with total amylolytic activities and α-amylase activity in embryos, and negatively correlated with α-amylase activity in endosperm. Moreover, carbohydrate content in embryos was found to be positively correlated with total amylolytic activities under anaerobic conditions, while a negative relationship was recorded in the endosperm. Carbohydrate status in rice seedlings has a primary importance in sustaining coleoptile elongation towards the surface. The relationship between carbohydrate level in embryo and anoxic germination, as well as with total amylolytic activities present in rice embryo under anaerobic condition 7 DAS, is consistent with the role of sugar metabolism to support rice germination under oxygen-deprived environment.

  17. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek Jeff S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006 separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  18. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-06-21

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  19. Mechanisms involved in the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate partitioning in response to low- and high-temperature flooding triggered in winter rye (Secale cereale) lines with distinct pink snow mold resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pociecha, E; Rapacz, M; Dziurka, M; Kolasińska, I

    2016-07-01

    In terms of climate changes and global warming, winter hardiness could be determined by unfavorable environmental conditions other than frost. These could include flooding from melting snow and/or rain, coincident with fungal diseases. Therefore, we designed an experiment to identify potential common mechanisms of flooding tolerance and snow mold resistance, involving the regulation of photosynthetic efficiency and carbohydrate metabolism at low temperatures. Snow mold-resistant and susceptible winter rye (Secale cereale) plants were characterized by considerably different patterns of response to flooding. These differences were clearer at low temperature, thus confirming a possible role of the observed changes in snow mold tolerance. The resistant plants were characterized by lower PSII quantum yields at low temperature, combined with much higher energy flux for energy dissipation from the PSII reaction center. During flooding, the level of soluble carbohydrates increased in the resistant plants and decreased in the susceptible ones. Thus increase in resistant line was connected with a decrease in the energy dissipation rate in PSII/increased photosynthetic activity (energy flux for electron transport), a lower rate of starch degradation and higher rates of sucrose metabolism in leaves. The resistant lines accumulated larger amounts of total soluble carbohydrates in the crowns than in the leaves. Irrespective of flooding treatment, the resistant lines allocated more sugars for cell wall composition, both in the leaves and crowns. Our results clearly indicated that studies on carbohydrate changes at low temperatures or during anoxia should investigate not only the alterations in water-soluble and storage carbohydrates, but also cell wall carbohydrates. The patterns of changes observed after low and high-temperature flooding were different, indicating separate control mechanisms of these responses. These included changes in the photosynthetic apparatus, starch

  20. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  1. Survival and changes in the fine structure of selected tissues of Penaeus monodon Fabricius juveniles fed various carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, F.P.; Coloso, R.M.; Tamse, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Penaeus monodon juveniles were reared on semipurified diets containing various carbohydrates (maltose, sucrose, dextrin, molasses, cassava starch, corn starch or sago palm starch). Significant differences were observed between the type as well as the level of carbohydrate in the diet on the survival of the juveniles. Results indicate that there does not seem to be any correlation between survival and the complexity of the carbohydrates.

  2. Infant formula supplemented with low protein and high carbohydrate alters the intestinal microbiota in neonatal SD rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wenguang; Tang, Yaru; Qu, Yi; Cao, Fengbo; Huo, Guicheng

    2014-01-01

    Background Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula) and last but not least, the diet composition. In the diet composition, protein and carbohydrate are very important for the growth of microbiota, many infant fomulas (different ratio protein/carbohydrate) can regulate the development of gut microbiota by different metabolism. The effect of low-protein, high-carbohydrate infant formula on the establis...

  3. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Assess Carbohydrate and Insulin-Dosing Knowledge in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Koontz, Michaela B.; Cuttler, Leona; Palmert, Mark R; O'Riordan, MaryAnn; BORAWSKI, ELAINE A.; McConnell, Judy; Kern, Elizabeth O.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The American Diabetes Association advocates insulin regimens for youth with type 1 diabetes that involve adjusting insulin dose based on carbohydrate intake and blood glucose level. Implementing these regimens requires knowledge about carbohydrate content of foods and subsequent calculations of insulin dose, skills that may be difficult to gauge in practice. Therefore, we sought to develop and validate a questionnaire, the PedCarbQuiz (PCQ), to assess carbohydrate and insulin-dosing...

  4. Carbohydrate Moieties and Cytoenzymatic Characterization of Hemocytes in Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez, Edwin; Rodríguez-Jaramillo, Carmen; Ascencio, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular) exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed. Enzymatic studies indicated that acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase, and specific esterases were present; alkaline phosphatase was not observed. The enzymes and carbohydrates are useful tools in hemocyte classification and cellular defense mechanism studies. PMID:27833641

  5. Carbohydrate Moieties and Cytoenzymatic Characterization of Hemocytes in Whiteleg Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocytes represent one of the most important defense mechanisms against foreign material in Crustacea and are also involved in a variety of other physiological responses. Fluorescent lectin-binding assays and cytochemical reactions were used to identify specificity and distribution of carbohydrate moieties and presence of several hydrolytic enzymes, in hemocytes of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Two general classes of circulating hemocytes (granular and agranular exist in L. vannamei, which express carbohydrates residues for FITC-conjugated lectins WGA, LEA, and PNA; UEA and Con-A were not observed. Enzymatic studies indicated that acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase, and specific esterases were present; alkaline phosphatase was not observed. The enzymes and carbohydrates are useful tools in hemocyte classification and cellular defense mechanism studies.

  6. Dietary ratio of protein to carbohydrate induces plastic responses in the gastrointestinal tract of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Mayntz, David; Simpson, Stephen James

    2010-01-01

    Some vertebrates change the size of their digestive system in response to quantity and fibre content of ingested food, but the effects of dietary nutrients on gut structure remain poorly understood. Here we investigate how the protein to carbohydrate ratio of diets affects the mass...... of the gastrointestinal tract in mice. We fed 6-week-old male mice one of five isocaloric diets differing only in protein to carbohydrate ratio (the "no-choice" treatments), while a further four treatment groups received nutritionally complementary food pairings from which they could self-select a diet (the "choice......" treatments). After 32 days, we measured the resulting dry mass of stomachs, intestines, caeca and colons. In the no-choice treatments, the stomachs were heavier in the mice fed diets containing more protein and less carbohydrate, indicating that larger stomachs may be needed for efficient digestion...

  7. Circulating FGF21 in humans is potently induced by short term overfeeding of carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast-growth factor 21 (FGF21) is thought to be important in metabolic regulation. Recently, low protein diets have been shown to increase circulating FGF21 levels. However, when energy contribution from dietary protein is lowered, other macronutrients, such as carbohydrates, must...... be increased to meet eucaloric balance. This raises the possibility that intake of a diet rich in carbohydrates may induce an increase in plasma FGF21 levels per se. Here we studied the role of dietary carbohydrates on the levels of circulating FGF21 and concomitant physiologic effects by feeding healthy men...... intake in CHO and CON. To control for the effect of caloric surplus, we similarly overfed (+75% energy) the same subjects for three days with a fat-rich diet (78 E% fat; FAT), consisting of primarily unsaturated fatty acids. The three diets were provided in random order. RESULTS: After CHO, plasma FGF21...

  8. Transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabilites during decomposition in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Paul, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon-14-labelled acetate was added to a heavy clay soil of pH 7.6 to study the transformation of acetate carbon into carbohydrate and amino acid metabolites during decomposition. The acetate was totally metabolized after 6 days of incubation at 25°C when 70% of the labelled carbon had been...... evolved as CO2. Maximum incorporation of trace-C into the various organic fractions was observed after 4 days when 19% of residual, labelled carbon in the soil was located in carbohydrates, 29 % in amino acids and 21 % in the insoluble residue of the soil. The curves showing the amounts of labelled carbon...... located in carbohydrates and amino acid metabolites show a curvilinear form during the first 30 days of incubation, indicating a variety of chemical compounds decaying at different rates. After this time, the decay curves became straight lines indicating a greater homogeneity of the metabolites. After 200...

  9. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars. PMID:27802269

  10. CELL WALL CARBOHYDRATE EPITOPES IN THE GREEN ALGA OEDOGONIUM BHARUCHAE F. MINOR (OEDOGONIALES, CHLOROPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, José M; Leonardi, Patricia I; Alberghina, Josefina S

    2008-10-01

    Cell wall changes in vegetative and suffultory cells (SCs) and in oogonial structures from Oedogonium bharuchae N. D. Kamat f. minor Vélez were characterized using monoclonal antibodies against several carbohydrate epitopes. Vegetative cells and SCs develop only a primary cell wall (PCW), whereas mature oogonial cells secrete a second wall, the oogonium cell wall (OCW). Based on histochemical and immunolabeling results, (1→4)-β-glucans in the form of crystalline cellulose together with a variable degree of Me-esterified homogalacturonans (HGs) and hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) epitopes were detected in the PCW. The OCW showed arabinosides of the extensin type and low levels of arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) glycans but lacked cellulose, at least in its crystalline form. Surprisingly, strong colabeling in the cytoplasm of mature oogonia cells with three different antibodies (LM-5, LM-6, and CCRC-M2) was found, suggesting the presence of rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I)-like structures. Our results are discussed relating the possible functions of these cell wall epitopes with polysaccharides and O-glycoproteins during oogonium differentiation. This study represents the first attempt to characterize these two types of cell walls in O. bharuchae, comparing their similarities and differences with those from other green algae and land plants. This work represents a contribution to the understanding of how cell walls have evolved from simple few-celled to complex multicelled organisms.

  11. Drought and shade deplete nonstructural carbohydrate reserves in seedlings of five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Andrea J; Kobe, Richard K

    2015-12-01

    Plants that store nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) may rely on carbon reserves to survive carbon-limiting stress, assuming that reserves can be mobilized. We asked whether carbon reserves decrease in resource stressed seedlings, and if NSC allocation is related to species' relative stress tolerances. We tested the effects of stress (shade, drought, and defoliation) on NSC in seedlings of five temperate tree species (Acer rubrum Marsh., Betula papyrifera Marsh., Fraxinus americana L ., Quercus rubra L., and Quercus velutina Lam.). In a greenhouse experiment, seedlings were subjected to combinations of shade, drought, and defoliation. We harvested seedlings over 32-97 days and measured biomass and NSC concentrations in stems and roots to estimate depletion rates. For all species and treatments, except for defoliation, seedling growth and NSC accumulation ceased. Shade and drought combined caused total NSC decreases in all species. For shade or drought alone, only some species experienced decreases. Starch followed similar patterns as total NSC, but soluble sugars increased under drought for drought-tolerant species. These results provide evidence that species deplete stored carbon in response to carbon limiting stress and that species differences in NSC response may be important for understanding carbon depletion as a buffer against shade- and drought-induced mortality.

  12. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES IN THE PREVENTION OF NOCTURNAL HYPOGLYCEMIA IN DIABETIC CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VERVERS, MTC; ROUWE, C; SMIT, GPA

    1993-01-01

    In order to prevent nocturnal hypoglycaemia in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with complex carbohydrates a pilot-study was designed with nine children with ages of 9-18 years. The children were admitted twice to the hospital (control and test) and remained the evening, night and m

  13. Characterization of carbohydrate structures of bovine MUC15 and distribution of the mucin in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Pedersen, Lise Refstrup Linnebjerg; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk

    2007-01-01

    -containing fractions as well, such as skim milk and whey. Compositional and structural studies of the carbohydrates of bovine milk MUC15 showed that the glycans are composed of fucose, galactose, mannose, N-acetylgalactosamine, N-acetylglycosamine, and sialic acid. The carbohydrate was shown to constitute 65......The present work reports the characterization of carbohydrate structures and the distribution of the newly identified mucin MUC15, a highly glycosylated protein associated with the bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Distribution of MUC15 was investigated in various fractions of bovine milk...... by densitometric scanning of Western blots. In raw milk, MUC15 was shown to constitute 0.08% (wt) of the protein and approximately 1.5% (wt) of the MFGM-associated proteins. Surprisingly, this study showed that in addition to the fat-containing fractions, such as MFGM and buttermilk, MUC15 was present in nonfat...

  14. Carbohydrate- and protein-rich diets in McArdle disease: Effects on exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Vissing, J.

    2008-01-01

    metabolism during exercise, which questions the effect of protein in McArdle disease. METHODS: In a crossover, open design, we studied 7 patients with McArdle disease, who were randomised to follow either a carbohydrate- or protein-rich diet for three days before testing. Caloric intake on each diet...... was identical, and was adjusted to the subject's weight, age and sex. After each diet, exercise tolerance and maximal work capacity were tested on a bicycle ergometer, using a constant workload for 15 minutes followed by an incremental workload to exhaustion. RESULTS: During the constant workload, heart rate...... capacity and exercise tolerance to submaximal workloads by maintaining a diet high in carbohydrate instead of protein. The carbohydrate diet not only improves tolerance to every-day activities, but will likely also help to prevent exercise-induced episodes of muscle injury in McArdle disease Udgivelsesdato...

  15. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    -group-related carbohydrate structures, including Lewis x, sialylated Lewis x, Lewis y, Lewis a, and Lewis b, on the surface of epithelial cells in the cultures. We compared the results with the expression of more well-established markers, including cytokeratins, integrins, bullous pemphigoid antigen and laminin, in the same...... cultures. The organotypic skin and oral mucosa cultures showed a histological differentiation pattern analogous to that of normal skin and buccal mucosa, and a tissue-specific expression of carbohydrate structures and cytokeratins. However, both types of organotypic cultures also expressed markers which......Cellular maturation and migration are usually associated with changes in cell-surface carbohydrates, but the relationship between these changes and cell behaviour is at present largely unknown. To investigate whether an organotypic culture system can be used as an in vitro model to study...

  16. A Kinetic Model to Explain the Maximum in alpha-Amylase Activity Measurements in the Presence of Small Carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the presence of several small carbohydrates on the measurement of the -amylase activity was determined over a broad concentration range. At low carbohydrate concentrations, a distinct maximum in the -amylase activity versus concentration curves was observed in several cases. At higher

  17. Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Zhang, Yonggen; Wang, Mingjun; Li, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhibo; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-08-01

    To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.

  18. Simple mucin-type carbohydrates in normal and malignant human endometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B;

    1995-01-01

    The simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens, Tn, sialosyl-Tn, and T, are tumor-associated antigens of adenocarcinomas. We evaluated by immunohistochemistry the expression of Tn, sialosyl-Tn (s-Tn), T, and sialosyl-T (s-T) antigens in normal nonsecretory, early gestational, and malignant human...... and malignant endometrium, and the expression of s-T antigen was positively correlated with E2 levels in serum. Our findings suggest a hormonal influence on expression of simple mucin-type carbohydrates in human endometrium. However, the accumulation of Tn and s-Tn antigens in malignant endometrial cells seem...

  19. High fat, low carbohydrate diet limit fear and aggression in Göttingen minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika Maria Juul; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo; Sandøe, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    of fat has been linked, positively and negatively, with traits such as exploration, social interaction, anxiety and fear. Animal models with high translational value can help provide relevant and important information in elucidating potential effects of high fat, low carbohydrate diets on human behaviour...... fearful of a novel object than minipigs fed low fat, high carbohydrate diets. These results found in a porcine model could have important implications for general health and wellbeing of humans and show the potential for using dietary manipulations to reduce aggression in human society....

  20. Reduced cerebral oxygen–carbohydrate index during endotracheal intubation in vascular surgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius-Bjerre, Andreas; Overgaard, Anders; Winther-Olesen, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Brain activation reduces balance between cerebral consumption of oxygen versus carbohydrate as expressed by the so-called cerebral oxygen-carbohydrate-index (OCI). We evaluated whether preparation for surgery, anaesthesia including tracheal intubation and surgery affect OCI. In patients undergoing.......2 versus 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol l(-1) , Pintubation (P... to 4.6 ± 1.4 during surgery and to 5.6 ± 1.7 in the recovery room. In conclusion, preparation for surgery and tracheal intubation decrease OCI that recovers during surgery under the influence of sensory blockade....

  1. Effect of anti-carbohydrate antibodies on HIV infection in a monocytic cell line (U937)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Clausen, H;

    1991-01-01

    . This study therefore investigated the neutralization of HIV in a monocytic cell line (U937) using mAbs against these carbohydrate gp120-epitopes. While antibodies against one of the epitopes (AI) neutralized infection of U937 cells despite binding to the Fc-receptor, one mAb against the sialosyl-Tn epitope...... enhanced infection. This enhancement was independent of complement and could be blocked by mAb Leu3a against the CD4-receptor. The study indicated that enhancement of infection in monocytic cells can occur by the same anti-carbohydrate antibodies that neutralize infection in lymphocytes, and that antibody...

  2. Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

    2014-06-14

    The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ≥ 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not met in this cohort.

  3. Center for Plant and Microbial Complex Carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center: Progress Report for the Funding Period November 1, 2002 - October 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albersheim, Peter [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Darvill, Alan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2003-10-31

    This progress report describes the research, service, and training activities conducted with the support of the DOE center grant. The research activities are summarized in the form of reprints or abstracts of 46 papers citing support from the DOE center grant that were produced during the reporting period. These papers include those that are published, in press, submitted, or in preparation. The papers include those produced entirely by CCRC personnel and those papers representing research work conducted in collaboration with scientists at other institutions. (See Appendix I.) A major component of this grant is to provide service to researchers at other academic institutions and industries located throughout the US and other parts of the world. A summary of all our service activities during the reporting period is also included with this report, including samples of poly/oligosaccharides and antibodies distributed to scientists (see Appendix II). A description of the three training courses held at the CCRC during 2003 is also provided, together with the names and affiliations of participants who attended the courses (see Appendix III).

  4. Effect of anti-carbohydrate antibodies on HIV infection in a monocytic cell line (U937)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120 have recently been found to inhibit HIV infection of lymphocytes in vitro thereby opening new possibilities for vaccine considerations. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has however come increasingly into focus. This st......Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120 have recently been found to inhibit HIV infection of lymphocytes in vitro thereby opening new possibilities for vaccine considerations. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has however come increasingly into focus...

  5. A low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats without deleterious changes in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, John D; Lin, Han Yi; Sloan, Crystal; Zhang, Quan-Jiang; Abel, E Dale; Pereira, Troy J; Dolinsky, Vernon W; Symons, J David; Jalili, Thunder

    2013-06-15

    Previous studies reported that diets high in simple carbohydrates could increase blood pressure in rodents. We hypothesized that the converse, a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet, might reduce blood pressure. Six-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR; n = 54) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 53, normotensive control) were fed either a control diet (C; 10% fat, 70% carbohydrate, 20% protein) or a low-carbohydrate/high-fat diet (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 60% fat, 20% protein). After 10 wk, SHR-HF had lower (P high-fat diet reduced blood pressure and improved arterial function in SHR without producing signs of insulin resistance or altering insulin-mediated signaling in the heart, skeletal muscle, or vasculature.

  6. The effect of structural differences in the reducing terminus of sugars on the binding affinity of carbohydrates and proteins analyzed using photoaffinity labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Isao; Sadakane, Yutaka; Higuchi, Mari; Hada, Noriyasu; Hada, Junko; Kakiuchi, Nobuko; Sakushima, Akiyo

    2011-01-15

    Because carbohydrates and proteins bind with such low affinity, the nature of their interactions is not clear. Photoaffinity labeling with diazirin groups is useful for elucidating the roles of carbohydrates in these binding processes. However, when carbohydrate probes are synthesized according to this conventional method, the reducing terminus of the sugar is opened to provide an acyclic structure. Because greater elucidation of carbohydrate-protein interactions requires a closed-ring carbohydrate in addition to the photoreactive group, we synthesized new molecular tools. The carbohydrate ligands were synthesized in three steps (glycosylation with allyl alcohol, deprotection, and ozonolysis). Specific binding proteins for carbohydrate ligands were obtained by photoaffinity labeling. Closed ring-type carbohydrate ligands, in which the reducing sugar is closed, bound to lectins more strongly than open ring-type sugars. Carbohydrate to protein binding was observed using AFM.

  7. Carbohydrate drugs: current status and development prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fengshan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, there has been a great effort devoted to the investigation of the roles of carbohydrates in various essential biological processes and the development of carbohydrates to therapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the carbohydrate drugs which have been recorded in several pharmacopoeias, marketed, and under development. A prospect of the future development of carbohydrate drugs is discussed as well.

  8. Responses of nutrients and mobile carbohydrates in Quercus variabilis seedlings to environmental variations using in situ and ex situ experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing-Pin; Xiao, Wenfa; Liu, Jian-Feng; Xiong, Dingpeng; Wang, Pengcheng; Pan, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Li, Mai-He

    2013-01-01

    Forest tree species distributed across a wide range of geographical areas are subjected to differential climatic and edaphic conditions and long-term selection, leading to genotypes with morphological and physiological adaptation to the local environment. To test the ability of species to cope with changing environmental conditions, we studied the ecophysiological features of Quercus variabilis using seedlings grown in geographically widely isolated populations (Exp. I, in situ) and in a common garden (Exp. II, ex situ) using seedlings originating from those populations. We found that Q. variabilis plants grown in different locations along a south-north gradient had different levels of nutrients (N, P, K) and carbon-physiological performance (photosynthesis, non-structural carbohydrates, such as soluble sugars and starch), and that these physiological differences were not correlated with local soil properties. These geographic variations of plant physiology disappeared when plants from different locations were grown in the same environment. Our results indicate that the physiological performance of Q. variabilis plants is mainly determined by the climatic variations across latitude rather than by their soils or by genetic differentiation. The adaptive ability of Q. variabilis found in the present study suggests that this species has the potential to cope, at least to some extent, with changing environmental conditions.

  9. Responses of nutrients and mobile carbohydrates in Quercus variabilis seedlings to environmental variations using in situ and ex situ experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Pin Lei

    Full Text Available Forest tree species distributed across a wide range of geographical areas are subjected to differential climatic and edaphic conditions and long-term selection, leading to genotypes with morphological and physiological adaptation to the local environment. To test the ability of species to cope with changing environmental conditions, we studied the ecophysiological features of Quercus variabilis using seedlings grown in geographically widely isolated populations (Exp. I, in situ and in a common garden (Exp. II, ex situ using seedlings originating from those populations. We found that Q. variabilis plants grown in different locations along a south-north gradient had different levels of nutrients (N, P, K and carbon-physiological performance (photosynthesis, non-structural carbohydrates, such as soluble sugars and starch, and that these physiological differences were not correlated with local soil properties. These geographic variations of plant physiology disappeared when plants from different locations were grown in the same environment. Our results indicate that the physiological performance of Q. variabilis plants is mainly determined by the climatic variations across latitude rather than by their soils or by genetic differentiation. The adaptive ability of Q. variabilis found in the present study suggests that this species has the potential to cope, at least to some extent, with changing environmental conditions.

  10. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Chukwu, M.A. [Department of Sustainable Chemical Engineering, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata) for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric) method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose) deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower mass of sugars

  11. The potential of macroalgae as a source of carbohydrates for use in bioethanol fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu A. N., Chukwu M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel which is the global energy source gives rise to land contamination, air pollution, climate change, fuel crises, hike of price of petroleum products, crises in oil producing nations, dependency on oil producing countries and high risk associated with oil exploitation has led to a search for sustainable and efficient energy sources. Several types and sources of biofuels have been recently studied as potential source of energy to replace the environmentally unfriendly fossil fuels. Bioethanol produced from terrestrial plants have attracted the attention of the global society, though numerous controversies and debates were associated with the technology; such as the issue of food versus fuel competition, which further encouraged more research work on a sustainable renewable bioethanol source. This study aims at determining total carbohydrates from macroalgal specie (Laminaria digitata for use in bioethanol fermentation, also using wet and analytical chemistry to extract and spectrophotometrically analyse the sample in respect to glucose and sucrose standards. The samples were lyophilized and the resulting powder extracted in a water bath at 100oC in 15minutes. The analysis was performed using anthrone (colorimetric method and the analyte read in a UV-visible spectrophotometer at 620nm. The result showed that carbohydrates were present in the samples, indicated by green and yellow, colourless pigments. Glucose and sucrose were the main identified sugars from the standards analysed. The concentration of sugars varied with time; months and seasons of the year. Result of the samples showed highest level of sugar concentration in May 2010 and lowest sugar concentration in November 2010. It was observed that the mass of sugars (glucose and sucrose deposited as a result of photosynthesis, significantly contributed to the weight of biomass. The implication of the result indicated that: the smaller the biomass, the most likely it is to have lower

  12. Antiviral activity of carbohydrate-binding agents against Nidovirales in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, F J U M; de Haan, C A M; Schuurman, N M P; Haijema, B J; Peumans, W J; Van Damme, E J M; Delputte, P L; Balzarini, J; Egberink, H F

    2007-10-01

    Coronaviruses are important human and animal pathogens, the relevance of which increased due to the emergence of new human coronaviruses like SARS-CoV, HKU1 and NL63. Together with toroviruses, arteriviruses, and roniviruses the coronaviruses belong to the order Nidovirales. So far antivirals are hardly available to combat infections with viruses of this order. Therefore, various antiviral strategies to counter nidoviral infections are under evaluation. Lectins, which bind to N-linked oligosaccharide elements of enveloped viruses, can be considered as a conceptionally new class of virus inhibitors. These agents were recently evaluated for their antiviral activity towards a variety of enveloped viruses and were shown in most cases to inhibit virus infection at low concentrations. However, limited knowledge is available for their efficacy towards nidoviruses. In this article the application of the plant lectins Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin (HHA), Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), Cymbidium sp. agglutinin (CA) and Urtica dioica agglutinin (UDA) as well as non-plant derived pradimicin-A (PRM-A) and cyanovirin-N (CV-N) as potential antiviral agents was evaluated. Three antiviral tests were compared based on different evaluation principles: cell viability (MTT-based colorimetric assay), number of infected cells (immunoperoxidase assay) and amount of viral protein expression (luciferase-based assay). The presence of carbohydrate-binding agents strongly inhibited coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus, infectious bronchitis virus, feline coronaviruses serotypes I and II, mouse hepatitis virus), arteriviruses (equine arteritis virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus) and torovirus (equine Berne virus). Remarkably, serotype II feline coronaviruses and arteriviruses were not inhibited by PRM-A, in contrast to the other viruses tested.

  13. Effect of mono-unsaturated fatty acids versus complex carbohydrates on high-density lipoproteins in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of two strictly controlled diets, one rich in complex carbohydrates, the other rich in olive oil, on serum lipids were studied in healthy men and women. Serum cholesterol levels fell on average by 0?44 mmol/l in the carbohydrate group and 0?46 mmol/l in the olive oil group. HDL cholester

  14. Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known δ13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (δ13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (δ13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (δ13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the δ13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in

  15. Water-soluble carbohydrates and fructan structure patterns from Agave and Dasylirion species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Margalli, N Alejandra; López, Mercedes G

    2006-10-04

    Fructans, storage carbohydrates with beta-fructofuranosyl linkages, are found in approximately 15% of higher plants. The metabolic flexibility of those molecules allows them easily to polymerize and depolymerize to soluble carbohydrates according to plant development stage and environmental conditions. In this work, water-soluble carbohydrates, including fructan structure patterns, were compared among Agave and Dasylirion species grown in different environmental regions in Mexico. Fructans were the main storage carbohydrate present in Agave stems, in addition to other carbohydrates related to its metabolism, whereas Dasylirion spp. presented a different carbohydrate distribution. A good correlation of water-soluble carbohydrate content with climatic conditions was observed. Fructans in Agave and Dasylirion genera were found in the form of polydisperse molecules, where structural heterogeneity in the same plant was evidenced by methylation linkage analysis and chromatographic methods. Fructans from the studied species were classified into three groups depending on DP and linkage-type abundance. These storage carbohydrates share structural characteristics with fructans in plants that belong to the Asparagales members. Agave and Dasylirion fructans can be categorized as graminans and branched neo-fructans, which we have termed agavins.

  16. Role of gut microbiota in the control of energy and carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review: To describe the recent developments and insights gained in the role played by the colonic microbiota in energy and carbohydrate metabolism related to obesity in humans. Recent findings: Previous findings that the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteriodetes is important in energy harvest

  17. Metabolic and hormonal responses to body carbohydrate store depletion followed by high or low carbohydrate meal in sedentary and physically active subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, T; Ziemba, A; Nazar, K

    2010-04-01

    The study was designed to determine metabolic and hormonal responses to acute modification of body carbohydrate stores by exercise and subsequent meals and to find out whether the responses depend on the training status of subjects. Nine sedentary students and 10 endurance athletes took part in four experimental sessions. During control session, after overnight fast oxygen uptake and CO2 production were measured and blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin (I), leptin (L), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), catecholamines, ACTH and cortisol were determined. The remaining sessions were preceded by 1.5 h exercise at 70% HRmax in the evening followed by 12-16 hrs fast till morning when subjects ate either high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) or low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) meal or fasted. Respiratory gases and blood samples were collected before and 2 hours after meal. In glycogen depleted subjects respiratory quotient (RQ), I, norepinephrine (NE) and L decreased, whilst other variables were unaltered. Changes in I and NE were greater in athletes than in sedentary subjects. After H-CHO RQ, blood glucose, I and NE increased and FFA, GH and T decreased. The latter effect was greater in athletes than in untrained subjects. After L-CHO, RQ was at the fasting level and FFA increased only in sedentary group. In both groups I increased and GH and T decreased. Neither meal affected L concentration. In conclusion, hormonal and metabolic changes observed after depleting carbohydrate stores resemble those occurring during starvation. Composition of the ingested meal affects postprandial metabolism, which additionally depends on the subjects' training status.

  18. Nutrition and adventitious rooting in woody plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bortolanza Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation success of commercial genotypes via cutting techniques is related to several factors, including nutritional status of mother trees and of propagation material. The nutritional status determines the carbohydrate quantities, auxins and other compounds of plant essential metabolism for root initiation and development. Each nutrient has specific functions in plant, acting on plant structure or on plant physiology. Although the importance of mineral nutrition for success of woody plants vegetative propagation and its relation with adventitious rooting is recognized, the role of some mineral nutrients is still unknown. Due to biochemical and physiological complexity of adventitious rooting process, there are few researches to determine de role of nutrients on development of adventitious roots. This review intends to explore de state of the art about the effect of mineral nutrition on adventitious rooting of woody plants.

  19. The effects of high fat, low carbohydrate and low fat, high carbohydrate diets on tumor necrosis factor superfamily proteins and proinflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Sirjani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been considerable inconsistency regarding the potential relationship between dyslipidemia and bone metabolism. The inflammatory stimulation through the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL/ receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK/ osteoprotegerin (OPG pathway could be the infrastructural mechanism for hypercholesterolemia-induced bone loss.In this study, we investigated the effect of dyslipidemia on RANKL and OPG alongside with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thirty male C57Bl/6 mice (4 weeks old were randomized to two purified diet groups (15 animals in each group, high fat, low carbohydrate diet (HFLCD and its matched low fat, high carbohydrate diet (LFHCD. After 12 weeks of feeding in standard situations, the plasma concentration of lipid profile, interleukin (IL 1Beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and RANKL, OPG, and RANKL: OPG ratio were measured.In the present study, although the body weight significantly increased during 12 weeks in HFLCD and LFHCD groups, there were no significant differences in food intake, food efficiency ratio and weight gain between the two groups. The LFHCD group had significantly higher median RANKL and RANKL/OPG ratio. There was no significant difference in plasma IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α concentration between LFHCD and HFLCD groups.These unexpected findings from LFHCD, that seem to be as a result of its higher carbohydrate proportion in comparison to HFLCD, implicate dietary carbohydrate rather than dietary fat as a more significant nutritional factor contributing to change in RANKL level and RANKL: OPG ratio.

  20. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow, Laura R; Kim, Sarah; Daubenmier, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, Judith T; Phinney, Stephen D; Goldman, Veronica; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Cox, Rachel M; Moran, Patricia; Hecht, Fredrick M

    2014-01-01

    We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%). We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR) consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18) or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16). We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04). Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03); 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05). The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09). Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.

  1. A randomized pilot trial of a moderate carbohydrate diet compared to a very low carbohydrate diet in overweight or obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R Saslow

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of two diets on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and other health-related outcomes in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes (HbA1c>6%. We randomized participants to either a medium carbohydrate, low fat, calorie-restricted, carbohydrate counting diet (MCCR consistent with guidelines from the American Diabetes Association (n = 18 or a very low carbohydrate, high fat, non calorie-restricted diet whose goal was to induce nutritional ketosis (LCK, n = 16. We excluded participants receiving insulin; 74% were taking oral diabetes medications. Groups met for 13 sessions over 3 months and were taught diet information and psychological skills to promote behavior change and maintenance. At 3 months, mean HbA1c level was unchanged from baseline in the MCCR diet group, while it decreased 0.6% in the LCK group; there was a significant between group difference in HbA1c change favoring the LCK group (-0.6%, 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.03%, p = 0.04. Forty-four percent of the LCK group discontinued one or more diabetes medications, compared to 11% of the MCCR group (p = 0.03; 31% discontinued sulfonylureas in the LCK group, compared to 5% in the MCCR group (p = 0.05. The LCK group lost 5.5 kg vs. 2.6 kg lost in MCCR group (p = 0.09. Our results suggest that a very low carbohydrate diet coupled with skills to promote behavior change may improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes while allowing decreases in diabetes medications. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01713764.

  2. Low-carbohydrate diets affect energy balance and fuel homeostasis differentially in lean and obese rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morens, C.; Sirot, V.; Scheurink, A. J. W.; van Dijk, G.

    2006-01-01

    In parallel with increased prevalence of overweight people in affluent societies are individuals trying to lose weight, often using low-carbohydrate diets. Nevertheless, long-term metabolic consequences of those diets, usually high in (saturated) fat, remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated long-

  3. Quantification of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in conscious mice using serial blood and urine spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, TH; Boer, TS; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Reijngoud, DJ

    2003-01-01

    In vivo studies of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in (genetically modified) conscious mice are hampered by limitations of blood and urine sample sizes. We developed and validated methods to quantify stable isotope dilution and incorporation in small blood and urine samples spotted onto filter paper

  4. Comparison of carbohydrate sources in yeast-fermentation CO2 generators for mosquito surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquito surveillance in remote areas with limited access to canisters of CO2 or dry ice will benefit from an effective alternative CO2 source, such as the natural production of CO2 from yeast fermentation of several carbohydrate sources. In this study, we document the differences in mosquito and n...

  5. Seasonal dynamics and age of stemwood nonstructural carbohydrates in temperate forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew D; Carbone, Mariah S; Keenan, Trevor F; Czimczik, Claudia I; Hollinger, David Y; Murakami, Paula; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei

    2013-02-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrate reserves support tree metabolism and growth when current photosynthates are insufficient, offering resilience in times of stress. We monitored stemwood nonstructural carbohydrate (starch and sugars) concentrations of the dominant tree species at three sites in the northeastern United States. We estimated the mean age of the starch and sugars in a subset of trees using the radiocarbon ((14) C) bomb spike. With these data, we then tested different carbon (C) allocation schemes in a process-based model of forest C cycling. We found that the nonstructural carbohydrates are both highly dynamic and about a decade old. Seasonal dynamics in starch (two to four times higher in the growing season, lower in the dormant season) mirrored those of sugars. Radiocarbon-based estimates indicated that the mean age of the starch and sugars in red maple (Acer rubrum) was 7-14 yr. A two-pool (fast and slow cycling reserves) model structure gave reasonable estimates of the size and mean residence time of the total NSC pool, and greatly improved model predictions of interannual variability in woody biomass increment, compared with zero- or one-pool structures used in the majority of existing models. This highlights the importance of nonstructural carbohydrates in the context of forest ecosystem carbon cycling.

  6. The effect of carbohydrate accumulation and nitrogen deficiency on feedback regulation of photosynthesis in beech (Fagus sylvatica) under elevated CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, K.; Urban, O.; Holub, P.; Rajsnerova, P.

    2012-04-01

    One of the main manifestations of global change is an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Elevated concentration of CO2 has stimulating effect on plant photosynthesis and consequently also on the productivity. Long-term studies, however, show that this effect is progressively reduced due to feedback regulation of photosynthesis. The main causes of this phenomenon are considered as two factors: i) increased biomass production consumes a larger amount of nitrogen from the soil and this leads to progressive nitrogen limitation of photosynthesis, particularly at the level of the enzyme Rubisco, ii) the sink capacity is genetically limited and elevated CO2 concentration leads to increased accumulation of carbohydtrates (mainly sucrose, which is the main transport form of assimilates) in leaves. Increased concentrations of carbohydrates leads to a feedback regulation of photosynthesis by both, long-term feedback regulation of synthesis of the enzyme Rubisco, and also due to reduced capacity to produce ATP in the chloroplasts. However, mechanisms for interactive effects of nitrogen and accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates are still not well understood. Using 3-year-old Fagus sylvatica seedlings we have explored the interactive effects of nitrogen nutrition and sink capacity manipulation (sucrose feeding) on the dynamics of accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates and changes in photosynthetic parameters under ambient (385 μmol (CO2) mol-1) and elevated (700 μmol(CO2) mol-1) CO2 concentration. Sink manipulation by sucrose feeding led to a continuous increase of non-structural carbohydrates in leaves, which was higher in nitrogen fertilized seedlings. The accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates was also slightly stimulated by elevated CO2 concentration. Exponential decay (p structural carbohydrates increased. However, this relationship was modified by the nitrogen content. Accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates had relatively smaller effect

  7. Long-Term Warming Alters Carbohydrate Degradation Potential in Temperate Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Grace; Billings, Andrew F; Blanchard, Jeff L; Burkhardt, Daniel B; Frey, Serita D; Melillo, Jerry M; Schnabel, Julia; van Diepen, Linda T A; DeAngelis, Kristen M

    2016-11-15

    As Earth's climate warms, soil carbon pools and the microbial communities that process them may change, altering the way in which carbon is recycled in soil. In this study, we used a combination of metagenomics and bacterial cultivation to evaluate the hypothesis that experimentally raising soil temperatures by 5°C for 5, 8, or 20 years increased the potential for temperate forest soil microbial communities to degrade carbohydrates. Warming decreased the proportion of carbohydrate-degrading genes in the organic horizon derived from eukaryotes and increased the fraction of genes in the mineral soil associated with Actinobacteria in all studies. Genes associated with carbohydrate degradation increased in the organic horizon after 5 years of warming but had decreased in the organic horizon after warming the soil continuously for 20 years. However, a greater proportion of the 295 bacteria from 6 phyla (10 classes, 14 orders, and 34 families) isolated from heated plots in the 20-year experiment were able to depolymerize cellulose and xylan than bacterial isolates from control soils. Together, these findings indicate that the enrichment of bacteria capable of degrading carbohydrates could be important for accelerated carbon cycling in a warmer world.

  8. Exogenous classic phytohormones have limited regulatory effects on fructan and primary carbohydrate metabolism in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGasperl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructans are polymers of fructose and one of the main constituents of water-soluble carbohydrates in forage grasses and cereal crops of temperate climates. Fructans are involved in cold and drought resistance, regrowth following defoliation and early spring growth, seed filling, have beneficial effects on human health and are used for industrial processes. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. serves as model species to study fructan metabolism. Fructan metabolism is under the control of both synthesis by fructosyltransferases (FTs and breakdown through fructan exohydrolases (FEHs. The accumulation of fructans can be triggered by high sucrose levels and abiotic stress conditions such as drought and cold stress. However, detailed studies on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of fructan metabolism are scarce. Since different phytohormones, especially abscisic acid (ABA, are known to play an important role in abiotic stress responses, the possible short term regulation of the enzymes involved in fructan metabolism by the five classical phytohormones was investigated. Therefore, the activities of enzymes involved in fructan synthesis and breakdown, the expression levels for the corresponding genes and levels for water-soluble carbohydrates were determined following pulse treatments with ABA, auxin (AUX, ethylene (ET, gibberellic acid (GA or kinetin (KIN. The most pronounced fast effects were a transient increase of FT activities by AUX, KIN, ABA and ET, while minor effects were evident for 1-FEH activity with an increased activity in response to KIN and a decrease by GA. Fructan and sucrose levels were not affected. This observed discrepancy demonstrates the importance of determining enzyme activities to obtain insight into the physiological traits and ultimately the plant phenotype. The comparative analyses of activities for seven key enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism revealed no co-regulation between enzymes of the fructan and

  9. Particulate carbohydrates and uronic acids in the northern East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chin-Chang; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Chiang, Kuo-Ping; Chen, Hung-Yu; Yeager, Kevin M.

    2009-10-01

    Carbohydrate species, such as uronic acids, play an important role in oceanic carbon cycling, coagulation and adsorption processes. Concentrations of particulate carbohydrates (PCHO) and uronic acids (PURA) were measured in the northern East China Sea (ECS) during June and November, 2006. In June, maximum concentrations of PCHO and PURA were observed in the surface layer of coastal waters. Their concentrations rapidly decreased with depth, suggesting that they are both bio-reactive. Moreover, phytoplankton abundance and bacterial biomass seem to be associated with observed PCHO and PURA concentrations in the ECS during June, suggesting that production of carbohydrate species in the ECS is regulated by phytoplankton assemblages, bacterial assimilation or degradation. In November, however, PCHO and PURA concentrations were homogenous within the water column due to strong vertical mixing. No strong correlations were observed between carbohydrate species (PCHO and PURA) and phytoplankton or bacterial biomass, suggesting that production of these compounds in November might be caused by the physiological difference between nutrient limited and non-nutrient limited phytoplankton. Furthermore, strong negative correlations between nutrients and PCHO species suggest that nutrient levels may be one of the driving forces behind the production of these compounds in the ECS.

  10. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Effects on Exercise Capacity in Pre- and Postprandial States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie-J. M. Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oropharyngeal receptors signal presence of carbohydrate to the brain. Mouth rinses with a carbohydrate solution facilitate corticomotor output and improve time-trial performance in well-trained subjects in a fasted state. We tested for this effect in nonathletic subjects in fasted and nonfasted state. Methods. 13 healthy non-athletic males performed 5 tests on a cycle ergometer. After measuring maximum power output (Wmax, the subjects cycled four times at 60% Wmax until exhaustion while rinsing their mouth every 5 minutes with either a 6.4% maltodextrin solution or water, one time after an overnight fast and another after a carbohydrate rich breakfast. Results. Mouth rinsing with maltodextrin improved time-to-exhaustion in pre- and postprandial states. This was accompanied by reductions in the average and maximal rates of perceived exertion but no change in average or maximal heart rate was observed. Conclusions. Carbohydrate mouth rinsing improves endurance capacity in both fed and fasted states in non-athletic subjects.

  11. Influence of light and shoot development stage on leaf photosynthesis and carbohydrate status during the adventitious root formation in cuttings of Corylus avellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eTombesi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adventitious root formation in plant cuttings is influenced by many endogenous and environmental factors. Leaf photosynthesis during rooting of leafy cuttings in hard to root species can contribute to supply carbohydrates to the intensive metabolic processes related to adventious root formation. Light intensity during rooting is artificially kept low to decrease potential cutting desiccation, but can be limiting for photosynthetic activity. Furthermore, leafy cuttings collected from different part of the shoot can have a different ability to fuel adventitious root formation in cutting stem. The aim of this work was to determine the role of leaf photosynthesis on adventitious root formation in hazelnut (Corylus avellana L (a hard-to-root specie leafy cuttings and to investigate the possible influence of the shoot developmental stage on cutting rooting and survival in the post-rooting phase. Cutting rooting was closely related to carbohydrate content in cutting stems during the rooting process. Cutting carbohydrate status was positively influenced by leaf photosynthesis during rooting. Non saturating light exposure of leafy cuttings can contribute to improve photosynthetic activity of leafy cuttings. Collection of cuttings from different part of the mother shoots influenced rooting percentage and this appear related to the different capability to concentrate soluble sugars in the cutting stem during rooting. Adventitious root formation depend on the carbohydrate accumulation at the base of the cutting. Mother shoot developmental stage and leaf photosynthesis appear pivotal factors for adventitious roots formation.

  12. Analysis of surface binding sites (SBSs) in carbohydrate active enzymes with focus on glycoside hydrolase families 13 and 77

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Ruzanski, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Surface binding sites (SBSs) interact with carbohydrates outside of the enzyme active site. They are frequently situated on catalytic domains and are distinct from carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs). SBSs are found in a variety of enzymes and often seen in crystal structures. Notably about half ...

  13. A global survey of low-molecular weight carbohydrates in lentils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentils contain a range of low-molecular weight carbohydrates (LMWC); however, those have not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the concentrations of LMWC in lentils grown in six locations, and (2) identify any genetic and environmental effects on those LMWC...

  14. Broad-scale predictability of carbohydrates and exopolymers in Antarctic and Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Graham J C; Aslam, Shazia N; Michel, Christine; Niemi, Andrea; Norman, Louiza; Meiners, Klaus M; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Paterson, Harriet; Thomas, David N

    2013-09-24

    Sea ice can contain high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), much of which is carbohydrate-rich extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microalgae and bacteria inhabiting the ice. Here we report the concentrations of dissolved carbohydrates (dCHO) and dissolved EPS (dEPS) in relation to algal standing stock [estimated by chlorophyll (Chl) a concentrations] in sea ice from six locations in the Southern and Arctic Oceans. Concentrations varied substantially within and between sampling sites, reflecting local ice conditions and biological content. However, combining all data revealed robust statistical relationships between dCHO concentrations and the concentrations of different dEPS fractions, Chl a, and DOC. These relationships were true for whole ice cores, bottom ice (biomass rich) sections, and colder surface ice. The distribution of dEPS was strongly correlated to algal biomass, with the highest concentrations of both dEPS and non-EPS carbohydrates in the bottom horizons of the ice. Complex EPS was more prevalent in colder surface sea ice horizons. Predictive models (validated against independent data) were derived to enable the estimation of dCHO concentrations from data on ice thickness, salinity, and vertical position in core. When Chl a data were included a higher level of prediction was obtained. The consistent patterns reflected in these relationships provide a strong basis for including estimates of regional and seasonal carbohydrate and dEPS carbon budgets in coupled physical-biogeochemical models, across different types of sea ice from both polar regions.

  15. Quantitative partition of protein, carbohydrate and fat pools in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Thorbek, G

    1995-01-01

    A model combining data from balance experiments with data from oxidation of nutrients demonstrating the pools of protein, carbohydrate and fat and their partition in the body was presented. Data from more than 200 experiments with growing pigs were used to fill up the "black boxes" in the model a...

  16. Effects of carbohydrate addition on production in extensive shrimp culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hari, B.; Kurup, B.M.; Varghese, J.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    One indoor and one on-farm trial were conducted to evaluate the effect of control of carbon/ nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) by addition of carbohydrate to the water column in extensive types of shrimp culture systems. In the indoor experiment, 25% and 40% dietary protein ('P25' and 'P40') with or withou

  17. Carbon catabolite repression and global control of the carbohydrate metabolism in Lactococcus lactis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    In view of the economic importance of fermented dairy products considerable scientific attention has been given to various steps of fermentation processes, including the L-lactate formation of lactic acid bacteria (de Vos, 1996). In particular, the carbohydrate metabolism of L. lactis has been the s

  18. Advances in contact printing technologies of carbohydrate, peptide and protein arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuhl, J.; Brinkmann, J.; Jonkheijm, P.

    2014-01-01

    Microcontact printing (μCP) techniques are powerful tools to print molecules on reactive surfaces in a covalent or non-covalent manner to produce well-defined patterns, in shape and spot morphology, of bioactive molecules such as carbohydrates, peptides and proteins. These printed biofunctional surf

  19. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  20. Dietary protein and fermentable carbohydrates contents influence growth performance and intestinal characteristics in newly weaned pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Dirkzwager, A.; Fledderus, J.; Trevisi, P.; Huërou-Luron, Le I.; Lallès, J.P.; Awati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the dietary amount of fermentable carbohydrates (FC) may counteract the negative effects of protein fermentation in newly weaned piglets. To study this hypothesis, 272 newly weaned piglets were allotted to 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with low and high FC (7.5 and

  1. Altered Carbohydrates Allocation by Associated Bacteria-fungi Interactions in a Bark Beetle-microbe Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fangyuan; Lou, Qiaozhe; Wang, Bo; Xu, Letian; Cheng, Chihang; Lu, Min; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-02-03

    Insect-microbe interaction is a key area of research in multiplayer symbiosis, yet little is known about the role of microbe-microbe interactions in insect-microbe symbioses. The red turpentine beetle (RTB) has destroyed millions of healthy pines in China and forms context-dependent relationships with associated fungi. The adult-associated fungus Leptographium procerum have played key roles in RTB colonization. However, common fungal associates (L. procerum and Ophiostoma minus) with RTB larvae compete for carbohydrates. Here, we report that dominant bacteria associated with RTB larvae buffer the competition by inhibiting the growth and D-glucose consumption of O. minus. However, they didn't inhibit the growth of L. procerum and forced this fungus to consume D-pinitol before consuming D-glucose, even though D-glucose was available and a better carbon source not only for L. procerum but also for RTB larvae and associated bacteria. This suggests the most frequently isolated bacteria associated with RTB larvae could affect fungal growth and the sequence of carbohydrate consumption. Thus, this regulates carbohydrate allocation in the RTB larva-microbe community, which may in turn benefit RTB larvae development. We also discuss the mechanism of carbohydrate allocation in the RTB larva-microbe community, and its potential contribution to the maintenance of a symbiotic community.

  2. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Pogozelski, Wendy K; Astrup, Arne; Bernstein, Richard K; Fine, Eugene J; Westman, Eric C; Accurso, Anthony; Frassetto, Lynda; Gower, Barbara A; McFarlane, Samy I; Nielsen, Jörgen Vesti; Krarup, Thure; Saslow, Laura; Roth, Karl S; Vernon, Mary C; Volek, Jeff S; Wilshire, Gilbert B; Dahlqvist, Annika; Sundberg, Ralf; Childers, Ann; Morrison, Katharine; Manninen, Anssi H; Dashti, Hussain M; Wood, Richard J; Wortman, Jay; Worm, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    The inability of current recommendations to control the epidemic of diabetes, the specific failure of the prevailing low-fat diets to improve obesity, cardiovascular risk, or general health and the persistent reports of some serious side effects of commonly prescribed diabetic medications, in combination with the continued success of low-carbohydrate diets in the treatment of diabetes and metabolic syndrome without significant side effects, point to the need for a reappraisal of dietary guidelines. The benefits of carbohydrate restriction in diabetes are immediate and well documented. Concerns about the efficacy and safety are long term and conjectural rather than data driven. Dietary carbohydrate restriction reliably reduces high blood glucose, does not require weight loss (although is still best for weight loss), and leads to the reduction or elimination of medication. It has never shown side effects comparable with those seen in many drugs. Here we present 12 points of evidence supporting the use of low-carbohydrate diets as the first approach to treating type 2 diabetes and as the most effective adjunct to pharmacology in type 1. They represent the best-documented, least controversial results. The insistence on long-term randomized controlled trials as the only kind of data that will be accepted is without precedent in science. The seriousness of diabetes requires that we evaluate all of the evidence that is available. The 12 points are sufficiently compelling that we feel that the burden of proof rests with those who are opposed.

  3. Solid-state NMR reveals differential carbohydrate utilization in diapausing Culex pipiens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, James; Singh, Jugeshwar; Kim, Sungshil; Hockaday, William C.; Sim, Cheolho; Kim, Sung Joon

    2016-11-01

    Culex pipiens is the mosquito that vectors West Nile Virus and other human-pathogenic flavivruses in North America. In response to shortened day length and lower temperatures, female Cx. pipiense prepares for the diapause by actively feeding on carbohydrates to increase the biosynthesis of glycogen and lipid to store energy for overwintering. The effect of feeding different carbohydrates on glycogen and lipid biosynthesis in diapausing mosquitoes was investigated in vivo using 13C solid-state NMR. Diapause-destined adult females and nondiapausing counterparts after adult eclosion were fed with three different carbohydrate sources for 7 days: 1) 10% sucrose, 2) 10% D-[13C6]glucose, and 3) 1% D-[13C6]glucose co-provisioned with 10% sucrose. NMR measurements show that sucrose and glucose are metabolized differently in diapausing mosquitoes. Mosquitoes fed on sucrose primarily accumulate glycogen with increased branching structures, but less of lipids. In contrast, mosquitoes fed exclusively on glucose show accumulation of both glycogen and lipid with increased aliphatic chain length. Glucose is exclusively metabolized for the biosynthesis of triacylglyceride when mosquitoes were co-fed with sucrose. Our findings provide novel insights into the insect carbohydrate metabolism that governs glycogen and lipid biosynthesis during diapause, which is fundamental for the insect survival during inimical environments.

  4. The Effects of the Combination of a Refined Carbohydrate Diet and Exposure to Hyperoxia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicia Pedreira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease with genetic, social, and environmental influences. This study aims at analyzing the effects of the combination of a refined carbohydrate diet and exposure to hyperoxia on the pulmonary oxidative and inflammatory response in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG, hyperoxia group (HG, refined carbohydrate diet group (RCDG, and refined carbohydrate diet + hyperoxia group (RCDHG. The experimental diet was composed of 10% sugar, 45% standard diet, and 45% sweet condensed milk. For 24 hours, the HG and RCDHG were exposed to hyperoxia and the CG and RCDG to ambient air. After the exposures were completed, the animals were euthanized, and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lungs were collected for analyses. The HG showed higher levels of interferon-γ in adipose tissue as compared to other groups and higher levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the CG and RCDHG. SOD and CAT activities in the pulmonary parenchyma decreased in the RCDHG as compared to the CG. There was an increase of lipid peroxidation in the HG, RCDG, and RCDHG as compared to the CG. A refined carbohydrate diet combined with hyperoxia promoted inflammation and redox imbalance in adult mice.

  5. The Effects of the Combination of a Refined Carbohydrate Diet and Exposure to Hyperoxia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nicia Pedreira; Campos, Keila Karine Duarte; Pena, Karina Braga; Bandeira, Ana Carla Balthar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease with genetic, social, and environmental influences. This study aims at analyzing the effects of the combination of a refined carbohydrate diet and exposure to hyperoxia on the pulmonary oxidative and inflammatory response in mice. Twenty-four mice were divided into four groups: control group (CG), hyperoxia group (HG), refined carbohydrate diet group (RCDG), and refined carbohydrate diet + hyperoxia group (RCDHG). The experimental diet was composed of 10% sugar, 45% standard diet, and 45% sweet condensed milk. For 24 hours, the HG and RCDHG were exposed to hyperoxia and the CG and RCDG to ambient air. After the exposures were completed, the animals were euthanized, and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lungs were collected for analyses. The HG showed higher levels of interferon-γ in adipose tissue as compared to other groups and higher levels of interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-α compared to the CG and RCDHG. SOD and CAT activities in the pulmonary parenchyma decreased in the RCDHG as compared to the CG. There was an increase of lipid peroxidation in the HG, RCDG, and RCDHG as compared to the CG. A refined carbohydrate diet combined with hyperoxia promoted inflammation and redox imbalance in adult mice. PMID:28018521

  6. Rapid adjustment in chrysanthemum carbohydrate turnover and growth activity to a change in time-of-day application of light and daylength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Poiré, Richard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Diel (24 h) rhythms are believed to be of great importance to plant growth and carbohydrate metabolism in fluctuating environments. However, it is unclear how plants that have evolved to experience regular day–night patterns will respond to irregular light environments that disturb...... diurnally-regulated parameters related to growth. In this study, chrysanthemum plants were exposed to a change in the time-of-day application of light followed by short days or long days with a night interruption of light. We observed a clear shift in the diel cycle of sucrose turnover and relative leaf...... expansion, indicating a resetting of these activities with a temporal trigger in the early morning. The starch pool was relatively stable in long-day plants and marginally affected by the change in the time-of-day application in light followed by long days with a night interruption. This was in contrast...

  7. Nutritional and metabolic responses in common dentex (Dentex dentex) fed on different types and levels of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Abellán, Emilia; Arizcun, Marta; Cardenete, Gabriel; Morales, Amalia E; Hidalgo, M Carmen

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the capacity of common dentex (Dentex dentex) to efficiently use dietary carbohydrates. So, the effects of different type and levels of carbohydrates on growth performance, feed utilization, fish composition, plasma metabolites and key metabolic pathways in liver and white muscle of common dentex are presented. Nine isonitrogenous (43%) and isoenergetic (22 MJ kg(-1)) diets were formulated combining three types, pregelatinized starch (PS), dextrin (Dx) and maltodextrin (Mx), and three levels (12, 18 and 24%) of carbohydrates. Growth performance was not significantly influenced by treatments. The best feed utilization was observed in 18% Mx group. Higher hepatic lipid content was found in fish fed lower dietary carbohydrate levels. PS induced higher liver and white muscle hexokinase and pyruvate kinase activities compared to the lower values observed for Mx. Malic enzyme and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver and white muscle were lower in Mx group. The influence of dietary carbohydrates source was more noticeable than those induced by the carbohydrate level, when glycolysis and lipogenesis pathways were considered. Common dentex is able to use properly dietary carbohydrates, although optimal dietary inclusion levels are below 24%. The greater protein-sparing effect was promoted by the less complex carbohydrate (maltodextrin) and the best feed utilization indices were obtained at intermediate levels of inclusion (18%).

  8. Role of carbohydrate in determining the immunochemical properties of the hemagglutinin of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitelman, A.K.; Berezin, V.A.; Kharitonenkov, I.G. (Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow)

    1981-01-01

    Most of the carbohydrate was removed from influenza with MRC II (H3N2) and its purified hemagglutinin (HA) on treatment with glycosidases, including ..cap alpha..-mannosidase, ..beta..-N-acetylglucosaminidase, ..beta..-galactosidase and ..cap alpha..-fucosidase. The release of 50 per cent of the carbohydrate from intact virus particles significantly affected hemagglutinating activity. The ability of untreated and glycosidase-treated virus to inhibit the binding of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin was almost indistinguishable by competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA). Up to 60 per cent of the carbohydrate from the purified HA of influenza virus could be removed. The antigenicity of glycosidase treated HA molecules decreased 8-fold compared to intact HAs as measured by competitive RIA. In addition, glycosidase digestion of /sup 125/I-labeled HA resulted in a decrease in its reactivity in direct RIA. We conclude that the carbohydrate portion of the HA of influenza virus is not of major importance in defining the antigenicity of HA.

  9. Carbohydrates and thermal properties indicate a decrease in stable aggregate carbon following forest colonization of mountain grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guidi, Claudia; Cannella, David; Leifeld, Jens

    2015-01-01

    was to investigate changes in the content and origin of soil C components involved into aggregate stabilization (i.e. carbohydrates) following forest expansion on abandoned grassland in the Alps, where only few studies have been conducted. Changes in carbohydrates and thermally labile C were assessed along a land......-use gradient in the Southern Alps (Italy) following analysis of carbohydrate monomers and thermal analysis of mineral soil and physical soil fractions. The land-use gradient comprised managed grassland, two transitional phases in which grassland abandonment led to colonization by Picea abies (L.) Karst......., and an old forest dominated by Fagus sylvatica L. and P. abies.Grassland abandoned for 10years tended to have higher levels of carbohydrate and thermally labile soil C than managed grassland and old forest, presumably caused by differences in the quality and amount of litter input. Carbohydrates...

  10. Low-Carbohydrate Diet Impairs the Effect of Glucagon in the Treatment of Insulin-Induced Mild Hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Schmidt, Signe; Damm-Frydenberg, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the ability of glucagon to restore plasma glucose (PG) after mild hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes on an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) versus a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten patients with insulin pump-treated type...

  11. Carbohydrate malabsorption in acutely malnourished children and infants : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A Kvissberg, Matilda; Dalvi, Prasad S.; Kerac, Marko; Voskuijl, Wieger; Berkley, James A.; Priebe, Marion G.; Bandsma, Robert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) accounts for approximately 1 million child deaths per year. High mortality is linked with comorbidities, such as diarrhea and pneumonia. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the extent to which carbohydrate malabsorption occurs in chi

  12. Arguments for a lower carbohydrate-higher fat diet in patients with a short small bowel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, G.P.A.; Severijnen, R.S.V.M.

    2006-01-01

    Short small bowel patients suffer from malabsorption due to a strongly reduced small bowel surface. These patients usually get a high caloric high carbohydrate-low fat diet at oral or enteral feeding. At several points our studies demonstrate that the effect of this formula is doubtful. In these pat

  13. The effect of carbohydrate and fat variation in euenergetic diets on postabsorptive free fatty acid release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; Ackermans, MT; Endert, E; Ruiter, AFC; Meijer, AJ; Kuipers, F; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2002-01-01

    Diet composition and energy content modulate free fatty acid (FFA) release. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response effects of euenergetic variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat content on postabsorptive FFA release. The rate of appearance (R-a) of palmitate was measured by infus

  14. STEREOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF HYDRATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS .3. DENSITY AND ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GALEMA, SA; HOILAND, H

    1991-01-01

    Density and ultrasound measurements have been performed in aqueous solutions of pentoses, hexoses, methylpyranosides, and disaccharides as a function of molality of carbohydrate (0-0.3 mol kg-1). Partial molar volumes, partial molar isentropic compressibilities, and hydration numbers have been calcu

  15. Trade Liberalization, Exchange Rate Changes, and the Competitiveness of Carbohydrate Staple Markets in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maduabuchi Mkpado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of trade liberalization andexchange rate changes on carbohydrate staples in Nigeria.Secondary data published from 1974 to 2006 on cassava exportsand rice imports as well as non-tradable carbohydrate stapleswere used. It was hypothesized that exchange rate changes andtrade liberalization via price relatives, trade intensity and nominalprotection coefficient have affected prices of carbohydrate staplesin Nigeria. Results show that the effects of trade liberalizationon prices of non tradable carbohydrate staples were mixed.Trade liberalization accounted for most changes in the price ofnon tradable rice than other crops. World prices positivelyaffected the prices of maize and non tradable rice. Also increasingexchange rate will lead to increase in price of non tradable ricedue to price competition with imported rice. The intensificationof liberalization exercise from the removal of quantitativerestriction to use of tariff, among other recommendations, shouldbe encouraged because it can be a remedy to the negativeimpact of increase in the trade intensity and erosion of nominalprotection coefficient on prices of the non tradable crops.

  16. Investigation of Carbohydrate Metabolism and Transport in Castor Bean Seedlings by Cyclic JCross Polarization Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, M.; Köckenberger, W.; Kimmich, R.; Chandrakumar, N.; Bowtell, R.

    1998-05-01

    NMR experiments using13C-labeled compounds offer the possibility of noninvasive monitoring of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in living plants, but are usually hampered by the low sensitivity of the13C nucleus. The problem of low sensitivity can be overcome by using the cyclicJcross polarization (CYCLCROP) technique, which allows the indirect detection of13C nuclei coupled to1H nuclei with the high NMR sensitivity of protons. We report here on methods for imaging and spectroscopy based on the CYCLCROP technique, and their use in the firstin vivoNMR study of carbohydrate transport and metabolism in castor bean seedlings (Ricinus communis L.). Comprehensive acquisition strategies for the various NMR methods are given, including the procedure for setting up the experiments. In addition, a full analysis of the effect of relaxation on the signals generated from smallJ-coupled spin systems by the CYCLCROP sequence is given, and the high sensitivity of the sequence is demonstrated. In thein vivostudy of six-day-old castor bean seedlings, we were able to measure the uptake of labeled hexoses, supplied in solution to the cotyledons, and their conversion to sucrose, as well as the transport of this sucrose in the vascular bundles. Images of the actual distribution of labeled sucrose in the hypocotyl of the seedling have also been obtained. The resulting data show some evidence for a preferential incorporation of labeled fructose in the process of sucrose synthesis, which decreases with the time of incubation.

  17. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Subverts Carbohydrate Metabolic Pathways in the Tick Vector, Ixodes scapularis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Alberdi, Pilar; Valdés, James J.; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José

    2017-01-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is the causative agent of human, equine, and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever (TBF) in ruminants. A. phagocytophilum has become an emerging tick-borne pathogen in the United States, Europe, Africa, and Asia, with increasing numbers of infected people and animals every year. It has been recognized that intracellular pathogens manipulate host cell metabolic pathways to increase infection and transmission in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. However, our current knowledge on how A. phagocytophilum affect these processes in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis is limited. In this study, a genome-wide search for components of major carbohydrate metabolic pathways was performed in I. scapularis ticks for which the genome was recently published. The enzymes involved in the seven major carbohydrate metabolic pathways glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), glyceroneogenesis, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation were identified. Then, the available transcriptomics and proteomics data was used to characterize the mRNA and protein levels of I. scapularis major carbohydrate metabolic pathway components in response to A. phagocytophilum infection of tick tissues and cultured cells. The results showed that major carbohydrate metabolic pathways are conserved in ticks. A. phagocytophilum infection inhibits gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism, but increases the expression of glycolytic genes. A model was proposed to explain how A. phagocytophilum could simultaneously control tick cell glucose metabolism and cytoskeleton organization, which may be achieved in part by up-regulating and stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in a hypoxia-independent manner. The present work provides a more comprehensive view of the major carbohydrate metabolic pathways involved in the response to A. phagocytophilum infection in ticks

  18. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O; Hesselink, M K; Koninckx, E; Rose, A J; Schrauwen, P; Bonen, A; Richter, E A; Hespel, P

    2008-04-01

    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed.

  19. Aspartame in conjunction with carbohydrate reduces insulin levels during endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegler Jason

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As most sport drinks contain some form of non-nutritive sweetener (e.g. aspartame, and with the variation in blood glucose regulation and insulin secretion reportedly associated with aspartame, a further understanding of the effects on insulin and blood glucose regulation during exercise is warranted. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to profile the insulin and blood glucose responses in healthy individuals after aspartame and carbohydrate ingestion during rest and exercise. Findings Each participant completed four trials under the same conditions (45 min rest + 60 min self-paced intense exercise differing only in their fluid intake: 1 carbohydrate (2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (C; 2 0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin and 5% sucrose (CA; 3 water (W; and 4 aspartame (0.04% aspartame with 2% maltodextrin (A. Insulin levels dropped significantly for CA versus C alone (43% between pre-exercise and 30 min, while W and A insulin levels did not differ between these time points. Conclusions Aspartame with carbohydrate significantly lowered insulin levels during exercise versus carbohydrate alone.

  20. Collective choice in ants: the role of protein and carbohydrates ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arganda, S; Nicolis, S C; Perochain, A; Péchabadens, C; Latil, G; Dussutour, A

    2014-10-01

    In a foraging context, social insects make collective decisions from individuals responding to local information. When faced with foods varying in quality, ants are known to be able to select the best food source using pheromone trails. Until now, studies investigating collective decisions have focused on single nutrients, mostly carbohydrates. In the environment, the foods available are a complex mixture and are composed of various nutrients, available in different forms. In this paper, we explore the effect of protein to carbohydrate ratio on ants' ability to detect and choose between foods with different protein characteristics (free amino acids or whole proteins). In a two-choice set up, Argentine ants Linepithema humile were presented with two artificial foods containing either whole protein or amino acids in two different dietary conditions: high protein food or high carbohydrate food. At the collective level, when ants were faced with high carbohydrate foods, they did not show a preference between free amino acids or whole proteins, while a preference for free amino acids emerged when choosing between high protein foods. At the individual level, the probability of feeding was higher for high carbohydrates food and for foods containing free amino acids. Two mathematical models were developed to evaluate the importance of feeding probability in collective food selection. A first model in which a forager deposits pheromone only after feeding, and a second model in which a forager always deposits pheromone, but with greater intensity after feeding. Both models were able to predict free amino acid selection, however the second one was better able to reproduce the experimental results suggesting that modulating trail strength according to feeding probability is likely the mechanism explaining amino acid preference at a collective level in Argentine ants.

  1. A role for carbohydrate recognition in mammalian sperm-egg binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Gary F., E-mail: clarkgf@health.missouri.edu

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Mammalian sperm-egg binding as a carbohydrate dependent species recognition event. • The role of carbohydrate recognition in human, mouse and pig sperm-egg binding. • Historical perspective and future directions for research focused on gamete binding. - Abstract: Mammalian fertilization usually requires three sequential cell–cell interactions: (i) initial binding of sperm to the specialized extracellular matrix coating the egg known as the zona pellucida (ZP); (ii) binding of sperm to the ZP via the inner acrosomal membrane that is exposed following the induction of acrosomal exocytosis; and (iii) adhesion of acrosome-reacted sperm to the plasma membrane of the egg cell, enabling subsequent fusion of these gametes. The focus of this review is on the initial binding of intact sperm to the mammalian ZP. Evidence collected over the past fifty years has confirmed that this interaction relies primarily on the recognition of carbohydrate sequences presented on the ZP by lectin-like egg binding proteins located on the plasma membrane of sperm. There is also evidence that the same carbohydrate sequences that mediate binding also function as ligands for lectins on lymphocytes that can inactivate immune responses, likely protecting the egg and the developing embryo up to the stage of blastocyst hatching. The literature related to initial sperm-ZP binding in the three major mammalian models (human, mouse and pig) is discussed. Historical perspectives and future directions for research related to this aspect of gamete adhesion are also presented.

  2. Expression profiles of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism provide new insights into carbohydrate accumulation in seeds and seedlings of Ricinus communis in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo R; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2015-10-01

    Ricinus communis possesses a specific metabolic signature to adjust growth and developmental processes in response to temperature: carbohydrates are accumulated at low temperatures, whereas amino acids are accumulated at elevated temperatures. Our objective was to assess tissue-specific changes in transcript levels of genes related with carbohydrate biosynthesis and catabolism in response to temperature. For that, we measured transcript levels of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis, starch catabolism, and gluconeogenesis in R. communis leaves, roots, and seeds grown at 20 °C and 35 °C. Transcript levels of genes involved in starch catabolism were higher in leaves grown at 20 °C than at 35 °C, but up-regulation of genes involved in starch biosynthesis seems to compensate for this and, therefore, are the likely explanation for higher levels of starch in leaves grown at 20 °C. Higher levels of soluble carbohydrates in leaves grown at 20 °C may be caused by a coordinated increase in transcript level of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis pathways. In roots, transcript levels of genes associated with starch catabolism and gluconeogenesis seem to be enhanced at elevated temperatures. Higher levels of starch in seeds germinated at low temperatures is associated with higher transcript levels of genes involved in starch biosynthesis. Similarly, higher transcript levels of RcPEPCK and RcFBPase are most likely causal for fructose and glucose accumulation in seeds germinated at 20 °C. This study provides important insights in the understanding of the plasticity of R. communis in response to temperature that may apply to other species as well.

  3. Development of a carbohydrate silylation method in ionic liquids for their gas chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Carrero-Carralero, C; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2013-07-17

    This paper reports on the feasibility of silylation of low molecular weight carbohydrates dissolved in different ionic liquids (ILs) for their further analysis by gas chromatography (GC). Derivatization reagents (nature and amounts), temperature and time of reaction and stirring conditions were evaluated for different carbohydrates (i.e., glucose, mannose, fructose and lactose) dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide [EMIM][DCA]. Evaluation of conformational isomerism of glucose dissolved in [EMIM][DCA] revealed the effect of the time of dissolution in the equilibration of α- and β-furanoses (up to 3% and 6%, respectively, after 70 h of incubation) and that 21 h sufficed to obtain results similar to those provided by the reference method involving pyridine. Once optimized, the proposed derivatization procedure provided satisfactory yields (i.e., close to 100%) using 100 μL of trimethylsilylimidazole (TMSI) at mild conditions (25°C) for a relatively short time (1h) for most of the investigated carbohydrates. Under these experimental conditions, linear responses (i.e., R(2) better than 0.974) were obtained in the tested range of 0.25-1mg of the derivatized target compounds. Other reagents, such as N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)+1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), were successfully used under ultrasonic conditions for aldose monosaccharides and disaccharides derivatization, while BSTFA was useful for ketose monosaccharides. The possibility of using the proposed method for the derivatization of selected carbohydrates dissolved in different ILs and the efficiency of the method applied to the analysis of carbohydrates present in real samples (fruit juices) have also been investigated.

  4. A functional genomics approach to establish the complement of carbohydrate transporters in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bidossi

    Full Text Available The aerotolerant anaerobe Streptococcus pneumoniae is part of the normal nasopharyngeal microbiota of humans and one of the most important invasive pathogens. A genomic survey allowed establishing the occurrence of twenty-one phosphotransferase systems, seven carbohydrate uptake ABC transporters, one sodium:solute symporter and a permease, underlining an exceptionally high capacity for uptake of carbohydrate substrates. Despite high genomic variability, combined phenotypic and genomic analysis of twenty sequenced strains did assign the substrate specificity only to two uptake systems. Systematic analysis of mutants for most carbohydrate transporters enabled us to assign a phenotype and substrate specificity to twenty-three transport systems. For five putative transporters for galactose, pentoses, ribonucleosides and sulphated glycans activity was inferred, but not experimentally confirmed and only one transport system remains with an unknown substrate and lack of any functional annotation. Using a metabolic approach, 80% of the thirty-two fermentable carbon substrates were assigned to the corresponding transporter. The complexity and robustness of sugar uptake is underlined by the finding that many transporters have multiple substrates, and many sugars are transported by more than one system. The present work permits to draw a functional map of the complete arsenal of carbohydrate utilisation proteins of pneumococci, allows re-annotation of genomic data and might serve as a reference for related species. These data provide tools for specific investigation of the roles of the different carbon substrates on pneumococcal physiology in the host during carriage and invasive infection.

  5. Global microarray analysis of carbohydrate use in alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajian Song

    Full Text Available The alkaliphilic hemicellulolytic bacterium Bacillus sp. N16-5 has a broad substrate spectrum and exhibits the capacity to utilize complex carbohydrates such as galactomannan, xylan, and pectin. In the monosaccharide mixture, sequential utilization by Bacillus sp. N16-5 was observed. Glucose appeared to be its preferential monosaccharide, followed by fructose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. Global transcription profiles of the strain were determined separately for growth on six monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, and xylose and four polysaccharides (galactomannan, xylan, pectin, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose using one-color microarrays. Numerous genes potentially related to polysaccharide degradation, sugar transport, and monosaccharide metabolism were found to respond to a specific substrate. Putative gene clusters for different carbohydrates were identified according to transcriptional patterns and genome annotation. Identification and analysis of these gene clusters contributed to pathway reconstruction for carbohydrate utilization in Bacillus sp. N16-5. Several genes encoding putative sugar transporters were highly expressed during growth on specific sugars, suggesting their functional roles. Two phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase systems were identified as candidate transporters for mannose and fructose, and a major facilitator superfamily transporter was identified as a candidate transporter for arabinose and xylose. Five carbohydrate uptake transporter 1 family ATP-binding cassette transporters were predicted to participate in the uptake of hemicellulose and pectin degradation products. Collectively, microarray data improved the pathway reconstruction involved in carbohydrate utilization of Bacillus sp. N16-5 and revealed that the organism precisely regulates gene transcription in response to fluctuations in energy resources.

  6. Naringin Improves Diet-Induced Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Obesity in High Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Kauter

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and fatty liver, together termed metabolic syndrome, are key risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Chronic feeding of a diet high in saturated fats and simple sugars, such as fructose and glucose, induces these changes in rats. Naturally occurring compounds could be a cost-effective intervention to reverse these changes. Flavonoids are ubiquitous secondary plant metabolites; naringin gives the bitter taste to grapefruit. This study has evaluated the effect of naringin on diet-induced obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These rats developed increased body weight, glucose intolerance, increased plasma lipid concentrations, hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis, liver inflammation and steatosis with compromised mitochondrial respiratory chain activity. Dietary supplementation with naringin (approximately 100 mg/kg/day improved glucose intolerance and liver mitochondrial dysfunction, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved the structure and function of the heart and liver without decreasing total body weight. Naringin normalised systolic blood pressure and improved vascular dysfunction and ventricular diastolic dysfunction in high carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats. These beneficial effects of naringin may be mediated by reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced oxidative stress, lowered plasma lipid concentrations and improved liver mitochondrial function in rats.

  7. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF CARBOHYDRATES IN THE FOODS AND BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Korenman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The extraction of fructose, glucose, galactose, sucrose and lactose from aqueous salt solutions, hydrophilic solvents (aliphatic alcohols, alkyl acetates, ketones of double and triple mixtures has been studied. Under identical conditions set quantitative characteristics extraction has been established. It was found that from the all studied carbohydrateы most fully extracted disaccharides lactose and sucrose. The conditions of concentration and almost complete recovery of carbohydrates from aqueous salt solutions has beenoptimized. The technique of extraction-potentiometric selective determination of carbohydrates in foods and beverages has been developed. As a titrant was used isopropanol solution of boric acid. The developed method allows to determine separately the mono- or disaccharides in milk, which include those contained 5 or less carbohydrates. The complex of photocolorimetric, polarimetric, potentiometric and chromatographic methods for determining carbohydrates in aqueous media and food (diabetic confectionery, juices, dairy products, honey wasproposed. To determine the fructose, glucose and sucrose in natural juices us used optical methods (photoelectrocolorimeters, polarimetry. Method is express, does not require expensive equipment and reagents. Fructose and sucrose in diabetic confectionery was determined by ascending thin layer chromatography. Some diabetic products based on fructose, produced by Russian confectionery factorieshas beenanalyzed. Duration analysis, 50-60 minutes, selective determination of error within 5-7%. Extracts from honey and milk were analyzed potentiometrically. We have developed a technique characterized by the following advantages compared with state standards: rapidity (analysis time 30-35 min, accuracy (relative error within 5 %, does not require expensive equipment and reagents, as well as dilution and filtration of milk stage sampling.

  8. Carbohydrate Nutrition Differs by Diabetes Status and Is Associated with Dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican Adults without Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Maria I.; McKeown, Nicola M.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Ordovás, José M.; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y enrolled in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. Using the Pearson chi-square test and ANCOVA, lifestyle characteristics and dietary intake, as assessed by semiquantitative FFQ, were compared by T2D status based on fasting plasma glucose concentration and medication use. Food source rankings for carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load (GL), and fiber were obtained using the SAS procedure PROC RANK. Geometric mean plasma HDL-C and TG concentrations were compared across quintiles of dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), GL, and fiber by using ANCOVA and tests for linear trend. In multivariable analyses, individuals with T2D (39.5%) had lower dietary carbohydrate, GL, and total sugar intake from lower intake of sugar, fruit drinks, and soda compared with those without T2D. In individuals without T2D, dietary carbohydrate and GL were inversely associated with HDL-C (P < 0.0001). Associations between dietary fiber and HDL-C were confounded by carbohydrate intake, apparently from concurrent consumption of legumes with white rice, a refined carbohydrate food. No associations were observed between carbohydrate, dietary GI, GL, or fiber and TG. In conclusion, individuals with T2D showed evidence of dietary modification. Among those without diabetes, a high intake of refined carbohydrates was associated with decreased HDL-C. Longitudinal research on carbohydrate nutrition in relation to diabetes risk factors and blood lipids in Puerto Ricans is warranted. PMID:23269655

  9. Alterações bromatológicas nas frações dos carboidratos de silagens de milho "safrinha" sob diferentes tempos de exposição ao ar antes da ensilagem Bromatologic changes in the carbohydrate fractions of corn silage from corn crop planted late in the season, under different air exposure time prior to ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pedro Velho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da maturidade dos grãos de milho e do tempo de exposição ao ar antes da ensilagem sobre os teores de carboidratos de silagens de milho "safrinha". O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento completamente casualizado com arranjo fatorial 2 x 4, no qual foram testados dois estádios de maturidade ao corte (grão completamente leitoso (GL ou grão ½ leitoso e ½ farináceo (GF e quatro tempos de exposição ao ar, sem compactação (0, 12, 24 ou 36 horas antes da ensilagem em minissilos. Os cortes das plantas ocorreram nos dias 26/04 e 18/05/2004. Houve efeito significativo dos estádios de maturidade (M e dos tempos de exposição ao ar (TE, além de interação entre os efeitos, para a maioria das variáveis estudadas. O teor de MS diferiu entre os estádios de maturidade e os tempos de exposição ao ar. As silagens GL e GF, respectivamente, diferiram quanto ao teor de açúcares solúveis (1,51 a 1,31% da MS e de amido (4,23 a 13,21% da MS. Quanto aos tempos de exposição ao ar, os açúcares solúveis diminuíram entre os tempos zero (1,64% da MS e 36 horas (1,05% da MS. O maior impacto dos TE foi verificado nos teores de fibra em detergente neutro corrigidos para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp. O tempo de exposição ao ar do material verde picado, de 12 horas antes da ensilagem, afetou de modo negativo o valor nutritivo de silagens de milho.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of corn grain maturity and air exposure time prior to ensiling on the carbohydrate concentration of corn silage from corn crop planted late in the season. A complete randomized design was used with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, testing two stages of maturity at harvest (MK - milky kernel and MDK - ½ milky and ½ dough kernel of maize crops and four air exposure time prior to ensiling: 0, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Harvests occurred in 2004 on April 26th and May 18th. Stage of maturity (M and periods of air exposure (TE

  10. Signal Amplification by Glyco-qPCR for Ultrasensitive Detection of Carbohydrates: Applications in Glycobiology**

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Seok Joon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Masuko, Sayaka; Ly, Mellisa; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Lingyun; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Robert J Linhardt

    2012-01-01

    Tiny amounts of carbohydrates (ca. 1 zmol) can be detected quantitatively by a real-time method based on the conjugation of carbohydrates with DNA markers (see picture). The proposed method (glyco-qPCR) provides uniform, ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrates, which can be applied to glycobiology, as well as carbohydrate-based drug discovery.

  11. Postprandial Responses to Lipid and Carbohydrate Ingestion in Repeated Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Biopsies in Healthy Adults

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    Aimee L. Dordevic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a primary site of meta-inflammation. Diet composition influences adipose tissue metabolism and a single meal can drive an inflammatory response in postprandial period. This study aimed to examine the effect lipid and carbohydrate ingestion compared with a non-caloric placebo on adipose tissue response. Thirty-three healthy adults (age 24.5 ± 3.3 year (mean ± standard deviation (SD; body mass index (BMI 24.1 ± 3.2 kg/m2, were randomised into one of three parallel beverage groups; placebo (water, carbohydrate (maltodextrin or lipid (dairy-cream. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue biopsies and serum samples were collected prior to (0 h, as well as 2 h and 4 h after consumption of the beverage. Adipose tissue gene expression levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin 6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α increased in all three groups, without an increase in circulating TNF-α. Serum leptin (0.6-fold, p = 0.03 and adipose tissue leptin gene expression levels (0.6-fold, p = 0.001 decreased in the hours following the placebo beverage, but not the nutrient beverages. Despite increased inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue with all beverages, suggesting a confounding effect of the repeated biopsy method, differences in metabolic responses of adipose tissue and circulating adipokines to ingestion of lipid and carbohydrate beverages were observed.

  12. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

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    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  13. Simulation model for plant growth in controlled environment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, C. D., Jr.; Wann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The role of the mathematical model is to relate the individual processes to environmental conditions and the behavior of the whole plant. Using the controlled-environment facilities of the phytotron at North Carolina State University for experimentation at the whole-plant level and methods for handling complex models, researchers developed a plant growth model to describe the relationships between hierarchial levels of the crop production system. The fundamental processes that are considered are: (1) interception of photosynthetically active radiation by leaves, (2) absorption of photosynthetically active radiation, (3) photosynthetic transformation of absorbed radiation into chemical energy of carbon bonding in solube carbohydrates in the leaves, (4) translocation between carbohydrate pools in leaves, stems, and roots, (5) flow of energy from carbohydrate pools for respiration, (6) flow from carbohydrate pools for growth, and (7) aging of tissues. These processes are described at the level of organ structure and of elementary function processes. The driving variables of incident photosynthetically active radiation and ambient temperature as inputs pertain to characterization at the whole-plant level. The output of the model is accumulated dry matter partitioned among leaves, stems, and roots; thus, the elementary processes clearly operate under the constraints of the plant structure which is itself the output of the model.

  14. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu-ping; Cheng, Fei; Zhou, Yan-hong; Xia, Xiao-jian; Mao, Wei-hua; Shi, Kai; Chen, Zhi-xiang; Yu, Jing-quan

    2012-10-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops; however, the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood. Here, we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO(2) assimilation, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) accumulation, and leaf area in cucumber. H(2)O(2) treatment induced increases in CO(2) assimilation whilst inhibition of the H(2)O(2) accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation. Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H(2)O(2)-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching coefficient (q(P)). EBR and H(2)O(2) both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO(2) response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities. Moreover, EBR and H(2)O(2) increased contents of total soluble sugar, sucrose, hexose, and starch, followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase, and invertase. Interestingly, expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H(2)O(2). However, the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H(2)O(2) generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment. All of these results indicate that H(2)O(2) functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO(2) assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants. Our study confirms that H(2)O(2) mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H(2)O(2) regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.

  15. Hydrogen peroxide functions as a secondary messenger for brassinosteroids-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in Cucumis sativus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-ping JIANG; Fei CHENG; Yan-hong ZHOU; Xiao-jian XIA; Wei-hua MAO; Kai SHI; Zhi-xiang CHEN; Jing-quan YU

    2012-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are potent regulators of photosynthesis and crop yield in agricultural crops;however,the mechanism by which BRs increase photosynthesis is not fully understood.Here,we show that foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) resulted in increases in CO2 assimilation,hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation,and leaf area in cucumber.H2O2 treatment induced increases in CO2 assimilation whilst inhibition of the H2O2 accumulation by its generation inhibitor or scavenger completely abolished EBR-induced CO2 assimilation.Increases of light harvesting due to larger leaf areas in EBR- and H2O2-treated plants were accompanied by increases in the photochemical efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ (ΦPSⅡ) and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp).EBR and H2O2 both activated carboxylation efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase/carboxylase (Rubisco) from analysis of CO2 response curve and in vitro measurement of Rubisco activities.Moreover,EBR and H2O2 increased contents of total soluble sugar,sucrose,hexose,and starch,followed by enhanced activities of sugar metabolism such as sucrose phosphate synthase,sucrose synthase,and invertase.Interestingly,expression of transcripts of enzymes involved in starch and sugar utilization were inhibited by EBR and H2O2.However,the effects of EBR on carbohydrate metabolisms were reversed by the H2O2 generation inhibitor diphenyleneodonium (DPI) or scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) pretreatment.All of these results indicate that H2O2 functions as a secondary messenger for EBR-induced CO2 assimilation and carbohydrate metabolism in cucumber plants.Our study confirms that H2O2 mediates the regulation of photosynthesis by BRs and suggests that EBR and H2O2 regulate Calvin cycle and sugar metabolism via redox signaling and thus increase the photosynthetic potential and yield of crops.

  16. A cost-effective strategy for the bio-prospecting of mixed microalgae with high carbohydrate content: diversity fluctuations in different growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cea-Barcia, Glenda; Buitrón, Germán; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, widespread efforts have been directed towards decreasing the costs associated with microalgae culture systems for the production of biofuels. In this study, a simple and inexpensive strategy to bio-prospect and cultivate mixed indigenous chlorophytes with a high carbohydrate content for biomethane and biohydrogen production was developed. Mixed microalgae were collected from four different water-bodies in Queretaro, Mexico, and were grown in Bold's basal mineral medium and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using inexpensive photo-bioreactors. The results showed large fluctuations in microalgal genera diversity based on different culture media and nitrogen sources. In secondary effluent, Golenkinia sp. and Scenedesmus sp. proliferated. The carbohydrate content, for secondary effluent, varied between 12% and 57%, and the highest volumetric and areal productivity were 61 mg L(-1)d(-1) and 4.6 g m(-2)d(-1), respectively. These results indicate that mixed microalgae are a good feedstock for biomethane and biohydrogen production.

  17. Effect of the carbohydrate counting method on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Viviane M

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of achieving and maintaining an appropriate metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1 has been established in many studies aiming to prevent the development of chronic complications. The carbohydrate counting method can be recommended as an additional tool in the nutritional treatment of diabetes, allowing patients with DM1 to have more flexible food choices. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nutrition intervention and the use of multiple short-acting insulin according to the carbohydrate counting method on clinical and metabolic control in patients with DM1. Methods Our sample consisted of 51 patients with DM1, 32 females, aged 25.3 ± 1.55 years. A protocol of nutritional status evaluation was applied and laboratory analysis was performed at baseline and after a three-month intervention. After the analysis of the food records, a balanced diet was prescribed using the carbohydrate counting method, and short-acting insulin was prescribed based on the total amount of carbohydrate per meal (1 unit per 15 g of carbohydrate. Results A significant decrease in A1c levels was observed from baseline to the three-month evaluation after the intervention (10.40 ± 0.33% and 9.52 ± 0.32%, respectively, p = 0.000. It was observed an increase in daily insulin dose after the intervention (0.99 ± 0.65 IU/Kg and 1.05 ± 0.05 IU/Kg, respectively, p = 0.003. No significant differences were found regarding anthropometric evaluation (BMI, waist, hip or abdominal circumferences and waist to hip ratio after the intervention period. Conclusions The use of short-acting insulin based on the carbohydrate counting method after a short period of time resulted in a significant improvement of the glycemic control in patients with DM1 with no changes in body weight despite increases in the total daily insulin doses.

  18. Carbohydrate Stress Affecting Fruitlet Abscission and Expression of Genes Related to Auxin Signal Transduction Pathway in Litchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Jin Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Auxin, a vital plant hormone, regulates a variety of physiological and developmental processes. It is involved in fruit abscission through transcriptional regulation of many auxin-related genes, including early auxin responsive genes (i.e., auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA, Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3 and small auxin upregulated (SAUR and auxin response factors (ARF, which have been well characterized in many plants. In this study, totally five auxin-related genes, including one AUX/IAA (LcAUX/IAA1, one GH3 (LcGH3.1, one SAUR (LcSAUR1 and two ARFs (LcARF1 and LcARF2, were isolated and characterized from litchi fruit. LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1, LcSAUR1, LcARF1 and LcARF2 contain open reading frames (ORFs encoding polypeptides of 203, 613, 142, 792 and 832 amino acids, respectively, with their corresponding molecular weights of 22.67, 69.20, 11.40, 88.20 and 93.16 kDa. Expression of these genes was investigated under the treatment of girdling plus defoliation which aggravated litchi fruitlet abscission due to the blockage of carbohydrates transport and the reduction of endogenous IAA content. Results showed that transcript levels of LcAUX/IAA1, LcGH3.1 and LcSAUR1 mRNAs were increased after the treatment in abscission zone (AZ and other tissues, in contrast to the decreasing accumulation of LcARF1 mRNA, suggesting that LcAUX/IAA1, LcSAUR1 and LcARF1 may play more important roles in abscission. Our results provide new insight into the process of fruitlet abscission induced by carbohydrate stress and broaden our understanding of the auxin signal transduction pathway in this process at the molecular level.

  19. Change in food cravings, food preferences, and appetite during a low-carbohydrate and low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Corby K; Rosenbaum, Diane; Han, Hongmei; Geiselman, Paula J; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O; Brill, Carrie; Bailer, Brooke; Miller, Bernard V; Stein, Rick; Klein, Sam; Foster, Gary D

    2011-10-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of prescribing a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) and a low-fat diet (LFD) on food cravings, food preferences, and appetite. Obese adults were randomly assigned to a LCD (n = 134) or a LFD (n = 136) for 2 years. Cravings for specific types of foods (sweets, high-fats, fast-food fats, and carbohydrates/starches); preferences for high-sugar, high-carbohydrate, and low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods; and appetite were measured during the trial and evaluated during this secondary analysis of trial data. Differences between the LCD and LFD on change in outcome variables were examined with mixed linear models. Compared to the LFD, the LCD had significantly larger decreases in cravings for carbohydrates/starches and preferences for high-carbohydrate and high-sugar foods. The LCD group reported being less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group. Compared to the LCD group, the LFD group had significantly larger decreases in cravings for high-fat foods and preference for low-carbohydrate/high-protein foods. Men had larger decreases in appetite ratings compared to women. Prescription of diets that promoted restriction of specific types of foods resulted in decreased cravings and preferences for the foods that were targeted for restriction. The results also indicate that the LCD group was less bothered by hunger compared to the LFD group and that men had larger reductions in appetite compared to women.

  20. The use of linear mixed models for analysis of repeated measurements applied to water-soluble carbohydrates in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte; Zhang, Xia

    2009-01-01

    Repeated measurements of a response variable in crops or plants receiving different treatments are widely used in agricultural science. In this paper we analyse repeated measurements of the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates in stem and ear of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L....... The estimates of the water-soluble carbohydrates concentrations within the stem and ear datasets were similar for all three covariance structures, while the smallest standard errors were obtained using the compound symmetry covariance structure. As it was the goal to do parsimonious modelling more weight...... was given to the Bayesian information criteria than to the Akaike information criteria. Accordingly, the compound symmetry structure was chosen for the stem data and the unstructured structure was found to be the best structure for the ear data. A model check of the residuals showed...

  1. Study on Accumulation Rule of Carbohydrates in Soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merrill)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Baiquan; LIU lijun; DONG Shoukun; ZU Wei; SUN Congshu

    2009-01-01

    Three soybean cultivars, Hefeng25 (HF25), Suinong14 (SN14) and Longxuan1 (LX1) were used as materials and the accumulation features of carbohydrates were studied in leaves and stems. The results showed that the soluble sugar content in leaves and stems appeared the same trend of higher-lower-higher in three varieties. The changes of sucrose content in leaves appeared the same rule with that of soluble sugar, that is higher-lower-higher, while presented a rising trend in stems. The content of starch in leaves varied as a change of double apexes. The content of starch in stems appeared a change of single apex. In the same stage, there were some differences among carbohydrates. The content of soluble sugar and sucrose in SN 14 was higher, and the starch content was lower.

  2. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  3. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in late-onset Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforet, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt;

    2012-01-01

    forearm exercise testing, and peak work capacity was determined. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during cycle exercise was examined with a combination of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope methodology. Finally, the effects of an IV glucose infusion on heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion...... examined the metabolic response to exercise in patients with late-onset Pompe disease, in order to determine if a defect in energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of Pompe disease. We studied six adult patients with Pompe disease and 10 healthy subjects. The participants underwent ischemic......, and work capacity during exercise were determined. We found that peak oxidative capacity was reduced in the patients to 17.6 vs. 38.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) in healthy subjects (p = 0.002). There were no differences in the rate of appearance and rate of oxidation of palmitate, or total fat and carbohydrate...

  4. Interrelation between compensation of carbohydrate metabolism and severity of manifestations of oxidative stress in type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedosugova, L V; Lankin, V Z; Balabolkin, M I; Konovalova, G G; Lisina, M O; Antonova, K V; Tikhaze, A K; Belenkov, Yu N

    2003-08-01

    Glycosylation end-products formed during diabetes mellitus promoted atherogenic oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins. We evaluated the effects of compensation of carbohydrate metabolism and therapy with antioxidant probucol on parameters of free radical oxidation in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Compensation of carbohydrate metabolism reduced manifestations of oxidative stress, which was manifested in accelerated enzymatic utilization of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides and decreased content of free radical oxidation products in low-density lipoproteins. In patients with type II diabetes mellitus combination therapy with antioxidant probucol decreased the severity of oxidative stress and stabilized carbohydrate metabolism without increasing the dose of hypoglycemic preparations.

  5. Carbohydrate Determinants in Ferret Conjunctiva are Affected by Infection with Influenza H1N1 Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Martel, Cyril J M; Aasted, Bent;

    2013-01-01

    virus to ferrets has an effect on the conjunctival cells and change their expression of glycans. Synthesized glycans are an integral part of the tear film and the present study contributes to reveal the changes that occur in the surface epithelium in the eyelid and thereby to elucidate......Abstract Background: Carbohydrates often accomplish as cell-surface receptors for microorganisms and influenza virus preferentially binds to sialic acid through the viral haemagglutinin. The virus may attach not only to the epithelium in the airways, but also to the surface ocular epithelium....... Purpose: To decide if ferrets can be used to study virus induced conjunctivitis and to evaluate changes in the conjunctival glycosylation pattern during an influenza attack. Methods: Ferrets were infected with H1N1 influenza virus via nasal inoculation. The in situ carbohydrate expressions in eyelid...

  6. Studies on sweet potatoes. Pt. 1. Changes in the carbohydrates during processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susheelamma, N.S.; Changala Reddy, G.; Rukmani, C.S.; Tharanathan, R.N. (Central Food Technological Research Inst., Mysore (India). Dept. of Food Chemistry)

    1992-05-01

    The qualitative and quantitative changes in the nature of different carbohydrate fractions of sweet potatoes (hard and soft cooking types), after dry (baking and toasting) and wet (steaming) processing have been studied. Maltose, glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars in the ethanol soluble fraction. The total sugar and amylose contents significantly decreased in the ethanol insoluble residues. This was supported by the decrease in blue value and the absorption maxima of the iodine complex. (orig.).

  7. Certain dietary carbohydrates promote Listeria infection in a guinea pig model, while others prevent it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersbach, Tine; Jørgensen, Julie Boeck; Heegaard, Peter Michael; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Poulsen, Morten; Frøkiaer, Hanne; Licht, Tine Rask

    2010-06-15

    It has been proposed that dietary non-digestible carbohydrates can improve host resistance to intestinal infections by stimulating health-promoting bacteria in the gut. However, evidence from in vivo infection studies is scarce, particularly for gram-positive infections. We studied the effect of five non-digestible carbohydrates on the resistance of guinea pigs to Listeria monocytogenes infections. Animals were fed a diet supplemented with 10% xylooligosaccharides (XOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, apple pectin or polydextrose for three weeks before oral infection with a mixture of three different fluorescently labeled L. monocytogenes strains. Colonisation of L. monocytogenes in the intestine was determined by quantification of L. monocytogenes in faecal, ileal and caecal samples while translocation was determined by quantification of L. monocytogenes in mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen and liver. XOS and GOS significantly (Pcarbohydrates can have entirely different effects on the intestinal colonisation and translocation of a pathogenic bacterium.

  8. Arabinogalactan proteins: focus on carbohydrate active enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKnoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant-microbe interaction. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their function. Numerous studies using monoclonal antibodies that recognize different AGP glycan epitopes have shown the appearance of a slightly altered AGP glycan in a specific stage of development in plant cells. Therefore, it is anticipated that the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycan is tightly regulated during development. Until recently, however, little was known about the enzymes involved in the metabolism of AGP glycans. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org/ involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of AGP glycans, and we discuss the biological role of these enzymes in plant development.

  9. The effect of a low carbohydrate beverage with added protein on cycling endurance performance in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; McCleave, Erin L; Ding, Zhenping; Kammer, Lynne M; Wang, Bei; Doerner, Phillip G; Liu, Yang; Ivy, John L

    2010-10-01

    Ingesting carbohydrate plus protein during prolonged variable intensity exercise has demonstrated improved aerobic endurance performance beyond that of a carbohydrate supplement alone. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a supplement containing a mixture of different carbohydrates (glucose, maltodextrin, and fructose) and a moderate amount of protein given during endurance exercise would increase time to exhaustion (TTE), despite containing 50% less total carbohydrate than a carbohydrate-only supplement. We also sought post priori to determine if there was a difference in effect based on percentage of ventilatory threshold (VT) at which the subjects cycled to exhaustion. Fifteen trained male and female cyclists exercised on 2 separate occasions at intensities alternating between 45 and 70% VO2max for 3 hours, after which the workload increased to ∼74-85% VO2max until exhaustion. Supplements (275 mL) were provided every 20 minutes during exercise, and these consisted of a 3% carbohydrate/1.2% protein supplement (MCP) and a 6% carbohydrate supplement (CHO). For the combined group (n = 15), TTE in MCP did not differ from CHO (31.06 ± 5.76 vs. 26.03 ± 4.27 minutes, respectively, p = 0.064). However, for subjects cycling at or below VT (n = 8), TTE in MCP was significantly greater than for CHO (45.64 ± 7.38 vs. 35.47 ± 5.94 minutes, respectively, p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in TTE for the above VT group (n = 7). Our results suggest that, compared to a traditional 6% CHO supplement, a mixture of carbohydrates plus a moderate amount of protein can improve aerobic endurance at exercise intensities near the VT, despite containing lower total carbohydrate and caloric content.

  10. Evaluation of heat shock protein (HSP-60) induction on accumulation of carbohydrate in Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, H.; Wolfe, M.; Tell, J.; Tjeerdema, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    Primary levels of the marine food chain may play an important role in the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in both chemically dispersed and un-dispersed oil spills. HSP-60 proteins, members of the chaperonin family of stress proteins, are induced in response to a wide variety of environmental agents, including UV light, heavy metals, and xenobiotics. Increased production and storage of carbohydrate in I. galbana has been associated with aging and stress. Thus, HSP-60 and carbohydrate storage were selected as sublethal endpoints of exposure to the primary producer, I. galbana, a golden brown, unicellular algae, and a significant component of the marine phytoplankton community. The authors have found that I. galbana cultures exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil (PBCO), and PBCO/dispersant preparations efficiently induce HSP-60. Studies indicated that WAF produced a dose-related response in I. galbana, which increased as a function of time. Dispersant alone showed the greatest induction, while combined WAF-dispersant showed less induction, suggesting a possible competition between crude oil and algae for dispersant interaction. In addition, they have demonstrated that I. galbana accumulates carbohydrates in response to exposure to WAF and PBCO/dispersant preparations and therefore represents another index of stress in this organism. They were interested in determining if induction of stress proteins and HSP60 in particular represented an adaptive-mechanism, allowing this algae to better cope with exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons released in the marine environment during an oil spill. In an effort to determine if stress protein induction serves as a protective adaptive response to exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons they examined the effect of heat shock induction on the accumulation of carbohydrates by these organisms in response to exposure to WAF and dispersed oil preparations.

  11. Diurnal O2 and carbohydrate levels in wheat kernels during embryony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, John G; Bishop, Deborah L

    2004-09-01

    In vitro zygotic and somatic embryogenesis procedures for wheat have been improved by simulating in ovulo nutritional, hormonal and dissolved oxygen (dO2) conditions. However, diurnal fluctuations in these conditions during early embryony are not well characterized. In this study, dO2 and water-soluble carbohydrate Levels in wheat kernels were determined after 8 h of light and 8 h of dark at approximately 6, 12 and 18 day post anthesis (DPA). Clark style O2 microelectrodes, having a tip diameter of approximately 115 microm, were inserted into intact kernels immediately distil to the developing embryo, and dO2 levels were recorded at 50 microm intervals into the center of kernels. High-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection was used to quantify carbohydrate levels in endosperm sap. dO2 levels in the chlorophyllous layer of the pericarp reached 190 mmoLm(-3) during the day, which probably represents, because of photosynthesis, a supersaturated O2 condition relative to the external environment (21% O2). At the embryo surface, dO2 levels at 6 DPA ranged from 135 to 170 mmolm(-3). At 12 and 18 DPA, dO2 levels at the embryo axis ranged from 100 to 150mmolm(-3). At all three stages, dO2 levels in the center of the endosperm were below 13 mmolm(-3). Extreme fluctuations in carbohydrate levels were observed diurnally during rapid seed fill (12DPA). Levels of sucrose and short-chain fructans were much higher during the day than during the night. In contrast, fructose, glucose, and myo-inositol levels were much higher during the night than during the day. By 18DPA (hard dough stage), carbohydrate levels tended to be similar during the day and night. These dynamic fluctuations may assist in regulating embryony in ovulo, and their simulation might improve the development of somatic and zygotic embryos in vitro.

  12. Methods for conversion of carbohydrates in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haibo; Holladay, Johnathan E.

    2011-05-10

    Methods are described for converting carbohydrates including, e.g., monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides in ionic liquids to value-added chemicals including furans, useful as chemical intermediates and/or feedstocks. Fructose is converted to 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) in the presence of metal halide and acid catalysts. Glucose is effectively converted to HMF in the presence of chromium chloride catalysts. Yields of up to about 70% are achieved with low levels of impurities such as levulinic acid.

  13. Synthesis of guanidines from azides: a general and straightforward methodology in carbohydrate chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Andrés G; Francisco, Cosme G; Suárez, Ernesto; González, Concepción C

    2010-08-01

    The ability of the guanidinylating reagent N',N''-diBoc-N-triflyl-guanidine (GN-Tf) to react with in situ formed free amines from azides in carbohydrate scaffolds was explored. This reaction proved to be an efficient method to prepare guanidine derivatives in a one-pot manner with good to excellent yields, either with primary or secondary azides with different substitution patterns. Labile protecting groups such as benzyl ethers are not removed under these hydrogenolytic conditions.

  14. The effect of carbohydrates in milk on the absorption of calcium by postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, S.A.; Yasillo, N.J.; Thompson, C.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if the presence of carbohydrate in milk, either lactose or its hydrolysis products, enhance the bioavailability of calcium (Ca) in milk. Two studies were performed. In study A, fractional Ca absorption was measured in 11 lactose-tolerant postmenopausal women after an oral dose of {sup 47}Ca-equilibrated milk formula containing no carbohydrate (NOCHO), lactose (LACTOSE), or an equivalent amount of glucose plus galactose (SUGAR); all participated in three absorption studies in random order. The NOCHO formula contained 10.0 g protein and 217 mg Ca from a combination of milk mineral and protein isolates; the LACTOSE and SUGAR formulae contained in addition 12 g lactose or 6 g glucose plus 6 g galactose, respectively. In study B, fractional Ca absorption was measured in five postmenopausal women after an oral dose of {sub 47}Ca-equilibrated skim milk (217 mg Ca) and lactase-treated milk, each with sufficient carbohydrate added to equal 12 g. For both studies, the increase in forearm radioactivity 4 and 8 hours after oral {sup 47}Ca administration relative to the increase observed after IV administration was used to estimate fractional Ca absorption. The addition of lactose but not glucose plus galactose to the NOCHO formula enhanced Ca absorption (p less than 0.05). Fractional absorption at 4 hours was 0.386 from the LACTOSE formula compared with 0.310 for both the NOCHO and SUGAR formulae. Those individuals with the lowest absorption in the absence of carbohydrate had the greatest increase with lactose. In contrast, Ca absorption was the same from skim milk as from lactase-treated skim milk (study B).

  15. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were in natura samples presented 5-HMF, and carbohydrate levels ranged from 48.59% to 69.36%. In the same conditions of thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey.

  16. General Properties, Occurrence, and Preparation of Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyt, John F.

    D-Glucose and its derivatives and analogues, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-muramic acid, D-glucopyranosyl uronic acid, and D-glucitol represent 99.9% of the carbohydrates on the earth. D-Glucose is found in the free state in human blood and in the combined state in disaccharides, sucrose, lactose, and α,α-trehalose, in cyclic dextrins, and in polysaccharides, starch, glycogen, cellulose, dextrans; N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and an analogue N-acetyl-D-muramic acid are found in bacterial cell wall polysaccharide, murein, along with teichoic acids made up of poly-glycerol or -ribitol phosphodiesters. Other carbohydrates, D-mannose, D-mannuronic acid, D-galactose, N-acetyl-D-galactosamine, D-galacturonic acid, D-iduronic acid, L-guluronic acid, L-rhamnose, L-fucose, D-xylose, and N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid are found in glycoproteins, hemicelluloses, glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides of plant exudates, bacterial capsules, alginates, and heparin. D-Ribofuranose-5-phosphate is found in many coenzymes and is the backbone of RNAs (ribonucleic acid), and 2-deoxy-D-ribofuranose-5-phosphate is the backbone of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). D-Fructofuranose is found in sucrose, inulin, and levan. The general properties and occurrence of these carbohydrates and general methods of isolation and preparation of carbohydrates are presented.

  17. Dietary n-6 PUFA, carbohydrate:protein ratio and change in body weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Madsen, Lise; Dethlefsen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the intake of n-6 PUFA and subsequent change in body weight and waist circumference at different levels of the carbohydrate:protein ratio. DESIGN: Follow-up study with anthropometric measurements at recruitment and on average 5·3 years later....... Dietary intake was determined at recruitment by using an FFQ that was designed for the study and validated. We applied linear regression models with 5-year change in weight or waist circumference as outcome and including a two-way interaction term between n-6 PUFA and carbohydrate intakes, lower......:protein ratio; the differences in 5-year waist circumference change were 0·26 cm (95 % CI -0·47, 0·98 cm) and -0·52 cm (95 % CI -1·19, 0·15 cm), respectively. Inclusion of the dietary glycaemic index did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: No consistent associations between the intake of n-6 PUFA and change...

  18. Intestinal glucose absorption in calves as affected by different carbohydrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, S; Noci, B; Müller, K; Breves, G

    2013-04-01

    From numerous recent studies, it has been demonstrated that the development of the forestomach system in ruminants and thus microbial carbohydrate fermentation do not exclude the potential of the small intestines for enzymatic carbohydrate digestion and subsequent monosaccharide absorption. However, the role of regulatory nutritional factors is still under discussion. Therefore, we investigated the kinetic parameters of intestinal Na(+) -dependent glucose absorption and SGLT1 expression using isolated brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the jejunum of 10-week-old calves kept on either hay, concentrate or corn silage-based diets in addition to milk replacer. While the maximal transport capacity was significantly higher for concentrate and corn silage-fed animals, SGLT1 protein expression was highest in BBMV isolated from hay-fed animals. This observation differs from the prevalent conception that induction of Na(+) -dependent glucose uptake via SGLT1 is based on an increased number of transporters at the brush border membrane.

  19. Lectin histochemistry of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in representatives of different classes of vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk R.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Glycoproteins (including mucin of vertebrate’s intestine play an important role in its protection against chemical and mechanical damage and bacterial attacks. Their diversity was described by many authors, but understanding of their chemical structure remains far from complete. These data can be extended by methods of lectin histochemistry. Objective. To investigate the rearrangement of intestinal carbohydrate determinants in the context of vertebrate evolution. Methods. Distal and proximal segments of small and large intestines of humans (Homo sapiens, laboratory (Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus f. Domesticus, rock pigeon (Columba livia, smooth snake (Coronella austriaca, common frog (Rana temporaria, common carp (Cyprinus carpio that belong to different classes of vertebrates were taken for the experiment. Nine lectins with different carbohydrate specificities: wheat germ (WGA, potato (STA, elderberry bark (SNA, golden rain bark (LABA, locust bark (RPBA, roe carp (CCRA, Phaseolus vulgaris erytroagglutinin (PHA-E, peanut (PNA and jack fruit (AIA – were included into the panel. Results. Differences in lectin staining between small and large intestine were more pronounced in higher (human, rat than in lower (frog, carp vertebrates. Lectin receptors were more diverse in frog intestine in comparison with carp. Lectin interaction with mucin secretory granules of smooth snake revealed lack of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues and abundance of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine determinants. Conclusion. Intestines of all studied vertebrate species demonstrate high content of secretory mucins that exposed terminal acidic carbohydrates including sialic acid. The diversity and differences in the structure of glycans of the digestive tract of vertebrates is apparently determined by several factors – diet, environmental and living conditions, intestinal microbiota interactions etc. Citation: Antonyuk RV, Lutsyk AD. [Lectin histochemistry of intestinal

  20. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N.; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (β-Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc-(1→4)[α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (α-Gal-(1→4)-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc) and CD-grease (α-Gal-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  1. Localizing Carbohydrate Binding Sites in Proteins Using Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Kitova, Elena N; Li, Jun; Eugenio, Luiz; Ng, Kenneth; Klassen, John S

    2016-01-01

    The application of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to localize ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins is described. Proteins from three bacterial toxins, the B subunit homopentamers of Cholera toxin and Shiga toxin type 1 and a fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin A, and their interactions with native carbohydrate receptors, GM1 pentasaccharides (β-Gal-(1→3)-β-GalNAc-(1→4)[α-Neu5Ac-(2→3)]-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc), Pk trisaccharide (α-Gal-(1→4)-β-Gal-(1→4)-Glc) and CD-grease (α-Gal-(1→3)-β-Gal-(1→4)-β-GlcNAcO(CH2)8CO2CH3), respectively, served as model systems for this study. Comparison of the differences in deuterium uptake for peptic peptides produced in the absence and presence of ligand revealed regions of the proteins that are protected against deuterium exchange upon ligand binding. Notably, protected regions generally coincide with the carbohydrate binding sites identified by X-ray crystallography. However, ligand binding can also result in increased deuterium exchange in other parts of the protein, presumably through allosteric effects. Overall, the results of this study suggest that HDX-MS can serve as a useful tool for localizing the ligand binding sites in carbohydrate-binding proteins. However, a detailed interpretation of the changes in deuterium exchange upon ligand binding can be challenging because of the presence of ligand-induced changes in protein structure and dynamics.

  2. Effect Of Boswellia Carterii Birdw On Carbohydrate Metabolism In Diabetic Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf M. Mostafa**, Fawzy A. Ashour

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Boswellia Carterii Birdw (BCB) on carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetes. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic BCB treated groups. After thirty days of treatment five rats of each group were sacrificed and the others were left without any additional treatment for another 15 days (recovery period) then were sacrificed. The body weight of each ...

  3. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology that would benefit from a greater understanding of the role of carbohydrate relations. PMID:26479502

  4. Metabolic syndrome and low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets in the medical school biochemistry curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Richard D; Makowske, Mary

    2003-09-01

    One of Robert Atkins contributions was to define a diet strategy in terms of an underlying metabolic principle ("the science behind Atkins"). The essential feature is that, by reducing insulin fluxes, lipids are funnelled away from storage and oxidized. Ketosis can be used as an indicator of lipolysis. A metabolic advantage is also proposed: controlled carbohydrates leads to greater weight loss per calorie than other diets. Although the Atkins diet and its scientific rationale are intended for a popular audience, the overall features are consistent with current metabolic ideas. We have used the Atkins controlled-carbohydrate diet as a focal point for teaching nutrition and metabolism in the first-year medical school curriculum. By presenting metabolism in the context of the current epidemic of obesity and of metabolic syndrome and related disorders, we provide direct application of the study of metabolic pathways, a subject not traditionally considered by medical students to be highly relevant to medical practice. We present here a summary of the metabolic basis of the Atkins diet as we teach it to medical students. We also discuss a proposed mechanism for metabolic advantage that is consistent with current ideas and that further brings out ideas in metabolism for students. The topics that are developed include the role of insulin and glucagon in lipolysis, control of lipoprotein lipase, the glucose-glycogen-gluconeogenesis interrelations, carbohydrate-protein interactions and ketosis. In essence, the approach is to expand the traditional feed-fast (post-absorptive) cycles to include the effect of low-carbohydrate meals: the disease states studied are generalized from traditional study of diabetes to include obesity and metabolic syndrome. The ideal diet for weight loss and treatment of metabolic syndrome, if it exists, remains to be determined, but presenting metabolism in the context of questions raised by the Atkins regimen prepares future physicians for

  5. In vitro fermentation by human gut bacteria of proteolytically digested caseinomacropeptide nonenzymatically glycosylated with prebiotic carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Hernandez, Oswaldo; Sanz, M Luz; Kolida, Sofia; Rastall, Robert A; Moreno, F Javier

    2011-11-23

    The in vitro fermentation selectivity of hydrolyzed caseinomacropeptide (CMP) glycosylated, via Maillard reaction (MR), with lactulose, galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose (GOSLa), and galacto-oligosaccharides from lactulose (GOSLu) was evaluated, using pH-controlled small-scale batch cultures at 37 °C under anaerobic conditions with human feces. After 10 and 24 h of fermentation, neoglyconjugates exerted a bifidogenic activity, similar to those of the corresponding prebiotic carbohydrates. No significant differences were found in Bacteroides , Lactobacillus - Enterococcus , Clostridium histolyticum subgroup, Atopobium and Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale populations. Concentrations of lactic acid and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced during the fermentation of prebiotic carbohydrates were similar to those produced for their respective neoglycoconjugates at both fermentation times. These findings, joined with the functional properties attributed to CMP, could open up new applications of MR products involving prebiotics as novel multiple-functional ingredients with potential beneficial effects on human health.

  6. Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Ramos, L; Martinez-Castro, I; Sanz, M L

    2012-05-16

    Low molecular weight carbohydrates in pine nuts from Pinus pinea L. (n = 7) have been studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as their trimethylsilyl oximes. Besides previously reported components, such as glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose, several soluble carbohydrates have been identified for the first time in this product, including saccharides (galactose, maltose, and planteose) and cyclitols (pinitol, galactinol, galactopinitol A1, fagopyritol B1, and other glycosyl-inositols). Most abundant cyclitols were chiro-inositol, fagopyritol B1, and pinitol, with concentrations ranging from 126.7 to 222.1 mg (100 g)(-1), 94.2 to 177.1 mg (100 g)(-1), and 51.2 to 282.8 mg (100 g)(-1), respectively.

  7. Characterization of condensed tannins and carbohydrates in hot water bark extracts of European softwood species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Sauro; Kroslakova, Ivana; Janzon, Ron; Mayer, Ingo; Saake, Bodo; Pichelin, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Condensed tannins extracted from European softwood bark are recognized as alternatives to synthetic phenolics. The extraction is generally performed in hot water, leading to simultaneous extraction of other bark constituents such as carbohydrates, phenolic monomers and salts. Characterization of the extract's composition and identification of the extracted tannins' molecular structure are needed to better identify potential applications. Bark from Silver fir (Abies alba [Mill.]), European larch (Larix decidua [Mill.]), Norway spruce (Picea abies [Karst.]), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris [L.]) were extracted in water at 60°C. The amounts of phenolic monomers, condensed tannins, carbohydrates, and inorganic compounds in the extract were determined. The molecular structures of condensed tannins and carbohydrates were also investigated (HPLC-UV combined with thiolysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, anion exchange chromatography). Distinct extract compositions and tannin structures were found in each of the analysed species. Procyanidins were the most ubiquitous tannins. The presence of phenolic glucosides in the tannin oligomers was suggested. Polysaccharides such as arabinans, arabinogalactans and glucans represented an important fraction of all extracts. Compared to traditionally used species (Mimosa and Quebracho) higher viscosities as well as faster chemical reactivities are expected in the analysed species. The most promising species for a bark tannin extraction was found to be larch, while the least encouraging results were detected in pine. A better knowledge of the interaction between the various extracted compounds is deemed an important matter for investigation in the context of industrial applications of such extracts.

  8. Carbohydrate conformation and lipid condensation in monolayers containing glycosphingolipid Gb3: influence of acyl chain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Erik B; Gao, Haifei; Dennison, Andrew J C; Chopin, Nathalie; Struth, Bernd; Arnold, Thomas; Florent, Jean-Claude; Johannes, Ludger

    2014-09-01

    Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), a glycosphingolipid found in the plasma membrane of animal cells, is the endocytic receptor of the bacterial Shiga toxin. Using x-ray reflectivity (XR) and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD), lipid monolayers containing Gb3 were investigated at the air-water interface. XR probed Gb3 carbohydrate conformation normal to the interface, whereas GIXD precisely characterized Gb3's influence on acyl chain in-plane packing and area per molecule (APM). Two phospholipids, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE), were used to study Gb3 packing in different lipid environments. Furthermore, the impact on monolayer structure of a naturally extracted Gb3 mixture was compared to synthetic Gb3 species with uniquely defined acyl chain structures. XR results showed that lipid environment and Gb3 acyl chain structure impact carbohydrate conformation with greater solvent accessibility observed for smaller phospholipid headgroups and long Gb3 acyl chains. In general, GIXD showed that Gb3 condensed phospholipid packing resulting in smaller APM than predicted by ideal mixing. Gb3's capacity to condense APM was larger for DSPC monolayers and exhibited different dependencies on acyl chain structure depending on the lipid environment. The interplay between Gb3-induced changes in lipid packing and the lipid environment's impact on carbohydrate conformation has broad implications for glycosphingolipid macromolecule recognition and ligand binding.

  9. Tailor-made fructan synthesis in plants: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkel, van J.; Sévenier, R.; Hakkert, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Koops, A.J.; Meer, van der I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fructan, a fructose polymer, is produced by many bacteria and plants. Fructan is used as carbohydrate reserve, and in bacteria also as protective outside layer. Chicory is a commercial fructan producing crop. The disadvantage of this crop is its fructan breakdown before harvest. Studies using geneti

  10. The effect of protein and carbohydrate supplementation on strength training outcome of rehabilitation in ACL patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Esmarck, B.; Mizuno, M.

    2006-01-01

    was therefore to investigate if nutrient supplementation during 12 weeks of conservative rehabilitation strength training could enhance hypertrophy and strength of the quadriceps muscle in ACL-injured patients. Twenty-six ACL-injured men and women were included and randomly distributed into three...... supplementation groups: Protein+Carbohydrate (PC), Isocaloric-Carbohydrate (IC), or Placebo (PL), ingesting the supplementation immediately after each of 36 training sessions. Determined from images of thigh cross-sections (magnetic resonance imaging) the hypertrophy of the quadriceps muscle differed....... The results from this study demonstrate that restoration of the distal vasti muscle mass and knee extension muscle strength with resistance training is promoted further by protein-containing nutrient supplementation immediately after single exercise sessions. Thus, exercise-related protein supplementation may...

  11. Detection of opsonic antibodies against Enterococcus faecalis cell wall carbohydrates in immune globulin preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, M; Sixel, K; Hammer, F; Kropec, A; Sava, I G; Theilacker, C; Berner, R; Huebner, J

    2014-08-01

    Three different commercially available polyvalent immune globulins (IG) were investigated for the existence of antibodies against cell wall carbohydrates of four different E. faecalis serotypes (using a cell wall carbohydrate-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and whether these antibodies mediated opsonic killing (using an opsonic-killing assay). All three IG preparations contained antibodies against all four serotypes (CPS-A to CPS-D). However, only one of the three IG preparations showed opsonic killing against all four serotypes. Average killing was higher against serotypes A and B (72 and 79 %, respectively) than against serotypes C and D (30 and 37 %, respectively). Such IG preparations could play a role as an adjuvant therapeutic option in life-threatening infections with E. faecalis, particularly when resistant strains are involved.

  12. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  13. Effect of carbohydrate availability on time to exhaustion in exercise performed at two different intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Lima-Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on the time to exhaustion for moderate and heavy exercise. Seven men participated in a randomized order in two diet and exercise regimens each lasting 3 days with a 1-week interval for washout. The tests were performed at 50% of the difference between the first (LT1 and second (LT2 lactate breakpoint for moderate exercise (below LT2 and at 25% of the difference between the maximal load and LT2 for heavy exercise (above LT2 until exhaustion. Forty-eight hours before each experimental session, subjects performed a 90-min cycling exercise followed by 5-min rest periods and a subsequent 1-min cycling bout at 125% VO2max/1-min rest periods until exhaustion to deplete muscle glycogen. A diet providing 10% (CHOlow or 65% (CHOmod energy as carbohydrates was consumed for 2 days until the day of the experimental test. In the exercise below LT2, time to exhaustion did not differ between the CHOmod and the CHOlow diets (57.22 ± 24.24 vs 57.16 ± 25.24 min. In the exercise above LT2, time to exhaustion decreased significantly from 23.16 ± 8.76 min on the CHOmod diet to 18.30 ± 5.86 min on the CHOlow diet (P < 0.05. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate concentration were reduced for CHOlow only during exercise above LT2. These results suggest that muscle glycogen depletion followed by a period of a low carbohydrate diet impairs high-intensity exercise performance.

  14. Impact of intensive nutritional education with carbohydrate counting on diabetes control in type 2 diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Zipp; Jessica Terrone Roehr; Lucia Beck Weiss; et al.

    2010-01-01

    Christopher Zipp, Jessica Terrone Roehr, Lucia Beck Weiss, Frank FilipettoDepartment of Family Medicine, School of Osteopathic Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Stratford, NJ, USAAbstract: This pilot study assessed the impact of an intensive carbohydrate counting educational intervention on diabetes control in type 2 diabetic patients. An experimental, prospective study design was used to assess the effect of nutritional education on diabetes control. The impact an...

  15. Weight loss associated with reduced intake of carbohydrate reduces the atherogenicity of LDL in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Ingrid; Zern, Tosca; Herron, Kristin; West, Kristy; Sharman, Matthew J; Volek, Jeff S; Shachter, Neil S; Koo, Sung I; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2005-09-01

    The effect of a 3-tier intervention including dietary modifications (ie, moderate energy restriction, decreased carbohydrate, increased protein), increased physical activity, and the use of carnitine as a dietary supplement was evaluated on plasma lipids and the atherogenicity of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles in a population of overweight and obese premenopausal (aged 20-45 years) women. Carnitine or a placebo (cellulose) was randomly assigned to the participants using a double-blind design. Carnitine supplementation was postulated to enhance fat oxidation resulting in lower concentrations of plasma triglycerides. Seventy women completed the 10-week protocol, which followed a reduction in their energy intake by 15% and a macronutrient energy distribution of 30% protein, 30% fat, and 40% carbohydrate. In addition, subjects increased the number of steps taken per day by 4500. As no differences were observed between the carnitine and placebo groups in all the measured parameters, all subjects were pooled together for statistical analysis. Participants decreased (Pweight, plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride were decreased by 4.5%, 8.0%, 12.3%, and 19.2% (Pweight loss (weight) associated with reduced caloric intake, lower dietary carbohydrate, and increased physical activity impacts the atherogenicity of LDL.

  16. Glycemic index and glycemic load of carbohydrates in the diabetes diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate; Barclay, Alan; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy is the first line of treatment for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and plays an essential part in the management of type 1 diabetes. Although traditionally advice was focused on carbohydrate quantification, it is now clear that both the amount and type of carbohydrate are important in predicting an individual's glycemic response to a meal. Diets based on carbohydrate foods that are more slowly digested, absorbed, and metabolized (i.e., low glycemic index [GI] diets) have been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas intervention studies have shown improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin concentrations in people with diabetes following a low GI diet. Research also suggests that low GI diets may assist with weight management through effects on satiety and fuel partitioning. These findings, together with the fact that there are no demonstrated negative effects of a low GI diet, suggest that the GI should be an important consideration in the dietary management and prevention of diabetes.

  17. Effects of dietary carbohydrates sources on lipids compositions in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weifang; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Yao, Chunfeng; Li, Huitao

    2009-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm ± 0.09 mm; initial weight: 3.42 g ± 0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly ( P starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly ( P starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly ( P starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  18. Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load, glycaemic index and ovarian cancer risk in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Bandera, Elisa V

    2016-02-28

    Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case-control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95% CI 1·08, 2·28; P trend=0·03) and 1·61 (95% CI 1·12, 2·30; P trendcancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95% CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.

  19. Single-cell genomics reveals complex carbohydrate degradation patterns in poribacterial symbionts of marine sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Rinke, Christian; Mavromatis, Kostas; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Many marine sponges are hosts to dense and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities that are located in the extracellular matrix of the animal. The candidate phylum Poribacteria is a predominant member of the sponge microbiome and its representatives are nearly exclusively found in sponges. Here we used single-cell genomics to obtain comprehensive insights into the metabolic potential of individual poribacterial cells representing three distinct phylogenetic groups within Poribacteria. Genome sizes were up to 5.4 Mbp and genome coverage was as high as 98.5%. Common features of the poribacterial genomes indicated that heterotrophy is likely to be of importance for this bacterial candidate phylum. Carbohydrate-active enzyme database screening and further detailed analysis of carbohydrate metabolism suggested the ability to degrade diverse carbohydrate sources likely originating from seawater and from the host itself. The presence of uronic acid degradation pathways as well as several specific sulfatases provides strong support that Poribacteria degrade glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans, which are important components of the sponge host matrix. Dominant glycoside hydrolase families further suggest degradation of other glycoproteins in the host matrix. We therefore propose that Poribacteria are well adapted to an existence in the sponge extracellular matrix. Poribacteria may be viewed as efficient scavengers and recyclers of a particular suite of carbon compounds that are unique to sponges as microbial ecosystems. PMID:23842652

  20. Single-cell genomics reveals complex carbohydrate degradation patterns in poribacterial symbionts of marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, Janine; Sczyrba, Alexander; Ivanova, Natalia; Schwientek, Patrick; Rinke, Christian; Mavromatis, Kostas; Woyke, Tanja; Hentschel, Ute

    2013-12-01

    Many marine sponges are hosts to dense and phylogenetically diverse microbial communities that are located in the extracellular matrix of the animal. The candidate phylum Poribacteria is a predominant member of the sponge microbiome and its representatives are nearly exclusively found in sponges. Here we used single-cell genomics to obtain comprehensive insights into the metabolic potential of individual poribacterial cells representing three distinct phylogenetic groups within Poribacteria. Genome sizes were up to 5.4 Mbp and genome coverage was as high as 98.5%. Common features of the poribacterial genomes indicated that heterotrophy is likely to be of importance for this bacterial candidate phylum. Carbohydrate-active enzyme database screening and further detailed analysis of carbohydrate metabolism suggested the ability to degrade diverse carbohydrate sources likely originating from seawater and from the host itself. The presence of uronic acid degradation pathways as well as several specific sulfatases provides strong support that Poribacteria degrade glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans, which are important components of the sponge host matrix. Dominant glycoside hydrolase families further suggest degradation of other glycoproteins in the host matrix. We therefore propose that Poribacteria are well adapted to an existence in the sponge extracellular matrix. Poribacteria may be viewed as efficient scavengers and recyclers of a particular suite of carbon compounds that are unique to sponges as microbial ecosystems.

  1. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  2. Glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and the risk of pancreatic cancer in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Flood, Andrew; Subar, Amy F; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2009-04-01

    Diets with high glycemic index and glycemic load have been associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic cancer. We prospectively investigated the associations between glycemic index, carbohydrates, glycemic load, and available carbohydrates dietary constituents (starch and simple sugar) intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. We followed the participants in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study from 1995/1996 through December 2003. A baseline self-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the dietary intake and exposure information. A total of 1,151 exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified from 482,362 participants after excluding first-year of follow-up. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for pancreatic cancer. There were no associations between glycemic index, total or available carbohydrates, gycemic load, and pancreatic cancer risk. Participants with high free fructose and glucose intake were at a greater risk of developing pancreatic cancer (highest compared with lowest quintile, RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.04-1.59; P trend = 0.004 and RR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.67; P trend = 0.005, respectively). There were no statistically significant interactions by body mass index, physical activity, or smoking status. Our results do not support an association between glycemic index, total or available carbohydrate intake, and glycemic load and pancreatic cancer risk. The higher risk associated with high free fructose intake needs further confirmation and elucidation.

  3. Flavor-nutrient learning is less rapid with fat than with carbohydrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, Christina Humphries; Warwick, Zoe S

    2009-06-22

    Flavor-nutrient learning occurs when the post-ingestive consequences of a food are associated with its flavor. As a signal of the food's energy density, flavor-nutrient associations have the potential to contribute to the regulation of meal size. While all calorie sources (fat, carbohydrate, protein, ethanol) can support flavor-nutrient learning, prior research has found that flavor-nutrient associations based on fat may require higher nutrient concentrations and more rigorous experimental protocols than are required to train carbohydrate (cho)-based associations. To further explore potential macronutrient-specific differences in flavor-nutrient learning, the present study compared the time course of acquisition of cho- and fat-based associations. Rats were trained to associate distinctive flavors with high-density (3.2 kcal/mL) and low-density (0.2 kcal/mL) orally-consumed solutions, either fat (corn oil emulsion) or carbohydrate (sucrose). For each nutrient, both within- and between-group designs were used to assess (via two-bottle preference testing) whether flavor-nutrient learning had occurred after 2, 4, or 6 training trial pairs. Rats trained with carbohydrate demonstrated preferential intake of the low-density paired flavor after only 2 training pairs; in contrast, rats trained with fat required 6 training pairs. These findings demonstrate differential rapidity of acquisition flavor-nutrient associations. The longer time course of acquisition of fat-based flavor-nutrient associations may be yet another mechanism by which high-fat foods promote overeating.

  4. Nutrients other than carbohydrates: their effects on glucose homeostasis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Egert, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Besides carbohydrates, other nutrients, such as dietary protein and amino acids; the supply of fat, vitamin D, and vitamin K; and sodium intake seem to affect glucose homeostasis. Although their effect is less pronounced than that of the amount and composition of carbohydrates, it seems reasonable to consider how nutrient intake habits may be modified to support an improved glucose homeostasis. For instance, taking into account the effect of some nutrients to lower blood glucose concentration on a day-by-day basis might support improvement of glucose homeostasis in the long run. On the other hand, lowering sodium intake too much, as recommended to avoid the development of hypertension, particularly in sodium-sensitive people, might lead to insulin resistance and thereby might risk increasing fasting as well as postprandial blood glucose concentrations. This review summarizes the state of our knowledge of how several nutrients other than carbohydrates, such as protein, fatty acids, vitamin D, vitamin K, magnesium, zinc, chromium, and sodium, affect blood glucose concentrations. Sufficient evidence exists to show that, in prospective studies based on randomized controlled trials, these selected nutrients affect blood glucose regulation. The review describes potential mechanisms leading to the observed effect. As much as is possible from the available data, the extent of the effect, is considered.

  5. Protein-carbohydrate complex reveals circulating metastatic cells in a microfluidic assay

    KAUST Repository

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2013-02-11

    Advances in carbohydrate sequencing technologies reveal the tremendous complexity of the glycome and the role that glycomics might have to bring insight into the biological functions. Carbohydrate-protein interactions, in particular, are known to be crucial to most mammalian physiological processes as mediators of cell adhesion and metastasis, signal transducers, and organizers of protein interactions. An assay is developed here to mimic the multivalency of biological complexes that selectively and sensitively detect carbohydrate-protein interactions. The binding of β-galactosides and galectin-3 - a protein that is correlated to the progress of tumor and metastasis - is examined. The efficiency of the assay is related to the expression of the receptor while anchoring to the interaction\\'s strength. Comparative binding experiments reveal molecular binding preferences. This study establishes that the assay is robust to isolate metastatic cells from colon affected patients and paves the way to personalized medicine. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Application of carbohydrate polymers as corrosion inhibitors for metal substrates in different media: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoren, Saviour A; Eduok, Ubong M

    2016-04-20

    Naturally occurring polysaccharides are biopolymers existing as products of biochemical processes in living systems. A wide variety of them have been employed for various material applications; as binders, coatings, drug delivery, corrosion inhibitors etc. This review describes the application of some green and benign carbohydrate biopolymers and their derivatives for inhibition of metal corrosion. Their modes and mechanisms of protection have also been described as directly related to their macromolecular weights, chemical composition and their unique molecular and electronic structures. For instance, cellulose and chitosan possess free amine and hydroxyl groups capable of metal ion chelation and their lone pairs of electrons are readily utilized for coordinate bonding at the metal/solution interface. Some of the carbohydrate polymers reviewed in this work are either pure or modified forms; their grafted systems and nanoparticle composites with multitude potentials for metal protection applications have also been highlighted. Few inhibitors grafted to introduce more compact structures with polar groups capable of increasing the total energy of the surface have also been mentioned. Exudate gums, carboxymethyl and hydroxyethyl cellulose, starch, pectin and pectates, substituted/modified chitosans, carrageenan, dextrin/cyclodextrins and alginates have been elaborately reviewed, including the effects of halide additives on their anticorrosion performances. Aspects of computational/theoretical approach to corrosion monitoring have been recommended for future studies. This non-experimental approach to corrosion could foster a better understanding of the corrosion inhibition processes by correlating actual inhibition mechanisms with molecular structures of these carbohydrate polymers.

  7. Whole-plant allocation to storage and defense in juveniles of related evergreen and deciduous shrub species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyka, T P; Karolewski, P; Żytkowiak, R; Chmielarz, P; Oleksyn, J

    2016-05-01

    In evergreen plants, old leaves may contribute photosynthate to initiation of shoot growth in the spring. They might also function as storage sites for carbohydrates and nitrogen (N). We hence hypothesized that whole-plant allocation of carbohydrates and N to storage in stems and roots may be lower in evergreen than in deciduous species. We selected three species pairs consisting of an evergreen and a related deciduous species: Mahonia aquifolium (Pursh) Nutt. and Berberis vulgaris L. (Berberidaceae), Prunus laurocerasus L. and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae), and Viburnum rhytidophyllum Hemsl. and Viburnum lantana L. (Adoxaceae). Seedlings were grown outdoors in pots and harvested on two dates during the growing season for the determination of biomass, carbohydrate and N allocation ratios. Plant size-adjusted pools of nonstructural carbohydrates in stems and roots were lower in the evergreen species of Berberidaceae and Adoxaceae, and the slope of the carbohydrate pool vs plant biomass relationship was lower in the evergreen species of Rosaceae compared with the respective deciduous species, consistent with the leading hypothesis. Pools of N in stems and roots, however, did not vary with leaf habit. In all species, foliage contained more than half of the plant's nonstructural carbohydrate pool and, in late summer, also more than half of the plant's N pool, suggesting that in juvenile individuals of evergreen species, leaves may be a major storage site. Additionally, we hypothesized that concentration of defensive phenolic compounds in leaves should be higher in evergreen than in deciduous species, because the lower carbohydrate pool in stems and roots of the former restricts their capacity for regrowth following herbivory and also because of the need to protect their longer-living foliage. Our results did not support this hypothesis, suggesting that evergreen plants may rely predominantly on structural defenses. In summary, our study indicates that leaf habit has

  8. Simultaneous determination of amino acids and carbohydrates in culture media of Clostridium thermocellum by valve-switching ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Yun; Yang, Haiyan; Ji, Chengshuai; Cui, He; Zhu, Xinshu; Du, Juan; Gao, Jun

    2013-10-10

    An improved method for the simultaneous determination of 20 amino acids and 7 carbohydrates using one-valve switching after injection, ion chromatography, and integrated pulsed amperometric detection is proposed. The resolution of the amino acids and carbohydrates in the cation trap column was investigated. In addition, parameters including flow liquid type, flow rate, concentration, and valve-switch timing were optimized. The method is time-saving, effective, and accurate for the simultaneous separation of amino acids and carbohydrates, with a mean correlation coefficient of >0.99 and repeatability of 0.5-4.6% for eight replicates. The method was successfully applied in the analysis of amino acids and carbohydrates in aseptic media and in extracellular culture media of three phenotypes of Clostridium thermocellum.

  9. Effects of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides used against Botrytis cinerea, on carbohydrate physiology in Vitis vinifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saladin, Gaëlle; Magné, Christian; Clément, Christophe

    2003-10-01

    In Vitis vinifera L, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning are affected in the presence of fludioxonil and pyrimethanil, two fungicides commonly used in vineyards against Botrytis cinerea Pers. However, the effects were found to be different according to the model studied: plantlets (cv Chardonnay) grown in vitro, fruiting cuttings (cv Chardonnay) and plants grown in vineyards (cvs Chardonnay, Pinot noir and Pinot Meunier). In the plantlets grown in vitro, both fungicides decreased gas exchanges, photosynthetic pigment and starch concentrations in the leaves, whereas soluble carbohydrates transiently accumulated, suggesting that plantlets mobilised starch in response to photosynthesis inhibition caused by fungicides. In the fruiting cuttings, the fungicides did not affect photosynthesis, although fludioxonil caused starch decrease in parallel with sucrose accumulation, suggesting that the fungicide effects were of lower intensity than in vitro. Conversely, in vineyard, the two fungicides stimulated photosynthesis and increased pigment concentrations in the three vine cultivars tested. In the meantime, glucose, fructose and starch levels of the leaves declined after fungicide exposure, whereas sucrose accumulated, indicating that sucrose synthesis increased in the leaves following the fungicide treatment. Among the three varieties, Chardonnay was the most sensitive to the fungicides as revealed by the intensity of the responses and the longer period for recovery. In vineyard, the results suggested that the two fungicides, in addition to inhibiting B cinerea development, had a beneficial effect on vine physiology through the stimulation of leaf carbon nutrition, which may further enable the plant to rapidly make use of its defence reactions.

  10. Dietary carbohydrate deprivation increases 24-hour nitrogen excretion without affecting postabsorptive hepatic or whole body protein metabolism in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, PH; de Sain-van der Velden, MGM; Stellaard, F; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA

    2003-01-01

    Because insulin is an important regulator of protein metabolism, we hypothesized that physiological modulation of insulin secretion, by means of extreme variations in dietary carbohydrate content, affects postabsorptive protein metabolism. Therefore, we studied the effects of three isocaloric diets

  11. Effects of advanced carbohydrate counting guided by an automated bolus calculator in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (StenoABC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hommel, E; Schmidt, S; Vistisen, D;

    2016-01-01

    -centre, investigator-initiated clinical study. We enrolled advanced carbohydrate counting-naïve adults with Type 1 diabetes and HbA1c levels 64-100 mmol/mol (8.0-11.3%), who were receiving multiple daily insulin injection therapy. In a 1:1-ratio, participants were randomized to receive training in either advanced......AIMS: To test whether concomitant use of an automated bolus calculator for people with Type 1 diabetes carrying out advanced carbohydrate counting would induce further improvements in metabolic control. METHODS: We conducted a 12-month, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, single...... carbohydrate counting using mental calculations (MC group) or advanced carbohydrate counting using an automated bolus calculator (ABC group) during a 3.5-h group training course. For 12 months after training, participants attended a specialized diabetes centre quarterly. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c...

  12. An evaluation of cassava, sweet potato and field corn as potential carbohydrate sources for bioethanol production in Alabama and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziska, Lewis H.; Tomecek, Martha; Sicher, Richard [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Crop Systems and Global Change Lab, 10300 Baltimore Avenue, Building 1, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Runion, G. Brett; Prior, Stephen A.; Torbet, H. Allen [United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, 411 South Donahue Drive, Auburn, AL 36832 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    The recent emphasis on corn production to meet the increasing demand for bioethanol has resulted in trepidation regarding the sustainability of the global food supply. To assess the potential of alternative crops as sources of bioethanol production, we grew sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) and cassava (Manihot esculentum) at locations near Auburn, Alabama and Beltsville, Maryland in order to measure root carbohydrate (starch, sucrose, glucose) and root biomass. Averaged for both locations, sweet potato yielded the highest concentration of root carbohydrate (ca 80%), primarily in the form of starch (ca 50%) and sucrose (ca 30%); whereas cassava had root carbohydrate concentrations of (ca 55%), almost entirely as starch. For sweet potato, overall carbohydrate production was 9.4 and 12.7 Mg ha{sup -1} for the Alabama and Maryland sites, respectively. For cassava, carbohydrate production in Maryland was poor, yielding only 2.9 Mg ha{sup -1}. However, in Alabama, carbohydrate production from cassava averaged {proportional_to}10 Mg ha{sup -1}. Relative to carbohydrate production from corn in each location, sweet potato and cassava yielded approximately 1.5 x and 1.6 x as much carbohydrate as corn in Alabama; 2.3 x and 0.5 x for the Maryland site. If economical harvesting and processing techniques could be developed, these data suggest that sweet potato in Maryland, and sweet potato and cassava in Alabama, have greater potential as ethanol sources than existing corn systems, and as such, could be used to replace or offset corn as a source of biofuels. (author)

  13. Expression analysis of carbohydrate antigens in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast by lectin histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieber-Emmons Thomas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of breast cancer patients diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS continues to grow. Laboratory and clinical data indicate that DCIS can progress to invasive disease. Carbohydrate-mediated cell-cell adhesion and tumor-stroma interaction play crucial roles in tumorigenesis and tumor aggressive behavior. Breast carcinogenesis may reflect quantitative as well as qualitative changes in oligosaccharide expression, which may provide a useful tool for early detection of breast cancer. Because tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA are implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis, the purpose of this study was to assess the expression of selected TACA by lectin histochemistry on DCIS specimens from the archival breast cancer tissue array bank of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. Methods For detection of TACA expression, specimens were stained with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-I (GS-I and Vicia vilosa agglutinin (VVA. We studied associations of lectin reactivity with established prognostic factors, such as tumor size, tumor nuclear grade, and expression of Her-2/neu, p53 mutant and estrogen and progesterone receptors. Results We observed that both lectins showed significant associations with nuclear grade of DCIS. DCIS specimens with nuclear grades II and III showed significantly more intense reactivity than DCIS cases with nuclear grade I to GS-1 (Mean-score chi-square = 17.60, DF = 2; P = 0.0002 and VVA (Mean-score chi-square = 15.72, DF = 2; P = 0.0004. Conclusion The results suggest that the expression of VVA- and GS-I-reactive carbohydrate antigens may contribute to forming higher grade DCIS and increase the recurrence risk.

  14. Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choix, Francisco J; de-Bashan, Luz E; Bashan, Yoav

    2012-10-10

    The effect of the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense jointly immobilized with Chlorella vulgaris or C. sorokiniana in alginate beads on total carbohydrates and starch was studied under dark and heterotrophic conditions for 144 h in synthetic growth medium supplemented with either d-glucose or Na-acetate as carbon sources. In all treatments, enhanced total carbohydrates and starch content per culture and per cell was obtained after 24h; only jointly immobilized C. vulgaris growing on d-glucose significantly increased total carbohydrates and starch content after 96 h. Enhanced accumulation of carbohydrate and starch under jointly immobilized conditions was variable with time of sampling and substrate used. Similar results occurred when the microalgae was immobilized alone. In both microalgae growing on either carbon sources, the bacterium promoted accumulation of carbohydrates and starch; when the microalgae were immobilized alone, they used the carbon sources for cell multiplication. In jointly immobilized conditions with Chlorella spp., affinity to carbon source and volumetric productivity and yield were higher than when Chlorella spp. were immobilized alone; however, the growth rate was higher in microalgae immobilized alone. This study demonstrates that under heterotrophic conditions, A. brasilense promotes the accumulation of carbohydrates in two strains Chlorella spp. under certain time-substrate combinations, producing mainly starch. As such, this bacterium is a biological factor that can change the composition of compounds in microalgae in dark, heterotrophic conditions.

  15. Functional analysis of thermostable proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerboom, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Thermostable proteins can resist temperature stress whilst keeping their integrity and functionality. In many cases,  thermostable proteins originate from hyperthermophilic microorganisms that thrive in extreme environments. These systems are generally located close to geothermal (volcanic) activity

  16. Particulate carbohydrate and proteins in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    of other limiting factors, for example trace element and vitamins, it is diYcult to know whether plankton populations in the present in study area are really nutrientdeficientornot. Conclusion The PCHO and PP concentrations were high and variable...

  17. Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    in the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi , and this mechanism has also been described for yeast mutants which are blocked in the biosynthesis of dolichol...Trypano- soma cruzi and Romero and Herscovics (1986) have demonstrated trans- fer of glucose-free oligosaccharides from lipid to protein in a mammalian...G. Z., and Mendelzon. D. H. (1983a). Protein glycosylation in Trypanosoma cruezi. The mechanism of glycosylation and structure of protein-bound

  18. Investigations of Reactive Carbohydrates in Glycosidic Bond Formation and Degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuckendorff, Mads

    The overall objective of the research described in this thesis was to explore the field of glycosidic bond formation and degradation. In more detail, the objective was to do further research in the field of highly reactive glycosyl donors. New ways of making highly reactive donors were explored...

  19. Dietary Glycemic Load, Glycemic Index, and Carbohydrate and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Women’s Health Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Dietary glycemic load (GL), glycemic index (GI), and carbohydrate could be associated with breast cancer risk by influencing long-term blood glucose and insulin concentrations. We examined associations between GL, GI, and carbohydrate and incident breast cancer in 148,767 Women’s Heath Initiative (WHI) participants. Dietary variables were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline. Self-reported breast cancers during follow-up were confirmed by medical records revie...

  20. Fructan biosynthesis in crop plants : the molecular regulation of fructan biosynthesis in chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkel, van J.

    2013-01-01

    Fructan is a polymer of fructose produced by plants and microorganisms. Within the plant kingdom about 45.000 species accumulate fructan as storage carbohydrate in addition to, or instead of, starch. Fructan accumulating species are mainly found in temperate and sub-tropical regions with seasonal or

  1. Glycaemic and insulinemic response to dietary carbohydrates in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, Dag; Næsset, Jon A.

    2016-01-01

    - and insulinemic index of test meals. The objective was to measure postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations in horses fed meals of different fibre compositions. Methods: Blood was drawn via jugular vein puncture and the glycaemic and insulinemic index were calculated. Results: The meal effect on glycaemic...... (M) and did not differ significantly between meals. Conclusions: In conclusion, meals containing different fibre compositions did not affect the glycaemic- and insulinemic index in horses....

  2. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-